Sample records for physiological sexual arousal

  1. Biochemical and Physiological Mechanisms of Female Genital Sexual Arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulmaged M. Traish; Noel N. Kim; Ricardo Munarriz; Robert Moreland; Irwin Goldstein

    2002-01-01

    Limited studies are available concerning physiological and biochemical mechanisms involved in female sexual function and dysfunction. The paucity of physiological and biochemical data pertaining to genital sexual arousal function is attributed, in part, to lack of reliable experimental models and tools for the investigation of female sexual arousal. This review summarizes research efforts from a number of laboratories in which

  2. The relationship between women's subjective and physiological sexual arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra H. Rellini; Katie M. McCall; Patrick K. Randall; Cindy M. Meston

    2005-01-01

    Previous literature presents discordant results on the relationship between physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. In this study, the use of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed a significant concordance between continuous measures of physiological and subjective sexual arousal as assessed during exposure to erotic stimuli in a laboratory setting. We propose that past studies that have found little or

  3. The relationship between women's subjective and physiological sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; McCall, Katie M; Randall, Patrick K; Meston, Cindy M

    2005-01-01

    Previous literature presents discordant results on the relationship between physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. In this study, the use of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed a significant concordance between continuous measures of physiological and subjective sexual arousal as assessed during exposure to erotic stimuli in a laboratory setting. We propose that past studies that have found little or no association between the two measures may have been in part limited by the methodology and statistical analyses employed. PMID:15720587

  4. Physiological measures of sexual arousal in the human

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marvin Zuckerman

    1971-01-01

    Reviews the physiological methods and findings of research on sexual arousal. The role of and changes in the CNS, autonomic nervous system, hormones, electrodermal potentials, cardiovascular system, respiration, penile erection, scrotum and testes, vaginal blood flow, uterine contractions, temperature, pupillary response, evoked cortical response, and biochemical determinations are discussed. Methodological difficulties in the selection of stimuli and in the assessment

  5. Validity of Physiological Measures of Pedophilic Sexual Arousal in a Sexual Offender Population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon C. Nagayama Hall; William C. Proctor; George M. Nelson

    1988-01-01

    Sexual arousal, as measured by penile erection, in response to nondeviant and pedophilic audiotapes was analyzed in a sample of 122 inpatient adult male sexual offenders. Eighty percent of the subjects were able to voluntarily and completely inhibit their sexual arousal. Multivariate analyses suggested that nondeviant and deviant arousal were significantly associated and that sexual arousal as a male voice

  6. The cortisol response during physiological sexual arousal in adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Delville, Yvon; Meston, Cindy M

    2009-12-01

    Many women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience difficulties becoming sexually aroused. This study measured cortisol and physiological sexual arousal during exposure to sexual stimuli in women with and without a history of CSA. Childhood sexual abuse survivors showed a smaller decrease in cortisol during sexual arousal than the nonsexually abused, control group potentially due to an increase in cortisol in some of the participants in the CSA group. Physiological sexual arousal was weaker in CSA survivors compared to women with no history of sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms showed characteristics consistent with mediation for the relationship between a history of CSA and inhibited sexual arousal responses. PMID:19960549

  7. The cortisol response during physiological sexual arousal in adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Delville, Yvon; Meston, Cindy M.

    2009-01-01

    Many women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience difficulties becoming sexually aroused. This study measured cortisol and physiological sexual arousal during exposure to sexual stimuli in women with and without a history of CSA. CSA survivors showed a smaller decrease in cortisol during sexual arousal than the non-sexually abused, control group potentially due to an increase in cortisol in some of the participants in the CSA group. Physiological sexual arousal was weaker in CSA survivors compared to women with no history of sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms showed characteristics consistent with mediation for the relationship between a history of CSA and inhibited sexual arousal responses. PMID:19960549

  8. Acute Effects of Nicotine on Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind,

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    on sexual dysfunction, and for assisting public health policy in considering the deleterious effectsAcute Effects of Nicotine on Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Men studies have focused on the acute effects of smoking on physiological sexual response, and none have

  9. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders. PMID:2346901

  10. Sexual arousal: similarities and differences between men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra Graziottin

    2004-01-01

    Sexual arousal encompasses activation of physiological systems that coordinate sexual function in both sexes and can be divided into central arousal, peripheral non-genital arousal, and genital arousal. Genital arousal leads to erection in men and to vaginal lubrication and clitoral\\/vulvar (vestibular bulb) congestion in women. Persisting biases in the understanding of the pathophysiology of sexual arousal are exemplified by the

  11. ORIGINAL RESEARCH--ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    Stimuli Lisa Dawn Hamilton, BA,* Alessandra H. Rellini, PhD, and Cindy M. Meston, PhD* *Department related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. Hamilton LD, Rellini AH, and Meston CM

  12. Indirect Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on Sexual Risk-taking: The Roles of Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. George; Kelly Cue Davis; Jeanette Norris; Julia R. Heiman; Susan A. Stoner; Rebecca L. Schacht; Christian S. Hendershot; Kelly F. Kajumulo

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments supported the idea that alcohol fosters sexual risk-taking in men and women, in part, through its effects\\u000a on sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, increasing alcohol dosage (target blood alcohol levels of .00, .04, .08%) heightened men’s\\u000a and women’s risk-taking intentions. Alcohol’s effect was indirect via increased subjective sexual arousal; also, men exhibited\\u000a greater risk-taking than women. In Experiment

  13. Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa Dawn Hamilton; Alessandra H. Rellini; Cindy M. Meston

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim. In the present

  14. Validity of Physiological Measures of Pedophilic Sexual Arousal in a Sexual Offender Population: A Reply to Quinsey and Laws

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gordon C. Nagayama Hall

    1990-01-01

    Quinsey and Laws (1990) have criticized the Hall, Proctor, and Nelson (1988) study of the validity of physiological measures of pedophilic arousal on several methodological grounds. However, Hall et al. (1988) did use standardized procedures which suggested that such physiological measures lack external validity. Moreover, the Hall et al. (1988) results are consistent with many other recent physiological studies that

  15. Physiological parameters associated with psychogenic sexual arousal in women with complete spinal cord injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marca L. Sipski; Craig J. Alexander; Raymond C. Rosen

    1995-01-01

    Objective: To compare the physiological sexual responses of women with complete spinal cord injuries (SCIs) with those of able-bodied women. Design: Controlled laboratory-based analysis of responses to audiovisual erotic and audiovisual erotic combined with manual stimulation. Setting: The sexual physiology laboratory at our freestanding rehabilitation hospital. Participants: A volunteer sample of 13 women with complete SCIs above T6 along with

  16. Physiologic parameters associated with sexual arousal in women with incomplete spinal cord injuries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marca L. Sipski; Craig J. Alexander; Raymond C. Rosen

    1997-01-01

    Objective: To compare the physiologic sexual responses of women with incomplete spinal cord injuries (SCIs) with and without preservation of the ability to perceive T11-L2 pinprick sensation.Design: Controlled laboratory-based analysis of responses to varying combinations of audiovisual erotic stimulation, manual genital stimulation, and performance of a distracting task coupled with manual genital stimulation.Setting: The sexual physiology laboratory at our freestanding

  17. The impact of anxiety on sexual arousal in women

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrea; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the impact of state anxiety, trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity on physiological and self-report measures of sexual arousal and sexual function in a non-clinical sample of women. Physiological sexual responses to an erotic stimulus were assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography, and subjective reactions were measured using questionnaires. Results suggested a curvilinear relationship between state anxiety and physiological sexual arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA). Trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity were correlated with self-reported sexual arousal outside the laboratory. The findings may be interpreted in light of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) influences on sexual arousal and potential cognitive interference mechanisms associated with anxiety. PMID:16199003

  18. The Inhibitory Effects of Nicotine on Physiological Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Women: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Christopher B.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Extensive research suggests that long-term cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for the introduction of sexual dysfunction in men. However, results of limited data investigating this relationship in women are mixed. No studies have examined the acute effects of tobacco or nicotine on physiological sexual response in women. Controlled experimental studies examining acute effects of isolated nicotine intake on female physiological sexual responses are necessary in order to help elucidate tobacco’s potential role in the development and/or maintenance of sexual impairment in women. Aim To examine whether isolated nicotine intake acutely affects sexual arousal responses in nonsmoking women. Methods Twenty-five sexually functional women (mean age = 20 years) each with less than 100 direct exposures to nicotine completed two counterbalanced conditions in which they were randomized to received either nicotine gum (6 mg) or placebo gum, both administered double-blind and matched for appearance, taste, and consistency, approximately 40 minutes prior to viewing an erotic film. Main Outcome Measures Physiological (changes in vaginal pulse amplitude via vaginal photoplethysmography) and subjective (continuous self-report) sexual responses to erotic stimuli were examined, as well as changes in mood. Results Nicotine significantly reduced genital responses to the erotic films (P = 0.05), corresponding to a 30% attenuation in physiological sexual arousal. This occurred in 11 of 18 women with valid physiological assessments. Nicotine had no significant effect on continuous self-report ratings of sexual arousal (P = 0.45), or on mood (all Ps > 0.05). Conclusions Acute nicotine intake significantly attenuates physiological sexual arousal in healthy nonsmoking women. Our findings provide support to the hypothesis that nicotine may be the primary pharmacological agent responsible for genital hemodynamic disruption, thereby facilitating a cascade of biochemical and vascular events which may impair normal sexual arousal responses. PMID:18331269

  19. Acute Effects of Nicotine on Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Harte, Christopher B.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Chronic nicotine treatment has deleterious effects on vascular functioning and catecholamine modulation, which may compromise erectile functioning. Evidence that long-term cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for introducing impotence is robust. However, limited studies have focused on the acute effects of smoking on physiological sexual response, and none have investigated the deleterious effects of isolated nicotine on human sexual arousal. Consequently, pathophysiological underpinnings of tobacco-induced—and particularly, nicotine-induced—erectile dysfunction are not well understood. Aim To provide the first empirical examination of the acute effects of isolated nicotine on sexual arousal in nonsmoking men. Methods Twenty-eight sexually functional heterosexual men (mean age 21 years), each with less than 100 direct exposures to nicotine, participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Participants received either Nicorette polacrilex gum (SmithKline Beecham Consumer Healthcare, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) (6 mg; approximately equivalent to smoking one high-yield cigarette) or placebo gum, matched for appearance, taste, and consistency, approximately 40 minutes prior to viewing an erotic film. Main Outcome Measures Physiological (circumferential change via penile plethysmography) and subjective (continuous self-report) sexual responses to erotic stimuli were examined, as well as changes in mood. Results Nicotine significantly reduced erectile responses to the erotic films (P = 0.02), corresponding to a 23% reduction in physiological sexual arousal. This occurred in 16 of 20 men with valid physiological recordings. Nicotine had no significant effect on continuous subjective ratings of sexual arousal (P = 0.70) or on mood (all Ps > 0.05). Conclusions Isolated nicotine can significantly attenuate physiological sexual arousal in healthy nonsmoking men. These findings have implications for elucidating physiological mechanisms responsible for the effects of nicotine on sexual dysfunction, and for assisting public health policy in considering the deleterious effects of nicotine on sexual health. PMID:17971108

  20. Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in women’s cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. PMID:18624961

  1. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not the synonyms), the activation of specific brain areas as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxygucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic areas as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

  2. The impact of anxiety on sexual arousal in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Bradford; Cindy M. Meston

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of state anxiety, trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity on physiological and self-report measures of sexual arousal and sexual function in a non-clinical sample of women. Physiological sexual responses to an erotic stimulus were assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography, and subjective reactions were measured using questionnaires. Results suggested a curvilinear relationship between state anxiety and physiological sexual

  3. The complexities of female sexual arousal disorder: potential role of pharmacotherapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Basson

    2002-01-01

    Identifying any role for pharmacotherapy in women's sexual arousal disorders requires an understanding of the components of sexual arousal. Furthermore, an analysis of female sexual arousal disorders necessitates distinguishing between the absence of physiological genital responding and lack of attention to, or dislike of, any physiological responding. Pharmacologically enhancing a suboptimal physiological vasocongestive response is possible. Current studies involve both

  4. An Evaluation of the Validity of Thermography as a Physiological Measure of Sexual Arousal in a Non-University Adult Sample

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tuuli M. Kukkonen; Yitzchak M. Binik; Rhonda Amsel; Serge Carrier

    2010-01-01

    Thermography is a promising technology for the physiological measurement of sexual arousal in both men and women. This study\\u000a was designed to extend our previous college student thermography study findings to an older sample (M age = 37.05 years), add an anxiety control group to further examine the specificity of temperature change, and examine the\\u000a relationship between genital temperature and a continuous measure

  5. Contextual approaches to the physiology and classification of erectile function, erectile dysfunction, and sexual arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benjamin D Sachs

    2000-01-01

    This paper offers a reexamination of some long-held beliefs relating to the physiology of erectile function and dysfunction, including the idea that there is a singular physiology of erection. Rather, there appear to be plural neural, neurochemical, and endocrine mechanisms whose participation in erectile function depends on the behavioral context in which erection occurs. The best examples of this context-dependent

  6. Psychophysiological Sexual Arousal in Women with a History of Child Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra H. Rellini; Cindy M. Meston

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of literature that suggests that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher baseline sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity than healthy controls and research that suggests that the SNS plays a critical role in female physiological sexual arousal, we examined the impact of SNS activation through intense exercise on sexual arousal in

  7. Laboratory-Induced Hyperventilation Differentiates Female Sexual Arousal Disorder Subtypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Brotto; Carolin Klein; Boris B. Gorzalka

    2009-01-01

    The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective\\u000a and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing,

  8. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  9. Validity of Physiological Measures of Pedophilic Sexual Arousal in a Sexual Offender Population: A Critique of Hall, Proctor, and Nelson

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vernon L. Quinsey; D. R. Laws

    1990-01-01

    It is argued that methodological problems in Hall, Proctor, and Nelson’s (1988) comparison of phallometric data on child molesters and rapists include confounding of stimulus category and duration, omission of neutral stimuli and a normal control group, failure to employ relative measures of sexual preference, and failure to exclude subjects who did not respond to the sexual stimuli. Quinsey and

  10. Sexual fantasies and sexual arousal in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia Camuso; Alessandra H. Rellini

    2010-01-01

    Treatments of female sexual arousal dysfunction for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors could greatly benefit from more information on mechanisms to the sexual arousal problems specific to this population. In this study, 60 CSA survivors and 120 women with no history of CSA (NCSA) participated in an Internet-based survey on sexual arousal and sexual fantasies. Self-reported sexual arousal was measured

  11. Psychophysiological sexual arousal in women with a history of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of literature that suggests that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher baseline sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity than healthy controls and research that suggests that the SNS plays a critical role in female physiological sexual arousal, we examined the impact of SNS activation through intense exercise on sexual arousal in women with CSA and PTSD. We measured physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women with CSA (n = 8), women with CSA and PTSD (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 10) during exposure to nonerotic and erotic videos. After exercise, women with CSA and women with CSA and PTSD showed no significant differences in the physiological sexual response compared with no exercise, which was different from the increased physiological sexual response after exercise observed in control women. PMID:16234222

  12. Sexual desire and arousal disorders in women.

    PubMed

    Laan, Ellen; Both, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    According to incentive motivation theory, sexual desire is the result of the interplay between a sensitive sexual response system and stimuli that activate the system. From this notion it follows that sexual desire is not a cause but a consequence of sexual arousal. The effects of hormones, somatic disease and medication on sexual arousability are discussed, as well as the influence of psychological factors - such as stimulus meaning, mood and cognition - and relational context on female sexual desire and arousal. At present, much attention is being paid to possible pharmacological treatments for decreased desire and arousal problems, even though desire and arousal seem more strongly associated with psychological and relational factors. Empirical evidence of the effect of psychological treatments for decreased desire and arousal problems in women is scarce. A cognitive-behavioral therapy approach with explicit attention to relational context and a focus on improving arousal and sexual satisfaction has shown to be effective. Knowledge about which treatment elements bring about change is still lacking. PMID:22005202

  13. Penile Erection: A Reflection of Sexual Arousal and Arousability in Male Chimpanzees

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ronald D. Nadler; Eric S. Bartlett

    1997-01-01

    Nadler, R. D. and E. S. Bartlett. Penile erection: A reflection of sexual arousal and arousability in male chimpanzees. Physiol Behav 61(3) 425–432, 1997.—A study was conducted to determine if sexual motivation in male chimpanzees, defined by the two components, sexual arousal and arousability, could be quantified by measuring penile erection during laboratory pair-tests of sexual behavior. Sexual arousal, the

  14. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  15. The Enhancing Effects of Anxiety on Arousal in Sexually Dysfunctional and Functional Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eileen M. Palace; Boris B. Gorzalka

    1990-01-01

    Effects of anxiety on sexual arousal were examined to determine if sexually dysfunctional and functional women exhibit different patterns of physiological and subjective response. Subjects viewed 2 videotape conditions: an anxiety-evoking and neutral–control preexposure stimulus, each paired with a sexual arousal-evoking stimulus. Anxiety preexposure enhanced the rate and magnitude of genital arousal for both dysfunctional and functional subjects in relation

  16. The Role of Attention in Sexual Arousal: Implications for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. de Jong

    2009-01-01

    The literature on the role of attention in sexual arousal is reviewed, especially that which has implications for noninvasive treatment of sexual dysfunction. Findings suggest that voluntary control of sexual arousal can be achieved through attentional focus on nonsexual cognitions or sexual fantasy. Cognitive biases may direct attention and thus facilitate or impede sexual arousal. Sexual arousal may be influenced

  17. Effects of fragrance on female sexual arousal and mood across the menstrual cycle

    E-print Network

    subjective and physiological measures of sexual arousal and of mood. Responses were obtained from femaleEffects of fragrance on female sexual arousal and mood across the menstrual cycle CYNTHIA A. GRAHAM, USA b The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction, Indiana University

  18. The Impact of Body Awareness on Sexual Arousal in Women with Sexual Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Seal, Brooke N.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The impact of self-awareness during sexual activity has been widely discussed. However, research has been largely focused on the effects of performance anxiety in male erectile functioning. It has been suggested that physical appearance concerns may have a similar influence on sexual function in women as does men’s self-awareness about erectile function. However, the role that physical appearance or awareness of one’s body may play in female sexual response has received little empiric attention. Aim To examine the effects of body awareness and self-report levels of body esteem on sexual response in 21 sexually dysfunctional women. Methods Body awareness was induced in one of two counterbalanced sessions. A full-length mirror was placed in front of participants throughout the experimental session, and participants were instructed to use the mirror to place 10 electrodes on each side of their bodies to prepare for a possible electrocardiogram. This methodology was used to ensure that women looked at themselves in the mirror and became more aware of their bodies during the experimental session. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported mental arousal, perceptions of physical arousal, physiological sexual arousal, affect, anxiety, and cognitive distraction responses to erotica. Results Results showed that subjective mental sexual arousal and perceptions of physical sexual arousal increased in response to erotica in the Body Awareness condition compared to in the No Body Awareness condition. These results were not accounted for by level of body esteem. There were no changes in physiological sexual arousal, affect, anxiety, or level of cognitive distraction across the two conditions. Conclusions Findings suggest that awareness of one’s body is related to increased subjective sexual response in conditions where cognitive distraction does not occur. It is particularly noteworthy that the current sample was made up of sexually dysfunctional women, all of whom had relatively low body image. PMID:17627744

  19. ORIGINAL PAPER The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract

    E-print Network

    and nonsexual individual difference variables. Keywords Go/no-go task Á Impulsivity Á Sexual arousability ÁORIGINAL PAPER The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract Intellectual Ability. This study used a go/no-go paradigm to examine how individual difference variables and sexual arousal

  20. A Psychometric Analysis of the Sexual Arousability Index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Andersen; Barbara Broffitt; Jennifer A. Karlsson; Dawn C. Turnquist

    1989-01-01

    The Sexual Arousability Index (SAI) assesses self-reported sexual arousal in women and was administered on four occasions to a group of normal sexually active women (n = 57) and to another group undergoing surgical gynecologic treatment (n = 66) that resulted in a predictable and clinical level of sexual dysfunction. These data were used for a psychometric analysis of the

  1. Associations Among Physiological and Subjective Sexual Response, Sexual Desire, and Salivary Steroid Hormones in Healthy Premenopausal Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari M. van Anders; Lori Brotto; Janine Farrell; Morag Yule

    2009-01-01

    Introduction. Few studies have examined how sexual arousal influences healthy premenopausal women's hormones, limiting our understanding of basic physiology and our ability to transfer knowledge from clinical and nonhuman populations. Aim. To examine how sexual arousal and steroid hormones (testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E)) were linked, to see whether hormone levels influenced and\\/or changed in response to sexual arousal

  2. The assessment and treatment of deviant sexual arousal with adolescents who have offended sexually

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Worling

    2012-01-01

    The available data suggest that only a minority of adolescents who commit sexual crimes demonstrate deviant sexual arousal to younger children and\\/or sexual violence. However, deviant sexual arousal is a risk factor for repeated sexual offending, and it is frequently an important target in specialised treatment programmes. This paper provides a review of the various techniques that have been used

  3. The assessment and treatment of deviant sexual arousal with adolescents who have offended sexually

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Worling

    2011-01-01

    The available data suggest that only a minority of adolescents who commit sexual crimes demonstrate deviant sexual arousal to younger children and\\/or sexual violence. However, deviant sexual arousal is a risk factor for repeated sexual offending, and it is frequently an important target in specialised treatment programmes. This paper provides a review of the various techniques that have been used

  4. Gender similarities and differences in sexual arousal, desire, and orgasmic pleasure in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Laurel Q P; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about gender differences in the orgasm experience. The objectives of this study were to compare men's and women's patterns of sexual arousal and desire before and after orgasm, and the predictors of their orgasmic pleasure. Using their typical technique, where masturbation enjoyment was similar to that experienced at home, 38 men and 38 women masturbated to orgasm in the laboratory. Physiological sexual arousal (genital temperature) and subjective sexual arousal and desire measurements were taken at baseline, after masturbation almost to orgasm, and immediately and 15 minutes after orgasm. In both genders, all measures increased significantly during masturbation, with a greater buildup leading to a more pleasurable orgasm. After orgasm, however, sexual arousal and desire decreased more quickly and consistently in men than in women, thereby replicating Masters and Johnson's (1966) observations. More men than women exhibited resolution of subjective sexual arousal and sexual satiation; their genital temperature also decreased more than women's but did not return to baseline. Women's orgasmic pleasure was related to a postorgasmic decrease in genital temperature but, unexpectedly, the maintenance of subjective sexual arousal and desire. Future studies should explore whether this pattern explains gender differences in the pursuit of additional orgasms. PMID:24588445

  5. A brief update on the specificity of sexual arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meredith L. Chivers

    2010-01-01

    In this article I review research on specificity of sexual arousal conducted since 2005. Three lines of investigation – sexual psychophysiology, visual attention and brain response – demonstrate convergence; women's response is non-specific whereas men's is specific to preferred sexual stimuli. The implications of these findings, with respect to the nature of sexual features that elicit genital response in women,

  6. Arousal, working memory capacity, and sexual decision-making in men.

    PubMed

    Spokes, Tara; Hine, Donald W; Marks, Anthony D G; Quain, Peter; Lykins, Amy D

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether working memory capacity (WMC) moderated the relationship between physiological arousal and sexual decision making. A total of 59 men viewed 20 consensual and 20 non-consensual images of heterosexual interaction while their physiological arousal levels were recorded using skin conductance response. Participants also completed an assessment of WMC and a date-rape analogue task for which they had to identify the point at which an average Australian male would cease all sexual advances in response to verbal and/or physical resistance from a female partner. Participants who were more physiologically aroused by and spent more time viewing the non-consensual sexual imagery nominated significantly later stopping points on the date-rape analogue task. Consistent with our predictions, the relationship between physiological arousal and nominated stopping point was strongest for participants with lower levels of WMC. For participants with high WMC, physiological arousal was unrelated to nominated stopping point. Thus, executive functioning ability (and WMC in particular) appears to play an important role in moderating men's decision making with regard to sexually aggressive behavior. PMID:24696385

  7. Physiology of Female Sexual Function: Animal Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Annamaria Giraldi; Lesley Marson; Rossella Nappi; James Pfaus; Abdulmaged M. Traish; Yoram Vardi; Irwin Goldstein

    2004-01-01

    Introduction. Data concerning the physiology of desire, arousal, and orgasm in women are limited because of ethical constraints. Aim. To gain knowledge of physiology of female sexual function through animal models. Methods. To provide state-of-the-art knowledge concerning female sexual function in animal models, representing the opinions of seven experts from five countries developed in a consensus process over a 2-year

  8. Determinants of sexual arousal and the accuracy of its self?estimation in sexually functional males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro J. Nobre; Markus Wiegel; Amy K. Bach; Risa B. Weisberg; Timothy A. Brown; John P. Wincze; David H. Barlow

    2004-01-01

    Men with and without sexual dysfunction present with varying patterns of agreement between subjective estimates of sexual arousal and more objective psychophysiological measures of the same construct. This relative accuracy seems to be associated with sexual function, with men who have sexual dysfunction presenting less accurate estimations (mostly reporting below measured arousal levels). The purpose of this study is to

  9. Self-Injurious Behaviors, PTSD Arousal, and General Health Complaints Within a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Sexually Abused Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terri L. Weaver; Kathleen M. Chard; Mindy B. Mechanic; Julie C. Etzel

    2004-01-01

    Eighty-nine adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, presenting for psychological treatment, were assessed for self-reported rates of self-injurious behaviors (SIB), health complaints, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of physiological arousal. A composite measure of current SIB was significantly and positively associated with health complaints, PTSD arousal, and three measures of sexual abuse severity: age of onset for sexual

  10. Effects of cyproterone acetate on sexual arousal patterns of pedophiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John M. W. Bradford; Anne Pawlak

    1993-01-01

    The antiandrogen treatment of sexual offenders has been shown to reduce the recidivism rate. The mechanism of action has been assumed to be through asexualization with its secondary effects on sexual behavior. This study shows that the mechanism may be more complex and may involve a differential effect on sexual arousal patterns. Treatment responses may differ in high and low

  11. Patterns of Sexual Arousal in Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerome A. Cerny; Erick Janssen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential\\u000a genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual\\u000a interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest\\u000a levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this

  12. Effects of deep pressure stimulation on physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Lane, Shelly J; Mullen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deep pressure stimulation has been used in therapeutic practice because of the assumption that it changes physiological arousal. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of deep pressure stimulation, applied with a Vayu Vest (Therapeutic Systems), on both autonomic arousal and performance in a normative adult sample. A repeated-measures, repeated-baseline design was used with participants completing a performance test before and after deep pressure application. A convenience sample of 50 adults participated in the study. Results showed that wearing the Vayu Vest for even short periods of time reduced sympathetic arousal and non-stimulus-driven electrical occurrences. Concomitant increases in parasympathetic arousal were found. Performance improvements were noted after wearing the Vayu Vest, potentially because of changes in arousal. We conclude that deep pressure stimulation is capable of eliciting changes in autonomic arousal and may be a useful modality in diagnostic groups seen by occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:25871605

  13. Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations.

    PubMed

    Knack, Natasha M; Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Meston, Cindy; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-04-01

    Sexual offenses cause significant harm to victims, their families, and society as a whole and thus are an important social concern. While it is commonly assumed that sexual offenses are committed solely by males, research has shown that approximately 5 % of sex crimes in the USA and Canada are committed by females. Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a method to measure male genital arousal, which is commonly used in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic sexual interests. Similarly, vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) is a test to measure female genital arousal and is commonly used to assess female sexual dysfunctions. Although VPP is currently the most validated method to measure genital arousal in women, its use with female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests has been almost nonexistent. One explanation for this is that some research has suggested that female genital arousal may not be category-specific, meaning that women will respond to any sexual cues, not just those involving their preferred sexual interests. However, not all research supports this finding. Due to the potential benefits of using VPP in the assessment and treatment of female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests, it is important that further research be done before dismissing the use of VPP in forensic populations. The purpose of this article is to review the current research on VPP and its applicability to female sex offenders and females with paraphilic sexual interests. PMID:25749745

  14. Alcohol and Erectile Response: The Effects of High Dosage in the Context of Demands to Maximize Sexual Arousal

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Although drinking is often associated with men's sexual activity, basic questions about alcohol's effects on men's sexual arousal remain unanswered. Inconsistencies in findings from studies examining subjective and physiological effects on erectile functioning suggest that alcohol's effects are context specific, e.g., dependent on whether one wants to maximize or suppress his arousal. To address unresolved questions about alcohol and erectile functioning, two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of penile circumference change and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak circumference change from a neutral baseline but had no effects on average change, latency to arousal onset (a 5% increase in circumference from baseline), latency to peak achieved arousal, or subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) increased subjective arousal, which was moderately correlated with physiological indices. In Experiment 2, instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and mean circumference change and interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to arousal onset: sober men instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to arousal onset than did sober men instructed to suppress; however, intoxicated men did not show a differential pattern. Moreover, compared to intoxicated counterparts, sober men instructed to maximize showed a marginally shorter latency to arousal onset. Overall, alcohol and arousal instructions had small but discernible effects with young moderate drinkers. Findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in alcohol's impact on erectile functioning. PMID:17115874

  15. Physiologic Measures of Sexual Function in Women: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Terri L.; Diamond, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To review and describe physiologic measures of assessing sexual function in women Design Literature review Setting Studies that utilize instruments designed to measure female sexual function Patients Women participating in studies of female sexual function Interventions Various instruments that measure physiologic features of female sexual function Main Outcome Measures Appraisal of the various instruments, including their advantages and disadvantages. Results Many unique physiologic methods of evaluating female sexual function have been developed over the last four decades. Each method has its benefits and limitations. Conclusions Many physiologic methods exist, but most are not well-validated. Additionally, there has been an inability to correlate most physiologic measures with subjective measures of sexual arousal. Furthermore, given the complex nature of the sexual response in women, physiologic measures should be considered in context of other data, including the history, physical exam, and validated questionnaires. Nonetheless, the existence of appropriate physiologic measures is vital to our understanding of female sexual function and dysfunction. PMID:19046582

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    Antidepressant medications are the most common treatment for depression and anxiety in the USA [1]. Women present for treatment of depression more often than men and are twice as likely to be prescribed antidepressantsORIGINAL ARTICLE Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants

  17. Factors affecting the sexual arousal value of pictures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Dunwoody; Kathy Pezdek

    1979-01-01

    This study examines factors that contribute to the sexual arousal value of pictures of a nude model. One male and one female model were photographed separately in an indoor setting. The following dimensions were factorially manipulated across pictures: male or female model, front or back view, standing or reclining position, semi?nude or nude. Male and female subjects viewed slides of

  18. Sex Differences in Patterns of Genital Sexual Arousal: Measurement Artifacts or True Phenomena?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly D. Suschinsky; Martin L. Lalumière; Meredith L. Chivers

    2009-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal have been reported recently. Men’s genital arousal is typically more category-specific\\u000a than women’s, such that men experience their greatest genital arousal to stimuli depicting their preferred sex partners whereas\\u000a women experience significant genital arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and non-preferred sex partners. In\\u000a addition, men’s genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns

  19. Correlates of fantasy-induced and film-induced male sexual arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Smith; Ray Over

    1987-01-01

    Penile circumference and subjective arousal were recorded while 66 men attempted to achieve erection by engaging in fantasy. Similar measures were taken while the same men viewed an erotic film. Not only was fantasyinduced sexual arousal relatively unrelated to film-induced sexual arousal, but the two sets of measures had different correlates. Over and above the contribution attributable to demographic and

  20. Self-Reported Sexual Arousability in Women with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KENNETH J. ZUCKER; SUSAN J. BRADLEY; GILLIAN OLIVER; JENNIFER BLAKE; SUSAN FLEMING; JANE HOOD

    2004-01-01

    As part of a larger study of psychosexual development and sexual functioning in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), we assessed self-reported sexual arousability with the Sexual Arousability Inventory-Short Form (SAI-SF; Hoon & Chambless, 1998). Compared to their unaffected sisters\\/female cousins (n = 15), women with CAH (n = 30) reported significantly lower sexual arousability on the SAI, with an

  1. Does menstrual cycle phase influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal?

    PubMed

    Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-07-01

    Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080

  2. Electrocortical arousal and spindles on physiological cortico-subcortical interactions.

    PubMed

    Oshima, T

    1992-05-01

    The neuronal mechanisms of electrocortical arousal and sleep spindles were reviewed on the basis of intracellular analyses on the motor cortex in atraumatically maintained encéphale isolé cat preparations. When arousal is initiated by subcortical afferents from the brainstem, the cortical neurons respond with either excitation (E), inhibition (I), disfacilitation (DF), or disinhibition (DI), in a cascade pattern proceeding from the superficial to deep layers. These neuronal activities on arousal involve DF of the output neurons that may set the subcortical sensorimotor functions in a readiness state for a possible adaptive behavior of animals. This initial transient arousal termed phasic develops soon to the next, more sustained phase termed tonic by the action of other subcortical afferents. The cascade transmissions then occur again, producing E, I, DF, and DI in the cortical neurons but with a reverse laminar pattern proceeding from the deep to superficial layers. These neuronal activities on tonic and arousal deliver the cortical outputs to the subcortical systems that may trigger an orienting or searching behavior of animals in their environment. Sleep spindles also accompany the cascade transmissions that are partly common to those in arousal. Various modes of the cascade transmissions were further examined by applying electric shock stimuli to the cortical surface, the ventrolateral nucleus of the thalamus, and the cerebral peduncle to activate the subcortical afferents converging onto different cortical layers. The combined results from these experiments may imply that the cortico-subcortical interactions in which all the cortical neurons participate with dynamic harmony are instrumental to set a physiological sequence of animal behavior. If these interactions be impaired on the way of normal growth of the brain, as in the case of disorders with the Rett syndrome, many forms of ill adaptation may be brought about by dedifferentiation of sensorimotor functions. PMID:1626624

  3. An Analysis of Four Sexual Offenders' Arousal in the Natural Environment Through the Use of a Portable Penile Plethysmograph

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jerry A. Rea; Terry DeBriere; Kasey Butler; Kathryn J. Saunders

    1998-01-01

    We report the development of a technology for measuring sexual arousal in the natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that levels of sexual arousal obtained in the laboratory when a participant was wearing underwear and trousers were similar to arousal levels obtained without underwear and trousers. In Experiment 2, four sexual offenders' arousal was measured in the natural environment using a

  4. Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

  5. Female sexual arousal: genital anatomy and orgasm in intercourse.

    PubMed

    Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A

    2011-05-01

    In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women, likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data that were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse. PMID:21195073

  6. Assessing Women’s Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

  7. Comparing the relative amount of testosterone required to restore sexual arousal, motivation, and performance in male rats.

    PubMed

    Harding, Shannon M; Velotta, Jonathan P

    2011-05-01

    It is well established that male rat reproductive behaviors including sexual arousal, motivation, and performance are dependent on circulating levels of testosterone (T). The present study was designed to (1) compare the relative amount of T required to restore these different aspects of behavior in castrated rats, and (2) create an animal model for clinical populations with sexual impairments. Twenty-nine male Long-Evans rats were tested before and after castration for sexual performance (copulation), motivation (partner preference), and arousal (50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations; measured together with scent marking). Sexual arousal was also inferred from copulation data. Rats were then assigned to one of four groups, and T was re-introduced via Silastic capsule implants varying in length and content: No T (empty capsules), Low T (2mm capsules), Medium T (5mm capsules), or High T (two 10mm capsules). The highest dose was intended to restore physiological levels. Results indicate that High T is required for 50 kHz vocalizations, while Medium T was sufficient for the restoration of copulation, partner preference, and scent marking. These data suggest that sexual arousal may be most sensitive to reductions in testosterone. The role of T levels in measures of generalized and specific (sexual) arousal is discussed in the context of other reproductive behaviors. Furthermore, because the Low T group showed impairments across all behaviors during post-implant tests, we propose that these animals may provide a good animal model for studying clinical conditions marked by reduced motivation and arousal, including Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder. PMID:20920505

  8. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  9. A comparative study of personality, sexual arousal, and behavior exchange in biological and nonbiological incestuous fathers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terrence Vaccaro

    1992-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether biological and nonbiological incestuous fathers differ on personality characteristics, sexual arousal patterns, and behavior exchange in intimate relationships. Secondarily, this study examined internal consistency and test-retest reliability for responses by child molesters to a set of commercially available 35mm stimulus slides used for the phallometric assessment of sexual arousal related

  10. Sexual Arousal Decreases the Functional Synchronization Between Cortical Areas in Young Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marisela Hernández-González; Claudia Amezcua; Araceli Sanz Martin; Koral Rivera Sánchez; Angel Miguel Guevara

    2012-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex and its connections with other cortical areas participate in processing erotic stimuli and, hence, sexual arousal. Visual erotic stimuli elicit sexual arousal that is associated with changes in electroencephalographic activity (EEG). The EEG correlation analysis provides information on the functional synchronization among areas. This study analyzed the functional interaction among the prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices during

  11. ORIGINAL RESEARCH--WOMEN'S SEXUAL HEALTH The Impact of Body Awareness on Sexual Arousal in Women with

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH--WOMEN'S SEXUAL HEALTH The Impact of Body Awareness on Sexual Arousal in Women with Sexual Dysfunction Brooke N. Seal, MA, and Cindy M. Meston, PhD Department of Psychology, University. The impact of self-awareness during sexual activity has been widely discussed. However, research has been

  12. Women’s Sexual Arousal: Effects of High Alcohol Dosages and Self-Control Instructions

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women’s sexual arousal – especially genital arousal –received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson & Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed the same pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol’s impact on the variability of women’s sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  13. Dissociation during sex and sexual arousal in women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elizabeth R; Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2014-07-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience dissociative symptoms and sexual difficulties with greater frequency than women without a history of CSA. Current models of sexual dysfunction for sexual abuse survivors suggest that dissociation may mediate the relationship between CSA and sexual arousal difficulties. Dissociation, however, is often conceptualized as a single construct in studies of CSA and not as separate domains as in the dissociation literature. In the present study, women with (CSA, N = 37) and without (NSA, N = 22) a history of CSA recruited from the community were asked to indicate the frequency and intensity of their experience in two dissociation subgroups, derealization and depersonalization, during sex with a partner and in their daily life. Findings showed that, in the NSA group, more depersonalization during sex with a partner was associated with lower sexual arousal functioning. However, for both the NSA and CSA groups, more derealization during sex was associated with higher sexual arousal functioning. No measure of dissociation was significantly associated with sexual responses in the laboratory. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between different forms of dissociation (i.e., derealization and depersonalization) in the study of sexual arousal functioning. In addition, the findings challenge the notion that dissociation is a main predictor of sexual arousal problems in survivors of CSA and suggest that a more nuanced relationship may exist. PMID:24297658

  14. A Systematic Review of Measures of Deviant Sexual Interest and Arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine Akerman; Anthony R. Beech

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this review is the measurement of deviant sexual arousal in men who have committed sexual offences, with a view to find the most effective at assessing current sexual interest. A comprehensive review of the available literature was undertaken in line with guidelines into best practice. The main body of this article provides a systematic overview of measures

  15. A Systematic Review of Measures of Deviant Sexual Interest and Arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geraldine Akerman; Anthony R. Beech

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this review is the measurement of deviant sexual arousal in men who have committed sexual offences, with a view to find the most effective at assessing current sexual interest. A comprehensive review of the available literature was undertaken in line with guidelines into best practice. The main body of this article provides a systematic overview of measures

  16. The mediating effect of daily stress on the sexual arousal function of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Zollman, Gena; Rellini, Alessandra; Desrocher, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity, and perceived daily stress, we collected data from 62 women with and without a history of childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical and emotional abuse). A comprehensive assessment of sexual arousal functioning and sexual responses was obtained using self-reported measures and psychophysiological measures of vaginal engorgement and subjective sexual arousal during exposure to sexual visual stimuli. The model assessed the simultaneous mediating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, negative affectivity and perceived daily stress on the relation between childhood maltreatment and sexual variables. Daily stress, showed a significant and stronger mediation effect on sexual arousal functioning as compared to posttraumatic stress disorder and negative affectivity. These findings suggest that daily stress may be an important mechanism to consider when treating sexual arousal functioning in women who have a history of childhood maltreatment. PMID:23252641

  17. Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…

  18. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  19. Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Instructional Set on Women’s Sexual Arousal Vary Based on Sexual Abuse History

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca L. Schacht; William H. George; Julia R. Heiman; Kelly Cue Davis; Jeanette Norris; Susan A. Stoner; Kelly F. Kajumulo

    2007-01-01

    \\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The influence of alcohol intoxication and arousal instructional set on psychophysiological measures of sexual responding was\\u000a examined in a non-clinical sample of sexually abused (SA) and non-sexually abused (NSA) women. Participants (n=42) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (target blood alcohol level = .08%) or non-alcoholic drinks and to receive\\u000a instructions to maximize or suppress their sexual response to

  20. The relationship of deviant sexual arousal and psychopathy in incest offenders, extrafamilial child molesters, and rapists.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Serran, G A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between deviant sexual arousal, as measured by auditory phallometric stimuli, and psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, was examined in 156 incest offenders, 260 extrafamilial child molesters, and 123 rapists. Subjects in each group had never been convicted of another type of sexual offense. Replicating previous research, rapists were more psychopathic than incest offenders and child molesters. Deviant sexual arousal to auditory stimuli was evident only on the Pedophile Index for child molesters. When the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal was evaluated in the three groups combined, several significant correlations emerged. However, a finer analysis of these correlations revealed that child molesters evidenced a significant correlation between psychopathy and the Rape Index and psychopathy and the Pedophile Index. There were no such significant findings in the incest offender or rapist groups. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:11055527

  1. Physiology of female sexual function and dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J R Berman

    2005-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is age-related, progressive, and highly prevalent, affecting 30–50% of American women. While there are emotional and relational elements to female sexual function and response, female sexual dysfunction can occur secondary to medical problems and have an organic basis. This paper addresses anatomy and physiology of normal female sexual function as well as the pathophysiology of female sexual

  2. The Relationship between Female Sexual Arousal and Response Bias in Women with and without Provoked Vestibulodynia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie C. Boyer; Caroline F. Pukall; Ronald R. Holden

    2011-01-01

    Smaller correlations have typically been found between genital and subjective sexual arousal in female versus male samples. This study evaluated the association between response bias and the relationship between genital and subjective arousal (i.e., concordance) in women with (n = 20) and without (n = 21) provoked vestibulodynia. Participants (M = 21.27 years, SD = 2.27) underwent blood flow imaging via a laser Doppler imager to assess genital

  3. The Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Determinants of Sexual Risk in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Palfai, Tibor; Vanable, Peter A.; Heath, Jessie; Woolf-King, Sarah E.

    2013-01-01

    Primary prevention efforts aimed at sexual risk behaviors are critical. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal, as well as person variables of alcohol sex expectancies and attitudes toward condom use, on hypothesized determinants of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The participants were 117 MSM aged 21–50 years who were randomly assigned to one of six separate experimental conditions created by the combination of beverage administration (water control, placebo or alcohol designed to raise blood alcohol level to .07%) and sexual arousal (low or high, manipulated by participants’ viewing non-erotic or mildly erotic film clips). Participants attended two experimental sessions. The first session included completing questionnaires about beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sex and attitudes toward condoms’ effect on sexual pleasure. The second session involved the beverage condition and arousal manipulations. Following these, participants viewed and responded to two interactive videos depicting high sexual risk scenarios. Participants also completed the CARE, a measure of risk perceptions. The dependent variables were behavioral skills, intentions to have unsafe sex, and “risk exposure,” derived from responses to the videos. The results of both planned and exploratory analyses showed general support for the hypothesized enhancement of alcohol’s effects on sexual risk by both sexual arousal and expectancies. Also as predicted, condom attitudes showed direct relationships to risk exposure and intentions. Implications of the findings for models of alcohol’s effects on sexual risk and for the development of HIV prevention interventions were discussed. PMID:22009480

  4. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: A critical review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel McConaghy

    1989-01-01

    Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but

  5. Rethinking butterflies: the affective, physiological, and performance effects of reappraising arousal during social evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beltzer, Miranda L; Nock, Matthew K; Peters, Brett J; Jamieson, Jeremy P

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of reappraising stress arousal on affective displays, physiological responses, and social performance during an evaluative situation. Participants were sampled from across the social anxiety spectrum and instructed to reappraise arousal as beneficial or received no instructions. Independent raters coded affective displays, nonverbal signaling, and speech performance. Saliva samples collected at baseline and after evaluation were assayed for salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a protein that indexes sympathetic activation. Arousal reappraisal participants exhibited less shame and anxiety, less avoidant nonverbal signaling, and performed marginally better than no instruction controls. Reappraisal participants also exhibited increased levels of sAA and increased appraisals of coping resources compared with controls. Furthermore, stress appraisals mediated relationships between reappraisal and affective displays. This research indicates that reframing stress arousal can improve behavioral displays of affect during evaluative situations via altering cognitive appraisals. PMID:24749642

  6. The Mediating Effect of Daily Stress on the Sexual Arousal Function of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gena Zollman; Alessandra Rellini; Danielle Desrocher

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, PTSD symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of PTSD symptoms, negative affectivity,

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of male and female genitals during coitus and female sexual arousal

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; van Andel, Pek; Sabelis, Ida; Mooyaart, Eduard

    1999-01-01

    Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study. Setting University hospital in the Netherlands. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the female sexual response and the male and female genitals during coitus. Thirteen experiments were performed with eight couples and three single women. Results The images obtained showed that during intercourse in the “missionary position” the penis has the shape of a boomerang and 1/3 of its length consists of the root of the penis. During female sexual arousal without intercourse the uterus was raised and the anterior vaginal wall lengthened. The size of the uterus did not increase during sexual arousal. Conclusion Taking magnetic resonance images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and contributes to understanding of anatomy. PMID:10600954

  8. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  9. Math anxiety: Relation with situational test anxiety, performance, physiological arousal, and math avoidance behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Harriss Dew; John P. Galassi; Merna D. Galassi

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relation of mathematics anxiety to situationally assessed test anxiety, mathematics performance, physiological arousal, and mathematics avoidance behavior in 23 male and 40 female undergraduates. Ss completed the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale, the Mathematics Anxiety Scale, the Anxiety Toward Mathematics Scale, and the Test Anxiety Inventory prior to completing 3 mathematics tasks. During the tasks, heart rate, skin conductance

  10. Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-Solving Deficits among Adolescent Self-Injurers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However,…

  11. Marital Quality and Physiological Arousal: How Do I Love Thee? Let My Heartbeat Count the Ways

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana Menchaca; Crystal Dehle

    2005-01-01

    The current study examines whether a two-dimensional indicator of marital quality advances empirical understanding of the association between marital quality and physiological arousal. Thirty-two married couples completed baseline and problem-solving interactions while both spouses' heart rates and skin conductance were continuously monitored. Each spouse's changes in physiology from the baseline to problem-solving task served as the independent variables. Dependent variables

  12. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. PMID:24125786

  13. Neuroanatomical Correlates of Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Human Males

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Serge Stoleru; Marie-Claude Gregoire; Daniel Gerard; Jean Decety; Emmanuelle Lafarge; Luc Cinotti; Frank Lavenne; Didier Le Bars; Evelyne Vernet-Maury; Hiram Rada; Christian Collet; Bernard Mazoyer; Maguelone G. Forest; Francoise Magnin; Alfred Spira; Dominique Comar

    1999-01-01

    Brain areas activated in human male sexualbehavior have not been characterized precisely. For thefirst time, positron emission tomography (PET) was usedto identify the brain areas activated in healthy males experiencing visually evoked sexualarousal. Eight male subjects underwent six measurementsof regional brain activity following the administrationof [15O]H2O as they viewedthree categories of film clips: sexually explicit clips,emotionally neutral control clips, and

  14. Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens?

    PubMed Central

    Davies, A.C.; Radford, A.N.; Nicol, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans. PMID:24432355

  15. Effect of Self-Reported Sexual Arousal on Responses to Sex-Related and Non-Sex-Related Disgust Cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Stevenson; Trevor I. Case; Megan J. Oaten

    2011-01-01

    Prior to and during sexual intercourse, people are exposed to stimuli that in other contexts might act as disgust-eliciting\\u000a cues. This study examined whether sexual arousal, in contrast to general arousal, could selectively reduce reported disgust\\u000a for cues that pilot participants identified as sex or non-sex related. Male undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of\\u000a four viewing groups. One group

  16. Effects of Sexual Arousal on Genital and Non-Genital Sensation: A Comparison of Women with Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome and Healthy Controls

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberley A. Payne; Yitzchak M. Binik; Caroline F. Pukall; Lea Thaler; Rhonda Amsel; Samir Khalifé

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between sexual arousal and sensory perception has been a topic largely neglected within the realm of human\\u000a sexuality research. The present study assessed the influence of sexual arousal on genital and non-genital sensation in women.\\u000a It also examined the theory that painful intercourse is associated with insufficient sexual arousal. A total of 20 healthy\\u000a women and 20 women

  17. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 33, No. 1, February 2004, pp. 3142 ( C 2004) The Effects of Hysterectomy on Sexual Arousal in Women

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    ovarian failure, and sexual dysfunction 1Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, 108 EArchives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 33, No. 1, February 2004, pp. 31­42 ( C 2004) The Effects of Hysterectomy on Sexual Arousal in Women With a History of Benign Uterine Fibroids Cindy M. Meston, Ph.D.1

  18. Attachment and physiological reactivity to infant crying in young adulthood: dissociation between experiential and physiological arousal in insecure adoptees.

    PubMed

    Schoenmaker, Christie; Huffmeijer, Renske; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van den Dries, Linda; Linting, Mariëlle; van der Voort, Anja; Juffer, Femmie

    2015-02-01

    The associations between attachment representations of adopted young adults and their experiential and physiological arousal to infant crying were examined. Attachment representations were assessed with the Attachment Script Assessment (ASA), and the young adults listened to infant cries, during which ratings of cry perception were collected and physiological reactivity was measured. Secure adoptees showed a well-integrated response to infant distress: heart-rate increases and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawal were coupled with heightened perception of urgency in these individuals. In insecure adoptees RSA withdrawal was absent, and a combination of lowered perceived urgency and heightened sympathetic arousal was found, reflecting a deactivating style of emotional reactivity. Overall, our findings support the idea that internal working models of attachment explain individual differences in the way attachment-related information is processed. PMID:25460537

  19. Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?

    PubMed

    Markos, A R; Dinsmore, Wallace

    2013-11-01

    We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction. PMID:23970620

  20. Physiological oxidative stress after arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrel

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Adrienne L.; Lohse, Lonita A.; Drew, Kelly L.; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), Spermophilus parryii, is characterized by a profound decrease in oxygen consumption and metabolic demand during torpor that is punctuated by periodic rewarming episodes, during which oxygen consumption increases dramatically. The extreme physiology of torpor or the surge in oxygen consumption during arousal may increase production of reactive oxygen species, making hibernation an injurious process for AGS. To determine if AGS tissues experience cellular stress during rewarming, we measured carbonyl proteins, lipid peroxide end products and percent oxidized glutathione in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of torpid, hibernating (hAGS), late arousal (laAGS), and cold-adapted, euthermic AGS (eAGS). In BAT carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxide end products were higher in eAGS and laAGS than in hAGS. By contrast, in liver, no significant difference in carbonyl proteins was observed. In another group of animals, comparison of carbonyl proteins and percent oxidized glutathione in frontal cortex, liver, and BAT of eAGS and hAGS showed no evidence of oxidative stress associated with torpor. These results indicate that increased thermogenesis associated with arousal AGS results in tissue specific oxidative stress in BAT but not in liver. Moreover, torpor per se is largely devoid of oxidative stress, likely due to suppression of oxidative metabolism. PMID:19233307

  1. When playing together feels different: effects of task types and social contexts on physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming contexts.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sohye; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2009-02-01

    This study examines how task types (violent vs. nonviolent) and social contexts (solo vs. collaborative) affect physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming. Our results show that social contexts modify the effects of violent game tasks on arousal. When compared with solo play, collaborative play led to a significant decrease in arousal in response to violent tasks, while leading to a slight increase for nonviolent tasks. The findings point to the importance of understanding how social contexts of game playing shape psychological experiences in multiplayer online games. PMID:19006459

  2. Influences of Situational Factors and Alcohol Expectancies on Sexual Desire and Arousal Among Heavy-Episodic Drinking Women: Acute Alcohol Intoxication and Condom Availability

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Heiman, Julia R.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-01-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women’s sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women’s sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol’s effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the effects of alcohol and condom condition on women’s sexual desire and arousal. The moderating effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies were also examined. Results revealed that alcohol intoxication was related to less desire to engage in sex with a new partner and condom presence was related to more desire. Alcohol interacted with sexual disinhibition alcohol expectancies, indicating that more expectancy endorsement was associated with greater sexual desire and self-reported arousal in the alcohol condition, but not the control condition. Condom condition had no effect on self-reported sexual arousal. The present research suggests that sexual desire merits research attention in non-clinical samples, and experimental methodology can provide valuable information about alcohol’s influence on women’s sexual desire, thus advancing our understanding of this relationship beyond cross-sectional correlations. The current findings also provide evidence that sex-related alcohol expectancies may play an important role in alcohol-involved sexual experiences including desire and arousal. PMID:23661324

  3. Influences of situational factors and alcohol expectancies on sexual desire and arousal among heavy-episodic drinking women: acute alcohol intoxication and condom availability.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Amanda K; George, William H; Nguyen, Hong V; Heiman, Julia R; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette

    2013-08-01

    Although studies suggest that alcohol increases women's sexual desire, no studies to our knowledge have examined the effects of acute alcohol intoxication on women's sexual desire. The majority of research examining alcohol's effects on sexual arousal in women suggests that alcohol increases self-reported arousal. In an alcohol administration study in which women projected themselves into an eroticized scenario depicting a consensual sexual encounter with a new male partner, we examined the effects of alcohol and condom condition on women's sexual desire and arousal. The moderating effects of sex-related alcohol expectancies were also examined. Results revealed that alcohol intoxication was related to less desire to engage in sex with a new partner and condom presence was related to more desire. Alcohol interacted with sexual disinhibition alcohol expectancies, indicating that more expectancy endorsement was associated with greater sexual desire and self-reported arousal in the alcohol condition, but not the control condition. Condom condition had no effect on self-reported sexual arousal. The present research suggests that sexual desire merits research attention in non-clinical samples, and experimental methodology can provide valuable information about alcohol's influence on women's sexual desire, thus advancing our understanding of this relationship beyond cross-sectional correlations. The current findings also provide evidence that sex-related alcohol expectancies may play an important role in alcohol-involved sexual experiences including desire and arousal. PMID:23661324

  4. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: A response to McAnulty and Adams

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nathaniel McConaghy

    1992-01-01

    In replying to my review of the validity and ethics of penile circumference responses (PCRs) as measures of sexual arousal McAnulty and Adams misinterpreted the review as claiming penile volume responses (PVRs) were superior to PCRs in assessing rapists and child molesters. No such claim was made. The lack of validity of PCR assessment of individual rapists and child molesters

  5. Skeletal muscle proteomics: carbohydrate metabolism oscillates with seasonal and torpor-arousal physiology of hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    The physiology of small mammalian hibernators shifts profoundly over a year, from summer homeothermy to winter heterothermy. Torpor-arousal cycles define high-amplitude tissue activity fluctuations in winter, particularly for skeletal muscle, which contributes to the energetically demanding rewarming process via shivering. To better understand the biochemistry underlying summer-winter and torpor-arousal transitions, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mas spectrometry to the soluble proteins from hindlimb muscle of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in two summer and six winter states. Two hundred sixteen protein spots differed by sampled state. Significantly, intrawinter protein adjustment was a minor component of the dataset despite large discrepancies in muscle activity level among winter states; rather, the bulk of differences (127/138 unequivocally identified proteins spots) occurred between summer and winter. We did not detect any proteomic signatures of skeletal muscle atrophy in this hibernator nor any differential seasonal regulation of protein metabolism. Instead, adjustments to metabolic substrate preferences dominated the detected proteomic differences. Pathways of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) were summer enriched, whereas the winter proteome was enriched for fatty acid ?-oxidation. Nevertheless, our data suggest that some reliance on carbohydrate reserves is maintained during winter. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), which reversibly prepares glucose subunits for either glycolysis or glycogenesis, showed apparent winter state-specific phosphorylation. PGM1 was phosphorylated during rewarming and dephosphorylated by interbout arousal, implying that glucose supplements lipid fuels during rewarming. This, along with winter elevation of TCA cycle enzymes, suggests that hindlimb muscles are primed for rapid energy production and that carbohydrates are an important fuel for shivering thermogenesis. PMID:21865542

  6. Skeletal muscle proteomics: carbohydrate metabolism oscillates with seasonal and torpor-arousal physiology of hibernation.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L Elaine; Hunter, Lawrence E; Martin, Sandra L

    2011-11-01

    The physiology of small mammalian hibernators shifts profoundly over a year, from summer homeothermy to winter heterothermy. Torpor-arousal cycles define high-amplitude tissue activity fluctuations in winter, particularly for skeletal muscle, which contributes to the energetically demanding rewarming process via shivering. To better understand the biochemistry underlying summer-winter and torpor-arousal transitions, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mas spectrometry to the soluble proteins from hindlimb muscle of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in two summer and six winter states. Two hundred sixteen protein spots differed by sampled state. Significantly, intrawinter protein adjustment was a minor component of the dataset despite large discrepancies in muscle activity level among winter states; rather, the bulk of differences (127/138 unequivocally identified proteins spots) occurred between summer and winter. We did not detect any proteomic signatures of skeletal muscle atrophy in this hibernator nor any differential seasonal regulation of protein metabolism. Instead, adjustments to metabolic substrate preferences dominated the detected proteomic differences. Pathways of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) were summer enriched, whereas the winter proteome was enriched for fatty acid ?-oxidation. Nevertheless, our data suggest that some reliance on carbohydrate reserves is maintained during winter. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), which reversibly prepares glucose subunits for either glycolysis or glycogenesis, showed apparent winter state-specific phosphorylation. PGM1 was phosphorylated during rewarming and dephosphorylated by interbout arousal, implying that glucose supplements lipid fuels during rewarming. This, along with winter elevation of TCA cycle enzymes, suggests that hindlimb muscles are primed for rapid energy production and that carbohydrates are an important fuel for shivering thermogenesis. PMID:21865542

  7. Mechanisms underlying sexual and affiliative behaviors of mice: relation to generalized CNS arousal

    PubMed Central

    Shelley, Deborah N.; Choleris, Elena; Kavaliers, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The field of social neuroscience has grown dramatically in recent years and certain social responses have become amenable to mechanistic investigations. Toward that end, there has been remarkable progress in determining mechanisms for a simple sexual behavior, lordosis behavior. This work has proven that specific hormone-dependent biochemical reactions in specific parts of the mammalian brain regulate a biologically important behavior. On one hand, this sex behavior depends on underlying mechanisms of CNS arousal. On the other hand, it serves as a prototypical social behavior. The same sex hormones and the genes that encode their receptors as are involved in lordosis, also affect social recognition. Here we review evidence for a micronet of genes promoting social recognition in mice and discuss their biological roles. PMID:18985112

  8. Neural correlates of sexual arousal in the spinal cords of able-bodied men: a spinal fMRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Kozyrev, Natalie; Figley, Chase R; Alexander, Marcalee S; Richards, J Scott; Bosma, Rachael L; Stroman, Patrick W

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging could be used to map neural activity throughout the lower thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord regions during sexual arousal in healthy men. The authors found that viewing erotic films and genital self-stimulation elicited predominantly increased signal, indicative of amplified neuronal input to the dorsal and ventral horns and in the autonomic preganglionic nuclei of the lower thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord. In addition, linear regression analyses revealed a number of robust correlations (|R| ? 0.7) between signal intensity changes in these spinal cord regions and self-reported ratings of mental and physical sexual arousal. Taken together, these results demonstrate that spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging is an effective and sensitive technique for mapping the neural correlates of sexual arousal in the spinal cords of able-bodied men. Most important, the results from this study indicate that spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging may have important applications as a clinical tool for assessing and mapping the changes that occur in the spinal cords of men suffering from sexual dysfunction as a result of spinal cord trauma. PMID:22900624

  9. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play. PMID:19280624

  10. Sexually dimorphic effects of acute nicotine administration on arousal and visual-spatial ability in non-smoking human volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David L. Neumann; Zoë T. Fitzgerald; John J. Furedy; Gregory J. Boyle

    2007-01-01

    The effect of an acute administration of nicotine on arousal and visual-spatial ability in healthy non-smoking participants was investigated. Healthy adult volunteers with a mean age of 19.98 years received a transdermal nicotine or placebo patch prior to completing a water-level task and two mental rotation tasks while concurrent psychophysiological recordings were taken. Nicotine administration showed a sexually dimorphic effect on

  11. Emotion regulation, physiological arousal and PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Laura; Wild, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective studies suggest a link between PTSD and difficulty regulating negative emotions. This study investigated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and the ability to regulate negative emotions in real-time using a computerised task to assess emotion regulation. Method Trauma-exposed ambulance workers (N = 45) completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and depression. Participants then completed a computer task requiring them to enhance, decrease or maintain their negative emotions in response to unpleasant images. Skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded and participants also made ratings of emotion intensity. Immediately after the computer task, participants were asked to describe the strategies they had used to regulate their negative emotions during the task and recorded spontaneous intrusions for the unpleasant images they had seen throughout the following week. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with difficulty regulating (specifically, enhancing) negative emotions, greater use of response modulation (i.e., suppression) and less use of cognitive change (i.e., reappraisal) strategies to down-regulate their negative emotions during the task. More intrusions developed in participants who had greater reductions in physiological arousal whilst decreasing their negative emotions. Limitations PTSD was measured by self-report rather than by a clinician administered interview. The results suggest a relationship between emotion regulation ability and PTSD symptoms rather than emotion regulation and PTSD. Conclusions Difficulty regulating negative emotions may be a feature of trauma-exposed individuals with PTSD symptoms, which may be linked to the types of strategies they employ to regulate negative emotions. PMID:24727342

  12. The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract Intellectual Ability on Men’s and Women’s Go/No-Go Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Janssen, Erick; Fridberg, Daniel J.; Finn, Peter R.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2011-01-01

    While a number of studies have assessed the role of personality traits, situational variables, and drug use on sexual risk behaviors, fewer studies have employed experimental methods to examine cognitive processes that may underlie risky sexual decision making. This study used a go/no-go paradigm to examine how individual difference variables and sexual arousal influence discrimination learning and sexual and nonsexual decision making. A total of 28 men (M age = 20 years) and 25 women (M age = 19 years) completed self-report measures of impulsivity, abstract intellectual ability, and sexual excitation and inhibition and participated in a laboratory experiment. The experiment consisted of two go/no-go tasks with sexual stimuli and two tasks with neutral stimuli, preceded by either sexually arousing or sexually neutral stimulus presentations. Task performance was measured by totals of false alarms and misses. Individuals high in impulsivity and low in abstract intellectual ability committed more false alarms in conditions involving sexually arousing stimuli. Furthermore, higher sexual excitation scores were linked to more misses. These findings indicate that cognitive processes associated with decision making that occurs in the “heat of the moment” are influenced by a combination of situational and sexual and nonsexual individual difference variables. PMID:20862534

  13. The Strength of Sexual Arousal as a Function of the Age of the Sex Offender: Comparisons Among Pedophiles, Hebephiles, and Teleiophiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ray Blanchard; Howard E. Barbaree

    2005-01-01

    Previous research has shown that sexual arousability in human males declines from its peak in early adolescence until old age. This study compared the rates of decline in three groups of males: those most attracted sexually to prepubescent children (pedophiles), those most attracted to pubescent children (hebephiles), and those most attracted to physically mature persons (teleiophiles). The participants were 2,028

  14. Neural mechanisms underlying sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels: a comparative study of the postoperative male-to-female transsexuals and premenopausal and menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2014-06-18

    This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. PMID:24800986

  15. Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. PMID:24534418

  16. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links with Pragmatic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did…

  17. Effects of hedonic valence and physiological arousal on emotion: A comparison of two theoretical perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nyla R. Branscombe

    1985-01-01

    Two theoretical perspectives concerned with how one emotional state may influence a subsequent one were examined. Zillmann's (1979) excitation transfer theory suggests that undetected residual arousal from a first state will transfer and intensify a subsequent state—regardless of the first state's hedonic valence. Baron's (1977) incompatible response model, on the other hand, suggests that the hedonic valence of an earlier

  18. Dynamic feedback between phenotype and physiology in sexually selected traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dustin R. Rubenstein; Mark E. Hauber

    2008-01-01

    Theory predicts that physiological costs of producing elaborate phenotypes assure the honesty of sexually selected traits. It is generally assumed that these phys- iological processes drive sexually selected displays. However, a recent study by Safran and colleagues demonstrates that the manipulation of plumage orna- ments in barn swallows alters the temporal course of circulating androgens, thus rejecting the scenario of

  19. Arousal Loss Related to Safer Sex and Risk of Pregnancy: Implications for Women’s and Men’s Sexual Health

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Jenny A.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Janssen, Erick

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT Few studies have examined arousal loss associated with safer-sex practices or the perceived risk of unintended pregnancy, let alone its associations with sexual risk practices. METHODS An Internet survey conducted in 2004–2006 among 2,399 men and 3,210 women asked respondents about arousal loss related to the use of condoms or other safer-sex products and perceived unintended pregnancy risk. Regression analyses gauged associations between arousal profiles, unprotected sex in the last year and lifetime experience of unintended pregnancy. RESULTS Many respondents reported arousal loss related to the use of safer-sex products (34%) or the risk of unintended pregnancy (46%). Participants who strongly agreed that use of safer-sex products can lessen their arousal were significantly more likely to have had unprotected sex in the last year than were those who strongly disagreed (odds ratios, 1.8 for men and 3.7 for women); those who strongly disagreed that pregnancy risk can lessen their arousal were significantly more likely to have been involved in an unintended pregnancy than were those who strongly agreed (2.0 for men and 1.4 for women). Arousal loss related to safer-sex practices was more strongly associated with unprotected sex among women than among men, whereas arousal loss related to pregnancy risk was more strongly associated with unintended pregnancy among men than among women. CONCLUSIONS Some men and women are turned off by safer-sex practices or by pregnancy risk. Given arousal profiles’ potential contributions to unintended pregnancies and STD transmission, they should be integrated into sexual health behavioral models, research and programming. PMID:19740232

  20. Physiological Desensitization and Judgments about Female Victims of Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linz, Daniel; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines whether men exposed to filmed sexual violence are less physiologically aroused and less emotionally responsive to subsequent depictions of violence against women. Investigates, secondarily, the magnitude of the relationship between physiological reactions, emotional reactions, and subsequent judgments. (MS)

  1. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  2. Cognitive activity and physiological arousal: processes that mediate mood-congruent memory.

    PubMed

    Varner, L J; Ellis, H C

    1998-09-01

    This research proposes that the cognitive activity associated with the experience of an emotional state mediates the occurrence of mood-congruent processing. Two experiments examined the role of cognitive activity in selective processing of words in a mood congruence paradigm. Four induction procedures were used: a depressed-mood induction, a schema induction organized around the theme of writing a paper, an arousal induction, and a control neutral-mood induction. The memory task consisted of recalling a word list composed of negatively associated and thematically organized words. Selective processing was demonstrated in conjunction with the depressed-mood and organizational-schema induction procedures. In contrast, the arousal and neutral induction procedures did not produce selective processing of words from the list. The findings support the thesis that cognitive activity mediates the selective processing typical of mood congruence as distinct from arousal processes per se. The findings are discussed with respect to the resource allocation model and semantic network theory. PMID:9796227

  3. Face to face versus Facebook: does exposure to social networking web sites augment or attenuate physiological arousal among the socially anxious?

    PubMed

    Rauch, Shannon M; Strobel, Cara; Bella, Megan; Odachowski, Zachary; Bloom, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The present study tested two competing hypotheses about the effect of Facebook exposure on the physiological arousal level of participants who then encountered the stimulus person in a face-to-face situation. Facebook exposure may attenuate later arousal by providing increased comfort and confidence, but it is also possible that Facebook exposure will augment arousal, particularly among the socially anxious. Participants completed a measure of social anxiety and were exposed to a stimulus person via Facebook, face to face, or both. Galvanic skin response was recorded during the exposures to the stimulus person. Results were consistent with the augmentation hypothesis: a prior exposure on Facebook will lead to increased arousal during a face-to-face encounter, particularly for those high in social anxiety. PMID:24180223

  4. Alcohol use and sexual arousal research: application of the health belief model.

    PubMed

    Frank, D I; Lang, A R

    1990-05-01

    This article summarizes research findings related to alcohol use and sexual responsiveness within the framework of Becker's health belief model. Application is discussed in relation to the health care practitioner concerned with interventions for preventing alcohol abuse and promoting sexual health. Particular emphasis is given to clients in late adolescence. PMID:2342665

  5. Physiological arousal in autism and fragile X syndrome: group comparisons and links with pragmatic language.

    PubMed

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E; Losh, Molly

    2013-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860

  6. Captivity affects behavioral physiology: Plasticity in signaling sexual identity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Landsman

    1991-01-01

    Summary Little is known about the link between captivity, physiology, and behavior in wild-caught vertebrates. Anecdotal evidence suggests that hormonal changes are responsible for behavioral changes in wild animals brought into captivity. Studying the effects of captivity on reproduction is hampered because wild animals often fail to exhibit sexual behavior under captive conditions. In weakly discharging electric fish, field studies

  7. The Sensitivity of Event Logs, Self-Administered Questionnaires and Photoplethysmography to Detect Treatment-Induced Changes in Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The literature provides little evidence on what type of endpoints should be used to assess treatment-induced improvement in female sexual function. Aim The main goal of this study was to provide empiric evidence on the sensitivity of different types of measures for detecting treatment-induced changes in female sexual dysfunction diagnosis. Methods The measures investigated in this study included event logs, self-administered questionnaires (Female Sexual Functioning Index; FSFI), vaginal photoplethysmography, and continuous subjective sexual arousal measured during exposure to erotic videos. Participants were 24 women with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) who received sex therapy, placebo, or gingko biloba in a four-arm double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. FSAD was diagnosed utilizing a semistructured interview administered at pre- and post-treatment. Those women who did not meet FSAD criteria at post-treatment (N = 10) were labeled as “improved,” while women who still met FSAD criteria (N = 14) were categorized as “not improved” even if they showed signs of improvements. Main Outcome Measure Change scores from pre- to post-treatment on the FSFI, event logs, vaginal photoplethysmography, and continuous subjective levels of sexual arousal were used to predict whether women improved at post-treatment. Results were checked with exact logistic regression to control for the small sample size. Results The FSFI was the only measure to significantly predict whether women improved at post-treatment. The findings from this study lend support for the use of validated questionnaires as endpoint criteria in detecting treatment-induced changes in women’s sexual dysfunction. PMID:16490021

  8. Effects of sex guilt and sexual arousal on the retention of birth control information

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Schwartz

    1973-01-01

    Tested the notion that high-sex-guilt individuals have difficulty retaining sex-related information. 28 male and 28 female undergraduates were assigned in equal numbers to a high and a low sex-guilt group. Within each group, 1\\/2 of the Ss were sexually stimulated by reading erotic passages, while 1\\/2 read neutral passages. All Ss then listened to a lecture on birth control and

  9. Predator Cat Odors Activate Sexual Arousal Pathways in Brains of Toxoplasma gondii Infected Rats

    PubMed Central

    House, Patrick K.; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor. PMID:21858053

  10. Female Sexual Dysfunction: Principles of Diagnosis and Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rachel N. Pauls; Steven D. Kleeman; Mickey M. Karram

    2005-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a common health problem, affecting approximately 43% of women. Female sexual dysfunction is defined as disorders of libido, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain that lead to personal distress or interpersonal difficulties. It is frequently multifactorial in etiology, with physiological and psychologic roots. Approaching female sexual dysfunction involves an open discussion with the patient, followed by a

  11. Sexually dimorphic adaptations in basal maternal stress physiology during pregnancy and implications for fetal development.

    PubMed

    Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Campbell, Tavis; Letourneau, Nicole

    2015-06-01

    There is clear evidence of reciprocal exchange of information between the mother and fetus during pregnancy but the majority of research in this area has focussed on the fetus as a recipient of signals from the mother. Specifically, physiological signals produced by the maternal stress systems in response to the environment may carry valuable information about the state of the external world. Prenatal stress produces sex-specific adaptations within fetal physiology that have pervasive and long-lasting effects on development. Little is known, however, about the effects of sex-specific fetal signals on maternal adaptations to pregnancy. The current prospective study examined sexually dimorphic adaptations within maternal stress physiology, including the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary (HPA) axis and the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and associations with fetal growth. Using diurnal suites of saliva collected in early and late pregnancy, we demonstrate that basal cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) differ by fetal sex. Women carrying female fetuses displayed greater autonomic arousal and flatter (but more elevated) diurnal cortisol patterns compared to women carrying males. Women with flatter daytime cortisol trajectories and more blunted sAA awakening responses also had infants with lower birth weight. These maternal adaptations are consistent with sexually dimorphic fetal developmental/evolutionary adaptation strategies that favor growth for males and conservation of resources for females. The findings provide new evidence to suggest that the fetus contributes to maternal HPA axis and ANS regulation during pregnancy and that these systems also contribute to the regulation of fetal growth. PMID:25827961

  12. Prenatal letrozole produces a subpopulation of male rats with same-sex preference and arousal as well as female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Hernández, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56 ?g/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56 ?g/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31 ?g/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior. PMID:25462593

  13. Sexual behavior, reproductive physiology and sperm competition in male mammals.

    PubMed

    Dixson, Alan F; Anderson, Matthew J

    2004-11-15

    Sperm competition involves competition between the gametes of two or more males of a species for fertilization of a given set of ova. Sperm competition is widespread among mammals, as in many other groups of vertebrates. Effects of sexual selection, via sperm competition, upon the evolution of reproductive physiology and behavior are much better understood in invertebrates (and especially in insects) than is the case for mammals. However, if the reproductive organs of male mammals are viewed as an integrated system for production and delivery of spermatozoa (and accessory glandular secretions) to females, then it is logical to assume that sperm competition might influence the evolution of all parts of the system, as well as associated physiological mechanisms (e.g., testicular endocrinology) and behavior (e.g., copulatory patterns). Here we analyze and review relationships between mating systems, relative testes sizes and sperm morphology, phallic morphology, circulating testosterone levels and sexual behavior in male mammals. PMID:15488551

  14. The Polarizing Effect of Arousal on Negotiation

    E-print Network

    Brown, Ashley D.

    In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, ...

  15. Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women's physiological

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women that women's physiological sexual arousal is facilitated by moderate sympathetic nervous system (SNS evidence that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation plays a facilitatory role in women

  16. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  17. Ambivalent Affect and Sexual Response: The Impact of Co-Occurring Positive and Negative Emotions on Subjective and Physiological Sexual Responses to Erotic Stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zoë D. Peterson; Erick Janssen

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the role of positive, negative, and ambivalent (i.e., co-occurring positive and negative) affect\\u000a in predicting subjective sexual arousal, sexual desire, and genital response. A total of 26 women and 19 men observed three\\u000a erotic film excerpts and a film excerpt depicting a coercive sexual encounter. Genital responses were recorded throughout\\u000a the study, and participants rated

  18. Can adult offenders with intellectual disabilities use mindfulness-based procedures to control their deviant sexual arousal?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nirbhay N. Singh; Giulio E. Lancioni; Alan S. W. Winton; Ashvind N. Singh; Angela D. Adkins; Judy Singh

    2011-01-01

    Adults with intellectual disability who commit sexual offences against children are prosecuted and sometimes diverted to mental health facilities for training and treatment. Of the few treatment modalities used with this population, cognitive–behavioral approaches appear to hold most promise. In a preliminary study, we assessed whether three adult sexual offenders with intellectual disability could learn to control their deviant sexual

  19. Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Helping Behavior, Aggressive Thoughts, Angry Feelings, and Physiological Arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad Bushman

    2004-01-01

    \\u000a Meta-analytic procedures were used to review the results from 85 studies on violent video game effects. Violent video games\\u000a increase aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, and arousal levels, and decrease helpful behaviors. The\\u000a effects occurred for both children and adults and for both males and females. The more violent the video game, the stronger\\u000a the effects. Violent video game

  20. Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…

  1. Male Sexual Function and Its Disorders: Physiology, Pathophysiology, Clinical Investigation, and Treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FOUAD R. KANDEEL; VIVIEN K. T. KOUSSA; RONALD S. SWERDLOFF

    2001-01-01

    This review is designed to help the reproductive endocrinologist integrate his or her professional activity with those of other disci- plines including urology, radiology, neurology, and psychology in or- der to successfully manage all of the inseparable aspects of male sexual and reproductive functioning. Significant advances in the field of male sexual physiology and pathophysiology and new methods of investigation

  2. Behaviour Research and Therapy 44 (2006) 515532 The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    -report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreasedBehaviour Research and Therapy 44 (2006) 515­532 The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women Cindy M. Mestonà Department

  3. Anatomy and Physiology of Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer R. Berman; Sapana P. Adhikari; Irwin Goldstein

    2000-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a significant age–related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women in the United States. The female sexual response cycle is initiated by neurotransmitter–mediated vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle relaxation resulting in increased pelvic blood flow, vaginal lubrication, and clitoral and labial engorgement. These mechanisms are mediated by a combination of neuromuscular

  4. Sexual selection by cryptic female choice on male seminal products - a new bridge between sexual selection and reproductive physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William G. Eberhard; Carlos Cordero

    1995-01-01

    Selection clearly focuses on differences in reproduction, but studies of reproductive physiology generally have been carried out in a near vacuum of modern evolutionary theory. This lack of contact between the two fields may be about to change. New ideas indicate that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has affected the evolution of products in male semen that influence female

  5. Functional wiring of hypocretin and LC-NE neurons: implications for arousal

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Matthew E.; de Lecea, Luis; Adamantidis, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    To survive in a rapidly changing environment, animals must sense their external world and internal physiological state and properly regulate levels of arousal. Levels of arousal that are abnormally high may result in inefficient use of internal energy stores and unfocused attention to salient environmental stimuli. Alternatively, levels of arousal that are abnormally low may result in the inability to properly seek food, water, sexual partners, and other factors necessary for life. In the brain, neurons that express hypocretin neuropeptides may be uniquely posed to sense the external and internal state of the animal and tune arousal state according to behavioral needs. In recent years, we have applied temporally precise optogenetic techniques to study the role of these neurons and their downstream connections in regulating arousal. In particular, we have found that noradrenergic neurons in the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) are particularly important for mediating the effects of hypocretin neurons on arousal. Here, we discuss our recent results and consider the implications of the anatomical connectivity of these neurons in regulating the arousal state of an organism across various states of sleep and wakefulness. PMID:23730276

  6. Physiological Arousal for Companion Dogs Working With Their Owners in Animal-Assisted Activities and Animal-Assisted Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorit Karla Haubenhofer; Sylvia Kirchengast

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological reactions of companion dogs (Canis familiaris) used in animal-assisted activities and animal-assisted therapy by measur- ing salivary cortisol concentrations. The dog caregivers (owners) collected saliva samples (a) at 3 control days without therapeutic work, (b) directly before and after each therapeutic session during 3 consecutive months, and (c) again at 3 control days without therapeutic

  7. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part II: Physiological and Pharmacological Manipulations and Pathological Alterations of Locus Coeruleus Activity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, E. R; Szabadi, E

    2008-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, gives rise to fibres innervating most structures of the neuraxis. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped to unravel the neuronal circuitry controlling a number of physiological functions in which the LC plays a central role. Two such functions are the regulation of arousal and autonomic activity, which are inseparably linked largely via the involvement of the LC. Alterations in LC activity due to physiological or pharmacological manipulations or pathological processes can lead to distinct patterns of change in arousal and autonomic function. Physiological manipulations considered here include the presentation of noxious or anxiety-provoking stimuli and extremes in ambient temperature. The modification of LC-controlled functions by drug administration is discussed in detail, including drugs which directly modify the activity of LC neurones (e.g., via autoreceptors, storage, reuptake) or have an indirect effect through modulating excitatory or inhibitory inputs. The early vulnerability of the LC to the ageing process and to neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) is of considerable clinical significance. In general, physiological manipulations and the administration of stimulant drugs, ?2-adrenoceptor antagonists and noradrenaline uptake inhibitors increase LC activity and thus cause heightened arousal and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast, the administration of sedative drugs, including ?2-adrenoceptor agonists, and pathological changes in LC function in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing reduce LC activity and result in sedation and activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. PMID:19506724

  8. Prenatal Loud Music and Noise: Differential Impact on Physiological Arousal, Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Spatial Behavior in One Day-Old Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation. PMID:23861759

  9. Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood. PMID:24748915

  10. Androgen Replacement Therapy with Dehydroepiandrosterone for Androgen Insufficiency and Female Sexual Dysfunction: Androgen and Questionnaire Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo Munarriz; Lily Talakoub; Elizabeth Flaherty; Melissa Gioia; Lisa Hoag; Noel N. Kim; Abdulmaged Traish; Irwin Goldstein; André Guay; Richard Spark

    2002-01-01

    During our evaluations of women with sexual dysfunction, we have seen many with low interest, arousal, and orgasmic capabilities with associated personal distress and diminished genital sensation and blood flow following sexual stimulation. Laboratory evaluation of these women has revealed normal estrogen but androgen values that were either below or in the lower quartile of the physiologic range. Androgen insufficiency

  11. Sex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: An eye-tracking study in men and women

    E-print Network

    , subjective, and physiological arousal. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Sexual stimuliSex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: An eye-tracking study in men and women Heather A. Rupp a, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA b The Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender and Reproduction, Indiana

  12. A review of subject orientation in articles on sexual physiology research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph G. Bohlen

    1980-01-01

    The precautions that sexual physiology researchers report taking to protect human subjects' rights, safety, and welfare are reviewed. Twenty?eight articles were selected as representative of research that was highly sensitive and potentially invasive of subjects' rights. Aspects of subject orientation procedures were categorized into 20 objectives or topics. The topics specifically reported to subjects in each article were tabulated. Those

  13. Female hypoactive sexual disorder: Case studies of physiologic androgen replacement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia K. Warnock; J. Clark Bundren; David W. Morris

    1999-01-01

    Menopause, surgical or naturally occurring, with reduced or deficient ovarian functioning has a major impact on morbidity and mortality in mid- to late life. A growing body of literature notes the role of androgens in maintaining women's health and emotional well-being. The administration of physiologic levels of testosterone replacement therapy as an adjunct to estrogen replacement requires further investigation. The

  14. Biometric valence and arousal recognition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Martyn Jones; Tommy Troen

    2007-01-01

    A real-time user-independent emotion detection system using physiological signals has been developed. The system has the ability to classify affective states into 2-dimensions using valence and arousal. Each dimension ranges from 1 to 5 giving a total of 25 possible affective regions. Physiological signals were measured using 3 biometric sensors for Blood Volume Pulse (BVP), Skin Conductance (SC) and Respiration

  15. Premenopausal women affected by sexual arousal disorder treated with sildenafil: a double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salvatore Caruso; Giorgia Intelisano; Lorenzo Lupo; Carmela Agnello

    2001-01-01

    Objective To verify whether sildenafil is effective in young premenopausal women affected by arousal disorder.Design A double-blind cross-over study.Setting Centre for Sexological Research, Department of Microbiological and Gynaecological Science, University of Catania, Italy.Sample Fifty-three volunteer women aged 22–28 years affected by arousal disorders.Methods The study consisted of three 4-week periods: sildenafil, washout, placebo, by six possible sequences. sildenafil was used

  16. Desensitization and Resensitization to Violence Against Women: Effects of Exposure to Sexually Violent Films on Judgments of Domestic Violence Victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles R. Mullin; Daniel Linz

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of repeated exposure to sexually violent films on emotional desensitization and callousness toward domestic abuse victims. Results indicated that emotional response, self-reported physiological arousal, and ratings of the extent to which the films were sexually violent all diminished with repeated film exposure. Three days following exposure to the final film, experimental participants

  17. A Psychoeducational Intervention for Sexual Dysfunction in Women with Gynecologic Cancer

    E-print Network

    -based treatments for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD), the most common sexual symptom in this group, do of the PED on sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, satisfaction, sexual distress, depression, and overall well

  18. Olfactory Regulation of the Sexual Behavior and Reproductive Physiology of the Laboratory Mouse: Effects and Neural Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin R. Kelliher; Scott R. Wersinger

    In many species, chemical compounds emitted by conspe- cifi cs exert profound effects on reproductive physiology and sexual behavior. This is particularly true in the mouse, where such cues advance and delay puberty, suppress and facilitate estrous cycles, and cause the early termination of pregnancy. They also facilitate sexual behavior and inform mate selection. The mouse has a rich and

  19. Gender Differences in Sado-Masochistic Arousal Among College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Donnelly; James Fraser

    1998-01-01

    This paper tests three competing explanationsfor male-female differences in sado-masochistic sexualarousal. The male arousal hypothesis posits that becauseof socialization that emphasizes sexual aggression and experimentation (and thus higher levels ofsexual arousal and activity in all areas), men will bemore aroused by both sadism and masochism than women.The female masochism hypothesis argues that because females are socialized to be passive, they

  20. Arousal, Personality, and Assortative Mating in Marriage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank H. Farley; Sandy A. Davis

    1977-01-01

    It is known that there is significant assortative mating for intelligence. However, where personality is concerned, the picture is less clear, and where physiologically referenced individual differences are concerned, there is a negligible body of available research. A compound major individual difference variable having a putative physiological basis–arousal and the stimulation-seeking motive, which has not heretofore been investigated in studies

  1. Changes in Physiological Arousal to Gambling Cues Among Participants in Motivationally Enhanced Cognitive–Behavior Therapy for Pathological Gambling: A Preliminary Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian M. Freidenberg; Edward B. Blanchard; Edelgard Wulfert; Loretta S. Malta

    2002-01-01

    Despite somewhat high attrition and relapse rates, cognitive–behavioral interventions for pathological gambling seem promising.\\u000a As a possible remedy to these problems, we conducted a preliminary study of gambling-specific cognitive–behavior therapy (CBT)\\u000a with the addition of motivational enhancement techniques (MET) for the treatment of pathological gamblers. Data on psychophysiological\\u000a arousal upon exposure to imagined gambling vignettes were collected at both pre-

  2. Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Anderson; William E. Deuser; K. M. DeNeve

    1995-01-01

    A general model of affective aggression was used to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures.Experiment 1 examined hot temperatureeffectson hostileaffect, hostilecognition,perceived arousal, and physiological arousal in the context of a study of video games. Experiment 2 examined hot temperature effects on hostile affect, perceived and physiological arousal, and general positive and negative affect in the context of briefaerobicexercise. Consistent results were

  3. Misattribution of arousal in negotiation : the role of the eye of the beholder

    E-print Network

    Brown, Ashley D. (Ashley Diane)

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and extant prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized, given its assumed negative effect on ...

  4. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. PMID:21195074

  5. Body Image, Relationships and Sexuality After Amputation

    MedlinePLUS

    ... honest conversations like these. Sexuality We are all sexual beings. This term refers to all the ways ... feelings and emotions. Our whole body responds to sexual attraction. Sexuality includes feelings of arousal (expressed by ...

  6. Sexual and affective responses to same- and opposite-sex stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men: assessment and manipulation of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick

    2014-07-01

    Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24473940

  7. Effect of combined psycho-physiological stretching and breathing therapy on sexual satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last few decades, marital tensions and stresses have influenced various dimensions of life. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of combined psycho-physiological therapy (stretching therapy combined with breathing exercise) on sexual satisfaction among heterosexual men. Methods For this research, we used “convenience sampling” to select 80 males, who were then split equally into two groups, the intervention group and the control group, both groups containing men who had voiced a desire to be in the experimental group. For collection of data, we used an identical quasi-experimental design called the “nonequivalent control group.” Therapy sessions, each lasting 90 to 120 min, were carried out on the same 3 days of the week (Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday) for a total of 20 sessions. The volunteers were selected from heterosexual men with stable relationships, who had been married a minimum of 6 months and were ages 20 to 55 years of age. Pre-tests, post-tests, and follow-up tests were conducted in a clinic at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM [1] ). For assessment, we used the sexual satisfaction subscale of the ENRICH [2] questionnaire. Results The intervention group had better post-test scores than the control group. Also, follow-up test scores for the intervention group were marginally better than those for the control group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Combined psycho-physiological therapy including stretching and breathing exercise leads to improved sexual satisfaction. PMID:23522405

  8. Valence, arousal and word associations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Laure Gilet; Christophe Jallais

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at testing the relative effects of valence and arousal on the generation of unusual first associates in response to non-emotional inducers. To examine this question, four specific moods varying along both the valence and the arousal dimensions were induced: happiness (positive mood, high arousal), serenity (positive mood, low arousal), anger (negative mood, high arousal) and sadness (negative

  9. Sequential Analysis of Autonomic Arousal and Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, John; Symons, Frank; Sng, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    There have been limited direct tests of the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) regulates arousal. In this study, two autonomic biomarkers for physiological arousal (heart rate [HR] and the high-frequency [HF] component of heart rate variability [HRV]) were investigated in relation to SIB for 3 participants with intellectual…

  10. Sexually different physiological responses of Populus cathayana to nitrogen and phosphorus deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sheng; Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Hongxia; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that there are significant sexual differences in the morphological and physiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehder under stressful conditions. However, little is known about sex-specific differences in responses to nutrient deficiencies. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiencies on the morphological, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural traits of P. cathayana males and females were investigated. The results showed that N and P deficiencies significantly decreased plant growth, foliar N and P contents, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and instantaneous photosynthetic N- and P-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) in both sexes. Males had higher photosynthesis, higher PNUE and PPUE rates, and a lower accumulation of plastoglobules in chloroplasts than did females when exposed to N- and P-deficiency conditions. Nitrogen-deficient males had higher glutamate dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities, and a more intact chloroplast ultrastructure, but less starch accumulation than did N-deficient females. Phosphorus-deficient males had higher nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and acid phosphatase activities, but a lower foliar N : P ratio and less PSII damage than did P-deficient females. These results suggest that N and P deficiencies cause greater negative effects on females than on males, and that the different sexes of P. cathayana may employ different strategies to cope with N and P deficiencies. PMID:24739232

  11. Psychophysiological consequences of unexplained arousal: a posthypnotic suggestion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zimbardo, P G; LaBerge, S; Butler, L D

    1993-08-01

    This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases in heart and respiration rate) with and without amnesia for its source in a two-phase procedure. Only the hypnotizable Ss were expected to differ between conditions. As predicted, for the hypnotizable Ss, unexplained arousal produced significant and dramatic effects when compared with explained arousal, including misattributions. These results are considered within a conceptual framework of the role of discontinuous experiences in the development of psychopathological symptoms in normal persons. PMID:8408959

  12. Control of arousal by the orexin neurons

    PubMed Central

    Alexandre, Chloe; Andermann, Mark L; Scammell, Thomas E

    2013-01-01

    The orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus play an essential role in promoting arousal and maintaining wakefulness. These neurons receive a broad variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli; they project to almost every brain region involved in the regulation of wakefulness; and they fire most strongly during active wakefulness, high motor activation, and sustained attention. This review focuses on the specific neuronal pathways through which the orexin neurons promote wakefulness and maintain high level of arousal, and how recent studies using optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods have demonstrated that the locus coeruleus, the tuberomammillary nucleus, and the basal forebrain are some of the key sites mediating the arousing actions of orexins. PMID:23683477

  13. Sexuality After Breast Cancer: Need for Guideline

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri, Sh; Lotfi Kashani, F

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical experiences have revealed that patients with breast cancer experience various sexual problems following their treatment. Breast cancer negatively impacts the sexual life of the afflicted couples, and as a traumatic event can influence women’s psychosexual functioning and intimate relationship. This review focuses on sexuality after breast cancer and on a growing need for bio-psycho-social guidelines for breast cancer treatment. Methods This study aims to review the literature on management, psychological outcomes and sexual dysfunction in patients with breast cancer. Results Although the benefits of the current treatment strategies are well established, many cancer survivors are at risk for developing psycho physiological symptoms including sexual dysfunction. Cancer and treatment-related factors can influence sexual functioning. We review current treatment-related side effects on sexual functioning such as desire, arousal and orgasm in breast cancer patients. Despite the impact of medical treatment on survival of patients with breast cancer, no satisfactory steps have been taken towards improving sexual functioning of these patients. Conclusion Breast cancer affects many aspects of sexuality, including changes in physical functioning and in the perception of feminity. Sexual dysfunction following breast cancer should be diagnosed and managed as a systematic approach with multidisciplinary inputs. Healthcare professionals should assess the effects of medical and surgical treatment on the sexuality of breast cancer survivors.

  14. Short- and Long-term Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Sexual Dysfunction in Women

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.; Telch, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) facilitates blood flow, influences nitric oxide systems, and has a relaxant effect on smooth muscle tissue. These processes are important to the sexual response in women and, hence, it is feasible that GBE may have a therapeutic effect. The present study was the first to provide an empirical examination of the effects of both short- and long-term GBE administration on subjective and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography) measures of sexual function in women with Sexual Arousal Disorder. A single dose of 300 mg GBE had a small but significant facilitatory effect on physiological, but not subjective, sexual arousal compared to placebo in 99 sexually dysfunctional women. The long-term effects of GBE on sexual function were assessed in 68 sexually dysfunctional women who were randomly assigned to 8 weeks treatment of either (1) GBE (300 mg/daily), (2) placebo, (3) sex therapy which focused on training women to attend to genital sensations, or (4) sex therapy plus GBE. When combined with sex therapy, but not alone, long-term GBE treatment significantly increased sexual desire and contentment beyond placebo. Sex therapy alone significantly enhanced orgasm function compared with placebo. Long-term GBE administration did not significantly enhance arousal responses beyond placebo. It was concluded that (1) neither short- or long-term administration of GBE alone substantially impacts sexual function in women, (2) a substantial placebo effect on sexual function exists in women with sexual concerns, and (3) teaching women to focus on genital sensations during sex enhances certain aspects of women’s sexual functioning. PMID:18274887

  15. Short- and long-term effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on sexual dysfunction in women.

    PubMed

    Meston, Cindy M; Rellini, Alessandra H; Telch, Michael J

    2008-08-01

    Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) facilitates blood flow, influences nitric oxide systems, and has a relaxant effect on smooth muscle tissue. These processes are important to the sexual response in women and, hence, it is feasible that GBE may have a therapeutic effect. The present study was the first to provide an empirical examination of the effects of both short- and long-term GBE administration on subjective and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography) measures of sexual function in women with Sexual Arousal Disorder. A single dose of 300 mg GBE had a small but significant facilitatory effect on physiological, but not subjective, sexual arousal compared to placebo in 99 sexually dysfunctional women. The long-term effects of GBE on sexual function were assessed in 68 sexually dysfunctional women who were randomly assigned to 8 weeks treatment of either (1) GBE (300 mg/daily), (2) placebo, (3) sex therapy which focused on training women to attend to genital sensations, or (4) sex therapy plus GBE. When combined with sex therapy, but not alone, long-term GBE treatment significantly increased sexual desire and contentment beyond placebo. Sex therapy alone significantly enhanced orgasm function compared with placebo. Long-term GBE administration did not significantly enhance arousal responses beyond placebo. It was concluded that (1) neither short- or long-term administration of GBE alone substantially impacts sexual function in women, (2) a substantial placebo effect on sexual function exists in women with sexual concerns, and (3) teaching women to focus on genital sensations during sex enhances certain aspects of women's sexual functioning. PMID:18274887

  16. Childhood Trauma is Associated with Altered Cortical Arousal: Insights from an EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Howells, Fleur Margaret; Stein, Dan J.; Russell, Vivienne A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma is associated with psychiatric disorders, yet the underlying psychobiological mechanisms that account for this link are not well understood. Alterations in cortical arousal may, however, play a key role in mediating this association. We hypothesized that childhood trauma would be associated with alterations in arousal during a task that required sustained attention and behavioral inhibition. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three healthy adults completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire which assesses physical neglect, emotional neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and denial of childhood trauma. These individuals underwent cortical (electroencephalography) and peripheral (heart rate, skin conductance responses, and salivary cortisol) physiological recordings at rest (eyes open and eyes closed) and during performance of a visual go/no-go (GNG) task. Associations between reported childhood trauma and physiological measures were determined. Results: Physical and emotional neglect were correlated with decreased left parietal tonic ? band power during resting conditions and during the GNG task. Emotional abuse was correlated with decreased right frontal ? band power during rest, increased ? band power during the GNG task, and cortisol at the end of the testing session. Physical and sexual abuse were correlated with delayed P300 latency and enhanced P300 amplitude during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. The denial scale was correlated with a decrease in ? and increase in ? band power during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that childhood trauma is associated with altered cortical arousal and that the pattern of this association is dependent on the form of childhood trauma experienced. PMID:23269916

  17. Physiology and antennal lobe projections of olfactory receptor neurons from sexually isomorphic sensilla on male Heliothis virescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. K. Hillier; N. J. Vickers

    2007-01-01

    The neurophysiology and antennal lobe projections of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) within sexually isomorphic short trichoid\\u000a sensilla of male Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) were investigated using cut-sensillum recording and cobalt-lysine staining. A total of 202 sensilla\\u000a were sorted into 14 possible sensillar categories based on odor responses and physiology of ORNs within. Seventy-two percent\\u000a of the sensilla identified contained ORNs

  18. Sexual differences in physiological integration in the dioecious shrub Lindera triloba: a field experiment using girdling manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Isogimi, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Michinari; Watanabe, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Michiko

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims It is important to consider the modular level when verifying sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants. Nevertheless, between-sex differences in resource translocation among modules (i.e. physiological integration) have not been tested at the whole-plant level. In this study, sexual differences in physiological integration were examined among ramets, within a genet in the dioecious sprouting shrub Lindera triloba, by a field experiment with girdling manipulation. Methods Female and male genets were randomly assigned to girdled or intact groups. Girdling of the main ramets was conducted in May 2009 by removing a ring of bark and cambium approx. 1 cm wide at a height of 80–100 cm. The effects of treatment and sex on ramet dynamics (mortality, recruitment and diameter growth) and inflorescence production during 1 year after girdling were examined. Key Results The diameter growth rate of main ramets of both sexes was lower at ground level (D0) but higher at breast height (dbh) in girdled than in intact groups. In sprouted ramets with a dbh of 0–2 cm, males in girdled groups had lower growth rates at D0 than those of intact groups, whereas no girdling effect was found for females. The main ramets in girdled groups produced more inflorescences than intact groups, irrespective of sex, but male ramets showed a greater response to the treatment than females. Conclusions In L. triloba, physiological integration exists at the whole-plant level, and sprouted ramets are dependent on assimilates translocated from main ramets, but this dependence weakens as sprouted ramets get larger. Female sprouted ramets can grow in a physiologically independent manner from the main ramet earlier than those of males. This study highlights the importance of considering modular structures and physiological integration when evaluating sexual differences in demographic patterns of clonal plants. PMID:21385778

  19. Perceptions of Sexuality as Related to Sexual Functioning and Sexual Risk in Women with Different Types of Childhood Abuse Histories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kelly A. Schloredt; Julia R. Heiman

    2003-01-01

    Perceptions of one's sexuality, self-reported sexual functioning, and sexual risk were examined in a community sample of 148 women with histories of either childhood sexual abuse (n = 26), both childhood sexual and physical abuse (n = 44), and neither form of abuse (n = 78). Controlling for depression and anxiety, the groups did not differ on sexual desire, arousal\\/orgasm,

  20. REPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS IN AROUSAL ASSESSMENT FOR SEX OFFENDERS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795

  1. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widdas, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the scope of physiology and activities undertaken by physiologists. Indicates that a better understanding of the basic actions of cells and organs is the objective of physiological research. (CC)

  2. Trazodone Increases the Respiratory Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and a Low Arousal Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway anatomy in these patients. Citation: Eckert DJ; Malhotra A; Wellman A; White DP. Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold. SLEEP 2014;37(4):811-819. PMID:24899767

  3. Phallometric Assessments Designed to Detect Arousal to Children: The Responses of Rapists and Child Molesters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Looman; W. L. Marshall

    2001-01-01

    The phallometric responses of child molesters and rapists were assessed using two assessments of sexual arousal to children. Groups responded to both audiotaped depictions of sexual activity with children and to a set of slides of nude adults and children. Analyses revealed that the audiotaped child sexual violence assessment was as effective as the slide assessment in discriminating child molesters

  4. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in turn, predicted earlier initiation of alcohol by age 16. Among boys, there also existed a significant baseline RSA by baseline cortisol interaction. Boys with low baseline RSA and high baseline cortisol had the highest levels of behavioral dysregulation. This increase in behavioral dysregulation was in turn related to initiation of alcohol use by age 16 and lower age of first sexual intercourse. We found sex-specific pathways to the initiation of alcohol use and risky sexual behavior through the combined activity of parasympathetic and neuroendocrine functioning. The study of multiple physiological systems may suggest new pathways to the study of age of onset of substance use and engagement in risky sexual behavior in adolescents. PMID:25033835

  5. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  6. Sexuality and fertility in urologic cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Schover, L R

    1987-08-01

    With the advent of effective treatment for urologic cancer, the preservation of sexual function and fertility has become an important goal. Some cancer treatments damage the physiological systems involved in reproduction. All have a psychological impact on sexuality. For men with prostate cancer, current issues in sexual rehabilitation include the debate on nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy, the role of vascular damage in causing erectile dysfunction after radiotherapy, and the need for a better understanding of hormonal effects on central and peripheral mechanisms of sexual function. In the treatment of men and women with bladder cancer, the sexual function morbidity of radical cystectomy is described in data from prospective interview studies. Sexual desire and orgasm remain normal after surgery despite disruption of the genital vasocongestion accompanying sexual arousal. Long-term follow-up studies of testicular cancer patients suggest that some increase in sexual dysfunction does occur. Infertility remains a concern for a subgroup of younger, childless men. Attempts to modify or eliminate retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy are discussed, as is recovery of spermatogenesis after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Sexual function in patients with penile, urethral, or renal cell carcinoma is briefly reviewed. PMID:3036334

  7. Effects of low survivability cues and participant sex on physiological and behavioral responses to sexual stimuli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Omri Gillath; Mark J. Landau; Emre Selcuk; Jamie L. Goldenberg

    2011-01-01

    According to life history theory, environmental cues indicating that one's future survivability is low increase reproductive effort. This suggests that exposure to low survivability cues will increase people's preparedness to engage in sex. However, according to sexual selection theory and parental investment theory, evolutionary pressures favored a more conservative sexual strategy among women compared to men. We therefore hypothesized that

  8. Online Sexual Activity Experience of Heterosexual Students: Gender Similarities and Differences

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krystelle ShaughnessyE; E. Sandra Byers; Lindsay Walsh

    2011-01-01

    This study compared male and female university students’ experiences with online sexual activity (OSA) and tested a model\\u000a explaining gender differences in OSA. OSAs were categorized as non-arousal (e.g., seeking sexuality information), solitary-arousal\\u000a (e.g., viewing sexually explicit materials), or partnered-arousal (e.g., sharing sexual fantasies). Participants (N = 217) completed measures of OSA experience, sexual attitudes, and sexual experience. Significantly more men than

  9. Level of postassault sexual functioning in rape and incest victims

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judith V. Becker; Linda J. Skinner; Gene G. Abel; Joan Cichon

    1986-01-01

    In a systematic study, 372 sexual assault survivors and 99 women with no history of sexual assault were interviewed with regard to their sexual histories to determine the incidence and types of sexual dysfunctions in these two samples. The women also completed the Sexual Arousability Inventory. Of the sexual assault survivors, 58.6% of the women were experiencing sexual dysfunctions, with

  10. The motivation behind serial sexual homicide: is it sex, power, and control, or anger?

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    2006-07-01

    Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented. PMID:16882237

  11. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  12. Puberty and adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Fortenberry, J Dennis

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

  13. Can fear arousal in public health campaigns contribute to the decline of HIV prevalence?

    PubMed

    Green, Edward C; Witte, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Most American health professionals who work in HIV/AIDS do not support the use of fear arousal in AIDS preventive education, believing it to be counterproductive. Meanwhile, many Africans, whether laypersons, health professionals, or politicians, seem to believe there is a legitimate role for fear arousal in changing sexual behavior. This African view is the one more supported by the empirical evidence, which suggests that the use of fear arousal in public health campaigns often works in promoting behavior change, when combined with self-efficacy. The authors provide overviews of the prevailing American expert view, African national views, and the most recent findings on the use of fear arousal in behavior change campaigns. Their analysis suggests that American, post-sexual-revolution values and beliefs may underlie rejection of fear arousal strategies, whereas a pragmatic realism based on personal experience underlies Africans' acceptance of and use of the same strategies in AIDS prevention campaigns. PMID:16624790

  14. Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality

  15. Narratives of Desire in Mid-Age Women With and Without Arousal Difficulties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Brotto; Julia R. Heiman; Deborah L. Tolman

    2009-01-01

    There is controversy about the nature of women's sexual desire. The aim was to explore narrative descriptions of sexual desire among mid-aged women in hopes of clarifying how women define and experience sexual desire, and how these might differ among women with and without female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Mid-aged women without (age: M = 45, n = 12) and with (age: M = 55, n = 10)

  16. Stress, Arousal, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Larry D; Suchecki, Deborah; Meerlo, Peter

    2014-05-23

    Stress is considered to be an important cause of disrupted sleep and insomnia. However, controlled and experimental studies in rodents indicate that effects of stress on sleep-wake regulation are complex and may strongly depend on the nature of the stressor. While most stressors are associated with at least a brief period of arousal and wakefulness, the subsequent amount and architecture of recovery sleep can vary dramatically across conditions even though classical markers of acute stress such as corticosterone are virtually the same. Sleep after stress appears to be highly influenced by situational variables including whether the stressor was controllable and/or predictable, whether the individual had the possibility to learn and adapt, and by the relative resilience and vulnerability of the individual experiencing stress. There are multiple brain regions and neurochemical systems linking stress and sleep, and the specific balance and interactions between these systems may ultimately determine the alterations in sleep-wake architecture. Factors that appear to play an important role in stress-induced wakefulness and sleep changes include various monominergic neurotransmitters, hypocretins, corticotropin releasing factor, and prolactin. In addition to the brain regions directly involved in stress responses such as the hypothalamus, the locus coeruleus, and the amygdala, differential effects of stressor controllability on behavior and sleep may be mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex. These various brain regions interact and influence each other and in turn affect the activity of sleep-wake controlling centers in the brain. Also, these regions likely play significant roles in memory processes and participate in the way stressful memories may affect arousal and sleep. Finally, stress-induced changes in sleep-architecture may affect sleep-related neuronal plasticity processes and thereby contribute to cognitive dysfunction and psychiatric disorders. PMID:24852799

  17. Age differences in arousal and vigilance in California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi).

    PubMed

    Hanson, M T; Coss, R G

    2001-11-01

    Newly emerged pup, juvenile, and adult California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi douglasii) were videorecorded at a seminatural field site in northern California. Video data revealed age differences in the budgeting of ground squirrel behavior, habitat use, and physiological arousal as indicated by morphometric analyses of tail piloerection. Adults and juveniles devoted their time to foraging in the open at feeding stations while displaying low to moderate levels of arousal, respectively. Pups remained vigilant on the fringe of covered habitats while displaying comparatively higher levels of arousal. Higher pup arousal may facilitate memory formation during early stages of development. PMID:11745313

  18. Sexual Problems

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... subjective and takes into account the person’s age, physical health, and personal life circumstances. In combined arousal disorder, ... may be a physician, psychologist, social worker, or physical therapist. You ... problem. Education is important in understanding the anatomy and physiology ...

  19. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  20. Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley Schachter; Jerome Singer

    1962-01-01

    It is suggested that emotional states may be considered a function of a state of physiological arousal and of a cognition appropriate to this state of arousal. From this follows these propositions: (a) Given a state of physiological arousal for which an individual has no immediate explanation, he will label this state and describe his feelings in terms of the

  1. Gender Differences in Sado-Masochistic Arousal Among College Students 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denise Donnelly; James Fraser

    1998-01-01

    This paper tests three com peting explanations for m ale-female differences in sad o-m asoch istic sexu al aro usal. The m ale arou sal hypo thesis posits that becau se of socialization that emphasizes sexual aggression and experim entation (an d thus higher levels of sexual arousal an d activity in all areas), m en will be m ore

  2. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

  3. At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

  4. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799

  5. Power modulates over-reliance on false cardiac arousal when judging target attractiveness: the powerful are more centered on their own false arousal than the powerless.

    PubMed

    Jouffre, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Individuals attempting to label their emotions look for a plausible source of their physiological arousal. Co-occurrence of plausible sources can lead to the misattribution of real (or bogus) physiological arousal, resulting in physically attractive individuals being perceived as more attractive than they actually are. In two experiments, female participants heard bogus heart rate feedback while viewing photos of attractive male models. Compared with low-power and control participants, high-power participants rated reinforced photos (increased heart rate) more attractive than non-reinforced photos (stable heart rate) to a greater extent when they heard their own bogus heart rate feedback (Experiments 1 and 2) and to a lesser extent when they heard a recording of another participant's heart rate (Experiment 2). These findings, which suggest that power increases the tendency to misattribute one's physiological arousal to physically attractive individuals, are discussed with reference to theories linking power and social perception. PMID:25413717

  6. Action, arousal, and subjective time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kielan Yarrow; Patrick Haggard; John C. Rothwella

    2004-01-01

    Saccadic chronostasis refers to the subjective temporal lengthening of the first visual stimulus perceived after an eye movement. It has been quantified using a duration discrimination task. Most models of human duration discrimination hypothesise an internal clock. These models could explain chronostasis as a transient increase in internal clock speed due to arousal following a saccade, leading to temporal overestimation.

  7. Homosexual threat, negative attitudes toward masturbation, sex guilt, and males' sexual and affective reactions to explicit sexual films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Mosher; Kevin E. OGrady

    1979-01-01

    Subjective sexual arousal and affective responses of 215 undergraduate males to films of masturbatory, homosexual, and heterosexual behavior were studied as a function of personality differences in negative attitudes toward masturbation, homosexual threat, and sex guilt. The film of heterosexual behavior elicited more subjective sexual arousal and less disgust, anger, shame, depression, and guilt than did the films of male

  8. Gender-Specificity of Women's and Men's Self-Reported Attention to Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Huberman, Jackie S; Maracle, Amanda C; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-09-25

    Men's sexual arousal is largely dependent on the actor's gender in a sexual stimulus (gender-specific), whereas for women, particularly androphilic women, arousal is less dependent on gender (gender-nonspecific). According to information-processing models of sexual response, sexual arousal requires that attention be directed toward sexual cues. We evaluated whether men's and women's self-reported attention to sexual stimuli of men or women were consistent with genital responses and self-reported arousal. We presented gynephilic men (n = 21) and women (n = 22) and androphilic men (n = 16) and women (n = 33) with audiovisual stimuli depicting men or women engaged in sexual activities. Genital responses were continuously recorded and, following each stimulus, participants reported the amount of attention paid to the video and feelings of sexual arousal. Self-reported attention was gender-specific for men and gender-nonspecific for women, and generally mirrored genital responses and self-reported arousal. Gender-specificity of genital responses significantly predicted gender-specificity of self-reported arousal; however, for men only, this effect was significantly mediated by gender-specificity of self-reported attention. Gender differences in gender-specificity of sexual arousal may be partially accounted for by differences in gender-specificity of self-reported attention, although attention may play a greater role in men's sexual arousal than women's. PMID:25255838

  9. Display Characteristics Affect Users' Emotional Arousal in 3D Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tao Lin; Atsumi Imamiya; Wanhua Hu; Masaki Omata

    2006-01-01

    Large computer screens are becoming more and more popular among users, and field of view and physical screen size are important\\u000a considerations for users and manufacturers. In this study, we investigated the impacts of visual angles and physical screen\\u000a size on users’ emotional arousal using subjective and physiological measures. The results suggest that larger visual angles\\u000a cause greater galvanic skin

  10. Reconceptualizing Arousal: Psychobiological States in Motor Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob Neiss

    1988-01-01

    This review of research dealing with psychologically induced arousal and motor performance focuses on the hypothesized inverted-? function relating arousal to performance. The inverted-? hypothesis is supported only in a weak and psychologically trivial fashion: Subjects with incentive will outperform either those with none or those responding to a serious and plausible threat; the arousal level of the first group

  11. Cardiovascular Arousal in Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Matthew S.; Groden, June; Velicer, Wayne F.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Baron, M. Grace; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Groden, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    Despite the hypothesized link between arousal and behavior in persons with autism, there is a lack of idiographic research that directly assesses arousal responses to novel stimuli or social situations in this population. The current study used heart rate as a measure of sympathetic activity to compare arousal responses to the presentation of…

  12. Rape Myth Acceptance and Rape Proclivity: Expected Dominance Versus Expected Arousal as Mediators in Acquaintance-Rape Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G. Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of…

  13. Revised definitions of women's sexual dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Basson; Sandra Leiblum; Lori Brotto; Leonard Derogatis; Jean Fourcroy; E. T. M. Laan; Alessandra Graziottin; Julia R. Heiman; Ellen Laan; Cindy Meston; Leslie Schover; Jacques van Lankveld; Willibrord Weijmar Schultz

    2004-01-01

    Introduction. Existing definitions of women's sexual disorders are based mainly on genitally focused events in a linear sequence model (desire, arousal and orgasm). Aim. To revise definitions based on an alternative model reflecting women's reasons\\/incentives for sexual activity beyond any initial awareness of sexual desire. Methods. An International Definitions Committee of 13 experts from seven countries repeatedly communicated, proposed new

  14. Chemoreception and asphyxia-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, Patrice G.; Abbott, Stephen B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Arousal protects against the adverse and potentially fatal effects of asphyxia during sleep. Asphyxia stimulates the carotid bodies and central chemoreceptors but the sequence of events leading to arousal is uncertain. In this review, the theoretical mechanisms leading to arousal from sleep are briefly summarized and the issue of whether central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) or other types of CO2-responsive CNS neurons contribute to asphyxia-induced arousal is discussed. We focus on the role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus, the raphe and the locus coeruleus and emphasize the anatomical and neurophysiological evidence which suggests that these putative central chemoreceptors could contribute to arousal independently of their effects on breathing. Finally, we describe recent attempts to test the contribution of specific brainstem pathways to asphyxia-induced arousal using optogenetic and other tools and the possible contribution of a group of hypoxia-sensitive brainstem neurons (the C1 cells) to breathing and arousal. PMID:23608705

  15. Maintaining sexuality in menopause.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Martini, Ellis; Martella, Silvia; Capuano, Francesca; Bosoni, David; Giacomini, Sonia; Beraghi, Matteo; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2014-03-13

    Sexual health in the menopause is a medical challenge because the progressive decline of sexual hormones interacts with the aging process and many psychosocial stressors modulate vulnerability for sexual symptoms (low sexual desire, poor arousal and lubrication, dyspareunia, orgasmic dysfunction and lack of satisfaction). In clinical practice, a coordinated approach is needed to optimally manage the risk for developing female sexual dysfunction (FSD), especially when chronic conditions are present. Biomedical and psychosocial interventions include general education, recognition of signs and symptoms, promotion of health, attention to the partner and individualization of treatment. Counselling to overcome personal and relational difficulties should be always combined with hormonal and non-hormonal strategies to maximize biological signals driving the sexual response. By enhancing women's abilities to cope with sexual changes at midlife, health care providers may significantly optimize healthy aging and partnership. PMID:24879777

  16. Sexual Dysfunctions Cindy M. Meston and Andrea Bradford

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    Sexual Dysfunctions in Women Cindy M. Meston and Andrea Bradford Department of Psychology-5943/07/0427-0233$20.00 Key Words women's sexuality, orgasm, desire, arousal, sexual pain Abstract In this article, we summarize the definition, etiology, assessment, and treatment of sexual dysfunctions in women. Although

  17. Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants.

    PubMed

    Franco, Patricia; Kato, Ineko; Richardson, Heidi L; Yang, Joel S C; Montemitro, Enza; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-08-01

    Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development of repeated sleep disruptions and insomnia, with impairment of daytime alertness and performance. A lack of an adequate arousal response to a noxious nocturnal stimulus reduces an infant's chances of autoresuscitation, and thus survival, increasing the risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). The study of arousability is complicated by many factors including the definition of an arousal; the scoring methodology; the techniques used (spontaneous arousability versus arousal responses to endogenous or exogenous stimuli); and the confounding factors that complicate the determination of arousal thresholds by changing the sleeper's responses to a given stimulus such as prenatal drug, alcohol, or cigarette use. Infant age and previous sleep deprivation also modify thresholds. Other confounding factors include time of night, sleep stages, the sleeper's body position, and sleeping conditions. In this paper, we will review these different aspects for the study of arousals in infants and also report the importance of these studies for the understanding of the pathophysiology of some clinical conditions, particularly SIDS. PMID:20630799

  18. Chronic stress and sexual function in women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic stress is known to have negative effects on reproduction, but little is known about how it affects the sexual response cycle. The present study examined the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and the mechanisms that mediate this relationship. Aim To test the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and identify mechanisms that may explain this relationship. We predicted that women experiencing high levels of chronic stress would show lower levels of genital arousal & DHEAS and higher levels of cortisol and cognitive distraction compared to women with average levels of stress. Methods Women who were categorized as high in chronic stress (high stress group, n = 15) or average in chronic stress (average stress group; n = 15) provided saliva samples and watched an erotic film while having their genital and psychological arousal measured. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were vaginal pulse amplitude, psychological arousal, salivary cortisol, salivary DHEAS, and heart rate and compared them between women with high and average levels of chronic stress. Results Women in the high stress group had lower levels of genital, but not psychological arousal, had higher levels of cortisol, and reported more distraction during the erotic film than women in the average stress group. The main predictor of decreased genital sexual arousal was participants’ distraction scores. Conclusions High levels of chronic stress were related to lower levels of genital sexual arousal. Both psychological (distraction) and hormonal (increased cortisol) factors were related to the lower levels of sexual arousal seen in women high in chronic stress, but distraction was the only significant predictor when controlling for other variables. PMID:23841462

  19. Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.

    PubMed

    Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep. PMID:25498600

  20. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music. PMID:25056004

  1. Effect of vitamin E on human sexual functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward Herold; James Mottin; Zak Sabry

    1979-01-01

    To investigate the claim that vitamin E can affect human sexual functioning, 1000-IU vitamin E capsules (a-tocopherol) were administered daily for 28 days in a double-blind placebo study. Thirty-five subjects in this pilot study reported daily responses to questionnaires on sexual arousal and behavior. No differences in sexual arousal or behavior were found between the two groups. The one significant

  2. General Anesthesia and Altered States of Arousal: A Systems Neuroscience Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Emery N.; Purdon, Patrick L.; Van Dort, Christa J.

    2011-01-01

    Placing a patient in a state of general anesthesia is crucial for safely and humanely performing most surgical and many nonsurgical procedures. How anesthetic drugs create the state of general anesthesia is considered a major mystery of modern medicine. Unconsciousness, induced by altered arousal and/or cognition, is perhaps the most fascinating behavioral state of general anesthesia. We perform a systems neuroscience analysis of the altered arousal states induced by five classes of intravenous anesthetics by relating their behavioral and physiological features to the molecular targets and neural circuits at which these drugs are purported to act. The altered states of arousal are sedation-unconsciousness, sedation-analgesia, dissociative anesthesia, pharmaco-logic non-REM sleep, and neuroleptic anesthesia. Each altered arousal state results from the anesthetic drugs acting at multiple targets in the central nervous system. Our analysis shows that general anesthesia is less mysterious than currently believed. PMID:21513454

  3. The use of magnetic resonance imaging for studying female sexual function: A review.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Christine M

    2015-04-01

    Many would agree that there are two quintessential sexual organs in the female: the clitoris and the brain. Using non-invasive techniques of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), investigators have gained insight into the mental and physical factors involved in female sexual function. Since only the external clitoral glans is easily accessible for direct measurement, the complete anatomy of the clitoris (including the internal components-paired corpora, crura, and bulbs) has only recently been described, with MRI providing the most sensitive way of distinguishing among the various soft tissue planes. Average sizes of clitoral structures and average distances between the clitoral complex and other pelvic landmarks have been measured. These measurements have been correlated with female sexual function: a longer distance between the clitoral complex and the vaginal lumen correlates with poorer sexual function, consistent with prior imaging studies. However, whether clitoral size influences function is debatable, so further studies are needed. Physiological investigations have demonstrated that female arousal disorder is unlikely to be due to inadequate genital engorgement. Some consider the brain to be the ultimate sexual organ, and several recent studies have used functional MRI (fMRI) to reveal sexual excitability in the brain. The normal sexual response requires deactivation of the frontal lobe and activation of the instinctual limbic system of the midbrain. As MR technology continues to improve, the mysteries of female sexuality will be further unraveled. Clin. Anat. 28:324-330, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25759259

  4. Attribution of Arousal as a Mediator of the Effectiveness of Fear-Arousing Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Norbert; And Others

    Characteristics of the situation in which a fear-arousing communication is received affect the effectiveness of the communication. The influence of situational factors affecting a recipient's interpretation of the arousal induced by communication were investigated with smokers (N=37) who were exposed to a fear-arousing anti-smoking movie. Prior to…

  5. First Reported Case of Isolated Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder in a Male

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Bradford J.; Köhler, Tobias S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a newly recognized disorder in women. It is described as unwanted, persistent feelings of genital arousal unrelated to sexual desire and not relieved by orgasm. Its prevalence is estimated to approach 1% of young women. Until now, this has not been described in men. Aim. Here we present a case of a 27-year-old male with symptoms consistent with PGAD and describe successful treatment. Methods. A 27-year-old male presented to urology clinic with the chief complain of persistent feelings of impending orgasm. He reported a sensation similar, but not identical, to sexual arousal that did not occur in the setting of sexual thoughts or desire. Orgasm alleviated the arousal for only a short time after which the symptoms would return. This had become quite bothersome to him. Results. After assessing for a neurological cause and finding none, the patient was started on paroxetine daily with complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusions. PGAD is a disorder previously described only in females. Although symptoms of PGAD have been described in a male as part of another disorder complex, this report describes the first reported isolated case in a male and the successful treatment.

  6. Prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction in men and women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond C. Rosen

    2000-01-01

    Sexual dysfunctions are highly prevalent, affecting about 43% of women and 31% of men. Hypoactive sexual desire disorder has\\u000a been reported in approximately 30% of women and 15% of men in population-based studies, and is associated with a wide variety\\u000a of medical and psychologic causes. Sexual arousal disorders, including erectile dysfunction in men and female sexual arousal\\u000a disorder in women,

  7. Arousal, Anxiety, Aggression, and Attitude Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Philip H.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of an aggressive habit and emtional arousal, measured by heart rate, blood pressure, and self-report, on two types of attitude change. Psychological arousal was positively related to degree of influence by the reflaxation communication. (DB)

  8. Sexual functioning following renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Raiz, Lisa; Davies, Elizabeth A; Ferguson, Ronald M

    2003-11-01

    This study describes the prevalence of and investigates variables associated with problems in sexual functioning for a sample of 347 individuals following renal transplantation. Sexual problem was conceptualized through three continuous variables: lack of interest in sex; lack of enjoyment of sex; and difficulty becoming sexually aroused. Between 50 percent and 55 percent of respondents reported no sexual difficulties. The remaining respondents indicated from mild to severe problems. Multiple regression was used to examine predictors of problems with sexual functioning. Variables in the final model associated with sexual problems were older age and lower patient perceptions of physical and mental well-being. Assessment of and education regarding sexual functioning must be a routine component of psychosocial intervention. Future research warrants investigation of the meaning of sexual function for this population. PMID:14679705

  9. BODY TEMPERATURE AND AROUSAL RATES OF TWO SPECIES OF BATS1- 2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRED J. BRENNER

    Body temperature during torpidity and arousal were recorded on single and grouped Myotis lucifugus and M. sodalis maintained at 6° in the laboratory. The two species possess physiological differences in their temperature regulatory capacities in response to clustering behavior. The temperate-zone Chiroptera have the ability to undergo cold lethergy seasonally and in some cases also daily throughout the summer. Eisentraut

  10. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

  11. Orexin A Activates Locus Coeruleus Cell Firing and Increases Arousal in the Rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jim J. Hagan; Ron A. Leslie; Sara Patel; Martyn L. Evans; Trevor A. Wattam; Steve Holmes; Christopher D. Benham; Stephen G. Taylor; Carol Routledge; Panida Hemmati; Richard P. Munton; Tracey E. Ashmeade; Ajit S. Shah; Jonathan P. Hatcher; Paula D. Hatcher; Declan N. C. Jones; Martin I. Smith; David C. Piper; A. Jackie Hunter; Rod A. Porter; Neil Upton

    1999-01-01

    The localization of orexin neuropeptides in the lateral hypothalamus has focused interest on their role in ingestion. The orexigenic neurones in the lateral hypothalamus, however, project widely in the brain, and thus the physiological role of orexins is likely to be complex. Here we describe an investigation of the action of orexin A in modulating the arousal state of rats

  12. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  13. Sexual selection based on egg colour: physiological models and egg discrimination experiments in a cavity-nesting bird

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesús M. Avilés; Juan J. Soler; Nathan S. Hart

    It has been proposed that the blue-green bird egg colourations of many avian species may constitute a sexually selected female\\u000a signal that males can use to modulate their parental investment. A fundamental untested assumption for the validation of this\\u000a hypothesis is that males can accurately assess differences in the colour of eggs. A recent review suggests that this could\\u000a be

  14. Attentional and affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; van Leeuwen, Matthijs; Janssen, Erick; Newhouse, Sarah K; Heiman, Julia R; Laan, Ellen

    2012-08-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most common sexual problem in women. From an incentive motivation perspective, HSDD may be the result of a weak association between sexual stimuli and rewarding experiences. As a consequence, these stimuli may either lose or fail to acquire a positive meaning, resulting in a limited number of incentives that have the capacity to elicit a sexual response. According to current information processing models of sexual arousal, sexual stimuli automatically activate meanings and if these are not predominantly positive, processes relevant to the activation of sexual arousal and desire may be interrupted. Premenopausal U.S. and Dutch women with acquired HSDD (n = 42) and a control group of sexually functional women (n = 42) completed a single target Implicit Association Task and a Picture Association Task assessing automatic affective associations with sexual stimuli and a dot detection task measuring attentional capture by sexual stimuli. Results showed that women with acquired HSDD displayed less positive (but not more negative) automatic associations with sexual stimuli than sexually functional women. The same pattern was found for self-reported affective sex-related associations. Participants were slower to detect targets in the dot detection task that replaced sexual images, irrespective of sexual function status. As such, the findings point to the relevance of affective processing of sexual stimuli in women with HSDD, and imply that the treatment of HSDD might benefit from a stronger emphasis on the strengthening of the association between sexual stimuli and positive meaning and sexual reward. PMID:21892693

  15. The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas L. Carnagey; Craig A. Anderson; Brad J. Bushman

    2007-01-01

    Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game effects on physiological desensitization, defined as showing less physiological arousal to violence in the real world after exposure to video game violence in the virtual world. This experiment attempts to

  16. The eVect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas L. Carnagey; Craig A. Anderson; Brad J. Bushman

    2006-01-01

    Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game eVects on physiologi- cal desensitization, deWned as showing less physiological arousal to violence in the real world after exposure to video game violence in the virtual world. This experiment attempts

  17. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state.

    PubMed

    Martens, Suzanne; Bensch, Michael; Halder, Sebastian; Hill, Jeremy; Nijboer, Femke; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Birbaumer, Niels; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) often fails to assess both the level (i.e., arousal) and the content (i.e., awareness) of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations. We introduced epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) for monitoring of cortical physiology in a late-stage amytrophic lateral sclerosis patient in completely locked-in state (CLIS). Despite long-term application for a period of six months, no implant-related complications occurred. Recordings from the left frontal cortex were sufficient to identify three arousal states. Spectral analysis of the intrinsic oscillatory activity enabled us to extract state-dependent dominant frequencies at <4, ~7 and ~20 Hz, representing sleep-like periods, and phases of low and elevated arousal, respectively. In the absence of other biomarkers, ECoG proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring circadian rhythmicity, i.e., avoiding interference with the patient when he was sleeping and exploiting time windows of responsiveness. Moreover, the effects of interventions addressing the patient's arousal, e.g., amantadine medication, could be evaluated objectively on the basis of physiological markers, even in the absence of behavioral parameters. Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient's present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain-computer interfaces (BCI). PMID:25374532

  18. Does Autonomic Arousal Distinguish Good and Bad Decisions?: Healthy Individuals’ Skin Conductance Reactivity During the Iowa Gambling Task

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Jenkinson; Sarah R. Baker; Nicola M. J. Edelstyn; Simon J. Ellis

    2008-01-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH) proposes that physiological feedback to the brain influences cognitive appraisal and human decisions, however, the strength of evidence in support of the SMH is equivocal. We examined the validity of the SMH by measuring physiological arousal in a population of healthy individuals playing the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), which is a computerized card game designed

  19. Female sexual response: the role of drugs in the management of sexual dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary Basson

    2001-01-01

    A large component of women’s sexual desire is responsive rather than spontaneous. Therefore, women’s motivation and ability to find and respond to sexual stimuli to experience sexual arousal and subsequent sexual desire is crucial, but complex. In ongoing relationships, a woman’s motivation appears to be largely influenced by her emotional intimacy with her partner and her wish to enhance it.

  20. Remodeling mitochondrial membranes during arousal from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher; Thomas, Raymond H; Price, Edwin R; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Staples, James F

    2011-01-01

    During arousal from hibernation, body temperature (T(b)) increases by ?30°C and liver mitochondrial respiration increases threefold in as little as 2 h. We analyzed liver mitochondria purified from ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to see whether membrane phospholipids were remodeled during spontaneous arousal. Cardiolipin content did not change among animals in torpor (T ? 5°C), the early phase of arousal (T ? 15°C), late arousal (T ? 30°C), interbout euthermia (T ? 37°C), and summer-active animals (T ? 37°C) that do not hibernate. Phosphatidylcholine content increased in late arousal relative to interbout euthermia, while phosphatidylethanolamine decreased. Phospholipid monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) did not change throughout arousal, but polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and MUFA/PUFA decreased and increased, respectively. In the fatty acid conjugates of phospholipids, neither unsaturation index nor n-3/n-6 differed. Few changes in individual fatty acids were noted, but palmitoleic acid (16:1, n-7) was higher in interbout euthermia and summer. Although 16:1 accounted for less than 1.5% of phospholipid fatty acids, it correlated strongly and positively with succinate-fueled state 3 mitochondrial respiration. No other phospholipid characteristic measured here correlated with mitochondrial respiration. These data show that mitochondrial membranes are remodeled rapidly during arousal, but the contribution to reversible suppression of mitochondrial respiration remains unclear. PMID:21743257

  1. Neuropeptidergic Signaling Partitions Arousal Behaviors in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Schoppik, David; Shi, Veronica J.; Zimmerman, Steven; Coleman, Haley A.; Greenwood, Joel; Soucy, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Animals modulate their arousal state to ensure that their sensory responsiveness and locomotor activity match environmental demands. Neuropeptides can regulate arousal, but studies of their roles in vertebrates have been constrained by the vast array of neuropeptides and their pleiotropic effects. To overcome these limitations, we systematically dissected the neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal in larval zebrafish. We quantified spontaneous locomotor activity and responsiveness to sensory stimuli after genetically induced expression of seven evolutionarily conserved neuropeptides, including adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1b (adcyap1b), cocaine-related and amphetamine-related transcript (cart), cholecystokinin (cck), calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp), galanin, hypocretin, and nociceptin. Our study reveals that arousal behaviors are dissociable: neuropeptide expression uncoupled spontaneous activity from sensory responsiveness, and uncovered modality-specific effects upon sensory responsiveness. Principal components analysis and phenotypic clustering revealed both shared and divergent features of neuropeptidergic functions: hypocretin and cgrp stimulated spontaneous locomotor activity, whereas galanin and nociceptin attenuated these behaviors. In contrast, cart and adcyap1b enhanced sensory responsiveness yet had minimal impacts on spontaneous activity, and cck expression induced the opposite effects. Furthermore, hypocretin and nociceptin induced modality-specific differences in responsiveness to changes in illumination. Our study provides the first systematic and high-throughput analysis of neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal, demonstrates that arousal can be partitioned into independent behavioral components, and reveals novel and conserved functions of neuropeptides in regulating arousal. PMID:24573274

  2. Physiological responses to different WEB page designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Ward; Philip H. Marsden

    2003-01-01

    Physiological indicators of arousal have long been known to be sensitive to mental events such as positive and negative emotion, changes in attention and changes in workload. It has therefore been suggested that human physiology might be of use in the evaluation of software usability. To this, there are two main approaches or paradigms: (i) comparisons of physiological readings across

  3. The empathic, physiological resonance of stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony W. Buchanan; Sara L. Bagley; R. Brent Stansfield; Stephanie D. Preston

    2012-01-01

    Physiological resonance between individuals is considered fundamental to the biological capacity for empathy. Observers of pain and distress commonly exhibit increases in reported distress, autonomic arousal, facial mimicry, and overlapping neural activity. An important, unstudied question is whether physiological stress can also resonate. Physiological stress is operationalized as activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes. People

  4. The empathic, physiological resonance of stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tony W. Buchanan; Sara L. Bagley; R. Brent Stansfield; Stephanie D. Preston

    2011-01-01

    Physiological resonance between individuals is considered fundamental to the biological capacity for empathy. Observers of pain and distress commonly exhibit increases in reported distress, autonomic arousal, facial mimicry, and overlapping neural activity. An important, unstudied question is whether physiological stress can also resonate. Physiological stress is operationalized as activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes. People

  5. Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra H. RelliniCindy; Cindy M. Meston

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history\\u000a of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and\\u000a (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological\\u000a (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses

  6. The mechanisms underlying sexual differentiation of behavior and physiology in mammals and birds: relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Fumihiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Kawashima, Takaharu; Nohara, Keiko; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2014-01-01

    From a classical viewpoint, sex-specific behavior and physiological functions as well as the brain structures of mammals such as rats and mice, have been thought to be influenced by perinatal sex steroids secreted by the gonads. Sex steroids have also been thought to affect the differentiation of the sex-typical behavior of a few members of the avian order Galliformes, including the Japanese quail and chickens, during their development in ovo. However, recent mammalian studies that focused on the artificial shuffling or knockout of the sex-determining gene, Sry, have revealed that sex chromosomal effects may be associated with particular types of sex-linked differences such as aggression levels, social interaction, and autoimmune diseases, independently of sex steroid-mediated effects. In addition, studies on naturally occurring, rare phenomena such as gynandromorphic birds and experimentally constructed chimeras in which the composition of sex chromosomes in the brain differs from that in the other parts of the body, indicated that sex chromosomes play certain direct roles in the sex-specific differentiation of the gonads and the brain. In this article, we review the relative contributions of sex steroids and sex chromosomes in the determination of brain functions related to sexual behavior and reproductive physiology in mammals and birds. PMID:25177264

  7. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and the penis, vulva, or anus; (3) Penetration of the anal or genital opening of another person, however slight, by a...arouse, or gratify sexual desire; (4) Penetration of the anal or genital opening, however slight, by a hand,...

  8. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and the penis, vulva, or anus; (3) Penetration of the anal or genital opening of another person, however slight, by a...arouse, or gratify sexual desire; (4) Penetration of the anal or genital opening, however slight, by a hand,...

  9. 28 CFR 115.6 - Definitions related to sexual abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and the penis, vulva, or anus; (3) Penetration of the anal or genital opening of another person, however slight, by a...arouse, or gratify sexual desire; (4) Penetration of the anal or genital opening, however slight, by a hand,...

  10. Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

    2010-10-01

    Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics. PMID:20887690

  11. Effects of voice on emotional arousal

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

  12. Effects of voice on emotional arousal.

    PubMed

    Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P; Li, H Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

  13. Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W F; Schellenberg, E G; Husain, G

    2001-05-01

    The "Mozart effect" refers to claims that people perform better on tests of spatial abilities after listening to music composed by Mozart. We examined whether the Mozart effect is a consequence of between-condition differences in arousal and mood. Participants completed a test of spatial abilities after listening to music or sitting in silence. The music was a Mozart sonata (a pleasant and energetic piece) for some participants and an Albinoni adagio (a slow, sad piece) for others. We also measured enjoyment, arousal, and mood. Performance on tbe spatial task was better following the music than the silence condition but only for participants who heard Mozart. The two music selections also induced differential responding on the enjoyment, arousal and mood measures. Moreover, when such differences were held constant by statistical means, the Mozart effect disappeared. These findings provide compelling evidence that the Mozart effect is an artifact of arousal and mood. PMID:11437309

  14. Drug-induced sexual dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Goldstein; Robert J. Krane

    1983-01-01

    Drug-induced sexual dysfunction is a relatively common yet poorly understood clinical problem. The mechanisms whereby various drug classes alter sexual function remain poorly documented. An attempt has been made, based on recent advances in sexual physiology, to clarify drug-induced sexual dysfunction on the basis of possible or probable mechanisms of action. It is hoped that this approach may ultimately allow

  15. Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-identity while others encode for arousal, we studied infants of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus). Kittens are an excellent model for analysing vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal. They strongly depend on the care of their mother. Thus, the acoustical conveyance of sender-identity and arousal may be important for their survival. Results We recorded calls of 18 kittens in an experimentally-induced separation paradigm, where kittens were spatially separated from their mother and siblings. In the Low arousal condition, infants were just separated without any manipulation. In the High arousal condition infants were handled by the experimenter. Multi-parametric sound analyses revealed that kitten isolation calls are individually distinct and differ between the Low and High arousal conditions. Our results suggested that source- and filter-related parameters are important for encoding sender-identity, whereas time-, source- and tonality-related parameters are important for encoding arousal. Conclusion Comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence for commonalities in non-verbal cues encoding sender-identity and arousal across mammals comparable to paralinguistic cues in humans. This favours the establishment of general concepts for voice recognition and emotions in humans and animals. PMID:23259698

  16. Interobserver Variability in Recognizing Arousal in Respiratory Sleep Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL J. DRINNAN; ALAN MURRAY; CLIVE J. GRIFFITHS; G. JOHN GIBSON

    1998-01-01

    Daytime sleepiness is a common consequence of repeated arousal in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Arousal indices are sometimes used to make decisions on treatment, but there is no evidence that arousals are detected similarly even by experienced observers. Using the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousal in terms of the accompanying electroencephalogram (EEG) changes, we have quantified interobserver

  17. Sleep-Related Arousal Versus General Cognitive Arousal in Primary Insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Feige, Bernd; Hirscher, Verena; Unbehaun, Thomas; Nissen, Christoph; Riemann, Dieter; Baglioni, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The present study aimed at further investigating trait aspects of sleep-related cognitive arousal and general cognitive arousal and their association with both objective and subjective sleep parameters in primary insomnia patients. Methods: A clinical sample of 182 primary insomnia patients and 54 healthy controls was investigated using 2 nights of polysomnography, subjective sleep variables, and a questionnaire on sleep-related and general cognitive arousal. Results: Compared to healthy controls, primary insomnia patients showed both more sleep-related and general cognitive arousal. Furthermore, sleep-related cognitive arousal was closely associated with measures of sleep-onset and sleep-maintenance problems, while general cognitive arousal was not. Conclusions: Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia might benefit from dedicating more effort to psychological interventions that are able to reduce sleep-related cognitive arousal. Citation: Spiegelhalder K; Regen W; Feige B; Hirscher V; Unbehaun T; Nissen C; Riemann D; Baglioni C. Sleep-related arousal versus general cognitive arousal in primary insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):431-437. PMID:22893774

  18. Pornography and sexual aggression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Pollard

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews work on the relation between pornography and sexual aggression, covering experimental research on arousal,\\u000a attitudes, and laboratory aggression, and some correlational studies. The termpornography is intended to cover the materials used in the relevant research, although not all of these would necessarily be seen as\\u000a “pornographic.” The main body of the review is divided between “aggressive” and

  19. THE DUAL CONTROL MODEL: THE ROLE OF SEXUAL INHIBITION & EXCITATION IN

    E-print Network

    of male sexual dysfunction, to contribute to this research by underscoring the relevance of exploring in how they process and respond to sexual stimuli. In men with psychogenic1 erectile dysfunction, fear1 THE DUAL CONTROL MODEL: THE ROLE OF SEXUAL INHIBITION & EXCITATION IN SEXUAL AROUSAL AND BEHAVIOR

  20. Sexual self-schemas, sexual dysfunction, and the sexual responses of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2011-04-01

    Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses during laboratory exposure to sexual stimuli. In a community sample of women with (N = 48) and without (N = 48) a history of CSA, we tested (1) the mediation of negative affect on the relation between sexual self-schemas and sexual function/satisfaction, (2) the mediation of negative affect in the relation between CSA and sexual function/satisfaction, and (3) the mediation of sexual self-schemas in the relation between a history of CSA and negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. We found that more Embarrassed/Conservative and less Romantic/Passionate sexual self-schemas predicted negative affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli which, in turn, predicted levels of sexual satisfaction. The lower sexual satisfaction of CSA survivors was partially mediated by higher reports of negative affect prior to sexual stimuli. However, negative affect prior to sexual stimuli was not mediated by the sexual self-schemas of CSA survivors. Thus, although sexual self-schemas predicted sexual satisfaction, they did not predict variance in negative affect prior to sexual videos experienced by women with a history of CSA. PMID:21140286

  1. MULTIPLE-AROUSAL THEORY accepted to appear in Emotion Review, 2014 Multiple Arousal Theory and Daily-Life Electrodermal

    E-print Network

    of as a single dimension, anchored on one end by "low arousal," an activation level which occurs in states as emotion arousal. The classic counter-example is depression: Intense depression, as when a person canMULTIPLE-AROUSAL THEORY accepted to appear in Emotion Review, 2014 Multiple Arousal Theory

  2. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity. PMID:25803027

  3. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production.

    PubMed

    Soares, Juliana B R Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity. PMID:25803027

  4. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 32, No. 3, June 2003, pp. 243251 ( C 2003) Selecting Films for Sex Research: Gender Differences

    E-print Network

    clips depicting heterosexual interactions, half of which were female- and the other half male arousing than did the women. Gender differences in arousal were negligible for female- selected clips% of the variance for male and 65% for female participants, revealed that men's sexual arousal was dependent upon

  5. Evolving concepts of arousal: insights from simple model systems.

    PubMed

    Jing, Jian; Gillette, Rhanor; Weiss, Klaudiusz R

    2009-01-01

    Arousal states strongly influence behavioral decisions. In general, arousal promotes activity and enhances responsiveness to sensory stimuli. Earlier work has emphasized general, or nonspecific, effects of arousal on multiple classes of behaviors. However, contemporary work indicates that arousal has quite specific effects on behavior. Here we review studies of arousal-related circuitry in molluscan model systems. Neural substrates for both general and specific effects of arousal have been identified. Based on the scope of their actions, we can distinguish two major classes of arousal elements: localized versus general. Actions of localized arousal elements are often limited to one class of behavior, and may thereby mediate specific effects of arousal. In contrast, general arousal elements may influence multiple classes of behaviors, and mediate both specific and nonspecific effects of arousal. One common way in which general arousal elements influence multiple behaviors is by acting on localized arousal elements of distinct networks. Often, effects on distinct networks have different time courses that may facilitate formation of specific behavioral sequences. This review highlights prominent roles of serotonergic systems in arousal that are conserved in gastropod molluscs despite extreme diversification of body forms, diet and ecological niches. The studies also indicate that the serotonergic elements can act as either localized or general arousal elements. We discuss the implications of these findings across animals. PMID:20397622

  6. Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies.

    PubMed

    Briefer, Elodie F; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Mandel, Roi; Freymond, Sabrina Briefer; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies ("F0" and "G0"), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution. PMID:25897781

  7. The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

  8. ORIGINAL PAPER Patterns of Sexual Arousal in Homosexual, Bisexual, and

    E-print Network

    Introduction The findings of several large-scale interview and questionnaire studies (Kinsey, Pomeroy, & Martin, 1948; Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953; Laumann, Gagnon, Michael, & Michaels, 1994; Weinberg. A. Cerny DepartmentofPsychology,IndianaStateUniversity,TerreHaute,IN, USA E. Janssen (&) The Kinsey

  9. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  10. Effects of empathy and conflict resolution strategies on psychophysiological arousal and satisfaction in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2014-03-01

    The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources. PMID:24213481

  11. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Motelow, Joshua E; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M; Sachdev, Robert N S; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P; Englot, Dario J; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function, including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a critical mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  12. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%.

  13. Exploring the Relationship Between Erotic Disruption During the Latency Period and the Use of Sexually Explicit Material, Online Sexual Behaviors, and Sexual Dysfunctions in Young Adulthood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sallie A. Hunt; Shane W. Kraus

    2009-01-01

    The researchers explored the theoretical prism of Sigmund Freud's latency period (6-to-12 years of age), to ascertain whether an absence of erotic arousal during latency is fundamentally essential for children to attain healthy psychosexual development. Exploratory factor analysis discovered two factors that measured erotic disruption during the latency period (i.e., exposure to sexually explicit material [SEM] and child sexual abuse).

  14. Validation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in Women with Female Orgasmic Disorder and in Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CINDY M. MESTON

    2003-01-01

    Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA The Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) is a self-report measure of sexual functioning that has been validated on a clinically diagnosed sample of women with female sexual arousal disorder. The present investigation extended the validation of the FSFI to include women with a primary clinical

  15. Punishment, arousal, and avoidance learning in sociopaths

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank J. Schmauk

    1970-01-01

    Investigated the relationships among different kinds of punishment, autonomic arousal, subjective anxiety, and avoidance learning in primary sociopaths. 90 male Ss consisting of 30 primary sociopaths (PSs), 30 neurotic sociopaths (NSs), and 30 normal controls (NCs) were selected and assigned, on the basis of 10 from each group, to 1 of 3 punishment conditions: physical punishment (PP shock), tangible punishment

  16. The Effects of Arousal on Cognitive Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Lim, David T. K.

    Previous work has demonstrated the importance of Osgood's three semantic dimensions (Evaluation, Potency, Activity) in people's conceptions of various domains. To test the effects of arousal on how individuals use these dimensions, three studies were conducted. In each study, six stimuli from a particular domain were presented in pairs. Subjects…

  17. Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry E. Adams; Lester W. Wright; Bethany A. Lohr

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of homosexual arousal in exclusively heterosexual men who ad-mitted negative affect toward homosexual individuals. Participants consisted of a group of homo-phobic men (n = 35) and a group of nonhomophobic men (n = 29); they were assigned to groups on the basis of their scores on the Index of Homophobia (W. W. Hudson & W.

  18. Is Homophobia Associated With Homosexual Arousal?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry E. Adams; Lester W. Wright; Bethany A. Lohr

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigated the role of homosexual arousal in exclusively heterosexual men who admitted negative affect toward homosexual individuals. Participants consisted of a group of homophobic men (n = 35) and a group of nonhomophobic men (n = 29); they were assigned to groups on the basis of their scores on the Index of Homophobia (W. W. Hudson & W.

  19. Respiratory control and arousal in sleeping infants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemary S. C Horne; Peter M Parslow; Richard Harding

    2004-01-01

    Control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems undergoes rapid maturation during infancy. Sleep is at a lifetime maximum during this period and has a marked influence on cardiorespiratory function. The mechanisms leading to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) may include a failure in the neural integration of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, with a concomitant failure to arouse from sleep.

  20. Nesbitt’s Paradox resolved? Stress and arousal modulation during cigarette smoking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew C. Parrott

    Abstract Nesbitt’s Paradox,states that,cigarette,smoking,generates physiological and,psychological changes which are normally incompatible, namely increased arousal together with decreased stress. This review con® rms these changes, but shows that they are dependent upon various factors, particularly the degree of nicotine deprivation. Thus the relaxant properties of smoking re¯ ect the relief of irritability which,develops between,cigarettes. The deleterious mood,effects of abstinence explain,why,smokers suffer

  1. Sex attracts: investigating individual differences in attentional bias to sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

  2. Sex Attracts: Investigating Individual Differences in Attentional Bias to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

  3. Sex differences in affective and physiological responses to relationship orientations

    E-print Network

    Hebl, Michelle Rae

    1993-01-01

    relationships among people, power and dominant relationships, or relationships involving submission, power, and isolation. During the slide presentation, physiological measures of arousal (i.e., electrodermal activity and heart rate) and facial...

  4. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    ... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

  5. Impact of rheumatoid arthritis on sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Tristano, Antonio G

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being’s life and is more than just the sexual act. Normal sexual functioning consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The reasons for disturbing sexual functioning are multifactorial and comprise disease-related factors as well as therapy. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by progressive joint destruction resulting from chronic synovial inflammation. It leads to various degrees of disability, and ultimately has a profound impact on the social, economic, psychological, and sexual aspects of the patient’s life. This is a systemic review about the impact of RA on sexual functioning. PMID:24829873

  6. Psychological Bulletin The Relation Between Valence and Arousal in Subjective

    E-print Network

    Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    and arousal can in principle show a variety of relations depending on person or circumstances. This casts a fundamental but neglected question about affect, asking how two of its basic dimensions--valence and arousalPsychological Bulletin The Relation Between Valence and Arousal in Subjective Experience Peter

  7. Can sustained arousal explain the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vegard B Wyller; Hege R Eriksen; Kirsti Malterud

    2009-01-01

    We present an integrative model of disease mechanisms in the Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), unifying empirical findings from different research traditions. Based upon the Cognitive activation theory of stress (CATS), we argue that new data on cardiovascular and thermoregulatory regulation indicate a state of permanent arousal responses – sustained arousal – in this condition. We suggest that sustained arousal can

  8. The Carotid Body and Arousal in the Fetus and Neonate

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO2. Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO2 in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and don’t know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process. PMID:22684039

  9. The effect of the amount of blood in a violent video game on aggression, hostility, and arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher P. Barlett; Richard J. Harris; Callie Bruey

    2008-01-01

    The current study utilized the General Aggression Model, with an emphasis on aggression-related priming, to explore the different effects on hostility, physiological arousal, and state aggression in those who played a violent video game (Mortal Kombat: Deadly Alliance) with differing levels of blood (maximum, medium, low, and off). Simple effects analyses showed that those in the maximum blood and medium

  10. Women's history of sexual abuse, their sexuality, and sexual self-schemas.

    PubMed

    Meston, Cindy M; Rellini, Alessandra H; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-04-01

    In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a history of CSA in the way that they viewed themselves as a sexual person and, if so, whether such differences mediated the link between early unwanted sexual experiences and later adult sexuality. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as less romantic and passionate than women who were not abused. In particular, CSA survivors showed an inverse relationship between romantic/passionate sexual self-schemas and negative sexual affect during sexual arousal. The relationship between CSA and negative sexual affect was independent from symptoms of depression and anxiety, suggesting that the impact of CSA on sexual self-schemas may be independent from the impact that the abuse may have in other areas of the survivor's life. PMID:16649867

  11. Becoming the victim: Beyond sadism in serial sexual murderers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Knoll; Robert R. Hazelwood

    2009-01-01

    The behavior and characteristics of sexually sadistic serial murderers have been described primarily in relation to their paraphilic arousal to the control and torture of their victims. Sadistic sexual murderers who demonstrate both sadism and masochism have been described, but less is known about this type of offender. This article will review a number of hypotheses proposed to explain these

  12. Sexual dysfunction before antidepressant therapy in major depression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidney H. Kennedy; Susan E. Dickens; Beata S. Eisfeld; R. Michael Bagby

    1999-01-01

    Background: Decreased sexual interest and function both occur as a consequence of antidepressant medication use, and are especially associated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). However, few investigators have reported the base rate for disturbances in sexual desire, arousal and orgasm or ejaculation in patients with major depression (MD) prior to antidepressant treatment. The purpose of this report is to define

  13. Psychophysiological aspects of sexual dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John P. Hatch

    1981-01-01

    The argument is made that human sexual dysfunction is particularly well suited for investigation within the conceptual framework embraced by psychophysiology, due to the unique participation of both physiological and psychological components in the sexual response cycle. The literature relating psychophysiological research to the investigation of sexual dysfunction is reviewed, indicating promising applications in the diagnosis and treatment of some

  14. The Relationship of Arousal During Learning to Short- and Long-Term Retention Employing Two Indices of Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovejoy, Marcia A.; Farley, Frank H.

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that paired-associate learning accompanied by high arousal should lead to stronger permanent memory and weaker immediate memory than paired-associate learning accompanied by low arousal. During continuous recording of skin resistance and heart rate as measures of arousal, 32 Ss were given a one-trial,…

  15. Heterosexual Male Perpetrators of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Neuropsychiatric Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lisa J. Cohen; Konstantin Nikiforov; Sniezyna Gans; Olga Poznansky; Pamela McGeoch; Carrie Weaver; Enid Gertmanian King; Ken Cullen; Igor Galynker

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents data from a series of prelimary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and

  16. Arousal and mood factors in the "Mozart effect".

    PubMed

    Steele, K M

    2000-08-01

    Some investigators of the "Mozart effect" have not controlled for the influence of differences in arousal or mood induced by treatment conditions. Studies by Rideout and colleagues reported differences in spatial reasoning after listening to a Mozart sonata compared against a relaxation instruction tape. The conditions may have affected subjects' arousal differentially, with the sonata increasing arousal and the relaxation instructions decreasing arousal, which could have affected spatial reasoning performance. Evidence is cited in support of this suggestion and indicates the importance of analyzing the influence of arousal differences in Mozart effect research. PMID:11011888

  17. Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Sz?cs, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

  18. Interplay between Affect and Arousal in Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Ciara M.; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

    2010-01-01

    Background Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive mood-high arousal; (ii) positive mood-low arousal; (iii) negative mood-high arousal; (iv) negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions. Conclusions/Significance Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory. PMID:20668532

  19. Psychology 350A: The Psychology of Human Sexuality Section 901

    E-print Network

    Handy, Todd C.

    of human sexuality, covering relevant theory, research, and cultural facets. Topics include: · a brief history · sex education · anatomy, physiology, and sexual Psychology 350A: The Psychology of Human Sexuality Section 901

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22391416

  1. Marital and sexual aspects of old age

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Trudel; Lyse Turgeon; Lyne Piché

    2000-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature on conjugal and sexual functioning in elderly people. A synthesis of aging effects on the physiology of sexuality is first presented. The impact of aging on the appearance of sexual dysfunctions is also discussed. Psychological factors, which also play a role in the impact of aging on sexual functioning, are presented. Special

  2. sexual Assault sexual Assault

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    sexual Assault sexual Assault if You Are a Victim of a sexual Assault 1. Get to a safe place. 2. Call out for help. 3. DiAl 6111 or ask someone to ring for you and state "sEXUAl AssAUlT" giving exact. if You Witness a sexual Assault 1. Everyone is asked to assist in making the campus a safe place by being

  3. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 2, April 2006, pp. 163177 (C 2006) DOI: 10.1007/s10508-005-9015-1

    E-print Network

    Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 2, April 2006, pp. 163­177 (C 2006) DOI: 10.1007/s10508-005-9015-1 Effects of Depressive Symptoms and Experimentally Adopted Schemas on Sexual Arousal and Affect in Sexually examined the effects of depressive mood symptoms and experimentally adopted sexual schemas on women

  4. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Parents can help their adolescent make healthy choices Sexual Health News & Information Understanding Sexual Health Public Health Reports ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

  5. The Effect of Pre-Existing Affect on the Sexual Responses of Women With and Without a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandra H. Rellini; Samantha Elinson; Erick Janssen; Cindy M. Meston

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives.\\u000a Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties\\u000a in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on

  6. Inhibition of NMDA Type Glutamate Receptors Induces Arousal from Torpor in Hibernating Arctic Ground Squirrels (Urocitellus parryii)

    PubMed Central

    Jinka, Tulasi R.; Rasley, Brian T.; Drew, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to overcome periods of resource limitation often associated with extreme climatic conditions. The hibernation season consists of prolonged bouts of torpor that are interrupted by brief interbout arousals. Physiological mechanisms regulating spontaneous arousals are poorly understood, but may be related to a need for gluconeogenesis or elimination of metabolic wastes. Glutamate is derived from glutamine through the glutamate-glutamine cycle and from glucose via the pyruvate carboxylase pathway when nitrogen balance favors formation of glutamine. The present study tests the hypothesis that activation of NMDA type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) maintains torpor in arctic ground squirrel (AGS; Urocitellus parryii).Administration of NMDAR antagonists MK-801 (5mg/kg,ip) that crosses blood-brain barrier and AP5 (5mg/kg,ip) that does not cross the blood brain barrier induced arousal in AGS. Central administration of MK-801 (0.2, 2, 20 or 200 ?g; icv) to hibernating AGS failed to induce arousal. Results suggest that activation of NMDAR at a peripheral or circumventricular site is necessary to maintain prolonged torpor and that a decrease in glutamate at these sites may contribute to spontaneous arousal in AGS. PMID:22697356

  7. [Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].

    PubMed

    Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabriëls, L

    2014-01-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal. PMID:24535769

  8. Sexual behavior and autism spectrum disorders: an update and discussion.

    PubMed

    Kellaher, Denise C

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, we have gained a deeper understanding about sexuality among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Greater interest in this subject and improvements in the empirical study of ASD populations are driving this enlightenment. The data is dispelling antiquated notions that ASD individuals are asexual, sexually unknowledgeable and inexperienced, and/or disinterested in relationships. We still have a ways to go in examining paraphilic or deviant arousal sexual behaviors among ASD individuals. This manuscript provides an update on sexuality research in ASD in the last few years. This is accompanied by a discussion of the paraphilic type sexual behaviors observed among some ASD individuals. PMID:25749749

  9. Infant polysomnography: reliability and validity of infant arousal assessment.

    PubMed

    Crowell, David H; Kulp, Thomas D; Kapuniai, Linda E; Hunt, Carl E; Brooks, Lee J; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Silvestri, Jean; Ward, Sally Davidson; Corwin, Michael; Tinsley, Larry; Peucker, Mark

    2002-10-01

    Infant arousal scoring based on the Atlas Task Force definition of transient EEG arousal was evaluated to determine (1). whether transient arousals can be identified and assessed reliably in infants and (2). whether arousal and no-arousal epochs scored previously by trained raters can be validated reliably by independent sleep experts. Phase I for inter- and intrarater reliability scoring was based on two datasets of sleep epochs selected randomly from nocturnal polysomnograms of healthy full-term, preterm, idiopathic apparent life-threatening event cases, and siblings of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome infants of 35 to 64 weeks postconceptional age. After training, test set 1 reliability was assessed and discrepancies identified. After retraining, test set 2 was scored by the same raters to determine interrater reliability. Later, three raters from the trained group rescored test set 2 to assess inter- and intrarater reliabilities. Interrater and intrarater reliability kappa's, with 95% confidence intervals, ranged from substantial to almost perfect levels of agreement. Interrater reliabilities for spontaneous arousals were initially moderate and then substantial. During the validation phase, 315 previously scored epochs were presented to four sleep experts to rate as containing arousal or no-arousal events. Interrater expert agreements were diverse and considered as noninterpretable. Concordance in sleep experts' agreements, based on identification of the previously sampled arousal and no-arousal epochs, was used as a secondary evaluative technique. Results showed agreement by two or more experts on 86% of the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation Study arousal scored events. Conversely, only 1% of the Collaborative Home Infant Monitoring Evaluation Study-scored no-arousal epochs were rated as an arousal. In summary, this study presents an empirically tested model with procedures and criteria for attaining improved reliability in transient EEG arousal assessments in infants using the modified Atlas Task Force standards. With training based on specific criteria, substantial inter- and intrarater agreement in identifying infant arousals was demonstrated. Corroborative validation results were too disparate for meaningful interpretation. Alternate evaluation based on concordance agreements supports reliance on infant EEG criteria for assessment. Results mandate additional confirmatory validation studies with specific training on infant EEG arousal assessment criteria. PMID:12477992

  10. "Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

  11. Sexual dysfunction in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Ghazi, Leyla J; Patil, Seema A; Cross, Raymond K

    2015-04-01

    Sexual health is a broad term that encompasses a variety of functions including sexual thoughts, desire, arousal, intercourse, orgasm, and the impact of body image. Sexual dysfunction in individuals with inflammatory bowel disease is multifactorial including the impact of psychosocial factors, disease activity, medical therapies, surgical interventions, body image perceptions and changes, hypogonadism, and pelvic floor disorders. Providers caring for patients with inflammatory bowel disease should be cognizant of these concerns and develop management plans and techniques for earlier diagnosis and treatment. PMID:25504236

  12. A Psychoeducational Intervention for Sexual Dysfunction in Women with Gynecologic Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori A. Brotto; Julia R. Heiman; Barbara Goff; Benjamin Greer; Gretchen M. Lentz; Elizabeth Swisher; Hisham Tamimi; Amy Van Blaricom

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of early-stage cervical and endometrial cancer has been associated with significant sexual difficulties in at least\\u000a half of women following hysterectomy. Despite the fact that women report such sexual side effects to be the most distressing\\u000a aspect of their cancer treatment, evidence-based treatments for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD), the most common sexual\\u000a symptom in this group, do not

  13. Kidney proteome changes provide evidence for a dynamic metabolism and regional redistribution of plasma proteins during torpor-arousal cycles of hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Alkesh; Orlicky, David J.; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Russell, Rae L.; Hunter, Lawrence E.

    2012-01-01

    Hibernating ground squirrels maintain homeostasis despite extreme physiological challenges. In winter, these circannual hibernators fast for months while cycling between prolonged periods of low blood flow and body temperature, known as torpor, and short interbout arousals (IBA), where more typical mammalian parameters are rapidly restored. Here we examined the kidney proteome for changes that support the dramatically different physiological demands of the hibernator's year. We identified proteins in 150 two-dimensional gel spots that altered by at least 1.5-fold using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. These data successfully classified individuals by physiological state and revealed three dynamic patterns of relative protein abundance that dominated the hibernating kidney: 1) a large group of proteins generally involved with capturing and storing energy were most abundant in summer; 2) a select subset of these also increased during each arousal from torpor; and 3) 14 spots increased in torpor and early arousal were enriched for plasma proteins that enter cells via the endocytic pathway. Immunohistochemistry identified ?2-macroglobulin and albumin in kidney blood vessels during late torpor and early arousal; both exhibited regional heterogeneity consistent with highly localized control of blood flow in the glomeruli. Furthermore, albumin, but not ?2-macroglobulin, was detected in the proximal tubules during torpor and early arousal but not in IBA or summer animals. Taken together, our findings indicate that normal glomerular filtration barriers remain intact throughout torpor-arousal cycles but endocytosis, and hence renal function, is compromised at low body temperature during torpor and then recovers with rewarming during arousal. PMID:22643061

  14. Pilot study of a brief cognitive behavioral versus mindfulness-based intervention for women with sexual distress and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Seal, Brooke N; Rellini, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    Although sexual difficulties related to a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are common, there are no efficacious treatments to address sexual distress. Recent evidence for the benefits of mindfulness, which emphasizes present-moment non-judgmental awareness, in the treatment of women's sexual concerns provided the impetus for this pilot study. Twenty partnered women with sexual difficulties and significant sexual distress, and a history of CSA were randomized to two sessions of either a cognitive behavioral (CBT, n = 8) or mindfulness-based (MBT, n = 12) group treatment (age: M = 35.8 years, range: 22-54 years). Hierarchical Linear Modeling to assess changes in concordance between laboratory-based subjective and genital sexual arousal revealed a significant effect of MBT on concordance such that women in the MBT group experienced a significantly greater subjective sexual arousal response to the same level of genital arousal compared to the CBT group and to pre-treatment. Both groups also experienced a significant decrease in sexual distress. These data support the further study of mindfulness-based approaches in the treatment of sexual difficulties characterized by a disconnection between genital and subjective sexual response. PMID:22268979

  15. Doing it … wild? On the role of the cerebral cortex in human sexual activity

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2012-01-01

    Background We like to think about sexual activity as something fixed, basic and primal. However, this does not seem to fully capture reality. Even when we relish sex, we may be capable of mentalizing, talking, voluntarily postponing orgasm, and much more. This might indicate that the central control mechanisms of sexual activity are quite flexible and susceptible to learning mechanisms, and that cortical brain areas play a critical part. Objective This study aimed to identify those cortical areas and mechanisms most consistently implicated in sexual activity. Design A comprehensive review of the human functional neuroimaging literature on sexual activity, i.e. genital stimulation and orgasm, is made. Results Genital stimulation recruits the classical somatosensory matrix, but also areas far beyond that. The posterior insula may be particularly important for processing input from the engorged penis and coordinating penile responses. Extrastriate visual cortex tracks sexual arousal and responds to genital stimulation even when subjects have their eyes closed. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is also tightly coupled to sexual arousal, but low activity in this area predicts high sexual arousal. Conclusion This review has indicated cortical sites where activity is moderated by tactile genital inflow and high sexual arousal. Behavioral implications are discussed and where possible the relevance for learning mechanisms is indicated. Overall, it is clear that the cerebral cortex has something to say about sexual activity. PMID:24693348

  16. Tuning arousal with optogenetic modulation of locus coeruleus neurons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew E Carter; Ofer Yizhar; Sachiko Chikahisa; Hieu Nguyen; Antoine Adamantidis; Seiji Nishino; Karl Deisseroth; Luis de Lecea

    2010-01-01

    Neural activity in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus correlates with periods of wakefulness and arousal. However, it is unclear whether tonic or phasic activity in these neurons is necessary or sufficient to induce transitions between behavioral states and to promote long-term arousal. Using optogenetic tools in mice, we found that there is a frequency-dependent, causal relationship among locus coeruleus firing, cortical

  17. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaclyn Hennessey Ford; Donna Rose Addis; Kelly S. Giovanello

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional

  18. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

  19. An Arousal-Based Neural Model of Infant David Cittern

    E-print Network

    Edalat, Abbas

    An Arousal-Based Neural Model of Infant Attachment David Cittern Imperial College London Email--We develop an arousal-based neural model of infant attachment using a deep learning architecture. We show how in psychology, aims to explain the dynamics of the relationship between an infant and a primary caregiver (often

  20. Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

  1. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  2. Emotionally Arousing Pictures Increase Blood Glucose Levels and Enhance Recall

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Treena M. Blake; Connie K. Varnhagen; Marise B. Parent

    2001-01-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose

  3. Memory Performance After Arousal from Different Sleep Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stones, M. J.

    1977-01-01

    Learning material was presented to independent groups of subjects either after arousal from non-Rapid Eye Movement (non-REM) sleep, after arousal from REM sleep, or under conditions of no prior sleep. Measures of immediate and subsequent free recall were taken. (Editor)

  4. Physiological correlates of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the basis of and techniques for physiological assessment of mental workload. The study findings reviewed had shortcomings involving one or more of the following basic problems: (1) physiologic arousal can be easily driven by nonworkload factors, confounding any proposed metric; (2) the profound absence of underlying physiologic models has promulgated a multiplicity of seemingly arbitrary signal processing techniques; (3) the unspecified multidimensional nature of physiological "state" has given rise to a broad spectrum of competing noncommensurate metrics; and (4) the lack of an adequate definition of workload compels physiologic correlations to suffer either from the vagueness of implicit workload measures or from the variance of explicit subjective assessments. Using specific studies as examples, two basic signal processing/data reduction techniques in current use, time and ensemble averaging are discussed.

  5. Autonomic arousal and experimentally induced pain: A critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kyle, Brandon N; McNeil, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Autonomic arousal frequently is assumed to be a component of the pain response, perhaps because physiological mechanisms connecting pain and autonomic reactivity can be easily conceptualized. The evidence clarifying autonomic responses specific to painful stimulation, however, has been rather sporadic and lacks coherence; thus, a summary and critical review is needed in this area. OBJECTIVES: To summarize and integrate findings from 39 experimental investigations from 1970 to 2012 of pain-induced autonomic arousal in humans. METHODS: Medline and PsycINFO databases were searched for relevant articles. References from these articles were also considered for review. RESULTS: Painful stimuli increase respiration rate, induce muscle tension, intensify electrodermal activity and dilate the pupils. Cardiovascular activity also increases, but the pattern displayed in response to pain is complex; peripheral vasoconstriction and sympathetically mediated cardiac responses are most typical. Additionally, autonomic expression of pain shows inconsistent relations with verbal and overt motor responses. CONCLUSIONS: Autonomic arousal can be legitimately measured and modified as one facet of the pain response. Future research should particularly focus on increasing sample size and broadening the diversity of participants. To improve the ability to compare and contrast findings across studies, as well as to increase the applicability of laboratory findings to naturalistic pain, investigators also must enhance experimental design by increasing uniformity or accounting for differences in methodology. Finally, further work remains to utilize more specific assessments of autonomic response and to assess relationships of autonomic reactivity with other cognitive (eg, attention) and affective (eg, anxiety) variables. PMID:24533429

  6. Extinction and Renewal of Conditioned Sexual Responses

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Both, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extinction involves an inhibitory form of new learning that is highly dependent on the context for expression. This is supported by phenomena such as renewal and spontaneous recovery, which may help explain the persistence of appetitive behavior, and related problems such as addictions. Research on these phenomena in the sexual domain is lacking, where it may help to explain the persistence of learned sexual responses. Method Men (n?=?40) and women (n?=?62) participated in a differential conditioning paradigm, with genital vibrotactile stimulation as US and neutral pictures as conditional stimuli (CSs). Dependent variables were genital and subjective sexual arousal, affect, US expectancy, and approach and avoid tendencies towards the CSs. Extinction and renewal of conditioned sexual responses were studied by context manipulation (AAA vs. ABA condition). Results No renewal effect of genital conditioned responding could be detected, but an obvious recovery of US expectancy following a context change after extinction (ABA) was demonstrated. Additionally, women demonstrated recovery of subjective affect and subjective sexual arousal. Participants in the ABA demonstrated more approach biases towards stimuli. Conclusions The findings support the context dependency of extinction and renewal of conditioned sexual responses in humans. This knowledge may have implications for the treatment of disturbances in sexual appetitive responses such as hypo- and hypersexuality. PMID:25170909

  7. Emotional valence and arousal interact in attentional control.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Smilek, Daniel; Eich, Eric; Enns, James T

    2008-03-01

    A recent study demonstrated that observers' ability to identify targets in a rapid visual sequence was enhanced when they simultaneously listened to happy music. In the study reported here, we examined how the emotion-attention relationship is influenced by changes in both mood valence (negative vs. positive) and arousal (low vs. high). We used a standard induction procedure to generate calm, happy, sad, and anxious moods in participants. Results for an attentional blink task showed no differences in first-target accuracy, but second-target accuracy was highest for participants with low arousal and negative affect (sad), lowest for those with strong arousal and negative affect (anxious), and intermediate for those with positive affect regardless of their arousal (calm, happy). We discuss implications of this valence-arousal interaction for the control of visual attention. PMID:18315803

  8. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Harassment and Sexual Bullying Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? What Are Sexual ... technology to harass someone sexually (like sending inappropriate text messages, pictures, or videos). Sometimes sexual harassment can ...

  9. Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2014-01-01

    The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or dominant modes of thinking. Affect thus moderates many of the textbook phenomena in cognitive psychology. In the current review, we suggest additionally that the arousal dimension of affect amplifies reactions, leading to intensified evaluations, increased reliance on particular styles of learning, and enhanced long-term memory for events. We conclude that whereas valenced affective cues serve as information about value, the arousal dimension provides information about urgency or importance. PMID:25067943

  10. Sexual Desire Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

  11. States vs. Traits: An Integrated Model for the Test of Eysenck’s Arousal\\/Arousability Hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dirk Hagemann; Ewald Naumann

    2009-01-01

    Hans-Jürgen Eysenck suggested that introverts are characterized by greater cortical arousal or arousability than extraverts. This prediction was tested in several studies that used the electroencephalogram (EEG) to index cortical activity, but the relations between the EEG measures and Extraversion are typically small. Possibly, situational factors that are external to the laboratory may act as nuisance variables and affect cortical

  12. Sexual knowledge of Canadian adolescents after completion of high school sexual education requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Maya M; Lim, Rodrick; Langford, Cindy; Seabrook, Jamie A; Speechley, Kathy N; Lynch, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Formal sexual education is a mandatory component of the high school curriculum in most Canadian provinces. The present study was a preliminary assessment of sexual knowledge among a sample of Ontario adolescents who had completed their high school sexual education requirements. METHODS: A questionnaire, testing understanding of the learning objectives of Ontario’s minimally required high school sexual education course, was distributed in a paediatric emergency department to 200 adolescent patients who had completed the course. RESULTS: Respondents demonstrated good understanding of pregnancy physiology and sexually transmitted infections, but poor understanding of concepts related to reproductive physiology, contraception, HIV/AIDS and sexual assault. Most respondents could not identify Canada’s age of sexual consent. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents demonstrated concerning gaps in sexual knowledge despite completion of their sexual education requirements. Further studies must determine whether a representative, population-based student sample would exhibit similar findings. Sexual education currently offered in Ontario may require investigation. PMID:24421660

  13. Elevated arousal at time of decision-making is not the arbiter of risk avoidance in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, A. C.; Radford, A. N.; Pettersson, I. C.; Yang, F. P.; Nicol, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that humans recall previously experienced physiological responses to aid decision-making under uncertainty. However, little is known about the mechanisms used by non-human animals to integrate risk perception with predicted gains and losses. We monitored the behaviour and physiology of chickens when the choice between a high-gain (large food quantity), high-risk (1 in 4 probability of receiving an air-puff) option (HGRAP) or a low-gain (small food quantity), no-risk (of an air-puff) (LGNAP) option. We assessed when arousal increased by considering different stages of the decision-making process (baseline, viewing, anticipation, reward periods) and investigated whether autonomic responses influenced choice outcome both immediately and in the subsequent trial. Chickens were faster to choose and their heart-rate significantly increased between the viewing and anticipation (post-decision, pre-outcome) periods when selecting the HGRAP option. This suggests that they responded physiologically to the impending risk. Additionally, arousal was greater following a HGRAP choice that resulted in an air-puff, but this did not deter chickens from subsequently choosing HGRAP. In contrast to human studies, we did not find evidence that somatic markers were activated during the viewing period, suggesting that arousal is not a good measure of avoidance in non-human animals. PMID:25643655

  14. Elevated arousal at time of decision-making is not the arbiter of risk avoidance in chickens.

    PubMed

    Davies, A C; Radford, A N; Pettersson, I C; Yang, F P; Nicol, C J

    2015-01-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that humans recall previously experienced physiological responses to aid decision-making under uncertainty. However, little is known about the mechanisms used by non-human animals to integrate risk perception with predicted gains and losses. We monitored the behaviour and physiology of chickens when the choice between a high-gain (large food quantity), high-risk (1 in 4 probability of receiving an air-puff) option (HGRAP) or a low-gain (small food quantity), no-risk (of an air-puff) (LGNAP) option. We assessed when arousal increased by considering different stages of the decision-making process (baseline, viewing, anticipation, reward periods) and investigated whether autonomic responses influenced choice outcome both immediately and in the subsequent trial. Chickens were faster to choose and their heart-rate significantly increased between the viewing and anticipation (post-decision, pre-outcome) periods when selecting the HGRAP option. This suggests that they responded physiologically to the impending risk. Additionally, arousal was greater following a HGRAP choice that resulted in an air-puff, but this did not deter chickens from subsequently choosing HGRAP. In contrast to human studies, we did not find evidence that somatic markers were activated during the viewing period, suggesting that arousal is not a good measure of avoidance in non-human animals. PMID:25643655

  15. Sexuality and Fertility after Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie R. Schover

    2005-01-01

    As more people achieve long-term survival after cancer, sexual dysfunction and infertility have increas- ingly been recognized as negative consequences that impact quality of life. Sexual dysfunction is a frequent long-term side effect of cancer treatment, but damage to different underlying physiological systems is salient in men versus women. Men frequently have erectile dysfunction (ED) related to damage to the

  16. Personality and reciprocal inhibition theory: The link between aggression and sexual reactivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Reuter; Petra Netter; Wilhelm Janke

    2003-01-01

    The study tries to relate two approaches often discussed in the context of aggression and violence in combination with sexual arousal, the reciprocal inhibition theory (Wolpe, 1958) and an approach from personality psychology which emphasizes the psychoticism dimension (P) according to Eysenck and Eysenck (1975) as a mediator of violent sexual offence. The effects of preexposure to a violent vs.

  17. The Importance of Individual Differences in Pornography Use: Theoretical Perspectives and Implications for Treating Sexual Offenders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Drew A. Kingston; Neil M. Malamuth; Paul Fedoroff; William L. Marshall

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the extant literature regarding pornography's influence on antisocial attitudes, sexual arousal, and sexually aggressive behavior in both noncriminal and criminal samples. The article concludes that when examined in the context of multiple, interacting factors, the findings are highly consistent across experimental and nonexperimental studies and across differing populations in showing that pornography use can be a risk

  18. A functional approach to sexual selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DUNCAN J. IRSCHICK; ANTHONY HERREL; BIEKE VANHOOYDONCK; RAOUL VAN DAMME

    2007-01-01

    Summary 1. Sexual selection theory is a robust and dynamic field within evolutionary biology, yet despite decades of research, remarkably little is known of the mechanistic bases of mate choice and male competition. 2. Because many aspects of sexual selection involve dynamic movements, and are physically challenging, the limits of sexual selection may be defined by key functional and physiological

  19. Emotion and language: valence and arousal affect word recognition.

    PubMed

    Kuperman, Victor; Estes, Zachary; Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-06-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted U, or interactive with arousal. In the present study, we used a sample of 12,658 words and included many lexical and semantic control factors to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  20. Brain circuitry mediating arousal from obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlin, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder of repetitive sleep disruption caused by reduced or blocked respiratory airflow. Although an anatomically compromised airway accounts for the major predisposition to OSA, a patient's arousal threshold and factors related to the central control of breathing (ventilatory control stability) are also important. Arousal from sleep (defined by EEG desynchronization) may be the only mechanism that allows airway re-opening following an obstructive event. However, in many cases arousal is unnecessary and even worsens the severity of OSA. Mechanisms for arousal are poorly understood. However, accumulating data are elucidating the relevant neural pathways and neurotransmitters. For example, serotonin is critically required, but its site of action is unknown. Important neural substrates for arousal have been recently identified in the parabrachial complex (PB), a visceral sensory nucleus in the rostral pons. Moreover, glutamatergic signaling from the PB contributes to arousal caused by hypercapnia, one of the arousal-promoting stimuli in OSA. A major current focus of OSA research is to find means to maintain airway patency during sleep, without sleep interruption. PMID:23810448

  1. Frequency of EEG arousals from nocturnal sleep in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Mathur, R; Douglas, N J

    1995-06-01

    Brief arousals are clinically important and increasingly scored during polysomnography. However, the frequency of arousals during routine polysomnography in the normal population is unknown. We performed overnight polysomnography in the 55 of 59 control subjects from a family practice list who were approached and agreed to undergo polysomnography. Awakenings were scored according to the criteria of Rechtschaffen and Kales and briefer arousals according to three different criteria, including the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition. There was a mean of 4 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1-15) Rechtschaffen and Kales awakenings per hour, whereas the ASDA definition gave 21 (95% CI, 7-56) per hour slept. Arousal frequencies increased significantly (p < 0.001) with age in our subjects, who ranged from the late teens to early 70s. The high upper limit of the frequency of brief arousals was not altered by exclusion of patients who snored or had witnessed apneas or daytime sleepiness. It is important that those scoring arousals on routine polysomnography recognize that high arousal frequencies occur in the normal population on 1-night polysomnography. PMID:7676165

  2. Selection of Film Clips and Development of a Video for the Investigation of Sexual Decision Making among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Woolf-King; Stephen Maisto; Michael Carey; Peter Vanable

    2010-01-01

    Experimental research on sexual decision making is limited, despite the public health importance of such work. We describe formative work conducted in advance of an experimental study designed to evaluate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on risky sexual decision making among men who have sex with men. In Study 1, we describe the procedures for selecting and

  3. Prostate response to prolactin in sexually active male rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Elena Hernandez; Abraham Soto-Cid; Fausto Rojas; Luz I Pascual; Gonzalo E Aranda-Abreu; Rebeca Toledo; Luis I Garcia; Andres Quintanar-Stephano; Jorge Manzo

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prostate is a key gland in the sexual physiology of male mammals. Its sensitivity to steroid hormones is widely known, but its response to prolactin is still poorly known. Previous studies have shown a correlation between sexual behaviour, prolactin release and prostate physiology. Thus, here we used the sexual behaviour of male rats as a model for studying

  4. Arousal-biased competition in perception and memory

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Sutherland, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Our everyday surroundings besiege us with information. The battle is for a share of our limited attention and memory, with the brain selecting the winners and discarding the losers. Previous research shows that both bottom-up and top-down factors bias competition in favor of high priority stimuli. We propose that arousal during an event increases this bias both in perception and in long-term memory of the event. Arousal-biased competition theory provides specific predictions about when arousal will enhance and when it will impair memory for events, accounting for some puzzling contradictions in the emotional memory literature. PMID:21660127

  5. Frequent Arousals from Winter Torpor in Rafinesque’s Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph S.; Lacki, Michael J.; Thomas, Steven C.; Grider, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n?=?86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  6. [Sexuality in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Wilk, Bartosz

    2015-02-25

    Sustaining and strengthening the ability of the elderly to continue their sexual needs can be realized as part of improving their quality of life, health and well-being. There is no age at which ends the expression of sexuality and intimacy. Through education, quality of life and advances in medicine, the average life expectancy is still increasing. Sexual activity of older people society usually describe using pejorative terms as an inappropriate, bizarre or obscene, but these labels are different than reality. Hormonal changes and other physiological changes associated with aging affect sexual interest. Erectile dysfunction is a problem in men increasing with age. There is no evidence that premature ejaculation is more common in older age. Cross-sectional studies showed no difference in sexual dysfunction between older and younger women. Age is not a barrier to sexually transmitted diseases. The most common pathogenetic factors for male erectile dysfunction are vascular diseases. In women, the most important symptoms of sexual dysfunction are lack of emotional wellbeing and a sense of intimacy during sexual intercourse. PMID:25815611

  7. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Objective The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. Method A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. Results In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Conclusions Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men. PMID:18197269

  8. EXERCISE IMPROVES SEXUAL FUNCTION IN WOMEN TAKING ANTIDEPRESSANTS: RESULTS FROM A RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2014-01-01

    Background In laboratory studies, exercise immediately before sexual stimuli improved sexual arousal of women taking antidepressants [1]. We evaluated if exercise improves sexual desire, orgasm, and global sexual functioning in women experiencing antidepressant-induced sexual side effects. Methods Fifty-two women who were reporting antidepressant sexual side effects were followed for 3 weeks of sexual activity only. They were randomized to complete either three weeks of exercise immediately before sexual activity (3×/week) or 3 weeks of exercise separate from sexual activity (3×/week). At the end of the first exercise arm, participants crossed to the other. We measured sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, depression, and physical health. Results Exercise immediately prior to sexual activity significantly improved sexual desire and, for women with sexual dysfunction at baseline, global sexual function. Scheduling regular sexual activity significantly improved orgasm function; exercise did not increase this benefit. Neither regular sexual activity nor exercise significantly changed sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Scheduling regular sexual activity and exercise may be an effective tool for the behavioral management of sexual side effects of antidepressants. PMID:24754044

  9. Leuprolide Acetate Suppresses Pedophilic Urges and Arousability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justine M. Schober; Phyllis J. Kuhn; Paul G. Kovacs; James H. Earle; Peter M. Byrne; Ruth A. Fries

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive–behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive–behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA)\\u000a for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36–58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months.\\u000a Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile\\u000a Plethysmography, PPG), as

  10. Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Serfas, Benjamin G.; Büttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  11. The Effects on Arousal of Frustration and Aggressive Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doob, Anthony N.; Kirshenbaum, Hershi M.

    1973-01-01

    Research supported by grant from the Canada Council. Studies effects of film violence on aggressive behavior. Suggests that for high levels of arousal, an aggressive movie could stop frustration-produced stimuli and hostility. (DS)

  12. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    Indian Health Service The Federal Health Program for American Indians and Alaska Natives Feedback Employee Resources • A to ... Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American Indians and Alaska Natives. Sexual assault refers to sexual ...

  13. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePLUS

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  14. Factors influencing the determination of arousal thresholds in infants – a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kahn; J. Groswasser; P. Franco; S. Scaillet; T. Sawaguchi; I. Kelmanson; A. de Broca; B. Dan; L. Servais

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To review the major confounding factors that influence the determination of arousal thresholds in infants.Review of confounding factors: The determination of arousal thresholds in infants measures their arousability from sleep. The evaluation is influenced by various conditions. The infant's arousability is decreased by maternal factors, such as exposure to cigarette smoke, alcohol, illegal drugs or medications during gestation or

  15. Eysenckian personality dimensions and alexithymia: Examining the overlap in terms of perceived autonomic arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rakesh Pandey; Manas K. Mandal

    1996-01-01

    The inter-relationships of alexithymia, Eysenckian personality dimensions, and perceived autonomic arousal were examined (N = 200). Alexithymia correlated positively with neuroticism and perceived autonomic arousal. Extraversion correlated negatively with alexithymia, and only sociability contributed to this negative relationship. Tendency to focus on autonomic arousal (i.e. perceived arousal) was found to be a potential variable for explaining the overlap between alexithymia

  16. Reviews in the Neurosciences 241 Remembering emotional experiences: The contribution of valence and arousal

    E-print Network

    Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    (how negative or positive) and arousal (how calming or exciting). Although both dimensions appear and arousal (defined below) on declarative memory formation. Dimensions of Emotion: Arousal and Valence). The dimension of valence ranges from highly positive to highly negative, whereas the dimension of arousal ranges

  17. Arousal and Retention in Paired-Associate, Serial, and Free Learning. Technical Report No. 91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Jacqueline E.; Farley, Frank H.

    In three experiments employing 60 Ss, arousal was manipulated by white noise during paired-associate, serial, and free learning in an effort to investigate the relationships of arousal and long-term recall. Previous research suggested that high arousal in the paired-associate paradigm leads to better retention relative to low arousal. The present…

  18. Drug treatment of paraphilic and nonparaphilic sexual disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David R. P. Guay

    2009-01-01

    Background: Paraphilias are characterized by recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors, over a period of ?6 months, generally involving nonhuman objects, suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or children or other noncon-senting persons. These fantasies, urges, and behaviors produce clinically significant distress or impairments in social, occupational, and other important areas of functioning.Objective: The goal of

  19. Individual differences in the relationship between pleasure and arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kuppens

    2008-01-01

    The two fundamental dimensions assumed to underlie emotional experience—pleasure and arousal—are considered to be independent across individuals. We present evidence from an experience sampling study demonstrating that this independence does not necessarily hold when considering the affective experiences of a single individual. Participants (N=80) reported how they were feeling in terms of pleasure and arousal nine times a day for

  20. Atypical Modulation of Cognitive Control by Arousal in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Dichter, Gabriel S.; Belger, Aysenil

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of viewing high-arousal pictures on regional brain activations elicited by a cognitive control task in participants with high-functioning autism and neurotypical controls. Specifically, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of brief presentations of highly arousing pictures (i.e., both very pleasant and very unpleasant) on the processing of stimuli requiring cognitive control. Similar to previous findings, when stimuli with high cognitive control demands were preceded by low-arousal pictures, individuals with autism demonstrated regional brain activations that were comparable to neurotypical control individuals. When the presentation of the cognitive control stimuli was preceded by high-arousal pictures, however, the control group was characterized by relatively greater activation in the right lateral midfrontal cortex in response to cognitive control stimuli. In contrast, preceding high-arousal stimuli did not modulate activity elicited in this region by cognitive control stimuli in the autism group. Differential modulation of right lateral midfrontal activation by high-arousal stimuli in autism is consistent with the “inefficiency model” of brain functioning in autism spectrum disorders, and contributes to a growing body of evidence that autism may be characterized by anomalous sensitivity of cognitive control brain regions to social-emotional context. PMID:18954965

  1. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds: effects on physiological variables

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Wouwe, Nelleke; Mühl, Christian; van Erp, Jan; Toet, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-min intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly) due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent. PMID:23801957

  2. Arousal and Affective Responses to Writing Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohew, Lewis

    1981-01-01

    Measured the physiological and affective responses to three factors of newswriting style: narrative vs. traditional; direct quotations vs. paraphrased statements; and active vs. passive verbs and adjectives. (Mass suicides in Guyana were used as stimulus news stories.) Narrative style, direct quotations, and active verbs and adjectives produced…

  3. Habituation of Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) to handling and movement during torpor to prevent artificial arousal.

    PubMed

    Christian, Sherri L; Rasley, Brian T; Roe, Tanna; Moore, Jeanette T; Harris, Michael B; Drew, Kelly L

    2014-01-01

    Hibernation is a unique physiological adaptation characterized by periods of torpor that consist of repeated, reversible, and dramatic reductions of body temperature, metabolism, and blood flow. External and internal triggers can induce arousal from torpor in the hibernator. Studies of hibernating animals often require that animals be handled or moved prior to sampling or euthanasia but this movement can induce changes in the hibernation status of the animal. In fact, it has been demonstrated that movement of animals while they are hibernating is sufficient to induce an artificial arousal, which can detrimentally alter experimental findings obtained from animals assumed to be torpid. Therefore, we assessed a method to induce habituation of torpid hibernators to handling and movement to reduce inadvertent arousals. A platform rocker was used to mimic motion experienced during transfer of an animal and changes in respiratory rate (RR) were used to assess responsiveness of torpid Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, Urocitellus parryii). We found that movement alone did not induce a change in RR, however, exposure to handling induced an increase in RR in almost all AGS. This change in RR was markedly reduced with increased exposures, and all AGS exhibited a change in RR ? 1 by the end of the study. AGS habituated faster mid-season compared to early in the season, which mirrors other assessments of seasonal variation of torpor depth. However, AGS regained responsiveness when they were not exposed to daily handling. While AGS continued to undergo natural arousals during the study, occurrence of a full arousal was neither necessary for becoming habituated nor detrimental to the time required for habituation. These data suggest that even when torpid, AGS are able to undergo mechanosensory habituation, one of the simplest forms of learning, and provides a reliable way to reduce the sensitivity of torpid animals to handling. PMID:24847278

  4. Habituation of Arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) to handling and movement during torpor to prevent artificial arousal

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Sherri L.; Rasley, Brian T.; Roe, Tanna; Moore, Jeanette T.; Harris, Michael B.; Drew, Kelly L.

    2014-01-01

    Hibernation is a unique physiological adaptation characterized by periods of torpor that consist of repeated, reversible, and dramatic reductions of body temperature, metabolism, and blood flow. External and internal triggers can induce arousal from torpor in the hibernator. Studies of hibernating animals often require that animals be handled or moved prior to sampling or euthanasia but this movement can induce changes in the hibernation status of the animal. In fact, it has been demonstrated that movement of animals while they are hibernating is sufficient to induce an artificial arousal, which can detrimentally alter experimental findings obtained from animals assumed to be torpid. Therefore, we assessed a method to induce habituation of torpid hibernators to handling and movement to reduce inadvertent arousals. A platform rocker was used to mimic motion experienced during transfer of an animal and changes in respiratory rate (RR) were used to assess responsiveness of torpid Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, Urocitellus parryii). We found that movement alone did not induce a change in RR, however, exposure to handling induced an increase in RR in almost all AGS. This change in RR was markedly reduced with increased exposures, and all AGS exhibited a change in RR ? 1 by the end of the study. AGS habituated faster mid-season compared to early in the season, which mirrors other assessments of seasonal variation of torpor depth. However, AGS regained responsiveness when they were not exposed to daily handling. While AGS continued to undergo natural arousals during the study, occurrence of a full arousal was neither necessary for becoming habituated nor detrimental to the time required for habituation. These data suggest that even when torpid, AGS are able to undergo mechanosensory habituation, one of the simplest forms of learning, and provides a reliable way to reduce the sensitivity of torpid animals to handling. PMID:24847278

  5. Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.

    PubMed

    Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846

  6. Sexsomnia: abnormal sexual behavior during sleep.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Monica L; Poyares, Dalva; Alves, Rosana S C; Skomro, Robert; Tufik, Sergio

    2007-12-01

    This review attempts to assemble the characteristics of a distinct variant of sleepwalking called sexsomnia/sleepsex from the seemingly scarce literature into a coherent theoretical framework. Common features of sexsomnia include sexual arousal with autonomic activation (e.g. nocturnal erection, vaginal lubrication, nocturnal emission, dream orgasms). Somnambulistic sexual behavior and its clinical implications, the role of precipitating factors, diagnostic, treatment, and medico-legal issues are also reviewed. The characteristics of several individuals described in literature including their family/personal history of parasomnia as well as the abnormal behaviors occurring during sleep are reported. PMID:17706786

  7. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal

    PubMed Central

    Kosse, Christin; Burdakov, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioral state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise). An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behavior, and bases for disease. PMID:25368557

  8. An unusual case of sexual assault on an infant: an intraperitoneal candle in a 20-month-old girl

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Gromb; H. J Lazarini

    1998-01-01

    The recent publication of cases of sexual abuse and child prostitution networks may have the harmful effect of arousing latent desires or causing sexual delinquents to act out their impulses. The authors report a recent case in which a wax candle was introduced into the vagina of a 20-month-old baby. The forensic description is given and provisional conclusions are drawn.

  9. Physiology Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Physiology Online, the electronic information service of the Physiological Society, provides information about its three journals: Journal of Physiology, Proceedings of the Physiological Society, and Experimental Physiology. Also included are selected abstracts, as well as information about recent monographs, job listings (mostly in the U.K.), information about Society grants, a physiology file and software archive for both PC and Mac platforms, pointers to other physiology resources on the Internet, and a listing of upcoming meetings and conferences within the field.

  10. Long-Term Health Correlates of Timing of Sexual Debut: Results From a National US Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandfort, Theo G.M.; Orr, Mark; Hirsch, Jennifer S.; Santelli, John

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We explored long-term health consequences of age at sexual initiation and of abstinence until marriage to evaluate empirical support for the claim that postponing sexual initiation has beneficial health effects. Methods. We analyzed data from the 1996 National Sexual Health Survey, a cross-sectional study of the US adult population. We compared sexual health outcomes among individuals who had initiated sexual activity at an early or late age versus a normative age. We also compared individuals whose first sexual intercourse had occurred before versus after marriage. Results. Early initiation of sexual intercourse was associated with various sexual risk factors, including increased numbers of sexual partners and recent sexual intercourse under the influence of alcohol, whereas late initiation was associated with fewer risk factors. However, both early and late initiation were associated with sexual problems such as problems with arousal and orgasm, primarily among men. Relationship solidity and sexual relationship satisfaction were not associated with early or late initiation. Conclusions. Early sexual debut is associated with certain long-term negative sexual health outcomes, including increased sexual risk behaviors and problems in sexual functioning. Late initiation was also associated with sexual problems, especially among men. Further research is needed to understand how sexual initiation patterns affect later health outcomes. PMID:18048793

  11. Internet Sexualities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicola Döring

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

  12. The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C; Burgess, Harold A

    2012-10-24

    During waking behavior, animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states, and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However, there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. After a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context. PMID:23100441

  13. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bryant, Gregory A.; Kaye, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus. PMID:22696288

  14. Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2

    PubMed Central

    Buchanan, Gordon F.; Richerson, George B.

    2010-01-01

    There is a long-standing controversy about the role of serotonin in sleep/wake control, with competing theories that it either promotes sleep or causes arousal. Here, we show that there is a marked increase in wakefulness when all serotonin neurons are genetically deleted in mice hemizygous for ePet1-Cre and homozygous for floxed Lmx1b (Lmx1bf/f/p). However, this only occurs at cool ambient temperatures and can be explained by a thermoregulatory defect that leads to an increase in motor activity to generate heat. Because some serotonin neurons are stimulated by CO2, and serotonin activates thalamocortical networks, we hypothesized that serotonin neurons cause arousal in response to hypercapnia. We found that Lmx1bf/f/p mice completely lacked any arousal response to inhalation of 10% CO2 (with 21% O2 in balance N2) but had normal arousal responses to hypoxia, sound, and air puff. We propose that serotonin neurons mediate the potentially life-saving arousal response to hypercapnia. Impairment of this response may contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, sudden infant death syndrome, and sleep apnea. PMID:20805497

  15. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts empathic concern and autonomic arousal while perceiving harm to others

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Greg J.; Connelly, Jessica J.; Decety, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin and the gene for the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in the modulation of various social behaviors, including those related to empathy and sensitivity to others. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that genetic variation in OXTR is associated with autonomic reactions when perceiving others in distress. We also explore the possibility that individual disposition in empathic concern would differ by OXTR genotype. To address these questions, fifty-one male participants (18–35 years of age), genotyped for OXTR rs53576, viewed a social interaction containing high levels of individual distress and apparent physical pain. Electrodermal activity, a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity, was collected during the presentation of the stimuli. Participants also completed a self-report dispositional measure of empathy prior to starting the study and provided ratings of arousal while viewing the stimuli. OXTR variant rs53576 GG individuals showed increased levels of sympathetic and subjective arousal in response to the stimuli compared to A allele carriers. GG homozygotes also expressed greater levels of empathic concern. These findings support the importance of the oxytocin receptor variation in emotional and physiological reactions to the experiences of other conspecifics. PMID:24295535

  16. Subcellular distribution of key enzymes of lipid metabolism during the euthermia-hibernation-arousal cycle

    PubMed Central

    Suozzi, Anna; Malatesta, Manuela; Zancanaro, Carlo

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian hibernation is a natural, fully reversible hypometabolic state characterized by a drastic reduction of body temperature and metabolic activity, which ensures survival to many species under adverse environmental conditions. During hibernation, many hibernators rely for energy supply almost exclusively on lipid reserves; the shift from carbohydrate to lipid metabolism implies profound rearrangement of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of energetic substrates. However, the structural counterpart of such adaptation is not known. In this study we investigated, by using immunoelectron microscopy, the fine intracellular distribution of two key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, namely, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and the long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL), in hepatocytes of euthermic, hibernating and arousing hazel dormice. Our results show that the two enzymes are differentially distributed in cellular compartments (cytoplasm, mitochondria and cell nuclei) of hepatocytes during euthermia. Quantitative redistribution of both enzymes among cellular compartments takes place during hibernation and arousal, in accordance with the physiological changes. Interestingly, this redistribution follows different seasonal patterns in cytoplasm, mitochondria and nuclei. In conclusion, our data represent the first quantitative morphological evidence of lipid enzyme distribution in a true hibernator throughout the year cycle, thus providing a structural framework to biochemical changes associated with the hypometabolism of hibernation. PMID:19538638

  17. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  18. Cutting film violence: effects on perceptions, enjoyment, and arousal.

    PubMed

    Berry, M; Gray, T; Donnerstein, E

    1999-10-01

    The authors investigated the effects of cutting specific graphic scenes of film violence on self-reports of arousal, enjoyability, and perceptions of violence among a sample of U.S. students. In 3 studies, they varied film exposure from 1 1/2 min in the 1st study to a complete motion picture (American vs. British version of same film) in the 3rd. In all 3 studies, the participants rated the cut versions as less violent than the uncut versions. The participants distinguished quite subtle differences in levels of violence, even when the cuts were minor and contextualized within an entire movie. Cutting the movie significantly increased its enjoyability for the women; for the men, there was no significant difference. Cutting violent films made no difference in arousal for the men but substantially lowered self-report levels of arousal for the women. PMID:10897293

  19. Physiological changes in response to apnea impact the timing of motor representations: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reduced physiological arousal in response to breath-holding affects internal clock processes, leading swimmers to underestimate the time spent under apnea. We investigated whether reduced physiological arousal during static apnea was likely to affect the temporal organization of motor imagery (MI). Methods Fourteen inter-regional to national breath-holding athletes mentally and physically performed two 15 m swimming tasks of identical durations. They performed the two sequences in a counterbalanced order, the first while breathing normally using a scuba, the second under apnea. We assessed MI duration immediately after completion of the corresponding task. Athletes performed MI with and without holding breath. Results MI durations (26.1 s?±?8.22) were significantly shorter than actual durations (29.7 s?±?7.6) without holding breath. Apnea increased MI durations by 10% (± 5%). Heart rate decrease in response to breath-holding correlated with MI durations increase (p?physiological arousal state congruent with that of the corresponding motor task. Conclusions Physiological arousal affected the durations of MI through its effects on internal clock processes and by impacting the congruency in physiological body states between overt and covert motor performance. Present findings have potential implications with regards to the possibility of preventing underestimation of durations spent under a state of reduced physiological arousal. PMID:24773625

  20. Gender differences in the sexual rating of words.

    PubMed

    Plaud, J J; Gaither, G A; Weller, L A

    1998-01-01

    The present study investigated whether gender-based differences in the rating of sexual words still exist in the late 1990s. Men and women evaluated 400 English-language words on the characteristics of sexual charge and sexual ambiguity. Data gathered from these ratings were compared with other factors such as religious involvement, sexual experience, sex guilt, and social desirability. Men and women did not differ in their sexual ratings of the list. However, because the list contained a large number of words that had no sexual content at all, gender differences were examined for ratings of a sample of 30 sexually ambiguous words. As hypothesized, men rated these words as significantly more sexual than women. Significant gender differences were found on a number of sexuality and personality measures. Women were more religious than men, and religiosity was significantly correlated with most of the other measures. Women also had higher social desirability scores, which implies that they may have been responding in a socially desirable manner and were not completely honest. Overall, gender differences followed gender-oriented stereotypes: (a) Women have greater sexual guilt than men, (b) women are less sexually arousable or more "erotophobic," and (c) women are less comfortable answering questions about their sexuality and rating words. PMID:9509376

  1. Sexual dimorphism in the complexity of cardiac pacemaker activity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Terry B. Kuo (Tzu Chi Buddhist General Hospital Department of Neurology)

    2007-10-03

    Journal article titled "Sexual Dimorphism in the Complexity of Cardiac Pacemaker Activity" from The American Journal of PhysiologyÂ?Heart and Circulatory Physiology, by Terry B. J. Kuo, and Cheryl C. H. Yang.

  2. The hypocretins as sensors for metabolism and arousal

    PubMed Central

    Adamantidis, Antoine; de Lecea, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with hormonal imbalances and may result in metabolic disorders including obesity and diabetes. Therefore, circuits controlling both sleep and metabolism are likely to play a role in these physiopathological conditions. The hypocretin (Hcrt) system is a strong candidate for mediating both sleep and metabolic imbalances because Hcrt neurons are sensitive to metabolic hormones, including leptin and ghrelin, and modulate arousal and goal-orientated behaviours. This review discusses the role of Hcrt neurons as a sensors of energy balance and arousal and proposes new ways of probing local hypothalamic circuits regulating sleep and metabolism with unprecedented cellular specificity and temporal resolution. PMID:19047201

  3. Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chyng; Bridges, Ana; Johnason, Jennifer; Ezzell, Matt

    2014-12-01

    Pornography has become a primary source of sexual education. At the same time, mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation. Yet, little work has been done exploring the associations between pornography and dyadic sexual encounters: What role does pornography play inside real-world sexual encounters between a man and a woman? Cognitive script theory argues media scripts create a readily accessible heuristic model for decision-making. The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences. To test this, we surveyed 487 college men (ages 18-29 years) in the United States to compare their rate of pornography use with sexual preferences and concerns. Results showed the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he was to use it during sex, request particular pornographic sex acts of his partner, deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and have concerns over his own sexual performance and body image. Further, higher pornography use was negatively associated with enjoying sexually intimate behaviors with a partner. We conclude that pornography provides a powerful heuristic model which is implicated in men's expectations and behaviors during sexual encounters. PMID:25466233

  4. The ventilatory response to arousal from sleep is not fully explained by differences in CO2 levels between sleep and wakefulness

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Richard L; Rivera, Miguel P; Kozar, Louise F; Phillipson, Eliot A

    2001-01-01

    Arousal from sleep is associated with transient stimulation of ventilation above normal waking levels that predisposes to subsequent breathing instability and central apnoea. The transient hyperpnoea at arousal is normally explained by differences in arterial partial pressure of CO2 (Pa,CO2) between sleep and wakefulness, with a higher Pa,CO2 in sleep leading to stimulation of ventilation at arousal according to the awake ventilatory response to CO2. Surprisingly, however, the validity of this current model in fully explaining the increased ventilation at arousal from sleep has not been directly tested.This study tests the hypothesis that the level of ventilation at arousal from non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep is greater than that produced by elevating Pa,CO2 in wakefulness to the sleeping level, i.e. the ventilation predicted by the current model.Studies were performed in five dogs. Inspired CO2 was used to increase end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PET,CO2) in wakefulness and measure the ventilatory response. The same PET,CO2 was then maintained in non-REM sleep. Ventilation was measured for 10 breaths before and after arousal from non-REM sleep induced by a 72 dB tone.Arousal from sleep produced a transient surge in ventilation of 1.42 ± 0.35 l min?1 (P= 0.005). This increased ventilation was due to arousal from sleep per se as the tone alone produced no change in awake ventilation. In support of the hypothesis, ventilation at wake onset from sleep was greater by 0.83 ± 0.28 l min?1 (P= 0.031) than the ventilation elicited in wakefulness by raising PET,CO2 to the sleeping level.The results show that > 50% of the increase in ventilation at wake onset from sleep is not attributable to the awake ventilatory response to the elevated Pa,CO2 that was previously present in sleep. This result leads to important modifications of the physiological model currently used to explain the ventilatory consequences of arousal from sleep. PMID:11483717

  5. Internet Sexualities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döring, Nicola

    The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

  6. Can Victoria's Secret change the future? A subjective time perception account of sexual-cue effects on impatience.

    PubMed

    Kim, B Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-05-01

    Sexual cues influence decisions not only about sex, but also about unrelated outcomes such as money. In the presence of sexual cues, individuals are more impatient when making intertemporal monetary tradeoffs, choosing smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts. Previous research has emphasized the power of sexual cues to induce a strong general psychological desire to obtain not only sex-related but all available rewards. In the case of money, that heightened appetite enhances the perceived value of immediate monetary rewards. We propose a different psychological mechanism to explain this effect: Sexual cues induce impatience through their ability to lengthen the perceived temporal distance to delayed rewards. That is, sexual cues make the temporal delay seem subjectively longer, resulting in greater impatience for monetary rewards. We attribute this process to the arousing nature of sexual cues, thus extending findings on arousal and overestimation of elapsed time to the domain of future time perception and intertemporal preferences. PMID:22686639

  7. Is the torpor-arousal cycle of hibernation controlled by a non-temperature-compensated circadian clock?

    PubMed

    Malan, André

    2010-06-01

    During the hibernation season, mammalian hibernators alternate between prolonged bouts of torpor with a reduced body temperature (Tb) and short arousals with a return to euthermy. Evidence is presented here to show that this metabolic-and also physiological and neuroanatomical-rhythm is controlled by a clock, the torpor-arousal (TA) clock. The temperature dependence of torpor bout duration in 3 species of Spermophilus (published data) may be described by assuming that the TA clock is a circadian clock (probably not the suprachiasmatic clock) that has lost its temperature compensation. This loss might result either from a permanent deletion, or more likely from a seasonal epigenetic control at the level of the clock gene machinery. This hypothesis was verified over the full Tb range on published data from 5 other species (a monotreme, a marsupial, and 3 placental mammals). In a hibernation season, instantaneous subjective time of the putative TA clock was summated over each torpor bout. For each animal, torpor bout length (TBL) was accurately predicted as a constant fraction of a subjective day, for actual durations in astronomical time varying between 4 and 13 to 20 days. The resulting temperature dependence of the interval between arousals predicts that energy expenditure over the hibernation season will be minimal when Tb is as low as possible without eliciting cold thermogenesis. PMID:20484688

  8. Effects of self-awakening on sleep structure of a daytime short nap and on subsequent arousal levels.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Kosuke; Nittono, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Mitsuo; Hori, Tadao

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effects of self-awakening on sleep structure and daytime arousal after a short nap, a within-subjects comparison was made of participants in self-awakening and forced-awakening conditions. In the self-awakening condition. participants were instructed to wake up by themselves 15 min. after the experimenter turned the lights off. In the forced-awakening condition, the experimenter awakened them 20 min. after the lights were turned off. To control the maximum sleep time for the two conditions, we used different instructions in each condition. Participants were 10 healthy college students. Their physiological arousal and subjective sleepiness were evaluated using the P300 amplitude of the auditory event-related potential (ERP) and the visual analog scale previously described by Monk and Kathryn, et al. For evaluating sleep structure during the nap, Hori's 1994 hypnagogic EEG stages were used. P300 amplitude was significantly lower, and subjective sleepiness was significantly higher after forced-awakening than self-awakening, indicating that arousal was higher after self-awakening. The EEGs during napping in the forced-awakening condition indicated deeper sleep. Given this deeper sleep, severe sleep inertia occurred after the forced-awakening condition. In conclusion, it appeared a short nap with self-awakening was more effective in reducing a post-lunch dip than one with forced-awakening. PMID:15002849

  9. Excluded and behaving unethically: Social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Wareham, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Across 2 studies, we investigated the ethical consequences of physiological responses to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants who were socially excluded were more likely to engage in unethical behavior to make money and the level of physiological arousal experienced during exclusion-measured using galvanic skin response-mediated the effects of exclusion on unethical behavior. Likewise, in Study 2, results from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads revealed a positive relationship between experience of workplace ostracism and unethical behaviors as rated by the immediate supervisors. This relationship was mediated by employees' reports of experienced physiological arousal. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that physiological arousal accompanies social exclusion and provides an explanatory mechanism for the increased unethical behavior in both samples. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on ethical behavior and social exclusion in the workplace are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:25314369

  10. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction among migraine patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Mohammad; Toghae, Mansoureh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Saffari, Elaheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) defines as any disorder in the process of sexual contact including 6 main domains, desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, orgasm satisfaction and pain. This study was conducted to evaluate prevalence of sexual dysfunction disorder in women with migraine headache and also find the associated factors related to migraine characteristics. Methods: A total of 69 eligible woman patients fulfilling criteria for migraine participated in this study. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), a multi-dimensional self-report implement for appraisal of Female Sexual Function during the past month were utilized in this study. The information related to migraine including frequency, duration of headache attack, severity of headache according to visual analog scale (VAS) score and headache impact test (HIT) score were obtained using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results: About 68.4% of patients had an FSFI score < 28. In domains of desire 73.7%, arousal 64.9%, lubrication 21.1%, orgasm 33.3%, satisfaction 17.5%, and pain 40.4% of patients reported some degree of dysfunction. Among variables related to migraine characteristics, only a significant association between frequency and sexual dysfunction were recorded (P < 0.05). Conclusion: FSD is prevalent among migraine patients. The frequency of a migraine attack is associated with FSD. Serotonin mechanisms such as 5HT2, 5HT3 agonist have been hypothesized as a shared etiology for migraine and sexual dysfunction.

  11. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  12. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... big part of being human. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. ... both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about ...

  13. White-nose syndrome-affected little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) increase grooming and other active behaviors during arousals from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2013-10-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious disease of hibernating bats linked to the death of an estimated 5.7 million or more bats in the northeastern United States and Canada. White-nose syndrome is caused by the cold-loving fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), which invades the skin of the muzzles, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. Previous work has shown that WNS-affected bats arouse to euthermic or near euthermic temperatures during hibernation significantly more frequently than normal and that these too-frequent arousals are tied to severity of infection and death date. We quantified the behavior of bats during these arousal bouts to understand better the causes and consequences of these arousals. We hypothesized that WNS-affected bats would display increased levels of activity (especially grooming) during their arousal bouts from hibernation compared to WNS-unaffected bats. Behavior of both affected and unaffected hibernating bats in captivity was monitored from December 2010 to March 2011 using temperature-sensitive dataloggers attached to the backs of bats and infrared motion-sensitive cameras. The WNS-affected bats exhibited significantly higher rates of grooming, relative to unaffected bats, at the expense of time that would otherwise be spent inactive. Increased self-grooming may be related to the presence of the fungus. Elevated activity levels in affected bats likely increase energetic stress, whereas the loss of rest (inactive periods when aroused from torpor) may jeopardize the ability of a bat to reestablish homeostasis in a number of physiologic systems. PMID:24502712

  14. Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1

    E-print Network

    Machel, Hans

    Sexual Intimacy After Sexual Assault or Sexual Abuse1 Many survivors find that their sexual attitudes and reactions are impacted after a sexual assault or sexual abuse. While these effects are not permanent, they can be very frustrating as they can decrease the enjoyment of one's sexual life and intimacy

  15. Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu

    E-print Network

    Ben Arous, Gérard

    Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu New York University and University at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-3840 E-mail:dvv@math.berkeley.edu Abstract: Free probability analogues- sification of freely max-stable laws and their domains of attraction, using "free extremal convolutions

  16. Cognitive Processing of Fear-Arousing Message Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Jerold L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Investigates two models (the Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Heuristic-Systematic Model) of the cognitive processing of fear-arousing messages in undergraduate students. Finds in three of the four conditions (low fear, high fear, high trait anxiety) that cognitive processing appears to be antagonistic. Finds some evidence of concurrent…

  17. Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters

    E-print Network

    Zucker, Irving

    577 Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters Jennie E is accompanied by a transient rise of melatonin (Mel) in circulation; there are no comparable analyses of Mel of Chicago. All rights reserved. 1522-2152/2003/7604-2092$15.00 Introduction Production of melatonin (Mel

  18. The subtlety of White racism, arousal, and helping behavior

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samuel L. Gaertner; John F. Dovidio

    1977-01-01

    Tested 2 hypotheses: (a) White bystanders are more likely to discriminate against Black victims in situations in which failure to intervene could be attributable to factors other than the victim's race. (b) There is a causal relationship between arousal induced by witnessing an emergency and bystander responsiveness, as proposed by I. M. Piliavin et al . A total of 260

  19. Mechanisms of emotional arousal and lasting declarative memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Larry Cahill; James L. McGaugh

    1998-01-01

    Neuroscience is witnessing growing interest in understanding brain mechanisms of memory formation for emotionally arousing events, a development closely related to renewed interest in the concept of memory consolidation. Extensive research in animals implicates stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex as key, interacting modulators of memory consolidation for emotional events. Considerable evidence suggests that the amygdala is not a site

  20. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  1. Optimal Levels of Emotional Arousal in Experiential Therapy of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carryer, Jonathan R.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between length of time spent expressing highly aroused emotion and therapeutic outcome. Method: Thirty-eight clients (14 male, 24 female) between the ages of 22 and 60 years (M = 39.5, SD = 9.71), treated for depression with experiential therapy, were rated on working alliance and expressed emotional…

  2. Sex Differences in Children's Reports of Emotion-Arousing Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Hoffman, Michael Arthur

    Elementary school boys and girls are highly similar with regards to the events they describe as emotionally arousing fear, sadness, anger, happiness, and pride. One hundred and sixty (160) White, Black, Chicano, and Asian-American boys and girls from kindergarten, second, third, fourth, and sixth grades freely described the situation that most…

  3. Weighted Vests, Stereotyped Behaviors and Arousal in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Sandra; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Misiaszek, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The homeostatic theory of stereotyped behaviors assumes that these behaviors modulate arousal. Weighted vests are used to decrease stereotyped behaviors in persons with autism because the input they provide is thought to serve the same homeostatic function. This small-n, randomized and blinded study measured the effects of wearing a weighted vest…

  4. On the role of emotional arousal in sensegiving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timo Vuori; Jouni Virtaharju

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to increase understanding of how emotional arousal could be used to enhance the adoption of new beliefs during a sensegiving episode. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Case study about the sensegiving tactics of a successful corporate coach and the reactions of 102 sense-receivers. Data consist of 39 interviews, 95 hours of observation, a longitudinal survey, and informal discussions.

  5. Attention, autonomic arousal, and personality in behaviorally disordered children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Raine; Fiona Jones

    1987-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC) by measuring attention, autonomie arousal, and personality in 40 behaviorally disordered children aged 7 to 15 years. Conduct Disorder and Socialized Aggression subscales were characterized by high Psychoticism, Impulsivity, and Lie personality scores, by lower heart rate levels, and by more errors on a continuous performance reaction-time

  6. Neuropsychological Mechanisms of Individual Differences in Emotion, Personality, and Arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Heller

    1993-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed to suggest that parietotemporal regions of the right hemisphere not only are specialized for the processing of emotional information but also play a critical role in the experience of emotion. In particular, it is argued that these regions of the right hemisphere constitute a system involved in modulating autonomic and behavioral arousal in emotional states. This system

  7. The arousal and satiation of perceptual curiosity in the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Berlyne

    1955-01-01

    Curiosity appears to be aroused by environments presenting numerous and complex stimuli to a greater degree than to environments more simply structured. Satiation of exploratory activity is related to previous exposure, massing of trials and to the lapse of time within a trial, but is unaffected by such variables as brightness of objects, figure-ground brightness contrast or 10 minutes confinement

  8. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  9. Adolescence, Sexual Conflict, and Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)

  10. OVARIAN MORPHOLOGY DURING PRECOCIOUS SEXUAL MATURATION

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    OVARIAN MORPHOLOGY DURING PRECOCIOUS SEXUAL MATURATION OF THE RAT INDUCED BY ELECTROCHEMICAL of Physiology, School of Medecine, University of Geneva (Switzerland) The present study concerns some Research Unit, Karolinslia Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden). #12;rence between the various age groups

  11. Sexual conflict

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

    2003-01-01

    Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

  12. When Are Sexual Difficulties Distressing for Women? The Selective Protective Value of Intimate Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have shown that sexual functioning and sexually related personal distress are weakly related in women, with only a minority of sexual difficulties resulting in significant levels of distress. However, there has been little systematic research to date on which factors moderate the relationship between sexual functioning and sexual distress. Aim To assess the degree to which relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderate the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in college-age women. Methods Two hundred women (mean age = 20.25) completed surveys assessing sexual functioning, relational intimacy, attachment anxiety, and sexual distress. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Dimensions of Relationship Quality Scale, and the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment. Results Relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderated the association between multiple aspects of sexual functioning and sexual distress. For lubrication and sexual pain, functioning was more strongly associated with distress in low-intimacy vs. high-intimacy relationships, but only for women with high levels of attachment anxiety. Results regarding desire were mixed and neither intimacy nor attachment anxiety interacted with subjective arousal or orgasm in predicting distress. Conclusion Both relational intimacy and attachment anxiety are important moderators of the association between sexual functioning and subjective sexual distress in women. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20701676

  13. The role of arousal congruency in influencing consumers' satisfaction evaluations and in-store behaviors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jochen Wirtz; Anna S. Mattila; Rachel L. P. Tan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – It is widely accepted that consumers enter into a service consumption experience with a set of expectations, including affective expectations. This research aims to investigate the matching effects between arousal-level expectations and perceived stimulation (i.e. arousal congruency) on satisfaction and in-store behaviors. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A 3 (under-stimulation, arousal congruency and under-stimulation) perceived arousal congruency)×2 valence (pleasant or unpleasant

  14. A Practice-Specificity-Based Model of Arousal for Achieving Peak Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmadreza Movahedi; Mahmood Sheikh; Fazlolah Bagherzadeh; Rasool Hemayattalab; Hassan Ashayeri

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a practice-specificity-based model of arousal for achieving peak performance. The study included 37 healthy male physical education students whom they randomly assigned to a high-arousal (n = 19) or low-arousal group (n = 18). To manipulate participants' level of arousal, the authors used motivational techniques. They used heart rate and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (R. Martens,

  15. Sexual uses of alcohol and drugs and the associated health risks: A cross sectional study of young people in nine European cities

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Ramon, Anna; Rodriguez, José A; Mendes, Fernando; Schnitzer, Susanne; Phillips-Howard, Penny

    2008-01-01

    Background Young people in European countries are experiencing high levels of alcohol and drug use and escalating levels of sexually transmitted infections. Individually these represent major public health priorities. Understanding of the association between sex and substance use, and specifically the strategic roles for which young people utilise substances to facilitate sexual activity, remains limited. Methods Respondent driven sampling methodology was used in nine European cities to survey 1,341 16–35 year olds representing youth and younger adults who routinely engage in nightlife. Participants self-completed questionnaires, designed to gather demographic, social, and behavioural data on historic and current substance use and sexual behaviour. Results Respondents reported strategic use of specific substances for different sexual purposes. Substances differed significantly in the purposes for which each was deployed (e.g. 28.6% of alcohol users use it to facilitate sexual encounters; 26.2% of cocaine users use it to prolong sex) with user demographics also relating to levels of sexual use (e.g. higher levels of: ecstasy use by males to prolong sex; cocaine use by single individuals to enhance sensation and arousal). Associations between substance use and sex started at a young age, with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine or ecstasy use before age 16 all being associated with having had sex before the age of 16 (odds ratios, 3.47, 4.19, 5.73, 9.35 respectively). However, sexes differed and substance use under 16 years was associated with a proportionately greater increase in early sex amongst girls. Respondents' current drug use was associated with having multiple sexual partners. Thus, for instance, regular cocaine users (c.f. never users) were over five times more likely to have had five or more sexual partners in the last 12 months or have paid for sex. Conclusion An epidemic of recreational drug use and binge drinking exposes millions of young Europeans to routine consumption of substances which alter their sexual decisions and increase their chances of unsafe and regretted sex. For many, substance use has become an integral part of their strategic approach to sex, locking them into continued use. Tackling substances with both physiological and psychological links to sex requires approaching substance use and sexual behaviour in the same way that individuals experience them; as part of the same social process. PMID:18471281

  16. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  17. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  18. Conditions under which Arousal Does and Does Not Elevate Height Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of experiments that explore the boundary conditions for how emotional arousal influences height estimates. Four experiments are presented, which investigated the influence of context, situation-relevance, intensity, and attribution of arousal on height estimates. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the environmental context to signal either danger (viewing a height from above) or safety (viewing a height from below). High arousal only increased height estimates made from above. In Experiment 2, two arousal inductions were used that contained either 1) height-relevant arousing images or 2) height-irrelevant arousing images. Regardless of theme, arousal increased height estimates compared to a neutral group. In Experiment 3, arousal intensity was manipulated by inserting an intermediate or long delay between the induction and height estimates. A brief, but not a long, delay from the arousal induction served to increase height estimates. In Experiment 4, an attribution manipulation was included, and those participants who were made aware of the source of their arousal reduced their height estimates compared to participants who received no attribution instructions. Thus, arousal that is attributed to its true source is discounted from feelings elicited by the height, thereby reducing height estimates. Overall, we suggest that misattributed, embodied arousal is used as a cue when estimating heights from above that can lead to overestimation. PMID:24699393

  19. Perceived mental effort correlates with changes in tonic arousal during attentional tasks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fleur M Howells; Dan J Stein; Vivienne A Russell

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that perceived mental effort reflects changes in arousal during tasks of attention. Such changes in arousal may be tonic or phasic, and may be mediated by the locus-coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) system. We hypothesized that perceived mental effort during attentional tasks would correlate with tonic changes in cortical arousal, as assessed by relative electroencephalogram (EEG) band

  20. Who, what, where, when (and maybe even why)? How the experience of sexual reward connects sexual desire, preference, and performance.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, James G; Kippin, Tod E; Coria-Avila, Genaro A; Gelez, Hélène; Afonso, Veronica M; Ismail, Nafissa; Parada, Mayte

    2012-02-01

    Although sexual behavior is controlled by hormonal and neurochemical actions in the brain, sexual experience induces a degree of plasticity that allows animals to form instrumental and Pavlovian associations that predict sexual outcomes, thereby directing the strength of sexual responding. This review describes how experience with sexual reward strengthens the development of sexual behavior and induces sexually-conditioned place and partner preferences in rats. In both male and female rats, early sexual experience with partners scented with a neutral or even noxious odor induces a preference for scented partners in subsequent choice tests. Those preferences can also be induced by injections of morphine or oxytocin paired with a male rat's first exposure to scented females, indicating that pharmacological activation of opioid or oxytocin receptors can "stand in" for the sexual reward-related neurochemical processes normally activated by sexual stimulation. Conversely, conditioned place or partner preferences can be blocked by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone. A somatosensory cue (a rodent jacket) paired with sexual reward comes to elicit sexual arousal in male rats, such that paired rats with the jacket off show dramatic copulatory deficits. We propose that endogenous opioid activation forms the basis of sexual reward, which also sensitizes hypothalamic and mesolimbic dopamine systems in the presence of cues that predict sexual reward. Those systems act to focus attention on, and activate goal-directed behavior toward, reward-related stimuli. Thus, a critical period exists during an individual's early sexual experience that creates a "love map" or Gestalt of features, movements, feelings, and interpersonal interactions associated with sexual reward. PMID:22402996

  1. Testosterone and sexual signalling in male house sparrows ( Passer domesticus )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo Gonzalez; Gabriele Sorci; Linda C. Smith; Florentino de Lope

    2001-01-01

    Female preference for mates with elaborated ornaments has often been explained on the basis that exaggerated secondary sexual traits might reflect individual quality and females might gather direct and indirect benefits in mating with such males. Sexual signals must however also entail costs to be reliable indicators of male quality. Androgens have been suggested as a physiological link between sexual

  2. Hormonal profile impact on female sexual function in young women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoian, Dana; Craciunescu, Mihalea; Craina, Marius; Pater, Liana; Pater, Flavius

    2014-12-01

    Female sexual function is dependent, in physiological milieu upon hormonal impulses: estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, progesterone, prolactin and TSH. Out study tries to appreciate the impact of testosterone, estradiol and prolactin, the major hormones involved in the sexual response, on the normal sexual function. This parameter is approximated by the value of the total FSFI score, a validated international structured interview.

  3. Sexual Function After Surgery for Prostate or Bladder Cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alejandro J. Miranda-Sous; Hugo H. Davila; Jorge L. Lockhart; Raul C. Ordorica; Rafael E. Carrion

    2006-01-01

    Background: Compromised sexual function is often a side effect for patients following radical surgical procedures for bladder or prostate cancer. Methods: The authors review the classification and physiology of sexual function and dysfunction. Moreover, they explain the possible pathophysiology directly resulting from surgery, and they discuss several approaches available to address these problems. Results: Options for male sexual dysfunction, primarily

  4. The Reproductive Biology Research Foundation treatment approach to sexual inadequacy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sallie S. Schumacher

    1971-01-01

    Basic therapeutic procedures for treatment of sexual dysfunction at the Reproductive Biology Research Foundation in St. Louis evolved from 15 years of laboratory research and clinical experience. Early laboratory investigation was established to obtain a body of reliable information concerning the anatomy and physiology of effective sexual response. Five years later, the treatment program for sexual inadequacy was initiated, based

  5. Male fertility and sexual function after spinal cord injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Brown; S. T. Hill; H. W. G. Baker

    2006-01-01

    Spinal cord injury has an enormous impact upon the sexual relationship of a man and his partner. Erection may be partial or absent, orgasm altered or impossible, and fertility severely impaired. New understanding of the physiology of sexual function and improved treatment can enable most cord-injured men to achieve erections suitable for sexual satisfaction. Modern methods of sperm collection and

  6. Sexual dysfunction and treatment for early stage cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Schover, L R; Fife, M; Gershenson, D M

    1989-01-01

    Assessment of sexual frequency, function, and behavior, as well as martial happiness and psychological distress was performed for 61 women with early stage, invasive cervical cancer at the time of diagnosis. Cancer treatment was radical hysterectomy alone for 26 women and radiotherapy with or without surgery for 37. Followups took place at 6 and 12 months after cancer therapy. Women's sexual satisfaction, capacity for orgasm, and frequency of masturbation remained stable, whereas frequency of sexual activity with a partner and range of sexual practices decreased significantly by one year. Women who received irradiation with or without surgery resembled women who underwent radical hysterectomy alone at 6 months. By one year, however, the radiotherapy group had developed dyspareunia, which was reflected in gynecologist ratings at pelvic examination. The women receiving radiotherapy also had more problems with sexual desire and arousal, and were less likely to resume several daily life activities. Cancer treatment modality was not related to marital happiness or stability, however. PMID:2910419

  7. SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE

    E-print Network

    Thompson, Michael

    SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE Sexual Assault Definition ­ any form of sexual contact without both parties' voluntary consent. Contrary to what most people think, sexual assault. ­ Zvulony & Company ­ The Law of Sexual Assault in Canada. Sexual Harassment Definition ­ is comment

  8. Effects of methamphetamine on sexual performance and compulsive sex behavior in male rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karla S. Frohmader; Katherine L. Bateman; Michael N. Lehman; Lique M. Coolen

    2010-01-01

    Rationale  Methamphetamine (Meth) is a highly addictive psychostimulant associated with enhanced sexual desire, arousal, and sexual pleasure.\\u000a Moreover, Meth abuse is frequently linked with the practice of sexual risk behavior and increased prevalence of human immunodeficiency\\u000a virus. Currently, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of Meth on maladaptive sexual behavior under controlled\\u000a experimental settings in animal studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The

  9. Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincenzo Puppo

    2011-01-01

    Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by

  10. Physiological assessment of task underload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Pope, Alan T.

    1988-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research efforts directed at underload, boredom, or complacency in high-technology work environments is to detect conditions or states of the operator that can be demonstrated to lead to performance degradation, and then to intervene in the environment to restore acceptable system performance. Physiological measures may provide indices of changes in condition or state of the operator that may be of value in high-technology work environments. The focus of the present study was on the use of physiological measures in the assessment of operator condition or state in a task underload scenario. A fault acknowledgement task characterized by simple repetitive responses with minimal novelty, complexity, and uncertainty was employed to place subjects in a task underload situation. Physiological measures (electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and pupil diameter) were monitored during task performance over a one-hour test session for 12 subjects. Each of the physiological measures exhibited changes over the test session indicative of decrements in subject arousal level. While high correlations between physiological measures were found across subjects, individual differences between subjects support the use of profiling techniques to establish baselines unique to each subject.

  11. Sexual behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Catherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

  12. Assessment of problematic sexual interests with the penile plethysmograph: an overview of assessment laboratories.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Stewart, Hannah; Dwyer, Gregg; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-05-01

    Phallometric testing, or penile plethysmography (PPG), is an objective measure of sexual arousal for males. While extensive research on the reliability and validity of PPG has promoted its reputation as the "gold standard" of objective measurement of sexual arousal, there is a lack of standardization of stimulus sets and interpretation of results between sites. This article describes the laboratory protocol employed for PPG at the Royal Ottawa Mental Health Centre's Sexual Behaviours Clinic (SBC) in Ottawa, Ontario, as well as those used by the Sexual Behaviors Clinic and Lab (SBCL) in the Community and Public Safety Psychiatry Division (CPSPD) of the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC) in Charleston, South Carolina. The need for standardization in both testing protocol and stimuli use across sites are highlighted. PMID:25773223

  13. ORIGINAL RESEARCH--ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY The Sensitivity of Continuous Laboratory Measures of

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    ..950 Cindy M. Meston, PhD,* Alessandra H. Rellini, PhD, and Katie McCall, PhD *Department of Psychology for differentiating between subtypes of women with sexual arousal disorder. Meston CM, Rellini AH, and McCall K

  14. Increased fronto-temporal activation during pain observation in sexual sadism: Preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    Harenski, Carla L.; Thornton, David M.; Harenski, Keith A.; Decety, Jean; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Sexual sadism is a psychiatric disorder in which sexual pleasure is derived from inflicting pain, suffering, and/or humiliation on others. While the psychological and forensic aspects of sexual sadism have been well-characterized, little is known about the neurocognitive circuitry associated with the disorder. Sexual sadists show increased peripheral sexual arousal when observing other individuals in pain. The neural mechanisms underlying this unusual response are not well understood. We predicted that sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, would show increased responses in brain regions associated with sexual arousal (amygdala, hypothalamus, ventral striatum) and affective pain processing (anterior cingulate, anterior insula) during pain observation. Objective To study the neural correlates of pain observation in sexual sadists and non-sadists. Design Case-control, cross-sectional study. Sexual sadists and non-sadists viewed 50 social scenes, 25 which depicted a person in pain (e.g., one person stabbing another person’s hand with scissors) and 25 thematically matched no-pain pictures (e.g., one person stabbing a table with scissors with another person’s hand nearby). Pain severity ratings (0 = none, 4 = severe) were acquired following each picture presentation. Setting Sand Ridge Secure Treatment Center, Mauston, Wisconsin. Participants 15 violent sexual offenders; eight sexual sadists and seven age, IQ, and education-matched non-sadists (defined by the Severe Sexual Sadism Scale). Main Outcome Measures Hemodynamic response revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and pain severity ratings. Results Sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, showed greater amygdala activation when viewing pain pictures. They also rated pain pictures higher on pain severity than non-sadists. Sexual sadists, but not non-sadists, showed a positive correlation between pain severity ratings and activity in the anterior insula. Conclusions These results provide neurobehavioral evidence of unusually heightened sensitivity to the pain of others in sexual sadists. PMID:22393220

  15. Association Between Sexual Health and Delivery Mode

    PubMed Central

    Song, Mihyon; Ishii, Hiroshi; Toda, Masahiro; Tomimatsu, Takuji; Katsuyama, Hironobu; Nakamura, Takafumi; Nakai, Yuichiro; Shimoya, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Female sexual function changes considerably during pregnancy and the postpartum period. In addition, women's physical and mental health, endocrine secretion, and internal and external genitalia vary during these times. However, there are limited studies on the relationship between delivery and sexual function. Aim The present study aimed to demonstrate the association between sexual function and delivery mode. Methods Mothers who delivered a single baby at term were recruited for the study, and 435 mothers were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures The Female Sexual Function Questionnaire (SFQ28) scores and mothers' backgrounds were assessed at 6 months after delivery. Results The delivery mode affected the SFQ28 partner domain. Episiotomy affected the arousal (sensation) domain. Multiple regression analysis revealed that maternal age and cesarean section were significantly associated with several SHQ28 domains. Conclusion This study suggests that routine episiotomies at delivery should be avoided to improve postpartum maternal sexual function. Maternal age and cesarean section were found to affect postpartum sexual health. PMID:25548646

  16. Sleep after arousal from hibernation is not homeostatically regulated.

    PubMed

    Larkin, J E; Heller, H C

    1999-02-01

    Electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep is directly related to prior sleep/wake history, with high levels of SWA following extended periods of wake. Therefore, SWA has been thought to reflect the level of accumulated sleep need. The discovery that euthermic intervals between hibernation bouts are spent primarily in sleep and that this sleep is characterized by high and monotonically declining SWA has led to speculation that sleep homeostasis may play a fundamental role in the regulation of the timing of bouts of hibernation and periodic arousals to euthermia. It was proposed that because the SWA profile seen after arousal from hibernation is strikingly similar to what is seen in nonhibernating mammals after extended periods of wakefulness, that hibernating mammals may arouse from hibernation with significant accumulated sleep need. This sleep need may accumulate during hibernation because the low brain temperatures during hibernation may not be compatible with sleep restorative processes. In the present study, golden-mantled ground squirrels were sleep deprived during the first 4 h of interbout euthermia by injection of caffeine (20 mg/kg ip). We predicted that if the SWA peaks after bouts of hibernation reflected a homeostatic response to an accumulated sleep need, sleep deprivation should simply have displaced and possibly augmented the SWA to subsequent recovery sleep. Instead we found that after caffeine-induced sleep deprivation of animals just aroused from hibernation, the anticipated high SWA typical of recovery sleep did not occur. Similar results were found in a study that induced sleep deprivation by gentle handling (19). These findings indicate that the SWA peak immediately after hibernation does not represent homeostatic regulation of NREM sleep, as it normally does after prolonged wakefulness during euthermia, but instead may reflect some other neurological process in the recovery of brain function from an extended period at low temperature. PMID:9950933

  17. Cutting Film Violence: Effects on Perceptions, Enjoyment, and Arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike Berry; Tim Gray; Ed Donnerstein

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of cutting specific graphic scenes of film violence on self-reports of arousal, enjoyability, and perceptions of violence among a sample of U.S. students. In 3 studies, they varied film exposure from 1½ min in the 1st study to a complete motion picture (American vs. British version of same film) in the 3rd. In all 3

  18. Weighted Vests, Stereotyped Behaviors and Arousal in Children with Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Hodgetts; Joyce Magill-Evans; John E. Misiaszek

    2011-01-01

    The homeostatic theory of stereotyped behaviors assumes that these behaviors modulate arousal. Weighted vests are used to\\u000a decrease stereotyped behaviors in persons with autism because the input they provide is thought to serve the same homeostatic\\u000a function. This small-n, randomized and blinded study measured the effects of wearing a weighted vest on stereotyped behaviors\\u000a and heart rate for six children

  19. Sexual Dimorphism

    E-print Network

    Frayer, David W.; Wolpoff, Milford H.

    1985-01-01

    and "socially imposed monogamy" showed greater sexual differ- ences in stature than ones following what the authors described as "ecologically imposed" monogamous patterns, which led these authors to postulate that patterns of sexual dimorphism in humans... of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 1Order of the authors is alphabetical. INTRODUCTION That the human species exhibits sexual dimorphism in size, shape, and be- havior is an obvious conclusion from anyone?s simple participation...

  20. Adolescent sexuality.

    PubMed

    Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

    1988-12-01

    The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions. PMID:3059299

  1. Assessing Sexual Interest in Adolescents Who Have Sexually Offended.

    PubMed

    Mackaronis, Julia E; Byrne, Peter M; Strassberg, Donald S

    2014-05-30

    Adolescents who have sexually offended have unique treatment needs. For mental health professionals to adequately address these unique needs, further research is necessary. To that end, we explored the assessment of sexual interest (which may play an integral role in understanding potential for sexual reoffending) in a sample of 103 male adolescents who have sexually offended. We compared results from a physiological assessment (MONARCH 21 penile plethysmography [PPG]) and an actuarial assessment (Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interest [SSPI]), plus data from an unobstrusive assessment (Affinity, a viewing time measure) in a smaller subsample of 16 male adolescents. One finding that has particular relevance for clinical assessment is that the SSPI may have limited utility with adolescents. We also found evidence for some overlap between data from PPG and viewing time assessments, although whether or not PPG data are ipsatized may affect relationships with other assessment modalities. PMID:24879092

  2. Sexuality, Identity and Women with Spinal Cord Injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malorie G. Parker; Matthew K. Yau

    Sexuality is an integral component of every individual’s identity. The literature offers limited information about the sexuality\\u000a and sexual identity of women with spinal cord injury (SCI), beyond the physiological and neurological aspects. The qualitative\\u000a study described in this paper aimed to explore the experiences and perceptions of a small sample of adult women with SCI regarding\\u000a their sexuality post-injury.

  3. Sexual dysfunction in women: What can urologists contribute?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irwin Goldstein

    2008-01-01

    Urologists have led the basic science and clinical research of organic-based issues in male sexual dysfunction. Concerning\\u000a scientific, evidence-based, biologic-focused information, the field of sexual dysfunction in women is relatively new compared\\u000a with sexual dysfunction in men. Basic science, epidemiology, physiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment data on\\u000a women’s sexual health issues are now more regularly published than ever before, with

  4. The influence of emotion down-regulation on the expectation of sexual reward.

    PubMed

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Cousijn, Janna; Both, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    Emotion regulation research has shown successful altering of unwanted aversive emotional reactions. Cognitive strategies can also regulate expectations of reward arising from conditioned stimuli. However, less is known about the efficacy of such strategies with expectations elicited by conditioned appetitive sexual stimuli, and possible sex differences therein. In the present study it was examined whether a cognitive strategy (attentional deployment) could successfully down-regulate sexual arousal elicited by sexual reward-conditioned cues in men and women. A differential conditioning paradigm was applied, with genital vibrostimulation as unconditioned stimulus (US) and sexually relevant pictures as conditional stimuli (CSs). Evidence was found for emotion down-regulation to effect extinction of conditioned sexual responding in men. In women, the emotion down-regulatory strategy resulted in attenuated conditioned approach tendencies towards the CSs. The findings support that top-down modulation may indeed influence conditioned sexual responses. This knowledge may have implications for treating disturbances in sexual appetitive responses. PMID:25892173

  5. An assessment of body appreciation and its relationship to sexual function in women.

    PubMed

    Satinsky, Sonya; Reece, Michael; Dennis, Barbara; Sanders, Stephanie; Bardzell, Shaowen

    2012-01-01

    Objectification theory posits internalization of an observer's gaze may negatively impact women's feelings about their bodies, which may subsequently affect their sexual function. Subjective body image and body size (i.e., body mass index [BMI]) have mixed relationships to women's sexuality, but assessment of positive body image as a sign of resistance to objectification has not been researched. This study explored relations between body appreciation and sexual function in women and assessed whether body size impacted this relationship. Cross-sectional data were collected online from 247 women, ages 18 to 58. Body appreciation scores were modestly negatively correlated with BMI, while BMI was not related to sexual function scores. After controlling for sexual orientation, partner status, and age, body appreciation predicted the arousal, orgasm, and satisfaction aspects of sexual function. Practitioners' encouragement of body appreciation may improve sexual function in a way that encouraging a reduction in body size may not. PMID:22018776

  6. Reading the Freudian theory of sexual drives from a functional neuroimaging perspective

    PubMed Central

    Stoléru, Serge

    2014-01-01

    One of the essential tasks of neuropsychoanalysis is to investigate the neural correlates of sexual drives. Here, we consider the four defining characteristics of sexual drives as delineated by Freud: their pressure, aim, object, and source. We systematically examine the relations between these characteristics and the four-component neurophenomenological model that we have proposed based on functional neuroimaging studies, which comprises a cognitive, a motivational, an emotional and an autonomic/neuroendocrine component. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal (SA) have thrown a new light on the four fundamental characteristics of sexual drives by identifying their potential neural correlates. While these studies are essentially consistent with the Freudian model of drives, the main difference emerging between the functional neuroimaging perspective on sexual drives and the Freudian theory relates to the source of drives. From a functional neuroimaging perspective, sources of sexual drives, conceived by psychoanalysis as processes of excitation occurring in a peripheral organ, do not seem, at least in adult subjects, to be an essential part of the determinants of SA. It is rather the central processing of visual or genital stimuli that gives to these stimuli their sexually arousing and sexually pleasurable character. Finally, based on functional neuroimaging results, some possible improvements to the psychoanalytic theory of sexual drives are suggested. PMID:24672467

  7. Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation

    PubMed Central

    Höhne, Nina; Stalla, Günter K.; Sievers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. Results In total, 32.9% (n?=? 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n?=? 10) FtM transsexual persons (p?=? 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males (?=?androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p ?=? 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p ?=? 0.05). Conclusion In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon. PMID:25299675

  8. Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

  9. A multivariate analysis of the sexual fantasy themes of college men.

    PubMed

    Plaud, J J; Bigwood, S J

    1997-01-01

    Understanding sexual fantasies is important to the scientific study of human sexuality. A sexual fantasy refers to a private or covert experience in which the imagination of desirable sexual activity with a partner is sexually arousing to the individual. Prior sexual experiences of an individual appear to increase the incidence of sexual fantasies, as well as the variety of sexual themes in a fantasy, which permit a greater elaboration of the fantasy theme when compared to less sexually experienced individuals. The present study was an investigation of the factors or sexual themes that emerge in a college male population, as well as a comparison of college men with human samples obtained in other studies: a sample of men and women and a sample of sexually variant men. In this study, 116 male students, all of whom identified themselves as heterosexual, completed the Wilson Sex Fantasy Questionnaire (WSFQ). Results indicated that the present sample had significantly more exploratory, intimate, impersonal, and total sexual fantasies than sexual fantasies reported by female respondents in another study using the WSFQ and significantly more intimate, impersonal, and total sexual fantasizing when compared with a male sample in another study. The men in this study also evidenced less deviant areas of sexual fantasizing when compared with a group of sexually variant men in another study. A principal components analysis extracted four factors, which accounted for 45% of the total variance. The four sexual fantasy topic areas for the most part replicated prior findings by Wilson (1988) but are also more heterogeneous, indicating that male college students engage in a variety of sexual fantasies but seem to favor more intimate, less deviant or exploratory sexual themes that are in line with nonclinical samples and different from several clinical samples of sexually variant men. PMID:9292837

  10. Differential effects of intranasal oxytocin on sexual experiences and partner interactions in couples.

    PubMed

    Behnia, Behnoush; Heinrichs, Markus; Bergmann, Wiebke; Jung, Stefanie; Germann, Janine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Hartmann, Uwe; Kruger, Tillmann H C

    2014-03-01

    Knowledge about the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on human sexual behaviors and partner interactions remains limited. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesize that OXT should be able to positively influence parameters of sexual function and couple interactions. Employing a naturalistic setting involving 29 healthy heterosexual couples (n=58 participants), we analyzed the acute effects of intranasally administered OXT (24IU) on sexual drive, arousal, orgasm and refractory aspects of sexual behavior together with partner interactions. Data were assessed by psychometric instruments (Acute Sexual Experiences Scale, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale) as well as biomarkers, such as cortisol, ?-amylase and heart rate. Intranasal OXT administration did not alter "classical" parameters of sexual function, such as sexual drive, arousal or penile erection and lubrication. However, analysis of variance and a hierarchical linear model (HLM) revealed specific effects related to the orgasmic/post-orgasmic interval as well as parameters of partner interactions. According to HLM analysis, OXT increased the intensity of orgasm, contentment after sexual intercourse and the effect of study participation. According to ANOVA analysis, these effects were more pronounced in men. Men additionally indicated higher levels of sexual satiety after sexual intercourse with OXT administration. Women felt more relaxed and subgroups indicated better abilities to share sexual desires or to empathize with their partners. The effect sizes were small to moderate. Biomarkers indicated moderate psychophysiological activation but were not affected by OXT, gender or method of contraception. Using a naturalistic setting, intranasal OXT administration in couples exerted differential effects on parameters of sexual function and partner interactions. These results warrant further investigations, including subjects with sexual and relationship problems. PMID:24503174

  11. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePLUS

    ... diseases Behavioral indicators Inappropriate sex-role relationship between victim and suspect Inappropriate, unusual, or aggressive sexual behavior How can I learn more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in nexus , ...

  12. Sexual Sadism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfgang Berner; Peter Berger; Andreas Hill

    2003-01-01

    Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism

  13. Sexual selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malte Andersson; Yoh Iwasa

    1996-01-01

    Competition over mates takes many forms and has far-reaching consequences for many organisms. Recent work suggests that relative reproductive rates of males and females, sperm competition and quality variation among mates affect the strength of sexual selection. Song, other display, body size, visual ornaments and material resource offerings are often sexually selected. There is much empirical evidence of mate choice,

  14. Sexual side effects of pharmacological treatment of psychiatric diseases.

    PubMed

    Serretti, A; Chiesa, A

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of psychiatric medications with relatively good safety profiles, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, increasing attention has been given to side effects such as sexual dysfunction (SD), which, although unrelated to risks of mortality, could undermine compliance with treatment regimens and impair quality of life. Indeed,there is consistent evidence to suggest that a large number of psychiatric medications adversely affect one or more of the three phases of normal sexual response: desire, arousal, and orgasm. PMID:20668442

  15. Research Focus Dynamic feedback between phenotype and physiology

    E-print Network

    Safran, Rebecca

    Research Focus Dynamic feedback between phenotype and physiology in sexually selected traits Dustin of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland, New Zealand Theory predicts that physiological costs of producing of circulating androgens, thus rejecting the scenario of a static, unidirectional relationship between physiology

  16. Sexual health

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Anna

    2004-01-01

    IN 2001 the government produced the first ever National strategy for sexual health and HIV.1 The strategy called for a broader role for general practice in the promotion of better sexual health. Surveys undertaken in the United Kingdom (UK) in recent years suggest that more people have more sexual partners than ever before. This has been associated with a rise in sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Screening and testing for Chlamydia trachomatis have become more widespread in the UK. Risk assessment and sexual history taking are described. They need to be carried out confidentially and non-judgmentally. Confidentiality training for all staff, including a requirement to sign confidentiality statements, is recommended. Partner notification can be done in a variety of different settings including general practice. A new course for those working in primary care has been devised, aiming to equip participants with the basic knowledge, skills, and attitudes for the effective management of STIs. PMID:15113524

  17. Genital self-image as a component of sexual health: relationship between genital self-image, female sexual function, and quality of life measures.

    PubMed

    Berman, Laura; Berman, Jennifer; Miles, Marie; Pollets, Dan; Powell, Jennifer Ann

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-one patients completed a Genital Self-Image Scale along with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000), Sexual Distress Scale (Derogatis et al., 2001), Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen et al., 1983), Golombok Rust Inventory of Marital State (Rust et al., 1986) Questionnaire, and Beck's Depression Inventory (Beck et al., 1988). A positive genital self-image correlated negatively with amount of sexual distress and depression but not with marital state, perceived stress, or overall sexual function. A positive genital self-image was associated with higher desire but not with arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, or absence of pain on the FSFI. Although not correlated directly with sexual function, genital self-image appears to be associated with parameters of the overall sexual experience. PMID:12735086

  18. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  19. Emotion recognition based on physiological changes in music listening.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonghwa; André, Elisabeth

    2008-12-01

    Little attention has been paid so far to physiological signals for emotion recognition compared to audiovisual emotion channels such as facial expression or speech. This paper investigates the potential of physiological signals as reliable channels for emotion recognition. All essential stages of an automatic recognition system are discussed, from the recording of a physiological dataset to a feature-based multiclass classification. In order to collect a physiological dataset from multiple subjects over many weeks, we used a musical induction method which spontaneously leads subjects to real emotional states, without any deliberate lab setting. Four-channel biosensors were used to measure electromyogram, electrocardiogram, skin conductivity and respiration changes. A wide range of physiological features from various analysis domains, including time/frequency, entropy, geometric analysis, subband spectra, multiscale entropy, etc., is proposed in order to find the best emotion-relevant features and to correlate them with emotional states. The best features extracted are specified in detail and their effectiveness is proven by classification results. Classification of four musical emotions (positive/high arousal, negative/high arousal, negative/low arousal, positive/low arousal) is performed by using an extended linear discriminant analysis (pLDA). Furthermore, by exploiting a dichotomic property of the 2D emotion model, we develop a novel scheme of emotion-specific multilevel dichotomous classification (EMDC) and compare its performance with direct multiclass classification using the pLDA. Improved recognition accuracy of 95\\% and 70\\% for subject-dependent and subject-independent classification, respectively, is achieved by using the EMDC scheme. PMID:18988943

  20. Associations of desire for change in sexual life amongst female medical students in North America.

    PubMed

    Shindel, A W; Breyer, B N; Smith, J F

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed associations of dissatisfaction with sexual life and desire for change in female medical students. Students enrolled in medical schools in North America between February and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexual function. The principle outcome measure was a single item question on sexual life satisfaction and desire for change. Women who reported dissatisfaction and desire for change were classified as 'sexually bothered'. The survey also assessed ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history and depressive symptoms. Respondents completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Index of Sexual Life. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. There were 661 non-virgin female subjects with data adequate for analysis. Whereas 281 (43%) of these met criteria for high risk of female sexual dysfunction (HRFSD) based on FSFI scoring, just 173 (26%) reported sexual bother. Among women with HRFSD, 126 (45%) reported sexual bother; in women without HRFSD, 362 (95%) were not sexually bothered. Interference in sexual life from tiredness and stress were associated with sexual bother. Progressively better scores on the FSFI desire, orgasm and satisfaction domains were significantly associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Few women in this cohort with FSFI score >26.55 reported sexual bother. Women with FSFI <26.55 had greater odds of sexual bother but this criterion alone was not pathognomonic for sexual concerns. Issues of sexual desire and orgasm appear to have a more important role than lubrication, arousal and sexual pain issues in this population. PMID:22971616

  1. The effect of personality type and musical task on self-perceived arousal.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the level of arousal influenced by 4 different musical experiences classified by task difficulty and to examine the relationship between music-induced arousal level and personality type. Participants included 32 university students who were neither musicians nor music majors. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) was used to identify participants as either extravert or introvert. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 types of musical tasks: listening, singing, rhythm tapping, or keyboard playing. Arousal level was measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (ADACL) (Thayer, 1978) before and after the musical task. The ADACL is a self-report scale consisting of a list of 20 adjectives which describe various transitory arousal states, including energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness. Results showed no significant difference between personality types and the changes in arousal level. Result indicated a significant effect of listening on decreased tension arousal. Singing and rhythm tapping, which are regarded as having a relatively moderate task difficulty, increased energy arousal significantly and decreased tiredness arousal significantly. Participants' tiredness arousal levels also decreased significantly after keyboard playing. These findings suggest that engaging in musical experience that has a moderate level of task difficulty makes individuals more energetic and less tired. PMID:18563971

  2. Physiological Genomics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1969-12-31

    Five journals with free (or recently extended) online trial periods were recently announced; online content includes full text, figures, and tables. The American Physiological Society has announced free, online access to Physiological Genomics through December 31, 2001; full text and abstracts are available from 1999. The journal is published in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

  3. Conservation physiology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke

    2006-01-01

    Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is

  4. Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from a disease or health condition. The Most Common Types of Sexual Problems in Older Adults For women, age-related changes due to menopause include: lack of interest difficulty with lubrication inability to reach a climax ( ...

  5. Healthy Sexuality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... about sexual function as described by Masters and Johnson in the mid-1960s. They described 4 stages, ... returns to its unstimulated state. Since Masters and Johnson, other researchers have modified the original concept with ...

  6. Teenage Sexuality

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Books Four Stages of Coming Out Staying Out Late and Curfews Date Rape Healthy Children Radio: Acne and Common Skin Problems of Adolescents (Audio) Birth Control for Sexually Active Teens Dangers ...

  7. Sexual Difficulties

    MedlinePLUS

    ... sex. Medicines: Many commonly prescribed drugs have sexual side effects. For instance, some drugs used to treat depression can suppress libido. Surgery: Women who have undergone breast cancer surgery, for example, may feel less desirable or ...

  8. Quality of life and sexuality comparison between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Ik; Lee, Yumi; Joo, Jungnam; Park, KiByung; Lee, Dong Ock; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Objective compare quality of life (QoL) and sexual functioning between sexually active ovarian cancer survivors and healthy women. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 103 successfully treated ovarian cancer survivors and 220 healthy women. All women had engaged in sexual activity within the previous 3 months, and ovarian cancer survivors were under surveillance after primary treatment without evidence of disease. QoL and sexual functioning were assessed using three questionnaires; the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30), Ovarian Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-OV28), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Propensity score matching was used to adjust covariates between the ovarian cancer survivor and healthy women groups. In total, 73 ovarian cancer survivors and 73 healthy women were compared. Results Poorer social functioning (mean, 82.4 vs. 90.9; p=0.010) and more financial difficulties (mean, 16.4 vs. 7.8; p=0.019) were observed among ovarian cancer survivors than among healthy women. Sexuality, both in terms of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain and in terms of interest in sex, sexual activity, and enjoyment of sex (EORTC QLQ-OV28) were similar between the groups. However, vaginal dryness was more problematic in ovarian cancer survivors, with borderline statistical significance (p=0.081). Conclusion Sexuality was not impaired in ovarian cancer survivors who were without evidence of disease after primary treatment and having sexual activities, compared with healthy women, whereas social functioning and financial status did deteriorate. Prospective cohort studies are needed. PMID:25686396

  9. The Eyes Have It: Sex and Sexual Orientation Differences in Pupil Dilation Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Rieger, Gerulf; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual orientations to male and female erotic stimuli. Results supported hypotheses. In general, self-reported sexual orientation corresponded with pupil dilation to men and women. Among men, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in bisexual-identified men. In contrast, among women, substantial dilation to both sexes was most common in heterosexual-identified women. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. Because the measure of pupil dilation is less invasive than previous measures of sexual response, it allows for studying diverse age and cultural populations, usually not included in sexuality research. PMID:22870196

  10. The Effect of Mode of Delivery on Postpartum Sexual Functioning in Primiparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Fatemeh; Yabandeh, Asieh Pormehr; Shahi, Arefeh; Kamjoo, Azita; Teshnizi, Saeed Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of mode of delivery on postpartum sexual functioning in primiparous women. Methods In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 150 primiparous women in postpartum period, who attended the family planning or vaccination clinics, were enrolled for the study. Eighty-one had vaginal delivery with episiotomy and 69 had experienced cesarean section. Sexual function was evaluated by the Female Sexual Function Index within 3 and 6 months postpartum. Results About 29% in vaginal delivery group and 37% in cesarean delivery group had resumed their sexual intercourses four weeks after delivery (p=0.280).There were no significant differences between mode of delivery and sexual functioning, including desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. Conclusion The present study showed that postpartum sexual functioning was not associated with the type of delivery. PMID:25170409

  11. Sexuality and Sexual Rights in Muslim Societies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liz Ercevik Amado

    2009-01-01

    In August 2008, the Coalition for Sexual and Bodily Rights in Muslim Societies (CSBR) organized the CSBR Sexuality Institute, the first international Institute on sexuality and sexual rights in Muslim societies in Malaysia. Liz Amado presents how the Institute expanded the discourse, knowledge and thinking around sexuality in Muslim societies, as well as providing a unique space for the much

  12. Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution

    E-print Network

    Day, Troy

    Detecting sexual conflict and sexually antagonistic coevolution Locke Rowe1,2,* and Troy Day3,4 1 by providing an operational definition of sexual conflict that applies to both inter- and intralocus conflict approaches for detecting interlocus sexual conflict and resultant sexually antagonistic coevolution. We

  13. SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    SEXUAL MISCONDUCT/SEXUAL ASSAULT POLICY Office of Equal Opportunity Purpose: To establish a work and educational environment at Tufts University that is free from Sexual Misconduct, which includes sexual harassment, sex/gender discrimination, sexual assault, rape and other gender-based misconduct, through

  14. Effects of affiliation and power motivation arousal on salivary progesterone and testosterone.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Stanton, Steven J

    2004-12-01

    Following up on earlier research suggesting a link between implicit affiliation motivation and progesterone (P) and implicit power motivation and testosterone [T; Schultheiss, O.C., Dargel, A., Rohde, W., 2003. Implicit motives and gonadal steroid hormones: Effects of menstrual cycle phase, oral contraceptive use, and relationship status. Horm. Behav. 43, 293-301.], we tested whether arousal of affiliation motivation increases P levels and whether arousal of power motivation increases T levels. Sixty subjects were randomly assigned to watch 30 min of either Bridges of Madison County (affiliation arousal) or The Godfather II (power arousal), or a documentary about the Amazon (control condition). Levels of P and T were assessed in saliva samples taken before (T1), immediately after (T2), and 45 min after the movie (T3). The efficacy of experimental conditions to differentially arouse motives was verified by assessment of changes in affiliation and power motive imagery expressed in imaginative stories written before and after the movie. After the movie, salivary P levels (T2 and T3) in the affiliation-arousal group were significantly higher than in the control group and marginally higher than in the power-arousal group. Subjects' postmovie T responses (T3) depended on premovie T levels: in men, higher premovie T levels predicted a greater likelihood of postmovie T increases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions, whereas in women, higher premovie T levels tended to be associated with postmovie T decreases in the Power Arousal condition but not in the other conditions. These findings suggest that aroused affiliation motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on P, whereas aroused power motivation has a specific stimulatory effect on T in men, but not in women, with high baseline T levels. PMID:15555501

  15. Incorporating Mindfulness and Chat Groups Into an Online Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Mixed Female Sexual Problems.

    PubMed

    Hucker, Alice; McCabe, Marita P

    2014-04-17

    The current randomized study evaluated an online cognitive behavioral therapy program for female sexual problems. PursuingPleasure (PP) consisted of six online modules that included psychoeducation, sensate focus, communication exercises, cognitive exercises, and e-mail contact with a therapist. PP incorporated mindfulness training and online chat groups as well as assessed partner sexual functioning. Participants demonstrated a completion rate of 57%, with 26 women with female sexual problems and related distress completing the program compared to a wait-list control group of 31 women also experiencing sexual problems and distress. Sexual problems reported by women in both groups included difficulties with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. The treatment group demonstrated significant improvements in all domains of female sexual response (except for sexual pain) and significant reductions in the reported frequency of sexual problems and distress. Partner sexual functioning showed positive change. Improvements in female sexual functioning and some improvements in male partner sexual functioning were maintained at three-month follow-up. Limitations and suitability of clients for this treatment approach for women who are geographically isolated, who are unable to attend face-to-face therapy, and who possess a high degree of motivation are discussed. PMID:24742343

  16. Sexual Behaviors and Experiences among Behaviorally Bisexual Men in the Midwestern United States

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W.; Reece, Michael; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J. Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Research examining the sexual behaviors and experiences of behaviorally bisexual men is limited. Most studies focus primarily on highlighting sexual risk behaviors among groups of “men who have sex with men (MSM)” or “gay and bisexual men,” which may not be appropriate in terms of behaviorally bisexual men’s sexual repertoires with both men and women. This study aimed to assess a broad range of sexual behaviors and associated experiences among bisexual men living in the midwestern United States. An interviewer-administered questionnaire containing items from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior assessed lifetime and recent (i.e., past six months and last event) sexual behaviors and experiences with both male and female partners among a diverse sample of 75 behaviorally bisexual men. Responses were quantified and analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. A wide range of sexual behaviors with partners of both genders was found. Vaginal intercourse and oral sex with both men and women were the most commonly reported behaviors. Subjective reports of pleasure, arousal, and sexual function during sexual activity were similar with both male and female partners. Many participants reported using condoms during insertive sexual behaviors with male and female partners, but less during oral sex. Unprotected receptive anal sex was less commonly reported. Overall, participants reported a variety of sexual behaviors and experiences; however, unlike other populations, they shared these with partners of both genders. Results have implications for interventions targeting the sexual behaviors and associated issues among behaviorally bisexual men. PMID:22187027

  17. LH-RH agonists modulate amygdala response to visual sexual stimulation: A single case fMRI study in pedophilia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt Habermeyer; Nadja Händel; Patrick Lemoine; Markus Klarhöfer; Erich Seifritz; Volker Dittmann; Marc Graf

    2011-01-01

    Pedophilia is characterized by a persistent sexual attraction to prepubescent children. Treatment with anti-androgen agents, such as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) agonists, reduces testosterone levels and thereby sexual drive and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare visual erotic stimulation pre- and on-treatment with the LH-RH agonist leuprolide acetate in the case of homosexual pedophilia. The pre-treatment

  18. College men and women respond to X?rated videos intended for male or female audiences: Gender and sexual scripts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Mosher; Paula MacIan

    1994-01-01

    To assess psychosexual responses to X?rated videos intended for male or female audiences, 200 male and 195 female undergraduates were randomly assigned to view one of six videos: three X?rated videos intended for men and three X?rated videos designed by and for women. Reactions were assessed on measures of sexual arousal, affective response, absorption, and sexual behavior. As predicted, men

  19. Histamine inhibits the melanin-concentrating hormone system: implications for sleep and arousal.

    PubMed

    Parks, Gregory S; Olivas, Nicholas D; Ikrar, Taruna; Sanathara, Nayna M; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Xu, Xiangmin

    2014-05-15

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons are known to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions such as feeding, metabolism, anxiety and depression, and reward. Recent studies have revealed that MCH neurons receive projections from several wake-promoting brain regions and are integral to the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here, we provide evidence in both rats and mice that MCH neurons express histamine-3 receptors (H3R), but not histamine-1 (H1R) or histamine-2 (H2R) receptors. Electrophysiological recordings in brain slices from a novel line of transgenic mice that specifically express the reporter ZsGreen in MCH neurons show that histamine strongly inhibits MCH neurons, an effect which is TTX insensitive, and blocked by the intracellular presence of GDP-?-S. A specific H3R agonist, ?-methylhistamine, mimicks the inhibitory effects of histamine, and a specific neutral H3R antagonist, VUF 5681, blocks this effect. Tertiapin Q (TPQ), a G protein-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel inhibitor, abolishes histaminergic inhibition of MCH neurons. These results indicate that histamine directly inhibits MCH neurons through H3R by activating GIRK channels and suggest that that inhibition of the MCH system by wake-active histaminergic neurons may be responsible for silencing MCH neurons during wakefulness and thus may be directly involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal. PMID:24639485

  20. Arch Sex Behav (2007) 36:518530 DOI 10.1007/s10508-006-9140-5

    E-print Network

    Meston, Cindy

    or women with SAD. Keywords Female sexual arousal disorder . Sexual dysfunction . False feedback . Vaginal experiences (Barlow, 1986). In Barlow's model, individuals with sexual dysfunction have responded Positive and False Negative Physiological Feedback on Sexual Arousal: A Comparison of Women with or without

  1. Sexual asphyxia: a lesser epidemic.

    PubMed

    Book, R G; Perumal, G

    1993-01-01

    Asphyxiophilia is a paraphilia of the sacrificial/expiatory type in which sexual arousal and the attainment of gratification depend on hypoxia induced through either strangulation, smothering, chest compression and/or the inhalation of volatile substances. A peculiar, auto-erotic variant of this perversion is described, one in which the participant accidently died. Numerous female prostitutes have been canvassed in order to ascertain the prevalence in Durban, Republic of South Africa. The figures are an order of magnitude higher than was hitherto imagined. Insurance companies have been loathe to compensate the beneficiaries of such victims fully. How they and the courts view pivotal concepts such as 'mental infirmity', 'accident', 'natural consequences', and the legitimacy of psychiatry presenting itself as a unified body of knowledge sets precedents, and sets in motion processes whereby these decisions permeate into the general population and become--in time--accepted as norms. Thus, the medicolegal ramifications of sexual asphyxia affect not only the police and the courts, but also our society in general. PMID:8183077

  2. Nasal Physiology

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Introduction The physiologic function of the nose includes respiration, conditioning inspired air, vocal resonance, olfaction, nasal resistance, protection of the lower airway, and ventilation and drainage of the sinuses. RESPIRATION The nose ...

  3. Synthetic Physiology

    E-print Network

    Boyden, Edward Stuart

    Optogenetic tools are DNA-encoded molecules that, when genetically targeted to cells, enable the control of specific physiological processes within those cells through exposure to light. These tools can pinpoint how these ...

  4. Healthy Aging -- Sexual Health

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) Sexual health More information on sexual health Many older women ... Protecting yourself Return to top More information on Sexual health Read more from womenshealth.gov Sexually Transmitted Infections ...

  5. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    MedlinePLUS

    ... org • URL www.asrm.org PATIENT FACT SHEET Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility You probably don't realize ... of this, sexual problems can arise. What is sexual dysfunction? Doctors divide normal sexual function into 3 ...

  6. How to score arousals in preterm infants? Can we use recommendations of the Pediatric Wake-up Club?

    PubMed

    Zotter, Heinz; Urlesberger, Berndt; Müller, Wilhelm; Kerbl, Reinhold

    2003-12-30

    Infants' arousals from sleep reflect the activation of various brain stem and cortical structures and their characteristics change with age. Arousal scoring based on the Pediatric Wake-up Club definition of arousal in infants was evaluated to determine whether arousals could be reliably identified and assessed in preterm infants also. Polygraphic recordings were made in seven stable preterm infants with a mean postconceptional age of 34.4 +/- 1.2 weeks. Fifty-two arousals were scored according to the guidelines of the Pediatric Wake-up Club (Consensus meeting in Brussels, 2002). Values of interest were assessed during the arousal period and during the 30-second periods before and after the arousal. The latter periods were subdivided into 10-second intervals and compared with the arousal period. The mean duration of arousal was 7 +/- 3 seconds. Respiratory rate was higher (35 +/- 15 bpm) during the arousal than in the periods preceding (29 +/- 14 bpm; p < 0.01) and following (29 +/- 11 bpm; p < 0.001) it. Heart rate decreased during the arousal (131 +/- 30 bpm) when compared with the preceding 10-second period (140 +/- 14 bpm; p < 0.05). We found that arousals in preterm infants can be reliably identified and assessed using the Pediatric Wake-up Club's arousal definition for term infants. PMID:14768532

  7. The role of fantasy in a serial sexual offender: a brief review of the literature and a case report.

    PubMed

    Carabellese, Felice; Maniglio, Roberto; Greco, Oronzo; Catanesi, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Extensive research has attempted to elucidate the role of fantasy in sexual offending. In this paper, the authors summarize the main results of the literature, especially the contents, themes, dynamics, etiopathogenesis, and potential functions of fantasy in sexual offending. Further, the authors analyze the case of a serial sexual offender who assaulted 39 women. The forensic-psychiatric assessment revealed that his fantasies of forced sex, sexual coercion, and dominance, which were linked to narcissistic personality organization and functioning, were the primary drive mechanism in his crimes, because he imagined himself in the role of the aggressor, identified with the power associated with the role of perpetrator, and was sexually aroused by such images of omnipotent control of the victim. In conclusions, the authors suggest that fantasies of sexual aggression, coercion, and dominance of women may stimulate grandiosity and omnipotence and, in a minority of cases, may lead to sexual offending. PMID:20707830

  8. Consistency of memory for emotionally arousing events: A review of prospective and experimental studies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne E. van Giezen; Ella Arensman; Philip Spinhoven; Gezinus Wolters

    2005-01-01

    Although emotionally arousing events are more memorable than ordinary daily life events, the nature of memories for emotionally arousing events is widely debated. On the one hand, researchers consider memories for highly emotional events as malleable and subject to distortion, while on the other hand these memories are perceived as both indelible and consistent over the lifetime. Up till now,

  9. Arousing News Characteristics in Dutch Television News 1990–2004: An Exploration of Competitive Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Hendriks Vettehen; Johannes Beentjes; Koos Nuijten; Allerd Peeters

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the processes by which competition in the television news market might promote the presence of arousing characteristics in television news. A total of 3,024 news stories from six Dutch television news programs over the period 1990 to 2004 were investigated through content analysis. The findings of the study show overall increases in all 6 arousing characteristics. The

  10. Arousing Primary Vulnerable Emotions in the Context of Unresolved Anger: "Speaking about" versus "Speaking to"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Gary M.; Rochman, Daniel; Amir, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    Arousing and processing primary vulnerable emotions is a core change mechanism across a wide range of psychotherapies and clinical populations. This study examined the utility of 2 emotion-focused interventions--relational reframes and empty-chair enactments--in terms of arousing primary sadness associated with loss and longing among individuals…

  11. Predicting Smoking Intentions and Behaviors from Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, and Emotional Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

    1980-01-01

    Smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to anti-smoking communications to compare the relationship of emotional arousal, attitudes, and subjective normative beliefs. Findings revealed that smoking-related intentions were more strongly associated with attitudes toward smoking than with subjective normative beliefs or emotional arousal. (RC)

  12. Low-arousal speech noise improves performance in N-back task: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Han, Longzhu; Liu, Yunzhe; Zhang, Dandan; Jin, Yi; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity) and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits. PMID:24204607

  13. Assessment of Deviant Arousal in Adult Male Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Hall, Astrid; Reed, Robert; Jansen, Greg; Carr, Sam; Jackson, Kevin; Stoutimore, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ten individuals, residing in a treatment facility specializing in the rehabilitation of sex offenders with developmental disabilities, participated in an arousal assessment involving the use of the penile plethysmograph. The arousal assessments involved measuring change in penile circumference to various categories of stimuli both appropriate…

  14. Low-Arousal Speech Noise Improves Performance in N-Back Task: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dandan; Jin, Yi; Luo, Yuejia

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity) and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits. PMID:24204607

  15. Arousal Level in Repressors and Sensitizers as a Function of Response Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Steven H.

    1971-01-01

    Repressors and sensitizers were given "noncontextual" and "contextual" tasks, with galvanic skin response as a measure of arousal. Results from the noncontextual task showed that repressors had lower arousal levels than sensitizers during perception and verbal report, but higher during free association. Findings were reversed, however, in the…

  16. Arousal-Augmented Priming EffectsRock Music Videos and Sex Object Schemas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    CHRISTINE HALL HANSEN; WALTER KRYGOWSKI

    1994-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test predictions from the arousal-extremity model that priming effects produced by music videos would be stronger under high than low arousal. Experiment 1 established the content of two sets of music video primes: 2 male and 2 female sex-object videos. In Experiment 2, video priming effects were found on attribute judgments of an ambiguous but

  17. Predicting Internet Pornography Use and Arousal: The Role of Individual Difference Variables

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryant Paul

    2009-01-01

    This study considers the relation between a number of theoretically relevant individual difference variables and individuals' online pornography use and arousal patterns. In doing so, an attempt is also made to determine whether self-reports of arousal can be collapsed into meaningful empirically derived content groupings. An exploratory factor analysis produces 3 factors for men: standard fare, specialized, and male-focused; and

  18. Brief Report Individual differences in the relationship between pleasure and arousal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Kuppens

    The two fundamental dimensions assumed to underlie emotional experience—pleasure and arousal—are considered to be independent across individuals. We present evidence from an experience sampling study demonstrating that this inde- pendence does not necessarily hold when considering the affective experiences of a single individual. Participants (N = 80) reported how they were feeling in terms of pleasure and arousal nine times

  19. When Arousal Influences Ad Evaluation and Valence Does Not (and Vice Versa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald Gorn; Michel Tuan Pham; Leo Yatming Sin

    2001-01-01

    This research examines, across 2 studies, the interplay between the valence and arousal compo- nents of affective states and the affective tone of a target ad. In the first study, music was used to in- duce a pleasant or unpleasant mood, while controlling for arousal. Participants were subsequently exposed to an ad that either had a positive-affective tone or was

  20. Neural Systems Subserving Valence and Arousal During the Experience of Induced Emotions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiziano Colibazzi; Jonathan Posner; Zhishun Wang; Daniel Gorman; Andrew Gerber; Shan Yu; Hongtu Zhu; Alayar Kangarlu; Yunsuo Duan; James A. Russell; Bradley S. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    The circumplex model of affect construes all emotions as linear combinations of 2 independent neurophysiological dimensions, valence and arousal. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural networks subserving valence and arousal, and we assessed, in 10 participants, the associations of the BOLD (blood oxygen level-dependent) response, an indirect index of neural activity, with ratings of valence and