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1

Sexual arousal as a function of physiological and cognitive variables in a sexual offender population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and cognitive variables may compromise the physiological assessment of sexual arousal, particularly in forensic settings. Thus, the effects of physiological and cognitive variables as potential moderators need investigation with respect to physiological measures of sexual arousal. Penile erection, demographic, and psychometric data were analyzed among 169 inpatient adult male sexual offenders. The hypotheses that (i) sexual arousability would be

Gordon C. Nagayama Hall

1991-01-01

2

Ephedrine-Activated Physiological Sexual Arousal in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present investigation was designed to provide the first empirical examination of the effects of ephedrine sulfate, an a- and b-adrenergic agonist, on subjective and physiological sexual arousal in women. The purpose was to help elucidate the effects of increased peripheral adrenergic activity on sexual response in women. Methods: Twenty sexually functional women partici- pated in 2 experimental conditions

Cindy M. Meston; Julia R. Heiman

1998-01-01

3

The cortisol response during physiological sexual arousal in adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse  

PubMed Central

Many women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience difficulties becoming sexually aroused. This study measured cortisol and physiological sexual arousal during exposure to sexual stimuli in women with and without a history of CSA. CSA survivors showed a smaller decrease in cortisol during sexual arousal than the non-sexually abused, control group potentially due to an increase in cortisol in some of the participants in the CSA group. Physiological sexual arousal was weaker in CSA survivors compared to women with no history of sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms showed characteristics consistent with mediation for the relationship between a history of CSA and inhibited sexual arousal responses. PMID:19960549

Rellini, Alessandra H.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Delville, Yvon; Meston, Cindy M.

2009-01-01

4

Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women’s physiological sexual arousal  

PubMed Central

There is increasing evidence that women’s physiological sexual arousal is facilitated by moderate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. Literature also suggests that the level of SNS activation may play a role in the degree to which SNS activity affects sexual arousal. We provide the first empirical examination of a possible curvilinear relationship between SNS activity and women’s genital arousal using a direct measure of SNS activation in 52 sexually functional women. The relationship between heart rate variability (HRV), a specific and sensitive marker of SNS activation, and vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), a measure of genital arousal, was analyzed. Moderate increases in SNS activity were associated with higher genital arousal, while very low or very high SNS activation was associated with lower genital arousal. These findings imply that there is an optimal level of SNS activation for women’s physiological sexual arousal. PMID:22092348

Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Harte, Christopher B.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

2011-01-01

5

Relations between trait impulsivity, behavioral impulsivity, physiological arousal, and risky sexual behavior among young men.  

PubMed

The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252

Derefinko, Karen J; Peters, Jessica R; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A; Walsh, Erin C; Adams, Zachary W; Lynam, Donald R

2014-08-01

6

Effects of subjective sexual arousal on sexual, pathogen, and moral disgust sensitivity in women and men.  

PubMed

The present experiment tested a novel method of manipulating subjective sexual arousal to examine the effects of sexual arousal on disgust sensitivity. Participants were instructed to employ their own preferred methods of achieving sexual or physiological arousal in the privacy of their own home to reach a target state of arousal. Participants then completed the Three-Domain Disgust Scale (Tybur, Lieberman, & Griskevicius, 2009), which measures sensitivity to sexual, pathogen, and moral disgust. The sexual arousal manipulation caused large, homogenous increases in sexual arousal in women and men. In women, sexual arousal (but not physiological arousal) significantly reduced sensitivity to sexual disgust and marginally increased sensitivity to pathogen disgust. In men, sexual arousal did not decrease disgust sensitivity in any domain. Findings support the evolutionary hypothesis that sexual arousal inhibits sexual disgust, which facilitates an organism's willingness to engage in high-risk, but evolutionarily necessary, reproductive behaviors, an effect that could be particularly important for women. PMID:24595916

Lee, Ellen M; Ambler, James K; Sagarin, Brad J

2014-08-01

7

Physiologic parameters associated with sexual arousal in women with incomplete spinal cord injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the physiologic sexual responses of women with incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCIs) with and without preservation of the ability to perceive T11-L2 pinprick sensation.Design: Controlled laboratory-based analysis of responses to varying combinations of audiovisual erotic stimulation, manual genital stimulation, and performance of a distracting task coupled with manual genital stimulation.Setting: The sexual physiology laboratory at our freestanding

Marca L. Sipski; Craig J. Alexander; Raymond C. Rosen

1997-01-01

8

Physiological parameters associated with psychogenic sexual arousal in women with complete spinal cord injuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the physiological sexual responses of women with complete spinal cord injuries (SCIs) with those of able-bodied women. Design: Controlled laboratory-based analysis of responses to audiovisual erotic and audiovisual erotic combined with manual stimulation. Setting: The sexual physiology laboratory at our freestanding rehabilitation hospital. Participants: A volunteer sample of 13 women with complete SCIs above T6 along with

Marca L. Sipski; Craig J. Alexander; Raymond C. Rosen

1995-01-01

9

The Inhibitory Effects of Nicotine on Physiological Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Women: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Extensive research suggests that long-term cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for the introduction of sexual dysfunction in men. However, results of limited data investigating this relationship in women are mixed. No studies have examined the acute effects of tobacco or nicotine on physiological sexual response in women. Controlled experimental studies examining acute effects of isolated nicotine intake on female physiological sexual responses are necessary in order to help elucidate tobacco’s potential role in the development and/or maintenance of sexual impairment in women. Aim To examine whether isolated nicotine intake acutely affects sexual arousal responses in nonsmoking women. Methods Twenty-five sexually functional women (mean age = 20 years) each with less than 100 direct exposures to nicotine completed two counterbalanced conditions in which they were randomized to received either nicotine gum (6 mg) or placebo gum, both administered double-blind and matched for appearance, taste, and consistency, approximately 40 minutes prior to viewing an erotic film. Main Outcome Measures Physiological (changes in vaginal pulse amplitude via vaginal photoplethysmography) and subjective (continuous self-report) sexual responses to erotic stimuli were examined, as well as changes in mood. Results Nicotine significantly reduced genital responses to the erotic films (P = 0.05), corresponding to a 30% attenuation in physiological sexual arousal. This occurred in 11 of 18 women with valid physiological assessments. Nicotine had no significant effect on continuous self-report ratings of sexual arousal (P = 0.45), or on mood (all Ps > 0.05). Conclusions Acute nicotine intake significantly attenuates physiological sexual arousal in healthy nonsmoking women. Our findings provide support to the hypothesis that nicotine may be the primary pharmacological agent responsible for genital hemodynamic disruption, thereby facilitating a cascade of biochemical and vascular events which may impair normal sexual arousal responses. PMID:18331269

Harte, Christopher B.; Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

10

Acute Effects of Nicotine on Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic nicotine treatment has deleterious effects on vascular functioning and catecholamine modulation, which may compromise erectile functioning. Evidence that long-term cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for introducing impotence is robust. However, limited studies have focused on the acute effects of smoking on physiological sexual response, and none have investigated the deleterious effects of isolated nicotine on human sexual arousal. Consequently, pathophysiological underpinnings of tobacco-induced—and particularly, nicotine-induced—erectile dysfunction are not well understood. Aim To provide the first empirical examination of the acute effects of isolated nicotine on sexual arousal in nonsmoking men. Methods Twenty-eight sexually functional heterosexual men (mean age 21 years), each with less than 100 direct exposures to nicotine, participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Participants received either Nicorette polacrilex gum (SmithKline Beecham Consumer Healthcare, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) (6 mg; approximately equivalent to smoking one high-yield cigarette) or placebo gum, matched for appearance, taste, and consistency, approximately 40 minutes prior to viewing an erotic film. Main Outcome Measures Physiological (circumferential change via penile plethysmography) and subjective (continuous self-report) sexual responses to erotic stimuli were examined, as well as changes in mood. Results Nicotine significantly reduced erectile responses to the erotic films (P = 0.02), corresponding to a 23% reduction in physiological sexual arousal. This occurred in 16 of 20 men with valid physiological recordings. Nicotine had no significant effect on continuous subjective ratings of sexual arousal (P = 0.70) or on mood (all Ps > 0.05). Conclusions Isolated nicotine can significantly attenuate physiological sexual arousal in healthy nonsmoking men. These findings have implications for elucidating physiological mechanisms responsible for the effects of nicotine on sexual dysfunction, and for assisting public health policy in considering the deleterious effects of nicotine on sexual health. PMID:17971108

Harte, Christopher B.; Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

11

Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians  

PubMed Central

Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

2010-01-01

12

Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?  

PubMed Central

Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not the synonyms), the activation of specific brain areas as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxygucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic areas as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

2012-01-01

13

Concordance between women's physiological and subjective sexual arousal is associated with consistency of orgasm during intercourse but not other sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Many studies have found a discordance between women's genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. We hypothesized that the association between the physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency during penile-vaginal intercourse but not for orgasm consistency during other sexual behaviors. We confirmed this specific hypothesis in a sample (N = 38) of postmenopausal women. In addition, we discovered that the correlation between the domains was unrelated to social desirability responding, that orgasm consistency was not less for intercourse than for other sexual activity, and that orgasm consistency during intercourse was uncorrelated with orgasm consistency during masturbation. We discuss the results in terms of the unique nature of penile-vaginal intercourse, our study's implications for sex therapy, and orgasm consistency during intercourse being an operational measure of functional vaginal sensitivity and sexual pleasure integration and organization. PMID:12519661

Brody, Stuart; Laan, Ellen; van Lunsen, Rik H W

2003-01-01

14

Classical Conditioning of Female Sexual Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical conditioning of subjective and physiological aspects of female sexual arousal was examined. Experimental subjects were run in a delayed conditioning design, where an amber light was paired with excerpts from erotic videos. Control subjects received presentations of the same amber tight and videos, but these presentations did not overlap with one another. Dependent variables included subjective ratings of

Elizabeth J. Letourneau; William O'Donohue

1997-01-01

15

Sexual arousal: The correspondence of eyes and genitals.  

PubMed

Men's, more than women's, sexual responses may include a coordination of several physiological indices in order to build their sexual arousal to relevant targets. Here, for the first time, genital arousal and pupil dilation to sexual stimuli were simultaneously assessed. These measures corresponded more strongly with each other, subjective sexual arousal, and self-reported sexual orientation in men than women. Bisexual arousal is more prevalent in women than men. We therefore predicted that if bisexual-identified men show bisexual arousal, the correspondence of their arousal indices would be more female-typical, thus weaker, than for other men. Homosexual women show more male-typical arousal than other women; hence, their correspondence of arousal indices should be stronger than for other women. Findings, albeit weak in effect, supported these predictions. Thus, if sex-specific patterns are reversed within one sex, they might affect more than one aspect of sexual arousal. Because pupillary responses reflected sexual orientation similar to genital responses, they offer a less invasive alternative for the measurement of sexual arousal. PMID:25603717

Rieger, Gerulf; Cash, Brian M; Merrill, Sarah M; Jones-Rounds, James; Dharmavaram, Sanjay Muralidharan; Savin-Williams, Ritch C

2015-01-01

16

Psychophysiological Sexual Arousal in Women with a History of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of literature that suggests that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher baseline sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity than healthy controls and research that suggests that the SNS plays a critical role in female physiological sexual arousal, we examined the impact of SNS activation through intense exercise on sexual arousal in

Alessandra H. Rellini; Cindy M. Meston

2006-01-01

17

ORIGINAL RESEARCH—OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT The Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI): A Multidimensional Scale to Assess Subjective Sexual Arousal and Desire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Sexual arousal and desire are integral parts of the human sexual response that reflect physiological, emotional, and cognitive processes. Although subjective and physiological aspects of arousal and desire tend to be experienced concurrently, their differences become apparent in certain experimental and clinical populations in which one or more of these aspects are impaired. There are few subjective scales that

Rachel Toledano; James Pfaus

18

ORIGINAL RESEARCH—CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Psychophysiological Assessment in Premenopausal Sexual Arousal Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a complex diagnostic category whose definition continues to evolve. Aim. The purpose of this study was to explore the physiological patterns of genital arousal in 31 women with and 30 women without sexual arousal difficulties using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. In addition, subtypes of FSAD, based on a recently proposed redefinition, were explored on

Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Boris B. Gorzalka

19

Psychopathy and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal in a sample of 65 sexual offenders, with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Psychopathy, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and phallometric indexes of deviant sexual arousal were significantly correlated, r(63) =.28, p <. 02. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that this relationship,

RALPH C. SERIN; P. BRUCE MALCOLM; ARUNIMA KHANNA; HOWARD E. BARBAREE

1994-01-01

20

The Role of Attention in Sexual Arousal: Implications for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the role of attention in sexual arousal is reviewed, especially that which has implications for noninvasive treatment of sexual dysfunction. Findings suggest that voluntary control of sexual arousal can be achieved through attentional focus on nonsexual cognitions or sexual fantasy. Cognitive biases may direct attention and thus facilitate or impede sexual arousal. Sexual arousal may be influenced

David C. de Jong

2009-01-01

21

The Impact of Body Awareness on Sexual Arousal in Women with Sexual Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Introduction The impact of self-awareness during sexual activity has been widely discussed. However, research has been largely focused on the effects of performance anxiety in male erectile functioning. It has been suggested that physical appearance concerns may have a similar influence on sexual function in women as does men’s self-awareness about erectile function. However, the role that physical appearance or awareness of one’s body may play in female sexual response has received little empiric attention. Aim To examine the effects of body awareness and self-report levels of body esteem on sexual response in 21 sexually dysfunctional women. Methods Body awareness was induced in one of two counterbalanced sessions. A full-length mirror was placed in front of participants throughout the experimental session, and participants were instructed to use the mirror to place 10 electrodes on each side of their bodies to prepare for a possible electrocardiogram. This methodology was used to ensure that women looked at themselves in the mirror and became more aware of their bodies during the experimental session. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported mental arousal, perceptions of physical arousal, physiological sexual arousal, affect, anxiety, and cognitive distraction responses to erotica. Results Results showed that subjective mental sexual arousal and perceptions of physical sexual arousal increased in response to erotica in the Body Awareness condition compared to in the No Body Awareness condition. These results were not accounted for by level of body esteem. There were no changes in physiological sexual arousal, affect, anxiety, or level of cognitive distraction across the two conditions. Conclusions Findings suggest that awareness of one’s body is related to increased subjective sexual response in conditions where cognitive distraction does not occur. It is particularly noteworthy that the current sample was made up of sexually dysfunctional women, all of whom had relatively low body image. PMID:17627744

Seal, Brooke N.; Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

22

Field conditioning of sexual arousal in humans  

PubMed Central

Background Human sexual classical conditioning effects are less robust compared with those obtained in other animals. The artificiality of the laboratory environment and/or the unconditioned stimulus (US) used (e.g. watching erotic film clips as opposed to participating in sexual activity) may contribute to this discrepancy. The present experiment used a field study design to explore the conditioning of human sexual arousal. Method Seven heterosexual couples were instructed to include a novel, neutrally preferred scent as the conditioned stimulus (CS + ) during sexual interaction and another novel scent during non-sexual coupled-interaction (e.g. watching a movie, studying together). Seven control couples used both scents during non-sexual interaction. Conducted over a 2-week period, both experimental and control couples had three sexual interactions (oral sex and/or intercourse). In addition, experimental couples had three, while the controls had six, non-sexual interactions. Genital responding to and affective preference for the odors were assessed in the laboratory before and after the experience in the men. Results We observed significantly increased genital responding to the CS+ in the experimental relative to the control group; however, conditioned responses were not much stronger than those obtained during laboratory conditioning. Experimental males also showed a trend for decreased preference for the CS– odor. They may have learned that this odor predicted that sexual interaction with their partner would not occur. Conclusion The present study provides another demonstration of conditioned sexual arousal in men, specifically an instance of such learning that happened in a real-world setting. It also suggests that inhibitory learning may occur, at least with the affective measure. PMID:24693347

Hoffmann, Heather; Peterson, Kathryn; Garner, Hana

2012-01-01

23

The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments  

PubMed Central

Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

1998-01-01

24

Tactile Sensitivity in Women with Sexual Arousal Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence suggests that tactile sensitivity may differ between women with sexual arousal difficulties and women with normal sexual functioning. Tactile sensitivity was examined on the distal portion of the dominant hand index finger and on the lower lip in women with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) (n = 17) and in normally functioning women (n = 17). The two groups

Penny F. Frohlich; Cindy M. Meston

2005-01-01

25

Sexual desire, sexual arousal and hormonal differences in premenopausal US and Dutch women with and without low sexual desire.  

PubMed

The interaction between women's hormonal condition and subjective, physiological, and behavioral indices of desire or arousal remains only partially explored, in spite of frequent reports from women about problems with a lack of sexual desire. The present study recruited premenopausal women at two sites, one in the United States and the other in the Netherlands, and incorporated various measures of acute changes in sexual desire and arousal. A sample of 46 women who met criteria for Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) was compared to 47 women who experienced no sexual problems (SF). Half of each group used oral contraceptives (OCs). The specific goal was to investigate whether there is a relationship between women's hormone levels and their genital and subjective sexual responsiveness. Background demographics and health variables, including oral contraceptive (OC) use, were recorded and hormones (total testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), SHBG, and estradiol) were analyzed along with vaginal pulse amplitude and self-report measures of desire and arousal in response to sexual fantasy, visual sexual stimuli, and photos of men's faces. Self-reported arousal and desire were lower in the HSDD than the SF group, but only for women who were not using oral contraceptives. Relationships between hormones and sexual function differed depending on whether a woman was HSDD or not. In line with prior literature, FT was positively associated with physiological and subjective sexual arousal in the SF group. The HSDD women demonstrated the opposite pattern, in that FT was negatively associated with subjective sexual responsiveness. The findings suggest a possible alternative relationship between hormones and sexual responsiveness in women with HSDD who have characteristics similar to those in the present study. PMID:21514299

Heiman, Julia R; Rupp, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Brauer, Marieke; Laan, Ellen

2011-05-01

26

Intercourse Orgasm Consistency, Concordance of Women's Genital and Subjective Sexual Arousal, and Erotic Stimulus Presentation Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies report discordance between women's genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. Consistent with our previous research, I hypothesized that the association between physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency (OC) during penile-vaginal intercourse but not for OC during masturbation or noncoital partnered sexual activities. I confirmed this specific

Stuart Brody

2007-01-01

27

The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n = 16) and dysfunctional (n = 16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) responses among sexually functional but not dysfunctional women, and substantially decreased correlations between self-report and VPA measures of sexual arousal. Self-focused attention did not significantly impact subjective sexual arousal in sexually functional or dysfunctional women. Trait private self-consciousness was positively related to sexual desire, orgasm, compatibility, contentment and sexual satisfaction. Public self-consciousness was correlated with sexual pain. The findings are discussed in terms of Masters and Johnson’s [Masters, W. H. & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown) concepts of “spectatoring” and “sensate focus.” PMID:15927143

Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

28

Arousability and sexual satisfaction in lesbian and heterosexual women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research suggests that lesbians may be more sexually responsive and sexually satisfied than heterosexual women. In order to clarify the similarities and differences between lesbians and heterosexual women, questionnaire responses of sexual arousability preferences and ratings of sexual behavior and satisfaction of 407 lesbians and 370 heterosexual women were compared. Both groups consisted primarily of Caucasian, college?educated, young women.

Emily M. Coleman; Peter W. Hoon; Emily F. Hoon

1983-01-01

29

Sildenafil citrate for female sexual arousal disorder: a future possibility?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a common disorder encountered in clinical practice, with self-reported arousal difficulties reported in up to 26% of American women. Various oral therapies for FSAD have been studied, including sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is currently used to treat male erectile dysfunction. In vitro studies of sildenafil citrate have demonstrated smooth-muscle relaxation in clitoral

Gloria Bachmann; Corina Schoen

2009-01-01

30

Psychophysiological and subjective sexual arousal to visual sexual stimuli in new women.  

PubMed

Conflicting data exist regarding the sexual arousal patterns of post-operative male-to-female (MTF) women with Gender Identity Disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine objective and subjective aspects of the sexual arousal response using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Fifteen MTF women viewed neutral and erotic audiovisual film segments while their blood flow patterns were monitored. Subjective measures of affect and sexual arousal were taken before and immediately after the films. There was a significant increase in self-reported subjective arousal, perceived genital arousal, perceived autonomic arousal, and positive affect; however, movement artefacts interfered with our assessment of the genital arousal response. MTF women reported both low levels of pain and low levels of awareness of the vaginal probe during testing. These data are discussed in the context of differences in pelvic musculature between natal and new women and have implications for future studies that aim to measure sexual arousal objectively in MTF women. PMID:16457418

Brotto, Lori A; Gehring, Darlynne; Klein, Carolin; Gorzalka, Boris B; Thomson, Sydney; Knudson, Gail

2005-12-01

31

ORIGINAL PAPER The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract Intellectual Ability) and 25 women (M age=19years) completed self-report measures of impulsivity. Individuals high in impulsivity and low in abstract intellectual ability committed more false alarms

32

Sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal: evidence for domain specificity in men and women.  

PubMed

Men have been shown to estimate their likelihood of engaging in sexually coercive behaviors and also uncommon and unprotected sexual behaviors as higher when they are in an acute state of sexual arousal. The present research sought to test (1) whether sexual arousal effects could be replicated under more controlled laboratory settings, (2) whether women showed the same pattern of results, and (3) whether this effect was specific to sexual disinhibition or would generalize to non-sexual disinhibited behavior. In two experimental studies, male and female participants (Study 1: N = 84; Study 2: N = 86) were either sexually aroused by acoustically presented erotic narratives or listened to sexually non-arousing neutral narratives. Afterwards, they self-estimated their likelihood of engaging in a variety of behaviors that could be characterized as sexual or non-sexual disinhibited behavior. Results replicated the previously established effect of sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal for men and provided the first evidence for a similar effect in women. No arousal effects were observed for non-sexual behavior, rendering alternative explanations based on mere indifferent responding unlikely. The discussion focused on a plausible explanation for this effect. PMID:25091213

Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F

2014-08-01

33

Effects of Depressive Symptoms and Experimentally Adopted Schemas on Sexual Arousal and Affect in Sexually Healthy Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the effects of depressive mood symptoms and experimentally adopted sexual schemas on women's sexual arousal and affect. Women's vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in response to sexually explicit visual material in a laboratory setting. At baseline on a self-report measure, women with depressive mood symptoms (n?=?28) reported significantly lower sexual desire than

Stephanie W. Kuffel; Julia R. Heiman

2006-01-01

34

Resting physiological arousal is associated with the experience of music-induced chills.  

PubMed

In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions. PMID:24814935

Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

2014-08-01

35

Self-focused thinking predicts nighttime physiological de-arousal.  

PubMed

Excessive focus on the internal self has maladaptive consequences for mental and physical health. Although the emotional functions of self-focus have been well established, no study has examined physiological arousal during the daily experience of self-focused thinking. The present study investigates the association between self-focus and autonomic activity using the experience sampling method with ambulatory monitoring of heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-five students reported the content of their thoughts during their daily activities while their heart rate (HR) was being recorded. Multilevel modeling analyses showed that HRV was lower (and HR was higher) over the sampling day if participants engaged in more self-focus, while HRV increased (and HR decreased) from midday to nighttime if participants did not engage in self-focused thinking. These results suggest that self-focus at night is associated with increased physiological arousal, and leads to inhibition of de-arousal associated with normal sleep processes. Implications for insomnia are discussed. PMID:24444702

Takano, Keisuke; Ueno, Mayumi; Tanno, Yoshihiko

2014-03-01

36

Self-appraisals of arousal-oriented online sexual activities in university and community samples.  

PubMed

Arousal-oriented online sexual activities (OSAs) are any activities on the Internet that involve sexually explicit and/or sexually arousing stimuli. These can be solitary-arousal activities, requiring only one person be involved. They can also be partnered-arousal activities that involve at least two people interacting (Shaughnessy, Byers, & Walsh, 2011). Most researchers have focused on the negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs on users' sexual life and life in general. Yet, these activities can also have positive outcomes. In two separate studies, we examined men's and women's perceptions of the positive and negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience. Study 1 included heterosexual university students (N = 191); Study 2 consisted of heterosexual and sexual minority individuals from the community (N = 316). Participants completed a background questionnaire and measures of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience and outcomes of these experiences. Overall, solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA was common among study participants. In both studies, participants reported significantly greater positive than negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs, albeit the overall impact was small. We did not find significant gender differences or differences by sexual orientation in positive or negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs. Our results suggest that, for most people, participating in solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs has little impact on them. PMID:23740466

Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Byers, E Sandra; Clowater, Sarah L; Kalinowski, Alana

2014-08-01

37

Assessing Women’s Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication  

PubMed Central

Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

2011-01-01

38

Female Sexual Arousal: Genital Anatomy and Orgasm in Intercourse  

PubMed Central

In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity.. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data which were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. PMID:21195073

Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A.

2013-01-01

39

Physiologic assessment of sexual response in women: the unfulfilled promise.  

PubMed

With the exception of work by Semmens (1979), the clinical value of physiologic measures of female sexual response has not been demonstrated; it almost seems that controlled attempts to apply measures of vaginal muscular tone or blood flow to clinical settings has been jinxed. Hence, this author takes issue with Hatch (1980), who gives the impression that physiologic measures can now be used in clinical applications. The reasons for failure in sex therapy or biofeedback are uncertain, but it may be useful to speculate briefly. Sexual arousal in women is too personal a phenomenon to be objectively assessed during waking states in an "artificial" laboratory context. Orgasmic response is not related to genital muscle tone, but to other unknown anatomic, learning-history, and psychological components. The circumstances under which there is agreement between physiologic and either psychometric or self-reports of arousal or pleasure are complex and interactive. Therefore, physiologic measures of female sexual response may not reflect the subjective experience of women and, taken alone, may be misleading. This conclusion should not surprise anyone, for human beings are truly a "cognitive" species with representational imagery and language. Sexuality is very much "in the frontal lobes," and what we perceive eroticism to mean in a given context is probably much more important than the physiologic and behavioral aspects of actual sexual expression. Despite these problems of employing physiologic measures of female response in clinical settings, research into more basic issues has been quite profitable and heuristic. For example, several common assumptions about female sexuality are now open to question: women are more arousable just prior to menses; Kegel exercises improve orgasm consistency; sex therapy for inhibited arousal and desire is efficacious; there is usually agreement between the physiologic intensity of sexual response and a patient's subjective estimate of that intensity. On the other hand, there is evidence that vaginal engorgement in women remains at a high level after an initial orgasm, thus setting the physiologic stage for consecutive orgasmic responses; sexual arousal can be measured physiologically with acceptable degrees of reliability and specificity; muscle contractions in women during orgasm can be measured with high levels of precision; women respond to direct representations of erotic activity much the way men do; there are cortical "physiologic" signatures of orgasmic response in men and women. Obviously, a number of clinical research issues in female sexuality can now be investigated with physiologic measures.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:6488618

Hoon, P W

1984-09-01

40

Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females  

PubMed Central

Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

2013-01-01

41

Sexual Touching and Difficulties with Sexual Arousal and Orgasm Among U.S. Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the non-genitally-focused sexual behavior of those experiencing sexual difficulties. The objective of this study was to review the theory supporting a link between sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm, and to examine associations between these constructs among older adults in the United States. The data were from the 2005–2006 National Social Life Health and Aging Project, which surveyed 3,005 community-dwelling men and women ages 57–85 years. The 1,352 participants who had had sex in the past year reported on their frequency of sexual touching and whether there had been a period of several months or more in the past year when they were unable to climax, had trouble getting or maintaining an erection (men) or had trouble lubricating (women). Women also reported how of ten they felt sexually aroused during partner sex in the last 12 months. The odds of being unable to climax were greater by 2.4 times (95% CI 1.2–4.8) among men and 2.8 times (95% CI 1.4–5.5) among women who sometimes, rarely or never engaged in sexual touching, compared to those who always engaged in sexual touching, controlling for demographic factors and physical health. These results were attenuated but persisted after controlling for emotional relationship satisfaction and psychological factors. Similar results were obtained for erectile difficulties among men and subjective arousal difficulties among women, but not lubrication difficulties among women. Infrequent sexual touching is associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties among older adults in the United States. PMID:22160881

2013-01-01

42

Sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats after oral administration of Eurycoma longifolia Jack.  

PubMed

Eurycoma longifolia Jack commonly known as Tongkat Ali in Malaysia, has been used in Malaysia to increase male virility and sexual prowess. The objective of this study is to evaluate sexual arousal in sexually sluggish old male rats, 24 months old and retired breeders, receiving 200, 400, or 800 mg/kg of various fractions of E. longifolia Jack, twice daily, for 10 days. Control rats received 3 ml/kg of normal saline. The aphrodisiac effect was monitored by the act of yawning and stretching because yawning, either alone or associated with stretching, is considered an ancestral vestige surviving throughout evolution that promotes sexual arousal. The results showed that 800 mg/kg of E. longifolia Jack increased yawning by 50% and stretching by 16.7% in sexually sluggish old male rats, by 676-719% and 31-336%, respectively, in sexually active male rats, and by 22-44% and 75-100%, respectively, in middle aged, 9 months old and retired breeders. We conclude that the results of this study support the folk use of this plant as an aphrodisiac. PMID:15803965

Ang, Hooi Hoon; Lee, Kheng Leng; Kiyoshi, Matsumoto

2004-01-01

43

Feelings of Disgust and Disgust-Induced Avoidance Weaken following Induced Sexual Arousal in Women  

PubMed Central

Background Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the strongest disgust elicitors. This results in the intriguing question of how people succeed in having pleasurable sex at all. One possible explanation could be that sexual engagement temporarily reduces the disgust eliciting properties of particular stimuli or that sexual engagement might weaken the hesitation to actually approach these stimuli. Methodology Participants were healthy women (n?=?90) randomly allocated to one of three groups: the sexual arousal, the non-sexual positive arousal, or the neutral control group. Film clips were used to elicit the relevant mood state. Participants engaged in 16 behavioural tasks, involving sex related (e.g., lubricate the vibrator) and non-sex related (e.g., take a sip of juice with a large insect in the cup) stimuli, to measure the impact of sexual arousal on feelings of disgust and actual avoidance behaviour. Principal Findings The sexual arousal group rated the sex related stimuli as less disgusting compared to the other groups. A similar tendency was evident for the non-sex disgusting stimuli. For both the sex and non-sex related behavioural tasks the sexual arousal group showed less avoidance behaviour (i.e., they conducted the highest percentage of tasks compared to the other groups). Significance This study has investigated how sexual arousal interplays with disgust and disgust eliciting properties in women, and has demonstrated that this relationship goes beyond subjective report by affecting the actual approach to disgusting stimuli. Hence, this could explain how we still manage to engage in pleasurable sexual activity. Moreover, these findings suggest that low sexual arousal might be a key feature in the maintenance of particular sexual dysfunctions. PMID:22984465

Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.

2012-01-01

44

Sexual arousal and lubrication problems in women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder: preliminary findings from the hypoactive sexual desire disorder registry for women.  

PubMed

Sexual desire and arousal difficulties are often correlated in women. However, no studies have examined characteristics of women with clinically diagnosed hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) that increase the likelihood of co-occurring arousal difficulties. The authors examined combined HSDD and arousal/ lubrication problems using baseline cross-sectional data from the HSDD Registry for Women. Their analyses were restricted to women who could be classified with certainty as having arousal or lubrication difficulties by the Female Sexual Function Index (requiring sexually activity in the past 4 weeks). Results showed that among 426 premenopausal women with HSDD, 50.2% had arousal problems, 42.5% lubrication problems, 39.0% combination, and 46.2% neither. Among 174 postmenopausal women, prevalence percentages were 58.0% arousal, 56.9% lubrication, 49.4% combined, and 34.5% neither. The strongest predictor of combined arousal/lubrication problems was self-reported severity of HSDD. Among premenopausal women, race/ethnicity, depression, and lower relationship happiness were also associated with combined arousal/lubrication problems. Among postmenopausal women, surgical menopause and use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were positively associated with arousal problems. Arousal and lubrication problems were present in approximately half of this subsample of HSDD Registry participants, with distinctions in prevalence and predictors by menopausal status and type of arousal difficulty (arousal vs. lubrication). PMID:22268981

Maserejian, Nancy N; Shifren, Jan; Parish, Sharon J; Segraves, R Taylor; Huang, Liyuan; Rosen, Raymond C

2012-01-01

45

Dissociation during sex and sexual arousal in women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience dissociative symptoms and sexual difficulties with greater frequency than women without a history of CSA. Current models of sexual dysfunction for sexual abuse survivors suggest that dissociation may mediate the relationship between CSA and sexual arousal difficulties. Dissociation, however, is often conceptualized as a single construct in studies of CSA and not as separate domains as in the dissociation literature. In the present study, women with (CSA, N = 37) and without (NSA, N = 22) a history of CSA recruited from the community were asked to indicate the frequency and intensity of their experience in two dissociation subgroups, derealization and depersonalization, during sex with a partner and in their daily life. Findings showed that, in the NSA group, more depersonalization during sex with a partner was associated with lower sexual arousal functioning. However, for both the NSA and CSA groups, more derealization during sex was associated with higher sexual arousal functioning. No measure of dissociation was significantly associated with sexual responses in the laboratory. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between different forms of dissociation (i.e., derealization and depersonalization) in the study of sexual arousal functioning. In addition, the findings challenge the notion that dissociation is a main predictor of sexual arousal problems in survivors of CSA and suggest that a more nuanced relationship may exist. PMID:24297658

Bird, Elizabeth R; Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

2014-07-01

46

Incomplete Use of Condoms: The Importance of Sexual Arousal Cynthia A. Graham Richard A. Crosby  

E-print Network

REPORT Incomplete Use of Condoms: The Importance of Sexual Arousal Cynthia A. Graham · Richard A, LLC 2009 Abstract The purpose of this study was to identify asso- ciations between incomplete condom arousability were more likely to put a condom on after sex had begun (AOR = 1.58). Men who reported difficulty

47

The Roles of Testosterone and Alpha-Amylase in Exercise-Induced Sexual Arousal in Women  

E-print Network

The Roles of Testosterone and Alpha-Amylase in Exercise-Induced Sexual Arousal in Women Lisa Dawn-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Testosterone and a-amylase (a. There was a significant increase in a-amylase across the study in the exercise condition, but not in the no

Meston, Cindy

48

Intercourse orgasm consistency, concordance of women's genital and subjective sexual arousal, and erotic stimulus presentation sequence.  

PubMed

Many studies report discordance between women's genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. Consistent with our previous research, I hypothesized that the association between physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency (OC) during penile-vaginal intercourse but not for OC during masturbation or noncoital partnered sexual activities. I confirmed this specific hypothesis in a sample of young Dutch women (N = 27, mean age 20, all with current partners), replicating our earlier psychophysiological findings with postmenopausal women. Also replicated were the findings that intercourse OC (40% of the women had an orgasm from 90-100% of intercourse events, 44% from 9-89% of intercourse events) was not less than for other sexual activity and that OC during intercourse was uncorrelated with OC during masturbation. We observed the association of intercourse consistency with genital-subjective concordance when visual erotica was presented in a sequence of increasing intensity (analogous to typical real sexual encounters) but not when presented in decreasing, random, or fixed-intensity sequence. I discuss the results in terms of the unique nature of penile-vaginal intercourse and the study's implications for sex therapy and sex research. PMID:17162486

Brody, Stuart

2007-01-01

49

Effects of alcohol intoxication and instructional set on women's sexual arousal vary based on sexual abuse history.  

PubMed

The influence of alcohol intoxication and arousal instructional set on psychophysiological measures of sexual responding was examined in a non-clinical sample of sexually abused (SA) and non-sexually abused (NSA) women. Participants (n=42) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (target blood alcohol level = .08%) or non-alcoholic drinks and to receive instructions to maximize or suppress their sexual response to erotic films. Measures included vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), self-reported sexual arousal, and mood. SA classification interacted with instruction condition such that NSA women's VPA scores were higher under maximize than suppress instructions, but this did not occur for SA women. SA classification interacted with alcohol such that, compared to their sober counterparts, intoxicated NSA women reported less sexual arousal, whereas intoxicated SA women reported more sexual arousal than their sober counterparts. Moreover, positive mood ratings were highest among intoxicated SA women. Findings indicate that alcohol may affect women differently based on SA history and imply that SA history may be associated with differences in response to subsequent sexual situations. PMID:17364230

Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Heiman, Julia R; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F

2007-10-01

50

Sexual psychophysiology and effects of sildenafil citrate in oestrogenised women with acquired genital arousal disorder and impaired orgasm: a randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective Some postmenopausal women lose genital sexual responsivity despite preserved subjective sexual arousal from non-genital stimuli. When oestrogen replacement is without benefit, both the un- derlying pathophysiology and management of this acquired genital female sexual arousal disorder are unclear. We aimed to study the effect of sildenafil on sexual arousal and orgasmic functioning of such women. Secondly, we aimed to

Rosemary Bassona; Lori A. Brottod

51

Later That Night: Descending Alcohol Intoxication and Men's Sexual Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although men often have sex when intoxicated, basic questions remain about how alcohol affects erection. It may depend on whether blood alcohol level is ascending or descending and whether the situation calls for maxi- mizing or suppressing erection. Objective. To evaluate whether descending intoxication affects erection when men are instructed to maximize or suppress arousal. Method. Seventy-eight heterosexual men were

William H. George; Kelly Cue Davis; Trevor J. Schraufnagel; Jeanette Norris; Julia R. Heiman; Rebecca L. Schacht; Susan A. Stoner; Kelly F. Kajumulo

52

Rethinking butterflies: the affective, physiological, and performance effects of reappraising arousal during social evaluation.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of reappraising stress arousal on affective displays, physiological responses, and social performance during an evaluative situation. Participants were sampled from across the social anxiety spectrum and instructed to reappraise arousal as beneficial or received no instructions. Independent raters coded affective displays, nonverbal signaling, and speech performance. Saliva samples collected at baseline and after evaluation were assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a protein that indexes sympathetic activation. Arousal reappraisal participants exhibited less shame and anxiety, less avoidant nonverbal signaling, and performed marginally better than no instruction controls. Reappraisal participants also exhibited increased levels of sAA and increased appraisals of coping resources compared with controls. Furthermore, stress appraisals mediated relationships between reappraisal and affective displays. This research indicates that reframing stress arousal can improve behavioral displays of affect during evaluative situations via altering cognitive appraisals. PMID:24749642

Beltzer, Miranda L; Nock, Matthew K; Peters, Brett J; Jamieson, Jeremy P

2014-08-01

53

Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal  

PubMed Central

Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study. Setting University hospital in the Netherlands. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the female sexual response and the male and female genitals during coitus. Thirteen experiments were performed with eight couples and three single women. Results The images obtained showed that during intercourse in the “missionary position” the penis has the shape of a boomerang and 1/3 of its length consists of the root of the penis. During female sexual arousal without intercourse the uterus was raised and the anterior vaginal wall lengthened. The size of the uterus did not increase during sexual arousal. Conclusion Taking magnetic resonance images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and contributes to understanding of anatomy. PMID:10600954

Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; van Andel, Pek; Sabelis, Ida; Mooyaart, Eduard

1999-01-01

54

Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-Solving Deficits among Adolescent Self-Injurers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However,…

Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2008-01-01

55

Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

2010-01-01

56

Valence-arousal evaluation using physiological signals in an emotion recall paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The work presented in this paper aims at assessing human emotions using peripheral as well as electroencephalographic (EEG) physiological signals. Three specific areas of the valence-arousal emotional space are defined, corresponding to negatively excited, positively excited, and calm-neutral states. An acquisition protocol based on the recall of past emotional events has been designed to acquire data from both peripheral and

Guillaume Chanel; Karim Ansari-asl; Thierry Pun

2007-01-01

57

Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens.  

PubMed

Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans. PMID:24513559

Davies, A C; Radford, A N; Nicol, C J

2013-10-24

58

Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens.  

PubMed

Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans. PMID:24432355

Davies, A C; Radford, A N; Nicol, C J

2014-01-17

59

Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens?  

PubMed Central

Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans. PMID:24432355

Davies, A.C.; Radford, A.N.; Nicol, C.J.

2014-01-01

60

Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.  

PubMed

Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects. PMID:24729134

Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

2015-01-01

61

Attachment and physiological reactivity to infant crying in young adulthood: Dissociation between experiential and physiological arousal in insecure adoptees.  

PubMed

The associations between attachment representations of adopted young adults and their experiential and physiological arousal to infant crying were examined. Attachment representations were assessed with the Attachment Script Assessment (ASA), and the young adults listened to infant cries, during which ratings of cry perception were collected and physiological reactivity was measured. Secure adoptees showed a well-integrated response to infant distress: heart-rate increases and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawal were coupled with heightened perception of urgency in these individuals. In insecure adoptees RSA withdrawal was absent, and a combination of lowered perceived urgency and heightened sympathetic arousal was found, reflecting a deactivating style of emotional reactivity. Overall, our findings support the idea that internal working models of attachment explain individual differences in the way attachment-related information is processed. PMID:25460537

Schoenmaker, Christie; Huffmeijer, Renske; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van den Dries, Linda; Linting, Mariëlle; van der Voort, Anja; Juffer, Femmie

2015-02-01

62

Concordance Between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the concordance (or synchrony\\/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment measurement for two of three tasks. Within the treatment group, heart rate changes

Terri Landon Bacow; Jill Ehrenreich May; Molly Choate-Summers; Donna B. Pincus; Sara G. Mattis

2010-01-01

63

Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?  

PubMed

We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction. PMID:23970620

Markos, A R; Dinsmore, Wallace

2013-11-01

64

The relationship between women's subjective and physiological sexual arousal  

E-print Network

are vaginal photo- plethysmography, indirect measures of heat dissipation, and pulsed wave doppler and sensitive (Laan, Everaerd, & Evers) component of the signal is vaginal pulse am- plitude, which is believed used is the amplitude of the pulse signal, which is measured from the peak to the trough of the pulse

Meston, Cindy

65

A Kalman Filtering Framework for Physiological Detection of Anxiety-Related Arousal in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.  

PubMed

Objective: Anxiety is associated with physiological changes that can be non-invasively measured using inexpensive and wearable sensors. These changes provide an objective and language-free measure of arousal associated with anxiety, which can complement treatment programs for clinical populations who have difficulty with introspection, communication, and emotion recognition. This motivates the development of automatic methods for detection of anxiety-related arousal using physiology signals. While several supervised learning methods have been proposed for this purpose, these methods require regular collection and updating of training data and are therefore not suitable for clinical populations where obtaining labelled data may be challenging due to impairments in communication and introspection. In this context, the objective of this paper is to develop an unsupervised and realtime arousal detection algorithm. Methods: We propose a learning framework based on Kalman filtering theory for detection of physiological arousal based on cardiac activity. The performance of the system was evaluated on data obtained from a sample of children with autism spectrum disorder. Results: The results indicate that the system can detect anxietyrelated arousal in these children with sensitivity and specificity of 99% and 92%, respectively. Conclusion and significance: Our results show that the proposed method can detect physiological arousal associated with anxiety with high accuracy, providing support for technical feasibility of augmenting anxiety treatments with automatic detection techniques. This approach can ultimately lead to more effective anxiety treatment for a larger and more diverse population. PMID:25494497

Kushki, Azadeh; Khan, Ajmal; Brian, Jessica; Anagnostou, Evdokia

2014-12-01

66

Physiological arousal among women veterans with and without posttraumatic stress disorder.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to assess baseline physiological arousal in women veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nonresearch setting. Heart rate, blood pressure, sublingual temperature, and weight were obtained from a retrospective chart review of the medical records of 92 women veterans with and without a diagnosis of PTSD who were seen in an outpatient Veterans Affairs medical center. Women veterans with PTSD had statistically significantly higher mean baseline heart rates compared with women veterans without PTSD. The two groups did not differ statistically in blood pressure measures, sublingual temperature, or body mass index. Based on our analyses, this difference is not likely to be an artifact of age, race, body mass index, smoking status, or medication. The mean resting heart rate of women with PTSD was 83.9 beats per minute; it was 77.5 beats per minute in those without PTSD. This elevation in heart rate among women veterans with PTSD suggests an increase in baseline physiological arousal compared with women veterans without PTSD. Faster resting heart rate has been shown to be associated with a higher risk of developing hypertension and a greater incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in non-PTSD samples. Further research is needed to determine the physiological effects of PTSD in women. PMID:15132235

Forneris, Catherine A; Butterfield, Marian I; Bosworth, Hayden B

2004-04-01

67

When playing together feels different: effects of task types and social contexts on physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming contexts.  

PubMed

This study examines how task types (violent vs. nonviolent) and social contexts (solo vs. collaborative) affect physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming. Our results show that social contexts modify the effects of violent game tasks on arousal. When compared with solo play, collaborative play led to a significant decrease in arousal in response to violent tasks, while leading to a slight increase for nonviolent tasks. The findings point to the importance of understanding how social contexts of game playing shape psychological experiences in multiplayer online games. PMID:19006459

Lim, Sohye; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

2009-02-01

68

Effects of Gonadal Sex Steroids on Sexual Behavior in the Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus,Upon Arousal from Hibernation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vespertilionid bats are thought to have a dissociated pattern of reproduction; mating occurs in autumn as well as during periodic arousals from hibernation when testes are regressed and ovaries are “in stasis.” Sex steroid levels in both sexes are basal at this time. This pattern would indicate that sex steroids per se may not be activating sexual behavior. Gonadectomy of

M. T. Mendonça; S. D. Chernetsky; K. E. Nester; G. L. Gardner

1996-01-01

69

Neural correlates of sexual arousal in the spinal cords of able-bodied men: A spinal fMRI investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord (spinal fMRI) could be used to map neural activity throughout the lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord regions during sexual arousal in healthy men. To this end, it was found that viewing erotic films and genital self-stimulation both elicited predominantly increased signal,

Natalie Kozyrev; Chase R. Figley; Marcalee S. Alexander; J. Scott Richards; Rachael L. Bosma; Patrick W. Stroman

2012-01-01

70

Sexual Arousal and Self-Control: Results from a Preliminary Experimental Test of the Stability of Self-Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central proposition of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Theory of Crime is the relative stability of low self-control, however research on "self-control strength" suggests that it may vary across contexts. The current study examines these differing conceptions by randomly assigning participants to one of two sexual arousal conditions or…

Bouffard, Jeffrey; Kunzi, Tasha

2012-01-01

71

The role of physiological arousal in the management of challenging behaviours in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

Challenging behaviours restrict opportunities and choices for people with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) and frequently lead to inappropriate and costly service interventions. Managing challenging behaviours of people with autism is an important area of research. This paper examines some of the evidence for the role of physiological arousal influencing these behaviours. Evidence from the emerging literature about sensory differences is examined. It is proposed that sensory reactivity is associated with hyperarousal; catatonic type behaviours are associated with low levels of reactivity (hypoarousal). A low arousal approach is proposed as a generalised strategy to managing challenging behaviours with ASD. The use of non-contingent reinforcement and antecedent control strategies are recommended for use with challenging behaviours which have a sensory component. Examples are provided to illustrate the approach. The implications of arousal and the use of physical interventions are discussed. It is proposed that arousal is a construct which has significant heuristic value for researchers and practitioners. PMID:25462491

McDonnell, Andrew; McCreadie, Michael; Mills, Richard; Deveau, Roy; Anker, Regine; Hayden, Judy

2014-11-01

72

Skeletal muscle proteomics: carbohydrate metabolism oscillates with seasonal and torpor-arousal physiology of hibernation  

PubMed Central

The physiology of small mammalian hibernators shifts profoundly over a year, from summer homeothermy to winter heterothermy. Torpor-arousal cycles define high-amplitude tissue activity fluctuations in winter, particularly for skeletal muscle, which contributes to the energetically demanding rewarming process via shivering. To better understand the biochemistry underlying summer-winter and torpor-arousal transitions, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mas spectrometry to the soluble proteins from hindlimb muscle of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in two summer and six winter states. Two hundred sixteen protein spots differed by sampled state. Significantly, intrawinter protein adjustment was a minor component of the dataset despite large discrepancies in muscle activity level among winter states; rather, the bulk of differences (127/138 unequivocally identified proteins spots) occurred between summer and winter. We did not detect any proteomic signatures of skeletal muscle atrophy in this hibernator nor any differential seasonal regulation of protein metabolism. Instead, adjustments to metabolic substrate preferences dominated the detected proteomic differences. Pathways of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) were summer enriched, whereas the winter proteome was enriched for fatty acid ?-oxidation. Nevertheless, our data suggest that some reliance on carbohydrate reserves is maintained during winter. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), which reversibly prepares glucose subunits for either glycolysis or glycogenesis, showed apparent winter state-specific phosphorylation. PGM1 was phosphorylated during rewarming and dephosphorylated by interbout arousal, implying that glucose supplements lipid fuels during rewarming. This, along with winter elevation of TCA cycle enzymes, suggests that hindlimb muscles are primed for rapid energy production and that carbohydrates are an important fuel for shivering thermogenesis. PMID:21865542

Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Martin, Sandra L.

2011-01-01

73

Mechanisms underlying sexual and affiliative behaviors of mice: relation to generalized CNS arousal  

PubMed Central

The field of social neuroscience has grown dramatically in recent years and certain social responses have become amenable to mechanistic investigations. Toward that end, there has been remarkable progress in determining mechanisms for a simple sexual behavior, lordosis behavior. This work has proven that specific hormone-dependent biochemical reactions in specific parts of the mammalian brain regulate a biologically important behavior. On one hand, this sex behavior depends on underlying mechanisms of CNS arousal. On the other hand, it serves as a prototypical social behavior. The same sex hormones and the genes that encode their receptors as are involved in lordosis, also affect social recognition. Here we review evidence for a micronet of genes promoting social recognition in mice and discuss their biological roles. PMID:18985112

Shelley, Deborah N.; Choleris, Elena; Kavaliers, Martin

2006-01-01

74

Sensing and Visualising Physiological Arousal Anthony Tang1, Dan Cratt2, Sheelagh Carpendale1 and Allan Dunning2  

E-print Network

Sensing and Visualising Physiological Arousal Anthony Tang1, Dan Cratt2, Sheelagh Carpendale1 email: tang@cpsc.ucalgary.ca 2Media Arts & Digital Technologies Alberta College of Art & Design Calgary, Alberta Canada Cite as: Tang, A., Kratt, D., Carpendale, S. and Dunning, A. (2003). Sensing

Greenberg, Saul

75

Emotional intimacy is the best predictor of sexual satisfaction of men and women with sexual arousal problems.  

PubMed

This study investigates the association between variables related to individual body appearance and relationship variables with sexual satisfaction (SS) in a sample of men and women with sexual arousal problems (SAP). An anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted in a clinical setting with a non-representative sample of people diagnosed (DSP) with SAP and with a sample of people who identified themselves (SISP) as having a SAP. A total of 193 participants was recruited. SS and variables related to body appearance and relationship were measured. Hierarchical regression was used to study the contribution of different sets of variables on SS of men and women. No differences were found in terms of demographic variables, except for gender. Women in the SISP group presented significantly higher levels of SS than women in the DSP group. The predictive models proved to be statistically significant and explained many of the variance of SS in both men (R(2)=0.44) and women (R(2)=0.40). In both genders, emotional intimacy was revealed to be the main predictor of SS. Our results support the need to address relationship variables in patients diagnosed with SAP, specifically intimacy. This latter component must be considered for assessment, intervention and referral. PMID:23151594

Pascoal, P M; Narciso, I; Pereira, N M

2013-01-01

76

Neural correlates of sexual arousal in the spinal cords of able-bodied men: a spinal fMRI investigation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging could be used to map neural activity throughout the lower thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord regions during sexual arousal in healthy men. The authors found that viewing erotic films and genital self-stimulation elicited predominantly increased signal, indicative of amplified neuronal input to the dorsal and ventral horns and in the autonomic preganglionic nuclei of the lower thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord. In addition, linear regression analyses revealed a number of robust correlations (|R| ? 0.7) between signal intensity changes in these spinal cord regions and self-reported ratings of mental and physical sexual arousal. Taken together, these results demonstrate that spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging is an effective and sensitive technique for mapping the neural correlates of sexual arousal in the spinal cords of able-bodied men. Most important, the results from this study indicate that spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging may have important applications as a clinical tool for assessing and mapping the changes that occur in the spinal cords of men suffering from sexual dysfunction as a result of spinal cord trauma. PMID:22900624

Kozyrev, Natalie; Figley, Chase R; Alexander, Marcalee S; Richards, J Scott; Bosma, Rachael L; Stroman, Patrick W

2012-01-01

77

Polymorphisms in the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) contribute to individual differences in human sexual behavior: desire, arousal and sexual function.  

PubMed

Although there is some evidence from twin studies that individual differences in sexual behavior are heritable, little is known about the specific molecular genetic design of human sexuality. Recently, a specific dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) agonist was shown in rats to induce penile erection through a central mechanism. These findings prompted us to examine possible association between the well-characterized DRD4 gene and core phenotypes of human sexual behavior that included desire, arousal and function in a group of 148 nonclinical university students. We observed association between the exon 3 repeat region, and the C-521T and C-616G promoter region SNPs, with scores on scales that measure human sexual behavior. The single most common DRD4 5-locus haplotype (19%) was significantly associated with Desire, Function and Arousal scores. The current results are consistent with animal studies that show a role for dopamine and specifically the DRD4 receptor in sexual behavior and suggest that one pathway by which individual variation in human desire, arousal and function are mediated is based on allelic variants coding for differences in DRD4 receptor gene expression and protein concentrations in key brain areas. PMID:16619053

Ben Zion, I Z; Tessler, R; Cohen, L; Lerer, E; Raz, Y; Bachner-Melman, R; Gritsenko, I; Nemanov, L; Zohar, A H; Belmaker, R H; Benjamin, J; Ebstein, R P

2006-08-01

78

Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play. PMID:19280624

Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

2009-01-01

79

ORIGINAL RESEARCH--PHYSIOLOGY The Inhibitory Effects of Nicotine on Physiological Sexual  

E-print Network

that long-term cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for the introduction of sexual dysfunction Arousal; Vaginal Photoplethysmography Introduction Cigarette smoking is the most preventable cause of morbidity and premature mortality worldwide [1,2]. Smoking introduces a wide range of diseases including

Meston, Cindy

80

Emotion regulation, physiological arousal and PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed individuals  

PubMed Central

Objectives Retrospective studies suggest a link between PTSD and difficulty regulating negative emotions. This study investigated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and the ability to regulate negative emotions in real-time using a computerised task to assess emotion regulation. Method Trauma-exposed ambulance workers (N = 45) completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and depression. Participants then completed a computer task requiring them to enhance, decrease or maintain their negative emotions in response to unpleasant images. Skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded and participants also made ratings of emotion intensity. Immediately after the computer task, participants were asked to describe the strategies they had used to regulate their negative emotions during the task and recorded spontaneous intrusions for the unpleasant images they had seen throughout the following week. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with difficulty regulating (specifically, enhancing) negative emotions, greater use of response modulation (i.e., suppression) and less use of cognitive change (i.e., reappraisal) strategies to down-regulate their negative emotions during the task. More intrusions developed in participants who had greater reductions in physiological arousal whilst decreasing their negative emotions. Limitations PTSD was measured by self-report rather than by a clinician administered interview. The results suggest a relationship between emotion regulation ability and PTSD symptoms rather than emotion regulation and PTSD. Conclusions Difficulty regulating negative emotions may be a feature of trauma-exposed individuals with PTSD symptoms, which may be linked to the types of strategies they employ to regulate negative emotions. PMID:24727342

Shepherd, Laura; Wild, Jennifer

2014-01-01

81

Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.  

PubMed

Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity. PMID:21117979

Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

2011-06-01

82

Neural mechanisms underlying sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels: a comparative study of the postoperative male-to-female transsexuals and premenopausal and menopausal women.  

PubMed

This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. PMID:24800986

Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

2014-06-18

83

Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.  

PubMed

The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. PMID:24534418

Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

2014-06-01

84

Effects of hedonic valence and physiological arousal on emotion: A comparison of two theoretical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two theoretical perspectives concerned with how one emotional state may influence a subsequent one were examined. Zillmann's (1979) excitation transfer theory suggests that undetected residual arousal from a first state will transfer and intensify a subsequent state—regardless of the first state's hedonic valence. Baron's (1977) incompatible response model, on the other hand, suggests that the hedonic valence of an earlier

Nyla R. Branscombe

1985-01-01

85

Superior perception of phasic physiological arousal and the detrimental consequences of the conviction to be aroused on worrying and metacognitions in GAD.  

PubMed

Although people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often report arousal symptoms, psychophysiological studies show no evidence of autonomic hyperarousal. Hypersensitivity toward and catastrophic interpretation of phasic arousal cues may explain this discrepancy. The authors tested (a) whether GAD sufferers perceive nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations (NSCFs), an indicator of phasic autonomic arousal, better than controls do and (b) whether the conviction to be aroused contributes to the maintenance of worrying and metacognitive beliefs about worrying. Thirty-three GAD sufferers and 34 healthy controls participated in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to detect their own NSCFs during a signal detection task. GAD sufferers accurately detected more of their NSCFs than did controls, who tended to miss NSCFs. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to relax following worry induction. While relaxing, they received nonveridical feedback indicating either arousal or relaxation. Arousal feedback conserved negative metacognitive beliefs regarding worrying and also maintained negative mood and worry exclusively in GAD participants. These findings suggest that superior perception of phasic arousal cues and their catastrophic misinterpretation increases worrying, negative metacognitive beliefs about worrying, and anxious mood in GAD. PMID:18266497

Andor, Tanja; Gerlach, Alexander L; Rist, Fred

2008-02-01

86

Cerebral activation associated with sexual arousal in response to a pornographic clip: A 15O-H2O PET study in heterosexual men.  

PubMed

This study attempted to use PET and 15O-H2O to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sexual arousal evoked in 10 young heterosexual males while they watched a pornographic video clip, featuring heterosexual intercourse. This condition was compared with other mental setups evoked by noisy, nature, and talkshow audiovisual clips. Immediately after each clip, the participants answered three questions pertaining to what extent they thought about sex, felt aroused, and sensed an erection. They scored their answers using a 1 to 10 scale. SPM was used for data analysis. Sexual arousal was mainly associated with activation of bilateral, predominantly right, inferoposterior extrastriate cortices, of the right inferolateral prefrontal cortex and of the midbrain. The significance of those findings is discussed in the light of current theories concerning selective attention, "mind reading" and mirroring, reinforcement of pleasurable stimuli, and penile erection. PMID:11525320

Bocher, M; Chisin, R; Parag, Y; Freedman, N; Meir Weil, Y; Lester, H; Mishani, E; Bonne, O

2001-07-01

87

Face to face versus Facebook: does exposure to social networking web sites augment or attenuate physiological arousal among the socially anxious?  

PubMed

The present study tested two competing hypotheses about the effect of Facebook exposure on the physiological arousal level of participants who then encountered the stimulus person in a face-to-face situation. Facebook exposure may attenuate later arousal by providing increased comfort and confidence, but it is also possible that Facebook exposure will augment arousal, particularly among the socially anxious. Participants completed a measure of social anxiety and were exposed to a stimulus person via Facebook, face to face, or both. Galvanic skin response was recorded during the exposures to the stimulus person. Results were consistent with the augmentation hypothesis: a prior exposure on Facebook will lead to increased arousal during a face-to-face encounter, particularly for those high in social anxiety. PMID:24180223

Rauch, Shannon M; Strobel, Cara; Bella, Megan; Odachowski, Zachary; Bloom, Christopher

2014-03-01

88

Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.  

PubMed

Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions. PMID:21653264

Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

2011-01-01

89

Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links With Pragmatic Language  

PubMed Central

This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 28 with typical development (TD), aged 4–15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860

Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

2014-01-01

90

The Sensitivity of Event Logs, Self-Administered Questionnaires and Photoplethysmography to Detect Treatment-Induced Changes in Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The literature provides little evidence on what type of endpoints should be used to assess treatment-induced improvement in female sexual function. Aim The main goal of this study was to provide empiric evidence on the sensitivity of different types of measures for detecting treatment-induced changes in female sexual dysfunction diagnosis. Methods The measures investigated in this study included event logs, self-administered questionnaires (Female Sexual Functioning Index; FSFI), vaginal photoplethysmography, and continuous subjective sexual arousal measured during exposure to erotic videos. Participants were 24 women with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) who received sex therapy, placebo, or gingko biloba in a four-arm double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. FSAD was diagnosed utilizing a semistructured interview administered at pre- and post-treatment. Those women who did not meet FSAD criteria at post-treatment (N = 10) were labeled as “improved,” while women who still met FSAD criteria (N = 14) were categorized as “not improved” even if they showed signs of improvements. Main Outcome Measure Change scores from pre- to post-treatment on the FSFI, event logs, vaginal photoplethysmography, and continuous subjective levels of sexual arousal were used to predict whether women improved at post-treatment. Results were checked with exact logistic regression to control for the small sample size. Results The FSFI was the only measure to significantly predict whether women improved at post-treatment. The findings from this study lend support for the use of validated questionnaires as endpoint criteria in detecting treatment-induced changes in women’s sexual dysfunction. PMID:16490021

Rellini, Alessandra; Meston, Cindy

2010-01-01

91

Effects of sex guilt and sexual arousal on the retention of birth control information  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested the notion that high-sex-guilt individuals have difficulty retaining sex-related information. 28 male and 28 female undergraduates were assigned in equal numbers to a high and a low sex-guilt group. Within each group, 1\\/2 of the Ss were sexually stimulated by reading erotic passages, while 1\\/2 read neutral passages. All Ss then listened to a lecture on birth control and

Steven Schwartz

1973-01-01

92

Toward personalized sexual medicine (part 1): integrating the "dual control model" into differential drug treatments for hypoactive sexual desire disorder and female sexual arousal disorder.  

PubMed

In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a useful approach to treat common symptoms in subgroups of women with HSDD. PMID:23130782

Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

2013-03-01

93

ORIGINAL RESEARCH--ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY The Sensitivity of Continuous Laboratory Measures of  

E-print Network

of Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal for Diagnosing Women with Sexual Arousal Disorderjsm_1548 938..950 Cindy M. Meston, PhD,* Alessandra H. Rellini, PhD, and Katie McCall, PhD *Department of Psychology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; Department of Psychology, The University of Vermont

Meston, Cindy

94

Prenatal letrozole produces a subpopulation of male rats with same-sex preference and arousal as well as female sexual behavior.  

PubMed

Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56?g/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56?g/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31?g/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior. PMID:25462593

Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

2015-02-01

95

Physiological reactivity in a community sample of sexually aggressive young men: a test of competing hypotheses.  

PubMed

Men's sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually aggressive and 40 non-aggressive men). In a laboratory protocol, the men were exposed to neutral, negative-affect-inducing, and positive-affect-inducing stimuli. Men's salivary cortisol concentrations and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured throughout the laboratory procedure. Sexually aggressive men demonstrated (1) lower overall cortisol levels and (2) lower EDA reactivity in some conditions as compared to non-aggressive men. Results of this study were consistent with the idea that men's sexual aggression is associated with physiological hyporeactivity, a physiological profile that has been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits. PMID:24310818

Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

2014-01-01

96

Sexual victimization history, depression, and task physiology as predictors of sexual revictimization: results from a 6-month prospective pilot study.  

PubMed

The current study examined depression and physiological reactivity to a sexual threat task as longitudinal predictors of sexual revictimization in women with sexual victimization histories. The sample included 14 young adult women (M age = 19.15) who reported child sexual abuse. Heart rate and root mean square of the successive differences were measured at baseline and during the presentation of sexual victimization-related words during an Emotional Stroop task. Results indicated that women who reported a greater history of childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual victimization were at increased risk for sexual revictimization 6 months after initial data collection. Furthermore, even after accounting for their childhood and adult sexual victimization histories and depression symptoms, women who exhibited reduced, or blunted, physiological activity during the sexual victimization stimuli of the Stroop task were more likely to report sexual revictimization during the 6-month follow-up. The findings suggest that sexual victimization survivors may benefit from interventions that address physiological blunting and the recognition of sexual threat cues in their environment. PMID:24923892

Waldron, Jonathan C; Wilson, Laura C; Patriquin, Michelle A; Scarpa, Angela

2015-02-01

97

The Polarizing Effect of Arousal on Negotiation  

E-print Network

In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, ...

Brown, Ashley D.

98

AROUSAL AND LOGICAL INFERENCE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE PURPOSE OF THE EXPERIMENT WAS TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE TO WHICH PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL, AS INDEXED BY THE GRASON STADLER TYPE OPERANT CONDITIONING APPARATUS (GSR), IS RELATED TO THE ACCURACY OF LOGICAL REASONING. THE STIMULI WERE 12 SYLLOGISMS, THREE OF EACH OF FOUR DIFFERENT LOGICAL FORMS. THE 14 SUBJECTS (SS) INDICATED THEIR AGREEMENT OR…

KOEN, FRANK

99

Sexual selection by cryptic female choice on male seminal products - a new bridge between sexual selection and reproductive physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection clearly focuses on differences in reproduction, but studies of reproductive physiology generally have been carried out in a near vacuum of modern evolutionary theory. This lack of contact between the two fields may be about to change. New ideas indicate that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has affected the evolution of products in male semen that influence female

William G. Eberhard; Carlos Cordero

1995-01-01

100

Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood.  

PubMed

Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood. PMID:24748915

Meston, Cindy M; Lorenz, Tierney A

2013-07-01

101

A brief mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral intervention improves sexual functioning versus wait-list control in women treated for gynecologic cancer  

PubMed Central

Goal The goal of this study was to evaluate a mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral intervention for sexual dysfunction in gynecologic cancer survivors compared to a wait-list control group. Methods Thirty-one survivors of endometrial or cervical cancer (mean age 54.0, range 31–64) who self-reported significant and distressing sexual desire and/or sexual arousal concerns were assigned either to three, 90-minute mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy sessions or two months of wait-list control prior to entering the treatment arm. Validated measures of sexual response, sexual distress, and mood, as well as laboratory-evoked physiological and subjective sexual arousal were assessed at pre-, one month post-, and 6-months following treatment. Results There were no significant effects of the wait-list condition on any measure. Treatment led to significant improvements in all domains of sexual response, and a trend towards significance for reducing sexual distress. Perception of genital arousal during an erotic film was also significantly increased following the intervention despite no change in physiologically-measured sexual arousal. Conclusions A brief mindfulness-based intervention was effective for improving sexual functioning. Geographic restrictions permitted only a select sample of survivors to participate, thus, the generalizability of the findings is limited. Future studies should aim to develop online modalities for treatment administration to overcome this limitation. PMID:22293042

Brotto, Lori A.; Erskine, Yvonne; Carey, Mark; Ehlen, Tom; Finlayson, Sarah; Heywood, Mark; Kwon, Janice; McAlpine, Jessica; Stuart, Gavin; Thomson, Sydney; Miller, Dianne

2012-01-01

102

Misattribution of arousal in negotiation : the role of the eye of the beholder  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and extant prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized, given its assumed negative effect on ...

Brown, Ashley D. (Ashley Diane)

2013-01-01

103

Sexual and affective responses to same- and opposite-sex stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men: assessment and manipulation of visual attention.  

PubMed

Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24473940

Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick

2014-07-01

104

Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.  

PubMed

Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label. PMID:24328817

Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

2015-01-01

105

Noradrenergic Modulation of Arousal  

PubMed Central

Through a highly divergent efferent projection system, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system. State-dependent neuronal discharge activity of locus coeruleus neurons has long-suggested a role of this system in the induction of an alert waking state. More recent work supports this hypothesis, demonstrating robust wake-promoting actions of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system. Norepinephrine enhances arousal, in part, via actions of ?- and ?1-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the general regions of the medial septal area and the medial preoptic areas. Recent anatomical studies suggest that arousal-enhancing actions of norepinephrine are not limited to the locus coeruleus system and likely include the A1 and A2 noradrenergic cell groups. Thus, noradrenergic modulation of arousal state involves multiple noradrenergic systems acting with multiple subcortical regions. Pharmacological studies indicate that the combined actions of these systems are necessary for the sustained maintenance of arousal levels associated with spontaneous waking. Enhanced arousal state is a prominent aspect of both stress and psychostimulant drug action and evidence indicates that noradrenergic systems likely play an important role in both stress-related and psychostimulant-induced arousal. These and other observations suggest that the dysregulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission could well contribute to the dysregulation of arousal associated with a variety of behavioral disorders including insomnia and stress-related disorders. PMID:18199483

Berridge, Craig W.

2008-01-01

106

ORIGINAL PAPER Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses  

E-print Network

-schema Á Sexual arousal Á Vaginal photoplethysmography Á Childhood trauma Á Sexual abuse Á Sexual function with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse Alessandra H. Rellini · Cindy M. Meston Received: 30 June 2009 / Revised-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds

Meston, Cindy

107

Patterns of arousal in comatose patients.  

PubMed Central

The EEG changes, with associated cardiorespiratory phenomena and, where possible, postmortem findings, are described in six patients in coma, with some reference to other similar cases. Spontaneously occurring periodic changes were observed at varying intervals between 20 s and 4 min but most commonly at 1/2-2 min. These involved simultaneous cardiorespiratory, EEG, and somatic motor phenomena related to changes in the level of arousal. It is suggested that a physiological periodicity of the arousal mechanisms exists which may be of importance in the understanding of the pathophysiology of comatose states. Images PMID:932756

Evans, B M

1976-01-01

108

AROUSAL COMES OF AGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

This year will see the celebration of 21 years of the AROUSAL Simulation System as a vehicle for the development of middle and senior managers in the construction and engineering industries as well as a valuable learning tool for undergraduate and postgraduate students. The system continues to be used throughout the world by leading construction and consulting organisations as well

Peter Lansley

109

REPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS IN AROUSAL ASSESSMENT FOR SEX OFFENDERS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES  

PubMed Central

Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795

Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

110

Sexual differences in physiological integration in the dioecious shrub Lindera triloba: a field experiment using girdling manipulation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims It is important to consider the modular level when verifying sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants. Nevertheless, between-sex differences in resource translocation among modules (i.e. physiological integration) have not been tested at the whole-plant level. In this study, sexual differences in physiological integration were examined among ramets, within a genet in the dioecious sprouting shrub Lindera triloba, by a field experiment with girdling manipulation. Methods Female and male genets were randomly assigned to girdled or intact groups. Girdling of the main ramets was conducted in May 2009 by removing a ring of bark and cambium approx. 1 cm wide at a height of 80–100 cm. The effects of treatment and sex on ramet dynamics (mortality, recruitment and diameter growth) and inflorescence production during 1 year after girdling were examined. Key Results The diameter growth rate of main ramets of both sexes was lower at ground level (D0) but higher at breast height (dbh) in girdled than in intact groups. In sprouted ramets with a dbh of 0–2 cm, males in girdled groups had lower growth rates at D0 than those of intact groups, whereas no girdling effect was found for females. The main ramets in girdled groups produced more inflorescences than intact groups, irrespective of sex, but male ramets showed a greater response to the treatment than females. Conclusions In L. triloba, physiological integration exists at the whole-plant level, and sprouted ramets are dependent on assimilates translocated from main ramets, but this dependence weakens as sprouted ramets get larger. Female sprouted ramets can grow in a physiologically independent manner from the main ramet earlier than those of males. This study highlights the importance of considering modular structures and physiological integration when evaluating sexual differences in demographic patterns of clonal plants. PMID:21385778

Isogimi, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Michinari; Watanabe, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Michiko

2011-01-01

111

Trazodone Increases the Respiratory Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and a Low Arousal Threshold  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway anatomy in these patients. Citation: Eckert DJ; Malhotra A; Wellman A; White DP. Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold. SLEEP 2014;37(4):811-819. PMID:24899767

Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.

2014-01-01

112

The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

113

Progressive and Self-Induced Relaxation Training: Their Relative Effects on Subjective and Autonomic Arousal to Fearful Stimuli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared progressive relaxation training (PRT), self-induced relaxation training (SRT), and a control condition on measures of tonic physiological arousal and phasic physiological and subjective reactions to fearful stimuli. Concluded that live PRT is the treatment of choice for reducing tonic physiological arousal and attenuating subjective…

Green, Kenneth D.; And Others

1981-01-01

114

Online Sexual Activity Experience of Heterosexual Students: Gender Similarities and Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared male and female university students’ experiences with online sexual activity (OSA) and tested a model\\u000a explaining gender differences in OSA. OSAs were categorized as non-arousal (e.g., seeking sexuality information), solitary-arousal\\u000a (e.g., viewing sexually explicit materials), or partnered-arousal (e.g., sharing sexual fantasies). Participants (N = 217) completed measures of OSA experience, sexual attitudes, and sexual experience. Significantly more men than

Krystelle ShaughnessyE; E. Sandra Byers; Lindsay Walsh

2011-01-01

115

Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.  

PubMed

Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use. PMID:23733155

Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

2014-04-01

116

A new medical treatment with botulinum toxin in persistent genital arousal disorder: successful treatment of two cases.  

PubMed

Persistent genital arousal disorder is described in a spontaneous, persistent, and uncontrollable genital arousal in women, with or without orgasm or genital engorgement, unrelated to any feelings of sexual desire. This study aimed to argue that application of Botulinum toxin in the periclitoral region in order to block the dorsal nerve of the clitoris might decrease symptoms of persistent genital arousal disorder. The authors presented 2 cases, in which application of Botulinum toxin resulted in improvement of the symptoms of persistent genital arousal disorder. Botulinum toxin type A treatment protocol is seen as a promising application for the persistent genital arousal disorder. However, further controlled studies in large samples are needed. PMID:24168013

Nazik, Hakan; Api, Murat; Aytan, Hakan; Narin, Raziye

2014-01-01

117

Level of postassault sexual functioning in rape and incest victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a systematic study, 372 sexual assault survivors and 99 women with no history of sexual assault were interviewed with regard to their sexual histories to determine the incidence and types of sexual dysfunctions in these two samples. The women also completed the Sexual Arousability Inventory. Of the sexual assault survivors, 58.6% of the women were experiencing sexual dysfunctions, with

Judith V. Becker; Linda J. Skinner; Gene G. Abel; Joan Cichon

1986-01-01

118

Urban Heterosexual Couples’ Sexual Scripts for Three Shared Sexual Experiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

A heterogeneous sample of 38 young adult heterosexual couples living in a US city (N?=?76) provided narratives about their first, most physically arousing, and most emotionally intimate sexual experiences.\\u000a Physical arousal and passion and emotional intimacy intrapsychic scripts were evident across all three sexual experiences,\\u000a although both discourses encompassed multiple sub-themes. First sexual occasions generally adhered to more traditional interpersonal

David Wyatt Seal; Michael Smith; Brenda Coley; June Perry; Maria Gamez

2008-01-01

119

CAP, epilepsy and motor events during sleep: the unifying role of arousal.  

PubMed

Arousal systems play a topical neurophysiologic role in protecting and tailoring sleep duration and depth. When they appear in NREM sleep, arousal responses are not limited to a single EEG pattern but are part of a continuous spectrum of EEG modifications ranging from high-voltage slow rhythms to low amplitude fast activities. The hierarchic features of arousal responses are reflected in the phase A subtypes of CAP (cyclic alternating pattern) including both slow arousals (dominated by the <1Hz oscillation) and fast arousals (ASDA arousals). CAP is an infraslow oscillation with a periodicity of 20-40s that participates in the dynamic organization of sleep and in the activation of motor events. Physiologic, paraphysiologic and pathologic motor activities during NREM sleep are always associated with a stereotyped arousal pattern characterized by an initial increase in EEG delta power and heart rate, followed by a progressive activation of faster EEG frequencies. These findings suggest that motor patterns are already written in the brain codes (central pattern generators) embraced with an automatic sequence of EEG-vegetative events, but require a certain degree of activation (arousal) to become visibly apparent. Arousal can appear either spontaneously or be elicited by internal (epileptic burst) or external (noise, respiratory disturbance) stimuli. Whether the outcome is a physiologic movement, a muscle jerk or a major epileptic attack will depend on a number of ongoing factors (sleep stage, delta power, neuro-motor network) but all events share the common trait of arousal-activated phenomena. PMID:16809057

Parrino, Liborio; Halasz, Peter; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Terzano, Mario Giovanni

2006-08-01

120

Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

Kay, Ian

2008-01-01

121

Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

2008-01-01

122

Women's sexual function and dysfunction: current uncertainties, future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that women at the outset of sexual activity do not need to have sexual desire, as in ‘drive’, and that many do not distinguish desire from arousal. Multiple modes of investigation confirm poor correlation between women's subjective arousal and measured genital congestion. Suggested revisions to the DSM-IV definitions of sexual disorder have been published: there is

R Basson

2008-01-01

123

Women's sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: the role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history.  

PubMed

Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a "category-specific" genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for Study 2), results confirmed that, on average, women did not show category-specific genital responses or category-specific subjective sexual arousal. However, there was evidence of notable within-group variability; many women did respond to the stimuli in a category-specific manner. Heterosexual women were more likely than lesbian women to demonstrate category-specificity. Findings also revealed that category-specificity was associated with multiple factors, including affective responses to the erotic stimuli and sexual history. Results of this study highlight the complexity of women's sexual identities and sexual responses. PMID:19856092

Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Laan, Ellen

2010-08-01

124

Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Preoccupancy: A Three-Wave Panel Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) increased their sexual preoccupancy (i.e., a strong cognitive engagement in sexual issues). Further, we wanted to know (a) whether subjective sexual arousal mediated a potential influence of exposure to SEIM on sexual preoccupancy and (b) whether this process differed between male and

Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg

2008-01-01

125

Pornography and the sex offender: Patterns of previous exposure and arousal effects of pornographic stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Showed 63 male sex and 66 male criminal code offenders a series of 26 slides depicting different sexual behaviors. Ss were also interviewed about their past exposure to pornography. No differences were found between the 2 groups on the measure of rated overall sexual arousal to the slides. Numerous differences were found between the 2 groups in their past exposure

Royer F. Cook; Robert H. Fosen; Asher Pacht

1971-01-01

126

A Psychoeducational Intervention for Sexual Dysfunction in Women with Gynecologic Cancer  

E-print Network

-based treatments for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD), the most common sexual symptom in this group, do. The PED consisted of three, 1-hour sessions that combined elements of cognitive and behavioral therapy of the PED on sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, satisfaction, sexual distress, depression, and overall well

127

Female sexual function and response.  

PubMed

Although female sexual dysfunction is a problem with low priority, it can have a profound impact on quality of life. In women, the cycle of sexual response begins in the brain, where a memory, an image, a scent, music, or a fantasy acts as a trigger to prompt sexual arousal. Thus, the brain is really the key and starting place for treatment of sexual dysfunction. Decreased libido, altered arousal, inability to achieve orgasm, and dyspareunia are the four broad types of sexual dysfunction in women. Decreased libido, thought to be related to androgenic hormones, results in delayed or altered arousal, decreased vaginal lubrication and dilation, delayed or absent orgasm, and pain or dyspareunia, which can lead to an aversion to sexual experiences. PMID:14992322

Arcos, Barbara

2004-01-01

128

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence

Irwin Goldstein

129

At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

2013-01-01

130

Power modulates over-reliance on false cardiac arousal when judging target attractiveness: the powerful are more centered on their own false arousal than the powerless.  

PubMed

Individuals attempting to label their emotions look for a plausible source of their physiological arousal. Co-occurrence of plausible sources can lead to the misattribution of real (or bogus) physiological arousal, resulting in physically attractive individuals being perceived as more attractive than they actually are. In two experiments, female participants heard bogus heart rate feedback while viewing photos of attractive male models. Compared with low-power and control participants, high-power participants rated reinforced photos (increased heart rate) more attractive than non-reinforced photos (stable heart rate) to a greater extent when they heard their own bogus heart rate feedback (Experiments 1 and 2) and to a lesser extent when they heard a recording of another participant's heart rate (Experiment 2). These findings, which suggest that power increases the tendency to misattribute one's physiological arousal to physically attractive individuals, are discussed with reference to theories linking power and social perception. PMID:25413717

Jouffre, Stéphane

2015-01-01

131

Arousal and Anxiety Correlates of Gymnastic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests on a women's gymnastic team to explore correlation between arousal, anxiety, and performance, revealed limited relationships between performance and arousal/anxiety measures and indicated that gymnastic ability is the best correlate of gymnastic performance. (JD)

Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

1976-01-01

132

Display Characteristics Affect Users' Emotional Arousal in 3D Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large computer screens are becoming more and more popular among users, and field of view and physical screen size are important\\u000a considerations for users and manufacturers. In this study, we investigated the impacts of visual angles and physical screen\\u000a size on users’ emotional arousal using subjective and physiological measures. The results suggest that larger visual angles\\u000a cause greater galvanic skin

Tao Lin; Atsumi Imamiya; Wanhua Hu; Masaki Omata

2006-01-01

133

Gender-Specificity of Women's and Men's Self-Reported Attention to Sexual Stimuli.  

PubMed

Men's sexual arousal is largely dependent on the actor's gender in a sexual stimulus (gender-specific), whereas for women, particularly androphilic women, arousal is less dependent on gender (gender-nonspecific). According to information-processing models of sexual response, sexual arousal requires that attention be directed toward sexual cues. We evaluated whether men's and women's self-reported attention to sexual stimuli of men or women were consistent with genital responses and self-reported arousal. We presented gynephilic men (n = 21) and women (n = 22) and androphilic men (n = 16) and women (n = 33) with audiovisual stimuli depicting men or women engaged in sexual activities. Genital responses were continuously recorded and, following each stimulus, participants reported the amount of attention paid to the video and feelings of sexual arousal. Self-reported attention was gender-specific for men and gender-nonspecific for women, and generally mirrored genital responses and self-reported arousal. Gender-specificity of genital responses significantly predicted gender-specificity of self-reported arousal; however, for men only, this effect was significantly mediated by gender-specificity of self-reported attention. Gender differences in gender-specificity of sexual arousal may be partially accounted for by differences in gender-specificity of self-reported attention, although attention may play a greater role in men's sexual arousal than women's. PMID:25255838

Huberman, Jackie S; Maracle, Amanda C; Chivers, Meredith L

2014-09-25

134

Sexual activities, desire, and satisfaction in males pre- and post-spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-eight spinal cord injured (SCI) males (median age = 26) completed an 80-item multiple choice questionnaire (median 37 months postinjury) which assessed sexual functioning pre- and post-spinal cord injury in four areas: (i) sexual activities and preferences, (ii) sexual abilities, (iii) sexual desire, arousal, and satisfaction, and, (iv) sexual adjustment. Frequency of sexual activity decreased following SCI with a reduction

Craig J. Alexander; Marca L. Sipski; Thomas W. Findley

1993-01-01

135

Incidence and types of sexual dysfunctions in rape and incest victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many authors have commented on the impact of sexual assault on the sexual laves of the victims. Eighty-three victim were interviewed with regard to their sexual histories, and completed the Sexual Arousal Inventory, to determine the incidence and types of sexual dysfunctions in rape and incest victims: 56% of these victims experienced sexual dysfunctions postassault; 71% of these subjects reported

Judith V. Becker; Linda J. Skinner; Gene G. Abel; Eileen C. Treacy

1982-01-01

136

Role of Partner Novelty in Sexual Functioning: A Review.  

PubMed

This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: sexual strategies theory and attachment fertility theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the effect of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extradyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by sexual strategies theory in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men. PMID:25222339

Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

2014-09-15

137

Chemoreception and asphyxia-induced arousal  

PubMed Central

Arousal protects against the adverse and potentially fatal effects of asphyxia during sleep. Asphyxia stimulates the carotid bodies and central chemoreceptors but the sequence of events leading to arousal is uncertain. In this review, the theoretical mechanisms leading to arousal from sleep are briefly summarized and the issue of whether central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) or other types of CO2-responsive CNS neurons contribute to asphyxia-induced arousal is discussed. We focus on the role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus, the raphe and the locus coeruleus and emphasize the anatomical and neurophysiological evidence which suggests that these putative central chemoreceptors could contribute to arousal independently of their effects on breathing. Finally, we describe recent attempts to test the contribution of specific brainstem pathways to asphyxia-induced arousal using optogenetic and other tools and the possible contribution of a group of hypoxia-sensitive brainstem neurons (the C1 cells) to breathing and arousal. PMID:23608705

Guyenet, Patrice G.; Abbott, Stephen B.G.

2013-01-01

138

Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.  

PubMed

Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep. PMID:25498600

Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

2015-03-01

139

Homeless youths: Sexual and drug-related behaviour, sexual beliefs and HIV\\/AIDS risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homeless, Anglo-Australian and Greek-Australian 16-year-olds were questioned about their sexual behaviour and sexual beliefs. Measures of sexual risk-taking included type of behaviour, condom use and number of partners. Drug risk was assessed by extent of IV drug use, and sharing and cleaning needles. Sexual beliefs included self-perceptions of sexual anxiety, arousal, exploration and commitment In addition, motivations for engaging in,

D. Rosenthal; S. Moore; S. Buzwell

1994-01-01

140

Hyper-Arousal Decreases Human Visual Thresholds  

PubMed Central

Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0–2° C water), a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1) and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2) were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life. PMID:23593478

Woods, Adam J.; Philbeck, John W.; Wirtz, Philip

2013-01-01

141

Postpartum female sexual function.  

PubMed

Although many women experience sexual problems in the postpartum period, research in this subject is under-explored. Embarrassment and preoccupation with the newborn are some of the reasons why many women do not seek help. Furthermore, there is a lack of professional awareness and expertise and recognition that a prerequisite in the definition of sexual dysfunction is that it must cause distress to the individual (not her partner). Sexual dysfunction is classified as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and pain. However, in the postpartum period the most common disorder appears to be that of sexual pain as a consequence of perineal trauma. Health care workers need to be made aware of this silent affliction as sexual morbidity can have a detrimental effect on a women's quality of life impacting on her social, physical and emotional well-being. PMID:19481858

Abdool, Zeelha; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H

2009-08-01

142

Amygdala responses to Valence and its interaction by arousal revealed by MEG.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a crucial role in the processing of emotions. The precise nature of its involvement is however unclear. We hypothesized that ambivalent findings from neuroimaging studies that report amygdala's activity in emotions, are due to distinct functional specificity of amygdala's sub-divisions and specifically to differential reactivity to arousal and valence. The goal of the present study is to characterize the amygdala response to affective stimuli by disentangling the contributions of arousal and valence. Our hypothesis was prompted by recent reports claiming anatomical sub-divisions of amygdala based on cytoarchitecture and the functional maps obtained from diverse behavioral, emotional, and physiological stimulation. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings from 12 healthy individuals passively exposed to affective stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) collection using a 2 (Valence levels)× 2 (Arousal levels) design. Source power was estimated using a beamformer technique with the activations referring to the amygdala sub-divisions defined through probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Right laterobasal amygdala activity was found to mediate negative valence (elicited by unpleasant stimuli) while left centromedial activity was characterized by an interaction of valence by arousal (arousing pleasant stimuli). We did not find a main effect for amygdala activations in any of its sub-divisions for arousal modulation. To the best of our knowledge, our findings from non-invasive MEG data indicate for the first time, a distinct functional specificity of amygdala anatomical sub-divisions in the emotional processing. PMID:23688672

Styliadis, Charalampos; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

2014-07-01

143

The Affect and Arousal Scales: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Affect and Arousal Scales (AFARS) were inspected in a combined clinical and population sample (N = 1,215). The validity of the tripartite structure and the relations between Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH) were investigated for boys and girls, younger (8-11…

De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; Decuyper, Mieke

2010-01-01

144

Orexin A Activates Locus Coeruleus Cell Firing and Increases Arousal in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization of orexin neuropeptides in the lateral hypothalamus has focused interest on their role in ingestion. The orexigenic neurones in the lateral hypothalamus, however, project widely in the brain, and thus the physiological role of orexins is likely to be complex. Here we describe an investigation of the action of orexin A in modulating the arousal state of rats

Jim J. Hagan; Ron A. Leslie; Sara Patel; Martyn L. Evans; Trevor A. Wattam; Steve Holmes; Christopher D. Benham; Stephen G. Taylor; Carol Routledge; Panida Hemmati; Richard P. Munton; Tracey E. Ashmeade; Ajit S. Shah; Jonathan P. Hatcher; Paula D. Hatcher; Declan N. C. Jones; Martin I. Smith; David C. Piper; A. Jackie Hunter; Rod A. Porter; Neil Upton

1999-01-01

145

Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state  

PubMed Central

Electroencephalography (EEG) often fails to assess both the level (i.e., arousal) and the content (i.e., awareness) of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations. We introduced epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) for monitoring of cortical physiology in a late-stage amytrophic lateral sclerosis patient in completely locked-in state (CLIS). Despite long-term application for a period of six months, no implant-related complications occurred. Recordings from the left frontal cortex were sufficient to identify three arousal states. Spectral analysis of the intrinsic oscillatory activity enabled us to extract state-dependent dominant frequencies at <4, ~7 and ~20 Hz, representing sleep-like periods, and phases of low and elevated arousal, respectively. In the absence of other biomarkers, ECoG proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring circadian rhythmicity, i.e., avoiding interference with the patient when he was sleeping and exploiting time windows of responsiveness. Moreover, the effects of interventions addressing the patient’s arousal, e.g., amantadine medication, could be evaluated objectively on the basis of physiological markers, even in the absence of behavioral parameters. Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient’s present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain-computer interfaces (BCI). PMID:25374532

Martens, Suzanne; Bensch, Michael; Halder, Sebastian; Hill, Jeremy; Nijboer, Femke; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Birbaumer, Niels; Gharabaghi, Alireza

2014-01-01

146

The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game effects on physiological desensitization, defined as showing less physiological arousal to violence in the real world after exposure to video game violence in the virtual world. This experiment attempts to

Nicholas L. Carnagey; Craig A. Anderson; Brad J. Bushman

2007-01-01

147

The eVect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game eVects on physiologi- cal desensitization, deWned as showing less physiological arousal to violence in the real world after exposure to video game violence in the virtual world. This experiment attempts

Nicholas L. Carnagey; Craig A. Anderson; Brad J. Bushman

2006-01-01

148

Remodeling mitochondrial membranes during arousal from hibernation.  

PubMed

During arousal from hibernation, body temperature (T(b)) increases by ?30°C and liver mitochondrial respiration increases threefold in as little as 2 h. We analyzed liver mitochondria purified from ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to see whether membrane phospholipids were remodeled during spontaneous arousal. Cardiolipin content did not change among animals in torpor (T ? 5°C), the early phase of arousal (T ? 15°C), late arousal (T ? 30°C), interbout euthermia (T ? 37°C), and summer-active animals (T ? 37°C) that do not hibernate. Phosphatidylcholine content increased in late arousal relative to interbout euthermia, while phosphatidylethanolamine decreased. Phospholipid monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) did not change throughout arousal, but polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and MUFA/PUFA decreased and increased, respectively. In the fatty acid conjugates of phospholipids, neither unsaturation index nor n-3/n-6 differed. Few changes in individual fatty acids were noted, but palmitoleic acid (16:1, n-7) was higher in interbout euthermia and summer. Although 16:1 accounted for less than 1.5% of phospholipid fatty acids, it correlated strongly and positively with succinate-fueled state 3 mitochondrial respiration. No other phospholipid characteristic measured here correlated with mitochondrial respiration. These data show that mitochondrial membranes are remodeled rapidly during arousal, but the contribution to reversible suppression of mitochondrial respiration remains unclear. PMID:21743257

Armstrong, Christopher; Thomas, Raymond H; Price, Edwin R; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Staples, James F

2011-01-01

149

Neuropeptidergic Signaling Partitions Arousal Behaviors in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Animals modulate their arousal state to ensure that their sensory responsiveness and locomotor activity match environmental demands. Neuropeptides can regulate arousal, but studies of their roles in vertebrates have been constrained by the vast array of neuropeptides and their pleiotropic effects. To overcome these limitations, we systematically dissected the neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal in larval zebrafish. We quantified spontaneous locomotor activity and responsiveness to sensory stimuli after genetically induced expression of seven evolutionarily conserved neuropeptides, including adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1b (adcyap1b), cocaine-related and amphetamine-related transcript (cart), cholecystokinin (cck), calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp), galanin, hypocretin, and nociceptin. Our study reveals that arousal behaviors are dissociable: neuropeptide expression uncoupled spontaneous activity from sensory responsiveness, and uncovered modality-specific effects upon sensory responsiveness. Principal components analysis and phenotypic clustering revealed both shared and divergent features of neuropeptidergic functions: hypocretin and cgrp stimulated spontaneous locomotor activity, whereas galanin and nociceptin attenuated these behaviors. In contrast, cart and adcyap1b enhanced sensory responsiveness yet had minimal impacts on spontaneous activity, and cck expression induced the opposite effects. Furthermore, hypocretin and nociceptin induced modality-specific differences in responsiveness to changes in illumination. Our study provides the first systematic and high-throughput analysis of neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal, demonstrates that arousal can be partitioned into independent behavioral components, and reveals novel and conserved functions of neuropeptides in regulating arousal. PMID:24573274

Schoppik, David; Shi, Veronica J.; Zimmerman, Steven; Coleman, Haley A.; Greenwood, Joel; Soucy, Edward R.

2014-01-01

150

Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward. PMID:21892693

Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

2012-08-01

151

[The management of perpetrators of sexual violence].  

PubMed

Sexual violence and crimes arouse rejection and hatred in our society. Perpetrators of sexual violence must comply with psychiatric treatment, without necessarily having requested it. Caregivers find it extremely difficult to engage themselves in the management of these patients. This context has favoured the setting up of specific consultations, signalling a potential new area of care. PMID:25095586

Arena, Gabrielle

2014-01-01

152

The role of anxiety in sexual dysfunctions: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies are reviewed which (a) compare anxiety and other measures of psychopathology between normals and dysfunctionals; (b) evaluate the effectiveness of anxiety reduction procedures for treating sexual dysfunctions; and (c) try to identify anxiety-related stimuli that alter sexual arousal. The studies, in general, suggest that (a) anxiety is common among people with sexual dysfunctions, but that the level and nature

G. R. Norton; Derek Jehu

1984-01-01

153

Physiological quantities of naturally occurring steroid hormones (androgens and progestogens), precursors and metabolites in beef of differing sexual origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation gives a comprehensive overview of the naturally occurring steroid hormones, their precursors and\\u000a metabolites in the food-stuff beef. Thus, comparison values have been established using modern analytical techniques for the\\u000a evaluation of the alimentary administration of hormones via beef and for the evaluation of detected residues. The utilization\\u000a of hormone patterns in meat samples enables the sexual

Mathias Hartwig; Sonja Hartmann; Hans Steinhart

1997-01-01

154

Physiological responses to different WEB page designs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological indicators of arousal have long been known to be sensitive to mental events such as positive and negative emotion, changes in attention and changes in workload. It has therefore been suggested that human physiology might be of use in the evaluation of software usability. To this, there are two main approaches or paradigms: (i) comparisons of physiological readings across

Robert D. Ward; Philip H. Marsden

2003-01-01

155

Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-identity while others encode for arousal, we studied infants of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus). Kittens are an excellent model for analysing vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal. They strongly depend on the care of their mother. Thus, the acoustical conveyance of sender-identity and arousal may be important for their survival. Results We recorded calls of 18 kittens in an experimentally-induced separation paradigm, where kittens were spatially separated from their mother and siblings. In the Low arousal condition, infants were just separated without any manipulation. In the High arousal condition infants were handled by the experimenter. Multi-parametric sound analyses revealed that kitten isolation calls are individually distinct and differ between the Low and High arousal conditions. Our results suggested that source- and filter-related parameters are important for encoding sender-identity, whereas time-, source- and tonality-related parameters are important for encoding arousal. Conclusion Comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence for commonalities in non-verbal cues encoding sender-identity and arousal across mammals comparable to paralinguistic cues in humans. This favours the establishment of general concepts for voice recognition and emotions in humans and animals. PMID:23259698

2012-01-01

156

Effects of voice on emotional arousal  

PubMed Central

Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

2013-01-01

157

The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes  

PubMed Central

From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds. PMID:25177264

Maekawa, Fumihiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Kawashima, Takaharu; Nohara, Keiko; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

2014-01-01

158

The human amygdala is sensitive to the valence of pictures and sounds irrespective of arousal: an fMRI study  

PubMed Central

With the advent of studies showing that amygdala responses are not limited to fear-related or highly unpleasant stimuli, studies began to focus on stimulus valence and stimulus-related arousal as predictors of amygdala activity. Recent studies in the chemosensory domain found amygdala activity to increase with the intensity of negative and positive chemosensory stimuli. This has led to the proposal that amygdala activity might be an indicator of emotional arousal, at least in the chemosensory domain. The present study investigated amygdala activity in response to visual and auditory stimuli. By selecting stimuli based on individual valence and arousal ratings, we were able to dissociate stimulus valence and stimulus-related arousal, both on the verbal and the peripheral physiological level. We found that the amygdala was sensitive to stimulus valence even when arousal was controlled for, and that increased amygdala activity was better explained by valence than by arousal. The proposed difference in the relation between amygdala activity and stimulus-related arousal between the chemosensory and the audiovisual domain is discussed in terms of the amygdala's embedding within these sensory systems and the processes by which emotional meaning is derived. PMID:19015115

Eippert, Falk; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Veit, Ralf

2008-01-01

159

The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal  

PubMed Central

Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2009-01-01

160

Gonadal steroids differentially modulate the actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin at a physiologically relevant circuit controlling female sexual receptivity  

PubMed Central

Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) inhibits the activity of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) that regulate female sexual behaviour and energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that gonadal steroids differentially modulate the ability of OFQ/N to inhibit these cells via presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release and postsynaptic activation of G protein-gated, inwardly-rectifying K+ (GIRK)-1 channels. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in hypothalamic slices prepared from ovariectomised rats. OFQ/N (1 ?M) decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), and also caused a robust outward current in the presence of tetrodotoxin, in ARH neurones from vehicle- treated animals. A priming dose of oestradiol benzoate (EB; 2 ?g) increased basal mEPSC frequency, markedly diminished both the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents, and potentiated the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mIPSC frequency. Steroid treatment regimens that facilitate sexual receptivity reinstate the basal mEPSC frequency, the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents to levels observed in vehicle-treated controls, and largely abolish the ability of OFQ/N to decrease mIPSC frequency. These effects were observed in an appreciable population of identified POMC neurones, nearly one-half of which projected to the medial preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these data reveal that gonadal steroids influence the pleiotropic actions of OFQ/N on ARH neurones, including POMC neurones, in a disparate manner. These temporal changes in OFQ/N responsiveness further implicate this neuropeptide system as a critical mediator of the gonadal steroid regulation of reproductive behaviour. PMID:24617903

Borgquist, Amanda; Rivas, Virginia Mela; Kachani, Malika; Sinchak, Kevin; Wagner, Edward J.

2014-01-01

161

The hypocretins: Setting the arousal threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a short period in the late 1990s, three groups converged on the discovery of a neuropeptide system, centred in the dorsolateral hypothalamus, that regulates arousal states, influences feeding and is implicated in the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Subsequent studies have illuminated many aspects of the circuitry of the hypocretin (also called orexin) system, which also influences hormone secretion and autonomic

Luis de Lecea; J. Gregor Sutcliffe

2002-01-01

162

The Effects of Arousal on Cognitive Complexity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous work has demonstrated the importance of Osgood's three semantic dimensions (Evaluation, Potency, Activity) in people's conceptions of various domains. To test the effects of arousal on how individuals use these dimensions, three studies were conducted. In each study, six stimuli from a particular domain were presented in pairs. Subjects…

Paulhus, Delroy L.; Lim, David T. K.

163

An Arousal Model of Interpersonal Intimacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A theoretical model designed to explain and predict reactive changes in the expression of interpersonal intimacy is presented. The model basically proposes that in an interaction, sufficient changes in one person's intimacy behaviors (e.g., interpersonal distance, eye contact, touch) precipitate arousal change in the other person. (Editor)

Patterson, Miles L.

1976-01-01

164

Punishment, arousal, and avoidance learning in sociopaths  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated the relationships among different kinds of punishment, autonomic arousal, subjective anxiety, and avoidance learning in primary sociopaths. 90 male Ss consisting of 30 primary sociopaths (PSs), 30 neurotic sociopaths (NSs), and 30 normal controls (NCs) were selected and assigned, on the basis of 10 from each group, to 1 of 3 punishment conditions: physical punishment (PP shock), tangible punishment

Frank J. Schmauk

1970-01-01

165

Arousal and Merriment as Decision Drivers Among Young Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arousal among young consumers plays a key role in buying decisions. Shopping arousal is largely driven by store attractions, interpersonal influences, self-reference criteria, and comparative gains. Arousal-led retail sales strategies for affordable fashion and entertainment products drive buying decisions of young consumers. Managers of retailing firms need to consider promoting shopping arousal with the advent of one-to-one marketing, media-targeted direct

Rajagopal

2009-01-01

166

Isolated paroxysmal arousals as focal epilepsy.  

PubMed

Paroxysmal motor phenomena and arousals during sleep are frequent. The differential diagnoses between benign hypnic transient events, epileptic and non-epileptic seizures represent a common clinical problem. Video-EEG monitoring during sleep, recording several episodes in the same patient, is essential in order to characterize these phenomena. It offers the possibility to compare electro-clinical data, to demonstrate the eventual stereotyped pattern of motor phenomena and their progression in time, and to study EEG-polygraphic correlates. The recently described double split-screen synchronized display (DSSSD) technique represents a useful tool for comparing particular clinical patterns of epileptic seizures when dealing with complex, hypermotor phenomena observed in frontal lobe epilepsy. We reviewed the data of 24 patients admitted during a two-year period (2002-2003) to our epilepsy sleep unit for isolated paroxysmal sleep motor events. Four patients presented with very brief paroxysmal arousals without daytime fits. Three of our patients presented isolated paroxysmal arousals, whereas in one, the events were associated with hypermotor seizures. We present a simplified variant of the DSSSD method (modified DSSSD) that can be used to study episodes of paroxysmal arousals in order to confirm their stereotyped motor pattern. The clinical aspects and the EEG-polygraphy patterns were informative, with the absence of asymmetrical tonic or dystonic posturing of the limbs. Scalp EEG alone does not usually provide much information in patients with isolated paroxysmal arousals. Coupled to the modified DSSSD technique, it may allow confirmation of the diagnosis of frontal epilepsy, as was the case in our four patients. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:16567325

Valenti, Maria Paola; Froelich, Sébastien; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Thibault, Anne; Chassagnon, Serge; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Hirsch, Edouard

2006-03-01

167

Don't Look down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target…

Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

2009-01-01

168

The Effects of Message Valence and Listener Arousal on Attention, Memory, and Facial Muscular Responses to Radio Advertisements  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the validity of using facial electromyography (EMG) as a physiological measure of the valence of radio listeners' emotional responses to advertisements and explored the effects of message valence and listener arousal on attention and memory. A within-subjects experiment was conducted in which participants listened to ten 60-second radio advertisements that had been coded in a pretest as

PAUL D. BOLLS; ANNIE LANG; ROBERT F. POTTER

2001-01-01

169

Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524

Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

2014-05-01

170

Sex Attracts: Investigating Individual Differences in Attentional Bias to Sexual Stimuli  

PubMed Central

We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

2014-01-01

171

Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.  

PubMed

Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

2014-01-01

172

Managing female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. PMID:24074537

Buster, John E

2013-10-01

173

The Relationship of Arousal During Learning to Short- and Long-Term Retention Employing Two Indices of Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment tested the hypothesis that paired-associate learning accompanied by high arousal should lead to stronger permanent memory and weaker immediate memory than paired-associate learning accompanied by low arousal. During continuous recording of skin resistance and heart rate as measures of arousal, 32 Ss were given a one-trial,…

Lovejoy, Marcia A.; Farley, Frank H.

174

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

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175

Sexual Health  

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... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Tampons, Pads, ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Testicular Exams ...

176

Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias  

PubMed Central

Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Sz?cs, Anna

2012-01-01

177

Synaesthesia and sexuality: the influence of synaesthetic perceptions on sexual experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which a certain stimulus induces a concurrent sensory perception; it has an estimated prevalence of 4%. Sexual arousal as an inducer for synaesthetic perceptions is rarely mentioned in the literature but can be found sometimes in case reports about subjective orgasmic experiences. Aims: To examine whether synaesthetic perceptions during sexual intercourse have an impact on the sexual experience and the extent of sexual trance compared to non-synaesthetes. Methods: In total, 19 synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia (17 female; 2 male) were included as well as corresponding control data of 36 non-synaesthetic subjects (n = 55). Two questionnaires were used to assess relevant aspects of sexual function and dysfunction (a German adaption of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning, KFSP) as well as the occurrence and extent of sexual trance (German version of the Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire, OAVAV). Additionally qualitative interviews were conducted in some subjects to further explore the nature of sexual experiences in synaesthetes. Main Outcome Measures: Sexual experience and extent of sexual trance during intercourse. Results: Synaesthetes depicted significantly better overall sexual function on the KFSP with increased scores for the subscale “sexual appetence” but coevally significant lower subscale scores for “sexual satisfaction.” Sexual dysfunction was not detected in this sample. Synaesthetes depicted significantly higher levels of the subscales “oceanic boundlessness” and “visionary restructuralization” than controls using the OAVAV. Qualitative interviews revealed varying synaesthetic perceptions during the different states of arousal. Furthermore, synaesthetes reported an unsatisfactory feeling of isolation caused by the idiosyncratic perceptions. Conclusions: Synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia seem to experience a deeper state of sexual trance without, however, enhanced satisfaction during sexual intercourse. PMID:24137152

Nielsen, Janina; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.; Hartmann, Uwe; Passie, Torsten; Fehr, Thorsten; Zedler, Markus

2013-01-01

178

Acculturation and sexual function in Asian women.  

PubMed

Cultural effects on sexuality are pervasive and potentially of great clinical importance, but have not yet received sustained empirical attention. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of acculturation on sexual permissiveness and sexual function, with a particular focus on arousal in Asian women living in Canada. We also compared questionnaire responses between Asian and Euro-Canadian groups in hopes of investigating whether acculturation captured unique information not predicted by ethnic group affiliation. Euro-Canadian (n = 173) and Asian (n = 176) female university students completed a battery of questionnaires in private. Euro-Canadian women had significantly more sexual knowledge and experiences, more liberal attitudes, and higher rates of desire, arousal, sexual receptivity, and sexual pleasure. Anxiety from anticipated sexual activity was significantly higher in Asian women, but the groups did not differ significantly on relationship satisfaction or problems with sexual function. Acculturation to Western culture, as well as maintained affiliation with traditional Asian heritage, were both significantly and independently related to sexual attitudes above and beyond length of residency in Canada, and beyond ethnic group comparisons. Overall, these data suggest that measurement of acculturation may capture information about an individual's unique acculturation pattern that is not evident when focusing solely on ethnic group comparisons or length of residency, and that such findings may be important in facilitating the assessment, classification, and treatment of sexual difficulties in Asian women. PMID:16362246

Brotto, Lori A; Chik, Heather M; Ryder, Andrew G; Gorzalka, Boris B; Seal, Brooke N

2005-12-01

179

Hormonal aspects of sexual dysfunction: The therapeutic use of exogenous androgens in men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hormones exert a pervasive influence on sexual activity. Androgens are involved in the initiation and maintenance of libido\\u000a and spontaneous arousal. In recent years, the clinical use of exogenous androgens for treatment of sexual dysfunction has\\u000a received a great deal of attention. Good evidence exists that such treatment is effective for arousal difficulties in men\\u000a and women in the setting

Stuart N. Seidman

2000-01-01

180

Sexual Complaints, Pelvic Floor Symptoms, and Sexual Distress in Women over Forty  

PubMed Central

Introduction The American Psychiatric Association recommends considering sexually related personal distress when assessing female sexual dysfunction. Currently, there is little data regarding the impact of sexual complaints on sexual distress. Aim To investigate the association between sexual complaints and perceived sexual distress in a population of ambulatory adult women. Methods Using the short forms of the Personal Experiences Questionnaire and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire, we assessed sexual complaints among 305 women seeking outpatient gynecologic care. Depressive symptoms were quantified using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CESD) score. Sexual distress was measured using the Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS). Using multivariable logistic regression, we compared sexual complaints between distressed and nondistressed women. Main Outcome Measures Sexual distress, defined by FSDS score ?15. Results FSDS scores were available for 292/305 participants. Seventy-six (26%) scores reflected distress. Distressed women were more likely to be younger (55.2 ± 1.0 years vs. 56.7 ± 0.8 years, P = 0.017); have higher CESD scores (16.6 vs. 9.5, P = 0.001); and report decreased arousal (56.8% vs. 25.1%, P = 0.001), infrequent orgasm (54% vs. 28.8%, P = 0.001), and dyspareunia (39.7% vs. 10.6%, P = 0.001). Women with sexual distress were also more likely to report sexual difficulty related to pelvic floor symptoms, including urinary incontinence with sexual activity (9% vs. 1.3%, P = 0.005), sexual avoidance due to vaginal prolapse (13.9% vs. 1%, P = 0.001), or sexual activity restriction due to fear of urinary incontinence (14.9% vs. 0.5%, P = 0.001). After multivariate analysis, sexual distress was significantly associated with dyspareunia (odds ratio [OR] 3.11, P = 0.008) and depression score (OR 1.05, P = 0.006), and inversely associated with feelings of arousal during sex (OR 0.19, P = 0.001). Conclusion Our results indicate that sexually related personal distress is significantly associated with dyspareunia, depressive symptoms, and decreased arousal during sexual activity. This contributes to our understanding of how sexual complaints may adversely affect women’s quality of life. PMID:20704643

Knoepp, Leise R.; Shippey, Stuart H.; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace; Cundiff, Geoffrey W.; Derogatis, Leonard R.; Handa, Victoria L.

2011-01-01

181

[The stress effect in the prenatal period on sexual excitation and sexual orientation of the mice males].  

PubMed

Estrus female behind holed transparent partition produced sexual motivation and sexual arousal in males. It was manifested in behavioral changes (an increase in time spent near the partition) and the testosterone level augmentation in blood. Female mice were exposed to stress (1 h/day restraint) in the last week of gestation. Prenatal stress was shown to decrease the blood corticosterone level as well as to diminish sexual motivation and sexual arousal in adult male mice. Estrus female exposure produced a lesser behavioral response and a lesser testosterone level augmentation. No changes in weight of testicles, seminal vesicles or adrenal glands were found, but preputial gland weight increased. In prenatally stressed males, a female preference decrease and a male preference increase were revealed in the partner preference test. These data suggest that prenatal stress decreases sexual motivation in males and leads to clear predisposition to homosexuality, although it does not produce complete inversion of sexual orientation. PMID:16613063

Kuznetsova, E G; Amstislavskaia, T G; Bulygina, V V; Popova, N K

2006-01-01

182

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

183

Ecstasy and Sex Among Young Heterosexual Women: A Qualitative Analysis of Sensuality, Sexual Effects, and Sexual Risk Taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) Ecstasy has been shown to heighten senses, feelings of intimacy, and communication. This study addresses sensual and sexual responses to Ecstasy and the potential for risky sexual behavior. Qualitative data from 41 heterosexual female Ecstasy users in New York City (ages 18–29) were analyzed. Women reported both heightened sexual (e.g., desire, arousal, orgasmic intensity) and sensual (e.g., deep

Kristine E. P. Kennedy; Christian Grov; Jeffrey T. Parsons

2010-01-01

184

[Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].  

PubMed

Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal. PMID:24535769

Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabriëls, L

2014-01-01

185

Theory and evidence bearing on a Scale of Trait Arousability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trait Arousability is defined, in part, by strength of arousal response to sudden increases in complexity, variation, novelty,\\u000a and\\/or unexpectedness of stimuli. The Trait Arousability Scale related positively to increases in diastolic pressure when\\u000a angered, to heart disease, incidence of illnesses, conditioned aversions, avoidance of social contacts in high-density dormitories,\\u000a dissatisfaction and lowered performance in high density workplaces, recall of

Albert Mehrabian

1995-01-01

186

Neural and hormonal mechanisms of reproductive-related arousal in fishes  

PubMed Central

The major classes of chemicals and brain pathways involved in sexual arousal in mammals are well studied and are thought to be of an ancient, evolutionarily conserved origin. Here we discuss what is known of these neurochemicals and brain circuits in fishes, the oldest and most species-rich group of vertebrates from which tetrapods arose over 200 million years ago. Highlighted are case studies in vocal species where well-delineated sensory and motor pathways underlying reproductive-related behaviors illustrate the diversity and evolution of brain mechanisms driving sexual motivation between (and within) sexes. Also discussed are evolutionary insights from the neurobiology and reproductive behavior of elasmobranch fishes, the most ancient lineage of jawed vertebrates, which are remarkably similar in their reproductive biology to terrestrial mammals. PMID:20950618

Forlano, Paul M.; Bass, Andrew H.

2010-01-01

187

Validation of the Sexual Excitation\\/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current investigation was to develop a scale that would assess propensity for sexual arousal in response\\u000a to a broad range of stimuli and sexual situations in both men and women. In Study 1, data from a nonclinical sample of 481\\u000a male and female students (graduate and undergraduate) were submitted to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in

Robin R. Milhausen; Cynthia A. Graham; Stephanie A. Sanders; William L. Yarber; Scott B. Maitland

2010-01-01

188

"Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

Ashcraft, Catherine

2006-01-01

189

The control of deviant sexual behavior by drugs: A double-blind controlled study of benperidol, chlorpromazine, and placebo  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for assessing the effect of drugs on sexual drive and arousability has been developed and used to compare the effect of a butyrephenone, benperidol, with chlorpromazine and placebo. Measures of change used included sexual behavior ratings, self-ratings of frequency of sexual thoughts, semantic differential ratings, and penile erections to erotic fantasy, slides, and film. The study involved 12

Gavin Tennent; John Bancroft; James Cass

1974-01-01

190

Kidney proteome changes provide evidence for a dynamic metabolism and regional redistribution of plasma proteins during torpor-arousal cycles of hibernation  

PubMed Central

Hibernating ground squirrels maintain homeostasis despite extreme physiological challenges. In winter, these circannual hibernators fast for months while cycling between prolonged periods of low blood flow and body temperature, known as torpor, and short interbout arousals (IBA), where more typical mammalian parameters are rapidly restored. Here we examined the kidney proteome for changes that support the dramatically different physiological demands of the hibernator's year. We identified proteins in 150 two-dimensional gel spots that altered by at least 1.5-fold using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. These data successfully classified individuals by physiological state and revealed three dynamic patterns of relative protein abundance that dominated the hibernating kidney: 1) a large group of proteins generally involved with capturing and storing energy were most abundant in summer; 2) a select subset of these also increased during each arousal from torpor; and 3) 14 spots increased in torpor and early arousal were enriched for plasma proteins that enter cells via the endocytic pathway. Immunohistochemistry identified ?2-macroglobulin and albumin in kidney blood vessels during late torpor and early arousal; both exhibited regional heterogeneity consistent with highly localized control of blood flow in the glomeruli. Furthermore, albumin, but not ?2-macroglobulin, was detected in the proximal tubules during torpor and early arousal but not in IBA or summer animals. Taken together, our findings indicate that normal glomerular filtration barriers remain intact throughout torpor-arousal cycles but endocytosis, and hence renal function, is compromised at low body temperature during torpor and then recovers with rewarming during arousal. PMID:22643061

Jani, Alkesh; Orlicky, David J.; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Russell, Rae L.; Hunter, Lawrence E.

2012-01-01

191

J Sex Med 2006;3:628638 2006 International Society for Sexual Medicine Blackwell Publishing IncMalden, USAJSMJournal of Sexual Medicine1743-6095 2006 International Society for Sexual Medicine200634628638Original ArticleBremelanotide Treatment of Women wi  

E-print Network

200634628638Original ArticleBremelanotide Treatment of Women with Sexual DisorderDiamond et al. ORIGINAL with Sexual Arousal Disorder by Bremelanotide (PT-141), a Melanocortin Receptor Agonist Lisa E. Diamond, Ph is a synthetic peptide melanocortin analog of -melanocyte-stimulating hormone that is an agonist at melanocortin

192

Memory Performance After Arousal from Different Sleep Stages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning material was presented to independent groups of subjects either after arousal from non-Rapid Eye Movement (non-REM) sleep, after arousal from REM sleep, or under conditions of no prior sleep. Measures of immediate and subsequent free recall were taken. (Editor)

Stones, M. J.

1977-01-01

193

Tuning arousal with optogenetic modulation of locus coeruleus neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural activity in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus correlates with periods of wakefulness and arousal. However, it is unclear whether tonic or phasic activity in these neurons is necessary or sufficient to induce transitions between behavioral states and to promote long-term arousal. Using optogenetic tools in mice, we found that there is a frequency-dependent, causal relationship among locus coeruleus firing, cortical

Matthew E Carter; Ofer Yizhar; Sachiko Chikahisa; Hieu Nguyen; Antoine Adamantidis; Seiji Nishino; Karl Deisseroth; Luis de Lecea

2010-01-01

194

Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

195

Autonomic arousal and experimentally induced pain: A critical review of the literature  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Autonomic arousal frequently is assumed to be a component of the pain response, perhaps because physiological mechanisms connecting pain and autonomic reactivity can be easily conceptualized. The evidence clarifying autonomic responses specific to painful stimulation, however, has been rather sporadic and lacks coherence; thus, a summary and critical review is needed in this area. OBJECTIVES: To summarize and integrate findings from 39 experimental investigations from 1970 to 2012 of pain-induced autonomic arousal in humans. METHODS: Medline and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant articles. References from these articles were also considered for review. RESULTS: Painful stimuli increase respiration rate, induce muscle tension, intensify electrodermal activity and dilate the pupils. Cardiovascular activity also increases, but the pattern displayed in response to pain is complex; peripheral vasoconstriction and sympathetically mediated cardiac responses are most typical. Additionally, autonomic expression of pain shows inconsistent relations with verbal and overt motor responses. CONCLUSIONS: Autonomic arousal can be legitimately measured and modified as one facet of the pain response. Future research should particularly focus on increasing sample size and broadening the diversity of participants. To improve the ability to compare and contrast findings across studies, as well as to increase the applicability of laboratory findings to naturalistic pain, investigators also must enhance experimental design by increasing uniformity or accounting for differences in methodology. Finally, further work remains to utilize more specific assessments of autonomic response and to assess relationships of autonomic reactivity with other cognitive (eg, attention) and affective (eg, anxiety) variables. PMID:24533429

Kyle, Brandon N; McNeil, Daniel W

2014-01-01

196

Aging and sexuality.  

PubMed Central

Recent research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. In men, greater physical stimulation is required to attain and maintain erections, and orgasms are less intense. In women, menopause terminates fertility and produces changes stemming from estrogen deficiency. The extent to which aging affects sexual function depends largely on psychological, pharmacological, and illness-related factors. In this article I review the physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women. I also summarize the effects on sexual function of age-related psychological issues, illness factors, and medication use. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany normal aging may help physicians give patients realistic and encouraging advice on sexuality. Although it is important that older men and women not fall into the psychosocial trap of expecting (or worse, trying to force) the kind and degree of sexual response characteristic of their youth, it is equally as important that they not fall prey to the negative folklore according to which decreased physical intimacy is an inevitable consequence of the passage of time. PMID:9348761

Meston, C M

1997-01-01

197

Usefulness of arousal for the diagnosis of sleep breathing disorder.  

PubMed

We hypothesize that breathing disorder related arousal index (B-ArI) can differentiate sleep breathing disorder from simple snorer when apnea hypopnea index (AHI) is low. We studied 54 patients using polysomnography. Breathing disorder related arousal (B-Ar) was defined as arousal accompanied by apnea, hypopnea, desaturation or snort. Mean AHI was 44.2+/-34.0/h, and B-ArI correlated significantly with AHI, desaturation index, percentage total sleep time with SpO2 below 90%. Breathing disorder related arousal index was greater than AHI when AHI was below 20. In 11/54 patients, AHI was below 10, and B-ArI more than 10. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure was applied to six patients and showed reduced B-ArI. Breathing disorder related arousal index may be one of the useful indices for the diagnosis of sleep breathing disorder when AHI is less than 10. PMID:9628157

Yamashiro, Y; Suganuma, Y; Hosaka, K; Uchida, K

1998-04-01

198

Sexual Assault  

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... for Patients Share This Page: Sexual Assault Resources Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American ... National Network at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). Sexual Assault Examinations It is important to know that a ...

199

Extinction and Renewal of Conditioned Sexual Responses  

PubMed Central

Introduction Extinction involves an inhibitory form of new learning that is highly dependent on the context for expression. This is supported by phenomena such as renewal and spontaneous recovery, which may help explain the persistence of appetitive behavior, and related problems such as addictions. Research on these phenomena in the sexual domain is lacking, where it may help to explain the persistence of learned sexual responses. Method Men (n?=?40) and women (n?=?62) participated in a differential conditioning paradigm, with genital vibrotactile stimulation as US and neutral pictures as conditional stimuli (CSs). Dependent variables were genital and subjective sexual arousal, affect, US expectancy, and approach and avoid tendencies towards the CSs. Extinction and renewal of conditioned sexual responses were studied by context manipulation (AAA vs. ABA condition). Results No renewal effect of genital conditioned responding could be detected, but an obvious recovery of US expectancy following a context change after extinction (ABA) was demonstrated. Additionally, women demonstrated recovery of subjective affect and subjective sexual arousal. Participants in the ABA demonstrated more approach biases towards stimuli. Conclusions The findings support the context dependency of extinction and renewal of conditioned sexual responses in humans. This knowledge may have implications for the treatment of disturbances in sexual appetitive responses such as hypo- and hypersexuality. PMID:25170909

Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Both, Stephanie

2014-01-01

200

Sexual sadism: avoiding its misuse in sexually violent predator evaluations.  

PubMed

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Task Force has recently rejected the proposal to include coercive paraphilia as an official diagnosis, reaffirming that rape is a crime and not a mental disorder. We hope this will discourage what has been the inappropriate practice of giving rapists the made-up diagnosis of paraphilia, NOS, nonconsent, to facilitate their psychiatric commitment under sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes. Losing the paraphilia, NOS, option has tempted some SVP evaluators to overdiagnose sexual sadism, which is an official DSM mental disorder. To prevent this improper application and to clarify those rare instances in which this diagnosis might apply, we present a brief review of the research on sexual sadism; an annotation of its definitions that have been included in the DSM since the Third Edition, published in 1980, and in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10); and a two-step process for making a diagnostic decision. Rape and sexual sadism have in common violence, cruelty, and a callous indifference on the part of the perpetrator to the suffering of the victim, but they differ markedly in motivation. Rapists use violence to enforce the victim's cooperation, to express aggression, or both. In contrast, in sexual sadism, the violence, domination, and infliction of pain and humiliation are a preferred or necessary precondition for sexual arousal. Only a small proportion of rapists qualify for the diagnosis of sexual sadism. PMID:22960924

Frances, Allen; Wollert, Richard

2012-01-01

201

Elevated arousal at time of decision-making is not the arbiter of risk avoidance in chickens  

PubMed Central

The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that humans recall previously experienced physiological responses to aid decision-making under uncertainty. However, little is known about the mechanisms used by non-human animals to integrate risk perception with predicted gains and losses. We monitored the behaviour and physiology of chickens when the choice between a high-gain (large food quantity), high-risk (1 in 4 probability of receiving an air-puff) option (HGRAP) or a low-gain (small food quantity), no-risk (of an air-puff) (LGNAP) option. We assessed when arousal increased by considering different stages of the decision-making process (baseline, viewing, anticipation, reward periods) and investigated whether autonomic responses influenced choice outcome both immediately and in the subsequent trial. Chickens were faster to choose and their heart-rate significantly increased between the viewing and anticipation (post-decision, pre-outcome) periods when selecting the HGRAP option. This suggests that they responded physiologically to the impending risk. Additionally, arousal was greater following a HGRAP choice that resulted in an air-puff, but this did not deter chickens from subsequently choosing HGRAP. In contrast to human studies, we did not find evidence that somatic markers were activated during the viewing period, suggesting that arousal is not a good measure of avoidance in non-human animals. PMID:25643655

Davies, A. C.; Radford, A. N.; Pettersson, I. C.; Yang, F. P.; Nicol, C. J.

2015-01-01

202

Emotion and language: valence and arousal affect word recognition.  

PubMed

Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted U, or interactive with arousal. In the present study, we used a sample of 12,658 words and included many lexical and semantic control factors to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

Kuperman, Victor; Estes, Zachary; Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

2014-06-01

203

Sexual Desire Disorders  

PubMed Central

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

Montgomery, Keith A.

2008-01-01

204

Fos expression at the cerebellum following non-contact arousal and mating behavior in male rats  

PubMed Central

The cerebellum is considered a center underlying fine movements, cognition, memory and sexual responses. The latter feature led us to correlate sexual arousal and copulation in male rats with neural activity at the cerebellar cortex. Two behavioral paradigms were used in this investigation: the stimulation of males by distant receptive females (non-contact sexual stimulation), and the execution of up to three consecutive ejaculations. The vermis area of the cerebellum was removed following behavioral experiments, cut into sagittal sections, and analyzed with Fos immunohistochemistry to determine neuronal activation. At the mid-vermis region (sections from the midline to 0.1 mm laterally), non-contact stimulation significantly increased the activity of granule neurons. The number of activated cells increased in every lobule, but lobules 1 and 6 to 9 showed the greatest increment. In sexual behavior tests, males reaching one ejaculation had a high number of activated neurons similar to those counted after non-contact stimulation. However, two or three consecutive ejaculations showed a smaller number of Fos-ir cells. In contrast to the mid-vermis region, sections farthest from the midline (0.1 to 0.9 mm laterally) revealed that only lobule 7 expressed activated neurons. These data suggest that a well-delineated group of granule neurons have a sexual biphasic response at the cerebellar vermis, and that Fos in them is under an active degradation mechanism. Thus, they participate as a neural substrate for male rat sexual responses with an activation-deactivation process corresponding with the sensory stimulation and motor performance occurring during copulation. PMID:17936859

Manzo, Jorge; Miquel, Marta; Toledo, Rebeca; Mayor-Mar, Justo Abraham; Garcia, Luis I.; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E.; Caba, Mario; Hernandez, Maria Elena

2010-01-01

205

Group mindfulness-based therapy significantly improves sexual desire in women.  

PubMed

At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction. PMID:24814472

Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary

2014-06-01

206

Conscious processing of sexual information: mechanisms of appraisal.  

PubMed

To elucidate some of the activational mechanisms of sexual response, this study investigated the effects of conscious appraisal of sexual and neutral stimuli on a categorization task and on ratings of sexual arousal. Conscious appraisal is dependent on memory, regulatory, and attentional processes, interacting with one another. It is proposed that regulation is activated by attention, furnished by representations from implicit and explicit memory. Participants (26 men and 25 women) were asked to respond to "target" stimuli that were preceded by supraliminal "prime" stimuli. Primes and targets were operationalized by slides with sexual (i.e., romantic vs. explicit) and neutral content. In a cognitive task, participants had to group randomly presented targets as quickly as possible into sexual and nonsexual categories. Categorization of sexual targets was delayed when they were preceded by sexual primes compared to neutral primes. This was interpreted as an inhibitory process and compared with the Sexual Content-Induced Delay phenomenon (J. H. Geer & H. S. Bellard, 1996; J. H. Geer & J. S. Melton, 1997). No gender difference was found. In a subsequent affective task, participants provided an assessment of sexual arousal, followed by an evaluation of the target. This task was hypothesized to result in differential access to memory, where assessments of sexual arousal are influenced mainly by implicit memory, and where evaluations are influenced mainly by explicit memory. Gender differences were most prominent in the evaluation aspect of this task. It was concluded that cognitive processing of sexual information is similar for both genders, but that gender differences are present in affective processing of sexual information. PMID:15162083

Spiering, Mark; Everaerd, Walter; Laan, Ellen

2004-08-01

207

Arousal-biased competition in perception and memory  

PubMed Central

Our everyday surroundings besiege us with information. The battle is for a share of our limited attention and memory, with the brain selecting the winners and discarding the losers. Previous research shows that both bottom-up and top-down factors bias competition in favor of high priority stimuli. We propose that arousal during an event increases this bias both in perception and in long-term memory of the event. Arousal-biased competition theory provides specific predictions about when arousal will enhance and when it will impair memory for events, accounting for some puzzling contradictions in the emotional memory literature. PMID:21660127

Mather, Mara; Sutherland, Matthew R.

2010-01-01

208

The Importance of Individual Differences in Pornography Use: Theoretical Perspectives and Implications for Treating Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the extant literature regarding pornography's influence on antisocial attitudes, sexual arousal, and sexually aggressive behavior in both noncriminal and criminal samples. The article concludes that when examined in the context of multiple, interacting factors, the findings are highly consistent across experimental and nonexperimental studies and across differing populations in showing that pornography use can be a risk

Drew A. Kingston; Neil M. Malamuth; Paul Fedoroff; William L. Marshall

2009-01-01

209

Body concerns in and out of the bedroom: implications for sexual pleasure and problems.  

PubMed

Objectification theory (Fredrickson B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206) proposes that body image concerns impair sexual function and satisfaction. The present study was designed to test whether body shame was related to sexual problems and pleasure among heterosexual men and women (N = 320). Using structural equation modeling, we tested whether adult men and women's body shame was linked to greater sexual problems (lower sexual arousability and ability to reach orgasm) and less pleasure from physical intimacy. Although women were significantly more likely to report appearance concerns than men across sexual and non-sexual contexts, appearance concerns were positively related to both men and women's sexual problems. The relationship between body shame and sexual pleasure and problems was mediated by sexual self-consciousness during physical intimacy. Men and women's body shame was related to greater sexual self-consciousness, which in turn predicted lower sexual pleasure and sexual arousability. Results persisted controlling for relationship status and age. Being in a relationship was associated with less sexual self-consciousness and less orgasm difficulty for men and women. Although some paths were significantly stronger for women than for men, results largely supported the proposition that body concerns negatively affect sexual pleasure and promote sexual problems for both men and women. Findings were discussed in terms of objectification theory and the increased cultural emphasis on physical appearance. PMID:17657464

Sanchez, Diana T; Kiefer, Amy K

2007-12-01

210

Frequent Arousals from Winter Torpor in Rafinesque’s Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)  

PubMed Central

Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n?=?86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

Johnson, Joseph S.; Lacki, Michael J.; Thomas, Steven C.; Grider, John F.

2012-01-01

211

Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).  

PubMed

Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n=86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

2012-01-01

212

Personal Mastery is Associated with Reduced Sympathetic Arousal in Stressed Alzheimer Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Spousal caregivers of Alzheimer’s Disease patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, possibly via sympathetic response to stressors and subsequent catecholamine surge. Personal mastery (i.e., belief that one can manage life’s obstacles) may decrease psychological and physiological response to stressors. This study examines the relationship between mastery and sympathetic arousal in elderly caregivers, as measured by norepinephrine reactivity to an acute psychological stressor. Design Following assessment for mastery and objective caregiving stressors, caregivers underwent an experimental speech task designed to induce sympathetic arousal. Setting Data was collected by a research nurse in each caregiver’s home. Participants Sixty-nine elderly spousal Alzheimer caregivers (mean age = 72.8 years) who were not taking ?-blocking medication. Intervention Participants delivered a brief speech in response to vignettes depicting stressful situations. Measurements Mastery was assessed using Pearlin’s Personal Mastery scale and Alzheimer patient functioning was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Problem Behaviors Scale, and Activities of Daily Living Scale. Plasma norepinephrine assays were conducted using pre- and post-speech blood draws. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that mastery was significantly and negatively associated with norepinephrine reactivity (B = ?9.86, t(61) = ?2.03, p = .046) independent of factors theoretically and empirically linked to norepinephrine reactivity. Conclusions Caregivers with higher mastery had less norepinephrine reactivity to the stressor task. Mastery may exert a protective influence that mitigates the physiological effects of acute stress, and may be an important target for psychosocial interventions in order to reduce sympathetic arousal and cardiovascular stress among dementia caregivers. PMID:18378556

Roepke, Susan K.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Ziegler, Michael G.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Mills, Paul J.; Känel, Roland von; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Patterson, Thomas L.; Grant, Igor

2009-01-01

213

Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 32, No. 3, June 2003, pp. 243251 ( C 2003) Selecting Films for Sex Research: Gender Differences  

E-print Network

for Sex Research: Gender Differences in Erotic Film Preference Erick Janssen, Ph.D.,1,2,4 Deanna Carpenter; accepted December 3, 2002 The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in sexual responsiveness arousing than did the women. Gender differences in arousal were negligible for female- selected clips

214

Sexual Functioning among Married Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain factors re- lated to sexual functioning in 300 PCOS patients attending to the private practice centers in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran, from May to October 2012. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to measure sexual functioning. Moreover, the socio-demo-graphic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity, hirsutism, acne, mestrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile were recorded for each patient. Results Overall the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was 16.6%. In particular patients indicated poorer sexual functioning for the desire (48.3%) and the arousal (44.7%) subscales. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested patients with lower educational level (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.46-5.92) and irregular menstrual status (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.93-11) were more likely to report sexual dysfunction. Conclusion The findings suggest that desire and arousal were the most prevalent sexual disorders reported in this patient population. In addition, findings suggested that women with limited or no formal education and a history of menstrual irregularities were the most likely to report female sexual dysfunction. Further investigations are needed to examine female sexual functioning among women with PCOS, to educate their health care providers, and to develop therapeutic interventions. PMID:25379156

Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

2014-01-01

215

The Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX): reliability and validity.  

PubMed

Although sexual dysfunction is common in psychiatric patients, quantification of sexual dysfunction is limited by the paucity of validated, user-friendly scales. In order to address this problem, the authors have developed the Arizona Sexual Experiences Scale (ASEX), a five-item rating scale that quantifies sex drive, arousal, vaginal lubrication/penile erection, ability to reach orgasm, and satisfaction from orgasm. Possible total scores range from 5 to 30, with the higher scores indicating more sexual dysfunction. This study assesses the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity of the ASEX. PMID:10693114

McGahuey, C A; Gelenberg, A J; Laukes, C A; Moreno, F A; Delgado, P L; McKnight, K M; Manber, R

2000-01-01

216

Immunological arousal during acute Q fever infection.  

PubMed

Physicians often encounter patients who present with a vague clinical syndrome. A wide serological workup is often ordered, which may include tests for Coxiella burnetii in endemic areas. Often, the results of these tests pose new dilemma, with overlapping positive laboratory assays. The objective of this investigation was to characterise the serological overlap between acute Q fever and other infectious and immunological diseases. We retrospectively scanned the files of patients with a positive or equivocal immunoglobulin (Ig) M for C. burnetii phase II over a period of 8 years in a general hospital. Clinical and laboratory data, including antibodies to infectious agents and antibodies related to immunological states, were recorded. Anti-nuclear antibody (ANA), smooth muscle antibody (SMA) and rheumatoid factor were positive in 38%, 33.3% and 22.2% of the cases, respectively. In patients with acute Q fever, elevated IgM levels for Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Mycoplasma pneumoniae, parvovirus, Bordetella pertussis, Rickettsia conorii and R. typhi were noted in 13.8%, 8.3%, 12.12%, 22.2%, 25%, 13% and 21.7% of cases, respectively. Acute Q fever induces a non-specific immunological arousal in a significant number of patients. This may interfere with diagnosis and delay treatment. Caution, clinical judgment and serological follow-up is warranted in such conditions. PMID:21509477

Vardi, M; Petersil, N; Keysary, A; Rzotkiewicz, S; Laor, A; Bitterman, H

2011-12-01

217

Addiction and arousal: the hypocretin connection  

PubMed Central

The hypocretins, also known as orexins, are two neuropeptides now commonly described as critical components to maintain and regulate the stability of arousal. Several lines of evidence have raised the hypothesis that hypocretin-producing neurons are part of the circuitries that mediate the hypothalamic response to acute stress. Intracerebral administration of hypocretin leads to a dose related reinstatement of drug and food seeking behaviors. Furthermore, stress-induced reinstatement can be blocked with hypocretin receptor 1 antagonism. These results, together with recent data showing that hypocretin is critically involved in cocaine sensitization through the recruitment of NMDA receptors in the ventral tegmental area, strongly suggest that activation of hypocretin neurons play a critical role in the development of the addiction process. The activity of hypocretin neurons may affect addictive behavior by contributing to brain sensitization or by modulating the brain reward system. Hypocretinergic cells, in coordination with brain stress systems may lead to a vulnerable state that facilitates the resumption of drug seeking behavior. Hence, the hypocretinergic system is a new drug target that may be used to prevent relapse of drug seeking. PMID:18262574

Boutrel, Benjamin; de Lecea, Luis

2015-01-01

218

Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R)  

PubMed Central

Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This paper presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1983) produced 8 factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22963331

Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Mustanski, Brian

2013-01-01

219

Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers  

PubMed Central

The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

Serfas, Benjamin G.; Büttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

2014-01-01

220

Psychological Bulletin The Relation Between Valence and Arousal in Subjective  

E-print Network

aspect of mind. As early as 1897, Wilhelm Wundt wrote that people are likely "never in a state entirely--are related to one another in subjective experience. Valence and Arousal Wundt (1912/1924) was among the first

Barrett, Lisa Feldman

221

Arousal and Retention in Paired-Associate, Serial, and Free Learning. Technical Report No. 91.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In three experiments employing 60 Ss, arousal was manipulated by white noise during paired-associate, serial, and free learning in an effort to investigate the relationships of arousal and long-term recall. Previous research suggested that high arousal in the paired-associate paradigm leads to better retention relative to low arousal. The present…

Haveman, Jacqueline E.; Farley, Frank H.

222

Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP) component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli). Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content) spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing. PMID:23801973

Paulmann, Silke; Bleichner, Martin; Kotz, Sonja A

2013-01-01

223

Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing  

PubMed Central

Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP) component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli). Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content) spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing. PMID:23801973

Paulmann, Silke; Bleichner, Martin; Kotz, Sonja A.

2013-01-01

224

Neural Correlates of Erotic Stimulation under Different Levels of Female Sexual Hormones  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation. PMID:23418428

Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

2013-01-01

225

Smoking is Unrelated to Female Sexual Function.  

PubMed

Background. Previous research shows that smoking status is unrelated to female sexual difficulties. However, degree of nicotine dependence has not been measured, and the assessment of sexual functioning has not specified penile-vaginal intercourse (henceforth, intercourse), which is more clearly impaired by sexual difficulties than other sexual behaviors. Objectives. To test if smoking status is associated with poorer female sexual function during intercourse, and if nicotine dependence rather than smoking status is related to poorer female sexual function. Methods. During 2012, 129 Portuguese community women reported their smoking status, and completed the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and an adaptation of the FSFI to assess sexual functioning specifically during intercourse, as well as the desire thereof. Results. Smokers reported higher desire for intercourse and were more likely to have actually engaged in it in the past 4 weeks. Among the coitally active women in the preceding 4 weeks, nicotine dependence correlated with lower desire for intercourse. Smoking status and nicotine dependence were unrelated to arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain. Conclusions. The findings are consistent with many studies that fail to demonstrate an increased risk of sexual difficulties among female smokers. However, nicotine dependence, rather than smoking status per se, might be associated with lower libido. The results suggest the possibility of an inverse U-shaped relationship between smoking and libido with a moderate use of tobacco being associated with higher sexual desire. PMID:25290661

Costa, Rui Miguel; Peres, Luís

2015-01-28

226

Sexual Activity and Satisfaction in Healthy Community-dwelling Older Women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Female sexual dysfunction is a focus of medical research but few studies describe the prevalence and covariates of recent sexual activity and satisfaction in older community-dwelling women. METHODS 1303 older women from the Rancho Bernardo Study were mailed a questionnaire on general health, recent sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS 806 of 921 respondents (87.5%) age ?40 years answered questions about recent sexual activity. Their median age was 67; mean years since menopause, 25; most were upper-middle class; 57% had attended at least one year of college; 90% reported good to excellent health. Half (49.8%) reported sexual activity within the past month with or without a partner, the majority of whom reported arousal (64.5%), lubrication (69%), and orgasm (67.1%) at least most of the time, although one-third reported low, very low, or no sexual desire. Although frequency of arousal, lubrication, and orgasm decrease with age, the youngest (<55 yrs) and oldest (>80 yrs) women reported a higher frequency of orgasm satisfaction. Emotional closeness during sex was associated with more frequent arousal, lubrication, and orgasm; estrogen therapy was not. Overall, two-thirds of sexually active women were moderately or very satisfied with their sex life, as were almost half of sexually inactive women. CONCLUSION Half these women were sexually active, with arousal, lubrication, and orgasm maintained into old age, despite low libido in one-third. Sexual satisfaction increased with age and did not require sexual activity. PMID:22195529

Trompeter, Susan E.; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

227

ORIGINAL PAPER Women's Sexual Responses to Heterosexual and Lesbian Erotica  

E-print Network

, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 123 Arch Sex Behav (2010) 39 March 2008 / Revised: 11 August 2009 / Accepted: 11 August 2009 / Published online: 24 October 2009 Ã? a nonspecific pattern of sexual arous- al that is quite different from men's category-specific pat- tern

228

Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds: effects on physiological variables  

PubMed Central

Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-min intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly) due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent. PMID:23801957

Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Wouwe, Nelleke; Mühl, Christian; van Erp, Jan; Toet, Alexander

2013-01-01

229

Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds: effects on physiological variables.  

PubMed

Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-min intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly) due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent. PMID:23801957

Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Wouwe, Nelleke; Mühl, Christian; van Erp, Jan; Toet, Alexander

2013-01-01

230

Do Snoring Sounds Arouse the Snorer?  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic (EEG) changes (RCREC), especially in delta and sigma frequencies, are thought to reflect subtle, breath-to-breath inspiratory microarousals that are exacerbated in association with increased work of breathing in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We wondered whether snoring sounds could create these microarousals, and investigated whether earplugs, anticipated to alter snoring perception, might affect RCREC. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: An accredited, academic sleep laboratory. Patients: Adults (n = 400) referred for suspected OSA. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to use earplugs or not during a night of diagnostic polysomnography. Results: Two hundred three of the participants were randomized to use earplugs. Earplug use was associated with lower RCREC in delta EEG frequencies (0.5-4.5 Hz), although not in other frequencies, after controlling for potential confounds (P = 0.048). This effect of earplug use was larger among men in comparison with women (interaction term P = 0.046), and possibly among nonobese subjects in comparison with obese subjects (P = 0.081). However, the effect of earplug use on delta RCREC did not differ significantly based on apnea severity or snoring prominence as rated by sleep technologists (P > 0.10 for each). Conclusions: This randomized controlled trial is the first study to show that perception of snoring sounds, as modulated by earplugs, can influence the cortical EEG during sleep. However, the small magnitude of effect, lack of effect on RCREC in EEG frequencies other than delta, and absence of effect modulation by apnea severity or snoring prominence suggest that perception of snoring is not the main explanation for RCREC. Citation: Chirakalwasan N; Ruzicka DL; Burns JW; Chervin RD. Do snoring sounds arouse the snorer? SLEEP 2013;36(4):565-571. PMID:23565002

Chirakalwasan, Naricha; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Burns, Joseph W.; Chervin, Ronald D.

2013-01-01

231

Antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction: impact, effects, and treatment  

PubMed Central

Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of antidepressants and can have significant impact on the person’s quality of life, relationships, mental health, and recovery. The reported incidence of sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant medication varies considerably between studies, making it difficult to estimate the exact incidence or prevalence. The sexual problems reported range from decreased sexual desire, decreased sexual excitement, diminished or delayed orgasm, to erection or delayed ejaculation problems. There are a number of case reports of sexual side effects, such as priapism, painful ejaculation, penile anesthesia, loss of sensation in the vagina and nipples, persistent genital arousal and nonpuerperal lactation in women. The focus of this article is to explore the incidence, pathophysiology, and treatment of antidepressant iatrogenic sexual dysfunction. PMID:21701626

Higgins, Agnes; Nash, Michael; Lynch, Aileen M

2010-01-01

232

Arousal and Affective Responses to Writing Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measured the physiological and affective responses to three factors of newswriting style: narrative vs. traditional; direct quotations vs. paraphrased statements; and active vs. passive verbs and adjectives. (Mass suicides in Guyana were used as stimulus news stories.) Narrative style, direct quotations, and active verbs and adjectives produced…

Donohew, Lewis

1981-01-01

233

What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.  

PubMed

Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

2014-01-01

234

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

235

Altered autonomic arousal in psychosis: an analysis of vulnerability and specificity.  

PubMed

Vulnerability-stress models implicate that alterations of the autonomous nervous system contribute to the development of psychosis. Previous research has found autonomic arousal alterations in psychotic disorders and at-risk individuals that are not explained by medication alone. To test whether these alterations are associated with the extent of an individual's vulnerability and whether they are specific to psychosis, we compared participants with psychosis (n=23), first-degree relatives of individuals with psychosis (n=21), and healthy participants with attenuated positive symptoms (n=23) to participants with depression (n=24) and healthy controls (n=24). At rest, skin conductance level was assessed and photoplethysmography was applied to measure time- and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV). Univariate and multivariate analyses of covariance with perceived stress and psychophysiological values as dependent variables showed significant between-group differences for perceived stress (p=.010), heart rate (p=.022), time-domain HRV indices (all ps?.027), and vagal activity (p=.017). Group differences in sympathetic activity were nonsignificant (p=.069). In an additional analysis with medication as a second between-group factor, the physiological between-group differences remained significant or trend significant (all ps?.060). With the exception of sympathetic activity, participants with psychosis exhibited more extreme arousal than the control groups. First-degree relatives and participants with attenuated symptoms showed comparable autonomic activity to healthy controls. Thus, the hypothesized association of an alteration of arousal and vulnerability to psychosis was not confirmed. However, particularly low time-domain HRV was found for psychosis, with significant differences to healthy controls (all ps?.007) and to depression (all ps?.004), with the latter indicating a specificity to psychosis. PMID:24582038

Clamor, Annika; Hartmann, Maike M; Köther, Ulf; Otte, Christian; Moritz, Steffen; Lincoln, Tania M

2014-04-01

236

Arousal-dependent properties of medial septal neurons in the unanesthetized rat.  

PubMed

We have performed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electrophysiological properties of medial septal neurons in the unanesthetized rat. The rat's head was held in a stereotaxic apparatus by a painless head-restrained system that was implanted seven days prior to the recording sessions. Extracellular recordings were made in a mixed population of antidromically identified septohippocampal neurons and unidentified medial septal neurons in different states of arousal and in response to peripheral and reticular stimulations. The spontaneous activity as well as the percentage of rhythmically bursting septal neurons varied significantly according to the state of arousal. Higher values were noted in paradoxical sleep (28 imp/s and 94% of bursting neurons) as compared with wakefulness with hippocampal theta rhythm (17.4 imp/s and 64.2% of bursting neurons) and slow wave sleep (12.3 imp/s and 8% of bursting neurons). The frequency of the bursts was significantly higher during paradoxical sleep. In individual medial septal neurons, arousing stimuli and paradoxical sleep could induce rhythmic bursting activity in previously non-bursting neurons provided that they were fast-firing neurons. No differences were noted in the functional characteristics of neurons in the medial septal nucleus as compared with the diagonal band of Broca. When the unanesthetized rats were compared with a group of urethane-anesthetized rats, the spontaneous activity was higher and more irregular in the absence of anesthesia. The percentage of the bursting neurons was significantly lower in the unanesthetized rats (32.3% vs 43.3%). However, the frequency of the bursts was higher (5.9 +/- 0.1 Hz vs 3.5 +/- 0.1 Hz). Since the patterns of activity of medial septal neurons fluctuate in different physiologically relevant states, previous classifications of these neurons made by ourselves and other authors, in urethane-anesthetized rats, may not be appropriate. PMID:1603324

Sweeney, J E; Lamour, Y; Bassant, M H

1992-01-01

237

Emotional arousal and multiple memory systems in the mammalian brain  

PubMed Central

Emotional arousal induced by stress and/or anxiety can exert complex effects on learning and memory processes in mammals. Recent studies have begun to link study of the influence of emotional arousal on memory with earlier research indicating that memory is organized in multiple systems in the brain that differ in terms of the “type” of memory they mediate. Specifically, these studies have examined whether emotional arousal may have a differential effect on the “cognitive” and stimulus-response “habit” memory processes sub-served by the hippocampus and dorsal striatum, respectively. Evidence indicates that stress or the peripheral injection of anxiogenic drugs can bias animals and humans toward the use of striatal-dependent habit memory in dual-solution tasks in which both hippocampal and striatal-based strategies can provide an adequate solution. A bias toward the use of habit memory can also be produced by intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) administration of anxiogenic drugs, consistent with the well documented role of efferent projections of this brain region in mediating the modulatory influence of emotional arousal on memory. In some learning situations, the bias toward the use of habit memory produced by emotional arousal appears to result from an impairing effect on hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. Further research examining the neural mechanisms linking emotion and the relative use of multiple memory systems should prove useful in view of the potential role for maladaptive habitual behaviors in various human psychopathologies. PMID:22470324

Packard, Mark G.; Goodman, Jarid

2012-01-01

238

The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent  

PubMed Central

Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus. PMID:22696288

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bryant, Gregory A.; Kaye, Peter

2012-01-01

239

Pupil-Linked Arousal Determines Variability in Perceptual Decision Making  

PubMed Central

Decision making between several alternatives is thought to involve the gradual accumulation of evidence in favor of each available choice. This process is profoundly variable even for nominally identical stimuli, yet the neuro-cognitive substrates that determine the magnitude of this variability are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that arousal state is a powerful determinant of variability in perceptual decision making. We measured pupil size, a highly sensitive index of arousal, while human subjects performed a motion-discrimination task, and decomposed task behavior into latent decision making parameters using an established computational model of the decision process. In direct contrast to previous theoretical accounts specifying a role for arousal in several discrete aspects of decision making, we found that pupil diameter was uniquely related to a model parameter representing variability in the rate of decision evidence accumulation: Periods of increased pupil size, reflecting heightened arousal, were characterized by greater variability in accumulation rate. Pupil diameter also correlated trial-by-trial with specific patterns of behavior that collectively are diagnostic of changing accumulation rate variability, and explained substantial individual differences in this computational quantity. These findings provide a uniquely clear account of how arousal state impacts decision making, and may point to a relationship between pupil-linked neuromodulation and behavioral variability. They also pave the way for future studies aimed at augmenting the precision with which people make decisions. PMID:25232732

Murphy, Peter R.; Vandekerckhove, Joachim; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

2014-01-01

240

An unusual case of sexual assault on an infant: an intraperitoneal candle in a 20-month-old girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent publication of cases of sexual abuse and child prostitution networks may have the harmful effect of arousing latent desires or causing sexual delinquents to act out their impulses. The authors report a recent case in which a wax candle was introduced into the vagina of a 20-month-old baby. The forensic description is given and provisional conclusions are drawn.

S Gromb; H. J Lazarini

1998-01-01

241

Subcellular distribution of key enzymes of lipid metabolism during the euthermia-hibernation-arousal cycle  

PubMed Central

Mammalian hibernation is a natural, fully reversible hypometabolic state characterized by a drastic reduction of body temperature and metabolic activity, which ensures survival to many species under adverse environmental conditions. During hibernation, many hibernators rely for energy supply almost exclusively on lipid reserves; the shift from carbohydrate to lipid metabolism implies profound rearrangement of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of energetic substrates. However, the structural counterpart of such adaptation is not known. In this study we investigated, by using immunoelectron microscopy, the fine intracellular distribution of two key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, namely, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and the long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL), in hepatocytes of euthermic, hibernating and arousing hazel dormice. Our results show that the two enzymes are differentially distributed in cellular compartments (cytoplasm, mitochondria and cell nuclei) of hepatocytes during euthermia. Quantitative redistribution of both enzymes among cellular compartments takes place during hibernation and arousal, in accordance with the physiological changes. Interestingly, this redistribution follows different seasonal patterns in cytoplasm, mitochondria and nuclei. In conclusion, our data represent the first quantitative morphological evidence of lipid enzyme distribution in a true hibernator throughout the year cycle, thus providing a structural framework to biochemical changes associated with the hypometabolism of hibernation. PMID:19538638

Suozzi, Anna; Malatesta, Manuela; Zancanaro, Carlo

2009-01-01

242

Two novel combined drug treatments for women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.  

PubMed

Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women. As a result, many women suffer from sexual dissatisfaction which often negatively interferes with their quality of life. These complaints have been classified as the condition Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD), and have recently been merged with the condition Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) into the diagnosis Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (FSIAD) in the DSM-5. To date, no drug treatment approved by the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA)/European Medicines Agency (EMA) is available to treat women with HSDD/FSIAD. As a result, there is an unmet need for a drug treatment for HSDD/FSIAD. In our search for an adequate treatment we followed a different approach compared to other pharmaceutical companies. Based on a personalized sexual medicine approach we proposed that different mechanisms cause low sexual desire in women, namely an insensitive system for sexual cues or dysfunctional activation of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. Subsequently we developed two new on-demand drug treatments for women with HSDD/FSIAD based on these different causal mechanisms. One treatment (testosterone combined with a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor) has been developed for women with HSDD/FSIAD due to a relatively insensitive system for sexual cues, while the second treatment (testosterone combined with a 5-HT?A receptor agonist) has been developed for women with HSDD/FSIAD due to dysfunctional activation of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24534417

Poels, Saskia; Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Koppeschaar, Hans; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

2014-06-01

243

Physiology Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Physiology Online, the electronic information service of the Physiological Society, provides information about its three journals: Journal of Physiology, Proceedings of the Physiological Society, and Experimental Physiology. Also included are selected abstracts, as well as information about recent monographs, job listings (mostly in the U.K.), information about Society grants, a physiology file and software archive for both PC and Mac platforms, pointers to other physiology resources on the Internet, and a listing of upcoming meetings and conferences within the field.

1994-01-01

244

Internet Sexualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

Nicola Döring

2010-01-01

245

Representing female desire within a labial framework of sexuality.  

PubMed

Sexual experiences, rather than being neutral, are specifically male or female. Yet at present no conceptual framework exists for representing female sexual desire. This has resulted in frequent misrepresentations of female sexual experience. To correct this, a labial framework is proposed, not to replace or oppose a phallic framework, but to exist alongside it. The lips of the mouth and those of the genitals provide a felicitous doubling of sexuality and speech to represent female desire and sexual pleasure as labial. Phallic and labial rhythms are organized differently in sexual arousal and desire, since, as Simone de Beauvoir put it, "Man 'gets stiff,' but woman 'gets wet.'" The labial framework therefore represents female psychosexuality more in terms of "wetware" than of "hardware." PMID:23118235

Schiller, Britt-Marie

2012-12-01

246

Rapid steroid influences on visually guided sexual behavior in male goldfish  

PubMed Central

The ability of steroid hormones to rapidly influence cell physiology through nongenomic mechanisms raises the possibility that these molecules may play a role in the dynamic regulation of social behavior, particularly in species in which social stimuli can rapidly influence circulating steroid levels. We therefore tested if testosterone (T), which increases in male goldfish in response to sexual stimuli, can rapidly influence approach responses towards females. Injections of T stimulated approach responses towards the visual cues of females 30–45 min after the injection but did not stimulate approach responses towards stimulus males or affect general activity, indicating that the effect is stimulus-specific and not a secondary consequence of increased arousal. Estradiol produced the same effect 30–45 min and even 10–25 min after administration, and treatment with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole blocked exogenous T’s behavioral effect, indicating that T’s rapid stimulation of visual approach responses depends on aromatization. We suggest that T surges induced by sexual stimuli, including preovulatory pheromones, rapidly prime males to mate by increasing sensitivity within visual pathways that guide approach responses towards females and/or by increasing the motivation to approach potential mates through actions within traditional limbic circuits. PMID:19751737

Lord, Louis-David; Bond, Julia; Thompson, Richmond R.

2013-01-01

247

Sexual dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and its affected domains  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is presented with characteristic complications such as chronic an ovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism which can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. Objective: Herein we evaluated the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in infertile PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 130 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS who were referred due to infertility were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Results: The frequency of sexual dysfunction was verified 57.7% in PCOS patients with the domains of desire and arousal being commonly affected in 99.2% and 98.5%of cases respectively. BMI had a significant effect on sexual desire and arousal (p=0.02) while the effect of hirsutism was significant on all domains (p<0.001 for total FSFI score) except for dyspareunia. Conclusion: PCOS patients markedly suffer from sexual dysfunction as comorbidity. It seems appropriate to screen all PCOS patients for sexual function with a simple short questionnaire such as FSFI. Targeted interventions could be considered to help improve their quality of life along with other treatments. PMID:25408703

Eftekhar, Tahereh; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Zabandan, Neda; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

2014-01-01

248

Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations.  

PubMed

Pornography has become a primary source of sexual education. At the same time, mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation. Yet, little work has been done exploring the associations between pornography and dyadic sexual encounters: What role does pornography play inside real-world sexual encounters between a man and a woman? Cognitive script theory argues media scripts create a readily accessible heuristic model for decision-making. The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences. To test this, we surveyed 487 college men (ages 18-29 years) in the United States to compare their rate of pornography use with sexual preferences and concerns. Results showed the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he was to use it during sex, request particular pornographic sex acts of his partner, deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and have concerns over his own sexual performance and body image. Further, higher pornography use was negatively associated with enjoying sexually intimate behaviors with a partner. We conclude that pornography provides a powerful heuristic model which is implicated in men's expectations and behaviors during sexual encounters. PMID:25466233

Sun, Chyng; Bridges, Ana; Johnason, Jennifer; Ezzell, Matt

2014-12-01

249

Can Victoria's Secret change the future? A subjective time perception account of sexual-cue effects on impatience.  

PubMed

Sexual cues influence decisions not only about sex, but also about unrelated outcomes such as money. In the presence of sexual cues, individuals are more impatient when making intertemporal monetary tradeoffs, choosing smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts. Previous research has emphasized the power of sexual cues to induce a strong general psychological desire to obtain not only sex-related but all available rewards. In the case of money, that heightened appetite enhances the perceived value of immediate monetary rewards. We propose a different psychological mechanism to explain this effect: Sexual cues induce impatience through their ability to lengthen the perceived temporal distance to delayed rewards. That is, sexual cues make the temporal delay seem subjectively longer, resulting in greater impatience for monetary rewards. We attribute this process to the arousing nature of sexual cues, thus extending findings on arousal and overestimation of elapsed time to the domain of future time perception and intertemporal preferences. PMID:22686639

Kim, B Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

2013-05-01

250

Factors associated with sexual dysfunction in Jordanian women and their sexual attitudes  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is defined as disorders of libido, arousal, and orgasm, as well as sexual pain, that leads to personal distress or interpersonal difficulties. Social aspects of FSD have been understudied. The aim of this study was to explore the social aspects of FSD and sexual attitudes of Jordanian women. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six hundred thirteen married females were studied between October 2006 and August 2007 at the National Center for Diabetes, Endocrinology and Genetics (NCDEG), Amman, Jordan. Females were interviewed using a special questionnaire that was suitable to our culture and added to the Arabic translation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) Questionnaire. RESULTS: Older age was associated with a decreased total FSD index and its domain scores. Women with obesity were more likely to have impaired arousability and impaired capability of reaching orgasm. About 58.5% of women reported that they prepared themselves if they had sexual desire and 68.2% reported wearing special attire for this purpose. Only 37.2% of women could ask their husband for a special excitement. CONCLUSIONS: FSD is prevalent in Jordan. Its social aspects are understudied and need more research in the future. PMID:19584582

Abu Ali, Ruba M.; Al Hajeri, Rabaa M.; Khader, Yousef S.; Ajlouni, Kamel M.

2009-01-01

251

Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2  

E-print Network

), is slower during nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREM) and nearly ceases during rapid eye movement sleep (REM) There is a long-standing controversy about the role of serotonin in sleep/wake control, with competing theories that it either pro- motes sleep or causes arousal. Here, we show that there is a marked increase in wakefulness

252

Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters  

E-print Network

577 Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters Jennie E of Chicago. All rights reserved. 1522-2152/2003/7604-2092$15.00 Introduction Production of melatonin (Mel is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel

Zucker, Irving

253

Psychophysiology, Cortical Arousal and Dynamical Complexity (DC X )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies in brain dynamics have utilized a dependent variable calculated from the electroencephalogram (EEG) known as dimensional complexity (DCx), where variables such as scalp locus, cognitive task difficulty, or cortical arousal, are manipulated to test quantitative hypotheses regarding brain-state changes. The technique has been criticised on technical and theoretical grounds, yet its application to experimental time series in many

Paul A. Watters

1999-01-01

254

Optimal Levels of Emotional Arousal in Experiential Therapy of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the relationship between length of time spent expressing highly aroused emotion and therapeutic outcome. Method: Thirty-eight clients (14 male, 24 female) between the ages of 22 and 60 years (M = 39.5, SD = 9.71), treated for depression with experiential therapy, were rated on working alliance and expressed emotional…

Carryer, Jonathan R.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

2010-01-01

255

A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

2009-01-01

256

Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

2010-01-01

257

A Dose of Kindness: Empathic Arousal and Helping Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the role of empathic arousal in mediating helping behavior. Undergraduates listened to a recording of a radio newscast that described the situation of a young woman whose parents had been killed in an automobile accident. Subjects were instructed either to imagine how the woman felt about her situation (imagine condition), or…

Coke, Jay S.; Batson, C. Daniel

258

Pupil-linked arousal determines variability in perceptual decision making  

E-print Network

1 Pupil-linked arousal determines variability in perceptual decision making Peter R. Murphy1) ­ 527 3874 E: p.murphy@fsw.leidenuniv.nl #12;2 Abstract Decision making between several alternatives determinant of variability in perceptual decision making. We measured pupil size, a highly sensitive index

Nieuwenhuis, Sander

259

Emotional Arousal of Beginning Physics Teachers during Extended Experimental Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers often have difficulty implementing inquiry-based activities, leading to the arousal of negative emotions. In this multicase study of beginning physics teachers in Australia, we were interested in the extent to which their expectations were realized and how their classroom experiences while implementing extended experimental investigations…

Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant; Henderson, Senka; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2013-01-01

260

Physiological Reviews  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Physiological Reviews_is currently available online through the American Physiological Society. Online abstracts and full-text content begin January 1998. Physiological reviews is made available through Stanford University's HighWire Press.

1998-01-01

261

The role of arousal congruency in influencing consumers' satisfaction evaluations and in-store behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – It is widely accepted that consumers enter into a service consumption experience with a set of expectations, including affective expectations. This research aims to investigate the matching effects between arousal-level expectations and perceived stimulation (i.e. arousal congruency) on satisfaction and in-store behaviors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A 3 (under-stimulation, arousal congruency and under-stimulation) perceived arousal congruency)×2 valence (pleasant or unpleasant

Jochen Wirtz; Anna S. Mattila; Rachel L. P. Tan

2007-01-01

262

The role of hypocretin in driving arousal and goal-oriented behaviors  

PubMed Central

The hypocretins (Hcrts), also called orexins, are two neuropeptides secreted by a few thousand neurons restricted to the lateral hypothalamus. The Hcrt peptides bind to two receptors located in nuclei associated with diverse cognitive and physiological functions. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that the physiological roles of hypocretins extend far beyond its initial role in food consumption, and has emerged as a key system in the fields of sleep disorders and drug addiction. Here, we discuss recent evidence demonstrating a key role of hypocretin in the motivation for reward seeking in general, and drug taking in particular, and we delineate a physiological framework for this peptidergic system in orchestrating the appropriate levels of alertness required for the elaboration and the execution of goal-oriented behaviors. We propose a general role for hypocretins in mediating arousal, especially when an organism must respond to unexpected stressors and environmental challenges, which serve to shape survival behaviors. We also discuss the limit of the current experimental paradigms to address the question of how a system normally involved in the regulation of vigilance states and hyperarousal may promote a pathological state that elicits compulsive craving and relapse to drug seeking. PMID:19948148

Boutrel, Benjamin; Cannella, Nazzareno; de Lecea, Luis

2015-01-01

263

Validation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in Women with Female Orgasmic Disorder and in Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder  

PubMed Central

The Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) is a self-report measure of sexual functioning that has been validated on a clinically diagnosed sample of women with female sexual arousal disorder. The present investigation extended the validation of the FSFI to include women with a primary clinical diagnosis of female orgasmic disorder (FOD; n = 71) or hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD; n = 44). Internal consistency and divergent validity of the FSFI were within the acceptable range for these populations of women. Significant differences between women with FOD and controls and between women with HSDD and controls were noted for each of the FSFI domain and total scores. PMID:12519665

Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

264

An automatic ambulatory device for detection of AASM defined arousals from sleep: the WP100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives and background: Arousals from sleep are associated with increased sympathetic activation and therefore with peripheral vasoconstriction. Sleep fragmentation in the form of multiple arousals is associated with daytime somnolence and cognitive impairment; however, manual scoring of arousal is time consuming and problematic due to relatively high inter-scorer variability. We have recently shown that automated analysis of in-lab recorded peripheral

Giora Pillar; Amir Bar; Michal Betito; Robert P. Schnall; Itsik Dvir; Jacob Sheffy; Peretz Lavie

2003-01-01

265

IS THE SCHOOL ATTACHMENT\\/COMMITMENT-DELINQUENCY RELATIONSHIP SPURIOUS? AN EXPLORATORY TEST OF AROUSAL THEORY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Criminologists have long observed an inverse relationship between levels of personal commitment to education and self-reported delinquency. Based upon arguments derived from arousal theory, we question whether or not this relationship is spurious. Arousal theory argues that individuals vary in their demand for stimulation. Sub-optimally aroused persons, because they require high levels of stimulation, tend to bore easily with the

John K. Cochran; Jennifer Wareham; Peter B. Wood; Bruce J. Arneklev

2002-01-01

266

Conditions under which Arousal Does and Does Not Elevate Height Estimates  

PubMed Central

We present a series of experiments that explore the boundary conditions for how emotional arousal influences height estimates. Four experiments are presented, which investigated the influence of context, situation-relevance, intensity, and attribution of arousal on height estimates. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the environmental context to signal either danger (viewing a height from above) or safety (viewing a height from below). High arousal only increased height estimates made from above. In Experiment 2, two arousal inductions were used that contained either 1) height-relevant arousing images or 2) height-irrelevant arousing images. Regardless of theme, arousal increased height estimates compared to a neutral group. In Experiment 3, arousal intensity was manipulated by inserting an intermediate or long delay between the induction and height estimates. A brief, but not a long, delay from the arousal induction served to increase height estimates. In Experiment 4, an attribution manipulation was included, and those participants who were made aware of the source of their arousal reduced their height estimates compared to participants who received no attribution instructions. Thus, arousal that is attributed to its true source is discounted from feelings elicited by the height, thereby reducing height estimates. Overall, we suggest that misattributed, embodied arousal is used as a cue when estimating heights from above that can lead to overestimation. PMID:24699393

Storbeck, Justin; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

2014-01-01

267

Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

2010-01-01

268

Sexual Difficulties  

MedlinePLUS

... difficulties Explore other publications and websites Age Page: Sexuality in Later Life - This brochure describes the normal ... effects of illness, disability, and emotional concerns of sexuality in later life. Atrophic Vaginitis (Copyright © UCLA Health ...

269

Healthy Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... a sexual experience is safe, healthy, and enjoyable. Sexual health is a vital part of a person’s total well-being. Of course, sex is essential for reproduction, but it can also build intimacy in relationships ...

270

Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... between victim and suspect Inappropriate, unusual, or aggressive sexual behavior How can I learn more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in ...

271

When Are Sexual Difficulties Distressing for Women? The Selective Protective Value of Intimate Relationships  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent studies have shown that sexual functioning and sexually related personal distress are weakly related in women, with only a minority of sexual difficulties resulting in significant levels of distress. However, there has been little systematic research to date on which factors moderate the relationship between sexual functioning and sexual distress. Aim To assess the degree to which relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderate the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in college-age women. Methods Two hundred women (mean age = 20.25) completed surveys assessing sexual functioning, relational intimacy, attachment anxiety, and sexual distress. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Dimensions of Relationship Quality Scale, and the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment. Results Relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderated the association between multiple aspects of sexual functioning and sexual distress. For lubrication and sexual pain, functioning was more strongly associated with distress in low-intimacy vs. high-intimacy relationships, but only for women with high levels of attachment anxiety. Results regarding desire were mixed and neither intimacy nor attachment anxiety interacted with subjective arousal or orgasm in predicting distress. Conclusion Both relational intimacy and attachment anxiety are important moderators of the association between sexual functioning and subjective sexual distress in women. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20701676

Stephenson, Kyle R.; Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

272

Adolescence, Sexual Conflict, and Anorexia Nervosa.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)

Romeo, Felicia F.

1984-01-01

273

Sexual conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

2003-01-01

274

Women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder compared to normal females: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

PubMed

Lack of sexual interest is the most common sexual complaint among women. However, factors affecting sexual desire in women have rarely been studied. While the role of the brain in integrating the sensory, attentional, motivational, and motor aspects of sexual response is commonly acknowledged as important, little is known about specific patterns of brain activation and sexual interest or response, particularly among women. We compared 20 females with no history of sexual dysfunction (NHSD) to 16 women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that included assessment of subjective sexual arousal, peripheral sexual response using a vaginal photoplethysmograph (VPP), as well as brain activation across three time points. Video stimuli included erotic, sports, and relaxing segments. Subjective arousal to erotic stimuli was significantly greater in NHSD participants compared with HSDD. In the erotic-sports contrast, NHSD women showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral entorhinal cortex than HSDD women. In the same contrast, HSDD females demonstrated higher activation than NHSD females in the medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area (BA) 10), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) and bilateral putamen. There were no between group differences in VPP-correlated brain activation and peripheral sexual response was not significantly associated with either subjective sexual response or brain activation patterns. Findings were consistent across the three experimental sessions. The results suggest differences between women with NHSD and HSDD in encoding arousing stimuli, retrieval of past erotic experiences, or both. The findings of greater activation in BA 10 and BA 47 among women with HSDD suggest that this group allocated significantly more attention to monitoring and/or evaluating their responses than NHSD participants, which may interfere with normal sexual response. PMID:18976696

Arnow, B A; Millheiser, L; Garrett, A; Lake Polan, M; Glover, G H; Hill, K R; Lightbody, A; Watson, C; Banner, L; Smart, T; Buchanan, T; Desmond, J E

2009-01-23

275

Breast Cancer, Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy, and Sexual Functioning: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Vaginal Testosterone Therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women with breast cancer have better cancer-related outcomes with the use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), but the physiological suppression of estradiol can negatively affect sexual functioning because of unpleasant urogenital and vaginal symptoms. Local health care practitioners have observed that the benefits of vaginal testosterone in allaying these unpleasant symptoms in women with breast cancer are similar to the benefits of vaginal estrogen in women without breast cancer. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using a daily vaginal testosterone cream on the reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AI therapy. Methods Thirteen postmenopausal women with breast cancer on AI therapy and experiencing symptoms of sexual dysfunction were recruited from an oncology practice. The women were prescribed a 300 ?g testosterone vaginal cream daily for 4 weeks. During the first study visit, a vaginal swab was obtained to rule out the presence of Candida species or Gardnerella vaginalis in participants. Women with positive vaginal swabs were treated prior to starting the vaginal testosterone therapy. Main Outcome Measure ?The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) survey, measuring female sexual health quality of life, was administered during the first study visit and at the final study visit, after completing testosterone therapy. Results Twelve patients completed 4 weeks of daily vaginal testosterone therapy. When compared with baseline FSFI scores, there was a statistically significant improvement for individual domain scores of desire (P = 0.000), arousal (P = 0.002), lubrication (P = 0.018), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.001), and pain (P = 0.000). Total domain scores reflecting sexual health quality of life also improved when compared with baseline (P = 0.000). Conclusions The use of a compounded testosterone vaginal cream applied daily for 4 weeks improves reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AIs. Dahir M and Travers-Gustafson D. Breast cancer, aromatase inhibitor therapy, and sexual functioning: A pilot study of the effects of vaginal testosterone therapy. Sex Med 2014;2:8–15. PMID:25356296

Dahir, Melissa; Travers-Gustafson, Dianne

2014-01-01

276

The subliminal affective priming effects of faces displaying various levels of arousal: An ERP study.  

PubMed

This study on the subliminal affective priming effects of faces displaying various levels of arousal employed event-related potentials (ERPs). The participants were asked to rate the arousal of ambiguous medium-arousing faces that were preceded by high- or low-arousing priming faces presented subliminally. The results revealed that the participants exhibited arousal-consistent variation in their arousal level ratings of the probe faces exclusively in the negative prime condition. Compared with high-arousing faces, the low-arousing faces tended to elicit greater late positive component (LPC, 450-660ms) and greater N400 (330-450ms) potentials. These findings support the following conclusions: (1) the effect of subliminal affective priming of faces can be detected in the affective arousal dimension; (2) valence may influence the subliminal affective priming effect of the arousal dimension of emotional stimuli; and (3) the subliminal affective priming effect of face arousal occurs when the prime stimulus affects late-stage processing of the probe. PMID:25258346

Li, Tian-Tian; Lu, Yong

2014-11-01

277

Testosterone and sexual signalling in male house sparrows ( Passer domesticus )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female preference for mates with elaborated ornaments has often been explained on the basis that exaggerated secondary sexual traits might reflect individual quality and females might gather direct and indirect benefits in mating with such males. Sexual signals must however also entail costs to be reliable indicators of male quality. Androgens have been suggested as a physiological link between sexual

Guillermo Gonzalez; Gabriele Sorci; Linda C. Smith; Florentino de Lope

2001-01-01

278

Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

2014-12-01

279

A functional perspective on sexual selection: insights and future prospects  

E-print Network

A functional perspective on sexual selection: insights and future prospects SIMON P. LAILVAUX 2006; MS. number: ARV-31R) A large number of sexual selection studies have focused on examining highlight recent key literature integrating sexual selection, performance and physiology. We also point

Irschick, Duncan J.

280

Cognitive consequences of individual differences in arousal asymmetry.  

PubMed

Prior research has demonstrated that semantic organization in the right hemisphere (RH) is more diffuse and specialized for distant semantic associates than is semantic organization in the left hemisphere (LH). The present research explored individual differences in this regard. If the RH is more specialized for distant semantic associates, then individuals with a more active RH should display greater activation of distant semantic associations. Two experiments were conducted to examine this issue. In both studies a line bisection task was used to assess arousal asymmetry. In Experiment 1, greater RH activation was associated with the ability to generate remote associates to three word stimuli. In Experiment 2, relatively greater RH activation was associated with enhanced priming of distant semantic associates. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that arousal asymmetry is an individual difference variable that is related to variability in semantic organization and retrieval. PMID:23867738

Holtgraves, Thomas

2013-10-01

281

Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.  

PubMed

The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory. PMID:24604603

Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

2014-12-01

282

Gray's three-arousal model: an empirical investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the validity of Gray's and Fowles' three-arousal model in two studies of criminal offenders using a continuous motor task involving rewards and punishments. Consistent with predictions for the behavioral approach\\/activation system (BAS), offenders displayed significant (p<0.00001) increases in response time and heart rate (HR) from a no-incentive practice phase to a reward-only (experiment 1) and active-avoidance (experiment 2)

Peter A Arnett; Joseph P Newman

2000-01-01

283

Early Brain-Body Impact of Emotional Arousal  

PubMed Central

Current research in affective neuroscience suggests that the emotional content of visual stimuli activates brain–body responses that could be critical to general health and physical disease. The aim of this study was to develop an integrated neurophysiological approach linking central and peripheral markers of nervous activity during the presentation of natural scenes in order to determine the temporal stages of brain processing related to the bodily impact of emotions. More specifically, whole head magnetoencephalogram (MEG) data and skin conductance response (SCR), a reliable autonomic marker of central activation, were recorded in healthy volunteers during the presentation of emotional (unpleasant and pleasant) and neutral pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Analyses of event-related magnetic fields (ERFs) revealed greater activity at 180?ms in an occipitotemporal component for emotional pictures than for neutral counterparts. More importantly, these early effects of emotional arousal on cerebral activity were significantly correlated with later increases in SCR magnitude. For the first time, a neuromagnetic cortical component linked to a well-documented marker of bodily arousal expression of emotion, namely, the SCR, was identified and located. This finding sheds light on the time course of the brain–body interaction with emotional arousal and provides new insights into the neural bases of complex and reciprocal mind–body links. PMID:20428514

D'Hondt, Fabien; Lassonde, Maryse; Collignon, Olivier; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Robert, Manon; Rigoulot, Simon; Honoré, Jacques; Lepore, Franco; Sequeira, Henrique

2009-01-01

284

Sexual behaviour.  

PubMed

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

Mercer, Catherine H

2014-06-01

285

Increased fronto-temporal activation during pain observation in sexual sadism: Preliminary findings  

PubMed Central

Context Sexual sadism is a psychiatric disorder in which sexual pleasure is derived from inflicting pain, suffering, and/or humiliation on others. While the psychological and forensic aspects of sexual sadism have been well-characterized, little is known about the neurocognitive circuitry associated with the disorder. Sexual sadists show increased peripheral sexual arousal when observing other individuals in pain. The neural mechanisms underlying this unusual response are not well understood. We predicted that sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, would show increased responses in brain regions associated with sexual arousal (amygdala, hypothalamus, ventral striatum) and affective pain processing (anterior cingulate, anterior insula) during pain observation. Objective To study the neural correlates of pain observation in sexual sadists and non-sadists. Design Case-control, cross-sectional study. Sexual sadists and non-sadists viewed 50 social scenes, 25 which depicted a person in pain (e.g., one person stabbing another person’s hand with scissors) and 25 thematically matched no-pain pictures (e.g., one person stabbing a table with scissors with another person’s hand nearby). Pain severity ratings (0 = none, 4 = severe) were acquired following each picture presentation. Setting Sand Ridge Secure Treatment Center, Mauston, Wisconsin. Participants 15 violent sexual offenders; eight sexual sadists and seven age, IQ, and education-matched non-sadists (defined by the Severe Sexual Sadism Scale). Main Outcome Measures Hemodynamic response revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and pain severity ratings. Results Sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, showed greater amygdala activation when viewing pain pictures. They also rated pain pictures higher on pain severity than non-sadists. Sexual sadists, but not non-sadists, showed a positive correlation between pain severity ratings and activity in the anterior insula. Conclusions These results provide neurobehavioral evidence of unusually heightened sensitivity to the pain of others in sexual sadists. PMID:22393220

Harenski, Carla L.; Thornton, David M.; Harenski, Keith A.; Decety, Jean; Kiehl, Kent A.

2014-01-01

286

Efforts To Modify Sexual Orientation: A Review of Outcome Literature and Ethical Issues.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews successful efforts to modify patterns of sexual arousal from psychoanalytical, behavioral, cognitive, group, and religious perspectives. Presents an ethical analysis of the American Counseling Association's resolution expressing concerns about conversion therapy. Concludes that efforts to assist homosexuals who wish to modify their…

Throckmorton, Warren

1998-01-01

287

Association Between Sexual Health and Delivery Mode  

PubMed Central

Introduction Female sexual function changes considerably during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In addition, women's physical and mental health, endocrine secretion, and internal and external genitalia vary during these times. However, there are limited studies on the relationship between delivery and sexual function. Aim The present study aimed to demonstrate the association between sexual function and delivery mode. Methods Mothers who delivered a single baby at term were recruited for the study, and 435 mothers were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ28) scores and mothers' backgrounds were assessed at 6 months after delivery. Results The delivery mode affected the SFQ28 partner domain. Episiotomy affected the arousal (sensation) domain. Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal age and cesarean section were significantly associated with several SHQ28 domains. Conclusion This study suggests that routine episiotomies at delivery should be avoided to improve postpartum maternal sexual function. Maternal age and cesarean section were found to affect postpartum sexual health. PMID:25548646

Song, Mihyon; Ishii, Hiroshi; Toda, Masahiro; Tomimatsu, Takuji; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Nakamura, Takafumi; Nakai, Yuichiro; Shimoya, Koichiro

2014-01-01

288

Repetitive hypoxia rapidly depresses arousal from active sleep in newborn lambs  

PubMed Central

Arousal from sleep is an important protective mechanism that is depressed by repeated episodes of hypoxia. We aimed to determine how rapidly arousal depression occurs during repeated hypoxia and to determine if the depression is sleep state specific. Three successive 12 h overnight sleep recordings were performed in six newborn lambs instrumented to record sleep state, blood pressure, heart rate and blood gases. The first (control) and third (recovery) nights were baseline studies (inspired oxygen fraction, FI,O2 = 0.21) to determine the spontaneous arousal probability. During the second (test) study night, lambs were exposed to a 60 s episode of isocapnic hypoxia (FI,O2 = 0.10; inspired carbon dioxide fraction, FI,CO2 = 0.03) during every epoch of sleep. During quiet sleep (QS), the probability of arousing to hypoxia (56 %) remained significantly higher than the probability of arousing spontaneously (18 %) throughout the repeated hypoxic exposures (?2 = 81.5, P < 0.001). By contrast, during active sleep (AS) arousal rapidly became depressed with repetition of the hypoxic stimulus; the probability of arousal in hypoxia (52 %) was significantly higher than the probability of spontaneous arousal (12 %) during the first ten hypoxic exposures (?2 = 18.2, P < 0.001), but there was no difference thereafter. We conclude that, when repeated, moderate hypoxia very rapidly becomes ineffective as an arousing stimulus in AS, but not in QS. These results suggest that the arousal mechanism is particularly vulnerable to failure during AS. PMID:9706012

Johnston, Renea V; Grant, Daniel A; Wilkinson, Malcolm H; Walker, Adrian M

1998-01-01

289

An assessment of body appreciation and its relationship to sexual function in women.  

PubMed

Objectification theory posits internalization of an observer's gaze may negatively impact women's feelings about their bodies, which may subsequently affect their sexual function. Subjective body image and body size (i.e., body mass index [BMI]) have mixed relationships to women's sexuality, but assessment of positive body image as a sign of resistance to objectification has not been researched. This study explored relations between body appreciation and sexual function in women and assessed whether body size impacted this relationship. Cross-sectional data were collected online from 247 women, ages 18 to 58. Body appreciation scores were modestly negatively correlated with BMI, while BMI was not related to sexual function scores. After controlling for sexual orientation, partner status, and age, body appreciation predicted the arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction aspects of sexual function. Practitioners' encouragement of body appreciation may improve sexual function in a way that encouraging a reduction in body size may not. PMID:22018776

Satinsky, Sonya; Reece, Michael; Dennis, Barbara; Sanders, Stephanie; Bardzell, Shaowen

2012-01-01

290

Crop Physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, we review the physiology of switchgrass from seed dormancy till the effects of water and nutrients stress on grown plants. These characteristics are presented and discussed mainly at the canopy and whole-plant level with emphasis on the agro-physiology of the species in view of the possible contribution of crop physiology to agricultural development. Switchgrass is noted for

Walter Zegada-Lizarazu; Stan D Wullschleger; S. Surendran Nair; Andrea Monti

2012-01-01

291

Reading the Freudian theory of sexual drives from a functional neuroimaging perspective  

PubMed Central

One of the essential tasks of neuropsychoanalysis is to investigate the neural correlates of sexual drives. Here, we consider the four defining characteristics of sexual drives as delineated by Freud: their pressure, aim, object, and source. We systematically examine the relations between these characteristics and the four-component neurophenomenological model that we have proposed based on functional neuroimaging studies, which comprises a cognitive, a motivational, an emotional and an autonomic/neuroendocrine component. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal (SA) have thrown a new light on the four fundamental characteristics of sexual drives by identifying their potential neural correlates. While these studies are essentially consistent with the Freudian model of drives, the main difference emerging between the functional neuroimaging perspective on sexual drives and the Freudian theory relates to the source of drives. From a functional neuroimaging perspective, sources of sexual drives, conceived by psychoanalysis as processes of excitation occurring in a peripheral organ, do not seem, at least in adult subjects, to be an essential part of the determinants of SA. It is rather the central processing of visual or genital stimuli that gives to these stimuli their sexually arousing and sexually pleasurable character. Finally, based on functional neuroimaging results, some possible improvements to the psychoanalytic theory of sexual drives are suggested. PMID:24672467

Stoléru, Serge

2014-01-01

292

Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation  

PubMed Central

Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. Results In total, 32.9% (n?=? 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n?=? 10) FtM transsexual persons (p?=? 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males (?=?androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p ?=? 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p ?=? 0.05). Conclusion In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon. PMID:25299675

Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K.; Sievers, Caroline

2014-01-01

293

Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

2010-01-01

294

Differential effects of intranasal oxytocin on sexual experiences and partner interactions in couples.  

PubMed

Knowledge about the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on human sexual behaviors and partner interactions remains limited. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesize that OXT should be able to positively influence parameters of sexual function and couple interactions. Employing a naturalistic setting involving 29 healthy heterosexual couples (n=58 participants), we analyzed the acute effects of intranasally administered OXT (24IU) on sexual drive, arousal, orgasm and refractory aspects of sexual behavior together with partner interactions. Data were assessed by psychometric instruments (Acute Sexual Experiences Scale, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale) as well as biomarkers, such as cortisol, ?-amylase and heart rate. Intranasal OXT administration did not alter "classical" parameters of sexual function, such as sexual drive, arousal or penile erection and lubrication. However, analysis of variance and a hierarchical linear model (HLM) revealed specific effects related to the orgasmic/post-orgasmic interval as well as parameters of partner interactions. According to HLM analysis, OXT increased the intensity of orgasm, contentment after sexual intercourse and the effect of study participation. According to ANOVA analysis, these effects were more pronounced in men. Men additionally indicated higher levels of sexual satiety after sexual intercourse with OXT administration. Women felt more relaxed and subgroups indicated better abilities to share sexual desires or to empathize with their partners. The effect sizes were small to moderate. Biomarkers indicated moderate psychophysiological activation but were not affected by OXT, gender or method of contraception. Using a naturalistic setting, intranasal OXT administration in couples exerted differential effects on parameters of sexual function and partner interactions. These results warrant further investigations, including subjects with sexual and relationship problems. PMID:24503174

Behnia, Behnoush; Heinrichs, Markus; Bergmann, Wiebke; Jung, Stefanie; Germann, Janine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Hartmann, Uwe; Kruger, Tillmann H C

2014-03-01

295

A Study of the Relationships Between Test Order, Physiological Arousal, and Intelligence and Achievement Test Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The relative predictive abilities of two indices of test anxiety were investigated. The galvanic skin response (GSR) and the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC) were used as predictor variables for IQ and achievement test performance. The results of multiple linear regression analysis indicated that neither the TASC nor the GSR, combined over…

Nighswander, James K.; Beggs, Donald L.

296

Effects of fear appeals and physiological arousal upon emotion, attitudes, and cigarette smoking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 2 experiments to conceptually replicate S. Schachter's (1964) theory of the determinants of emotion and to test the feasibility of extending the theory to attitudes and behavior that may be mediated by the emotion of fear. A total of 279 cigarette smokers under age 35 were administered either epinephrine or a placebo and then exposed to situational cues suggestive

Ronald W. Rogers; C. William Deckner

1975-01-01

297

Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction", "cardiovascular diseases", "coronary artery disease", "myocardial infarct" and "prevalence" was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity. PMID:24270960

Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gastão; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

2013-11-01

298

Sexual dysfunction and cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review of prevalence  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction”, “cardiovascular diseases”, “coronary artery disease", “myocardial infarct" and “prevalence” was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity. PMID:24270960

Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gastão; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

2013-01-01

299

The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are  

E-print Network

SPEAK UP SPEAK OUT #12;The Problem... ! Sexual Assault & Sexual Harassment are underreported and sexual harassment seriously. " We continue to meet WSU's obligations under Title IX and under WSU's own Sexual Harassment ! Unwelcome sexual advances or other behavior of a sexual nature, when submission

VandeVord, Pamela

300

Significance of Including a Surrogate Arousal for Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Diagnosis by Respiratory Polygraphy  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Respiratory polygraphy is an accepted alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) diagnosis, although it underestimates the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) because respiratory polygraphy cannot identify arousals. Objectives: We performed a multicentric, randomized, blinded crossover study to determine the agreement between home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) and PSG, and between simultaneous respiratory polygraphy (respiratory polygraphy with PSG) (SimultRP) and PSG by means of 2 AHI scoring protocols with or without hyperventilation following flow reduction considered as a surrogate arousal. Methods: We included suspected SAHS patients from 8 hospitals. They were assigned to home and hospital protocols at random. We determined the agreement between respiratory polygraphy AHI and PSG AHI scorings using Bland and Altman plots and diagnostic agreement using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The agreement in therapeutic decisions (continuous positive airway pressure treatment or not) between HRP and PSG scorings was done with likelihood ratios and post-test probability calculations. Results: Of 366 randomized patients, 342 completed the protocol. AHI from HRP scorings (with and without surrogate arousal) had similar agreement with PSG. AHI from SimultRP with surrogate arousal scoring had better agreement with PSG than AHI from SimultRP without surrogate arousal. HRP with surrogate arousal scoring had slightly worse ROC curves than HRP without surrogate arousal, and the opposite was true for SimultRP scorings. HRP with surrogate arousal showed slightly better agreement with PSG in therapeutic decisions than for HRP without surrogate arousal. Conclusion: Incorporating a surrogate arousal measure into HRP did not substantially increase its agreement with PSG when compared with the usual procedure (HRP without surrogate arousal). Citation: Masa JF; Corral J; Gomez de Terreros J; Duran-Cantolla J; Cabello M; Hernández-Blasco L; Monasterio C; Alonso A; Chiner E; Aizpuru F; Zamorano J; Cano R; Monterrat JM. Significance of including a surrogate arousal for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome diagnosis by respiratory polygraphy. SLEEP 2013;36(2):249–257. PMID:23372273

Masa, Juan F.; Corral, Jaime; Gomez de Terreros, Javier; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernández-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Zamorano, Jose; Cano, Ricardo; Montserrat, Jose M.; Garcia-Ledesma, Estefania; Pereira, Ricardo; Cancelo, Laura; Martinez, Angeles; Sacristan, Lirios; Salord, Neus; Carrera, Miguel; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Embid, Cristina

2013-01-01

301

Teenage Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS

... Register About Us Contact Us My Cart Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Teenage Sexuality Article ... to Know, 2nd Edition Sports Success Rx! Your Child’s Prescription for the Best Experience HealthyChildren.org Post-it Notes Home Strength Training for Young Athletes ... Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Abuse Young ...

302

Sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Competition over mates takes many forms and has far-reaching consequences for many organisms. Recent work suggests that relative reproductive rates of males and females, sperm competition and quality variation among mates affect the strength of sexual selection. Song, other display, body size, visual ornaments and material resource offerings are often sexually selected. There is much empirical evidence of mate choice,

Malte Andersson; Yoh Iwasa

1996-01-01

303

Emotional arousal amplifies the effects of biased competition in the brain.  

PubMed

The arousal-biased competition model predicts that arousal increases the gain on neural competition between stimuli representations. Thus, the model predicts that arousal simultaneously enhances processing of salient stimuli and impairs processing of relatively less-salient stimuli. We tested this model with a simple dot-probe task. On each trial, participants were simultaneously exposed to one face image as a salient cue stimulus and one place image as a non-salient stimulus. A border around the face cue location further increased its bottom-up saliency. Before these visual stimuli were shown, one of two tones played: one that predicted a shock (increasing arousal) or one that did not. An arousal-by-saliency interaction in category-specific brain regions (fusiform face area for salient faces and parahippocampal place area for non-salient places) indicated that brain activation associated with processing the salient stimulus was enhanced under arousal whereas activation associated with processing the non-salient stimulus was suppressed under arousal. This is the first functional magnetic resonance imaging study to demonstrate that arousal can enhance information processing for prioritized stimuli while simultaneously impairing processing of non-prioritized stimuli. Thus, it goes beyond previous research to show that arousal does not uniformly enhance perceptual processing, but instead does so selectively in ways that optimizes attention to highly salient stimuli. PMID:24532703

Lee, Tae-Ho; Sakaki, Michiko; Cheng, Ruth; Velasco, Ricardo; Mather, Mara

2014-12-01

304

Physiological Waterfalls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

Leith, David E.

1976-01-01

305

Migraine, arousal and sleep deprivation: comment on: “sleep quality, arousal and pain thresholds in migraineurs: a blinded controlled polysomnographic study”  

PubMed Central

We discuss the hypothesis proposed by Engstrom and coworkers that Migraineurs have a relative sleep deprivation, which lowers the pain threshold and predispose to attacks. Previous data indicate that Migraineurs have a reduction of Cyclic Alternating Pattern (CAP), an essential mechanism of NREM sleep regulation which allows to dump the effect of incoming disruptive stimuli, and to protect sleep. The modifications of CAP observed in Migraineurs are similar to those observed in patients with impaired arousal (narcolepsy) and after sleep deprivation. The impairment of this mechanism makes Migraineurs more vulnerable to stimuli triggering attacks during sleep, and represents part of a more general vulnerability to incoming stimuli. PMID:23758606

2013-01-01

306

Differential Timing of Arousals in Obstructive and Central Sleep Apnea in Patients with Heart Failure  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), arousals generally occur at apnea termination and help restore airflow. However, timing of arousals in central sleep apnea (CSA) has not been objectively quantified, and since arousals can persist even when CSA is alleviated, may not play the same defensive role as they do in OSA. We hypothesized that arousals following central events would occur longer after event termination than following obstructive events and would be related to circulation time. Methods: We examined polysomnograms from 20 patients with heart failure (HF) (left ventricular ejection fraction ? 45%): 10 with OSA and 10 with CSA (apneahypopnea index ? 15). Twenty central or obstructive apneas or hypopneas were analyzed in each patient. Results: Compared to the OSA group in whom arousals generally occurred at obstructive event termination, in the CSA group they occurred longer after central event termination (0.9 ± 1.1 versus 8.0 ± 4.1 s, p < 0.0001), but before peak hyperpnea. Time from arousal to peak hyperpnea did not differ between groups (4.3 ± 1.1 vs 4.8 ± 1.6 s, p = 0.416). Unlike the OSA group, latency from apnea termination to arousal correlated with circulation time in the CSA group (r = 0.793, p = 0.006). Conclusions: In HF patients with CSA, apnea-to-arousal latency is longer than in those with OSA, and arousals usually follow resumption of airflow. These observations provide evidence that arousals are less likely to act as a protective mechanism to facilitate resumption of airflow following apneas in CSA than in OSA. Citation: Simms T; Brijbassi M; Montemurro LT; Bradley TD. Differential timing of arousals in obstructive and central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(8):773-779. PMID:23946707

Simms, Taryn; Brijbassi, Melissa; Montemurro, Luigi Taranto; Bradley, T. Douglas

2013-01-01

307

Male-female differences in the effects of cannabinoids on sexual behavior and gonadal hormone function.  

PubMed

The putative role of the endocannabinoid system and the effects of cannabis use in male and female sexual functioning are summarized. The influence of cannabis intake on sexual behavior and arousability appear to be dose-dependent in both men and women, although women are far more consistent in reporting facilitatory effects. Furthermore, evidence from nonhuman species indicate somewhat more beneficial than debilitating effects of cannabinoids on female sexual proceptivity and receptivity while suggesting predominantly detrimental effects on male sexual motivation and erectile functioning. Data from human and nonhuman species converge on the ephemeral nature of THC-induced testosterone decline. However, it is clear that cannabinoid-induced inhibition of male sexual behavior is independent of concurrent declines in testosterone levels. Investigations also reveal a suppression of gonadotropin release by cannabinoids across various species. Historical milestones and promising future directions in the area of cannabinoid and sexuality research are also outlined in this review. PMID:19733173

Gorzalka, Boris B; Hill, Matthew N; Chang, Sabrina C H

2010-06-01

308

The Effect of Mode of Delivery on Postpartum Sexual Functioning in Primiparous Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the effect of mode of delivery on postpartum sexual functioning in primiparous women. Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 150 primiparous women in postpartum period, who attended the family planning or vaccination clinics, were enrolled for the study. Eighty-one had vaginal delivery with episiotomy and 69 had experienced cesarean section. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index within 3 and 6 months postpartum. Results About 29% in vaginal delivery group and 37% in cesarean delivery group had resumed their sexual intercourses four weeks after delivery (p=0.280).There were no significant differences between mode of delivery and sexual functioning, including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. Conclusion The present study showed that postpartum sexual functioning was not associated with the type of delivery. PMID:25170409

Dabiri, Fatemeh; Yabandeh, Asieh Pormehr; Shahi, Arefeh; Kamjoo, Azita; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini

2014-01-01

309

Conservation physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

2006-01-01

310

Physiological Genomics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five journals with free (or recently extended) online trial periods were recently announced; online content includes full text, figures, and tables. The American Physiological Society has announced free, online access to Physiological Genomics through December 31, 2001; full text and abstracts are available from 1999. The journal is published in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

1969-12-31

311

Histamine inhibits the melanin-concentrating hormone system: implications for sleep and arousal.  

PubMed

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons are known to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions such as feeding, metabolism, anxiety and depression, and reward. Recent studies have revealed that MCH neurons receive projections from several wake-promoting brain regions and are integral to the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here, we provide evidence in both rats and mice that MCH neurons express histamine-3 receptors (H3R), but not histamine-1 (H1R) or histamine-2 (H2R) receptors. Electrophysiological recordings in brain slices from a novel line of transgenic mice that specifically express the reporter ZsGreen in MCH neurons show that histamine strongly inhibits MCH neurons, an effect which is TTX insensitive, and blocked by the intracellular presence of GDP-?-S. A specific H3R agonist, ?-methylhistamine, mimicks the inhibitory effects of histamine, and a specific neutral H3R antagonist, VUF 5681, blocks this effect. Tertiapin Q (TPQ), a G protein-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel inhibitor, abolishes histaminergic inhibition of MCH neurons. These results indicate that histamine directly inhibits MCH neurons through H3R by activating GIRK channels and suggest that that inhibition of the MCH system by wake-active histaminergic neurons may be responsible for silencing MCH neurons during wakefulness and thus may be directly involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal. PMID:24639485

Parks, Gregory S; Olivas, Nicholas D; Ikrar, Taruna; Sanathara, Nayna M; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Xu, Xiangmin

2014-05-15

312

Menopause and sexual desire: the role of testosterone.  

PubMed

The present short review underlines the role of testosterone (T) in the motivational and satisfaction components of women's sexuality and critically discusses the strategies to treat hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), a condition of low desire associated with personal and/or interpersonal difficulties, which is more common in surgical menopausal women. There are multiple ways androgens target the brain regions (hypothalamic, limbic and cortical) involved in sexual function and behaviour. Even though circulating available androgens have been implicated in several domains of sexual response, they seem to be related weakly to symptoms, such as low sexual desire, poor sexual arousal, orgasm and diminished well-being in postmenopausal women. The possibilities of treating low sexual desire/HSDD are multifaceted and should include the combination of pharmacological treatments able to maximize biological signals driving the sexual response, and individualized psychosocial therapies in order to overcome personal and relational difficulties. Transdermal T has been shown to be effective at a dose of 300 µg/day both in surgically and naturally menopausal women replaced with estrogen or not, without any relevant side-effects. However, the decision to treat postmenopausal women with HSDD with T is mainly based on clinical judgement, after informed consent regarding the unknown long-term risks. PMID:21156854

Nappi, Rossella E; Albani, Francesca; Santamaria, Valentina; Tonani, Silvia; Martini, Ellis; Terreno, Erica; Brambilla, Emanuela; Polatti, Franco

2010-12-01

313

Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS

... that is, no pleasurable sexual sensations in her clitoris or vagina. Male erectile disorder, or ED, is ... fall under this category, including vibrators, dilators, and clitoral devices. Vibrators and dildos can be used by ...

314

An unusual case of sexual assault on an infant: an intraperitoneal candle in a 20-month-old girl.  

PubMed

The recent publication of cases of sexual abuse and child prostitution networks may have the harmful effect of arousing latent desires or causing sexual delinquents to act out their impulses. The authors report a recent case in which a wax candle was introduced into the vagina of a 20-month-old baby. The forensic description is given and provisional conclusions are drawn. PMID:9670478

Gromb, S; Lazarini, H J

1998-06-01

315

LH-RH agonists modulate amygdala response to visual sexual stimulation: A single case fMRI study in pedophilia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia. The pre-treatment

Benedikt Habermeyer; Nadja Händel; Patrick Lemoine; Markus Klarhöfer; Erich Seifritz; Volker Dittmann; Marc Graf

2011-01-01

316

Low-Arousal Speech Noise Improves Performance in N-Back Task: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity) and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits. PMID:24204607

Zhang, Dandan; Jin, Yi; Luo, Yuejia

2013-01-01

317

Neural transmission-errors, cerebral arousability and hemisphericity : Some relations with intelligence and personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suggests that the arousability theory of intelligence and personality of Robinson (1996) lacks two important factors: the influence of neural transmission errors and of hemisphericity on intelligence and personality. It is considered that at least two factors contribute to intelligence. The first factor is the potential energetic level of Hebb’s engrams, which may be related to arousability. The second factor

Uri Fidelman

1999-01-01

318

Effects of affiliation and power motivation arousal on salivary progesterone and testosterone  

E-print Network

, Unites States Received 6 January 2004; revised 27 April 2004; accepted 13 July 2004 Available online 11, oral contraceptive use, and relationship status. Horm. Behav. 43, 293­301.], we tested whether arousal reserved. Keywords: Testosterone; Progesterone; Movies; Motivational arousal; Implicit motives; Sex

Schultheiss, Oliver C.

319

Frightening Information and Extraneous Arousal: Changing Cognitions and Behavior Regarding Nuclear War.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study of the physical effects of fear on 236 college-age students. Compares pulse rates and the ability to perform physical exercise while viewing a video on a nuclear war or a nonfrightening incident. Finds that fear was effective at moderate levels of arousal, but high levels of arousal eliminated or reversed the effects. (CFR)

Allen, Bem P.

1993-01-01

320

Assessment of Deviant Arousal in Adult Male Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten individuals, residing in a treatment facility specializing in the rehabilitation of sex offenders with developmental disabilities, participated in an arousal assessment involving the use of the penile plethysmograph. The arousal assessments involved measuring change in penile circumference to various categories of stimuli both appropriate…

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Hall, Astrid; Reed, Robert; Jansen, Greg; Carr, Sam; Jackson, Kevin; Stoutimore, Michael

2006-01-01

321

Predicting Internet Pornography Use and Arousal: The Role of Individual Difference Variables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study considers the relation between a number of theoretically relevant individual difference variables and individuals' online pornography use and arousal patterns. In doing so, an attempt is also made to determine whether self-reports of arousal can be collapsed into meaningful empirically derived content groupings. An exploratory factor analysis produces 3 factors for men: standard fare, specialized, and male-focused; and

Bryant Paul

2009-01-01

322

When Arousal Influences Ad Evaluation and Valence Does Not (and Vice Versa)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines, across 2 studies, the interplay between the valence and arousal compo- nents of affective states and the affective tone of a target ad. In the first study, music was used to in- duce a pleasant or unpleasant mood, while controlling for arousal. Participants were subsequently exposed to an ad that either had a positive-affective tone or was

Gerald Gorn; Michel Tuan Pham; Leo Yatming Sin

2001-01-01

323

Arousing Primary Vulnerable Emotions in the Context of Unresolved Anger: "Speaking about" versus "Speaking to"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arousing and processing primary vulnerable emotions is a core change mechanism across a wide range of psychotherapies and clinical populations. This study examined the utility of 2 emotion-focused interventions--relational reframes and empty-chair enactments--in terms of arousing primary sadness associated with loss and longing among individuals…

Diamond, Gary M.; Rochman, Daniel; Amir, Ofer

2010-01-01

324

Meditation and somatic arousal reduction: A review of the experimental evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the research literature on the conceptual and methodological issues associated with the effects of meditation. A summary of the research in which the somatic arousal of meditating Ss was compared to the somatic arousal of resting Ss did not reveal any consistent differences between meditating and resting Ss on measures of heart rate, electrodermal activity, respiration rate, systolic blood

David S. Holmes

1984-01-01

325

Individual Differences in Coping with Stressful Mass Media: An Activation-Arousal View.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…

Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.

1988-01-01

326

Sleep respiratory disturbances and arousals at moderate altitude have overlapping electroencephalogram spectral signatures.  

PubMed

An ascent to altitude has been shown to result in more central apneas and a shift towards lighter sleep in healthy individuals. This study employs spectral analysis to investigate the impact of respiratory disturbances (central/obstructive apnea and hypopnea or periodic breathing) at moderate altitude on the sleep electroencephalogram (EEG) and to compare EEG changes resulting from respiratory disturbances and arousals. Data were collected from 51 healthy male subjects who spent 1 night at moderate altitude (2590 m). Power density spectra of Stage 2 sleep were calculated in a subset (20) of these participants with sufficient artefact-free data for (a) epochs with respiratory events without an accompanying arousal, (b) epochs containing an arousal and (c) epochs of undisturbed Stage 2 sleep containing neither arousal nor respiratory events. Both arousals and respiratory disturbances resulted in reduced power in the delta, theta and spindle frequency range and increased beta power compared to undisturbed sleep. The similarity of the EEG changes resulting from altitude-induced respiratory disturbances and arousals indicates that central apneas are associated with micro-arousals, not apparent by visual inspection of the EEG. Our findings may have implications for sleep in patients and mountain tourists with central apneas and suggest that respiratory disturbances not accompanied by an arousal may, none the less, impact sleep quality and impair recuperative processes associated with sleep more than previously believed. PMID:24552365

Stadelmann, Katrin; Latshang, Tsogyal D; Tarokh, Leila; Lo Cascio, Christian M; Tesler, Noemi; Stoewhas, Anne-Christin; Kohler, Malcolm; Bloch, Konrad E; Huber, Reto; Achermann, Peter

2014-08-01

327

Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying  

MedlinePLUS

... sexual assault or rape, and it's a serious crime. Back Continue Flirting or Harassment? Sometimes people who ... worth it. It can help to keep a record of the events that have happened. Write down ...

328

Fewer Spontaneous Arousals in Infants with Apparent Life-Threatening Event  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: A deficit in arousal process has been implicated as a mechanism of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Compared with control infants, SIDS victims showed significantly more subcortical activations and fewer cortical arousals than matched control infants. Apparent life-threatening event (ALTE) is often considered as an aborted SIDS event. The aim of this study was to study the arousal characteristics of ALTE infants during the first months of life. Design: 35 ALTE infants were studied with nighttime polysomnography at 2-3, 5-6, and 8-9 months of age. Eighteen of the infants had mothers who smoked. The infants were born full term and were usually supine sleepers. Sleep state and cardiorespiratory parameters were scored according to recommended criteria. Arousals were differentiated into subcortical activations or cortical arousals, according to the presence of autonomic and/or electroencephalographic changes. The results were compared with those of 19 healthy infants with nonsmoking mothers. Results: During NREM sleep, the ALTE infants had fewer total arousals, cortical arousals, and subcortical activations at 2-3 and 5-6 months (P < 0.001) than control infants. ALTE infants with smoking mothers had more obstructive apnea (P = 0.009) and more subcortical activations during REM sleep at 2-3 months of age (P < 0.001) than ALTE infants with nonsmoking mothers. Conclusions: Spontaneous arousals were differently altered in ALTE infants than in SIDS infants, suggesting an entity different from SIDS. ALTE infants with smoking mothers had arousal and respiratory characteristics that were similar to future SIDS victims, suggesting some common abnormalities in brainstem dysfunction. Citation: Franco P; Montemitro E; Scaillet S; Groswasser J; Kato I; Lin JS; Villa MP. Fewer spontaneous arousals in infants with apparent life-threatening event. SLEEP 2011;34(6):733-743. PMID:21629361

Franco, Patricia; Montemitro, Enza; Scaillet, Sonia; Groswasser, Jose; Kato, Ineko; Lin, Jian-Sheng; Villa, Maria Pia

2011-01-01

329

Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields  

SciTech Connect

White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

1983-01-01

330

Emotional Processing in High-Functioning Autism--Physiological Reactivity and Affective Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined physiological response and affective report in 10 adult individuals with autism and 10 typically developing controls. An emotion induction paradigm using stimuli from the International Affective Picture System was applied. Blood pressure, heart and self-ratings of experienced valence (pleasure), arousal and dominance (control)…

Bolte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Poustka, Fritz

2008-01-01

331

Reassessment of the structural basis of the ascending arousal system.  

PubMed

The "ascending reticular activating system" theory proposed that neurons in the upper brainstem reticular formation projected to forebrain targets that promoted wakefulness. More recent formulations have emphasized that most neurons at the pontomesencephalic junction that participate in these pathways are actually in monoaminergic and cholinergic cell groups. However, cell-specific lesions of these cell groups have never been able to reproduce the deep coma seen after acute paramedian midbrain lesions that transect ascending axons at the caudal midbrain level. To determine whether the cortical afferents from the thalamus or the basal forebrain were more important in maintaining arousal, we first placed large cell-body-specific lesions in these targets. Surprisingly, extensive thalamic lesions had little effect on electroencephalographic (EEG) or behavioral measures of wakefulness or on c-Fos expression by cortical neurons during wakefulness. In contrast, animals with large basal forebrain lesions were behaviorally unresponsive and had a monotonous sub-1-Hz EEG, and little cortical c-Fos expression during continuous gentle handling. We then retrogradely labeled inputs to the basal forebrain from the upper brainstem, and found a substantial input from glutamatergic neurons in the parabrachial nucleus and adjacent precoeruleus area. Cell-specific lesions of the parabrachial-precoeruleus complex produced behavioral unresponsiveness, a monotonous sub-1-Hz cortical EEG, and loss of cortical c-Fos expression during gentle handling. These experiments indicate that in rats the reticulo-thalamo-cortical pathway may play a very limited role in behavioral or electrocortical arousal, whereas the projection from the parabrachial nucleus and precoeruleus region, relayed by the basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex, may be critical for this process. PMID:21280045

Fuller, Patrick M; Fuller, Patrick; Sherman, David; Pedersen, Nigel P; Saper, Clifford B; Lu, Jun

2011-04-01

332

Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

333

Synthetic Physiology  

E-print Network

Optogenetic tools are DNA-encoded molecules that, when genetically targeted to cells, enable the control of specific physiological processes within those cells through exposure to light. These tools can pinpoint how these ...

Boyden, Edward Stuart

334

[Adolescent sexuality].  

PubMed

Between 1975-79, adolescents between ages 14-18 in Austrian schools were questioned about their sexual behavior. In contrast to earlier reports, an increased incidence and earlier onset of premarital sexual activity was seen. Of the 2809 individuals questioned, 41% of the females and 36% of the males had already had intercourse. There was a strong age dependence. At age 16, 30% had already engaged in sex; 49% at age 17; 65% at age 18; and 75% at age 19. Prior to age 16, 23% had already had intercourse. Early physical maturation (acceleration) freedom both sexually and morally, and a greater independence from the ethical and moral authority of the church seem to play a major part in this development. Love and fidelity play a major role among young people. The change of partners and promiscuity are not typical behavioral features among young people. The reproductive function of sexual activity is of no concern to young people; this aspect of sexuality must be eliminated through contraception. Contraception is a central topic for young people. 85% of this group do not feel that early onset of intercourse contradicts marriage. 95% of all young people want to marry and have a family at a later date. (author's modified) PMID:7112445

Husslein, A

1982-06-01

335

The use of dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder: a report of gender differences.  

PubMed

Data regarding the efficacy of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) are scarce and inconsistent. We aimed to determine possible gender differences in the efficacy of DHEA as a treatment for HDSS. Postmenopausal women (n=27), and men (n=21) with HSDD, were randomized to receive either DHEA 100 mg daily or placebo for 6 weeks in a controlled, double blind study. Primary outcome measures were sexual function questionnaires. Hormone serum levels of DHEAS, total and bioavailable testosterone, estradiol, and urine levels of DHEA and androsterone were also measured. Participants on active treatment showed a significant increase in circulating serum levels of DHEAS, while bioavailable testosterone levels increased in women only. In women only, significant interaction effects were observed for sexual arousal (p<0.05), satisfaction (p<0.05), and cognition (trend; p=0.06). For arousal, a significant improvement was observed for the DHEA treated group at 6 weeks (p=0.001). Significant correlations were observed between bioavailable T and sexual cognitions, arousal and orgasm, while DHEAS was correlated with satisfaction. In the men, significant correlations were observed between testosterone and arousal (r=.45), sexual drive (r=.50) and orgasm (r=.55). In women with HSDD, DHEA treatment had a significant beneficial effect on arousal, whereas no efficacy was demonstrated in men, indicating a possible gender difference. This improvement seems to be mediated via DHEA's metabolism to testosterone. Our positive results suggest that the neurosteroid DHEA may be effective as a treatment for women with HSDD if administered at a dose of at least 100 mg per day. PMID:23084789

Bloch, Miki; Meiboom, Hadas; Zaig, Inbar; Schreiber, Shaul; Abramov, Liora

2013-08-01

336

Sexuality of alcoholic women with menstrual cycle function: effects of duration of alcohol abstinence.  

PubMed

Although improvement in sexual function has been reported to occur in postmenopausal alcoholic women after long-term sobriety, little is known about the role alcohol abstinence may play in terms of improving sexual functioning in alcoholic women with menstrual cycle function. The responses of 58 menstruating alcoholic Italian women to a standardized questionnaire that included questions related to sexual function, behavior, and performance are reported. Women were categorized as alcohol abstinent (AA) for > 1 year (long AA, n = 22) or < 1 year (short AA, n = 36). In both groups, 100% reported that they had a regular sexual partner, and the response rate to the sexuality questions was > 99%. Compared with short AA women, long AA women were significantly older at the time of study, at menarche, and at onset of heavy drinking, alcohol dependence, and alcohol abstinence. Sexual desire was defined as willingness to engage in sexual activity; sexual capacity was defined as the ability to become sexually aroused; sexual responsiveness was defined as the ability to achieve orgasm. On all three measures, ts well as intercourse frequency, both long AA and short AA women improved significantly with alcohol abstinence. These findings suggest that sobriety, even of relatively short duration, improves sexual function in menstruating alcoholic women. PMID:8214413

Gavaler, J S; Rizzo, A; Rossaro, L; Van Thiel, D H; Brezza, E; Deal, S R

1993-08-01

337

Low sexual desire--is it all in her head? Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder.  

PubMed

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is thought to be the most prevalent form of female sexual dysfunction (FSD), affecting up to 1 in 10 US women. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder is defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) as persistent or recurrent deficiency or absence of sexual fantasies and thoughts, and/or desire for, or receptivity to, sexual activity, which causes personal distress or interpersonal difficulties and is not caused by a medical condition or drug. This definition has recently received criticism and recommendations for changes encompass the inclusion of duration, intensity, and frequency, and the elimination of distress as a diagnostic criterion. More recently, it has been suggested that arousal and desire be combined into one disorder for the upcoming DSM-V. Causes of low desire include chronic medical conditions, medications, surgeries, and psychosocial factors, but not necessarily increased age; both pre- and postmenopausal women can have HSDD, although the frequency appears to vary by age. Sexual function requires the complex interaction of multiple neurotransmitters and hormones, both centrally and peripherally, and sexual desire is considered the result of a complex balance between inhibitory and excitatory pathways in the brain. For example, dopamine, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone play an excitatory role, whereas serotonin and prolactin are inhibitory. Thus, decreased sexual desire could be due to a reduced level of excitatory activity, an increased level of inhibitory activity, or both. A number of validated self-report and clinician-administered instruments are available for assessing female sexual function; however, most have been used primarily in clinical research trials. The Decreased Sexual Desire Screener (DSDS) was developed for practicing clinicians who are neither trained nor specialized in FSD to assist in making an accurate diagnosis of generalized acquired HSDD. As our understanding of the pathophysiology of HSDD increases, it may become easier for physicians to identify and treat women with low sexual desire. PMID:21084789

Simon, James A

2010-11-01

338

Sexual Behaviors and Experiences among Behaviorally Bisexual Latino Men in the Midwestern United States: Implications for Sexual Health Interventions  

PubMed Central

The Midwestern United States (U.S.) has a high number of recent Latino migrants, but little information is available regarding their sexual behaviors. A total of 75 behaviorally bisexual men (25 Latino, 25 Black, and 25 White) participated in an exploratory study on sexual health. The data presented in this paper are restricted to the 25 self-identified Latino men. Qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted and optional self-administered sexual transmitted infection (STI) screening was provided. The measures used were taken from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB), a probability study of the sexual behaviors of nearly 6000 individuals aged 14-94 in the U.S. In our sample of bisexual men, the most commonly reported sexual behaviors were masturbation, vaginal intercourse, and receiving oral sex from male and female partners. The majority of the participants were the insertive partner during anal sex with male partners. Many of the participants reported alcohol use during their most recent sexual activity. A fair number reported not using condoms during their last sexual event. Pleasure, arousal, orgasm, and erectile functioning were markedly similar despite partner gender. A small number of participants also engaged in sexual activities with transgender individuals. All of the Latino participants took part in the optional self-collection for STI specimens. The results of the study provide rich insights into the sexual behavior and related factors, as well as potential risk behaviors of bisexual Latino men that may be targeted for future sexual health promotion efforts. PMID:22685383

Martinez, Omar; Dodge, Brian; Goncalves, Gabriel; Schnarrs, Phillip; Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Reece, Michael; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Kelle, Guadalupe; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

2012-01-01

339

Personality modulates the effects of emotional arousal and valence on brain activation  

PubMed Central

The influence of personality on the neural correlates of emotional processing is still not well characterized. We investigated the relationship between extraversion and neuroticism and emotional perception using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a group of 23 young, healthy women. Using a parametric modulation approach, we examined how the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal varied with the participants’ ratings of arousal and valence, and whether levels of extraversion and neuroticism were related to these modulations. In particular, we wished to test Eysenck's biological theory of personality, which links high extraversion to lower levels of reticulothalamic–cortical arousal, and neuroticism to increased reactivity of the limbic system and stronger reactions to emotional arousal. Individuals high in neuroticism demonstrated reduced sustained activation in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and attenuated valence processing in the right temporal lobe while viewing emotional images, but an increased BOLD response to emotional arousal in the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). These results support Eysenck's theory, as well as our hypothesis that high levels of neuroticism are associated with attenuated reward processing. Extraversion was inversely related to arousal processing in the right cerebellum, but positively associated with arousal processing in the right insula, indicating that the relationship between extraversion and arousal is not as simple as that proposed by Eysenck. PMID:21948954

Toomey, John M.; Balsters, Joshua H.; Bokde, Arun L. W.

2012-01-01

340

Developmental reversals in false memory: Effects of emotional valence and arousal.  

PubMed

Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can be manipulated factorially. False memories increased with age for unpresented semantic associates of word lists, and net accuracy (the ratio of true memory to total memory) decreased with age. These surprising developmental trends were more pronounced for negatively valenced materials than for positively valenced materials, they were more pronounced for high-arousal materials than for low-arousal materials, and developmental increases in the effects of arousal were small in comparison with developmental increases in the effects of valence. These findings have ramifications for legal applications of false memory research; materials that share the emotional hallmark of crimes (events that are negatively valenced and arousing) produced the largest age increases in false memory and the largest age declines in net accuracy. PMID:20547393

Brainerd, C J; Holliday, R E; Reyna, V F; Yang, Y; Toglia, M P

2010-10-01

341

FUNCTION OF SEXUAL GLANDS AND MECHANISM OF SEX DIFFERENTIATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Abstract Prior to any investigation of toxicant effects on sexual development it is necessary to have a complete understanding of the relevant physiology of reproductive development. Beginning at conception, development of males and females diverge to form the respective...

342

The male victim of sexual assault.  

PubMed

Under-reporting by male victims is more pronounced than for females victims, and so male victims remain a rarity for most sexual assault aftercare service providers. In this chapter, I present a review of forensic medical and psycho-social literature on male-on-male rape and sexual assault. Where appropriate, comparison is made with female victims, as that is the context with which most aftercare service providers are familiar. The following aspects are covered: prevalence; definitions; social perceptions of perpetrators and victims of sexual assault on males; characteristics of victims and assaults; physiological and psychological responses; and implications for forensic medical investigation. PMID:22951768

McLean, Iain A

2013-02-01

343

Affective processing in natural scene viewing: Valence and arousal interactions in eye-fixation-related potentials.  

PubMed

Attention is drawn to emotionally salient stimuli. The present study investigates processing of emotionally salient regions during free viewing of emotional scenes that were categorized according to the two-dimensional model comprising of valence (unpleasant, pleasant) and arousal (high, low). Recent studies have reported interactions between these dimensions, indicative of stimulus-evoked approach or withdrawal tendencies. We addressed the valence and arousal effects when emotional items were embedded in complex real-world scenes by analyzing both eye movement behavior and eye-fixation-related potentials (EFRPs) time-locked to the critical event of fixating the emotionally salient items for the first time. Both data sets showed an interaction between the valence and arousal dimensions. First, the fixation rates and gaze durations on emotionally salient regions were enhanced for unpleasant versus pleasant images in the high arousal condition. In the low arousal condition, both measures were enhanced for pleasant versus unpleasant images. Second, the EFRP results at 140-170ms [P2] over the central site showed stronger responses for high versus low arousing images in the unpleasant condition. In addition, the parietal LPP responses at 400-500ms post-fixation were enhanced for stimuli reflecting congruent stimulus dimensions, that is, stronger responses for high versus low arousing images in the unpleasant condition and stronger responses for low versus high arousing images in the pleasant condition. The present findings support the interactive two-dimensional approach, according to which the integration of valence and arousal recruits brain regions associated with action tendencies of approach or withdrawal. PMID:25463473

Simola, Jaana; Le Fevre, Kevin; Torniainen, Jari; Baccino, Thierry

2015-02-01

344

Adult-Adult and Adult-Child/Adolescent Online Sexual Interactions: An Exploratory Self-Report Study on the Role of Situational Factors.  

PubMed

Alcohol intoxication, sexual arousal, and negative emotional states have been found to precede certain sexual behaviors. Using data from an online self-report survey distributed to adults (N = 717; 423 men and 304 women), we compared adults with adult online sexual interactions (n = 640; 89.3%) to adults with interactions with a child or an adolescent (n = 77; 10.7%) on how much they reported being affected by the following factors surrounding the time of the interactions: alcohol intoxication, sexual arousal, sadness, boredom, stress, and shame. We found that those with a child or adolescent contact reported higher sexual arousal and more shame before the interaction, compared with those with an adult contact. In addition, the levels of negative emotional states varied when levels before the interactions were compared with levels after the interactions, suggesting that engaging in online sexual interactions alleviated negative emotional states, at least temporarily. The alleviatory effects, however, were accompanied by higher levels of shame after the interactions. Overall, adults that engage in online sexual interactions have remarkably similar perceptions of the situation surrounding these activities, independent of the age of their online contacts. Limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:25141033

Bergen, Emilia; Ahto, Anna; Schulz, Anja; Imhoff, Roland; Antfolk, Jan; Schuhmann, Petya; Alanko, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka; Jern, Patrick

2014-08-20

345

Improvement in arousal, visual neglect, and perception of stimulus intensity following cold pressor stimulation.  

PubMed

The relationship between arousal, perception, and visual neglect was examined in this case study. Cold pressor stimulation (CPS: immersing the foot in iced water) was used to manipulate arousal and to determine its effects on contralesional neglect, perception of stimulus intensity (magnitude estimation), reaction time, and an electrophysiological correlate of ascending reticular activating system activity (i.e., the P50 potential). Measures that normalized from baseline following CPS included contralesional neglect on a clock drawing test, perception of stimulus magnitude, and P50 amplitude. The P50 amplitude returned to its abnormally low baseline level 20 min after CPS ended, indicating that CPS increased arousal. PMID:22013983

Woods, Adam J; Mennemeier, Mark; Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Huitt, Tiffany; Chelette, Kenneth C; McCullough, Gary; Munn, Tiffany; Brown, Ginger; Kiser, Thomas S

2012-01-01

346

Beta-blocker effects on sexual function in normal males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the antihypertensives currently in use, the sympatholytic drugs (e.g., central alpha-agonists, beta-blockers) and diuretics are most commonly associated with sexual side effects. Previous reports of sexual dysfunction associated with these drugs have been based entirely on retrospective and selfreport data. This is the first study to date to investigate beta-blocker effects on sexual function by means of physiological (NPT),

Raymond C. Rosen; John B. Kostis; Albert W. Jekelis

1988-01-01

347

Prevention, assessment and treatment of sexual dysfunction following stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

As many as three-quarters of stroke survivors experience disruption of sexual functioning, predominately as a result of psychological, rather than physiological, causes. The prevention, assessment and treatment of sexual concerns and dysfunctions in stroke survivors and their partners are discussed in this manuscript. Prevention is focused on dispelling stereotypes, myths and misbeliefs in rehabilitation staff, survivors and partners. Assessment and

William W. Finger

1993-01-01

348

Treatment of sexual offenders with psychopathic traits: recent research developments and clinical implications.  

PubMed

This article provides a review of recent literature related to the treatment of psychopathy in forensic settings, with particular focus on studies with sexual offenders. The lack of empirical support for the position that psychopaths are untreatable is noted, and data suggesting optimism is discussed. Research demonstrating an interaction between psychopathy and substance abuse and between psychopathy and sexual deviance is also presented. Both substance abuse disorders and inappropriate arousal are frequently encountered in high-risk groups of sexual offenders. These topics are of relevance, in that the question of whether treatment is beneficial with high-risk sexual offenders, including those who are psychopathic, cannot be answered unless groups presenting with typical concurrent disorders (paraphilias, substance abuse, dependence) are discussed. It is argued that, although the evidence is still preliminary, there is reason for optimism with reference to whether psychopathic sexual offenders are responsive to treatment, including offenders presenting with concurrent disorders. PMID:18495937

Abracen, Jeffrey; Looman, Jan; Langton, Calvin M

2008-07-01

349

Thoreau's Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism-although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand

Walter Harding

1991-01-01

350

Breast cancer treatment and sexual dysfunction: Moroccan women's perception  

PubMed Central

Background This exploratory prospective study evaluated women's responses to questions that asked them to describe how their body image and sexual functioning had changed since their breast cancer diagnosis to treatment. Methods A questionnaire concerning body image scale and various sexual problems experienced after diagnosis and treatment was anonymously completed by 120 women in the outpatient clinic of our hospital's Division of medical Oncology. To be eligible, subjects had to be sexually active and had histology proven breast cancer. They also had to have received treatment for breast cancer. Results 100% of participants have never spoken with their doctor about this subject. 84% of the participants continued sexual activity after treatment, but there was an increase in the incidence of sexual functioning problems which resulted in a slight reduction in the quality of their sex lives. 65% of the women experienced dyspareunia followed by lubrication difficulties (54%) and the absence or reduction of sexual desire (48% and 64%, respectively) while, 37% had lack of satisfaction (37%). Female orgasmic disorder and brief intercourse and arousal were reported respectively by 40% and 38% of the subjects. The sexual dysfunctions were absent before diagnosis and management of breast cancer in 91.5% subjects and of these 100% subjects complained of a deterioration of the symptomatology after the various treatments. 90% of the dysfunctions were observed after chemotherapy, 9% after surgery and 3% after radiotherapy; none of the subjects indicated the onset of dysfunctions to have been associated with hormonotherapy. 100% expressed not having received sufficient information about how the disease and treatment (including surgery) might affect their sexual life. Conclusion Breast cancer and its treatment may result in significant difficulties with sexual functioning and sexual life. Addressing these problems is essential to improve the quality of life of Moroccan women with breast cancer. PMID:21668971

2011-01-01

351

Interpretation of the Sexual Functioning Questionnaire in the Presence of Vulvar Pain  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess whether the domains identified by items on the Sexual Functioning Questionnaire (SFQ) apply to women with vulvodynia. Study Design Forty-one women with vulvodynia and 43 asymptomatic controls, between the ages 18–70 years, were assessed with a physician evaluation and a written survey that included the SFQ. Results Women with vulvodynia had a higher likelihood of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) than did controls as indicated by five of the seven individual SFQ domains (desire, arousal-lubrication, pain, enjoyment, and partner domains, p<0.05). Scored on individual items relating to pain or penetrative sex differed more by vulvodynia presence than did items related to arousal and emotions. Compared to published SFQ psychometrics, factor analysis among women with vulvodynia demonstrated similar factor loadings in 6 of the 7 domains of the SFQ (desire, arousal-sensation, arousal-lubrication, orgasm, partner, and pain), but the enjoyment domain intermingled substantially with these other domains. Conclusions The SFQ factor structure is generally valid among women with vulvodynia. However, vulvodynia may impact responses to individual items on questions about pain and/or penetration, which may potentially result in erroneous interpretations. PMID:23595036

Legocki, Laurie J.; Aikens, James E.; Sen, Ananda; Haefner, Hope K.; Reed, Barbara D.

2012-01-01

352

The DSM diagnostic criteria for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women.  

PubMed

Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) is one of two sexual desire disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and is defined by the monosymptomatic criterion "persistently or recurrently deficient (or absent) sexual fantasies and desire for sexual activity" that causes "marked distress or interpersonal difficulty." This article reviews the diagnosis of HSDD in prior and current (DSM-IV-TR) editions of the DSM, critiques the existing criteria, and proposes criteria for consideration in DSM-V. Problems in coming to a clear operational definition of desire, the fact that sexual activity often occurs in the absence of desire for women, conceptual issues in understanding untriggered versus responsive desire, the relative infrequency of unprovoked sexual fantasies in women, and the significant overlap between desire and arousal are reviewed and highlight the need for revised DSM criteria for HSDD that accurately reflect women's experiences. The article concludes with the recommendation that desire and arousal be combined into one disorder with polythetic criteria. PMID:19777334

Brotto, Lori A

2010-04-01

353

Attitudes and reactions to nuclear weapons: responses to fear arousal  

SciTech Connect

This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.

Herman, K.L.

1987-01-01

354

Fractal physiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nature of fractals and the use of fractals instead of classical scaling concepts to describe the irregular surfaces, structures, and processes exhibited by physiological systems are described. The mathematical development of fractals is reviewed, and examples of natural fractals are cited. Relationships among power laws, noise, and fractal time signals are examined

William Deering; Bruce J. West

1992-01-01

355

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Hormonal Cycle Modulates Arousal Circuitry in Women  

E-print Network

Behavioral/Systems/Cognitive Hormonal Cycle Modulates Arousal Circuitry in Women Using Functional School, Department of Psychiatry and Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Division of Women's Health, Connors Center for Women's Health and Gender Biology, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, 2Department

Poldrack, Russ

356

The Emotional Harbinger Effect: Poor Context Memory for Cues That Previously Predicted Something Arousing  

E-print Network

of the brain (Phelps et al., 2001). Increases in arousal often make it more likely that people will remember- ing a slide show, participants are more likely to remember seeing a picture of a burn victim than

Mather, Mara

357

Comparison of surface temperature in 13-lined ground squirrel ( Spermophilus tridecimlineatus) and yellow-bellied marmot ( Marmota flaviventris) during arousal from hibernation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface temperatures (Ts) of eight 13-lined ground squirrels and seven yellow-bellied marmots were measured during arousal from hibernation using infrared thermography (IRT) and recorded on videotape. Animals aroused normally in 5 °C cold rooms. Body temperatures were recorded during arousal using both cheek pouch and interscapular temperature probes. Warming rate in arousal was exponential. Mean mass specific warming rates show

P. K. Phillips; J. E. Heath

2004-01-01

358

Intrinsic and Induced Arousal in the Short- and Long-Term Retention of Film Content by Elementary School Children in Puerto Rico. Technical Report No. 274.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was designed to examine the contribution of intrinsic arousal (individual differences) and induced arousal to children's comprehension of film content with short- and long-term retention intervals. Intrinsic arousal was measured by a salivary response measure; induced arousal was manipulated by white auditory noise. The latter was…

Santiago, Salvador; Farley, Frank H.

359

Neural correlates of attention and arousal: insights from electrophysiology, functional neuroimaging and psychopharmacology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attention and arousal are multi-dimensional psychological processes, which interact closely with one another. The neural substrates of attention, as well as the interaction between arousal and attention, are discussed in this review. After a brief discussion of psychological and neuropsychological theories of attention, event-related potential correlates of attention are discussed. Essentially, attention acts to modulate stimulus-induced electrical potentials (N100\\/P100, P300,

J. T. Coull

1998-01-01

360

Sleep Bruxism is a Disorder Related to Periodic Arousals During Sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that sleep bruxism is an arousal-related phenomenon. In non-REM sleep, transient arousals recur at 20- to 40-second intervals and are organized according to a cyclic alternating pattern. Polysomnographic recordings from six subjects (two females and four males) affected by sleep bruxism (patients) and six healthy age-and gender-matched volunteers without complaints about sleep (controls) were analyzed to: (1)

G. M. Macaluso; P. Guerra; G. Di Giovanni; M. Boselli; L. Parrino; M. G. Terzano

1998-01-01

361

Cortical arousal induced by microinjection of orexins into the paraventricular nucleus of the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orexin-A is a neuropeptide which has been suggested to be involved in sleep and arousal mechanisms. Orexin-A, for example, stimulates arousal when administrated intracerebroventricularly to rats. We attempted to identify specific neural sites of orexin-A and orexin-B action. Orexin-A and orexin-B were microinjected into the medial parvocellular subdivision of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats, and cortical

Ikuko Sato-Suzuki; Ichiro Kita; Yoshinari Seki; Mitsugu Oguri; Hideho Arita

2002-01-01

362

Glutamatergic Signaling from the Parabrachial Nucleus Plays a Critical Role in Hypercapnic Arousal  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms of arousal from apneas during sleep in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not well understood. However, respiratory chemosensory pathways converge on the parabrachial nucleus (PB), which sends glutamatergic projections to a variety of forebrain structures critical to arousal including the basal forebrain, lateral hypothalamus, midline thalamus, and cerebral cortex. We tested the role of glutamatergic signaling in this pathway by developing an animal model for repetitive CO2 arousals (RCA) and investigating the effect of deleting the gene for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) from neurons in the PB. We used mice with lox P sequences flanking exon2 of the Vglut2 gene, in which adeno-associated viral vectors containing genes encoding Cre recombinase and green fluorescent protein were microinjected into the PB to permanently and selectively disrupt Vglut2 expression while labeling the affected neurons. We recorded sleep in these mice and then investigated the arousals during RCA. Vglut2 deletions that included the external lateral and lateral crescent subdivisions of the lateral PB more than doubled the latency to arousal and resulted in failure to arouse by 30 s in over 30% of trials. By contrast, deletions that involved the medial PB subdivision had minimal effects on arousal during hypercapnia but instead increased NREM sleep by about 43% during the dark period, and increased delta power in the EEG during NREM sleep by about 50%. Our results suggest that glutamatergic neurons in the lateral PB are necessary for arousals from sleep in response to CO2, while medial PB glutamatergic neurons play an important role in promoting spontaneous waking. PMID:23637157

Kaur, S.; Pedersen, N. P.; Yokota, S.; Hur, E.E.; Fuller, P. M.; Lazarus, M.; Chamberlin, N.L.; Saper, C.B.

2013-01-01

363

Multiple-output support vector machine regression with feature selection for arousal/valence space emotion assessment.  

PubMed

Human emotion recognition (HER) allows the assessment of an affective state of a subject. Until recently, such emotional states were described in terms of discrete emotions, like happiness or contempt. In order to cover a high range of emotions, researchers in the field have introduced different dimensional spaces for emotion description that allow the characterization of affective states in terms of several variables or dimensions that measure distinct aspects of the emotion. One of the most common of such dimensional spaces is the bidimensional Arousal/Valence space. To the best of our knowledge, all HER systems so far have modelled independently, the dimensions in these dimensional spaces. In this paper, we study the effect of modelling the output dimensions simultaneously and show experimentally the advantages in modeling them in this way. We consider a multimodal approach by including features from the Electroencephalogram and a few physiological signals. For modelling the multiple outputs, we employ a multiple output regressor based on support vector machines. We also include an stage of feature selection that is developed within an embedded approach known as Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), proposed initially for SVM. The results show that several features can be eliminated using the multiple output support vector regressor with RFE without affecting the performance of the regressor. From the analysis of the features selected in smaller subsets via RFE, it can be observed that the signals that are more informative into the arousal and valence space discrimination are the EEG, Electrooculogram/Electromiogram (EOG/EMG) and the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR). PMID:25570122

Torres-Valencia, Cristian A; Alvarez, Mauricio A; Orozco-Gutierrez, Alvaro A

2014-08-01

364

Diabetes and sexual dysfunction: current perspectives  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in nearly all countries. It has been associated with sexual dysfunction, both in males and in females. Diabetes is an established risk factor for sexual dysfunction in men, as a threefold increased risk of erectile dysfunction was documented in diabetic men, as compared with nondiabetic men. Among women, evidence regarding the association between diabetes and sexual dysfunction are less conclusive, although most studies have reported a higher prevalence of female sexual dysfunction in diabetic women as compared with nondiabetic women. Female sexual function appears to be more related to social and psychological components than to the physiological consequence of diabetes. Hyperglycemia, which is a main determinant of vascular and microvascular diabetic complications, may participate in the pathogenetic mechanisms of sexual dysfunction in diabetes. Moreover, diabetic people may present several clinical conditions, including hypertension, overweight and obesity, metabolic syndrome, cigarette smoking, and atherogenic dyslipidemia, which are themselves risk factors for sexual dysfunction, both in men and in women. The adoption of healthy lifestyles may reduce insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction, and oxidative stress – all of which are desirable achievements in diabetic patients. Improved well-being may further contribute to reduce and prevent sexual dysfunction in both sexes. PMID:24623985

Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Esposito, Katherine

2014-01-01

365

Effects of season and host physiological state on the diversity, density, and activity of the arctic ground squirrel cecal microbiota.  

PubMed

We examined the seasonal changes of the cecal microbiota of captive arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) by measuring microbial diversity and composition, total bacterial density and viability, and short-chain fatty acid concentrations at four sample periods (summer, torpor, interbout arousal, and posthibernation). Abundance of Firmicutes was lower, whereas abundances of Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Proteobacteria were higher during torpor and interbout arousal than in summer. Bacterial densities and percentages of live bacteria were significantly higher in summer than during torpor and interbout arousal. Likewise, total short-chain fatty acid concentrations were significantly greater during summer than during torpor and interbout arousal. Concentrations of individual short-chain fatty acids varied across sample periods, with butyrate concentrations higher and acetate concentrations lower during summer than at all other sample periods. Characteristics of the gut community posthibernation were more similar to those during torpor and interbout arousal than to those during summer. However, higher abundances of the genera Bacteroides and Akkermansia occurred during posthibernation than during interbout arousal and torpor. Collectively, our results clearly demonstrate that seasonal changes in physiology associated with hibernation and activity affect the gut microbial community in the arctic ground squirrel. Importantly, similarities between the gut microbiota of arctic ground squirrels and thirteen-lined ground squirrels suggest the potential for a core microbiota during hibernation. PMID:25002417

Stevenson, Timothy J; Duddleston, Khrystyne N; Buck, C Loren

2014-09-01

366

Endocrine regulation and sexual differentiation of avian copulatory sexually selected characters.  

PubMed

Reproductive specializations in birds have provided intriguing model systems to better understand the role of endocrine mechanisms that regulate phenotype expression and the action of sexual selection. A comparative approach can elucidate how endocrine systems associated with control of sexual differentiation, sexual maturation, and reproductive physiology and behavior have diversified. Here we compare the copulatory sexually selected traits of two members of the galloanseriform superfamily: quail and ducks. Japanese quail have a non-intromittent penis, and they have evolved a unique foam gland that is known to be involved in post-copulatory sexual selection. In contrast, ducks have maintained a large intromittent penis that has evolved via copulatory male-male competition and has been elaborated in a sexually antagonistic race due to sexual conflict with females over mating. These adaptations function in concert with sex-specific and, in part, species-specific behaviors. Although the approaches to study these traits have been different, exploring the differences in neuroendocrine regulation of sexual behavior, development and seasonality of the foam gland and the penis side by side, allow us to suggest some areas where future research would be productive to better understand the evolution of novelty in sexually selected traits. PMID:25179524

Brennan, Patricia L R; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

2014-10-01

367

Muscle Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Muscle Physiology Lab at the University of California-San Diego provides this comprehensive source of information on the neuromuscular system. The Web site appears as a extensive menu of subtopics, each leading to pages of detailed text and diagrams. Students studying muscle structure and function should find this well-organized and authoritative resource extremely useful. The Web site also includes a search tool for quickly finding pages of interest, and a list of related links for additional information.

2000-01-01

368

Longitudinal trajectory of sexual functioning after hematopoietic cell transplantation: impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease and total body irradiation  

PubMed Central

This prospective study described the trajectory of sexual well-being from before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to 3 years after in 131 allogeneic and 146 autologous HCT recipients using Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function and Derogatis Global Sexual Satisfaction Index. Sixty-one percent of men and 37% of women were sexually active pre-HCT; the prevalence declined to 51% (P = .01) in men and increased to 48% (P = .02) in women at 3 years post-HCT. After HCT, sexual satisfaction declined in both sexes (P < .001). All sexual function domains were worse in women compared with men (P ? .001). Orgasm (P = .002) and drive/relationship (P < .001) declined in men, but sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .01) and sexual behavior/experience (P = .01) improved in women. Older age negatively impacted sexual function post-HCT in both sexes (P < .01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with lower sexual cognition/fantasy (P = .003) and orgasm (P = .006) in men and sexual arousal (P = .05) and sexual satisfaction (P = .005) in women. All male sexual function domains declined after total body irradiation (P < .05). This study identifies vulnerable subpopulations that could benefit from interventional strategies to improve sexual well-being. PMID:24159171

Wong, F. Lennie; Francisco, Liton; Togawa, Kayo; Kim, Heeyoung; Bosworth, Alysia; Atencio, Liezl; Hanby, Cara; Grant, Marcia; Kandeel, Fouad; Forman, Stephen J.

2013-01-01

369

Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1  

E-print Network

with others for some time. Fortunately, even if one does not actively work on sexual healing, as the sexual or maintaining an intimate relationship 9. Experiencing vaginal pain or orgasmic difficulties 10.Experiencing concerns at this time, and it will indicate to you how the sexual assault or abuse may have impacted your

Machel, Hans

370

Disorders of Arousal From Sleep and Violent Behavior: The Role of Physical Contact and Proximity  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To review medical and legal case reports to determine how many appear to support the belief that violence against other individuals that occurs during Disorders of Arousal - sleepwalking, confusional arousal, and sleep terrors – is triggered by direct physical contact or close proximity to that individual and does not occur randomly or spontaneously. Design: Historical review of case reports in the medical and legal literature. Measurements and Results: A total of 32 cases drawn from medical and legal literature were reviewed. Each case contained a record of violence associated with Disorders of Arousal; in each, details of the violent behavior were available. Violent behaviors associated with provocations and/or close proximity were found to be present in 100% of confusional arousal patients and 81% of sleep terror patients. Violent behaviors were associated with provocation or close proximity in 40%–90% of sleepwalking cases, depending on whether the legal verdict and other factors were taken into account. Often the provocation was quite minor and the response greatly exaggerated. The specific manner in which the violence was triggered differed among sleepwalking, confusional arousals, and sleep terrors. Conclusions: In the cases reviewed, violent behavior directed against other individuals associated with Disorders of Arousal most frequently appeared to follow direct provocation by, or close proximity to, another individual. Sleepwalkers most often did not seek out victims, but rather the victims sought out or encountered the sleepwalker. These conclusions are tempered by several limitations: the selection of cases was not random and may not represent an accurate sample of violent behaviors associated with Disorders of Arousal. Also, final verdicts by juries in reported legal cases should not be confused with scientific proof of the presence or absence of sleepwalking. The pathophysiology of Disorders of Arousal with and without violent behavior could be associated with normally occurring deactivation of the frontal lobes during slow wave sleep (SWS) connected via atypically active thalamocortical pathways to the limbic areas. It is not known if the violent sleepwalker, confusional arousal patient, or sleep terror patient differs from other patients with these disorders. The conclusions of this case series await confirmation by the results of future sleep laboratory based studies. Citation: Pressman MR. Disorders of arousal from sleep and violent behavior: the role of physical contact and proximity. SLEEP 2007;30(8):1039–1047. PMID:17702274

Pressman, Mark R.

2007-01-01

371

Irrational beliefs and the arousal of emotional distress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluated the extent to which endorsement of irrational beliefs as measured by the Irrational Beliefs Test (IBT) was associated with subjective, physiological, and cognitive indices (e.g., Trait scale of the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory and Fear of Negative Evaluation Questionnaire scores) of emotional distress in response to a stressful event delivered in a controlled experiment. 62 undergraduates served as Ss. Beliefs

Timothy W. Smith; B. Kent Houston; Raymond M. Zurawski

1984-01-01

372

Chronic burnout, somatic arousal and elevated salivary cortisol levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Burnout syndrome, comprised of the symptoms of emotional exhaustion, physical fatigue, and cognitive weariness, is believed to be a result of ineffective coping with enduring stress. This study of 111 nonshift blue-collar workers free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) examined whether chronic burnout is associated with a state of somatic and physiological hyperarousal. Results showed that 37 workers exhibited symptoms of

Samuel Melamed; Ursula Ugarten; Arie Shirom; Luna Kahana; Yehuda Lerman; Paul Froom

1999-01-01

373

Death with a Story: How Story Impacts Emotional, Motivational, and Physiological Responses to First-Person Shooter Video Games  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigates how game playing experience changes when a story is added to a first-person shooter game. Dependent variables include identification, presence, emotional experiences and motivations. When story was present, game players felt greater identification, sense of presence, and physiological arousal. The presence of story did not…

Schneider, Edward F.; Lang, Annie; Shin, Mija; Bradley, Samuel D.

2004-01-01

374

Circulation and metabolic rates in a natural hibernator: an integrative physiological model  

PubMed Central

Small hibernating mammals show regular oscillations in their heart rate and body temperature throughout the winter. Long periods of torpor are abruptly interrupted by arousals with heart rates that rapidly increase from 5 beats/min to over 400 beats/min and body temperatures that increase by ?30°C only to drop back into the hypothermic torpid state within hours. Surgically implanted transmitters were used to obtain high-resolution electrocardiogram and body temperature data from hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). These data were used to construct a model of the circulatory system to gain greater understanding of these rapid and extreme changes in physiology. Our model provides estimates of metabolic rates during the torpor-arousal cycles in different model compartments that would be difficult to measure directly. In the compartment that models the more metabolically active tissues and organs (heart, brain, liver, and brown adipose tissue) the peak metabolic rate occurs at a core body temperature of 19°C approximately midway through an arousal. The peak metabolic rate of the active tissues is nine times the normothermic rate after the arousal is complete. For the overall metabolic rate in all tissues, the peak-to-resting ratio is five. This value is high for a rodent, which provides evidence for the hypothesis that the arousal from torpor is limited by the capabilities of the cardiovascular system. PMID:20844258

Nelson, Bethany T.; Andrews, Matthew T.

2010-01-01

375

Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility  

MedlinePLUS

... asrm.org PATIENT FACT SHEET Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility You probably don't realize how many people ... talk to a sex therapist. Sexual dysfunction and infertility Sexual dysfunction may cause problems getting pregnant (infertility). ...

376

Your Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... during treatment of a sexual problem? • Glossary Your Sexual Health 4. Sexual pain disorder What are desire problems? ... by women. A lack of desire before having sex is normal for some women. They may not ...

377

Understanding Sexual Violence  

MedlinePLUS

... risky sexual activity. Why is sexual violence a public health problem? SV is a significant problem in the ... CDC uses a 4-step approach to address public health problems like sexual violence. Step 1: Define the ...

378

Elderly sexual offenders: two unusual cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this case report is to describe two cases of sexual abuse by elderly subjects for which the Judge commissioned an expert psychiatric-forensic opinion. The elderly are generally believed to commit nonviolent crimes, whereas the two cases we observed feature forcible rape committed by elderly offenders, who showed no form of mental disease and had rationally planned their offense. They had never previously committed similar acts and had no history of homosexuality; both had been married for many years before the death of their wives and had adult children. Finally, no previous episodes of rape emerged in their personal histories during interrogations. The sociocultural context in which the crimes were committed was identical and arouses interest as regards both the method employed and how the crimes were discovered. The legal authorities then commissioned accurate investigations including medicolegal and psychiatric-forensic evaluations of the offenders and their victims. PMID:22509748

Carabellese, Felice; Candelli, Chiara; Vinci, Francesco; Tamma, Manuela; Catanesi, Roberto

2012-09-01

379

Human Physiology Department of Neurobiology, Physiology,  

E-print Network

Human Physiology Minor Department of Neurobiology, Physiology, and Behavior College of Biological Sciences (530) 752 - 0410 Human Physiology Minor Requirements: Total and Development in Human Performance EXB 116 Nutrition for Physically Active Persons EXB 117 Exercise and Aging

Wainwright, Peter C.

380

Reversible blunting of arousal from sleep in response to intermittent hypoxia in the developing rat  

PubMed Central

Arousal is an important survival mechanism when infants are confronted with hypoxia during sleep. Many sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants are exposed to repeated episodes of hypoxia before death and have impaired arousal mechanisms. We hypothesized that repeated exposures to hypoxia would cause a progressive blunting of arousal, and that a reversal of this process would occur if the hypoxia was terminated at the time of arousal. P5 (postnatal age of 5 days), P15, and P25 rat pups were exposed to either eight trials of hypoxia (3 min 5% O2 alternating with room air) (group A), or three hypoxia trials as in group A, followed by five trials in which hypoxia was terminated at arousal (group B). In both groups A and B, latency increased over the first four trials of hypoxia, but reversed in group B animals during trials 5–8. Progressive arousal blunting was more pronounced in the older pups. The effects of intermittent hypoxia on heart rate also depended on age. In the older pups, heart rate increased with each hypoxia exposure. In the P5 pups, however, heart rate decreased during hypoxia and did not return to baseline between exposures, resulting in a progressive fall of baseline values over successive hypoxia exposures. In the group B animals, heart rate changes during trials 1–4 also reversed during trials 5–8. We conclude that exposure to repeated episodes of hypoxia can cause progressive blunting of arousal, which is reversible by altering the exposure times to hypoxia and the period of recovery between hypoxia exposures. PMID:20930126

McWilliams, S.; Schneider, R. W.; Tobia, C. M.

2010-01-01

381

Brain processing of emotional scenes in aging: effect of arousal and affective context.  

PubMed

Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age. PMID:24932857

Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie

2014-01-01

382

Brain Processing of Emotional Scenes in Aging: Effect of Arousal and Affective Context  

PubMed Central

Research on emotion showed an increase, with age, in prevalence of positive information relative to negative ones. This effect is called positivity effect. From the cerebral analysis of the Late Positive Potential (LPP), sensitive to attention, our study investigated to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes is differently processed between young and older adults and, to which extent the arousal level of negative scenes, depending on its value, may contextually modulate the cerebral processing of positive (and neutral) scenes and favor the observation of a positivity effect with age. With this aim, two negative scene groups characterized by two distinct arousal levels (high and low) were displayed into two separate experimental blocks in which were included positive and neutral pictures. The two blocks only differed by their negative pictures across participants, as to create two negative global contexts for the processing of the positive and neutral pictures. The results show that the relative processing of different arousal levels of negative stimuli, reflected by LPP, appears similar between the two age groups. However, a lower activity for negative stimuli is observed with the older group for both tested arousal levels. The processing of positive information seems to be preserved with age and is also not contextually impacted by negative stimuli in both younger and older adults. For neutral stimuli, a significantly reduced activity is observed for older adults in the contextual block of low-arousal negative stimuli. Globally, our study reveals that the positivity effect is mainly due to a modulation, with age, in processing of negative stimuli, regardless of their arousal level. It also suggests that processing of neutral stimuli may be modulated with age, depending on negative context in which they are presented to. These age-related effects could contribute to justify the differences in emotional preference with age. PMID:24932857

Mathieu, Nicolas Gilles; Gentaz, Edouard; Harquel, Sylvain; Vercueil, Laurent; Chauvin, Alan; Bonnet, Stéphane; Campagne, Aurélie

2014-01-01

383

Self-Alert Training: volitional modulation of autonomic arousal improves sustained attention.  

PubMed

The present study examines a new alertness training strategy (Self-Alert Training, SAT) designed to explore the relationship between the top-down control processes governing arousal and sustained attention. In order to maximally target frontal control systems SAT combines a previously validated behavioural self-alerting technique [Robertson, I. H., Tegner, R., Tham, K., Lo, A., & Nimmo-Smith, I. (1995). Sustained attention training for unilateral neglect: Theoretical and rehabilitation implications. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 17, 416-430] with an autonomic arousal biofeedback protocol in which participants learn to modulate their own arousal levels. The SAT protocol was first validated with a group of 23 neurologically healthy participants and then independently tested in a group of 18 adults with ADHD to determine its clinical utility. Half of the participants in each group were assigned to a placebo condition to control for non-specific effects. All participants performed the sustained attention to response task (SART) during pre- and post-training testing sessions to assess training effects on sustained attention. By the end of SAT all participants were able to modulate their own arousal levels without external prompting. Comparison of pre- and post-training baseline data indicated that, as predicted, SAT was associated with increased levels of autonomic arousal accompanied by improved accuracy on the SART. In contrast, participants in the placebo condition exhibited a gradual reduction in arousal over time and increased reaction time variability indicative of a vigilance decrement. These data demonstrate that the recruitment of top-down control processes during volitional modulation of arousal leads to improved sustained attention. These findings have important implications for the rehabilitation of attention deficits arising from frontal dysfunction. PMID:18249419

O'Connell, Redmond G; Bellgrove, Mark A; Dockree, Paul M; Lau, Adam; Fitzgerald, Michael; Robertson, Ian H

2008-04-01

384

Sexual Function in Breastfeeding Women in Family Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran, 2012  

PubMed Central

Introduction: There are conflicting evidences about the effects of breastfeeding on postpartum maternal sexual functioning. With regard to the methodological weaknesses of previous studies and cultural differences affecting their issue, the present study aims to evaluate sexual functions of lactating women and its components. Methods: This is a descriptive study in which 200 eligible postpartum women were selected from eight health centers of Tabriz (25 from each center). The eligible women were called and invited to attend the health center. The evaluation was performed using the Persian version of normalized questionnaire of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). The participants' sexual function scores above 28 were considered desirable (regarding the cut-off point mentioned in the Persian version of the questionnaire). Results: Almost all of the lactating women suffered from sexual dysfunctions. Regarding the sexual performance's components the lowest scores were for libido and sexual arousal. Conclusion: According to the findings of the studies, in order to prevent the effects of sexual dysfunction on lactating women and their family members it is necessary to develop sexual health programs in health centers. PMID:25276720

Malakoti, Jamileh; Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Maleki, Ahdieh; Farshbaf Khalili, Azizeh

2013-01-01

385

Thoreau's sexuality.  

PubMed

Although Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862) has often been described as lacking in sexual drive or at most a rather reluctant heterosexual, a close study of his life and writings indicates the presence of a pronounced vein of homoeroticism--although there seems to be no concrete evidence of any homosexual activity on his part. Cognizance of that homoeroticism helps one to understand many elements of his life and writings and suggests that his intense love of nature may have resulted from sublimation of that homoeroticism. PMID:1880400

Harding, W

1991-01-01

386

The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for the Saudi and non-Saudi women were calculated and compared. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics. No statistically significant differences were found between Saudi and non-Saudi women in desire (P = .22) and arousal scores (P = .47). However, non-Saudi women had significantly higher lubrication (P < .001), orgasm (P = .015), satisfaction (P = .004), and pain scores (P = .015). The overall scores in Saudi and non-Saudi women were low (23.40 ± 4.50 compared with 26.18 ± 5.97), but non-Saudi women had a significantly higher overall score (P = .005). Taken together, sexual dysfunction is prevalent among Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers, with Saudi women demonstrating lower scores in four sexual function domains and the overall score. PMID:25601160

Rouzi, Abdulrahim A.; Sahly, Nora; Sawan, Dana; Kafy, Souzan; Alzaban, Faten

2015-01-01

387

The prevalence of sexual dysfunction in the female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. One -hundred twenty (60 Saudi and 60 non-Saudi) sexually active female health care professionals in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were anonymously surveyed using the English version of the female sexual function index questionnaire. The individual domain scores for pain, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, pain, and overall score for the Saudi and non-Saudi women were calculated and compared. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics. No statistically significant differences were found between Saudi and non-Saudi women in desire (P = .22) and arousal scores (P = .47). However, non-Saudi women had significantly higher lubrication (P < .001), orgasm (P = .015), satisfaction (P = .004), and pain scores (P = .015). The overall scores in Saudi and non-Saudi women were low (23.40 ± 4.50 compared with 26.18 ± 5.97), but non-Saudi women had a significantly higher overall score (P = .005). Taken together, sexual dysfunction is prevalent among Saudi and non-Saudi female health care providers, with Saudi women demonstrating lower scores in four sexual function domains and the overall score. PMID:25601160

Rouzi, Abdulrahim A; Sahly, Nora; Sawan, Dana; Kafy, Souzan; Alzaban, Faten

2015-01-01

388

Detection of respiratory arousals using photoplethysmography (PPG) signal in sleep apnea patients.  

PubMed

Respiratory events during sleep induce cortical arousals and manifest changes in autonomic markers in sleep disorder breathing (SDB). Finger photoplethysmography (PPG) has been shown to be a reliable method of determining sympathetic activation. We hypothesize that changes in PPG signals are sufficient to predict the occurrence of respiratory-event-related cortical arousal. In this study, we develop a respiratory arousal detection model in SDB subjects by using PPG features. PPG signals from 10 SDB subjects (9 male, 1 female) with age range 43-75 years were used in this study. Time domain features of PPG signals, such as 1) PWA--pulse wave amplitude, 2) PPI--peak-to-peak interval, and 3) Area--area under peak, were used to detect arousal events. In this study, PWA and Area have shown better performance (higher accuracy and lower false rate) compared to PPI features. After investigating possible groupings of these features, combination of PWA and Area (PWA + Area) was shown to provide better accuracy with a lower false detection rate in arousal detection. PPG-based arousal indexes agreed well across a wide range of decision thresholds, resulting in a receiver operating characteristic with an area under the curve of 0.91. For the decision threshold (PC(thresh) = 25%) chosen for the final analyses, a sensitivity of 68.1% and a specificity of 95.2% were obtained. The results showed an accuracy of 84.68%, 85.15%, 86.93%, and 50.79% with a false rate of 21.80%, 55.41%, 64.78%, and 50.79% at PC(thresh) = 25% or PPI, PWA, Area , and PWA + Area features, respectively. This indicates that combining PWA and Area features reduced the false positive rate without much affecting the sensitivity of the arousal detection system. In conclusion, the PPG-based respiratory arousal detection model is a simple and promising alternative to the conventional electroencephalogram (EEG)-based respiratory arousal detection system. PMID:24108482

Karmakar, Chandan; Khandoker, Ahsan; Penzel, Thomas; Schöbel, Christoph; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

2014-05-01

389

Behavior and Symptom Change Among Women Treated with Placebo for Sexual Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Introduction In clinical trials of drug treatments for women’s sexual dysfunction, placebo responses have often been substantial. However, little is known about the clinical significance, specificity, predictors, and potential mechanisms of placebo response in sexual dysfunction. Aim We aimed to determine the nature and predictors of sexual function outcomes in women treated with placebo for female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the placebo arm of a 12-week, multisite, randomized controlled pharmaceutical trial for FSAD (N = 50). We analyzed the magnitude, domain specificity, and clinical significance of sexual function scores at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks (post-treatment). We examined longitudinal change in sexual function outcomes as a function of several baseline variables (e.g., age, symptom-related distress) and in relation to changes in sexual behavior frequency during the trial. Main Outcome Measure Female Sexual Function Index total score. Results The magnitude of change at post-treatment was clinically significant in approximately one-third of placebo recipients. Effect sizes were similar across multiple aspects of sexual function. Symptom improvement was strongly related to the frequency of satisfying sexual encounters during treatment. However, the relationship between sexual encounter frequency and outcome varied significantly between participants. Conclusions A substantial number of women experienced clinically significant improvement in sexual function during treatment with placebo. Changes in sexual behavior during the trial, more so than participant age or symptom severity at baseline, appeared to be an important determinant of outcome. Contextual and procedural aspects of the clinical trial may have influenced outcomes in the absence of an active drug treatment. PMID:20849412

Bradford, Andrea; Meston, Cindy M.

2011-01-01

390

Sexuality and body image in younger women with breast cancer.  

PubMed

Breast cancer has the potential to be most devastating to the sexual function and self-esteem of premenopausal women. Nevertheless, not one study has systematically compared the impact of breast cancer treatment on sexual issues across age groups. Research shows that younger women with breast cancer have more severe emotional distress than older cohorts. In a group of patients seeking sexual rehabilitation in a cancer center, younger couples were more distressed, but also had the best prognosis with treatment. In theory, loss of a breast or poor breast appearance would be more distressing to women whose youth gives them high expectations for physical beauty. Seeking new dating relationships after breast cancer treatment is a special stressor for single women. Potential infertility also may impact on a woman's self-concept as a sexual person. Systemic treatment disrupts sexual function by causing premature menopause, with estrogen loss leading to vaginal atrophy and androgen loss perhaps decreasing sexual desire and arousability. Research on mastectomy versus breast conservation across all ages of women has demonstrated that general psychological distress, marital satisfaction, and overall sexual frequency and function do not differ between the two treatment groups. Women with breast conservation do rate their body image more highly and are more comfortable with nudity and breast caressing. There is some evidence that breast conservation offers more psychological "protection" for younger women. Research on the impact of breast reconstruction is sparse, but reveals similar patterns. Future studies should use rigorous methodology and focus on the impact of premature menopause and the effectiveness of sexual rehabilitation for younger women. PMID:7999462

Schover, L R

1994-01-01

391

Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

2013-01-01

392

Prevalence and degree of sexual dysfunction in a sample of women seeking bariatric surgery  

PubMed Central

Background Sexual functioning is shown to be impaired in women who are obese, particularly those seeking bariatric surgery. However, most prior studies evaluating sexual function in these populations have not used validated measures. We used the validated Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to assess prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in a sample of over 100 women evaluated for bariatric surgery. Methods The FSFI was administered to reportedly sexually active women during their preoperative evaluation. Scores for individual FSFI domains (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain) ranging from 0(or 1.2) to 6 were summed to produce a FSFI-total score (range = 2-36). A FSFI-total cut-off score of ? 26.55 was used to identify participants with FSD. Participants' FSFI- total and domain scores were compared to previously published norms available for women diagnosed with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) and healthy controls. Results Sixty-one of the 102 participants (59.8%) had FSFI-total scores ? 26.55, indicative of FSD. Older age and menopause were associated with FSD. Compared to published norms, bariatric surgery candidates had FSFI domain scores that were lower than the control group (ps <0.0001) but higher than the FSAD group (ps <0.0001), except for desire where scores were similar. Conclusion Women seeking bariatric surgery are clearly a population with substantial sexual function impairment, with 60% of participants reporting FSD. These findings highlight the need to initiate routine assessment of sexual functioning in this population and examine whether weight loss following bariatric surgery contributes to reversal of FSD. PMID:19733514

Bond, Dale S.; Vithiananthan, Siva; Leahey, Tricia M.; Thomas, J. Graham; Sax, Harry C.; Pohl, Dieter; Ryder, Beth A.; Roye, G. Dean; Giovanni, Jeannine; Wing, Rena R.

2009-01-01

393

Sexuality and Violence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author examines specific manifestations of violence in relation to sexuality: (1) forcible rape rate; (2) war atrocities; (3) sexual violence in prisons; and (4) pornography. Drawing much from Hannah Arendt's book on violence, he views sexual violence as symptomatic of a lack of sexual power, not a sign of its possession. The causes are seen…

Sanctuary, Gerald

394

Addressing Sexual Harassment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses ways on how to address the problem of sexual harassment in schools. Sexual harassment--simply defined as any unwanted and unwelcome sexual behavior--is a sensitive topic. Merely providing students, parents, and staff members with information about the school's sexual harassment policy is insufficient; schools must take…

Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.

2008-01-01

395

Spinal cord, hypothalamic, and air temperature: interaction with arousal states in the marmot.  

PubMed

Yellow-bellied marmots, Marmota flaviventris, prepared with U-shaped thermodes in the epidural space of the thoracic vertebral canal, a thermode in the preoptic hypothalamus, and cortical surface and hippocampal electrodes, were used to investigate the interaction of arousal states with temperature regulation. It was found that arousal state of the animal influences the thermoregulatory responses initiated in either the spinal cord or hypothalamus. Further, changes in ambient temperature affected both the gain and the threshold of these responses. The interaction of the hypothalamus and spinal cord was not an additive function, however the threshold for shivering of each could be altered by temperature manipulation of the other. Future studies in modeling of temperature regulation should consider the contributions of temperature receptors of the spinal cord and the arousal state of the animal during the stimulation period. PMID:434182

Miller, V M; South, F E

1979-01-01

396

Arousal and activity choice in autism: A single case assessment integrating autonomic and behavioral analysis  

PubMed Central

Theoretical accounts of autism have hypothesized links between arousal and behavior but research translations of theory to real-world contexts have been limited. In this single-subject experimental analysis, a school-age subject chose between high and low arousing activities with real time monitoring of behavior and heart rate (HR). Time series statistical analysis showed significant changes in HR associated with activity type and no association with motor movement. Sequential analysis showed that activity choice and HR were significantly associated (i.e., activity choice sequentially dependent with the preceding level of HR). Highly arousing activities were more likely to be chosen following high HR and vice versa. Results provide evidence of the feasibility of an integrative bio-behavioral approach to understand behavior in neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:21278843

Hoch, John; Moore, Tim; McComas, Jennifer; Symons, Frank J.

2010-01-01

397

The role of arousal in the spontaneous regulation of emotions in healthy aging: a fMRI investigation  

PubMed Central

Despite ample support for enhanced affective well-being and emotional stability in healthy aging, the role of potentially important dimensions, such as the emotional arousal, has not been systematically investigated in neuroimaging studies. In addition, the few behavioral studies that examined effects of arousal have produced inconsistent findings. The present study manipulated the arousal of pictorial stimuli to test the hypothesis that preserved emotional functioning in aging is modulated by the level of arousal, and to identify the associated neural correlates. Young and older healthy participants were presented with negative and neutral pictures, which they rated for emotional content, while fMRI data were recorded. There were three main novel findings regarding the neural mechanisms underlying the processing of negative pictures with different levels of arousal in young and older adults. First, the common engagement of the right amygdala in young and older adults was driven by high arousing negative stimuli. Second, complementing an age-related reduction in the subjective ratings for low arousing negative pictures, there were opposing patterns of activity in the rostral/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the amygdala, which showed increased vs. decreased responses, respectively, to low arousing negative pictures. Third, increased spontaneous activity in the ventral ACC/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in older adults was linked to reduced ratings for low arousing negative pictures. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the neural correlates underlying processing of negative emotions with different levels of arousal in the context of enhanced emotional functioning in healthy aging. Notably, the results support the idea that older adults have emotion regulation networks chronically activated, in the absence of explicit induction of the goal to regulate emotions, and that this effect is specific to low arousing negative emotions. PMID:25120498

Dolcos, Sanda; Katsumi, Yuta; Dixon, Roger A.

2014-01-01

398

Hormones and History: The Evolution and Development of Primate Female Sexuality  

PubMed Central

Sexual behavior is required for reproduction in internally fertilizing species but poses significant social and physical risks. Females in many nonprimate species have evolved physical and behavioral mechanisms restricting sexual behavior to when females are fertile. The same hormones producing female fertility also control these mechanisms, assuring that sex only occurs when reproduction is possible. In contrast to nonprimate mammals, hormones do not regulate the capacity to engage in sex in female anthropoid primates, uncoupling fertility and the physical capacity to mate. Instead, in primates, sexual motivation has become the primary coordinator between sexual behavior and fertility. This dependence upon psychological mechanisms to coordinate physiology with behavior is possibly unique to primates, including humans, and allows a variety of nonphysiological influences, particularly social context, to regulate sexual behavior. The independence between hormonal state and sexual behavior allows sex to be used for social purposes. This complex regulation of primate sexuality develops during adolescence, where female monkeys show both hormonally influenced sexual motivation and socially modulated sexual behavior. We present findings from rhesus monkeys illustrating how social context and hormonal state interact to modulate adolescent and adult sexuality. It is argued that this flexibility in sexual behavior, combined with a tight regulation of sexual motivational systems by reproductive hormones, allows sexual behavior to be used for nonreproductive purposes while still assuring its occurrence during periods of female fertility. The evolutionary pressures that produced such flexibility in sexual behavior remain puzzling, but may reflect the importance of sexuality to primate social attraction and cohesion. PMID:15216429

Wallen, Kim; Zehr, Julia L.

2005-01-01

399

Arousal and the pupil: why diazepam-induced sedation is not accompanied by miosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  There is a close relationship between arousal and pupil diameter, decrease in the level of arousal being accompanied by constriction\\u000a of the pupil (miosis), probably reflecting the attenuation of sympathetic outflow as sedation sets in. Paradoxically, sedation\\u000a induced by benzodiazepines is not accompanied by miosis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that diazepam may attenuate both

R. H. Hou; E. R. Samuels; R. W. Langley; E. Szabadi; C. M. Bradshaw

2007-01-01

400

Muscle sympathetic response to arousal predicts neurovascular reactivity during mental stress.  

PubMed

Mental stress often begins with a sudden sensory (or internal) stimulus causing a brief arousal reaction, and is followed by a more long lasting stress phase. Both arousal and stress regularly induce blood pressure (BP) increases whereas effects on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) are variable. Here we have compared responses of MSNA and BP during arousal induced by an electrical skin stimulus and mental stress evoked by a 3 min paced auditory serial arithmetic test (PASAT) in 30 healthy males aged 33 ± 10 years. In addition, recordings were made of ECG, respiratory movements, electrodermal activity and perceived stress. We also monitored corresponding effects of a cold test (CT: 2 min immersion of a hand in ice water). The arousal stimulus evoked significant inhibition of one or two MSNA bursts in 16 subjects, who were classified as responders; the remaining 14 subjects were non-responders. During mental stress responders showed a significant decrease of MSNA and a lesser BP increase compared to non-responders. In non-responders MSNA was unchanged or increased. Perceived stress was higher in non-responders (P = 0.056), but other measures were similar in the two groups. In non-responders mental stress and the cold test induced increases of BP that lasted throughout the subsequent rest period. During the cold test MSNA and BP increased equally in responders and non-responders. In the whole group of subjects, there was a significant correlation (r = 0.80, P < 0.001) between MSNA responses induced by arousal and by mental stress but not between responses evoked by arousal and the cold test (r < 0.1, P > 0.6). Additionally arousal-induced MSNA change was positively correlated with blood pressure changes during MS (systolic BP: r = 0.48; P < 0.01; diastolic BP: r = 0.42; P < 0.05) but not with blood pressure changes during CT. We conclude that in males the MSNA response to arousal predicts the MSNA and BP responses to mental stress. PMID:22526886

Donadio, V; Liguori, R; Elam, M; Karlsson, T; Giannoccaro, M P; Pegenius, G; Giambattistelli, F; Wallin, B G

2012-06-15

401

Sexuality and Islam.  

PubMed

This paper deals with three major questions: (1) What are the sexual norms defined by the sacred texts (Koran and Sunna)? (2) What are the sexual practices currently observed among Moslems? (3) To which extent are current sexual practices of Moslems dissociated from Islamic sexual norms? Sexual standards in Islam are paradoxical: on the one hand, they allow and actually are an enticement to the exercise of sexuality but, on the other hand, they discriminate between male and female sexuality, between marital and pre- or extramarital sexuality, and between heterosexuality and homosexuality. Men are given more rights with regard to the expression of their sexuality; women are forbidden to have extramarital sex (with their slaves) and both genders to have homosexual relationships. The combination of these paradoxical standards with modernisation leads to the current back and forth swing of sexual practices between repression and openness. Partial modernisation leads to greater sexual tolerance. But restrictive sexual standards have gathered strength and have become idealised as a result of the current radicalisation of Islam. This swing of the pendulum between repression and openness is illustrated by phenomena such as public harassment, premarital sexuality, female pleasure, prostitution, and homosexuality. Currently, Islam is not any more the only reference which provides guidance concerning sexual practices but secularisation of sexual laws is still politically unthinkable today. So the only solution is to achieve reform in the name of Islam, through the reinterpretation of repressive holy texts. PMID:20441406

Dialmy, Abdessamad

2010-06-01

402

[Impulsivity in sexual offenders--new ideas or back to basics?].  

PubMed

Despite the fact that the group of sexual offenders remains a population which is still difficult to study, the results of current research are considered novel and interesting. Surprisingly, the very old descriptions applying to paraphilia, which is considered to be one of the reasons of sexual offences, appear to be accurate, especially in the context of similarities between impulsivity and pathologic sexual behaviors. Notably, the nomenclature concerning impulsivity enables a specific and reasonable description of behaviors associated with sexual offences. Moreover, the results of research studies show that it is the lack of inhibition, not pathologic arousal, which is the most important factor in the pathogenesis of forbidden sexual behaviors. In addition, it has been shown that behavioral manifestations of impulsivity (substance abuse, suicide attempts) appear commonly in sexual offenders. Mutual relationships between alcohol drinking, suicide attempts, history of child sexual abuse and sexual offences, both in symptomatologic and etiologic aspect, raise a suggestion that all these phenomena may share a common background of poor inhibitory control. PMID:24946478

Krasowska, Aleksandra; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Czernikiewicz, Wies?aw Marek; Wojnar, Marcin; Nasierowski, Tadeusz

2013-01-01

403

The experience of sexuality during breastfeeding among primiparous women.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to describe various aspects of sexuality for primiparous breastfeeding women. The conceptual framework used for the study was Bernhard's theory of women's integrated sexuality which describes female sexuality as a multidimensional, biopsychosocial phenomenon. The investigators used a descriptive design, analyzing data from the 576 primiparous breastfeeding women who, as part of a larger study, completed the Breastfeeding and Sexuality Tool at the time of complete weaning. The women were from a large, private hospital in urban Minnesota. Subjects completed initial questionnaires during the postpartum hospitalization. Follow-up data were collected by phone at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum. Those who had not weaned by 12 months were followed every 3 months until complete weaning was reported. Overall, women perceived that breastfeeding had a slightly negative impact on the physiologic aspects of sexuality, but did not greatly affect the woman's sexual relationship with her partner. In addition, breastfeeding mothers perceived their partners' attitudes towards breastfeeding and sexuality as slightly positive, and did not worry that sexual activity would harm their milk supply or their ability to nurse. Overall, breastfeeding had a slightly negative impact on sexuality. However, a wide range of responses were reported by the women. Health care providers should be familiar with the whole range of possible responses to sexuality while breastfeeding in order to appropriately counsel women about what is normal and what to expect during this time. PMID:10907332

Avery, M D; Duckett, L; Frantzich, C R

2000-01-01

404

Closed-loop minimal model analysis of the cardiovascular response to transient arousal from sleep in healthy humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a previous work we reported discrepancies in the cardiovascular response to arousal from NREM sleep between OSAS patients and healthy controls. The long lasting cardiac sympathetic increase observed in normals was not present in the OSAS group, whereas the peripheral vasculature reaction was similar between the two groups. Analysis of REM arousal revealed that there was a similar temporary

A. Blasi; J. Jo; E. Valladares; R. Juarez; A. Baydur; M. C. K. Khoo

2004-01-01

405

Prevalence and sociodemographic predictors of sexual problems in Portugal: a population-based study with women aged 18 to 79 years.  

PubMed

Studies on epidemiology of female sexual problems consistently indicate high prevalence rates worldwide, suggesting that this clinical presentation should be considered as a public health concern. However, there are no published studies on prevalence of sexual problems in Portugal. The present study investigated the prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of female sexual problems in a Portuguese community sample. In addition, the authors assessed the role of sociodemographic predictors of women's sexual difficulties. The authors recruited 500 women using quota methods to resemble the Portuguese population according to its demographic characteristics. Participants answered to the Female Sexual Function Index and to a sociodemographic questionnaire. Findings indicated that 37.9% of the Portuguese women reported symptoms of sexual problems. Symptoms of lack of sexual desire was the most frequent sexual difficulty with 25.4% of the women reporting low desire most times or always, followed by symptoms of orgasmic (16.8%), sexual arousal (15.1%), and lubrication difficulties (12.9%), dyspareunia (9.8%), and vaginismus (6.6%). Results indicated that age was a significant predictor of female sexual problems. Results also indicated that symptoms of female sexual problems are a significant health concern in Portugal, suggesting that public policies should be developed to promote sexual health. PMID:24364817

Peixoto, Maria Manuela; Nobre, Pedro

2015-01-01

406

Modeling Physiological Data with Deep Belief Networks.  

PubMed

Feature extraction is key in understanding and modeling of physiological data. Traditionally hand-crafted features are chosen based on expert knowledge and then used for classification or regression. To determine important features and pick the effective ones to handle a new task may be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Moreover, the manual process does not scale well with new or large-size tasks. In this work, we present a system based on Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) that can automatically extract features from raw physiological data of 4 channels in an unsupervised fashion and then build 3 classifiers to predict the levels of arousal, valance, and liking based on the learned features. The classification accuracies are 60.9%, 51.2%, and 68.4%, respectively, which are comparable with the results obtained by Gaussian Naïve Bayes classifier on the state-of-the-art expert designed features. These results suggest that DBNs can be applied to raw physiological data to effectively learn relevant features and predict emotions. PMID:25165501

Wang, Dan; Shang, Yi

2013-01-01

407

Modeling Physiological Data with Deep Belief Networks  

PubMed Central

Feature extraction is key in understanding and modeling of physiological data. Traditionally hand-crafted features are chosen based on expert knowledge and then used for classification or regression. To determine important features and pick the effective ones to handle a new task may be labor-intensive and time-consuming. Moreover, the manual process does not scale well with new or large-size tasks. In this work, we present a system based on Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) that can automatically extract features from raw physiological data of 4 channels in an unsupervised fashion and then build 3 classifiers to predict the levels of arousal, valance, and liking based on the learned features. The classification accuracies are 60.9%, 51.2%, and 68.4%, respectively, which are comparable with the results obtained by Gaussian Naïve Bayes classifier on the state-of-the-art expert designed features. These results suggest that DBNs can be applied to raw physiological data to effectively learn relevant features and predict emotions. PMID:25165501

Wang, Dan; Shang, Yi

2014-01-01

408

Physiology of Libido  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Libido has always been associated with sexual motivation. The Latin root refers specifically to sexual lust, a term that conjures\\u000a images of highly motivated behavior. Libido is observed in the strength of desire and responding toward a sexual incentive,\\u000a and therefore can be regarded as a conscious reflection of sexual motivation, which we define here as the energizing force\\u000a that

James G. Pfaus

409

Sexual narcissism and the perpetration of sexual aggression.  

PubMed

Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales-Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

Widman, Laura; McNulty, James K

2010-08-01

410

RESPONSE TO SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION/HARASSMENT Sexual Harassment  

E-print Network

RESPONSE TO SEXUAL DISCRIMINATION/HARASSMENT Sexual Harassment Sexual harassment is a form of discrimination, as defined in the university Discrimination and Harassment policy. Sexual harassment can include against other student Contact the Office of J

Mayfield, John

411

Sexual Narcissism and the Perpetration of Sexual Aggression  

PubMed Central

Despite indirect evidence linking narcissism to sexual aggression, studies directly examining this relationship have yielded inconsistent results. Likely contributing to such inconsistencies, prior research has used global measures of narcissism not sensitive to whether the components of narcissism are activated in sexual versus non-sexual domains. The current research avoided such problems by using a measure of sexual narcissism to predict sexual aggression. In a sample of 299 men and women, Study 1 validated the Sexual Narcissism Scale, a new sexuality research instrument with four subscales—Sexual Exploitation, Sexual Entitlement, Low Sexual Empathy, and Sexual Skill. Then, in a sample of 378 men, Study 2 demonstrated that sexual narcissism was associated with reports of the frequency of sexual aggression, three specific types of sexual aggression (unwanted sexual contact, sexual coercion, and attempted/completed rape), and the likelihood of future sexual aggression. Notably, global narcissism was unrelated to all indices of sexual aggression when sexual narcissism was controlled. That sexual narcissism outperformed global assessments of narcissism to account for variance in sexual aggression suggests that future research may benefit by examining whether sexual narcissism and other sexual-situation-specific measurements of personality can similarly provide a more valid test of the association between personality and other sexual behaviors and outcomes (e.g., contraceptive use, infidelity, sexual satisfaction). PMID:19130204

McNulty, James K.

2014-01-01

412

Hearing something emotional influences memory for what was just seen: How arousal amplifies effects of competition in memory consolidation.  

PubMed

Enhanced memory for emotional items often comes at the cost of memory for the background scenes. Because emotional foreground items both induce arousal and attract attention, it is not clear whether the emotion effects are simply the result of shifts in visual attention during encoding or whether arousal has effects beyond simple attention capture. In the current study, participants viewed a series of scenes that each either had a foreground object or did not have one, and then, after each image, heard either an emotionally arousing negative sound or a neutral sound. After a 24-hr delay, they returned for a memory test for the objects and scenes. Postencoding arousal decreased recognition memory of scenes shown behind superimposed objects but not memory of scenes shown alone. These findings support the hypothesis that arousal amplifies the effects of competition between mental representations, influencing memory consolidation of currently active representations. PMID:25313671

Ponzio, Allison; Mather, Mara

2014-12-01

413

Tribulus terrestris for treatment of sexual dysfunction in women: randomized double-blind placebo - controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background Tribulus terrestris as a herbal remedy has shown beneficial aphrodisiac effects in a number of animal and human experiments. This study was designed as a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of Tribulus terrestris in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder during their fertile years. Sixty seven women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder were randomly assigned to Tribulus terrestris extract (7.5 mg/day) or placebo for 4 weeks. Desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks after the end of the treatment by using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Two groups were compared by repeated measurement ANOVA test. Results Thirty women in placebo group and thirty women in drug group completed the study. At the end of the fourth week, patients in the Tribulus terrestris group had experienced significant improvement in their total FSFI (p?arousal (p?=?0.037), lubrication (p?sexual desire disorder. Further investigation of Tribulus terrestris in women is warranted. PMID:24773615

2014-01-01

414

The role of succinate dehydrogenase and oxaloacetate in metabolic suppression during hibernation and arousal.  

PubMed

Hibernation elicits a major reduction in whole-animal O(2) consumption that corresponds with active suppression of liver mitochondrial electron transport capacity at, or downstream of, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). During arousal from the torpor phase of hibernation this suppression is reversed and metabolic rates rise dramatically. In this study, we used the 13-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to assess isolated liver mitochondrial respiration during the torpor phase of hibernation and various stages of arousal to elucidate a potential role of SDH in metabolic suppression. State 3 and state 4 respiration rates were seven- and threefold lower in torpor compared with the summer-active and interbout euthermic states. Respiration rates increased during arousal so that when body temperature reached 30 degrees C in late arousal, state 3 and state 4 respiration were 3.3- and 1.8-fold greater than during torpor, respectively. SDH activity was 72% higher in interbout euthermia than in torpor. Pre-incubating with isocitrate [to alleviate oxaloacetate (OAA) inhibition] increased state 3 respiration rate during torpor by 91%, but this rate was still fourfold lower than that measured in interbout euthermia. Isocitrate pre-incubation also eliminated differences in SDH activity among hibernation bout stages. OAA concentration correlated negatively with both respiration rates and SDH activity. These data suggest that OAA reversibly inhibits SDH in torpor, but cannot fully account for the drastic metabolic suppression observed during this hibernation phase. PMID:20112024

Armstrong, Christopher; Staples, James F

2010-06-01

415

Optimizing arousal to manage aggression: a pilot study of sensory modulation.  

PubMed

The dominant model that informs clinical training for preventing violence and managing aggression posits arousal as mediated downwards from higher cortical structures. This view results in an often-misplaced reliance on verbal and cognitive techniques for de-escalation. The emergence of sensory modulation, via the Six Core Strategies, is an alternative or complementary approach that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint. Sensory-based interventions are thought to promote adaptive regulation of arousal and emotion, but this connection has had limited theoretical and empirical development. This paper presents results of a pilot trial of sensory-based interventions in four inpatient mental health units in New Zealand. Narrative analysis of interview and focus group data suggest that modifications to the environment and the use of soothing stimuli moderate or optimize arousal and promote an ability to adaptively regulate emotion. Findings are discussed in light of recent advances in the neurophysiology of emotional regulation and the General Aggression Model that posits arousal and maladaptive emotional regulation as precursors to aggression. PMID:23374543

Sutton, Daniel; Wilson, Michael; Van Kessel, Kirsten; Vanderpyl, Jane

2013-12-01

416

Age Differences in Emotional Reactions: Arousal and Age-Relevance Count  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent findings suggest positivity effects in older adults' attention and memory, but few studies have examined such effects on the level of emotional reactivity. In this study, 52 young and 52 older adults rated 172 pictures of the International Affective Picture System, differing in arousal and age-relevance, in terms of valence and discrete emotions. Age differences in the ratio of

Berit Streubel; Ute Kunzmann

2011-01-01

417

Dissociation of Event-Related Potentials Indexing Arousal and Semantic Cohesion During Emotional Word Encoding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Event-related potential (ERP) studies have shown that emotional stimuli elicit greater amplitude late positive-polarity potentials (LPPs) than neutral stimuli. This effect has been attributed to arousal, but emotional stimuli are also more semantically coherent than uncategorized neutral stimuli. ERPs were recorded during encoding of positive,…

Dillon, Daniel G.; Cooper, Julie J.; Grent-'t-Jong, Tineke; Woldorff, Marty G.; LaBar, Kevin S.

2006-01-01

418

Heart rate variability: sleep stage, time of night, and arousal influences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectral analysis was used to assess heart rate variability in consecutive 5-min epochs during the night in 12 normal adults. Simultaneous time coding of EEG and digitized EKG allowed examination of heart rate variability as a function of sleep stage, time of night and presence of EEG arousal. The results replicated previous studies in showing increases in high frequency components

M. H. Bonnet; D. L. Arand

1997-01-01

419

Images from a jointly-arousing collective ritual reveal affective polarization  

PubMed Central

Collective rituals are biologically ancient and culturally pervasive, yet few studies have quantified their effects on participants. We assessed two plausible models from qualitative anthropology: ritual empathy predicts affective convergence among all ritual participants irrespective of ritual role; rite-of-passage predicts emotional differences, specifically that ritual initiates will express relatively negative valence when compared with non-initiates. To evaluate model predictions, images of participants in a Spanish fire-walking ritual were extracted from video footage and assessed by nine Spanish raters for arousal and valence. Consistent with rite-of-passage predictions, we found that arousal jointly increased for all participants but that valence differed by ritual role: fire-walkers exhibited increasingly positive arousal and increasingly negative valence when compared with passengers. This result offers the first quantified evidence for rite of passage dynamics within a highly arousing collective ritual. Methodologically, we show that surprisingly simple and non-invasive data structures (rated video images) may be combined with methods from evolutionary ecology (Bayesian Generalized Linear Mixed Effects models) to clarify poorly understood dimensions of the human condition. PMID:24399979

Bulbulia, Joseph A.; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Schjoedt, Uffe; Fondevila, Sabela; Sibley, Chris G.; Konvalinka, Ivana

2013-01-01

420

Startle reflex hyporeactivity in Parkinson's disease: an emotion-specific or arousal-modulated deficit?  

PubMed Central

We previously reported that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) demonstrate reduced psychophysiologic reactivity to unpleasant pictures as indexed by diminished startle eyeblink magnitude (Bowers et al., 2006). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that this hyporeactivity was primarily driven by diminished reactivity to fear-eliciting stimuli as opposed to other types of aversive pictures. This hypothesis was based on previous evidence suggesting amygdalar abnormalities in PD patients coupled with the known role of the amygdala in fear processing. To test this hypothesis, 24 patients with Parkinson's disease and 24 controls viewed standardized sets of emotional pictures that depicted fear, disgust (mutilations, contaminations), pleasant, and neutral contents. Startle eyeblinks were elicited while subjects viewed these emotional pictures. Results did not support the hypothesis of a specific deficit to fear pictures. Instead, the PD patients had reduced reactivity to mutilation pictures relative to other types of negative pictures in the context of normal subjective ratings. Further analyses revealed that controls displayed a pattern of increased startle eyeblink magnitude for “high arousal” versus “low arousal” negative pictures, regardless of picture category, whereas startle eyeblink magnitude in the PD group did not vary by arousal level. These results suggest that previous findings of decreased aversion-modulated startle is driven by reduced reactivity to highly arousing negative stimuli rather than to a specific category (i.e., fear or disgust) of emotion stimuli. PMID:19428424

Miller, K.M.; Okun, M.S.; Marsiske, M.; Fennell, E.B.; Bowers, D.

2009-01-01

421

Posttrauma Numbing of Fear, Detachment, and Arousal Predict Delinquent Behaviors in Early Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study elaborated on associations between youth's trauma-related emotional numbing across multiple affective domains (e.g., fear, sadness, happiness, anger) and delinquent behaviors. The study also examined whether the effects of posttrauma emotional numbing varied by the occurrence of posttrauma arousal symptoms. Participants were 123 middle…

Allwood, Maureen A.; Bell, Debora J.; Horan, Jacqueline

2011-01-01

422

Context of Success, Affective Arousal, and Generosity: The Neglected Role of Negative Affect in Success Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary Boys' generosity toward peers following a success experience varied according to resulting positive and negative affects. Role of context of success relative to affective arousal and generosity were explored. Results indicated importance of considering the context of success and relevance of negative affects induced by a success…

Bryant, Brenda K.

1983-01-01

423

The Effects of Guilt-Shame Arousing Communications on Attitudes and Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies sought to investigate two levels (high vs. low) of guilt-shame arousing appeals in the areas of adoption and needy children on expressed guilt, attitudes toward the communicator and communication, information retention, and intended and actual commitment to various behaviors. Subjects were 68 adult men and women drawn from Presbyterian…

Dembroski, Theodore M.; Pennebaker, James W.

424

Prenatal cocaine exposure alters emotional arousal regulation and its effects on working memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

While prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) has been associated with arousal dysregulation and attentional impairments in both human and animal studies, the neurobiological bases of these teratogenic effects have not been well characterized. In the current study, we report functional neuroimaging observations of these effects in exposed youth. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we embedded task-irrelevant emotional distracters in a

Zhihao Li; Claire D. Coles; Mary Ellen Lynch; Stephan Hamann; Scott Peltier; Stephen LaConte; Xiaoping Hu

2009-01-01

425

What Parts of PTSD Are Normal: Intrusion, Avoidance, or Arousal? Data from the Northridge, California, Earthquake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence and comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are addressed in a study of 130 Northridge, California, earthquake survivors interviewed 3 months postdisaster. Only 13% of the sample met full PTSD criteria, but 48% met both the reexperiencing and the arousal symptom criteria, without meeting the avoidance and numbing symptom criterion. Psychiatric comorbidity was associated mostly with avoidance and

J. Curtis McMillen; Carol S. North; Elizabeth M. Smith

2000-01-01