The effects of false positive and false negative physiological feedback (vaginal photoplethymograph response print-out) on women's sexual arousal were examined. Participants included women without sexual dysfunction (n=16) and women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n=15). Measures of subjective sexual arousal, physiological sexual arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude), expectancies, affect, and anxiety were obtained in response to viewing an erotic film. Results indicated that false positive feedback significantly increased subjective levels of sexual arousal, whereas false negative feedback significantly decreased subjective levels of sexual arousal in both groups. Sexually functional women had overall higher expectancies for sexual arousal than women with SAD. Unexpectedly, false positive feedback did not significantly impact physiological sexual arousal in sexually functional women; however, it resulted in significantly decreased responses in physiological sexual arousal in women with SAD. False negative feedback had no significant effect on physiological sexual response in sexually functional women or women with SAD. PMID:17333325
McCall, Katie M; Meston, Cindy M
Asexuality can be defined as a lifelong lack of sexual attraction. Empirical research on asexuality reveals significantly\\u000a lower self-reported sexual desire and arousal and lower rates of sexual activity; however, the speculation that there may\\u000a also be an impaired psychophysiological sexual arousal response has never been tested. The aim of this study was to compare\\u000a genital (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA)
Lori A. BrottoMorag; Morag A. Yule
Many studies have found a discordance between women s genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. We hypothesized that the association between the physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency during penile-vaginal intercourse but not for orgasm consistency during other sexual behaviors. We confirmed this specific hypothesis in a sample
STUART Brody; Ellen Laan; RIK H. W. VAN LUNSEN
In the present study, a false feedback paradigm was used to manipulate the experience of seventy-six men to produce a discrepancy between actual and expected sexual performance. Thirty-nine men were diagnosed with male erectile disorder due to psychogenic...
Arginase is a binuclear manganese metalloenzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of l-arginine to form l-ornithine and urea. The X-ray crystal structure of a fully active, truncated form of human arginase II complexed with a boronic acid transition state analogue inhibitor has been determined at 2.7 A resolution. This structure is consistent with the hydrolysis of l-arginine through a metal-activated hydroxide mechanism. Given that human arginase II appears to play a role in regulating l-arginine bioavailability to NO synthase in human penile corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, the inhibition of human arginase II is a potential new strategy for the treatment of erectile dysfunction [Kim, N. N., Cox, J. D., Baggio, R. F., Emig, F. A., Mistry, S., Harper, S. L., Speicher, D. W., Morris, S. M., Ash, D. E., Traish, A. M., and Christianson, D. W. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 2678-2688]. Since NO synthase is found in human clitoral corpus cavernosum and vagina, we hypothesized that human arginase II is similarly present in these tissues and functions to regulate l-arginine bioavailability to NO synthase. Accordingly, hemodynamic studies conducted with a boronic acid arginase inhibitor in vivo are summarized, suggesting that the extrahepatic arginase plays a role in both male and female sexual arousal. Therefore, arginase II is a potential target for the treatment of male and female sexual arousal disorders. PMID:12859189
Cama, Evis; Colleluori, Diana M; Emig, Frances A; Shin, Hyunshun; Kim, Soo Woong; Kim, Noel N; Traish, Abdulmaged M; Ash, David E; Christianson, David W
Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not the synonyms), the activation of specific brain areas as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxygucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic areas as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli.
Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques
Introduction Several lines of evidence point to the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning. These include results from studies describing the subjective effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in humans and the observable effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in other species, as well as results from studies investigating the location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and periphery, and the effects of cannabinoid receptor activation on neurotransmitters implicated in sexual functioning. While these lines of research suggest a role for the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning, no studies investigating the relationship between concentrations of endogenous cannabinoids (i.e., arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and sexual functioning have been conducted in any species. Aim To measure circulating endocannabinoid concentrations in relation to subjective and physiological indices of sexual arousal in women (n = 21). Methods Serum endocannabinoid (AEA and 2-AG) concentrations were measured immediately prior to, and immediately following, viewing of neutral (control) and erotic (experimental) film stimuli in a repeated measures design. Physiological sexual arousal was measured via vaginal photoplethysmography. Subjective sexual arousal was measured both continuously and non-continuously. Pearson’s correlations were used to investigate the relationships between endocannabinoid concentrations and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Changes in AEA and 2-AG concentrations from pre- to post-film and in relation to physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal. Results Results revealed a significant relationship between endocannabinoid concentrations and female sexual arousal, whereby increases in both physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal were significantly associated with decreases in AEA, and increases in subjective indices of sexual arousal were significantly associated with decreases in 2-AG. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that the endocannabinoid system is involved in female sexual functioning, with implications for furthering understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying female sexual functioning.
Klein, Carolin; Hill, Matthew N.; Chang, Sabrina C.H.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Gorzalka, Boris B.
Thermography is a promising technology for the physiological measurement of sexual arousal in both men and women. This study\\u000a was designed to extend our previous college student thermography study findings to an older sample (M age = 37.05 years), add an anxiety control group to further examine the specificity of temperature change, and examine the\\u000a relationship between genital temperature and a continuous measure
Tuuli M. Kukkonen; Yitzchak M. Binik; Rhonda Amsel; Serge Carrier
The role of sexual arousal in the etiology and\\/or maintenance of superficial dyspareunia is still unclear. Lack of sexual arousal may be both the cause and the result of anticipated pain. This study compared genital and subjective sexual responses to visual sexual stimuli of women with dyspareunia and women without sexual complaints. We investigated whether women with dyspareunia were less
Marieke Brauer; Ellen Laan; Moniek M. ter Kuile
Unlike members of other species that are genetically wired to be attracted to their sexual partners, humans learn the cues that guide them in choosing their sexual partners and that trigger sexual arousal. Genetically wired mechanisms must be directing the acquisition of those cues and organizing them in information structures that underlie human sexual behavior. Individual sexuality is a combination of the genetic mechanisms and information learned through personal experiences. This article focuses on the roots of human sexuality - on genetically embedded mechanisms, common to all humans, around which the wide variety of sexual behaviors is built. It proposes a model that defines the basic mechanisms and their role in developing individual sexuality. It is suggested that three brain areas host the roots of human sexuality: the auditory area, which provides stimuli that serve as cues for the identification of a mate; an emotional area, which provides cues for emotional arousal; and a corporal area, which controls the physiological expressions of arousal. The amygdala is a main candidate for the emotional area, and the hypothalamus for the corporal area, but other areas may also provide those inputs. Experimental observations that support this model are discussed, and an outline of additional experiments for validating the model is proposed. If validated, the model would provide knowledge that fills a gap in the understanding of human sexuality - knowledge that would benefit individuals, the medical profession, and society as a whole. PMID:21095066
Introduction. Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a complex diagnostic category whose definition continues to evolve. Aim. The purpose of this study was to explore the physiological patterns of genital arousal in 31 women with and 30 women without sexual arousal difficulties using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. In addition, subtypes of FSAD, based on a recently proposed redefinition, were explored on
Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Boris B. Gorzalka
In a study of the effects of vaginal musculature contractions (Kegel's exercises) on both subjective and physiological measures of sexual arousal, 30 normal females were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The first group was informed about these exercises and was asked to practice them both during lab sessions and during the week intervening between sessions. The second group
Madelyn Renée Messé; James H. Geer
Knowledge of the physiology of male and female sexuality has advanced considerably. Initially there is always desire with its biological neuroendocrine components and its emotional field which is particularly marked in women. There is a distinction between "spontaneous" sexual desire related to intrinsic affective, cognitive stimuli, and fantasies, and "reactive" sexual desire in response to physical arousal. There are similarities between men and women concerning the activation of cerebral zones in sexual arousal contexts in laboratory conditions. The neural pathways for sexual arousal are similar between men and women, bringing into play the sympathetic centres of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord and, at the sacral level, the parasympathetic center and the motoneurons controlling the muscular contractions of the pelviperineal striated muscles. Genital sensitivity is mainly transmitted by the pudendal nerve in both men and women. Sexual arousal in men consists of penile erection, and ejaculation accompanied with orgasm. In women, sexual arousal causes increase in blood to flow to the vagina leading to lubrication and to the vulva leading to the erection of the clitoris and vulvar hyperaemia. The orgasm which can be multiple in women is accompanied by contractions of the striated perineal muscles. Several neurotransmitters are closely involved in the control of sexuality at the central level: dopamine, ocytocin, serotonin, and peripheral: nitric oxide and noradrenaline in men, vasoactive intestinal peptide and neuropeptide Y in women. PMID:23830249
Cour, F; Droupy, S; Faix, A; Methorst, C; Giuliano, F
Conditioning of sexual arousal has been demonstrated in several species from fish to humans, but has not been demonstrated in nonhuman primates. Controversy exists over whether nonhuman primates produce pheromones that arouse sexual behavior. Although common marmosets copulate throughout the ovarian cycle and during pregnancy, males exhibit behavioral signs of arousal, demonstrate increased neural activation of anterior hypothalamus and medial preoptic area and have an increase in serum testosterone after exposure to odors of novel ovulating females suggestive of a sexually arousing pheromone. Males also have increased androgens prior to their mate’s ovulation. However, males presented with odors of ovulating females demonstrate activation of many other brain areas associated with motivation, memory and decision making. In this study we demonstrate that male marmosets can be conditioned to a novel, arbitrary odor (lemon) with observation of erections, and increased exploration of the location where they previously experienced a receptive female, and increased scratching in postconditioning test without a female present. This conditioned response was demonstrated up to a week after the end of conditioning trials, a much longer lasting effect of conditioning than reported in studies of other species. These results further suggest that odors of ovulating females are not pheromones, strictly speaking, and that marmoset males may learn specific characteristics of odors of females providing a possible basis for mate identification.
Snowdon, Charles T.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Ferris, Craig F.
ABSTRACT: Physiological arousal was,measured,in 12- to 22-year-old females,with either fragile X, Turner syndrome, or neither disorder to explore potential differences in the manifestation of arousal and anxiety in adolescents and young women. Physiological arousal was,measured,at
Cynthia S. Keysor; Daniel R. McLeod; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric
This article examines men's sexual arousal to rape cues and its possible role in sexual assault. The article presents six different models that have been described in the literature to account for men's sexual arousal to descriptions of rape. The models are divided into two broad categories, response control models and stimulus control models, and are further divided into models
Howard E. Barbaree; William L. Marshall
Introduction Several studies have demonstrated that moderate exercise increases genital response to erotic stimuli in women. The increase in genital arousal could be the result of various changes that can occur in response to exercise including changes in hormone levels, neurotransmitter levels, mood, and autonomic nervous system activity. Aim The present study was an attempt to shed light on two such mechanisms through which exercise enhances sexual arousal. Method Sixteen participants came into the lab on two separate occasions: during one visit, they filled out questionnaires for 20 minutes, and during the other visit, they exercised on a treadmill for 20 minutes. The questionnaires and exercise were both followed by the presentation of a neutral then erotic film during which the women’s physiological sexual arousal was measured. Saliva samples were taken at baseline, prefilm, and postfilm. Main Outcome Measures Subjective arousal was measured using a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Testosterone and ?-amylase (a marker of sympathetic nervous system [SNS] activity) were measured via saliva assays. Results Findings replicated previous studies showing a significant increase in physiological sexual arousal with exercise. There was a significant increase in ?-amylase across the study in the exercise condition, but not in the no-exercise condition. There were no differences in testosterone levels between the exercise and no-exercise conditions. Conclusions SNS activity is one mechanism through which exercise increases genital sexual arousal. Testosterone does not mediate the relationship between exercise and genital sexual arousal.
Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fogle, Emily A.; Meston, Cindy M.
Although drinking often precedes men's sexual activity, basic questions about alcohol's effects on men's sexual arousal remain unanswered. Inconsistencies in findings from studies examining subjective and physiological effects on erectile functioning suggest these effects are context specific, for example, dependent on whether a man wants to maximize or suppress his arousal. To address unresolved questions about alcohol and erectile functioning, the authors evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of penile circumference change and self-reported sexual arousal. In Study 1, a target BAC of .10% (vs. .00%) attenuated peak circumference change from a neutral baseline but did not affect mean change, latency to arousal onset (a 5% increase in circumference from baseline), latency to peak achieved arousal, or subjective arousal, which correlated moderately with physiological indices. In Study 2, instructions to maximize (vs. suppress) arousal increased peak and mean circumference change and interacted with a target BAC of .08% (vs. .00%) to influence latency to arousal onset. Sober men instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to arousal onset than did those instructed to suppress arousal; however, intoxicated men did not show a differential pattern. Moreover, compared with intoxicated counterparts, sober men instructed to maximize arousal showed a marginally shorter latency to arousal onset. Overall, alcohol and arousal instructions had small but discernible effects. Findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in alcohol's impact on erectile functioning. PMID:17115874
George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R; Schacht, Rebecca L; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F
Although drinking often precedes men's sexual activity, basic questions about alcohol's effects on men's sexual arousal remain unanswered. Inconsistencies in findings from studies examining subjective and physiological effects on erectile functioning suggest these effects are context specific, for example, dependent on whether a man wants to maximize or suppress his arousal. To address unresolved questions about alcohol and erectile functioning,
William H. George; Kelly Cue Davis; Jeanette Norris; Julia R. Heiman; Rebecca L. Schacht; Susan A. Stoner; Kelly F. Kajumulo
Many studies report discordance between women's genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. Consistent with our previous research, I hypothesized that the association between physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency (OC) during penile-vaginal intercourse but not for OC during masturbation or noncoital partnered sexual activities. I confirmed this specific
One way to evaluate sexual arousal is by measuring approach behavior to sexual incentive stimuli. In our case we measure approach behavior to an originally non-preferred compartment which is associated with the physiological state induced by mating. This change of preference indicative of a positive affective (reward) state can be evaluated by conditioned place preference (CPP). We have shown that
Dulce Ma. Arzate; Wendy Portillo; Cynthia Rodríguez; Rebeca Corona; Raúl G. Paredes
The present study evaluated and compared the effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response, subjective\\u000a sexual arousal, and affect in 17 women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) and 17 sexually healthy women. Positive\\u000a and negative cognitive schemas were presented to participants before viewing sexually explicit video segments. They were asked\\u000a to temporarily adopt both schemas, and vaginal
Laura S. Middleton; Stephanie W. Kuffel; Julia R. Heiman
In this article I review research on specificity of sexual arousal conducted since 2005. Three lines of investigation – sexual psychophysiology, visual attention and brain response – demonstrate convergence; women's response is non-specific whereas men's is specific to preferred sexual stimuli. The implications of these findings, with respect to the nature of sexual features that elicit genital response in women,
Meredith L. Chivers
Relatively little is known about gender differences in the orgasm experience. The objectives of this study were to compare men's and women's patterns of sexual arousal and desire before and after orgasm, and the predictors of their orgasmic pleasure. Using their typical technique, where masturbation enjoyment was similar to that experienced at home, 38 men and 38 women masturbated to orgasm in the laboratory. Physiological sexual arousal (genital temperature) and subjective sexual arousal and desire measurements were taken at baseline, after masturbation almost to orgasm, and immediately and 15 minutes after orgasm. In both genders, all measures increased significantly during masturbation, with a greater buildup leading to a more pleasurable orgasm. After orgasm, however, sexual arousal and desire decreased more quickly and consistently in men than in women, thereby replicating Masters and Johnson's ( 1966 ) observations. More men than women exhibited resolution of subjective sexual arousal and sexual satiation; their genital temperature also decreased more than women's but did not return to baseline. Women's orgasmic pleasure was related to a postorgasmic decrease in genital temperature but, unexpectedly, the maintenance of subjective sexual arousal and desire. Future studies should explore whether this pattern explains gender differences in the pursuit of additional orgasms. PMID:24588445
Paterson, Laurel Q P; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M
Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases genital arousal in healthy women, likely due to increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suppress SNS activity, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which suppress the SNS less. Method Women reporting antidepressant-related sexual arousal problems (N=47) participated in three counterbalanced sessions where they watched an erotic film while we recorded genital and SNS arousal. In two sessions, women exercised for 20 min, either 5 or 15 min prior to the films. Results During the no-exercise condition, women taking SSRIs showed significantly less genital response than women taking SNRIs. Exercise prior to sexual stimuli increased genital arousal in both groups. Women reporting greater sexual dysfunction had larger increases in genital arousal post-exercise. For women taking SSRIs, genital arousal was linked to SNS activity. Conclusions Exercise may improve antidepressant-related genital arousal problems.
Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.
Although there is an extensive amount known about specific sensory and motor functions of the vertebrate brain, less is understood about the regulation of global brain states. We have recently proposed that a function termed generalized arousal (Ag) serves as the most elemental driving force in the nervous system, responsible for the initial activation of all behavioral responses. An animal with increased generalized CNS arousal is characterized by greater motor activity, increased responsivity to sensory stimuli, and greater emotional lability. Implicit in this theory was the prediction that increases in generalized arousal would augment specific motivated behaviors that depend on arousal. Here, we address the idea directly by testing two lines of mice bred for high or low levels of generalized arousal and assessing their responses in tests of specific forms of behavioral arousal, sex and anxiety/exploration. We report that animals selected for differential generalized arousal exhibit marked increases in sensory, motor, and emotional reactivity in our arousal assay. Furthermore, male mice selected for high levels of generalized arousal were excitable and showed more incomplete mounts before the first intromission (IN), but having achieved that IN, they exhibited far fewer IN before ejaculating, as well as ejaculating much sooner after the first IN, thus indicating a high level of sexual arousal. Additionally, high-arousal animals of both sexes exhibited greater levels of anxiety-like behaviors and reduced exploratory behavior in the elevated plus maze and light-dark box tasks. Taken together, these data illustrate the impact of Ag on motivated behaviors.
Weil, Zachary M.; Zhang, Qiuyu; Hornung, Allison; Blizard, David; Pfaff, Donald W.
The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential\\u000a genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual\\u000a interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest\\u000a levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this
Jerome A. Cerny; Erick Janssen
The present study evaluated and compared the effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect in 17 women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) and 17 sexually healthy women. Positive and negative cognitive schemas were presented to participants before viewing sexually explicit video segments. They were asked to temporarily adopt both schemas, and vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in each schema condition. Participants in both groups had significantly greater vaginal response and reported more subjective sexual arousal in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition. Sexually healthy women demonstrated significantly higher subjective sexual arousal than women with FSAD, but there were no significant group differences in vaginal response. Moreover, participants in both groups reported higher levels of Positive Affect and Vigor in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition but higher levels of Negative Affect, Tension-Anxiety, and Anger-Hostility in the negative schema condition than in the positive schema condition. These findings demonstrate the impact of cognitions on sexual arousal, which has important implications for addressing cognitions in the treatment of FSAD. Moreover, these findings have implications for the conceptualization of FSAD, which may be best characterized as a complex, heterogeneous cluster of symptoms. PMID:18256919
Middleton, Laura S; Kuffel, Stephanie W; Heiman, Julia R
The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship. PMID:23519591
Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro
Objective To review and describe physiologic measures of assessing sexual function in women Design Literature review Setting Studies that utilize instruments designed to measure female sexual function Patients Women participating in studies of female sexual function Interventions Various instruments that measure physiologic features of female sexual function Main Outcome Measures Appraisal of the various instruments, including their advantages and disadvantages. Results Many unique physiologic methods of evaluating female sexual function have been developed over the last four decades. Each method has its benefits and limitations. Conclusions Many physiologic methods exist, but most are not well-validated. Additionally, there has been an inability to correlate most physiologic measures with subjective measures of sexual arousal. Furthermore, given the complex nature of the sexual response in women, physiologic measures should be considered in context of other data, including the history, physical exam, and validated questionnaires. Nonetheless, the existence of appropriate physiologic measures is vital to our understanding of female sexual function and dysfunction.
Woodard, Terri L.; Diamond, Michael P.
To date, there has been limited literature on the measurement of sexual arousal in adolescent sex offenders. The data that exist have been somewhat mixed in terms of factors related to deviant sexual arousal in this group. The present study, with 71 adolescent sex offenders, investigates the relationship between offender and offense characteristics, including gender of victim, history of sexual abuse, history of physical abuse, race, and interactions between these factors in the prediction of physiologically measured sexual arousal to deviant and nondeviant stimulus categories. A number of variables significantly predicted sexual arousal. The most consistent predictors were gender of victim, race, the interaction of race and gender of victim, and to some extent the interaction of offender abuse history and gender of victim. Caucasian subjects tended to respond more than African American subjects did, and this has not been reported previously in the literature. The data are discussed in terms of consistency with other literature, suggesting that those juvenile offenders who target male victims and have been abused themselves may be a high risk group. Limitations of this study are also addressed. PMID:11294127
Murphy, W D; DiLillo, D; Haynes, M R; Steere, E
Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)
Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert
Men exhibit much higher levels of genital and subjective arousal to sexual stimuli containing their preferred sex than they do to stimuli containing only the nonpreferred sex. This study used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how this category-specific pattern would be reflected in the brains of homosexual (n = 11) and heterosexual (n = 11) men. Comparisons of
Adam Safron; Bennett Barch; J. Michael Bailey; Darren R. Gitelman; Todd B. Parrish; Paul J. Reber
Sexual arousal (intensity of courtship) and sexual proclivity (tendency to court) in Helix aspersa can be reliably measured using externally observable correlates. Snails with sexual proclivity are significantly more likely to turn toward an anesthetized conspecific after contacting it than are sexually unreceptive snails. Sexual arousal can be inferred from the stage of a snail's genital eversion, which appears only during courtship. The higher the stage of the eversion, the shorter the time required to complete introductory courtship behavior and the higher the rate of successful copulation, the fewer the number of breaks and pauses during courtship, and the longer the time a snail will spend in contact with an anesthetized conspecific. Sexual proclivity has no effect on feeding or locomotory behavior; however, sexual arousal inhibits feeding and increases locomotor activity. Snails that were allowed daily contact with conspecifics required less time to complete introductory courtship behavior relative to snails that were isolated from conspecifics for 1 week. This suggests that daily contact increases sexual arousal. A greater percentage of isolated snails exhibited courtship behavior than did snails which had experienced daily conspecific contact. This suggests that isolation increases sexual proclivity. These differences indicate that sexual arousal is not merely due to an increase in sexual proclivity. PMID:2241758
Adamo, S A; Chase, R
In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions. PMID:24814935
Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto
After viewing 2 sexually explicit films, 52 sexually functional participants were given bogus feedback indicating a low erectile response. The men were given either an external, fluctuating attribution (i.e., poor films) or an internal, stable attribution (i.e., problematic thoughts about sex) for the low arousal. As hypothesized, participants in the external, fluctuating group evidenced greater erectile response and subjective arousal
Risa B. Weisberg; Timothy A. Brown; John P. Wincze; David H. Barlow
Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080
Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L
The relationship between sexual arousal and sensory perception has been a topic largely neglected within the realm of human sexuality research. The present study assessed the influence of sexual arousal on genital and non-genital sensation in women. It also examined the theory that painful intercourse is associated with insufficient sexual arousal. A total of 20 healthy women and 20 women with Vulvar Vestibulitis Syndrome (VVS) underwent genital and non-genital sensory testing at baseline and in response to erotic and neutral stimulus films. Touch and pain thresholds were assessed at the vulvar vestibule, inside the labia minora, and on the volar surface of the forearm. Sexual arousal was assessed via the measurement of surface skin temperature changes of the labia minora using a labial thermistor clip. Participants also completed questionnaires pertaining to mood, pain, and sexual functioning. In response to the erotic stimulus, both groups evidenced a significant increase in physiological sexual arousal and vulvar sensitivity. Women with VVS reported a significantly lower desire to engage in intercourse after having viewed the erotic film and reported lower levels of desire and arousal on questionnaire measures. Women with VVS also exhibited significantly more genital and non-genital pain sensitivity than healthy women across all conditions, in addition to more catastrophizing, hypervigilance, and fear of pain. Contrary to some theories, these data suggest that women with VVS are not lacking in physiological sexual arousal, and that physiological sexual arousal may actually increase vulvar sensation. Lack of subjective sexual arousal, however, may yet be implicated in vulvar pain during intercourse. PMID:17136588
Payne, Kimberley A; Binik, Yitzchak M; Pukall, Caroline F; Thaler, Lea; Amsel, Rhonda; Khalifé, Samir
We report the development of a technology for measuring sexual arousal in the natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that levels of sexual arousal obtained in the laboratory when a participant was wearing underwear and trousers were similar to arousal levels obtained without underwear and trousers. In Experiment 2, four sexual offenders' arousal was measured in the natural environment using a
Jerry A. Rea; Terry DeBriere; Kasey Butler; Kathryn J. Saunders
The labial thermistor offers several potential psychometric advantages over existing measures of female sexual response; however, the thermistor lacked data to support these presumed advantages, especially with respect to its discriminant validity. In this study, both the labial thermistor was worn simultaneously with the vaginal photoplethysmograph as women viewed films. They also indicated their level of subjective sexual arousal using a lever. The labial thermistor discriminated sexual from nonsexual arousing stimuli and was sensitive to different levels of sexual arousal. The correspondence of the instrument with subjective sexual arousal, measured using a continuous lever, was lower during the mildly arousing sexual film and higher during the maximally sexual arousing film. One woman reported that the labial thermistor was very uncomfortable, while others indicated no or mild discomfort from each instrument. The vaginal photoplethysmograph largely replicated the effects documented by the labial thermistor, although it did not discriminate sexual stimuli of different intensity nor correspond with women's continuous lever responses as closely during the more arousing stimulus. Difficulties recording simultaneously with these instruments are noted. The labial thermistor adequately discriminates between generally arousing and sexually arousing stimuli, increasing its utility as a measure for between-subject study designs. PMID:19041673
Prause, N; Heiman, J R
In men and women sexual arousal culminates in orgasm, with female orgasm solely from sexual intercourse often regarded as a unique feature of human sexuality. However, orgasm from sexual intercourse occurs more reliably in men than in women likely reflecting the different types of physical stimulation men and women require for orgasm. In men, orgasms are under strong selective pressure as orgasms are coupled with ejaculation and thus contribute to male reproductive success. By contrast, women's orgasms in intercourse are highly variable and are under little selective pressure as they are not a reproductive necessity.. The proximal mechanisms producing variability in women's orgasms are little understood. In 1924 Marie Bonaparte proposed that a shorter distance between a woman's clitoris and her urethral meatus (CUMD) increased her likelihood of experiencing orgasm in intercourse. She based this on her published data which were never statistically analyzed. In 1940 Landis and colleagues published similar data suggesting the same relationship, but these data too were never fully analyzed. We analyzed raw data from these two studies and found that both demonstrate a strong inverse relationship between CUMD and orgasm during intercourse. Unresolved is whether this increased likelihood of orgasm with shorter CUMD reflects increased penile-clitoral contact during sexual intercourse or increased penile stimulation of internal aspects of the clitoris. CUMD likely reflects prenatal androgen exposure, with higher androgen levels producing larger distances. Thus these results suggest that women exposed to lower levels of prenatal androgens are more likely to experience orgasm during sexual intercourse.
Wallen, Kim; Lloyd, Elisabeth A.
Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality.
Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.
Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images, held within semantic memory and pattern matched with
Skyler T. Hawk; Ryan Tolman; Charles W. Mueller
Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images, held within seman- tic memory and pattern matched
Skyler T. Hawk; Ryan Tolman; Charles W. Mueller
Data regarding the neuroendocrine response pattern to sexual arousal and orgasm in man are inconsistent. In this study, ten healthy male volunteers were continuously monitored for their cardiovascular and neuroendocrine response to sexual arousal and orgasm. Blood was continuously drawn before, during and after masturbation-induced orgasm and analyzed for plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating
Tillmann Krüger; Michael S Exton; Cornelius Pawlak; Alexander von zur Mühlen; Uwe Hartmann; Manfred Schedlowski
The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether biological and nonbiological incestuous fathers differ on personality characteristics, sexual arousal patterns, and behavior exchange in intimate relationships. Secondarily, this study examined internal consistency and test-retest reliability for responses by child molesters to a set of commercially available 35mm stimulus slides used for the phallometric assessment of sexual arousal related
Background: Sildenafil is indicated for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. The nitric oxide–cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway involved in penile erection also may be important in some components of the female sexual arousal response during sexual stimulation.Objective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of sildenafil in estrogenized women with sexual dysfunction that included female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD).Methods: Patients received sildenafil (10,
Rosemary Basson; Rosemary McInnes; Mike D. Smith; Gemma Hodgson; Tara Spain; Nandan Koppiker
The review examines whether unsolicited or non-consensual sexual stimulation of either females or males can lead to unwanted sexual arousal or even to orgasm. The conclusion is that such scenarios can occur and that the induction of arousal and orgasm does not indicate that the subjects consented to the stimulation. A perpetrator’s defence simply built upon the fact that evidence
Roy J. Levin; Willy van Berlo
Two distinct empathic sexual responses have been mentioned anecdotally in the literature: (1) an increase in physiological sexual arousal in response to the sexual arousal of the partner (empathic turn-on) and (2) a decrease in physiological sexual arousal in response to lack of sexual arousal in the partner (empathic turn-off), but to our knowledge this is the first systematic study
R. Vernon Haning; Stephen L. OKeefe; Keith W. Beard; Elizabeth J. Randall; Martin J. Kommor; Sandra S. Stroebel
This study examined the effects of appraisal of sexual stimuli on sexual arousal in women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 50) and sexually functional women (n = 25). To elicit different appraisals of an erotic film fragment, participants received an instruction prior to viewing it, with a focus on genital pain or on sexual enjoyment. A neutral instruction served as a control condition. Assignment to instruction condition was randomized. Genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude) and self-report ratings of affect and genital sensations were obtained in response to the erotic stimulus. As predicted, appraisal of the erotic stimulus affected genital responding, albeit marginally significant. Follow-up tests indicated that women who received the genital pain instruction responded with marginally significant lower genital arousal levels than women who received the sexual enjoyment instruction (d = 0.67). A significant instruction effect for negative affect was found, signifying that negative affect ratings were highest after the genital pain instruction and lowest after the sexual enjoyment instruction (d = 0.80). A marginally significant group by instruction interaction effect was observed for positive affect, indicating that women with dyspareunia reported significantly less positive affect than controls after the sexual enjoyment instruction (d = 1.48). Whereas women with dyspareunia reported overall marginally significant more negative affect than controls (d = 0.48), there were no differences in genital responsiveness between groups. These results provided preliminary evidence for the modulatory effects of appraisal of sexual stimuli on subsequent genital responding and affect in women with and without sexual complaints. PMID:18561015
Brauer, Marieke; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Laan, Ellen
Reproductive functions in adult organism are known to be affected by different factors. Effects of social environment at the postnatal ontogenesis attract particular attention since it has deep impact on the development of physiological and emotional state of an individual. Effects of chronic social isolation at different ages on male sexual motivation, testosterone and corticosterone response under conditions of sexual arousal were studied in Wistar rats. After weaning at the 21st [corrected] day of age, rats of one group were isolated for six weeks and after that they were housed in groups of five per cage for ten weeks (Iso3-9). Rats of the second group were housed in groups of five animals per cage till 13 weeks of age, and then they were isolated for six weeks (Iso13-19). Rats of the control group were housed in groups during the experiment. Adult 19 week- old male rats were tested under conditions of sexual arousal. The expression of sexual motivation was estimated as the behavioral activity of a male at the transparent perforated partition separating a receptive female. Isolation of adult male rats reduced the number of approaches to the partition, while the period of time a male spent at the partition was not changed and testosterone response was enhanced as compared to control rats. Chronic social isolation during peri-adolescence reduced sexual motivation and prevented arousal-induced elevation of testosterone. Plasma corticosterone increases at sexual arousal in the two groups of isolated rats did not differ from that in controls. Our results are evidence that social isolation during the post-maturity stage (Iso13-19) did not diminish the manifestation of sexual motivation and hormonal response to a receptive female, while isolation during peri-adolescence attenuated behavioral and hormonal expression of sexual arousal in adult males. PMID:23347014
Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Bulygina, Veta V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Maslova, Larissa N
Smaller correlations have typically been found between genital and subjective sexual arousal in female versus male samples. This study evaluated the association between response bias and the relationship between genital and subjective arousal (i.e., concordance) in women with (n = 20) and without (n = 21) provoked vestibulodynia. Participants (M = 21.27 years, SD = 2.27) underwent blood flow imaging via a laser Doppler imager to assess genital responsiveness to a visual erotic stimulus; subjective arousal was assessed during and following the film. The relationships between three types of subjective arousal ratings (perceived sexual arousal, perceived genital responsiveness, and reported desire to engage in sexual activity) and two forms of socially desirable responding (impression management and self-deceptive enhancement) were examined. Concordance estimates were statistically non-significant in both groups, with the exception of the desire to engage in sexual activity, which was moderately correlated with genital arousal in the control group. Impression management was not a statistically significant moderator of the relationship between genital and subjective arousal, but was moderately negatively related to the three forms of subjective arousal ratings in the provoked vestibulodynia group. The results highlight the importance of assessing response bias in laboratory studies comparing women with and without sexual dysfunction. PMID:21843100
Boyer, Stéphanie C; Pukall, Caroline F; Holden, Ronald R
Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images held within semantic memory and pattern-matched with an erotic auditory stimulus facilitate higher self-reported arousal, and at a more rapid rate, than unattractive images. Participants in an "Unattractive" condition experienced slower rates and lower mean levels of arousal in response to an auditory stimulus, compared to participants in an "Attractive" or "No Picture" condition. No differences existed between groups in maximum arousal scores or the tendency to visualize the target during the listening task. Implications for the role of imagery in sexual response, possible measurement issues, and suggestions for future research are addressed in the discussion. PMID:17599268
Hawk, Skyler T; Tolman, Ryan; Mueller, Charles W
Sexual histories and arousal patterns of 60 college men were sampled in a rural area to better evaluate the role of sexual arousal in males typically used as nonoffender controls in sex research. Nearly two-thirds of the sample (65%) had engaged in some form of sexual misconduct in the past, ranging from sexual contacts with children and coercive sex with women to voyeurism and frottage. Even more subjects expressed a desire for such activities. Previous experience with frottage, obscene phone calls, and pedophilic contacts was associated with higher subjective arousal to depictions of these activities. Previous experience with coercive sex or voyeurism did not appear to be associated with greater arousal to these activities. There was considerable variability in the arousability of subjects to the variety of deviant stimuli presented, thus blurring the distinction between pathological and normal arousal patterns. These results suggest that young men are easily aroused sexually by a variety of stimuli, and seek out a variety of sexual experiences, some of which are punishable by law. PMID:2064539
Templeman, T L; Stinnett, R D
Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience dissociative symptoms and sexual difficulties with greater frequency than women without a history of CSA. Current models of sexual dysfunction for sexual abuse survivors suggest that dissociation may mediate the relationship between CSA and sexual arousal difficulties. Dissociation, however, is often conceptualized as a single construct in studies of CSA and not as separate domains as in the dissociation literature. In the present study, women with (CSA, N = 37) and without (NSA, N = 22) a history of CSA recruited from the community were asked to indicate the frequency and intensity of their experience in two dissociation subgroups, derealization and depersonalization, during sex with a partner and in their daily life. Findings showed that, in the NSA group, more depersonalization during sex with a partner was associated with lower sexual arousal functioning. However, for both the NSA and CSA groups, more derealization during sex was associated with higher sexual arousal functioning. No measure of dissociation was significantly associated with sexual responses in the laboratory. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between different forms of dissociation (i.e., derealization and depersonalization) in the study of sexual arousal functioning. In addition, the findings challenge the notion that dissociation is a main predictor of sexual arousal problems in survivors of CSA and suggest that a more nuanced relationship may exist. PMID:24297658
Bird, Elizabeth R; Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H
In this paper sexual arousal in women is viewed from an object relations perspective, in an effort to explore the psychological—interpersonal factors mediating futt genital arousal in intimate relationships. Female psychosexual development is described as the process of integrating genital anatomy into maturing psychic structures, along with the girl's separation and identification issues with her primary objects. Body ego formation,
The invention provides a method for preventing or treating male erectile dysfunction or female sexual arousal disorder by administering an effective amount of one or more factors from a group of factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, brain-...
T. F. Lue C. S. Lin Y. W. Kan P. Carroll
Observational stance refers to the perspective a person takes while viewing a sexual stimulus, either as a passive observer (observer stance) or an active participant (participant stance). The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between observational stance and sexual arousal (subjective and genital) across a range of sexual stimuli that do or do not correspond with a participant's sexual attraction (preferred or nonpreferred stimuli, respectively). Regression analyses revealed that, for men (n = 44), participant stance significantly predicted subjective and genital arousal. Women's (n = 47) observer and participant stance predicted subjective arousal but not genital arousal. Analysis of variance showed that participant stance was greatest under preferred sexual stimuli conditions for all groups of participants, while observer stance scores revealed a less consistent pattern of response. This was particularly true for opposite-sex-attracted women, whose ratings of observer stance were lowest for preferred stimuli. Observational stance does not appear to account for gender differences in specificity of sexual arousal; for men, however, participant stance uniquely predicted genital response after controlling for sexual attractions. Similarities in the relationships between men's and women's observational stance and sexual responses challenge previous claims of gender differences in how men and women view erotica. PMID:23514448
Bossio, Jennifer A; Spape, Jessica; Lykins, Amy D; Chivers, Meredith L
Induced Anxiety is a brief psychotherapy procedure that teaches individuals to cope with negative effect by using relaxation techniques. This research investigated the role of physiological arousal in the affect induction phase of Induced Anxiety therapy by using biofeedback to facilitate arousal. Twenty-one college students suffering from…
Sappington, A. A.
Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…
Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry
Introduction. Learning processes like classical conditioning are involved in mediating sexual behavior. Yet, the neural bases underlying these processes have not been investigated so far. Aim. The aim of this study was to explore neural activations of classical conditioning of sexual arousal with respect to sex differences and contingency awareness. Methods. In the acquisition phase, a geometric figure (CS+) was
Tim Klucken; Jan Schweckendiek; Christian J. Merz; Katharina Tabbert; Bertram Walter; Sabine Kagerer; Dieter Vaitl; Rudolf Stark
The influence of alcohol intoxication and arousal instructional set on psychophysiological measures of sexual responding was examined in a non-clinical sample of sexually abused (SA) and non-sexually abused (NSA) women. Participants (n=42) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (target blood alcohol level = .08%) or non-alcoholic drinks and to receive instructions to maximize or suppress their sexual response to erotic films. Measures included vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), self-reported sexual arousal, and mood. SA classification interacted with instruction condition such that NSA women's VPA scores were higher under maximize than suppress instructions, but this did not occur for SA women. SA classification interacted with alcohol such that, compared to their sober counterparts, intoxicated NSA women reported less sexual arousal, whereas intoxicated SA women reported more sexual arousal than their sober counterparts. Moreover, positive mood ratings were highest among intoxicated SA women. Findings indicate that alcohol may affect women differently based on SA history and imply that SA history may be associated with differences in response to subsequent sexual situations. PMID:17364230
Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Heiman, Julia R; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F
Purpose: To evaluate brain activity associated with sexual arousal, fully conscious male marmoset monkeys were im- aged during presentation of odors that naturally elicit high levels of sexual activity and sexual motivation. Material and Methods: Male monkeys were lightly anes- thetized, secured in a head and body restrainer with a built-in birdcage resonator and positioned in a 9.4-Tesla spectrometer. When
Craig F. Ferris; Charles T. Snowdon; Jean A. King; John M. Sullivan Jr.; Toni E. Ziegler; David P. Olson; Nancy J. Schultz-Darken; Pamela L. Tannenbaum; Reinhold Ludwig; Ziji Wu; Almuth Einspanier; J. Thomas Vaughan; Timothy Q. Duong
Smaller correlations have typically been found between genital and subjective sexual arousal in female versus male samples. This study evaluated the association between response bias and the relationship between genital and subjective arousal (i.e., concordance) in women with (n = 20) and without (n = 21) provoked vestibulodynia. Participants (M = 21.27 years, SD = 2.27) underwent blood flow imaging via a laser Doppler imager to assess genital
Stéphanie C. Boyer; Caroline F. Pukall; Ronald R. Holden
This experiment was designed to discriminate among two diametrically opposed states, arousal and relaxation, which have been attributed to alcohol ingestion. Male social drinker subjects were assigned to form two independent groups of ten subjects each. Baseline measure of heart rate, skin conductance level (SCL), pulse wave amplitude and ear lobe…
Zeiner, Arthur R.
Objective Some postmenopausal women lose genital sexual responsivity despite preserved subjective sexual arousal from non-genital stimuli. When oestrogen replacement is without benefit, both the un- derlying pathophysiology and management of this acquired genital female sexual arousal disorder are unclear. We aimed to study the effect of sildenafil on sexual arousal and orgasmic functioning of such women. Secondly, we aimed to
Rosemary Bassona; Lori A. Brottod
Since each individual female sexual dysfunction is complex, it is necessary to subtype them in addition to dividing them into lifelong or acquired disorder. The complexity of women's sexual arousal necessitates appreciation of a number of different types of arousal disorders that vary not only in etiology but also in management. The coexistence of sexual arousal and sexual desire, which
The assessment of sexual arousal in men and women informs theoretical studies of human sexuality and provides a method to\\u000a assess and evaluate the treatment of sexual dysfunctions and paraphilias. Understanding measures of arousal is, therefore,\\u000a paramount to further theoretical and practical advances in the study of human sexuality. In this meta-analysis, we review\\u000a research to quantify the extent of
Meredith L. Chivers; Michael C. Seto; Martin L. Lalumière; Ellen Laan; Teresa Grimbos
Although men often have sex when intoxicated, basic questions remain about how alcohol affects erection. It may depend on whether blood alcohol level is ascending or descending and whether the situation calls for maxi- mizing or suppressing erection. Objective. To evaluate whether descending intoxication affects erection when men are instructed to maximize or suppress arousal. Method. Seventy-eight heterosexual men were
William H. George; Kelly Cue Davis; Trevor J. Schraufnagel; Jeanette Norris; Julia R. Heiman; Rebecca L. Schacht; Susan A. Stoner; Kelly F. Kajumulo
The role of pain-related fear in the etiology and/or maintenance of superficial dyspareunia is still unclear. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of pain-related fear on sexual arousal in women with superficial dyspareunia (n=48) and women without sexual complaints (n=48). To induce pain-related fear, participants were told that they had a 60% chance of receiving painful stimuli while being exposed to one of two erotic film clips. Genital arousal was assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography. Self-reported ratings of genital sensations and affect were collected after both erotic stimulus presentations. Elevated levels of skin conductance and higher ratings of experienced threat during the pain threat condition indicated that fear was successfully elicited. Pain-related fear impeded genital arousal in all women. Women of both groups reported significantly less positive affect and more negative affect when threatened. Although women with dyspareunia did not differ in their genital responsiveness from women without sexual complaints, they experienced overall significantly more negative affect than the control group. The present results indicate that pain-related fear reduces genital and subjective sexual responding in women with and without sexual problems. We conclude that emotional appraisal of the sexual situation determines genital responsiveness in both sexually dysfunctional and functional women. PMID:17303453
Brauer, Marieke; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Janssen, Sabine A; Laan, Ellen
Primary prevention efforts aimed at sexual risk behaviors are critical. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal, as well as person variables of alcohol sex expectancies and attitudes toward condom use, on hypothesized determinants of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The participants were 117 MSM aged 21-50 years who were randomly assigned to one of six separate experimental conditions created by the combination of beverage administration (water control, placebo or alcohol designed to raise blood alcohol level to .07%) and sexual arousal (low or high, manipulated by participants' viewing non-erotic or mildly erotic film clips). Participants attended two experimental sessions. The first session included completing questionnaires about beliefs about alcohol's effects on sex and attitudes toward condoms' effect on sexual pleasure. The second session involved the beverage condition and arousal manipulations. Following these, participants viewed and responded to two interactive videos depicting high sexual risk scenarios. Participants also completed the CARE, a measure of risk perceptions. The dependent variables were behavioral skills, intentions to have unsafe sex, and "risk exposure," derived from responses to the videos. The results of both planned and exploratory analyses showed general support for the hypothesized enhancement of alcohol's effects on sexual risk by both sexual arousal and expectancies. Also as predicted, condom attitudes showed direct relationships to risk exposure and intentions. Implications of the findings for models of alcohol's effects on sexual risk and for the development of HIV prevention interventions were discussed. PMID:22009480
Maisto, Stephen A; Palfai, Tibor; Vanable, Peter A; Heath, Jessie; Woolf-King, Sarah E
Neonatal studies suggest elevated arousal can negatively influence perceptual and cognitive processes during early development. The authors explored this issue during the prenatal period by pharmacologically elevating physiological arousal in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos during exposure to a maternal call, then assessing preference for the familiar call following hatching. Embryos receiving norepinephrine showed a prenatal elevation in heart rate and failed to demonstrate a preference for the familiar call following hatching. Embryos not receiving norepinephrine showed no elevation in heart rate and demonstrated a preference for the familiar call. These results indicate elevated arousal can interfere with perceptual learning during the prenatal period and provide additional evidence for an optimal window of arousal necessary to foster species-typical perceptual functioning during early development.
Markham, Rebecca G.; Toth, Gabriella; Lickliter, Robert
Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but
Introduction. Despite their widespread prevalence, there are no existing evidence-based psychological treatments for women with sexual desire and arousal disorder. Mindfulness, the practice of relaxed wakefulness, is an ancient eastern practice with roots in Buddhist meditation which has been found to be an effective component of psycho- logical treatments for numerous psychiatric and medical illnesses. In recent years, mindfulness has
Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Mijal Luria
Objective To find out whether taking images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and to find out whether former and current ideas about the anatomy during sexual intercourse and during female sexual arousal are based on assumptions or on facts. Design Observational study. Setting University hospital in the Netherlands. Methods Magnetic resonance imaging was used to study the female sexual response and the male and female genitals during coitus. Thirteen experiments were performed with eight couples and three single women. Results The images obtained showed that during intercourse in the “missionary position” the penis has the shape of a boomerang and 1/3 of its length consists of the root of the penis. During female sexual arousal without intercourse the uterus was raised and the anterior vaginal wall lengthened. The size of the uterus did not increase during sexual arousal. Conclusion Taking magnetic resonance images of the male and female genitals during coitus is feasible and contributes to understanding of anatomy.
Schultz, Willibrord Weijmar; van Andel, Pek; Sabelis, Ida; Mooyaart, Eduard
Two single-case experiments demonstrated the efficacy of satiation therapy with adult males who had long-standing deviant sexual interests. The procedure involves the pairing of prolonged masturbation (1 hour) with the verbalization by the patient of his deviant sexual fantasies and in both cases the designs permitted the attribution of control over aberrant responding to the satiation therapy. The results are discussed in terms of the possible active ingredients of the procedure.
Marshall, W L
A physiologically based quantitative model of the human ascending arousal system is used to study sleep deprivation after being calibrated on a small set of experimentally based criteria. The model includes the sleep–wake switch of mutual inhibition between nuclei which use monoaminergic neuromodulators, and the ventrolateral preoptic area. The system is driven by the circadian rhythm and sleep homeostasis. We
A. J. K. Phillips; P. A. Robinson
The current study examines whether a two-dimensional indicator of marital quality advances empirical understanding of the association between marital quality and physiological arousal. Thirty-two married couples completed baseline and problem-solving interactions while both spouses' heart rates and skin conductance were continuously monitored. Each spouse's changes in physiology from the baseline to problem-solving task served as the independent variables. Dependent variables
Diana Menchaca; Crystal Dehle
Sexual arousal was assessed using three approaches: the Affinity (Version. 1.0) computerized assessment of unobtrusively measured viewing time (VT), Affinity self-report ratings of sexual attractiveness, and a self-report sexual arousal graphing procedure. Data were collected from 78 males, aged 12-18 (M=15.09; SD=1.62), who acknowledged their sexual assaults. The pattern of responses to all three assessment techniques was remarkably similar, with maximal sexual interest demonstrated and reported for adolescent and adult females. Both self-report procedures could significantly distinguish those adolescents who assaulted a child from those who assaulted peers or adults. The self-report procedures could also significantly discriminate those adolescents with male child victims. The Affinity VT approach significantly differentiated those adolescents who assaulted male children from those who assaulted other individuals. No assessment technique could accurately identify those adolescents with exclusively female child victims. Overall, the results suggest that structured, self-report data regarding sexual interests can be useful in the assessment of adolescents who have offended sexually. PMID:17143741
Worling, James R
Purpose Although genital tactile stimulation is regarded as a precursor to sexual arousal and a recognized initiator of central nervous system arousal, specific afferent neural pathways transmit sensory stimuli of arousal, beginning at the epithelial level on the clitoris and following the course of arousal stimuli through the central nervous system. Limited knowledge exists of the pathway from the cutaneous receptors of nerves originating in the epithelial tissue of the clitoris and continuing to spinal cord afferents. Such information may contribute to an understanding of sexual arousal, particularly in female vertebrates. We further defined the neural pathways and mechanisms responsible for arousal originating in the epithelium of the clitoris as well as related neural pathways to the spinal cord in a murine model. Materials and Methods We performed a comprehensive review of the published relevant clinical and histological material from human and nonhuman vertebrate studies. In 29 adult female C57B1/6 mice the distribution of pelvic nerves and vessels was mapped. Gross dissection of 4 female mice was facilitated by resin injection of the vascular system in 2. Neuronal tracing was performed in 25 mice that received clitoral injection of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into the clitoris and were sacrificed after 72 to 96 hours. The spinal cord and periclitoral tissue were removed and fixed. Immunohistochemistry was performed. Results Gross anatomy of the mouse clitoris showed that pudendal and hypogastric nerves have a major role in the innervation of the external genitalia. Neuronal tracing revealed that the greatest nerve density was noted in the L5/6 spinal cord. The distribution extended from S1 to L2 with no labeling seen in the L3 spinal cord. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase labeling was seen caudal in levels S1 through L4 and rostral in L2. Conclusions Understanding the neuroanatomy of the clitoris using a murine model may provide a valuable tool for the study of sexual arousal disorders and the further understanding of sexual function related to neural pathologies and trauma.
Martin-Alguacil, Nieves; Schober, Justine M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Shelley, Deborah N.
The impact of alcohol and alcohol expectancies on men's perception of female sexual arousal and men's ability to discriminate accurately female sexual intentions in a dating situation was examined. In a 2 (alcohol) X 2 (expectancy) balanced placebo design, men were exposed to an audiotape of a date rape and asked to signal when the man should stop making sexual
Alan M. Gross; Ted Bennett; Lawrence Sloan; Brian P. Marx; John Juergens
In this study we investigated the effects of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention on genital and subjective sexual arousal of sexually functional, healthy women during presentation of audiovisual erotic stimuli. Psychophysiological sexual response was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Experiential aspects of sexual arousal were measured both during stimulus presentation and retrospectively after stimulus offset. Trait level of sexual self-focus was measured with the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale. State self-focus was induced by switching on a TV camera that pointed at the participant's face and upper torso. A manipulation check revealed that both groups experienced equally elevated levels of self-focused attention of their physical appearance. Induction of state self-focus per se did not affect genital responses, but an interaction effect of self-focus and participants' level of trait sexual self-focus was revealed. Compared with women with low scores on this trait, women with high scores exhibited smaller genital responses when state self-focus was induced. Both groups did not differ when no self-focus was induced. Increase of state self-focus did not affect subjective sexual arousal, but participants with a high level of trait sexual self-focus reported stronger subjective arousal, compared with those with low trait level. The results were discussed with reference to previous work in this field. Some implications for treatment of sexual arousal disorder were discussed. PMID:18325482
van Lankveld, Jacques; Bergh, Simone
A quantitative, physiology-based model of the ascending arousal system is developed, using continuum neuronal population modeling, which involves averaging properties such as firing rates across neurons in each population. The model includes the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), where circadian and homeostatic drives enter the system, the monoaminergic and cholinergic nuclei of the ascending arousal system, and their interconnections. The human
A. J. K. Phillips; P. A. Robinson
We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction. PMID:23970620
Markos, A R; Dinsmore, Wallace
We investigated age differences in associations among self-reported experiences of tense and energetic arousal, physiological activation indicated by heart rate, and working-memory performance in everyday life. The sample comprised 92 participants aged 14-83 years. Data were collected for 24 hr while participants pursued their normal daily routines. Participants wore an ambulatory biomonitoring system that recorded their cardiac and physical activity. Using mobile phones as assessment devices, they also provided an average of 7 assessments of their momentary experiences of tense arousal (feeling nervous) and energetic arousal (feeling wide-awake) and completed 2 trials of a well-practiced working-memory task. Experiences of higher energetic arousal were associated with higher heart rate in participants younger than 50 years of age but not in participants older than that, and energetic arousal was unrelated to within-person fluctuations in working-memory performance. Experiences of tense arousal were associated with higher heart rate independent of participants' age. Tense arousal and physiological activation were accompanied by momentary impairments in working-memory performance in middle-aged and older adults but not in younger individuals. Results suggest that psychological arousal experiences are associated with lower working-memory performance in middle-aged and older adults when they are accompanied by increased physiological activation and that the same is true for physiological activation deriving from other influences. Hence, age differences in cognitive performance may be exaggerated when the assessment situation itself elicits tense arousal or occurs in situations with higher physiological arousal arising from affective experiences, physical activity, or circadian rhythms. PMID:24660800
Riediger, Michaela; Wrzus, Cornelia; Klipker, Kathrin; Müller, Viktor; Schmiedek, Florian; Wagner, Gert G
While a number of studies have assessed the role of personality traits, situational variables, and drug use on sexual risk behaviors, fewer studies have employed experimental methods to examine cognitive processes that may underlie risky sexual decision making. This study used a go/no-go paradigm to examine how individual difference variables and sexual arousal influence discrimination learning and sexual and nonsexual decision making. A total of 28 men (M age = 20 years) and 25 women (M age = 19 years) completed self-report measures of impulsivity, abstract intellectual ability, and sexual excitation and inhibition and participated in a laboratory experiment. The experiment consisted of two go/no-go tasks with sexual stimuli and two tasks with neutral stimuli, preceded by either sexually arousing or sexually neutral stimulus presentations. Task performance was measured by totals of false alarms and misses. Individuals high in impulsivity and low in abstract intellectual ability committed more false alarms in conditions involving sexually arousing stimuli. Furthermore, higher sexual excitation scores were linked to more misses. These findings indicate that cognitive processes associated with decision making that occurs in the “heat of the moment” are influenced by a combination of situational and sexual and nonsexual individual difference variables.
Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Janssen, Erick; Fridberg, Daniel J.; Finn, Peter R.; Heiman, Julia R.
This study examined concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress during a laboratory challenge task. Data were collected during the multisite VA Cooperative Study 334 in the early 1990s examining psychophysiological arousal among combat-exposed Vietnam veterans with (n = 775) and without (n = 369) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants were presented with 6 standardized neutral scenes and 6 standardized combat scenes. Participants provided a subjective rating of distress after each slide. During the presentation, levels of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded. Using linear mixed effects modeling, both HR level and SC level exhibited significant positive associations with subjective distress ratings (pr = .33, p < .001 and pr = .19, p < .001, respectively). Individuals with PTSD demonstrated greater concordance between their distress ratings and SC level during exposure to combat slides than participants without PTSD (pr = .28, p < .001 vs. pr = .18, p < .001). Although a significant association was found between subjective distress and HR reactivity and SC reactivity, these findings were not moderated by PTSD status. The results of these analyses suggest that patients' reports of distress during exposure-based treatments might serve as approximate measures of actual physiological arousal. PMID:22848013
Marx, Brian P; Bovin, Michelle J; Suvak, Michael K; Monson, Candice M; Sloan, Denise M; Fredman, Steffany J; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M
Sexual activity involves excitement with high arousal and pleasure as typical features of emotions. Brain activations specifically related to erotic feelings and those related to general emotional processing are therefore hard to disentangle. Using fMRI in 21 healthy subjects (11 males and 10 females), we investigated regions that show activations specifically related to the viewing of sexually intense pictures while
Martin Walter; Felix Bermpohl; Harold Mouras; Kolja Schiltz; Claus Tempelmann; Michael Rotte; Hans Jochen Heinze; Bernhard Bogerts; Georg Northoff
Background. It has been speculated for more than 2 decades whether there is a significance of adrenal corticosteroids, such as cortisol, in the process of normal male sexual function, especially in the control of sexual arousal and the penile erectile tissue. However, only few in vivo studies have been carried out up until now on the effects of cortisol on human
Stefan Ückert; Mark H. Fuhlenriede; Armin J. Becker; Christian G. Stief; Friedemann Scheller; Wolfram H. Knapp; Udo Jonas
Sexual activity involves excitement with high arousal and pleasure as typical features of emotions. Brain activations specifically related to erotic feelings and those related to general emotional processing are therefore hard to disentangle. Using fMRI in 21 healthy subjects (11 males and 10 females), we investigated regions that show activations specifically related to the viewing of sexually intense pictures while controlling for general emotional arousal (GEA) or pleasure. Activations in the ventral striatum and hypothalamus were found to be modulated by the stimulus' specific sexual intensity (SSI) while activations in the anterior cingulate cortex were associated with an interaction between sexual intensity and emotional valence. In contrast, activation in other regions like the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the mediodorsal thalamus and the amygdala was associated only with a general emotional component during sexual arousal. No differences were found in these effects when comparing females and males. Our findings demonstrate for the first time neural differentiation between emotional and sexual components in the neural network underlying sexual arousal. PMID:18329905
Walter, Martin; Bermpohl, Felix; Mouras, Harold; Schiltz, Kolja; Tempelmann, Claus; Rotte, Michael; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Northoff, Georg
Hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), Spermophilus parryii, is characterized by a profound decrease in oxygen consumption and metabolic demand during torpor that is punctuated by periodic rewarming episodes, during which oxygen consumption increases dramatically. The extreme physiology of torpor or the surge in oxygen consumption during arousal may increase production of reactive oxygen species, making hibernation an injurious process for AGS. To determine if AGS tissues experience cellular stress during rewarming, we measured carbonyl proteins, lipid peroxide end products and percent oxidized glutathione in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of torpid, hibernating (hAGS), late arousal (laAGS), and cold-adapted, euthermic AGS (eAGS). In BAT carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxide end products were higher in eAGS and laAGS than in hAGS. By contrast, in liver, no significant difference in carbonyl proteins was observed. In another group of animals, comparison of carbonyl proteins and percent oxidized glutathione in frontal cortex, liver, and BAT of eAGS and hAGS showed no evidence of oxidative stress associated with torpor. These results indicate that increased thermogenesis associated with arousal AGS results in tissue specific oxidative stress in BAT but not in liver. Moreover, torpor per se is largely devoid of oxidative stress, likely due to suppression of oxidative metabolism.
Orr, Adrienne L.; Lohse, Lonita A.; Drew, Kelly L.; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo
CONTEXT Few studies have examined arousal loss associated with safer-sex practices or the perceived risk of unintended pregnancy, let alone its associations with sexual risk practices. METHODS An Internet survey conducted in 2004–2006 among 2,399 men and 3,210 women asked respondents about arousal loss related to the use of condoms or other safer-sex products and perceived unintended pregnancy risk. Regression analyses gauged associations between arousal profiles, unprotected sex in the last year and lifetime experience of unintended pregnancy. RESULTS Many respondents reported arousal loss related to the use of safer-sex products (34%) or the risk of unintended pregnancy (46%). Participants who strongly agreed that use of safer-sex products can lessen their arousal were significantly more likely to have had unprotected sex in the last year than were those who strongly disagreed (odds ratios, 1.8 for men and 3.7 for women); those who strongly disagreed that pregnancy risk can lessen their arousal were significantly more likely to have been involved in an unintended pregnancy than were those who strongly agreed (2.0 for men and 1.4 for women). Arousal loss related to safer-sex practices was more strongly associated with unprotected sex among women than among men, whereas arousal loss related to pregnancy risk was more strongly associated with unintended pregnancy among men than among women. CONCLUSIONS Some men and women are turned off by safer-sex practices or by pregnancy risk. Given arousal profiles’ potential contributions to unintended pregnancies and STD transmission, they should be integrated into sexual health behavioral models, research and programming.
Higgins, Jenny A.; Tanner, Amanda E.; Janssen, Erick
Purpose To develop a model to explore the dose-response of sildenafil citrate in patients with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) based on telephone sexual activity daily diary (TSADD) data obtained in double-blind, placebo controlled clinical studies.Materials Data were available on 614 patients with FSAD. A parametric model (Weibull distribution) was developed to describe the probability density function of the time between sexual
Laurent Claret; Eugene H. Cox; Lynn McFadyen; Alwyn Pidgen; Patrick J. Johnson; Scott Haughie; Mitra Boolell; Rene Bruno
The physiology of small mammalian hibernators shifts profoundly over a year, from summer homeothermy to winter heterothermy. Torpor-arousal cycles define high-amplitude tissue activity fluctuations in winter, particularly for skeletal muscle, which contributes to the energetically demanding rewarming process via shivering. To better understand the biochemistry underlying summer-winter and torpor-arousal transitions, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mas spectrometry to the soluble proteins from hindlimb muscle of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in two summer and six winter states. Two hundred sixteen protein spots differed by sampled state. Significantly, intrawinter protein adjustment was a minor component of the dataset despite large discrepancies in muscle activity level among winter states; rather, the bulk of differences (127/138 unequivocally identified proteins spots) occurred between summer and winter. We did not detect any proteomic signatures of skeletal muscle atrophy in this hibernator nor any differential seasonal regulation of protein metabolism. Instead, adjustments to metabolic substrate preferences dominated the detected proteomic differences. Pathways of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) were summer enriched, whereas the winter proteome was enriched for fatty acid ?-oxidation. Nevertheless, our data suggest that some reliance on carbohydrate reserves is maintained during winter. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), which reversibly prepares glucose subunits for either glycolysis or glycogenesis, showed apparent winter state-specific phosphorylation. PGM1 was phosphorylated during rewarming and dephosphorylated by interbout arousal, implying that glucose supplements lipid fuels during rewarming. This, along with winter elevation of TCA cycle enzymes, suggests that hindlimb muscles are primed for rapid energy production and that carbohydrates are an important fuel for shivering thermogenesis. PMID:21865542
Hindle, Allyson G; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L Elaine; Hunter, Lawrence E; Martin, Sandra L
The physiology of small mammalian hibernators shifts profoundly over a year, from summer homeothermy to winter heterothermy. Torpor-arousal cycles define high-amplitude tissue activity fluctuations in winter, particularly for skeletal muscle, which contributes to the energetically demanding rewarming process via shivering. To better understand the biochemistry underlying summer-winter and torpor-arousal transitions, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mas spectrometry to the soluble proteins from hindlimb muscle of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in two summer and six winter states. Two hundred sixteen protein spots differed by sampled state. Significantly, intrawinter protein adjustment was a minor component of the dataset despite large discrepancies in muscle activity level among winter states; rather, the bulk of differences (127/138 unequivocally identified proteins spots) occurred between summer and winter. We did not detect any proteomic signatures of skeletal muscle atrophy in this hibernator nor any differential seasonal regulation of protein metabolism. Instead, adjustments to metabolic substrate preferences dominated the detected proteomic differences. Pathways of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) were summer enriched, whereas the winter proteome was enriched for fatty acid ?-oxidation. Nevertheless, our data suggest that some reliance on carbohydrate reserves is maintained during winter. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), which reversibly prepares glucose subunits for either glycolysis or glycogenesis, showed apparent winter state-specific phosphorylation. PGM1 was phosphorylated during rewarming and dephosphorylated by interbout arousal, implying that glucose supplements lipid fuels during rewarming. This, along with winter elevation of TCA cycle enzymes, suggests that hindlimb muscles are primed for rapid energy production and that carbohydrates are an important fuel for shivering thermogenesis.
Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Martin, Sandra L.
In replying to my review of the validity and ethics of penile circumference responses (PCRs) as measures of sexual arousal McAnulty and Adams misinterpreted the review as claiming penile volume responses (PVRs) were superior to PCRs in assessing rapists and child molesters. No such claim was made. The lack of validity of PCR assessment of individual rapists and child molesters
Clinical accounts have traditionally emphasized the importance of anxiety in the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction (e.g., Masters & Johnson, 1970). However, a review of empirical research suggests anxiety, operationalized in a variety of ways, has no effect or facilitates genital responding in heterosexual men and women. The apparent contradiction between the clinical and empirical literature might be resolved
Michael C. Seto
This study compared the effectiveness of a taped slow paced respiration (SPR) relaxation technique to a tape of general information for decreasing cognitive, affective and physiologic arousal in women during the cancer screening pelvic examination. The conceptual framework for the study was the Cox Interaction Model of Client Health Behavior. Subjects (N = 101) were healthy, nonpregnant women between the
Judith C. D Longworth
Sex and disgust seem like strange bedfellows. The premise of this review is that disgust-based mechanisms nevertheless hold great promise for improving our understanding of sexual behavior, including dysfunctions. Disgust is a defensive emotion that protects the organism from contamination. Accordingly, disgust is focused on the border of the self, with the mouth and vagina being the body parts that show strongest disgust sensitivity. Given the central role of these organs in sexual behavior, together with the fact that bodily products are among the strongest disgust elicitors, the critical question seems not whether disgust may interfere with sex but rather how people succeed in having pleasurable sex at all. We argue that sexual arousal plays a critical role in counteracting disgust-induced avoidance via lowering the threshold for engaging in "disgusting sex." Following this, all mechanisms that interfere with the generation of sexual arousal or enhance the disgusting properties of sexual stimuli may hamper the functional transition from a sex-avoidance into an approach disposition. Since prolonged contact is the most powerful means to reduce disgust, disgust-based mechanisms that counteract sexual approach may give rise to a self-perpetuating cycle in which enhanced sexual disgust becomes a chronic feature. PMID:23480071
de Jong, Peter J; van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine
A physiologically based quantitative model of the human ascending arousal system is used to study sleep deprivation after being calibrated on a small set of experimentally based criteria. The model includes the sleep-wake switch of mutual inhibition between nuclei which use monoaminergic neuromodulators, and the ventrolateral preoptic area. The system is driven by the circadian rhythm and sleep homeostasis. We use a small number of experimentally derived criteria to calibrate the model for sleep deprivation, then investigate model predictions for other experiments, demonstrating the scope of application. Calibration gives an improved parameter set, in which the form of the homeostatic drive is better constrained, and its weighting relative to the circadian drive is increased. Within the newly constrained parameter ranges, the model predicts repayment of sleep debt consistent with experiment in both quantity and distribution, asymptoting to a maximum repayment for very long deprivations. Recovery is found to depend on circadian phase, and the model predicts that it is most efficient to recover during normal sleeping phases of the circadian cycle, in terms of the amount of recovery sleep required. The form of the homeostatic drive suggests that periods of wake during recovery from sleep deprivation are phases of relative recovery, in the sense that the homeostatic drive continues to converge toward baseline levels. This undermines the concept of sleep debt, and is in agreement with experimentally restricted recovery protocols. Finally, we compare our model to the two-process model, and demonstrate the power of physiologically based modeling by correctly predicting sleep latency times following deprivation from experimental data. PMID:18805427
Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A
The biology of human sexuality: evolution, ecology and physiology Many evolutionary biologists argue that human sexual behaviour can be studied in exactly the same way as that of other species. Many sociologists argue that social influences effectively obscure, and are more important than, a reductionist biological approach to human sexual behaviour. Here,we authors attempt to provide a broad introduction to
P W Bateman; N C Bennett
In the last fifteen years, functional neuroimaging techniques have been used to investigate the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal in healthy human subjects. In most studies, subjects have been requested to watch visual sexual stimuli and control stimuli. Our review and meta-analysis found that in heterosexual men, sites of cortical activation consistently reported across studies are the lateral occipitotemporal, inferotemporal, parietal, orbitofrontal, medial prefrontal, insular, anterior cingulate, and frontal premotor cortices as well as, for subcortical regions, the amygdalas, claustrum, hypothalamus, caudate nucleus, thalami, cerebellum, and substantia nigra. Heterosexual and gay men show a similar pattern of activation. Visual sexual stimuli activate the amygdalas and thalami more in men than in women. Ejaculation is associated with decreased activation throughout the prefrontal cortex. We present a neurophenomenological model to understand how these multiple regional brain responses could account for the varied facets of the subjective experience of sexual arousal. Further research should shift from passive to active paradigms, focus on functional connectivity and use subliminal presentation of stimuli. PMID:22465619
Stoléru, Serge; Fonteille, Véronique; Cornélis, Christel; Joyal, Christian; Moulier, Virginie
Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity. PMID:21117979
Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine
In Ayurvedic medicine, East Indian Sandalwood is an important remedy for the treatment of both somatic and mental disorders. In this investigation, the effects of inhalation of East Indian Sandalwood essential oil and its main compound, alpha-santalol, on human physiological parameters (blood oxygen saturation, respiration rate, eye-blink rate, pulse rate, skin conductance, skin temperature, surface electromyogram, and blood pressure) and self-ratings of arousal (alertness, attentiveness, calmness, mood, relaxation and vigor) were studied in healthy volunteers. Compared to either an odorless placebo or alpha-santalol, Sandalwood oil elevated pulse rate, skin conductance level, and systolic blood pressure. alpha-Santalol, however, elicited higher ratings of attentiveness and mood than did Sandalwood oil or the placebo. Correlation analyses revealed that these effects are mainly due to perceived odor quality. The results suggest a relation between differences in perceived odor quality and differences in arousal level. PMID:16783696
Heuberger, Eva; Hongratanaworakit, Tapanee; Buchbauer, Gerhard
Objective To assess the dynamic activations of the key brain areas associated with the time-course of the sexual arousal evoked by visual sexual stimuli in healthy male subjects. Materials and Methods Fourteen right-handed heterosexual male volunteers participated in this study. Alternatively combined rest period and erotic video visual stimulation were used according to the standard block design. In order to illustrate and quantify the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions, the activation period was divided into three different stages as the EARLY, MID and LATE stages. Results For the group result (p < 0.05), when comparing the MID stage with the EARLY stage, a significant increase of the brain activation was observed in the areas that included the inferior frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area, the hippocampus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the midbrain, the superior occipital gyrus and the fusiform gyrus. At the same time, when comparing the EARLY stage with the MID stage, the putamen, the globus pallidus, the pons, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the lingual gyrus and the cuneus yielded significantly increased activations. When comparing the LATE stage with the MID stage, all the above mentioned brain regions showed elevated activations except the hippocampus. Conclusion Our results illustrate the spatiotemporal activation patterns of the key brain regions across the three stages of visual sexual arousal.
Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Kim, Tae-Hoon; Kim, Gwang-Won; Baek, Han-Su; Kang, Heoung-Keun
A quantitative, physiology-based model of the ascending arousal system is developed, using continuum neuronal population modeling, which involves averaging properties such as firing rates across neurons in each population. The model includes the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO), where circadian and homeostatic drives enter the system, the monoaminergic and cholinergic nuclei of the ascending arousal system, and their interconnections. The human sleep-wake cycle is governed by the activities of these nuclei, which modulate the behavioral state of the brain via diffuse neuromodulatory projections. The model parameters are not free since they correspond to physiological observables. Approximate parameter bounds are obtained by requiring consistency with physiological and behavioral measures, and the model replicates the human sleep-wake cycle, with physiologically reasonable voltages and firing rates. Mutual inhibition between the wake-promoting monoaminergic group and sleep-promoting VLPO causes ;;flip-flop'' behavior, with most time spent in 2 stable steady states corresponding to wake and sleep, with transitions between them on a timescale of a few minutes. The model predicts hysteresis in the sleep-wake cycle, with a region of bistability of the wake and sleep states. Reducing the monoaminergic-VLPO mutual inhibition results in a smaller hysteresis loop. This makes the model more prone to wake-sleep transitions in both directions and makes the states less distinguishable, as in narcolepsy. The model behavior is robust across the constrained parameter ranges, but with sufficient flexibility to describe a wide range of observed phenomena. PMID:17440218
Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A
Factors related to sexual arousal are different in men and women. The conditions for women to become aroused are more complex. However, the conventional audio-visual stimulation (AVS) materials used to evaluate sexual arousal are universal. In the present study, we investigated sexual differences in the response to different types of AVS by studying activated areas of the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was performed during two types of AVS in 20 healthy heterosexual volunteers (aged 20-28 years, 10 men and 10 women). The two AVS types were: (1) mood type, erotic video clips with a concrete story and (2) physical type, directly exposing sexual intercourse and genitalia. fMRI images were analyzed and compared for each stimulation with a Mann-Whitney U test, with statistical significance set at P<0.05. Men preferred the physical type of AVS to the mood type (mean arousal score 2.14 vs 1.86 in females) and women preferred the mood type (mean arousal score 2.14 vs 1.86 in males) (P<0.05). Degrees of activation in brain areas differed between genders and types of AVS for each gender. This should be considered when applying the AVS method to evaluate and diagnose female sexual dysfunction. PMID:23303334
Chung, W S; Lim, S M; Yoo, J H; Yoon, H
This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. PMID:24800986
Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did…
Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly
The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. PMID:24534418
Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders
Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…
Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.
Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers (N = 134) read an eroticized rape depiction after completing an alcohol administration protocol. As predicted, intoxicated participants were less likely to label the depicted events as rape than their sober counterparts. A path analytic model illustrated that participants' self-reported sexual arousal to the stimulus, as influenced by alcohol consumption and expectancies, resulted in increased rape myth congruent perceptions of the victim and decreased labeling of the incident as rape. Findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication during violent pornography exposure may ultimately result in women developing more calloused attitudes toward rape and rape victims. PMID:16893966
Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R
We have demonstrated that sexual activity produces tran- sient sympathoadrenal activation and a pronounced, long- lasting increase in prolactin in men and women. However, by analyzing endocrine alterations at 10-min intervals, a precise assignment of these changes to the pre-, peri- and postorgasmic periods was not possible. Thus, the current study aimed to accurately differentiate the endocrine response to sexual
T H C Krüger; P Haake; D Chereath; W Knapp; O E Janssen; M S Exton; M Schedlowski; U Hartmann
This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860
Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E; Losh, Molly
Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.
House, Patrick K.; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert
This study attempted to use PET and 15O–H2O to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sexual arousal evoked in 10 young heterosexual males while they watched a pornographic video clip, featuring heterosexual intercourse. This condition was compared with other mental setups evoked by noisy, nature, and talkshow audiovisual clips. Immediately after each clip, the participants answered three
M. Bocher; R. Chisin; Y. Parag; N. Freedman; Y. Meir Weil; H. Lester; E. Mishani; O. Bonne
In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a useful approach to treat common symptoms in subgroups of women with HSDD. PMID:23130782
Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan
Men's sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually aggressive and 40 non-aggressive men). In a laboratory protocol, the men were exposed to neutral, negative-affect-inducing, and positive-affect-inducing stimuli. Men's salivary cortisol concentrations and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured throughout the laboratory procedure. Sexually aggressive men demonstrated (1) lower overall cortisol levels and (2) lower EDA reactivity in some conditions as compared to non-aggressive men. Results of this study were consistent with the idea that men's sexual aggression is associated with physiological hyporeactivity, a physiological profile that has been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits. PMID:24310818
Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R
Sexually functional (N=26) and sexually dysfunctional heterosexual men with psychogenic erectile disorder (N=23) viewed two sexually explicit videos. Performance demand was manipulated through verbal instruction that a substantial genital response was to be expected from the videos. Self-focused attention was manipulated by introducing a camera pointed at the participant. Dispositional self-consciousness was assessed by questionnaire. Performance demand was found to
Marcel A. van den Hout; Erik G. W. Schouten
The role of 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C subtypes of serotonergic receptors in the control of sexual behavior and plasma testosterone regulation was studied in male CBA mice exposed to a sexually receptive female separated by a transparent partition. Introduction of the receptive female induced sexual motivation and arousal in males, as evidenced by a prolonged time spent at the partition, unsuccessful
Nina K. Popova; Tamara G. Amstislavskaya
This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. PMID:23169570
This study aimed to clarify the role of positive, negative, and ambivalent (i.e., co-occurring positive and negative) affect\\u000a in predicting subjective sexual arousal, sexual desire, and genital response. A total of 26 women and 19 men observed three\\u000a erotic film excerpts and a film excerpt depicting a coercive sexual encounter. Genital responses were recorded throughout\\u000a the study, and participants rated
Zoë D. Peterson; Erick Janssen
Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666
Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J
Background In contrast to the previous studies using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging system, our study was performed on a higher magnetic field strength, 3.0 T, to gain more valuable information on the functional brain anatomy associated with visual sexual arousal for discriminating the gender difference by increasing the detection power of brain activation. Methods: Twenty-four healthy subjects consisting of 12 males and 12 females underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging examination for this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic videos. Results: The predominant activation areas observed in males as compared with females included the hypothalamus, the globus pallidus, the head of the caudate nucleus, the parahippocampal gyrus, the amygdala and the septal area, whereas the predominant activation in females was observed in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the putamen. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal are specific to gender. This gender difference in brain activation patterns is more remarkable at higher magnet field (3.0 T) than at 1.5 T. PMID:24331548
Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo
THE PURPOSE OF THE EXPERIMENT WAS TO DETERMINE THE DEGREE TO WHICH PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL, AS INDEXED BY THE GRASON STADLER TYPE OPERANT CONDITIONING APPARATUS (GSR), IS RELATED TO THE ACCURACY OF LOGICAL REASONING. THE STIMULI WERE 12 SYLLOGISMS, THREE OF EACH OF FOUR DIFFERENT LOGICAL FORMS. THE 14 SUBJECTS (SS) INDICATED THEIR AGREEMENT OR…
The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…
Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.
Objective This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. Materials and Methods A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. Results The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Conclusion Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males.
Oh, Seok-Kyun; Kim, Gwang-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Kang, Heoung-Keun
Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes. PMID:22136894
Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio
Physiological sensations and discomfort constitute the major symptoms reported by aviophobics. Anxiety sensitivity (AS) seems to moderate the relationship between self-reported somatic sensations and flight anxiety, and AS has been identified as a vulnerability factor for flight phobia. In this study we examined whether AS moderates the effects of somatic sensations and autonomic nervous system reactivity on flight anxiety induced by real flight. In fifty aviophobics participating in Cognitive Behaviour Group Therapy (CBGT), flight anxiety, somatic sensations and autonomic nervous system reactivity were assessed during a guided return flight. Results indicate that physiological reactivity interacted with AS. Changes in heart rate and parasympathetic activity were more strongly associated with changes in reported flight anxiety for high AS participants, and less for participants low on AS. Results did not indicate a moderating effect of AS on the relationship between self-reported somatic sensations and flight anxiety. Our results suggest that therapy for flight phobia might benefit from addressing the physical effect of anxiety, by means of cognitive restructuring and exposure to interoceptive stimuli, particularly in aviophobics high in AS. PMID:23262117
Busscher, Bert; Spinhoven, Philip; van Gerwen, Lucas J; de Geus, Eco J C
Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.
Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi
Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part II: Physiological and Pharmacological Manipulations and Pathological Alterations of Locus Coeruleus Activity in Humans
The locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, gives rise to fibres innervating most structures of the neuraxis. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped to unravel the neuronal circuitry controlling a number of physiological functions in which the LC plays a central role. Two such functions are the regulation of arousal and autonomic activity, which are inseparably linked largely via the involvement of the LC. Alterations in LC activity due to physiological or pharmacological manipulations or pathological processes can lead to distinct patterns of change in arousal and autonomic function. Physiological manipulations considered here include the presentation of noxious or anxiety-provoking stimuli and extremes in ambient temperature. The modification of LC-controlled functions by drug administration is discussed in detail, including drugs which directly modify the activity of LC neurones (e.g., via autoreceptors, storage, reuptake) or have an indirect effect through modulating excitatory or inhibitory inputs. The early vulnerability of the LC to the ageing process and to neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) is of considerable clinical significance. In general, physiological manipulations and the administration of stimulant drugs, ?2-adrenoceptor antagonists and noradrenaline uptake inhibitors increase LC activity and thus cause heightened arousal and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast, the administration of sedative drugs, including ?2-adrenoceptor agonists, and pathological changes in LC function in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing reduce LC activity and result in sedation and activation of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Samuels, E. R; Szabadi, E
IN insects the pars intercerebralis (PI) is a median protocerebral neurosecretory centre associated with postcerebral neurohaemal organs, the corpora cardiaca (CC). Numerous investigations based on ablations or implantations of the PI and CC have shown that the neurohormones released by the CC intervene in many physiological processes. In vitro, by means of electrical stimulations, it was possible to show that,
M. Moulins; A. Girardie; J. Girardie
Farley's theory of arousal and stimulation-seeking proposes specific educational alternatives for high and low arousal and hyperkinetic children. This study tested the prediction that open classrooms provide children at the lower end of the physiological arousal continuum with enough external stimulation to reduce their overt seeking of…
Koester, Lynne S.; Farley, Frank H.
This study finds that dream valence and the frequency with which several types of dreams were experienced are related to arousability. Specifically, compared to 214 university students who were classified as low in arousability, 182 university students who were high in arousability reported more frequent dreams for all seven types of dreams measured. This relationship between arousability and dreaming was
Robert A. Hicks; Eileen Fortin; Glenn S. Brassington
Background During the last few decades, marital tensions and stresses have influenced various dimensions of life. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of combined psycho-physiological therapy (stretching therapy combined with breathing exercise) on sexual satisfaction among heterosexual men. Methods For this research, we used “convenience sampling” to select 80 males, who were then split equally into two groups, the intervention group and the control group, both groups containing men who had voiced a desire to be in the experimental group. For collection of data, we used an identical quasi-experimental design called the “nonequivalent control group.” Therapy sessions, each lasting 90 to 120 min, were carried out on the same 3 days of the week (Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday) for a total of 20 sessions. The volunteers were selected from heterosexual men with stable relationships, who had been married a minimum of 6 months and were ages 20 to 55 years of age. Pre-tests, post-tests, and follow-up tests were conducted in a clinic at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM  ). For assessment, we used the sexual satisfaction subscale of the ENRICH  questionnaire. Results The intervention group had better post-test scores than the control group. Also, follow-up test scores for the intervention group were marginally better than those for the control group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Combined psycho-physiological therapy including stretching and breathing exercise leads to improved sexual satisfaction.
Arousal can be described as an endogenously generated or exogenously induced change in behavioral responsiveness. Changes in levels of arousal, such as occur during sleep or attention, most likely accomplish adaptive functions common to most animals. Recent evidence demonstrating changing arousal states in Drosophila melanogaster complements other behavioral research in this model organism. Herein we review the methodology related to
Bruno van Swinderen; Rozi Andretic
Arousal can be described as an endogenously generated or exogenously induced change in behavioral responsiveness. Changes in levels of arousal, such as occur during sleep or attention, most likely accomplish adaptive functions common to most animals. Recent evidence demonstrating changing arousal states in Drosophila melanogaster complements other behavioral research in this model organism. Herein we review the methodology related to the study of circadian rhythms, sleep and anesthesia where arousal, or lack of it, plays an essential role. We end this review by discussing a new method that allows for the first time to correlate changes in brain electrophysiology to changes in behavioral arousal in the fruit fly. PMID:14556948
van Swinderen, Bruno; Andretic, Rozi
The present review considers the various conceptual and operational definitions of sexual sadism as this has been diagnosed among sexual offenders. The most persistent problem this review identified concerns the criteria of the fusion of sexual arousal with one or more of the various features of the offenders' actions or of the victims' responses. Not only do the definitions of
W. L Marshall; Pamela Kennedy
Goal The goal of this study was to evaluate a mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral intervention for sexual dysfunction in gynecologic cancer survivors compared to a wait-list control group. Methods Thirty-one survivors of endometrial or cervical cancer (mean age 54.0, range 31–64) who self-reported significant and distressing sexual desire and/or sexual arousal concerns were assigned either to three, 90-minute mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy sessions or two months of wait-list control prior to entering the treatment arm. Validated measures of sexual response, sexual distress, and mood, as well as laboratory-evoked physiological and subjective sexual arousal were assessed at pre-, one month post-, and 6-months following treatment. Results There were no significant effects of the wait-list condition on any measure. Treatment led to significant improvements in all domains of sexual response, and a trend towards significance for reducing sexual distress. Perception of genital arousal during an erotic film was also significantly increased following the intervention despite no change in physiologically-measured sexual arousal. Conclusions A brief mindfulness-based intervention was effective for improving sexual functioning. Geographic restrictions permitted only a select sample of survivors to participate, thus, the generalizability of the findings is limited. Future studies should aim to develop online modalities for treatment administration to overcome this limitation.
Brotto, Lori A.; Erskine, Yvonne; Carey, Mark; Ehlen, Tom; Finlayson, Sarah; Heywood, Mark; Kwon, Janice; McAlpine, Jessica; Stuart, Gavin; Thomson, Sydney; Miller, Dianne
Sexual dysfunction affects both men and women, involving organic disorders, psychological problems, or both. Overall, the state of our knowledge is less advanced regarding female sexual physiology in comparison with male sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction has received little clinical and basic research attention and remains a largely untapped field in medicine. The epidemiology of female sexual dysfunction is poorly understood because relatively few studies have been done in community settings. In the United States, female sexual dysfunction has been estimated to affect 40% of women in the general population. Among the elderly, however, it has been reported that up to 87% of women complain of sexual dissatisfaction. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of female sexual arousal disorders correlates significantly with increasing age. These studies have shown that sexual arousal and frequency of coitus in the female decreases with increasing age. The pathophysiology of female sexual dysfunction appears more complex than that of males, involving multidimensional hormonal, neurological, vascular, psychological, and interpersonal aspects. Organic female sexual disorders may include a wide variety of vascular, neural, or neurovascular factors that lead to problems with libido, lubrication, and orgasm. However, the precise etiology and mechanistic pathways of age-related female sexual arousal disorders are yet to be determined. In the past two decades, some advances have been made in exploring the basic hemodynamics and neuroregulation of female sexual function and dysfunction in both animal models and in human studies. In this review, we summarize neural regulation of sexual function and neurological causes of sexual dysfunction in women.
Siroky, Mike B.
Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24473940
Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick
Sensory perception modulates aging and physiology across taxa. We found that perception of female sexual pheromones through a specific gustatory receptor expressed in a subset of foreleg neurons in male fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster, rapidly and reversibly decreases fat stores, reduces resistance to starvation, and limits lifespan together with neurons that express the reward-mediating neuropeptide F. High-throughput RNA-seq experiments revealed a set of molecular processes that were impacted by the activity of the longevity circuit, thereby identifying new candidate cell non-autonomous aging mechanisms. Mating reversed the effects of pheromone perception, suggesting a model where lifespan is modulated through integration of sensory and reward circuits and where healthy aging may be compromised when the expectations defined by sensory perception are discordant with ensuing experience.
Gendron, Christi M.; Kuo, Tsung-Han; Harvanek, Zachary M.; Chung, Brian Y.; Yew, Joanne Y.; Dierick, Herman A.; Pletcher, Scott D.
There have been limited direct tests of the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) regulates arousal. In this study, two autonomic biomarkers for physiological arousal (heart rate [HR] and the high-frequency [HF] component of heart rate variability [HRV]) were investigated in relation to SIB for 3 participants with intellectual…
Hoch, John; Symons, Frank; Sng, Sylvia
Previous studies have shown that there are significant sexual differences in the morphological and physiological responses of Populus cathayana Rehder under stressful conditions. However, little is known about sex-specific differences in responses to nutrient deficiencies. In this study, the effects of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deficiencies on the morphological, physiological and chloroplast ultrastructural traits of P. cathayana males and females were investigated. The results showed that N and P deficiencies significantly decreased plant growth, foliar N and P contents, chlorophyll content, photosynthesis, and instantaneous photosynthetic N- and P-use efficiencies (PNUE and PPUE) in both sexes. Males had higher photosynthesis, higher PNUE and PPUE rates, and a lower accumulation of plastoglobules in chloroplasts than did females when exposed to N- and P-deficiency conditions. Nitrogen-deficient males had higher glutamate dehydrogenase and peroxidase activities, and a more intact chloroplast ultrastructure, but less starch accumulation than did N-deficient females. Phosphorus-deficient males had higher nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and acid phosphatase activities, but a lower foliar N : P ratio and less PSII damage than did P-deficient females. These results suggest that N and P deficiencies cause greater negative effects on females than on males, and that the different sexes of P. cathayana may employ different strategies to cope with N and P deficiencies. PMID:24739232
Zhang, Sheng; Jiang, Hao; Zhao, Hongxia; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang
Geographically varying starvation stress has often been considered as a natural selector that constrains between-population differences for starvation resistance (SR) in Drosophila species. On the Indian subcontinent, a dozen Drosophila species have shown clinal variations in SR across latitude, but the evolved physiological basis of such contrasting adaptations is largely unknown. In the present study, I untangled the physiological basis of sex-specific as well as between-population divergence for SR in D. leontia, collected across a latitudinal transect of the Indian subcontinent (11°45'-31°19'N). Secondly, I tested the assumptions that hardening to starvation stress facilitates an increased survival under subsequent lethal levels of starvation, and such plastic effects differ between the sexes. I observed several interesting results. In contrast to a steeper cline of starvation-related traits with latitude in females, a shallower gradient was observed for males. Females stored higher (~1.3-fold) dry-mass-specific levels of body lipids and glycogen contents, and utilized these both of these energy resources under starvation stress, whereas the starved males metabolized only body lipids as a source of energy. Conversely, the rate of body lipid utilization and threshold need were considerably higher in females as compared with males. Between-population differences were significant for storage levels of energy reserves only, but not for other avenues (rate of metabolite utilization and threshold need) of SR for both sexes. These findings indicate that multiple pathways shape the physiological basis of sexual dimorphism for SR in D. leontia. Further, single or multiple bouts of starvation hardening conferred an increased longevity (~4-9 h; P<0.001) under subsequent lethal levels of starvation stress for females only, and such plastic responses were consistent with a decrease in rate of metabolite utilization. Nevertheless, between-population effects were non-significant for absolute hardening capacity (AHC=KSR-C). Altogether, these findings suggest that similar evolutionary constraints have resulted in divergent genetic as well as plastic responses to evolve adaptations under starvation stress, and account for the observed sexual dimorphism for basal SR in D. leontia. PMID:24871919
Aggarwal, Dau Dayal
The attentional myopia model of behavioral control (Mann and Ward, 2007) was tested in an experiment investigating the relationship between physiological arousal and aggression. Drawing on previous work linking arousal and narrowed attentional focus, the model predicts that arousal will lead to behavior that is relatively disinhibited in situations in which promoting pressures to aggress are highly salient. In situations
Andrew Ward; Traci Mann; Erika H. Westling; J. David Creswell; Jeffrey P. Ebert; Matthew Wallaert
In one species of vocalizing (sonic) fish, the midshipman (Porichthys notatus), there are two classes of sexually mature males--Types I and II--distinguished by a number of traits including body size, gonad size, and reproductive tactic. The larger Type-I males (unlike Type-II males and females) build nests, guard eggs, and generate several types of vocalizations. Sound production by Type-I males is paralleled by a proportionate increase of 600% in their sonic muscle mass. The motor volley from ventral occipital roots innervating the sonic muscles establishes their contraction rate and, in turn, the fundamental frequency of emitted sounds. Electrical stimulation of the midbrain in every male and female elicited a rhythmic sonic discharge as recorded in the occipital roots; however, the fundamental frequency was slightly, but significantly, higher (20%) in Type-I males. Intracellular recording from identified motoneurons and presumed presynaptic "pacemaker" neurons showed their synaptic and action potentials had the same frequency as that of the nerve volley in every male and female. Reconstructions of physiologically identified motoneurons and pacemaker neurons following intracellular horseradish-peroxidase (HRP) filling showed their somata and dendrites to be 100-300% larger in Type-I males. These data unambiguously show that the size of a target muscle is correlated with the size of both the respective motoneurons and their presynaptic afferent neurons. As discussed, this implies that the dramatic increase in neuron size in the sonic motor system of Type-I males is causally dependent upon expansion of the sonic muscle. It is further likely that the more modest sex difference in the rhythmic central discharge is established by the intrinsic membrane properties of sonic neurons. These results also corroborate, at a number of behavioral, morphological, and neurophysiological levels, that the sonic motor system of "sneak spawning" Type-II males is similar to that of females. Thus, unlike the vocalizing Type-I males, sexual differentiation of the reproductive system in Type-II males is not linked to concomitant changes in the neurophysiological and morphological features of the sonic motor circuit. PMID:2273398
Bass, A H; Baker, R
Background and Aims It is important to consider the modular level when verifying sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants. Nevertheless, between-sex differences in resource translocation among modules (i.e. physiological integration) have not been tested at the whole-plant level. In this study, sexual differences in physiological integration were examined among ramets, within a genet in the dioecious sprouting shrub Lindera triloba, by a field experiment with girdling manipulation. Methods Female and male genets were randomly assigned to girdled or intact groups. Girdling of the main ramets was conducted in May 2009 by removing a ring of bark and cambium approx. 1 cm wide at a height of 80–100 cm. The effects of treatment and sex on ramet dynamics (mortality, recruitment and diameter growth) and inflorescence production during 1 year after girdling were examined. Key Results The diameter growth rate of main ramets of both sexes was lower at ground level (D0) but higher at breast height (dbh) in girdled than in intact groups. In sprouted ramets with a dbh of 0–2 cm, males in girdled groups had lower growth rates at D0 than those of intact groups, whereas no girdling effect was found for females. The main ramets in girdled groups produced more inflorescences than intact groups, irrespective of sex, but male ramets showed a greater response to the treatment than females. Conclusions In L. triloba, physiological integration exists at the whole-plant level, and sprouted ramets are dependent on assimilates translocated from main ramets, but this dependence weakens as sprouted ramets get larger. Female sprouted ramets can grow in a physiologically independent manner from the main ramet earlier than those of males. This study highlights the importance of considering modular structures and physiological integration when evaluating sexual differences in demographic patterns of clonal plants.
Isogimi, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Michinari; Watanabe, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Michiko
Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) facilitates blood flow, influences nitric oxide systems, and has a relaxant effect on smooth muscle tissue. These processes are important to the sexual response in women and, hence, it is feasible that GBE may have a therapeutic effect. The present study was the first to provide an empirical examination of the effects of both short- and long-term GBE administration on subjective and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography) measures of sexual function in women with Sexual Arousal Disorder. A single dose of 300 mg GBE had a small but significant facilitatory effect on physiological, but not subjective, sexual arousal compared to placebo in 99 sexually dysfunctional women. The long-term effects of GBE on sexual function were assessed in 68 sexually dysfunctional women who were randomly assigned to 8 weeks treatment of either (1) GBE (300 mg/daily), (2) placebo, (3) sex therapy which focused on training women to attend to genital sensations, or (4) sex therapy plus GBE. When combined with sex therapy, but not alone, long-term GBE treatment significantly increased sexual desire and contentment beyond placebo. Sex therapy alone significantly enhanced orgasm function compared with placebo. Long-term GBE administration did not significantly enhance arousal responses beyond placebo. It was concluded that (1) neither short- or long-term administration of GBE alone substantially impacts sexual function in women, (2) a substantial placebo effect on sexual function exists in women with sexual concerns, and (3) teaching women to focus on genital sensations during sex enhances certain aspects of women’s sexual functioning.
Rellini, Alessandra H.; Telch, Michael J.
Background: Childhood trauma is associated with psychiatric disorders, yet the underlying psychobiological mechanisms that account for this link are not well understood. Alterations in cortical arousal may, however, play a key role in mediating this association. We hypothesized that childhood trauma would be associated with alterations in arousal during a task that required sustained attention and behavioral inhibition. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three healthy adults completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire which assesses physical neglect, emotional neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and denial of childhood trauma. These individuals underwent cortical (electroencephalography) and peripheral (heart rate, skin conductance responses, and salivary cortisol) physiological recordings at rest (eyes open and eyes closed) and during performance of a visual go/no-go (GNG) task. Associations between reported childhood trauma and physiological measures were determined. Results: Physical and emotional neglect were correlated with decreased left parietal tonic ? band power during resting conditions and during the GNG task. Emotional abuse was correlated with decreased right frontal ? band power during rest, increased ? band power during the GNG task, and cortisol at the end of the testing session. Physical and sexual abuse were correlated with delayed P300 latency and enhanced P300 amplitude during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. The denial scale was correlated with a decrease in ? and increase in ? band power during the no-go conditions of the GNG task. Conclusion: The present study provides evidence that childhood trauma is associated with altered cortical arousal and that the pattern of this association is dependent on the form of childhood trauma experienced.
Howells, Fleur Margaret; Stein, Dan J.; Russell, Vivienne A.
Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795
Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid
Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed.
Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid
The phallometric responses of child molesters and rapists were assessed using two assessments of sexual arousal to children. Groups responded to both audiotaped depictions of sexual activity with children and to a set of slides of nude adults and children. Analyses revealed that the audiotaped child sexual violence assessment was as effective as the slide assessment in discriminating child molesters
Jan Looman; W. L. Marshall
Most American health professionals who work in HIV\\/AIDS do not support the use of fear arousal in AIDS preventive education, believing it to be counterproductive. Meanwhile, many Africans, whether laypersons, health professionals, or politicians, seem to believe there is a legitimate role for fear arousal in changing sexual behavior. This African view is the one more supported by the empirical
Edward C. Green; Kim Witte
Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual…
Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid
Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…
A review of the recent literature shows the role of caffeine in the physiology, mood, and behavior of persons to be a complex one including changes in arousal, anxiety, and performance. Questions are raised as to what degree the physiological effects of caffeine are due to central nervous system stimulation and\\/or result from the release of catecholamines. Anxiety resulting from
Deborah A. Sawyer; Harry L. Julia; Alan C. Turin
This study compared male and female university students’ experiences with online sexual activity (OSA) and tested a model\\u000a explaining gender differences in OSA. OSAs were categorized as non-arousal (e.g., seeking sexuality information), solitary-arousal\\u000a (e.g., viewing sexually explicit materials), or partnered-arousal (e.g., sharing sexual fantasies). Participants (N = 217) completed measures of OSA experience, sexual attitudes, and sexual experience. Significantly more men than
Krystelle ShaughnessyE; E. Sandra Byers; Lindsay Walsh
Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences. PMID:24088679
Fortenberry, J Dennis
Compared progressive relaxation training (PRT), self-induced relaxation training (SRT), and a control condition on measures of tonic physiological arousal and phasic physiological and subjective reactions to fearful stimuli. Concluded that live PRT is the treatment of choice for reducing tonic physiological arousal and attenuating subjective…
Green, Kenneth D.; And Others
Study Objective: To determine if low-level intermittent auditory stimuli have the potential to disrupt sleep during 24-h recordings, we assessed arousal occurrence to varying stimulus intensities. Additionally, if stimulus-generated evoked response potential (ERP) components provide a metric of underlying cortical state, then a particular ERP structure may precede an arousal. Design: Physiological electrodes measuring EEG, EKG, and EMG were implanted into 5 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. We delivered auditory stimuli of varying intensities (50-75 dBa sound pressure level SPL) at random intervals of 6-12 s over a 24-hour period. Recordings were divided into 2-s epochs and scored for sleep/wake state. Following each stimulus, we identified whether the animal stayed asleep or woke. We then sorted the stimuli depending on prior and post-stimulus state, and measured ERP components. Results: Auditory stimuli did not produce a significant increase in the number of arousals compared to silent control periods. Overall, arousal from REM sleep occurred more often compared to quiet sleep. ERPs preceding an arousal had decreased mean area and shorter N1 latency. Conclusion: Low level auditory stimuli did not fragment animal sleep since we observed no significant change in arousal occurrence. Arousals that occurred within 4 s of a stimulus exhibited an ERP mean area and latency had features similar to ERPs generated during wake, indicating that the underlying cortical tissue state may contribute to physiological conditions required for arousal. Citation: Phillips DJ; Schei JL; Meighan PC; Rector DM. Cortical evoked responses associated with arousal from sleep. SLEEP 2011;34(1):65–72.
Phillips, Derrick J.; Schei, Jennifer L.; Meighan, Peter C.; Rector, David M.
Objective: In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Method: Five hundred and eighty six adult male sexual offenders were assessed between 1982 and 1992, and these offenders
Drew A. Kingston; Michael C. Seto; Philip Firestone; John M. Bradford
In a systematic study, 372 sexual assault survivors and 99 women with no history of sexual assault were interviewed with regard to their sexual histories to determine the incidence and types of sexual dysfunctions in these two samples. The women also completed the Sexual Arousability Inventory. Of the sexual assault survivors, 58.6% of the women were experiencing sexual dysfunctions, with
Judith V. Becker; Linda J. Skinner; Gene G. Abel; Joan Cichon
Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented. PMID:16882237
Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen
This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672
Fortenberry, J Dennis
Persistent genital arousal disorder is described in a spontaneous, persistent, and uncontrollable genital arousal in women, with or without orgasm or genital engorgement, unrelated to any feelings of sexual desire. This study aimed to argue that application of Botulinum toxin in the periclitoral region in order to block the dorsal nerve of the clitoris might decrease symptoms of persistent genital arousal disorder. The authors presented 2 cases, in which application of Botulinum toxin resulted in improvement of the symptoms of persistent genital arousal disorder. Botulinum toxin type A treatment protocol is seen as a promising application for the persistent genital arousal disorder. However, further controlled studies in large samples are needed. PMID:24168013
Nazik, Hakan; Api, Murat; Aytan, Hakan; Narin, Raziye
Summary Background Large ventral lateral clock neurons (lLNv) exhibit higher daytime light-driven spontaneous action potential firing rates in Drosophila, coinciding with wakefulness and locomotor activity behaviour. To determine whether the lLNv are involved in arousal and sleep/wake behaviour we examined the effects of altered electrical excitation of the LNv. Results LNv-hyperexcited flies reverse the normal day/night firing pattern, showing higher lLNv firing rates at night and pigment dispersing factor-mediated enhancement of nocturnal locomotor activity behaviour and reduced quantity and quality of sleep. lLNv hyperexcitation impairs sensory arousal, as shown by physiological and behavioural assays. lLNv hyperexcited flies lacking sLNv neurons exhibit robust hyperexcitation-induced increases in nocturnal behaviour, suggesting that the sLNv are not essential for mediation of arousal. Conclusions Light-activated lLNv neurons modulate behavioural arousal and sleep in Drosophila.
Sheeba, Vasu; Fogle, Keri J; Kaneko, Maki; Rashid, Saima; Chou, Yu-Ting; Sharma, Vijay K; Holmes, Todd C
Despite the literature's focus on (hetero)sexual initiation, little is known about the degree to which young people are satisfied by their first vaginal intercourse experience, let alone the factors that predict satisfaction. This study analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,986 non-Hispanic White and Black 18- to 25-year-old respondents from four university campuses. Respondents were asked to rate the
Jenny A. Higgins; James Trussell; Nelwyn B. Moore; J. Kenneth Davidson
The attentional myopia model of behavioral control (Mann & Ward, 2007) was tested in an experiment investigating the relationship between physiological arousal and aggression. Drawing on previous work linking arousal and narrowed attentional focus, the model predicts that arousal will lead to behavior that is relatively disinhibited in situations in which promoting pressures to aggress are highly salient. In situations in which inhibitory pressures are more salient, the model predicts behavior that is relatively restrained. In the experiment, 81 male undergraduates delivered noise-blasts against a provoking confederate while experiencing either high or low levels of physiological arousal and, at the same time, being exposed to cues that served either to promote or inhibit aggression. In addition to supporting the predictions of the model, this experiment provided some of the first evidence for enhanced control of aggression under conditions of heightened physiological arousal. Implications for interventions designed to reduce aggression are discussed.
Ward, Andrew; Mann, Traci; Westling, Erika H.; Creswell, J. David; Ebert, Jeffrey P.; Wallaert, Matthew
Further insight into the physiology of erection acquired in recent years had led to the development of new methods that have enhanced the evaluation of erectile dysfunction. These new methods will permit a more precise diagnosis and, consequently, the management of this condition can be based on scientific and not empirical methods. To date, many questions remain unanswered and many points have not been elucidated. Using a precise methodology will permit us to corroborate or correct what has been done up until now and to develop new methods of investigation. The present study briefly reviews the physiology of erection and describes a method we routinely use. PMID:1510496
Bechara, A; Casabé, A; Wizenberg, P; D'Osvaldo, C; Rovegno, A; Fernández, H; Mocellini Iturralde, J
This study investigates physiological arousal and overt behaviors of hyperactive children in comparison with nonhyperactive children. It was predicted from Farley's (1974) theory of hyperactivity that hyperactive children would exhibit lower arousal and a stronger stimulation-seeking motive than nonhyperactive children. Four measures of…
Altschuler, Ellen; Farley, Frank H.
A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, we investigated offspring physiological and transcriptomic consequences of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding during pregnancy and/or lactation. We demonstrate that female offspring of high-fat/high-sugar diet-fed dams are particularly vulnerable to metabolic perturbation with body weight increases due to postnatal processes, whereas in utero effects of the diet ultimately lead to glucose homeostasis dysregulation. Furthermore, glucose- and maternal-diet sensitive gene expression modulation in the paraventricular hypothalamus is strikingly sexually dimorphic. In summary, we uncover female-specific, maternal diet-mediated in utero misprogramming of offspring glucose homeostasis and a striking sexual dimorphism in glucose- and maternal diet-sensitive paraventricular hypothalamus gene expression adjustment. Notably, female offspring metabolic vulnerability to maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet propagates a vicious cycle of obesity and type 2 diabetes in subsequent generations. PMID:24684305
Dearden, Laura; Balthasar, Nina
Objective: In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Method: Five hundred and eighty six…
Kingston, Drew A.; Seto, Michael C.; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M.
Drought is a major abiotic stress, limiting the survival and growth of young plants. However, little is known about sex-dependent responses to drought at the proteome level. In this study, we carried out investigations on comparative proteomics, combined with physiological and organelle structure analyses, in males and females of Populus cathayana Rehd. Three-month-old poplar cuttings were treated at 30% of field capacity and at 100% field capacity as a control in a greenhouse for 40 days. Drought greatly inhibited plant growth, damaged the photosynthetic system and destructed the structures of chloroplasts, mitochondria and cellular membranes. However, males suffered less from the adverse effects of drought than did females. Using 2-DE, 563 spots were detected, of which 64 spots displayed significant drought effect and 44 spots displayed a significant sex by drought interaction effect. The results suggest that the different responses to drought stress detected between the sexes have a close relationship to the changes in the expression of sex-dependent proteins, including, e.g. photosynthesis-related proteins, homeostasis-related proteins and stress response proteins. These proteins could contribute to a physiological advantage under drought, giving potential clues for understanding sexual differences in the performance of plants in different environments. PMID:20455211
Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Fugui; Peng, Shuming; Ma, Wujun; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang
Showed 63 male sex and 66 male criminal code offenders a series of 26 slides depicting different sexual behaviors. Ss were also interviewed about their past exposure to pornography. No differences were found between the 2 groups on the measure of rated overall sexual arousal to the slides. Numerous differences were found between the 2 groups in their past exposure
Royer F. Cook; Robert H. Fosen; Asher Pacht
A comparison of observed classroom behavior, tonic and phasic physiological arousal level, and task performance of 98 male and female first-grade children revealed sex differences in only 3 of 18 variables. Many assumed sex differences may be negligible and teachers' expectations may influence their perceptions. (SB)
Koester, Lynne S.; Farley, Frank H.
Objective: To establish national guidelines for the assessment of women's sexual health concerns and the provision of sexual heath care for women. Evidence: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library from May to October 2010, using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., sexuality, "sexual dysfunction," "physiological," dyspareunia) and key words (e.g., sexual dysfunction, sex therapy, anorgasmia). Results were restricted, where possible, to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2010. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Each article was screened for relevance and the full text acquired if determined to be relevant. The evidence obtained was reviewed and evaluated by the members of the Expert Workgroup established by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Values: The quality of evidence was evaluated and recommendations made using the use of criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). Summary Statements and Recommendations Introduction Summary Statements 1. Sexual concerns are prevalent in the population. (II-1) 2. Many women have to look outside medicine for solutions to their sexual concerns. (II-1) 3. Many health care providers have the ability to deal with sexual health issues. (II-3) 4. Health care providers need a better understanding of female sexual issues/problems. (II-3) Chapter 1: Sexuality Across the Lifespan Summary Statements 5. Children are sexual from birth. Expression of sexuality is a developmental process. (II-2) 6. Most discourse on adolescent sexuality focuses on the potential for adverse consequences such as exploitation, sexual assault, unwanted pregnancy, and sexually transmitted infections, and has generally neglected to communicate to girls that expression of sexuality and sexual experimentation are normal and healthy. (II-2) 7. Age-appropriate sexual expression is a positive part of the development of adolescent girls. Negative, coercive, and discriminatory experiences can detrimentally affect sexual well-being. (II-2) 8. Variations exist in same-sex and opposite-sex sexual behaviour; same-sex and opposite-sex sexual behaviour is not equivalent to self-definition as heterosexual or lesbian or bisexual. Some women who have sex with women may be reluctant to define themselves as lesbian because women who identify themselves or who are identified by others as lesbian or bisexual may experience social discrimination. (II-2) 9. Women express their sexuality in a variety of ways and in a variety of situations, including with a partner and through masturbation. (II-2) 10. Masturbation and self-pleasuring can be important for self-knowledge and as a sexual outlet in themselves for women who have and those who do not have a partner. (III) 11. Relationship factors have a major influence on a woman's sexual well-being. (II-2) 12. Pregnancy and breastfeeding, as well as experience with infertility, can affect sexual functioning. (II-2) 13. Decline in frequency of sexual activity at menopause does not alter women's potential for desire, arousal, orgasm, sexual pleasure, or sexual satisfaction. (II-2) 14. Psychological, relationship, social, cultural, and biological factors affect women's sexual well-being as they age and experience menopause. (II-2) 15. Most women with a partner continue to engage in sexual activity. Women often cease sexual activity not because of lack of interest but because they do not have a partner. (II-2) 16. Women's sexuality may be affected by biological events (e.g., puberty, childbirth, menopause, and aging), by their own p
Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233
Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M
N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications.
Beury-Cirou, Amelie; Tannieres, Melanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulere, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis
The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence
The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance, across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was associated with poor arithmetic performance and less risk taking behavior, females with fragile X displayed a minimal increase in heart activity that was nevertheless associated with poor performance on mental arithmetic. In contrast, no arousal-cognitive performance relationship emerged for the group with Turner syndrome. Taken together, our findings suggest that distinct profiles of arousal modulation might be associated with cognitive deficits in these syndrome populations. PMID:17340202
Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Murphy, Melissa M; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf
Female sexual response is a complex, nonlinear progression from desire to arousal and orgasm. Diabetes may affect all these,\\u000a but it particularly affects arousal with decreased genital sensation and lubrication. Vaginal dryness and infections may lead\\u000a to dyspareunia. Predictors of sexual dysfunction in women include depression. Neither age, duration of diabetes, glycemic\\u000a control, nor complications predict sexual dysfunction in women
Ranganath Muniyappa; Margaret Norton; Marian E. Dunn; Mary Ann Banerji
The study proposed an etiological model for sexually offending behavior against younger victims. In a sample of adolescent sexual offenders (N = 329), it tested whether attachment disruptions, specific maltreatment experiences, or combinations of early abuse experiences played a role in the development of certain unique, core personality traits (i.e., sexual inadequacy, psychopathy, child sexual arousal) that mediate the prediction
Maria T. Daversa; Raymond A. Knight
The mechanistic bases of natural and sexual selection on physiological and behavioral traits were examined in male morphs of three colors of the side-blotched lizard, Uta stansburiana. Orange-throated males are aggressive and defend large territories with many females. Blue-throated males defend smaller territories with fewer females; however, blue-throated males assiduously mate guard females on their territory. Yellow-throated males do not
Barry Sinervo; Donald B. Miles; W. Anthony Frankino; Matthew Klukowski; Dale F. DeNardo
The respiratory disorders expressed by obstructive hypopneas and apneas during sleep, as well as the sequences of crescendo in respiratory effort without hypopneas or apneas which define the upper airway resistance syndrome, terminate with (thanks to) an arousal, defined by EEG changes. In some cases, the activation of the central nervous system is restricted to a sympathetic activation, which has been mainly studied in the cardiovascular area, and is not always accompanied by a cortical arousal. Various approaches (heart rate, blood pressure, pulse transit time, peripheral arterial tonometry) make the identification of sympathetic activation possible. Sympathetic activation seems to be more sensitive than cortical arousal to the stimulations generated by the respiratory system via an activation of mechanoreceptors stimulated by the increased respiratory effort in response to total or partial occlusion of the upper airway. The mechanisms of the cortical or autonomic arousal are not fully understood, but their detection could be a diagnostic tool for the identification of such disorders. Such tools are currently under validation. PMID:14646811
Krieger, J; Schröder, C; Erhardt, C
Measurement approaches for male and female sexual dysfunction have proliferated in recent years, spurred in large part by the development of new treatments for male and female dysfunction. In the past, physiologic measures of penile tumescence and rigidity in males, and vaginal blood flow in females, played an important role in clinical and research studies. More recently, a variety of brief, self-report measures have been developed for assessing male and female function across a variety of sexual domains (eg, desire, arousal, orgasm, satisfaction). These self-report measures have been shown to have a high degree of reliability and validity, and are sensitive to treatment interventions. Accordingly, they are widely employed in clinical trials. Daily diary or sexual event logs have similarly been developed for this purpose. Self-report measures have been used for clinical screening purposes and for diagnostic assessment of sexual function in a number of studies. Finally, several disease-specific quality of life and treatment satisfaction measures have been developed, which are currently in widespread use in clinical trials of sexual dysfunction. PMID:11353580
Rosen, R C
In the cat, the cortical arousal induced by reticular or nociceptive stimulation is more intense and more long-lasting after elimination of the caudal and medial part of the medulla than in preparations with intact brain. This difference is explained by the intervention of a phasic-ascending inhibitory bulbar control secondarily triggered by the mesencephalic activating system.
Marthe Bonvallet; Vincent Bloch
Unitary concepts of arousal have outlived their usefulness and their psychological fractionation corresponds to a similar chemical differentiation of the reticular formation of the brain. Neurobiological characteristics of the monoaminergic and cholinergic systems can be described in terms of their anatomical, electrophysiological and neurochemical properties. Functional studies suggest that the coeruleo-cortical noradrenergic system, under certain circumstances, is implicated in processes
Trevor W. Robbins
Increasing attention is being paid to the actual and potential psychological costs of screening and other medical procedures (Marteau, 1989; Wardle & Pope, 1992). It has been suggested that the anxiety aroused by breast screening may significantly offset the benefits of early treatment and reduced mortality (Roberts, 1989; Schmidt, 1990; Tobias & Baum, 1996; Wright, 1986). This brief paper reviews
Heterosexual men and homosexual men rated how arousing different sexual fantasies were and how often they had used these fantasies\\u000a over the previous year. Within each group, sensual and genital same-orientation fantasies were more arousing than either public-sex\\u000a or dominance-submissive fantasies, which in turn were more arousing than aggressive-sex fantasies. For both heterosexual and\\u000a homosexual men the extent to which
James Keating; Ray Over
Subjects in an independent groups free learning experiment recalled list of low- or high-arousal words, matched for imagery and frequency and exposed randomly for 3 seconds and 9 seconds. Extrapolating neural consolidation theory to previous work on serial position effects led to the predictions that (1) arousal facilitates primacy; (2) arousal…
Osborne, John W.
Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of…
Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G. Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I.
There are limited hemodynamic data in women with arousal or orgasmic disorders and even fewer normative control hemodynamic data in women without sexual dysfunction. In addition, there is limited experience with topical vasoactive agents (used to maximize genital smooth muscle relaxation) applied to the external genitalia during hemodynamic evaluations. The aim of this study was to report duplex Doppler ultrasound clitoral cavernosal arterial changes before and after topical PGE-1 (Alprostadil) administration in control women and in patients with arousal and orgasmic sexual disorders. We found that women with sexual arousal and orgasmic disorders had significantly (p < 0.05) diminished clitoral peak systolic and end diastolic velocity responses compared to controls. Further research is needed to establish the diagnostic role of topical vasoactive agents in the hemodynamic evaluation of women with sexual dysfunction. PMID:12735085
Bechara, A; Bertolino, M V; Casabé, A; Munarriz, R; Goldstein, I; Morin, A; Secin, F; Literat, B; Pesaresi, M; Fredotovich, N
Arousal protects against the adverse and potentially fatal effects of asphyxia during sleep. Asphyxia stimulates the carotid bodies and central chemoreceptors but the sequence of events leading to arousal is uncertain. In this review, the theoretical mechanisms leading to arousal from sleep are briefly summarized and the issue of whether central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) or other types of CO2-responsive CNS neurons contribute to asphyxia-induced arousal is discussed. We focus on the role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus, the raphe and the locus coeruleus and emphasize the anatomical and neurophysiological evidence which suggests that these putative central chemoreceptors could contribute to arousal independently of their effects on breathing. Finally, we describe recent attempts to test the contribution of specific brainstem pathways to asphyxia-induced arousal using optogenetic and other tools and the possible contribution of a group of hypoxia-sensitive brainstem neurons (the C1 cells) to breathing and arousal. PMID:23608705
Guyenet, Patrice G; Abbott, Stephen B G
Alterations in arousal states are associated with multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including generalized anxiety disorders, addiction, schizophrenia, and depression. Therefore, elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms controlling the boundaries between arousal, hyperarousal, and hypoarousal is a crucial endeavor in biological psychiatry. Substantial research over several decades has identified distinct arousal-promoting neural populations in the brain; however, how these nuclei act individually and collectively to promote and maintain wakefulness and various arousal states is unknown. We have recently applied optogenetic technology to the repertoire of techniques used to study arousal. Here, we discuss the recent results of these experiments and propose future use of this approach as a way to understand the complex dynamics of neural circuits controlling arousal and arousal-related behaviors.
de Lecea, Luis; Carter, Matthew E.; Adamantidis, Antoine
Part II: Differences between Sexually Victimized and Nonsexually Victimized Male Adolescent Sexual Abusers and Delinquent Youth: Further Group Comparisons of Developmental Antecedents and Behavioral Challenges
In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers (Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual
George S. Leibowitz; David L. Burton; Alan Howard
Three studies explored gender differences in explicit and implicit components of sexual arousal following brief exposure to a sexual stimulus. Whereas Study 1 assessed reports of sexual arousal following subliminal exposure to a sexual or a neutral picture, Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of the same priming procedure on accessibility of sex-related thoughts assessed with a pictorial judgment task and a lexical decision task. The subliminal sexual prime did not have an effect on men's reports of sexual arousal, but caused women to report lower levels of sexual arousal. In contrast, the same subliminal sexual prime led to higher accessibility of sex-related thoughts in both men and women. It is therefore suggested that the subliminal sexual prime causes women to activate sex-related mental contents but to experience the result as somewhat aversive. PMID:17599269
Gillath, Omri; Mikulincer, Mario; Birnbaum, Gurit E; Shaver, Phillip R
Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of two levels of processing: conscious and unconscious. Whereas some research exists on the neural correlates related with conscious exposure to sexual stimuli, there are no parallel data regarding unconscious or subliminal exposure to such stimuli. In the present study, we therefore compared brain activation of 39 participants (20 women) as they were exposed to supraliminal vs subliminal sexual stimuli. Supraliminal exposure was associated with greater activation in areas that were previously associated with sexual arousal (e.g. caudate nucleus and thalamus) as well as areas that were previously associated with control (e.g. orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate cortex). In contrast, subliminal exposure was mainly related to activation in areas previously associated with sexual arousal. Men and women exhibited theoretically meaningful differences in patterns of activation associated with supra- and subliminal exposure. Findings are discussed with regard to sexual arousal and regulatory processes.
Analysis of data from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused boys and girls, ages 3-7 years, identified five variables predictive of sexual behavior problems, including sexual arousal of the child during the abuse, perpetrator's use of sadism, a history of physical and emotional abuse, and who the child blames for the abuse. (DB)
Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John
Objective: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) has been identified as a condition of often unprovoked genital arousal associated with a significant level of distress. PGAD is not well understood, and no definitive cause has been determined. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of the disorder and to seek commonalities between cases of PGAD encountered in a chronic pain management clinic. Method: We reviewed a cohort of 15 women with PGAD who presented to a chronic non-cancer pain clinic in a large urban tertiary teaching hospital that provides pelvic and genital pain management. We conducted a series of interviews to examine medical history, history of presenting illness, and management. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the data. Results: Findings were largely consistent with previous research on PGAD regarding symptomatology and aggravating and alleviating factors. Symptoms of genital pain, depression, and interstitial cystitis were found in over one half of the patients in this cohort. Previous antidepressant use, restless legs syndrome, and pudendal neuralgia were found in a number of cases. Pelvic varices and Tarlov cysts have been previously identified as possible contributors to PGAD, but these were not a common finding in our cohort. Conclusion: Further research is needed to build on the current understanding of PGAD. Patients should be asked about persistent arousal as part of a sexual and reproductive history, especially in the case of common comorbidities. PMID:24798670
Pink, Leah; Rancourt, Valérie; Gordon, Allan
The Profile of Female Sexual Function (PFSF) is a patient-based instrument for the measuring of loss of sexual function in menopausal women with low libido (hypoactive female sexual desire disorder). The instrument, which contains 37 items in seven domains (sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, sexual pleasure, sexual concerns, sexual responsiveness, and sexual self-image) and a single-item measure of overall satisfaction with
LEONARD DEROGATIS; JOHN RUST; SUSAN GOLOMBOK; CELINE BOUCHARD; LILA NACHTIGALL; CYNTHIA RODENBERG; JAMES KUZNICKI; COLLEEN A. MCHORNEY
Sexual dysfunction is a common, but frequently overlooked, problem in postmenopausal women. At menopause, dramatic decreases in circulating estrogen concentrations cause physiologic changes that may affect sexual function, most notably the development of vulvovaginal atrophy. Vulvovaginal atrophy often leads to vaginal dryness, itching, irritation, reduced lubrication, dyspareunia, and vaginal bleeding associated with sexual activity. Estrogen deficiency also can affect other aspects of sexual function, including reduced vaginal blood flow and a reduced capacity for arousal and orgasm. As estrogen loss is a significant cause of sexual dysfunction in menopausal women, estrogen therapy is a logical treatment option in this population. Although both systemic and local estrogen therapy improve vaginal health and sexual functioning, local vaginal therapy with estrogen creams, rings, or tablets may be more appropriate for women without other indications for systemic estrogen therapy. These therapies are highly effective in reversing vaginal atrophy, improving vaginal symptomatology, and reducing dyspareunia, and may have effects on other dimensions of sexual function. Emerging treatments, such as ultra-low-dose vaginal estradiol tablets, new selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), and intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are other promising options for postmenopausal women with vaginal atrophy and sexual dysfunction. PMID:21819250
Simon, James A
Arousal has long been known to influence behavior and serves as an underlying component of cognition and consciousness. However, the consequences of hyper-arousal for visual perception remain unclear. The present study evaluates the impact of hyper-arousal on two aspects of visual sensitivity: visual stereoacuity and contrast thresholds. Sixty-eight participants participated in two experiments. Thirty-four participants were randomly divided into two groups in each experiment: Arousal Stimulation or Sham Control. The Arousal Stimulation group underwent a 50-second cold pressor stimulation (immersing the foot in 0–2° C water), a technique known to increase arousal. In contrast, the Sham Control group immersed their foot in room temperature water. Stereoacuity thresholds (Experiment 1) and contrast thresholds (Experiment 2) were measured before and after stimulation. The Arousal Stimulation groups demonstrated significantly lower stereoacuity and contrast thresholds following cold pressor stimulation, whereas the Sham Control groups showed no difference in thresholds. These results provide the first evidence that hyper-arousal from sensory stimulation can lower visual thresholds. Hyper-arousal's ability to decrease visual thresholds has important implications for survival, sports, and everyday life.
Woods, Adam J.; Philbeck, John W.; Wirtz, Philip
Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to the change in the valence of a conditioned stimulus (CS) due to its pairing with a positive or negative unconditioned stimulus (US). To the extent that core affect can be characterised by the two dimensions of valence and arousal, EC has important implications for the origin of affective responses. However, the distinction between valence and arousal is rarely considered in research on EC or conditioned responses more generally. Measuring the subjective feelings elicited by a CS, the results from two experiments showed that (1) repeated pairings of a CS with a positive or negative US of either high or low arousal led to corresponding changes in both CS valence and CS arousal, (2) changes in CS arousal, but not changes in CS valence, were significantly related to recollective memory for CS-US pairings, (3) subsequent presentations of the CS without the US reduced the conditioned valence of the CS, with conditioned arousal being less susceptible to extinction and (4) EC effects were stronger for high arousal than low arousal USs. The results indicate that the conditioning of affective responses can occur simultaneously along two independent dimensions, supporting evidence in related areas that calls for a consideration of both valence and arousal. Implications for research on EC and the acquisition of emotional dispositions are discussed. PMID:24116885
Gawronski, Bertram; Mitchell, Derek G V
Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of all three studies suggest that the anticipated enjoyment of sexual dominance mediates the relationship between RMA and rape proclivity, whereas anticipated sexual arousal does not. These findings are consistent with the feminist argument that rape and sexual violence may be motivated by men's desire to exert power over women. Theoretical and practical implications of our findings are discussed. PMID:15038883
Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I
Study Objectives: Heart rate increases after obstructive events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This response is generally attributed to arousal from sleep. Opening of the obstructed airway, however, is associated with ventilatory and hemodynamic changes that could result in physiologic responses unrelated to arousal. Our objective was to determine the contribution of these physiologic responses to postevent tachycardia. Design: Analysis of data obtained during previous research protocols. Setting: Academic sleep laboratory. Participants: Twenty patients with severe OSA. Interventions: Patients were placed on a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device. CPAP was reduced during sleep to different levels (dial-downs), producing obstructive events of varying severity. Some dial-downs with severe obstruction were maintained until spontaneous airway opening. In others, CPAP was increased after three obstructed breaths, terminating the events approximately 10 sec before spontaneous termination in long dial-downs. Measurement and Results: Beat-by-beat heart rate (HR) was measured for 20 sec following airway opening. Spontaneous opening during sustained dial-downs occurred 21.9 ± 8.4 sec after dial-down, was associated with arousal, and resulted in the greatest postevent tachycardia (7.8 ± 4.0 min-1). However, deliberate termination of events (12.2 ± 2.6 sec after dial-down) was also followed by tachycardia that, in the absence of cortical arousal, showed a dose-response behavior, increasing with severity of obstruction and without apparent threshold. ?HR following deliberately brief, severe obstruction (3.8 ± 3.0 min-1) was approximately half the ?HR that followed spontaneous opening of equally severe obstructions despite the shorter duration and absence of cortical arousal. Conclusions: Postevent tachycardia is due in large part to physiologic (arousal-unrelated) responses that occur upon relief of obstruction. Citation: Azarbarzin A; Ostrowski M; Moussavi Z; Hanly P; Younes M. Contribution of arousal from sleep to postevent tachycardia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2013;36(6):881-889.
Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Moussavi, Zahra; Hanly, Patrick; Younes, Magdy
It has been proposed that the blue-green bird egg colourations of many avian species may constitute a sexually selected female\\u000a signal that males can use to modulate their parental investment. A fundamental untested assumption for the validation of this\\u000a hypothesis is that males can accurately assess differences in the colour of eggs. A recent review suggests that this could\\u000a be
Jesús M. Avilés; Juan J. Soler; Nathan S. Hart
ObjectiveThis study examined the use of caffeine to manipulate arousal level without the confounds associated with task-related activation. From previous work in our laboratory, an increase in skin conductance level (SCL) and EEG alpha frequency, together with a global decrease in alpha power, were used as markers of arousal increase, and we sought to identify these effects with caffeine ingestion.
Robert J. Barry; Jacqueline A. Rushby; Mark J. Wallace; Adam R. Clarke; Stuart J. Johnstone; Ilinka Zlojutro
Men are generally more interested in and responsive to visual sexually arousing stimuli than are women. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that the amygdala and hypothalamus are more strongly activated in men than in women when viewing identical sexual stimuli. This was true even when women reported greater arousal. Sex differences were specific to the
Rebecca A Herman; Carla L Nolan; Kim Wallen; Stephan Hamann
Recent insights into sleep apnoea pathogenesis reveal that a low respiratory arousal threshold (awaken easily) is important for many patients. As most patients experience stable breathing periods mediated by upper-airway dilator muscle activation via accumulation of respiratory stimuli, premature awakening may prevent respiratory stimuli build up as well as the resulting stabilization of sleep and breathing. The aim of the present physiological study was to determine the effects of a non-benzodiazepine sedative, eszopiclone, on the arousal threshold and the AHI (apnoea/hypopnoea index) in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. We hypothesized that eszopiclone would increase the arousal threshold and lower the AHI in patients with a low arousal threshold (0 to ?15 cmH2O). Following a baseline overnight polysomnogram with an epiglottic pressure catheter to quantify the arousal threshold, 17 obstructive sleep apnoea patients, without major hypoxaemia [nadir SaO2 (arterial blood oxygen saturation) >70%], returned on two additional nights and received 3 mg of eszopiclone or placebo immediately prior to each study. Compared with placebo, eszopiclone significantly increased the arousal threshold [?14.0 (?19.9 to ?10.9) compared with ?18.0 (?22.2 to ?15.1) cmH2O; P < 0.01], and sleep duration, improved sleep quality and lowered the AHI without respiratory event prolongation or worsening hypoxaemia. Among the eight patients identified as having a low arousal threshold, reductions in the AHI occurred invariably and were most pronounced (25 ± 6 compared with 14 ± 4 events/h of sleep; P < 0.01). In conclusion, eszopiclone increases the arousal threshold and lowers the AHI in obstructive sleep apnoea patients that do not have marked overnight hypoxaemia. The greatest reductions in the AHI occurred in those with a low arousal threshold. The results of this single night physiological study suggest that certain sedatives may be of therapeutic benefit for a definable subgroup of patients. However, additional treatment strategies are probably required to achieve elimination of apnoea.
ECKERT, Danny J.; OWENS, Robert L.; KEHLMANN, Geoffrey B.; WELLMAN, Andrew; RAHANGDALE, Shilpa; YIM-YEH, Susie; WHITE, David P.; MALHOTRA, Atul
It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a crucial role in the processing of emotions. The precise nature of its involvement is however unclear. We hypothesized that ambivalent findings from neuroimaging studies that report amygdala's activity in emotions, are due to distinct functional specificity of amygdala's sub-divisions and specifically to differential reactivity to arousal and valence. The goal of the present study is to characterize the amygdala response to affective stimuli by disentangling the contributions of arousal and valence. Our hypothesis was prompted by recent reports claiming anatomical sub-divisions of amygdala based on cytoarchitecture and the functional maps obtained from diverse behavioral, emotional, and physiological stimulation. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings from 12 healthy individuals passively exposed to affective stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) collection using a 2 (Valence levels)×2 (Arousal levels) design. Source power was estimated using a beamformer technique with the activations referring to the amygdala sub-divisions defined through probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Right laterobasal amygdala activity was found to mediate negative valence (elicited by unpleasant stimuli) while left centromedial activity was characterized by an interaction of valence by arousal (arousing pleasant stimuli). We did not find a main effect for amygdala activations in any of its sub-divisions for arousal modulation. To the best of our knowledge, our findings from non-invasive MEG data indicate for the first time, a distinct functional specificity of amygdala anatomical sub-divisions in the emotional processing. PMID:23688672
Styliadis, Charalampos; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos
Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of valence and arousal dimensions of music on physiological and subjective recovery from stress, and how these effects might be moderated by trait absorption. In Experiment 1, 40 participants experienced stress after being told to prepare a speech, and then listened to peaceful music or white noise. In Experiment 2,
Gilllian M Sandstrom
The localization of orexin neuropeptides in the lateral hypothalamus has focused interest on their role in ingestion. The orexigenic neurones in the lateral hypothalamus, however, project widely in the brain, and thus the physiological role of orexins is likely to be complex. Here we describe an investigation of the action of orexin A in modulating the arousal state of rats
Jim J. Hagan; Ron A. Leslie; Sara Patel; Martyn L. Evans; Trevor A. Wattam; Steve Holmes; Christopher D. Benham; Stephen G. Taylor; Carol Routledge; Panida Hemmati; Richard P. Munton; Tracey E. Ashmeade; Ajit S. Shah; Jonathan P. Hatcher; Paula D. Hatcher; Declan N. C. Jones; Martin I. Smith; David C. Piper; A. Jackie Hunter; Rod A. Porter; Neil Upton
Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…
Anderson, Craig A.; And Others
Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game effects on physiological desensitization, defined as showing less physiological arousal to violence in the real world after exposure to video game violence in the virtual world. This experiment attempts to
Nicholas L. Carnagey; Craig A. Anderson; Brad J. Bushman
Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in adults is associated with abnormalities in arousal and emotional responsivity, which are observed physiologically, behaviourally and via self-report measures. While an accurate measure of physiological arousal is debated, Barry et al. (2005, 2007, 2008) have consistently shown an inverse relationship between skin conductance level (SCL), and mean alpha power (alpha) during an eyes-closed resting condition (EC), accompanied by an increase in SCL and corresponding decrease in alpha during eyes-open (EO). Thus, alpha may provide a novel index of autonomic arousal. This study aimed to elucidate the neural and autonomic correlates of arousal disturbances in TBI. Participants were 17 adults with TBI (13 males; mean age 46.50) and 22 matched controls (14 males; mean age 41.25). Mean alpha and SCL were recorded across two 2 minute conditions (EC and EO). Paralleling previous research (e.g., Barry et al., 2007), a significant decrease in alpha was found from EC to EO for the sample overall, but this was significantly reduced in TBI participants. Further, TBI participants showed diminished regional differences compared to controls. Lower SCLs across EC-EO were also found in TBI participants compared to controls. Contrasting expectations, an increase in SCL from EC to EO was not found. This study showed that examining simple alpha changes provides insight into TBI-related arousal disturbances. Importantly, our findings accord with the nature of TBI, which involves global and region-specific damage. PMID:23707301
Rushby, Jacqueline A; Fisher, Alana C; McDonald, Skye; Murphy, Anne; Finnigan, Simon
Physiological resonance between individuals is considered fundamental to the biological capacity for empathy. Observers of pain and distress commonly exhibit increases in reported distress, autonomic arousal, facial mimicry, and overlapping neural activity. An important, unstudied question is whether physiological stress can also resonate. Physiological stress is operationalized as activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes. People
Tony W. Buchanan; Sara L. Bagley; R. Brent Stansfield; Stephanie D. Preston
Physiological resonance between individuals is considered fundamental to the biological capacity for empathy. Observers of pain and distress commonly exhibit increases in reported distress, autonomic arousal, facial mimicry, and overlapping neural activity. An important, unstudied question is whether physiological stress can also resonate. Physiological stress is operationalized as activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes. People
Tony W. Buchanan; Sara L. Bagley; R. Brent Stansfield; Stephanie D. Preston
Physiological indicators of arousal have long been known to be sensitive to mental events such as positive and negative emotion, changes in attention and changes in workload. It has therefore been suggested that human physiology might be of use in the evaluation of software usability. To this, there are two main approaches or paradigms: (i) comparisons of physiological readings across
Robert D. Ward; Philip H. Marsden
Orphanin FQ/nociceptin (OFQ/N) inhibits the activity of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones located in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) that regulate female sexual behaviour and energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that gonadal steroids differentially modulate the ability of OFQ/N to inhibit these cells via presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release and postsynaptic activation of G protein-gated, inwardly-rectifying K(+) (GIRK)-1 channels. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in hypothalamic slices prepared from ovariectomised rats. OFQ/N (1 ?m) decreased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), and also caused a robust outward current in the presence of tetrodotoxin, in ARH neurones from vehicle-treated animals. A priming dose of oestradiol benzoate (EB; 2 ?g) increased basal mEPSC frequency, markedly diminished both the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents, and potentiated the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mIPSC frequency. Steroid treatment regimens that facilitate sexual receptivity reinstate the basal mEPSC frequency, the OFQ/N-induced decrease in mEPSC frequency and the activation of GIRK-1 currents to levels observed in vehicle-treated controls, and largely abolish the ability of OFQ/N to decrease mIPSC frequency. These effects were observed in an appreciable population of identified POMC neurones, almost one-half of which projected to the medial preoptic nucleus. Taken together, these data reveal that gonadal steroids influence the pleiotropic actions of OFQ/N on ARH neurones, including POMC neurones, in a disparate manner. These temporal changes in OFQ/N responsiveness further implicate this neuropeptide system as a critical mediator of the gonadal steroid regulation of reproductive behaviour. PMID:24617903
Borgquist, A; Rivas, V M; Kachani, M; Sinchak, K; Wagner, E J
Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.
Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried
The purpose of the study is to assess psychosocial factors (anxiety, depression, body image, fear of recurrence, arousal, libido, erection) simultaneously at an individual level to determine which has the greatest influence on couples' satisfaction. We be...
T. Krupski T. Polascik
Breathing and vigilance are regulated by pH and CO2 levels in the central nervous system. The hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Orx)- and histamine (HA)-containing hypothalamic neurons synergistically control different aspects of the waking state. Acidification inhibits firing of most neurons but these two groups in the caudal hypothalamus are excited by hypercapnia and protons, similar to the chemosensory neurons in the brain stem. Activation of hypothalamic wake-on neurons in response to hypercapnia, seen with the c-Fos assay, is supported by patch-clamp recordings in rodent brain slices: Hcrt/Orx and HA neurons are excited by acidification in the physiological range (pH from 7.4 to 7.0). Multiple molecular mechanisms mediate wake-promoting effects of protons in HA neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN): among them are acid-sensing ion channels, Na(+),K(+)-ATPase, group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRI). HA neurons are remarkably sensitive to the mGluRI agonist DHPG (threshold concentration 0.5 µM) and mGluRI antagonists abolish proton-induced excitation of HA neurons. Hcrt/Orx neurons are excited through block of a potassium conductance and release glutamate with their peptides in TMN. The two hypothalamic nuclei and the serotonergic dorsal raphe cooperate toward CO2/acid-induced arousal. Their interactions and molecular mechanisms of H(+)/CO2-induced activation are relevant for the understanding and treatment of respiratory and metabolic disorders related to sleep-waking such as obstructive sleep apnea and sudden infant death syndrome. PMID:24798513
Kernder, Anna; De Luca, Roberto; Yanovsky, Yevgenij; Haas, Helmut L; Sergeeva, Olga A
The study of arousal and attention could be of prominent importance for elucidating both fundamental and practical aspects\\u000a of the mind–brain puzzle. Defined as “general activation of mind” (Kahnemann in Attention and effort. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey,\\u000a 1973), or “general operation of consciousness” (Thacher and John in Functional neuroscience: foundations of cognitive processing.\\u000a Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977), arousal can be considered as
Jordan Pop-Jordanov; Nada Pop-Jordanova
Looking preferences to visual temporal frequencies were examined in 77 infants at 3 ages (newborn, 1 month, and 4 months) in 3 conditions: less aroused (after feeding), more aroused-internal (before feeding), and more aroused-external (after feeding with 8 Hertz visual stimulation). Found that infants preferred faster stimuli when less aroused and…
Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.
Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071
Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M
On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a mix of sadistic cues of violence and victim injury as well as cues of victim resistance and nonconsent. The present study was conducted to identify the critical cues producing self-identified sadists' sexual responses, and thereby to test sexual sadism as an explanation of rapists' arousal pattern. The present study was also conducted to develop a new phallometric test for sexual sadism for research and clinical applications, given evidence of poor diagnostic reliability and validity. Eighteen self-identified male sadists, 22 men with some sadistic interests who did not meet all of our sadist criteria, and 23 nonsadists (all recruited from the community) were compared in their genital and subjective responses to a new set of stories that disentangle violence/injury cues from resistance/nonconsent cues. The three groups differed in both their genital and subjective responses: using indices of relative responding, sadists responded significantly more to cues of violence/injury than nonsadists and men with some sadistic interests. The group difference for cues of nonconsent was not significant. The results suggest that sexual sadism primarily involves arousal to violence/injury in a sexual context rather than resistance/nonconsent. PMID:22708887
Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L; Harris, Grant T; Chivers, Meredith L
Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal.
Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.
Arousal-based physiological changes influence acoustic features of vocalizations in mammals. In particular, nonlinear phenomena are thought to convey information about the caller's arousal state. This hypothesis was tested in the infant African elephant (Loxodonta africana) roar, a call type produced in situations of arousal and distress. Ninety-two percent of roars exhibited nonlinear phenomena, with chaos being the most common type. Acoustic irregularities were strongly associated with elevated fundamental frequency values. Roars produced in situations of highest urgency, based on the occurrence of behavioral indicators of arousal, were characterized by the lowest harmonics-to-noise ratio; this indicates low tonality. In addition, roars produced in these situations lasted longer than those produced in contexts of lower presumed urgency. Testing the infant roars for individual distinctiveness revealed only a moderate classification result. Combined, these findings indicate that infant African elephant roars primarily function to signal the caller's arousal state. The effective communication of this type of information may allow mothers to respond differentially based on their infant's degree of need and may be crucial for the survival of infant African elephants in their natural environment. PMID:21895107
Stoeger, Angela S; Charlton, Benjamin D; Kratochvil, Helmut; Fitch, W Tecumseh
Normal waking is associated with neuronal activity in several chemically defined ascending arousal systems. These include monoaminergic neurons in the brainstem and posterior hypothalamus, cholinergic neurons in the brainstem and basal forebrain, and hypocretin (orexin) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Collectively, these systems impart tonic activation to their neuronal targets in the diencephalon and neocortex that is reflected in the low-voltage fast-frequency electroencephalogram patterns of wakefulness. Neuronal discharge in these arousal systems declines rapidly at sleep onset. Transitions from waking to sleep, therefore, involve coordinated inhibition of multiple arousal systems. An important source of sleep-related inhibition of arousal arises from neurons located in the preoptic hypothalamus. These preoptic neurons are strongly activated during sleep, exhibiting sleep/waking state-dependent discharge patterns that are the reciprocal of that observed in the arousal systems. The majority of preoptic sleep regulatory neurons synthesize the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Anatomical and functional evidence supports the hypothesis that GABAergic neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) exert inhibitory control over the monoaminergic systems and the hypocretin system during sleep. Recent findings indicate that MnPN and VLPO neurons integrate homeostatic aspects of sleep regulation and are important targets for endogenous sleep factors, such as adenosine and growth hormone releasing hormone. PMID:18591488
Szymusiak, Ronald; McGinty, Dennis
The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. PMID:24769524
Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M
Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. PMID:24586080
Denlinger, Crystal S; Carlson, Robert W; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; McCabe, Mary S; McVary, Kevin T; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O'Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah
The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological defense as measured by the Kragh tachistoscopic Defense Mechanisms Test (DMT), and general arousal properties of the individual as measured with electroencephalogram (EEG). The DMT assesses defense by presenting neutral and threatening pictures with very short exposure times. EEG characteristics were measured in the 8-12 Hz EEG frequency band during DMT testing. Twenty-one male subjects participated in the study. All were US Air Force personnel on active duty. Personnel with high defense mechanisms, defined in this connection as slow perception of the threat, tended to have higher cortical arousal after Stimulus exposure than the subjects with low defense mechanisms. The differences occurred mainly with new stimulus material without any threatening content. The differences in arousal response to novel stimuli may contribute to an understanding of the relationships between the Kragh DMT test and performance in life-threatening situations. PMID:8931391
Eriksen, H R; Olff, M; Mann, C; Sterman, M B; Ursin, H
The cholinergic ascending arousal pathway is one of the most powerful cortical activation systems. The origins of this system is from the pedunculopontine tegmentum (PPTg) and laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT), which relay their signals to the posterior hypothalamus, the basal forebrain and then the cerebral cortex. The cholinergic activation by selective agonists or cholinesterase inhibitors has been shown to produce cortical activation and induce awareness from anesthesia. Orexin neurons are localized in the lateral to posterior hypothalamus. In this review, we presented the antagonistic action of orexin-A to isoflurane anesthesia in terms of the cortical release of acetylcholine and EEG arousal. Microinjection of orexin-A into the basal forebrain induced the increases in acetylcholine release and EEG arousal through orexin-1 receptors. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of the PPTg induced the increases in acetylcholine release and EEG arousal under isoflurane anesthesia, and SB334867, an orexin-1 receptor antagonist, attenuated these arousal responses. These findings suggest that the orexinergic system may contribute to the arousal from anesthesia through the cholinergic ascending arousal pathway. PMID:17243642
Fukuda, Satoru; Zhu, Zhenghua; Morita, Shigeho
Woman's sexuality encompasses sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationships. It is modulated throughout life by life and reproduction-related events, health, relationships, and sociocultural variables. The aging process and menopause are two potent contributors to female sexual dysfunction. The earlier the menopause, the more severe and complex the impact on sexuality is. The younger the woman, the less she realizes the different key goals of her life cycle (falling in love, having a satisfying sexual life, forming a stable couple, getting married, having a family) and the more pervasive the consequences on her sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationship can be. Premature menopause is an amplified paradigm of the complex impact menopause can have on women's and couple's sexuality. This paper will focus on biologically based sexual issues, namely desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders, as well as key questions encountered in infertility. The concepts of "symptom inducer" and "symptom carrier" will also be addressed. PMID:20840281
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment.
Montgomery, Keith A.
The researchers explored the theoretical prism of Sigmund Freud's latency period (6-to-12 years of age), to ascertain whether an absence of erotic arousal during latency is fundamentally essential for children to attain healthy psychosexual development. Exploratory factor analysis discovered two factors that measured erotic disruption during the latency period (i.e., exposure to sexually explicit material [SEM] and child sexual abuse).
Sallie A. Hunt; Shane W. Kraus
Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA The Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) is a self-report measure of sexual functioning that has been validated on a clinically diagnosed sample of women with female sexual arousal disorder. The present investigation extended the validation of the FSFI to include women with a primary clinical
CINDY M. MESTON
Reports on various social science projects undertaken to investigate nonverbal communication. Findings indicated that mutual gaze influences physiological arousal, an actor can gaze in such a way that he or she manipulates the other person's physiology, and a subject's response to a mutual gaze is a good predictor of dominance or submission in…
Mazur, Allan; And Others
Over a short period in the late 1990s, three groups converged on the discovery of a neuropeptide system, centred in the dorsolateral hypothalamus, that regulates arousal states, influences feeding and is implicated in the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Subsequent studies have illuminated many aspects of the circuitry of the hypocretin (also called orexin) system, which also influences hormone secretion and autonomic
Luis de Lecea; J. Gregor Sutcliffe
It is hypothesized that the drug, epinephrine, used in conjunction with a fear arousing film on the consquences of smoking would be more effective than either alone in increasing fear and negative attitudes toward smoking and, resultantly, in reducing cigarette consumption. The experimenters assigned 119 subjects to the four cells of a 2x2…
Deckner, C. William; Rogers, Ronald W.
The authors investigated the role of homosexual arousal in exclusively heterosexual men who ad-mitted negative affect toward homosexual individuals. Participants consisted of a group of homo-phobic men (n = 35) and a group of nonhomophobic men (n = 29); they were assigned to groups on the basis of their scores on the Index of Homophobia (W. W. Hudson & W.
Henry E. Adams; Lester W. Wright; Bethany A. Lohr
Investigated the relationships among different kinds of punishment, autonomic arousal, subjective anxiety, and avoidance learning in primary sociopaths. 90 male Ss consisting of 30 primary sociopaths (PSs), 30 neurotic sociopaths (NSs), and 30 normal controls (NCs) were selected and assigned, on the basis of 10 from each group, to 1 of 3 punishment conditions: physical punishment (PP shock), tangible punishment
Frank J. Schmauk
In a series of studies, the effects of benzodiazepines on arousal threshold during sleep have been investigated. Two studies, one using flurazepam, 30 mg, over 10 nights and one using triazolam, .5 mg, over 6 nights were conducted in the authors' laborato...
L. C. Johnson C. L. Spinweber
Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being’s life and is more than just the sexual act. Normal sexual functioning consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The reasons for disturbing sexual functioning are multifactorial and comprise disease-related factors as well as therapy. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by progressive joint destruction resulting from chronic synovial inflammation. It leads to various degrees of disability, and ultimately has a profound impact on the social, economic, psychological, and sexual aspects of the patient’s life. This is a systemic review about the impact of RA on sexual functioning.
Tristano, Antonio G
This review focuses on the contributions of the central thalamus to normal mechanisms of arousal regulation and to neurological disorders of consciousness. Forebrain arousal is regulated by ascending influences from brainstem/basal forebrain neuronal populations ("arousal systems") and control signals descending from frontal cortical systems. These subcortical and cortical systems have converging projections to the central thalamus that emphasize their role in maintaining organized behavior during wakefulness. Central thalamic neurons appear to be specialized both anatomically and physiologically to support distributed network activity that maintains neuronal firing patterns across long-range cortico-cortical pathways and within cortico-striatopallidal-thalamocortical loop connections. Recruitment of central thalamic neurons occurs in response to increasing cognitive demand, stress, fatigue, and other perturbations that reduce behavioral performance. In addition, the central thalamus receives projections from brainstem pathways evolved to rapidly generate brief shifts of arousal associated with the appearance of salient stimuli across different sensory modalities. Through activation of the central thalamus, neurons across the cerebral cortex and striatum can be depolarized and their activity patterns selectively gated by descending or ascending signals related to premotor attention and alerting stimuli. Direct injury to the central thalamus or prominent deafferentation of these neurons as a result of complex, multifocal, brain insults are both associated with severe impairment of forebrain functional integration and arousal regulation. Interventions targeting neurons within the central thalamus may lead to rational therapeutic approaches to the treatment of impaired arousal regulation following nonprogressive brain injuries. A model accounting for present therapeutic strategies is proposed. PMID:18591473
Schiff, Nicholas D
\\u000a Arousal refers to the maintenance of an appropriate level of cerebral activity to successfully complete the task in which\\u000a one is engaged. Arousal occurs on a continuum from hypoarousal to hyperarousal and may fluctuate quickly. Appropriate arousal\\u000a is a necessary prerequisite for consciousness. Arousal is anatomically mediated through the ascending reticular activating\\u000a system (RAS), which has projections arising from the
James G. Scott
This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148
Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S
Paroxysmal motor phenomena and arousals during sleep are frequent. The differential diagnoses between benign hypnic transient events, epileptic and non-epileptic seizures represent a common clinical problem. Video-EEG monitoring during sleep, recording several episodes in the same patient, is essential in order to characterize these phenomena. It offers the possibility to compare electro-clinical data, to demonstrate the eventual stereotyped pattern of motor phenomena and their progression in time, and to study EEG-polygraphic correlates. The recently described double split-screen synchronized display (DSSSD) technique represents a useful tool for comparing particular clinical patterns of epileptic seizures when dealing with complex, hypermotor phenomena observed in frontal lobe epilepsy. We reviewed the data of 24 patients admitted during a two-year period (2002-2003) to our epilepsy sleep unit for isolated paroxysmal sleep motor events. Four patients presented with very brief paroxysmal arousals without daytime fits. Three of our patients presented isolated paroxysmal arousals, whereas in one, the events were associated with hypermotor seizures. We present a simplified variant of the DSSSD method (modified DSSSD) that can be used to study episodes of paroxysmal arousals in order to confirm their stereotyped motor pattern. The clinical aspects and the EEG-polygraphy patterns were informative, with the absence of asymmetrical tonic or dystonic posturing of the limbs. Scalp EEG alone does not usually provide much information in patients with isolated paroxysmal arousals. Coupled to the modified DSSSD technique, it may allow confirmation of the diagnosis of frontal epilepsy, as was the case in our four patients. [Published with video sequences]. PMID:16567325
Valenti, Maria Paola; Froelich, Sébastien; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Thibault, Anne; Chassagnon, Serge; Arzimanoglou, Alexis; Hirsch, Edouard
In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target…
Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin
POSTULATES THAT THERE ARE 2 MAJOR SYSTEMS IN THE BRAIN THAT MAINTAIN THE ONGOING BEHAVIOR OF THE VERTEBRATE ORGANISM. AROUSAL SYSTEM I IS RELATED TO THE RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM. IT MAINTAINS THE AROUSAL OF THE ORGANISM, AND PROVIDES THE ORGANIZATION FOR RESPONSES. AROUSAL SYSTEM II IS RELATED TO THE LIMBIC SYSTEM, AND PROVIDES CONTROL OF RESPONSES THROUGH INCENTIVE RELATED STIMULI.
Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO2. Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO2 in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and don’t know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process.
The behavior and characteristics of sexually sadistic serial murderers have been described primarily in relation to their paraphilic arousal to the control and torture of their victims. Sadistic sexual murderers who demonstrate both sadism and masochism have been described, but less is known about this type of offender. This article will review a number of hypotheses proposed to explain these
James L. Knoll; Robert R. Hazelwood
Recent studies from our laboratory have investigated the hormonal response to various forms of sexual stimulation, including film, masturbation, and coitus in both men and women. This series of studies clearly demonstrated that plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are substantially increased for over 1h following orgasm (masturbation and coitus conditions) in both men and women, but unchanged following sexual arousal without
Tillmann H. C Krüger; Philip Haake; Uwe Hartmann; Manfred Schedlowski; Michael S Exton
Background: Decreased sexual interest and function both occur as a consequence of antidepressant medication use, and are especially associated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). However, few investigators have reported the base rate for disturbances in sexual desire, arousal and orgasm or ejaculation in patients with major depression (MD) prior to antidepressant treatment. The purpose of this report is to define
Sidney H. Kennedy; Susan E. Dickens; Beata S. Eisfeld; R. Michael Bagby
This article reviews the descriptive literature on sexual revictimization and the evidence for the theoretical models that have been formulated to explain this phenomenon. Also, a speculative account of sexual revictimization is presented. The proposed model emphasizes individuals' attempts to influence or control the quality, frequency, intensity, or duration of fear and arousal associated with a history of uncontrollable and
Brian P. Marx; Jennifer M. Heidt; Sari D. Gold
The perimenopause, with its attendant physiological and psychological changes, has inè uences on a woman's sexuality. These may be positive, e.g. bringing a release from fears of pregnancy leading to an increased sexual enjoyment. More often though the perimenopause brings negative physical effects, such as erratic heavy periods, hot è ushes and vaginal dryness and also negative psychological effects such
Introduction: Synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which a certain stimulus induces a concurrent sensory perception; it has an estimated prevalence of 4%. Sexual arousal as an inducer for synaesthetic perceptions is rarely mentioned in the literature but can be found sometimes in case reports about subjective orgasmic experiences. Aims: To examine whether synaesthetic perceptions during sexual intercourse have an impact on the sexual experience and the extent of sexual trance compared to non-synaesthetes. Methods: In total, 19 synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia (17 female; 2 male) were included as well as corresponding control data of 36 non-synaesthetic subjects (n = 55). Two questionnaires were used to assess relevant aspects of sexual function and dysfunction (a German adaption of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning, KFSP) as well as the occurrence and extent of sexual trance (German version of the Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire, OAVAV). Additionally qualitative interviews were conducted in some subjects to further explore the nature of sexual experiences in synaesthetes. Main Outcome Measures: Sexual experience and extent of sexual trance during intercourse. Results: Synaesthetes depicted significantly better overall sexual function on the KFSP with increased scores for the subscale “sexual appetence” but coevally significant lower subscale scores for “sexual satisfaction.” Sexual dysfunction was not detected in this sample. Synaesthetes depicted significantly higher levels of the subscales “oceanic boundlessness” and “visionary restructuralization” than controls using the OAVAV. Qualitative interviews revealed varying synaesthetic perceptions during the different states of arousal. Furthermore, synaesthetes reported an unsatisfactory feeling of isolation caused by the idiosyncratic perceptions. Conclusions: Synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia seem to experience a deeper state of sexual trance without, however, enhanced satisfaction during sexual intercourse.
Nielsen, Janina; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.; Hartmann, Uwe; Passie, Torsten; Fehr, Thorsten; Zedler, Markus
Introduction: Synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which a certain stimulus induces a concurrent sensory perception; it has an estimated prevalence of 4%. Sexual arousal as an inducer for synaesthetic perceptions is rarely mentioned in the literature but can be found sometimes in case reports about subjective orgasmic experiences. Aims: To examine whether synaesthetic perceptions during sexual intercourse have an impact on the sexual experience and the extent of sexual trance compared to non-synaesthetes. Methods: In total, 19 synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia (17 female; 2 male) were included as well as corresponding control data of 36 non-synaesthetic subjects (n = 55). Two questionnaires were used to assess relevant aspects of sexual function and dysfunction (a German adaption of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning, KFSP) as well as the occurrence and extent of sexual trance (German version of the Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire, OAVAV). Additionally qualitative interviews were conducted in some subjects to further explore the nature of sexual experiences in synaesthetes. Main Outcome Measures: Sexual experience and extent of sexual trance during intercourse. Results: Synaesthetes depicted significantly better overall sexual function on the KFSP with increased scores for the subscale "sexual appetence" but coevally significant lower subscale scores for "sexual satisfaction." Sexual dysfunction was not detected in this sample. Synaesthetes depicted significantly higher levels of the subscales "oceanic boundlessness" and "visionary restructuralization" than controls using the OAVAV. Qualitative interviews revealed varying synaesthetic perceptions during the different states of arousal. Furthermore, synaesthetes reported an unsatisfactory feeling of isolation caused by the idiosyncratic perceptions. Conclusions: Synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia seem to experience a deeper state of sexual trance without, however, enhanced satisfaction during sexual intercourse. PMID:24137152
Nielsen, Janina; Kruger, Tillmann H C; Hartmann, Uwe; Passie, Torsten; Fehr, Thorsten; Zedler, Markus
The current study examined the differences in arousal (physiologically and subjectively) between gamblers and non-gamblers. Thirty students from a mid-sized university took part in the study for a chance to win money in a gambling task. Nearly half of the participants identified themselves as non-gamblers and slightly more than half of the participants considered themselves gamblers. Findings indicated that gamblers experienced a significantly higher increase in physiological arousal (heart rate) compared to non-gamblers during the gambling experience. The results suggests the possibility that physiological arousal may play a role in the appeal of gambling to certain types of people. Furthermore, when gamblers suffered a loss at the end of the game, they reported feeling worse as compared to the non-gamblers and relative to their state before playing. Moreover, this affective change explained 28.6% of the variance in gambling behavior according to self-reports. Findings suggest that gamblers in our study may have been more personally invested in the gambling tasks, such that losing was more disappointing to the habitual gamblers than the non-gamblers. PMID:22057368
Pascual-Leone, Antonio; Campeau, Jennifer L; Harrington, Shawn J
It is well-established that exposure to emotionally laden events initiates secretion of the arousal-related hormone epinephrine in the periphery. These neuroendocrine changes and the subsequent increase in peripheral physiological output play an integral role in modulating brain systems involved in memory formation. The impermeability of the blood brain barrier to epinephrine represents an important obstacle in understanding how peripheral hormones
C. C. Chen; C. L. Williams; Antonella Gasbarri; Claude Messier; Edwin J. Barea
Some effects of sexual abuse, for example, heightened sexual activity, are also risk factors for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, Social Cognitive theory suggests that the reduced self-esteem and increased sexual arousal that can result from abuse might alter self-efficacy for performing a behavior and expected outcomes of the behavior, making adoption of preventive behavior more difficult.
Nancy J. Thompson; Jennifer Sharpe Potter; Catherine A. Sanderson; Edward W. Maibach
Previous research has examined individual trait-level characteristics, as well as situational factors related to the self-reported likelihood of males engaging in sexually aggressive behaviors. This study integrates both of these lines of research, proposing a model where individual attitudinal characteristics (sexually coercive attitudes, sexually coercive fantasy use) predict intermediate situational outcomes (current arousal, perceptions of the victim's experience), and subsequent
Jeffrey A. Bouffard; M. Lyn Exum
This paper presents data from a series of prelimary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and
Lisa J. Cohen; Konstantin Nikiforov; Sniezyna Gans; Olga Poznansky; Pamela McGeoch; Carrie Weaver; Enid Gertmanian King; Ken Cullen; Igor Galynker
Recent research suggests profound sex and sexual orientation differences in sexual response. These results, however, are based on measures of genital arousal, which have potential limitations such as volunteer bias and differential measures for the sexes. The present study introduces a measure less affected by these limitations. We assessed the pupil dilation of 325 men and women of various sexual
Gerulf Rieger; Ritch C. Savin-Williams
A large number of biological, psycho-relational and socio-cultural factors are related to women's sexual health and they may negatively affect the entire sexual response cycle inducing significant changes in sexual desire, arousal, orgasm and satisfaction during the entire reproductive life span. In spite of the high prevalence of sexual problems with increasing age, sexual retirement is not an inevitable consequence of the passage of time and a high proportion of men and women remains sexually active well into later life, a result of changing attitudes toward sexuality and the availability of effective treatments for sexual dysfunction. Population-based studies reported an age-related decline of sexual functioning and an additional adverse effect of menopausal status. Ageing per se interferes with the level of sexual performance, but sexual behaviour of midlife and older women is highly dependent on several factors such as general physical and mental well-being, quality of relationship and life situation. Sex hormones, mainly low levels of estradiol, are relevant for the lack of sexual awareness and vaginal receptivity in naturally menopausal women. Even diminished levels of androgens, as it more frequently occurs in surgically menopausal women, has a negative impact on desire and sexual responsiveness. Several hormonal treatments have been used locally or systemically to alleviate sexual symptoms, especially by using estrogen plus androgen preparations and tibolone, with noticeable results on drive, enjoyment, lubrication, ability to reach orgasm and initiation of sex. However, sexual counseling and individualized management is mandatory to obtain meaningful and long-lasting results in clinical practice. PMID:17576405
Nappi, R E; Albani, F; Valentino, V; Polatti, F; Chiovato, L; Genazzani, A R
A host of biological and psychosocial factors play an important role in age-related changes of female sexuality. The most important of these are the availability of a sexually active partner and presence of concurrent illnesses. Some of the age-related changes in physiological indicators of sexual function, such as vaginal blood flow, are the result of estrogen deficiency, and as such are essentially reversible. Despite the inherent limitations of many studies in female sexuality, a significant degree of objective measurements has been reported in the literature. Future research should focus on developing appropriate techniques for quantitative estimation of sexual response in women. The need for love and sexual intimacy does not diminish with age, and sexual history should be part of the clinical evaluation of older patients. PMID:2331184
Mooradian, A D; Greiff, V
Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks.
Halasz, Peter; Kelemen, Anna; Szucs, Anna
Pregnancy and the puerperium herald dramatic and complex physiological, psychological, interpersonal, and sexual changes in a woman and in the marital process. Pregnancy tends to have an increasingly negative effect on sexual desire, expression, and satisfaction as term approaches. Clinical variables discussed include anatomic and physiological changes, puerperal sexual response patterns, marital adjustment, body image, dyspareunia related to episiotomy, lactation,
Kenneth J. Reamy; Susan E. White
Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed.
Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.
\\u000a \\u000a Zusammenfassung\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Fragestellung\\u000a Es werden Studien bewertet, die klinische Bilder nächtlicher Frontallappenepilepsie und Arousal-Parasomnien vergleichen. Differential-diagnostische\\u000a Kriterien und deren Interrater-Reliabilität werden bestimmt. Es wird untersucht, ob bei den Erkrankungen der gleiche Arousalmechanismus\\u000a zugrunde liegt.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patienten und Methoden\\u000a Patienten mit Frontallappen epilepsie wurden videopolysomnographisch untersucht und ihre Anfälle wurden typisiert: Paroxysmale\\u000a Arousal (PA), nächtliche paroxysmale Dystonie (NPD) und epileptische nächtliche Wanderungen (ENW).
Pasquale Montagna; Federica Provini; Francesca Bisulli; Paolo Tinuper
THE fact that electrocortical `activation' and behavioural `arousal' are often correlated has led to interchangeable use of these terms in recent years. This identity stems from the extensive research of Magoun and Lindsley1, who have put forward the unifying hypothesis that both wakefulness and low-voltage, fast electro-corticographic (EGG) activity depend on the `tonic' facilitatory effect of the ascending reticular system
Samuel M. Feldman; Hardress J. Waller
Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.
Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.
Hormones exert a pervasive influence on sexual activity. Androgens are involved in the initiation and maintenance of libido\\u000a and spontaneous arousal. In recent years, the clinical use of exogenous androgens for treatment of sexual dysfunction has\\u000a received a great deal of attention. Good evidence exists that such treatment is effective for arousal difficulties in men\\u000a and women in the setting
Stuart N. Seidman
Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P < .05) correlates of both physiological and psychological satisfaction included sexual guilt, sexual self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships.
Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J. Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B.
This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517
George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P
Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…
Background: Currently, there is no consistent evidence that breast feeding reduces the risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Arousal from sleep is believed to be an important survival mechanism that may be impaired in victims of SIDS. Previously it has been shown that arousability is impaired by the major risk factors for SIDS such as prone sleeping and maternal smoking. Aims: To establish whether arousability was altered by method of feeding, and whether breast fed infants would have lower arousal thresholds. Methods: Forty three healthy term infants were studied using daytime polysomnography on three occasions: 2–4 weeks post-term, 2–3 months post-term, and 5–6 months post-term. Multiple measurements of arousal threshold (cm H2O) in response to nasal air jet stimulation applied alternately to the nares were made in both active sleep (AS) and quiet sleep (QS) while infants slept supine. Arousal thresholds and sleep period lengths were compared between formula fed and breast fed infants at each age. Results: Arousal thresholds were not different between breast fed and formula fed infants in QS. However, in AS breast fed infants were significantly more arousable than formula fed infants at 2–3 months of age. There was no difference between groups of infants when sleep period length was compared at any study. Conclusions: Breast fed infants are more easily aroused from AS at 2–3 months of age than formula fed infants. This age coincides with the peak incidence of SIDS.
Horne, R; Parslow, P; Ferens, D; Watts, A; Adamson, T
We interviewed and examined 293 married women, 15-49 years of age, seeking primary care at a teaching hospital in central Nigeria. One or more sexual problems were identified in 71% of women. The proportion of specific sexual problems was 39% for a desire problem, 40% for an arousal problem, 31% for a sex pain problem and 55% for an orgasmic problem. Poor marital communication, lack of foreplay, Islamic religion and advancing age were independently associated with a desire problem. Absence of foreplay was independently associated with an arousal problem. Lack of foreplay, lower abdominal pain, gynaecological conditions, working outside the home and younger age were independently associated with a sex pain problem. The absence of foreplay, poor marital communication and being a housewife were independently associated with an orgasmic problem. Sexual problems are common among married Nigerian women seeking outpatient care. PMID:17066072
Ojomu, F; Thacher, T; Obadofin, M
A fundamental question in human sexuality regards the neural substrate underlying sexually-arousing representations. Lesion and neuroimaging studies suggest that dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an important role in regulating the processing of visual sexual stimulation. The aim of this Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) study was to explore DLPFC structures involved in the processing of erotic and non-sexual films. fNIRS was
Jose Leon-Carrion; Juan Francisco Martín-Rodríguez; Jesús Damas-López; Kambiz Pourrezai; Kurtulus Izzetoglu; Juan Manuel Barroso y Martin; M. Rosario Dominguez-Morales
... experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence.  Sexual Health News & Information HHS Statement on LGBT Health Awareness ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...
Hibernating ground squirrels maintain homeostasis despite extreme physiological challenges. In winter, these circannual hibernators fast for months while cycling between prolonged periods of low blood flow and body temperature, known as torpor, and short interbout arousals (IBA), where more typical mammalian parameters are rapidly restored. Here we examined the kidney proteome for changes that support the dramatically different physiological demands of the hibernator's year. We identified proteins in 150 two-dimensional gel spots that altered by at least 1.5-fold using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. These data successfully classified individuals by physiological state and revealed three dynamic patterns of relative protein abundance that dominated the hibernating kidney: 1) a large group of proteins generally involved with capturing and storing energy were most abundant in summer; 2) a select subset of these also increased during each arousal from torpor; and 3) 14 spots increased in torpor and early arousal were enriched for plasma proteins that enter cells via the endocytic pathway. Immunohistochemistry identified ?(2)-macroglobulin and albumin in kidney blood vessels during late torpor and early arousal; both exhibited regional heterogeneity consistent with highly localized control of blood flow in the glomeruli. Furthermore, albumin, but not ?(2)-macroglobulin, was detected in the proximal tubules during torpor and early arousal but not in IBA or summer animals. Taken together, our findings indicate that normal glomerular filtration barriers remain intact throughout torpor-arousal cycles but endocytosis, and hence renal function, is compromised at low body temperature during torpor and then recovers with rewarming during arousal. PMID:22643061
Jani, Alkesh; Orlicky, David J; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L Elaine; Russell, Rae L; Hunter, Lawrence E; Martin, Sandra L
Hibernating ground squirrels maintain homeostasis despite extreme physiological challenges. In winter, these circannual hibernators fast for months while cycling between prolonged periods of low blood flow and body temperature, known as torpor, and short interbout arousals (IBA), where more typical mammalian parameters are rapidly restored. Here we examined the kidney proteome for changes that support the dramatically different physiological demands of the hibernator's year. We identified proteins in 150 two-dimensional gel spots that altered by at least 1.5-fold using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. These data successfully classified individuals by physiological state and revealed three dynamic patterns of relative protein abundance that dominated the hibernating kidney: 1) a large group of proteins generally involved with capturing and storing energy were most abundant in summer; 2) a select subset of these also increased during each arousal from torpor; and 3) 14 spots increased in torpor and early arousal were enriched for plasma proteins that enter cells via the endocytic pathway. Immunohistochemistry identified ?2-macroglobulin and albumin in kidney blood vessels during late torpor and early arousal; both exhibited regional heterogeneity consistent with highly localized control of blood flow in the glomeruli. Furthermore, albumin, but not ?2-macroglobulin, was detected in the proximal tubules during torpor and early arousal but not in IBA or summer animals. Taken together, our findings indicate that normal glomerular filtration barriers remain intact throughout torpor-arousal cycles but endocytosis, and hence renal function, is compromised at low body temperature during torpor and then recovers with rewarming during arousal.
Jani, Alkesh; Orlicky, David J.; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Russell, Rae L.; Hunter, Lawrence E.
A literature review was conducted to assess the basis of and techniques for physiological assessment of mental workload. The study findings reviewed had shortcomings involving one or more of the following basic problems: (1) physiologic arousal can be easily driven by nonworkload factors, confounding any proposed metric; (2) the profound absence of underlying physiologic models has promulgated a multiplicity of seemingly arbitrary signal processing techniques; (3) the unspecified multidimensional nature of physiological "state" has given rise to a broad spectrum of competing noncommensurate metrics; and (4) the lack of an adequate definition of workload compels physiologic correlations to suffer either from the vagueness of implicit workload measures or from the variance of explicit subjective assessments. Using specific studies as examples, two basic signal processing/data reduction techniques in current use, time and ensemble averaging are discussed.
Zacharias, G. L.
This article reviews the research literature on sexual fantasy, a central aspect of human sexual behavior. Topics include (a) gender similarities and differences in the incidence, frequency, and content of sexual fantasies and how they relate to sociocultural and sociobiological theories of sexual behavior; (b) the association between frequency or content of sexual fantasies and variables such as age, sexual
Harold Leitenberg; Kris Henning
Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…
Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther
Autobiographical memories are characterized by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive v. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal, and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within and between subject levels. In addition, the within subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation.
Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.
Learning material was presented to independent groups of subjects either after arousal from non-Rapid Eye Movement (non-REM) sleep, after arousal from REM sleep, or under conditions of no prior sleep. Measures of immediate and subsequent free recall were taken. (Editor)
Stones, M. J.
In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…
Rational choice theory outlines that human behavior is based on the perceived costs and benefits that will result from any given behavior. Before engaging in any behavior (criminal or not) the individual rationally weighs the costs and benefits associated with the outcome of the behavior. If the perceived benefits of the behavior outweigh the costs then the individual “rationally” chooses
Charlotte A. Dudley
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Task Force has recently rejected the proposal to include coercive paraphilia as an official diagnosis, reaffirming that rape is a crime and not a mental disorder. We hope this will discourage what has been the inappropriate practice of giving rapists the made-up diagnosis of paraphilia, NOS, nonconsent, to facilitate their psychiatric commitment under sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes. Losing the paraphilia, NOS, option has tempted some SVP evaluators to overdiagnose sexual sadism, which is an official DSM mental disorder. To prevent this improper application and to clarify those rare instances in which this diagnosis might apply, we present a brief review of the research on sexual sadism; an annotation of its definitions that have been included in the DSM since the Third Edition, published in 1980, and in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10); and a two-step process for making a diagnostic decision. Rape and sexual sadism have in common violence, cruelty, and a callous indifference on the part of the perpetrator to the suffering of the victim, but they differ markedly in motivation. Rapists use violence to enforce the victim's cooperation, to express aggression, or both. In contrast, in sexual sadism, the violence, domination, and infliction of pain and humiliation are a preferred or necessary precondition for sexual arousal. Only a small proportion of rapists qualify for the diagnosis of sexual sadism. PMID:22960924
Frances, Allen; Wollert, Richard
This research examines control over the effect of arousal, a dimension of affect, on judgement. Past research shows that high processing motivation enhances control over the effects of affect on judgement. Isolating and studying arousal as opposed to valence, the other dimension of affect, and its effect on judgement, we identify boundary conditions for past findings. Drawing from the literature on processes by which arousal influences judgement, we demonstrate that the role of motivation is contingent upon the type of judgement task (i.e., memory- versus stimulus-based judgement). In stimulus-based judgement, individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal on judgement under low compared to high motivation. In contrast, in memory-based judgement individuals exert greater control over the effect of arousal under high compared to low motivation. Theoretical implications and avenues for future research are discussed. PMID:23126677
Riemer, Hila; Viswanathan, Madhu
Emotion recognition is a challenging research problem with a significant scientific interest. Most of the emotion assessment studies have focused on the analysis of facial expressions. Recently, it has been shown that the simultaneous use of several biosignals taken from the patient may improve the classification accuracy. An open problem in this area is to identify which biosignals are more relevant for emotion recognition. In this paper, we perform Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) to select a subset of features that allows emotion classification. Experiments are carried out over a multimodal database with arousal and valence annotations, and a diverse range of features extracted from physiological, neurophysiological, and video signals. Results show that several features can be eliminated while still preserving classification accuracy in setups of 2 and 3 classes. Using a small subset of the features, it is possible to reach 70% accuracy for arousal and 60% accuracy for valence in some experiments. Experimentally, it is shown that the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) is relevant for arousal classification, while the electroencephalogram (EEG) is relevant for valence. PMID:24110691
Torres, Cristian A; Orozco, Alvaro A; Alvarez, Mauricio A
The purpose of this study was to evaluate sexual function in women referred to a urogynecology practice. All new patients were mailed an optional female sexual function index (FSFI) in conjunction with their history forms; other sexual function information was obtained during the physician interview. Over 6 months, four hundred fifty new patients were enrolled. Of these, 243 (54%) were not sexually active. Reasons listed for sexual inactivity included partner problems/no partner (32%), low desire (14%), prolapse (10%), and pain (10%). There were several differences between sexually active and non-sexually active participants; however, after a multivariate analysis, only age, marital status, and stage/grade 1-2 of prolapse remained significant. One hundred nine sexually active patients completed the FSFI; the majority was sexually active two to four times per month. Female sexual dysfunction was noted in 70 (64%) patients. Lowest scores were noted for the domain of desire, followed by arousal, orgasm, lubrication, satisfaction, and pain. Reduced frequency of intercourse was the only factor significantly associated with dysfunction. Ninety-four percent were not embarrassed by the survey. Overall, sexual inactivity is common in patients presenting for urogynecologic care. Those that are sexually active report low rates of sexual activity and high rates of sexual dysfunction. Most sexually active patients will accept a sexual function questionnaire as part of their routine assessment. PMID:16767528
Pauls, Rachel N; Segal, Jeffrey L; Silva, W Andre; Kleeman, Steven D; Karram, Mickey M
Hans-Jürgen Eysenck suggested that introverts are characterized by greater cortical arousal or arousability than extraverts. This prediction was tested in several studies that used the electroencephalogram (EEG) to index cortical activity, but the relations between the EEG measures and Extraversion are typically small. Possibly, situational factors that are external to the laboratory may act as nuisance variables and affect cortical
Dirk Hagemann; Ewald Naumann
Sexually competent stimuli may nonconsciously activate sexual memory and set up sexual responding. In men, subliminally presented sexual pictures facilitated recognition of sexual information. The goal of the two experiments reported here was to investigate to what extent this result can be generalized to women. A direct replication in women failed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, besides the male-oriented sexual picture set, pictures of two other sets were presented: female-oriented sexual pictures and baby pictures. Effects of the menstrual cycle were also examined. In Experiment 2 only male-oriented pictures showed a facilitation effect. Sensitivity for reproductive stimuli was enhanced during the midluteal phase. Like men, women may nonconsciously recognize a stimulus as sexual. This recognition process seems unrelated to the potential of the stimulus to elicit subjective arousal. PMID:17599249
Spiering, Mark; Everaerd, Walter; Karsdorp, Petra; Both, Stephanie; Brauer, Marieke
BACKGROUND: Formal sexual education is a mandatory component of the high school curriculum in most Canadian provinces. The present study was a preliminary assessment of sexual knowledge among a sample of Ontario adolescents who had completed their high school sexual education requirements. METHODS: A questionnaire, testing understanding of the learning objectives of Ontario’s minimally required high school sexual education course, was distributed in a paediatric emergency department to 200 adolescent patients who had completed the course. RESULTS: Respondents demonstrated good understanding of pregnancy physiology and sexually transmitted infections, but poor understanding of concepts related to reproductive physiology, contraception, HIV/AIDS and sexual assault. Most respondents could not identify Canada’s age of sexual consent. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents demonstrated concerning gaps in sexual knowledge despite completion of their sexual education requirements. Further studies must determine whether a representative, population-based student sample would exhibit similar findings. Sexual education currently offered in Ontario may require investigation.
Kumar, Maya M; Lim, Rodrick; Langford, Cindy; Seabrook, Jamie A; Speechley, Kathy N; Lynch, Timothy
The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100
Gray, Peter B
At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction. PMID:24814472
Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary
Objectification theory (Fredrickson B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206) proposes that body image concerns impair sexual function and satisfaction. The present study was designed to test whether body shame was related to sexual problems and pleasure among heterosexual men and women (N = 320). Using structural equation modeling, we tested whether adult men and women's body shame was linked to greater sexual problems (lower sexual arousability and ability to reach orgasm) and less pleasure from physical intimacy. Although women were significantly more likely to report appearance concerns than men across sexual and non-sexual contexts, appearance concerns were positively related to both men and women's sexual problems. The relationship between body shame and sexual pleasure and problems was mediated by sexual self-consciousness during physical intimacy. Men and women's body shame was related to greater sexual self-consciousness, which in turn predicted lower sexual pleasure and sexual arousability. Results persisted controlling for relationship status and age. Being in a relationship was associated with less sexual self-consciousness and less orgasm difficulty for men and women. Although some paths were significantly stronger for women than for men, results largely supported the proposition that body concerns negatively affect sexual pleasure and promote sexual problems for both men and women. Findings were discussed in terms of objectification theory and the increased cultural emphasis on physical appearance. PMID:17657464
Sanchez, Diana T; Kiefer, Amy K
Men and women exhibit different neural, genital, and subjective arousal responses to visual sexual stimuli. The source of these sex differences is unknown. We hypothesized that men and women look differently at sexual stimuli, resulting in different responses. We used eye tracking to measure looking by 15 male and 30 female (15 normal cycling (NC) and 15 oral contracepting (OC))
Heather A. Rupp; Kim Wallen
The cerebellum is considered a center underlying fine movements, cognition, memory and sexual responses. The latter feature led us to correlate sexual arousal and copulation in male rats with neural activity at the cerebellar cortex. Two behavioral paradigms were used in this investigation: the stimulation of males by distant receptive females (non-contact sexual stimulation), and the execution of up to three consecutive ejaculations. The vermis area of the cerebellum was removed following behavioral experiments, cut into sagittal sections, and analyzed with Fos immunohistochemistry to determine neuronal activation. At the mid-vermis region (sections from the midline to 0.1 mm laterally), non-contact stimulation significantly increased the activity of granule neurons. The number of activated cells increased in every lobule, but lobules 1 and 6 to 9 showed the greatest increment. In sexual behavior tests, males reaching one ejaculation had a high number of activated neurons similar to those counted after non-contact stimulation. However, two or three consecutive ejaculations showed a smaller number of Fos-ir cells. In contrast to the mid-vermis region, sections farthest from the midline (0.1 to 0.9 mm laterally) revealed that only lobule 7 expressed activated neurons. These data suggest that a well-delineated group of granule neurons have a sexual biphasic response at the cerebellar vermis, and that Fos in them is under an active degradation mechanism. Thus, they participate as a neural substrate for male rat sexual responses with an activation-deactivation process corresponding with the sensory stimulation and motor performance occurring during copulation. PMID:17936859
Manzo, Jorge; Miquel, Marta; Toledo, Rebeca; Mayor-Mar, Justo Abraham; Garcia, Luis I; Aranda-Abreu, Gonzalo E; Caba, Mario; Hernandez, Maria Elena
Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width.
Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.
Electroencephalogram recordings have been advocated for assessment of changes in cerebral function during anaesthesia. Controversy exists on the specificity of EEG parameters indicating depth of anaesthesia, because cortical electrical activity is modulated not only by drugs but also by a variety of exogenous and endogenous stimuli. In clinical practice, EEG measures often fail to accurately predict anaesthetic depth since the effects of nociceptive stimulation on the EEG are still not well defined. Previous reports indicate that in anaesthetised patients sensory stimulation may induce a shift to a dominant EEG frequency with faster waves similar to patterns seen during emergence from anaesthesia under certain circumstances. This electrophysiological arousal (EEG desynchronisation) may be associated with clinical arousal phenomena such as movement and increases in haemodynamic and respiratory activity. However, the mechanism of arousal during emergence from anaesthesia may be quite different from arousal reactions induced by noxious stimulation. Recent studies indicate that surgical stimulation can induce increases in slow wave EEG-activity ("reverse" or "paradoxical" arousal) associated with clinical arousal phenomena. Stimulus related delta patterns also were observed after acoustical or painful stimulation in head injured patients. The occurrence of slow EEG wave patterns may be related to functional blockade of the ascending activating system of the brain stem. In contrast, slowing of the EEG is comparable to EEG changes seen with increasing concentrations of anaesthetics. This indicates the difficulty to discriminate arousal phenomena from drug effects using EEG monitoring alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7999933
Two studies were reported which attempted to estimate the stability and construct validity of human salivary response as a measure of individual differences (IDs) in physiological arousal. Twenty-second base line estimates and 20-second response levels to four drops of lemon juice were measured, with the former value being removed from the latter…
Farley, Frank H.; And Others
The authors assessed the reliability and validity of the Affect and Arousal Scale for Children (AFARS; Chorpita, Daleiden, Moffitt, Yim, & Umemoto, 2000). The AFARS is a new measure of children's positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and physiological hyperarousal (PH). In the first study, 176 school children, 7 to 17 years of age, were administered measures of childhood worry,
Eric Daleiden; Bruce F. Chorpita; Weili Lu
Experimental research on sexual decision making is limited, despite the public health importance of such work. We describe formative work conducted in advance of an experimental study designed to evaluate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on risky sexual decision making among men who have sex with men. In Study 1, we describe the procedures for selecting and
Sarah E. Woolf-King; Stephen Maisto; Michael Carey; Peter Vanable
Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This paper presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1983) produced 8 factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.
Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Mustanski, Brian
Our everyday surroundings besiege us with information. The battle is for a share of our limited attention and memory, with the brain selecting the winners and discarding the losers. Previous research shows that both bottom-up and top-down factors bias competition in favor of high priority stimuli. We propose that arousal during an event increases this bias both in perception and in long-term memory of the event. Arousal-biased competition theory provides specific predictions about when arousal will enhance and when it will impair memory for events, accounting for some puzzling contradictions in the emotional memory literature.
Mather, Mara; Sutherland, Matthew R.
Introduction Impact on sexual function has received little attention in the medical literature for a long time. Because of the site of\\u000a insertion of permanent tension free vaginal tape (TVT) the G spot might be affected or the tape might interfere with arousal\\u000a and sensory stimulation. Recent studies have reported varying degrees of sexual impairment after TVT insertion ranging from\\u000a 0%
Annette Kuhn; Fiona Burkhard; Caroline Eggemann; Michael D. Mueller
Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation. PMID:23418428
Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela
Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation.
Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmuller, Daniela; Gron, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela
This study investigated how player emotions during game-play, measured through self-report and physiological recordings, predict playing time and game preferences. We distinguished between short-term (immediately after game-play) and long-term (after 3 weeks) playing time and game preferences. While pleasure was most predictive for short-term playing time and game preferences, arousal, particularly for game preferences, was most predictive on the longer term. This result was found through both self-report and physiological emotion measures. This study initiates theorizing about digital gaming as a hedonic consumer product and sketches future research endeavors of this topic. PMID:21875354
Poels, Karolien; van den Hoogen, Wouter; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand; de Kort, Yvonne
In this study, college athletes and nonathletes performed a muscular endurance task to determine pain tolerance, during which galvanic skin-response measures of arousal were obtained. The Bernreuter Personality Inventory was administered after this treatment. (JS)
Ellison, Kerry; Freischlag, Jerry
We examined the effects of viewing high-arousal pictures on regional brain activations elicited by a cognitive control task in participants with high-functioning autism and neurotypical controls. Specifically, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of brief presentations of highly arousing pictures (i.e., both very pleasant and very unpleasant) on the processing of stimuli requiring cognitive control. Similar
Gabriel S. Dichter; Aysenil Belger
Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP) component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli). Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content) spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing.
Paulmann, Silke; Bleichner, Martin; Kotz, Sonja A.
Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214
Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro
The course of sexual socialization of 50 women suffering from the Stein-Leventhal Syndrome (SLS), on which the wedge resection of the ovaries was carried out, as examined using the HTDW (heterosexual development of women) questionnaire, did not differ from that of 50 normal women of the same age. Sexual life of SLS patients was examined using an interview and the SAW (sexual activity of women), SFW (sexual function of women), and SAI (sexual arousability inventory) questionnaires. Comparison with the findings in the control group showed that the average score in all the three questionnaires was within normal limits for both groups; the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Among 45 SLS patients who had sexual experience before the surgery, 42 stated that no pronounced changes occurred in their sexual lives after resection of the ovaries. The average value of testosterone in the whole group (0.52 ng/ml plasma) was within normal limits. The level of the male sexual hormone tended to be higher in the subgroup of 19 patients with low orgastic capacity than in the subgroup of 31 orgastic SLS patients. The differences in the average scores of neurotic symptoms in the N5 questionnaire between the SLS patients and the control group were not significant. On the basis of the above findings, it is concluded that SLS patients, after wedge resection of the ovaries, are not more sexually arousable, more active, or more orgastic than medically healthy women. PMID:3924004
Raboch, J; Kobilková, J; Raboch, J; Stárka, L
Sexual behavior is mainly controlled by cognitive functions in men, though hormones, particularly sex steroids, may modulate some aspects of male sexuality. This review focuses on the role of both estrogens and androgens on male sexual desire, starting from both animal and human studies. Estrogens could play a role in human male sexual activity, similarly to what happens in animals, but even though physiological levels of estrogens could be probably required for a completely normal male sexual behavior, testosterone remains the major determinant of human male sexual behavior. PMID:12834018
Rochira, V; Zirilli, L; Madeo, B; Balestrieri, A; Granata, A R M; Carani, C
Study Objectives: Respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic (EEG) changes (RCREC), especially in delta and sigma frequencies, are thought to reflect subtle, breath-to-breath inspiratory microarousals that are exacerbated in association with increased work of breathing in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We wondered whether snoring sounds could create these microarousals, and investigated whether earplugs, anticipated to alter snoring perception, might affect RCREC. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: An accredited, academic sleep laboratory. Patients: Adults (n = 400) referred for suspected OSA. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to use earplugs or not during a night of diagnostic polysomnography. Results: Two hundred three of the participants were randomized to use earplugs. Earplug use was associated with lower RCREC in delta EEG frequencies (0.5-4.5 Hz), although not in other frequencies, after controlling for potential confounds (P = 0.048). This effect of earplug use was larger among men in comparison with women (interaction term P = 0.046), and possibly among nonobese subjects in comparison with obese subjects (P = 0.081). However, the effect of earplug use on delta RCREC did not differ significantly based on apnea severity or snoring prominence as rated by sleep technologists (P > 0.10 for each). Conclusions: This randomized controlled trial is the first study to show that perception of snoring sounds, as modulated by earplugs, can influence the cortical EEG during sleep. However, the small magnitude of effect, lack of effect on RCREC in EEG frequencies other than delta, and absence of effect modulation by apnea severity or snoring prominence suggest that perception of snoring is not the main explanation for RCREC. Citation: Chirakalwasan N; Ruzicka DL; Burns JW; Chervin RD. Do snoring sounds arouse the snorer? SLEEP 2013;36(4):565-571.
Chirakalwasan, Naricha; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Burns, Joseph W.; Chervin, Ronald D.
Part II: differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers and delinquent youth: further group comparisons of developmental antecedents and behavioral challenges.
In a recent paper published in the Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, we assessed the differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers ( Burton, Duty, & Leibowitz, 2011 ). We found that the sexually victimized group had more severe developmental antecedents (e.g., trauma and early exposure to pornography) and behavioral difficulties (sexual aggression, arousal, pornography use, and nonsexual offenses). The present study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized adolescent sexual abusers with a group of nonsexually victimized delinquent youth. Findings included that delinquent youth had fewer behavioral and developmental problems than the comparison groups. In addition, sexually victimized sexual abusers had the highest mean scores on trauma and personality measures. Implications for research and treatment are offered. PMID:22574846
Leibowitz, George S; Burton, David L; Howard, Alan
Males of most species are more aggressive than females, but the neural mechanisms underlying this dimorphism are not clear. Here, we identify a neuron and a gene that control the higher level of aggression characteristic of Drosophila melanogaster males. Males, but not females, contain a small cluster of FruM(+) neurons that express the neuropeptide tachykinin (Tk). Activation and silencing of these neurons increased and decreased, respectively, intermale aggression without affecting male-female courtship behavior. Mutations in both Tk and a candidate receptor, Takr86C, suppressed the effect of neuronal activation, whereas overexpression of Tk potentiated it. Tk neuron activation overcame reduced aggressiveness caused by eliminating a variety of sensory or contextual cues, suggesting that it promotes aggressive arousal or motivation. Tachykinin/Substance P has been implicated in aggression in mammals, including humans. Thus, the higher aggressiveness of Drosophila males reflects the sexually dimorphic expression of a neuropeptide that controls agonistic behaviors across phylogeny. PMID:24439378
Asahina, Kenta; Watanabe, Kiichi; Duistermars, Brian J; Hoopfer, Eric; González, Carlos Roberto; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún Arna; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J
This review attempts to assemble the characteristics of a distinct variant of sleepwalking called sexsomnia/sleepsex from the seemingly scarce literature into a coherent theoretical framework. Common features of sexsomnia include sexual arousal with autonomic activation (e.g. nocturnal erection, vaginal lubrication, nocturnal emission, dream orgasms). Somnambulistic sexual behavior and its clinical implications, the role of precipitating factors, diagnostic, treatment, and medico-legal issues are also reviewed. The characteristics of several individuals described in literature including their family/personal history of parasomnia as well as the abnormal behaviors occurring during sleep are reported. PMID:17706786
Andersen, Monica L; Poyares, Dalva; Alves, Rosana S C; Skomro, Robert; Tufik, Sergio
Hibernation is a unique physiological adaptation characterized by periods of torpor that consist of repeated, reversible, and dramatic reductions of body temperature, metabolism, and blood flow. External and internal triggers can induce arousal from torpor in the hibernator. Studies of hibernating animals often require that animals be handled or moved prior to sampling or euthanasia but this movement can induce changes in the hibernation status of the animal. In fact, it has been demonstrated that movement of animals while they are hibernating is sufficient to induce an artificial arousal, which can detrimentally alter experimental findings obtained from animals assumed to be torpid. Therefore, we assessed a method to induce habituation of torpid hibernators to handling and movement to reduce inadvertent arousals. A platform rocker was used to mimic motion experienced during transfer of an animal and changes in respiratory rate (RR) were used to assess responsiveness of torpid Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, Urocitellus parryii). We found that movement alone did not induce a change in RR, however, exposure to handling induced an increase in RR in almost all AGS. This change in RR was markedly reduced with increased exposures, and all AGS exhibited a change in RR ? 1 by the end of the study. AGS habituated faster mid-season compared to early in the season, which mirrors other assessments of seasonal variation of torpor depth. However, AGS regained responsiveness when they were not exposed to daily handling. While AGS continued to undergo natural arousals during the study, occurrence of a full arousal was neither necessary for becoming habituated nor detrimental to the time required for habituation. These data suggest that even when torpid, AGS are able to undergo mechanosensory habituation, one of the simplest forms of learning, and provides a reliable way to reduce the sensitivity of torpid animals to handling.
Christian, Sherri L.; Rasley, Brian T.; Roe, Tanna; Moore, Jeanette T.; Harris, Michael B.; Drew, Kelly L.
Physiology Online, the electronic information service of the Physiological Society, provides information about its three journals: Journal of Physiology, Proceedings of the Physiological Society, and Experimental Physiology. Also included are selected abstracts, as well as information about recent monographs, job listings (mostly in the U.K.), information about Society grants, a physiology file and software archive for both PC and Mac platforms, pointers to other physiology resources on the Internet, and a listing of upcoming meetings and conferences within the field.
This paper sets out the legal grounds for sexual harassment claims in education settings, and notes a number of pertinent cases that are illustrative of common legal and factual issues. Sexual harassment, including sexual abuse, is prohibited by federal and state statutes. Sexual harassment in the context of employment constitutes employment…
Uerling, Donald F.
Arousal enhances the readiness to process sensory information and respond to it. Rapid increment of arousal, referred to as arousal reaction or startle, increases the level of attention and the chance of survival. Arousal reaction is known to originate from the brainstem ascending reticular activating system and to modulate neuronal activity throughout the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated the effect of arousal on the central motor system by synchronizing transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with acoustically evoked N100 potential. Because of the widespread cortical distribution of N100 to a sudden acoustic stimulus it is thought to be related to arousal reaction. Eight healthy subjects participated in this study. TMS was focused on the primary motor cortex utilizing neuronavigation. Trains of four identical loud tones repeated at 1-s intervals were delivered to the right ear and TMS was randomly placed after one tone in the train. The motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from the contralateral first dorsal interosseous muscle. The MEPs evoked by TMS timed at N100 after the first tone in train were significantly (p<.001) larger in comparison with the control stimulation without a preceding sound or stimulation placed after the N100, i.e., 120% of the N100 interstimulus interval. Also, the MEPs following the second tone were significantly weaker (p<.05) when compared with the MEPs following the first tone. Our findings suggest that acoustic arousal reaction facilitates, not only the activation of sensory cortices, but also simultaneously the central motor system. PMID:24928350
Löfberg, O; Julkunen, P; Pääkkönen, A; Karhu, J
Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted U, or interactive with arousal. In the present study, we used a sample of 12,658 words and included many lexical and semantic control factors to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24490848
Kuperman, Victor; Estes, Zachary; Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth
... Home » Resources » Wellness » Sexuality » Sexuality & Down Syndrome Sexuality & Down Syndrome Human sexuality encompasses an individual's self-esteem, ... problems related to sexual function. Do Individuals with Down Syndrome Have Sexual Feelings? In the past, sexuality ...
Thirty-four civilly committed male sex offenders against children (SOs) chose from a list of traits to describe self, mother, father, best friend, past lover, victim and therapist. Cluster analysis (INDCLAS) uncovered five patterns (i.e. schemas) in Sos’ social perception data: “sexual lover” (past lover described as sexual, arousing, etc. as well as anxious, lonely and worried), “benevolent parent” (mother and
Warren A. Reich; Uri Amit; Harold I. Siegel
We have performed a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the electrophysiological properties of medial septal neurons in the unanesthetized rat. The rat's head was held in a stereotaxic apparatus by a painless head-restrained system that was implanted seven days prior to the recording sessions. Extracellular recordings were made in a mixed population of antidromically identified septohippocampal neurons and unidentified medial septal neurons in different states of arousal and in response to peripheral and reticular stimulations. The spontaneous activity as well as the percentage of rhythmically bursting septal neurons varied significantly according to the state of arousal. Higher values were noted in paradoxical sleep (28 imp/s and 94% of bursting neurons) as compared with wakefulness with hippocampal theta rhythm (17.4 imp/s and 64.2% of bursting neurons) and slow wave sleep (12.3 imp/s and 8% of bursting neurons). The frequency of the bursts was significantly higher during paradoxical sleep. In individual medial septal neurons, arousing stimuli and paradoxical sleep could induce rhythmic bursting activity in previously non-bursting neurons provided that they were fast-firing neurons. No differences were noted in the functional characteristics of neurons in the medial septal nucleus as compared with the diagonal band of Broca. When the unanesthetized rats were compared with a group of urethane-anesthetized rats, the spontaneous activity was higher and more irregular in the absence of anesthesia. The percentage of the bursting neurons was significantly lower in the unanesthetized rats (32.3% vs 43.3%). However, the frequency of the bursts was higher (5.9 +/- 0.1 Hz vs 3.5 +/- 0.1 Hz). Since the patterns of activity of medial septal neurons fluctuate in different physiologically relevant states, previous classifications of these neurons made by ourselves and other authors, in urethane-anesthetized rats, may not be appropriate. PMID:1603324
Sweeney, J E; Lamour, Y; Bassant, M H
During waking behavior animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. Following a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context.
Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C.; Burgess, Harold A.
Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus. PMID:22696288
Blumstein, Daniel T; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter
We investigated the interplay between arousal and valence in the early processing of affective words. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words organized in an orthogonal design with the factors valence (positive, negative, neutral) and arousal (low, medium, high) in a lexical decision task. We observed faster reaction times for words of positive valence and for those of high arousal. Data from ERPs showed increased early posterior negativity (EPN) suggesting improved visual processing of these conditions. Valence effects appeared for medium and low arousal and were absent for high arousal. Arousal effects were obtained for neutral and negative words but were absent for positive words. These results suggest independent contributions of arousal and valence at early attentional stages of processing. Arousal effects preceded valence effects in the ERP data suggesting that arousal serves as an early alert system preparing a subsequent evaluation in terms of valence. PMID:24815948
Recio, Guillermo; Conrad, Markus; Hansen, Laura B; Jacobs, Arthur M
It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687
Tritt, Shona M; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B
The Arousal Meter (AM) is a gauge derived from heart-rate variability designed to measure autonomic arousal. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which the AM could differentiate state shifts in arousal that occurred in response to workload changes. A state shift was considered to be a statistically significant change in the level of arousal relative to the level of workload. Participants (n = 56) were engaged in a dual-task paradigm continuously for 31 minutes that consisted of one of two primary tasks - one high workload (shooting game) and one low workload (surveillance task) - paired with a secondary task (mental arithmetic). The experimental paradigm shifted from high workload (shooting) to low workload (surveillance) for time intervals of 30 seconds, 1 minute, 2 minutes, 4 minutes, and 8 minutes. Participants experienced each time interval twice corresponding to each level of workload. Arousal was averaged across each time interval for each workload level. Means between the low and high workload conditions for the 2, 4, and 8 minute intervals were significantly different in the expected direction (t = 2.20, p < .05; t = 3.82, p < .01; t = 5.85, p < .01). These results indicate that the gauge resolution is approximately 2 minutes. Hence, it appears that the AM is able to differentiate tasks from one another if the tasks are greater than 2 minutes in duration. Results are promising considering the type of tasks the gauge is likely to be used with are longer in nature. Possible applications include mitigation of task characteristics to optimize arousal and subsequently performance.
Fishel, Stephanie R.; Muth, Eric R.; Hoover, Adam W.; Gugerty, Leo J.
The ability of steroid hormones to rapidly influence cell physiology through nongenomic mechanisms raises the possibility that these molecules may play a role in the dynamic regulation of social behavior, particularly in species in which social stimuli can rapidly influence circulating steroid levels. We therefore tested if testosterone (T), which increases in male goldfish in response to sexual stimuli, can rapidly influence approach responses towards females. Injections of T stimulated approach responses towards the visual cues of females 30–45 min after the injection but did not stimulate approach responses towards stimulus males or affect general activity, indicating that the effect is stimulus-specific and not a secondary consequence of increased arousal. Estradiol produced the same effect 30–45 min and even 10–25 min after administration, and treatment with the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole blocked exogenous T’s behavioral effect, indicating that T’s rapid stimulation of visual approach responses depends on aromatization. We suggest that T surges induced by sexual stimuli, including preovulatory pheromones, rapidly prime males to mate by increasing sensitivity within visual pathways that guide approach responses towards females and/or by increasing the motivation to approach potential mates through actions within traditional limbic circuits.
Lord, Louis-David; Bond, Julia; Thompson, Richmond R.
Background Reduced physiological arousal in response to breath-holding affects internal clock processes, leading swimmers to underestimate the time spent under apnea. We investigated whether reduced physiological arousal during static apnea was likely to affect the temporal organization of motor imagery (MI). Methods Fourteen inter-regional to national breath-holding athletes mentally and physically performed two 15 m swimming tasks of identical durations. They performed the two sequences in a counterbalanced order, the first while breathing normally using a scuba, the second under apnea. We assessed MI duration immediately after completion of the corresponding task. Athletes performed MI with and without holding breath. Results MI durations (26.1 s?±?8.22) were significantly shorter than actual durations (29.7 s?±?7.6) without holding breath. Apnea increased MI durations by 10% (± 5%). Heart rate decrease in response to breath-holding correlated with MI durations increase (p?.01). Under apnea, participants achieved temporal congruence between MI and PP only when performing MI of the apnea swimming task. Self-report data indicated greater ease when MI was performed in a physiological arousal state congruent with that of the corresponding motor task. Conclusions Physiological arousal affected the durations of MI through its effects on internal clock processes and by impacting the congruency in physiological body states between overt and covert motor performance. Present findings have potential implications with regards to the possibility of preventing underestimation of durations spent under a state of reduced physiological arousal.
Paraphilias are recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects. These paraphilias cause the suffering or humiliation of the patient or patient's partner, or children, or other nonconsenting persons. However, in many patients symptoms involve more culturally acceptable patterns (eg, repetitive masturbation, Internet pornography); such hypersexual symptoms have been labeled as compulsive, addictive, or impulsive. Growing evidence supports the existence of a discrete syndrome characterized by recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving patterns that fall outside the definition of paraphilia. There is, however, high comorbidity with paraphilia. While such symptoms have been labeled as sexual compulsion or addiction, these terms are problematic in this context. Modern nosology has neglected this entity, although the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), category of sexual disorders not otherwise specified includes hypersexual behaviors as an example. We suggest that the DSM-IV category of sexual disorders be modified to include explicitly diagnostic criteria for a disorder characterized by hypersexual symptoms involving patterns that fall outside of the current definition of paraphilia. The disorder might be classified as one of the paraphilias, or as paraphilia-related. In the absence of a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder, we suggest that it simply be termed hypersexual disorder. PMID:18311101
Stein, D J; Black, D W; Pienaar, W
Journal article titled "Sexual Dimorphism in the Complexity of Cardiac Pacemaker Activity" from The American Journal of PhysiologyÃÂHeart and Circulatory Physiology, by Terry B. J. Kuo, and Cheryl C. H. Yang.
Terry B. Kuo (Tzu Chi Buddhist General Hospital Department of Neurology); Cheryl C.H. Yang (Tzu Chi University Department of Physiology)
Which emotions underlie our positive experiences of art? Although recent evidence from neuroscience suggests that emotions play a critical role in art perception, no research to date has explored the extent to which specific emotional states affect aesthetic experiences or whether general physiological arousal is sufficient. Participants were assigned to one of five conditions-sitting normally, engaging in 15 or 30 jumping jacks, or viewing a happy or scary video-prior to rating abstract works of art. Only the fear condition resulted in significantly more positive judgments about the art. These striking findings provide the first evidence that fear uniquely inspires positively valenced aesthetic judgments. The results are discussed in the context of embodied cognition. PMID:22309722
Eskine, Kendall J; Kacinik, Natalie A; Prinz, Jesse J
Explores the state of sexuality education in the United States. After concerted efforts in the 1960s to stop sex education, interest in sexuality education resurged in the 1980s, largely as a result of AIDS fears. There is now a broad-based consensus on the necessity of sexuality education, but there are still few effective programs. (SLD)
Haffner, Debra W.
This review focuses on the contributions of the central thalamus to normal mechanisms of arousal regulation and to neurological disorders of consciousness. Forebrain arousal is regulated by as- cending influences from brainstem\\/basal forebrain neuronal populations (\\
Nicholas D. Schiff
The purpose of this study is twofold: (a) to determine whether daily or overall cognitive and somatic arousal better predict sleep and (b) to investigate age differences in the arousal-sleep relation. Fifty younger and 50 older adults completed the Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale and sleep diaries for 14 consecutive days. Analyses revealed mean arousal may better predict sleep regardless of age. However, daily arousal represents an important avenue of research as it may uncover lagged or coupling effects in the arousal-sleep relation. Significant age differences in the arousal-sleep relation suggest age-dependent associations between the type of arousal and sleep. Implications for assessment of sleep in older and younger adults are discussed. PMID:23746053
Shoji, Kristy D; McCrae, Christina S; Dautovich, Natalie D
This study examined the relationships between control activity, performance and arousal. Experimental non-task load (arousal) manipulations failed to generate significant performance effects, but did reliably affect at least one of three control-activity ...
H. M. Acosta
Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized ?-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain.
Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.
Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain, but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness-arousal and awareness-in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. High angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathologic analysis. High angular resolution diffusion imaging tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical "awareness pathways." Neuropathologic examination, which used ?-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of high angular resolution diffusion imaging tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the gray matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993
Edlow, Brian L; Haynes, Robin L; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M; Greenberg, Steven M; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C; Folkerth, Rebecca D
The sweat response from the palm (an arousal sweat area) is compared with that from the dorsal hand and arm (a thermal sweat area) during the elicitation of motion sickness by vestibular stimulation. Both palmar and dorsal sweating were detected by using ...
J. A. McClure A. R. Fregly E. Molina A. Graybiel
The negative valence model of political orientation proposed by Hibbing et al. is comprehensive and thought-provoking. We agree that there is compelling research linking threat to conservative political beliefs. However, we propose that further research is needed before it can be concluded that negative valence, rather than arousal more generally, underlies the psychological motivations to endorse conservative political belief. PMID:24970452
Tritt, Shona M; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B
A BSTRACT : Many children, adolescents, and adults with Attention Deficit Dis- orders report chronic difficulties with falling asleep, awakening and\\/or main- taining adequate daytime alertness. These problems may be due to a variety of factors, including environment, lifestyle, and psychiatric comorbidities. Impairments in sleep\\/arousal may also be related more directly to the under- lying pathophysiology of ADD. This chapter
THOMAS E. BROWN; WILLIAM J. McMULLEN
This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…
Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica
The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent music and art can arouse imagery experiences in an audience. Because of the relationship found between imagery and the arts in past research, it was hypothesized that artistic stimuli would have a greater influence on imagery than other kinds of stimuli (art-information or non-artistic).…
Circadian rhythms in most mammals are synchronized to local time by phase and period resetting actions of daily light-dark cycles on a retino-recipient, light-entrainable circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN receives input from other brain regions, some of which mediate the phase and period resetting actions of behavioral arousal on circadian rhythms. We review historical milestones in the discovery of so-called "nonphotic" circadian clock resetting induced by environmentally stimulated arousal, or by feedback from clock-controlled rest-activity cycles. Topics include species generality, interactions between concurrent or successive photic and nonphotic inputs to the circadian clock, neural pathways, neurotransmitters, and clock cell responses that mediate resetting by behavioral arousal. The role of behavioral inputs to the circadian clock in determining the phase of entrainment to local time in natural environments is not well understood. Nonetheless, nonphotic effects are of sufficient magnitude to raise issues for the design of experiments in behavioral neuroscience (any procedure that is sufficiently arousing may alter the timing of circadian clocks that regulate dependent variables of primary interest). Nonphotic inputs to the clock may be exploited in strategies to reset or strengthen circadian rhythms in humans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24773430
Webb, Ian C; Antle, Michael C; Mistlberger, Ralph E
Recent studies in brain dynamics have utilized a dependent variable calculated from the electroencephalogram (EEG) known as dimensional complexity (DCx), where variables such as scalp locus, cognitive task difficulty, or cortical arousal, are manipulated to test quantitative hypotheses regarding brain-state changes. The technique has been criticised on technical and theoretical grounds, yet its application to experimental time series in many
Paul A. Watters
From previous work in our laboratory, increases in skin conductance level (SCL), together with global (across-scalp) decreases in electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power and increases in alpha frequency, are useful indices of arousal increase, and here we sought to identify changes in these indices with caffeine ingestion in children. We explored the effects of a single oral dose of caffeine (80 mg)
Robert J. Barry; Adam R. Clarke; Stuart J. Johnstone; Christopher R. Brown; Jason M. Bruggemann; Irene van Rijbroek
Neuroscience is witnessing growing interest in understanding brain mechanisms of memory formation for emotionally arousing events, a development closely related to renewed interest in the concept of memory consolidation. Extensive research in animals implicates stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex as key, interacting modulators of memory consolidation for emotional events. Considerable evidence suggests that the amygdala is not a site
Larry Cahill; James L. McGaugh
Teachers often have difficulty implementing inquiry-based activities, leading to the arousal of negative emotions. In this multicase study of beginning physics teachers in Australia, we were interested in the extent to which their expectations were realized and how their classroom experiences while implementing extended experimental investigations…
Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant; Henderson, Senka; Roth, Wolff-Michael
Autonomic nervous system parameters such as electrodermal activity, heart rate, and facial EMG have been utilized extensively as measures of emotional arousal. One measure that has rarely been employed in this setting is gastric myoelectrical activity, despite the fact that "gut feelings" have an obvious and even profound role in everyday emotional life. It has been shown that the gastrointestinal system changes wall tonus and contraction rate during stressful tasks. However, the effects of emotionally salient stimuli on gastrointestinal motility have scarcely been studied. In the current study, emotional film clips designed to elicit happiness, disgust, fear, sadness, or no emotion (neutral) were presented to 16 normal participants. Electrogastrogram (EGG), skin conductance, and heart rate were measured while the participants viewed the film clips, and participants rated subjective arousal intensity and pleasantness of the film clips. We found that emotional film clips reliably induced the intended subjective feeling states. Also, EGG peak amplitudes in fear, disgust, sadness and happiness were higher than in the no emotion condition. There was a strong positive correlation (r=0.64) between EGG peak amplitude and subjective ratings of arousal. This is the first evidence that gastric myoelectrical activity is strongly correlated with arousal ratings to emotionally salient stimuli, and it suggests that EGG may add useful information about how the body contributes to the phenomenology of emotion and feeling. PMID:16403424
Vianna, E P M; Tranel, D
Relatively stable perceptions of truthfulness tend to develop in relationships, although situations may arise causing partners to become suspicious of one another. The truth bias that grows as relationships develop was conceptualized as a cognitive heuristic for judging a partner's veracity. This study of relational partners investigates the influence of the truth bias and aroused suspicion on judgments of truthfulness.
JAMES B. STIFF; HYUN J. KIM; CLOSEPET N. RAMESH
This paper explores the role of empathic arousal in mediating helping behavior. Undergraduates listened to a recording of a radio newscast that described the situation of a young woman whose parents had been killed in an automobile accident. Subjects were instructed either to imagine how the woman felt about her situation (imagine condition), or…
Coke, Jay S.; Batson, C. Daniel
This study assessed the construct validity of the Revised Behavior Problem Checklist (RBPC) by measuring attention, autonomie arousal, and personality in 40 behaviorally disordered children aged 7 to 15 years. Conduct Disorder and Socialized Aggression subscales were characterized by high Psychoticism, Impulsivity, and Lie personality scores, by lower heart rate levels, and by more errors on a continuous performance reaction-time
Adrian Raine; Fiona Jones
The hypocretins (Hcrts), also known as orexins, are two peptides derived from a single precursor produced in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. Over the past decade, the orexin system has been associated with numerous physiological functions, including sleep/arousal, energy homeostasis, endocrine, visceral functions and pathological states, such as narcolepsy and drug abuse. Here, we review the discovery of Hcrt/orexins and their receptors and propose a hypothesis as to how the orexin system orchestrates these multifaceted physiological functions. PMID:24102345
Li, Jingcheng; Hu, Zhian; de Lecea, Luis
Serotonergic systems play important roles in modulating behavioral arousal, including behavioral arousal and vigilance associated with anxiety states. To further our understanding of the neural systems associated with increases in anxiety states, we investigated the effects of multiple anxiogenic drugs on topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons using double immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and tryptophan hydroxylase combined with topographical analysis of the rat dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Anxiogenic drugs with diverse pharmacological properties including the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, the serotonin 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist m-chlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), the alpha2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine, and the benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) induced increases in behavioral arousal and vigilance behaviors consistent with an increase in anxiety state. In addition, these anxiogenic drugs, excluding yohimbine, had convergent actions on an anatomically-defined subset of serotonergic neurons within the middle and caudal, dorsal subdivision of the DR. High resolution topographical analysis revealed that at the mid-rostrocaudal level, caffeine and FG-7142 had convergent effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons that were restricted to a previously undefined region, which we have named the shell region of the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRDSh), that overlaps the anatomical border between the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus, the ventral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRV), and the ventrolateral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRVL). Retrograde tracing methods revealed that DRDSh contains large numbers of neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, a forebrain structure important for emotional appraisal and modulation of anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses. Together these findings support the hypothesis that there is a functional topographical organization in the DR and are consistent with the hypothesis that anxiogenic drugs have selective actions on a subpopulation of serotonergic neurons projecting to a distributed central autonomic and emotional motor control system regulating anxiety states and anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses. PMID:15916857
Abrams, J K; Johnson, P L; Hay-Schmidt, A; Mikkelsen, J D; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A
Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)
Romeo, Felicia F.
Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…
Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.
Although the influence of emotional arousal on declara- tive memory has been documented behaviorally, the mechanisms underlying arousal-memory interactions and their representation in the human brain remain uncertain. One route through which arousal achieves its effects on memory performance is by regulating consoli- dation processes. Animal research has revealed that the amygdala strengthens hippocampal-dependent memory consolidation in a limit- ed
K. S. LaBar; E. A. Phelps
We present a series of experiments that explore the boundary conditions for how emotional arousal influences height estimates. Four experiments are presented, which investigated the influence of context, situation-relevance, intensity, and attribution of arousal on height estimates. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the environmental context to signal either danger (viewing a height from above) or safety (viewing a height from below). High arousal only increased height estimates made from above. In Experiment 2, two arousal inductions were used that contained either 1) height-relevant arousing images or 2) height-irrelevant arousing images. Regardless of theme, arousal increased height estimates compared to a neutral group. In Experiment 3, arousal intensity was manipulated by inserting an intermediate or long delay between the induction and height estimates. A brief, but not a long, delay from the arousal induction served to increase height estimates. In Experiment 4, an attribution manipulation was included, and those participants who were made aware of the source of their arousal reduced their height estimates compared to participants who received no attribution instructions. Thus, arousal that is attributed to its true source is discounted from feelings elicited by the height, thereby reducing height estimates. Overall, we suggest that misattributed, embodied arousal is used as a cue when estimating heights from above that can lead to overestimation.
Storbeck, Justin; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.
Cortical excitability is assumed to depend on cortical arousal level in an inverted U-shaped fashion: Largest (optimal) excitability is usually associated with medium levels of arousal. It has been proposed that under conditions of low arousal, compensatory effort is exerted if attentional demands persist. People tend to avoid this resource-consuming topdown compensation by creating or selecting environmental conditions that provide
Thomas Fischer; Robert Langner; Niels Birbaumer; Burkhard Brocke
Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…
Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.
Objectives and background: Arousals from sleep are associated with increased sympathetic activation and therefore with peripheral vasoconstriction. Sleep fragmentation in the form of multiple arousals is associated with daytime somnolence and cognitive impairment; however, manual scoring of arousal is time consuming and problematic due to relatively high inter-scorer variability. We have recently shown that automated analysis of in-lab recorded peripheral
Giora Pillar; Amir Bar; Michal Betito; Robert P. Schnall; Itsik Dvir; Jacob Sheffy; Peretz Lavie
Research in the area of gynaecological cancer has increasingly examined changes to women's sexuality, with the impact of treatment on sexual wellbeing considered particularly important. The objective of this paper is to review research on gynaecological cancer and sexuality from the years 1990 to 2011. Research has documented a range of post-treatment anatomical and physical changes to women's sexual wellbeing, including changes to sexual desire, pleasure, orgasm, vaginal lubrication, genital sensitivity, arousal, and frequency of sex. Women's intrapsychic experiences of changes to sexuality include anxiety, depression, distress, and negative perceptions of sexual identity and body image. Socially constructed discourses surrounding gender and sexuality also shape women's experiences of their sexual wellbeing post-gynaecological cancer and treatment, with many women feeling a loss of womanhood and femininity with the removal of, or changes to, their reproductive organs. Finally, women's relationship context, pattern of couple communication, and partner support are associated with women's ability to cope with changes to sexuality post-gynaecological cancer. Given that sexuality is an important part of quality of life, it is important that health professionals actively communicate information to women and their partner about the effects of treatment on sexual wellbeing, in order to legitimate and normalise sexuality in this context. It is concluded that research in the area of gynaecological cancer and sexuality needs to acknowledge not only the physical/anatomical/material effects of cancer treatments, but also women's intrapsychic experiences of changes to sexuality, her relationship context, and the role of gendered discourses in shaping women's experiences of sexuality post-gynaecological cancer and treatment. PMID:21764229
Gilbert, Emilee; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of and attitudes among young people toward pornography and their sources of information about sexuality. Eight hundred and seventy-six young people ages 15-25 years (555 females and 321 males) who visited a youth center in Sweden for a period of 1 year answered a questionnaire about their use of pornography, their attitudes toward pornography, and sources of information about sexuality. Although most had seen pornographic movies, the youngest boys reported viewing the most pornography. The male participants reported that the most common reason they viewed pornography was to get aroused and to masturbate, whereas the female participants stated that they viewed pornography out of curiosity. The most frequent source of information about sexuality was peers. These results illustrate the importance of sex education to give factual information about sexuality and to counteract the messages about sexuality presented in pornography. PMID:17172202
Wallmyr, Gudrun; Welin, Catharina
The ultimate goal of research efforts directed at underload, boredom, or complacency in high-technology work environments is to detect conditions or states of the operator that can be demonstrated to lead to performance degradation, and then to intervene in the environment to restore acceptable system performance. Physiological measures may provide indices of changes in condition or state of the operator that may be of value in high-technology work environments. The focus of the present study was on the use of physiological measures in the assessment of operator condition or state in a task underload scenario. A fault acknowledgement task characterized by simple repetitive responses with minimal novelty, complexity, and uncertainty was employed to place subjects in a task underload situation. Physiological measures (electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and pupil diameter) were monitored during task performance over a one-hour test session for 12 subjects. Each of the physiological measures exhibited changes over the test session indicative of decrements in subject arousal level. While high correlations between physiological measures were found across subjects, individual differences between subjects support the use of profiling techniques to establish baselines unique to each subject.
Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Pope, Alan T.
Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare.
Mercer, Catherine H.
Consciousness develops from birth during the early months as the senses and other nervous system functions mature sufficiently to receive, process and store information. Among these is the ascending reticular activating (arousal) system in the brain stem that is responsible for wakefulness and was proposed by Penfield and Jasper more than 50 years ago as the "controlling mechanism for states of consciousness". This concept has remained the most advanced physiological interpretation of consciousness although recent developments offer greater insights into its nature. The ascending arousal system is the source of activation of the thalamocortical and cortical mechanisms for sensory input and facilitates the rapid matching of sensory input and the binding of memory during cognitive processing. Nonetheless, it is proposed that memory is the critical element through which our connection with the world exists without which, despite a fully functional arousal system, consciousness as we know it could not exist. Evidence is presented in support of this concept in addition to the physiological difficulties that must be resolved if consciousness is to be understood. PMID:19273236
Hudson, Arthur J
An investigation of the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale (SSCS) is reported that aims to measure individual variability with regard to the construct of self-consciousness as experienced in sexual situations. The construct relates to the attentional-capacity model of sexual arousal. Sexual self-consciousness may constitute a vulnerability factor for the development of sexual dysfunction. In the present study, men and women with sexual dysfunction and healthy control participants were investigated (N = 282). Principal component analysis and multitrait scaling analysis showed that a two-component, oblimin-rotated solution based on 12 items and explaining 53.7% of the total variance could be well interpreted. The Sexual Embarrassment subscale (Cronbach's alpha = .84), the Sexual Self-Focus subscale (alpha = .79), and the full scale (alpha = .85) were found to have satisfactory to good internal consistency. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory for the Sexual Embarrassment subscale (r = .84), the Sexual Self-Focus subscale (r = .79), and total score (r = .83). An effect of sex was found on the Sexual Embarrassment subscale, with female participants scoring higher than male participants. Compared with sexually functional participants, sexually dysfunctional participants scored higher on the Sexual Embarrassment and Sexual Self-Focus subscales. Convergent and divergent construct validity was investigated by comparing the associations of SSCS subscales with general self-consciousness and psychological distress scales. The pattern of correlations was interpreted as providing support for the instrument's construct validity. In conclusion, the SSCS was found to have satisfactory reliability and validity characteristics, and is expected to contribute to the field of sex research and clinical sexology. PMID:18046638
van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Geijen, Wendy E H; Sykora, Heidi
A fundamental question in human sexuality regards the neural substrate underlying sexually-arousing representations. Lesion and neuroimaging studies suggest that dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an important role in regulating the processing of visual sexual stimulation. The aim of this Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) study was to explore DLPFC structures involved in the processing of erotic and non-sexual films. fNIRS was used to image the evoked-cerebral blood oxygenation (CBO) response in 15 male and 15 female subjects. Our hypothesis is that a sexual stimulus would produce DLPFC activation during the period of direct stimulus perception ("on" period), and that this activation would continue after stimulus cessation ("off" period). A new paradigm was used to measure the relative oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) concentrations in DLPFC while subjects viewed the two selected stimuli (Roman orgy and a non-sexual film clip), and also immediately following stimulus cessation. Viewing of the non-sexual stimulus produced no overshoot in DLPFC, whereas exposure to the erotic stimulus produced rapidly ascendant overshoot, which became even more pronounced following stimulus cessation. We also report on gender differences in the timing and intensity of DLPFC activation in response to a sexually explicit visual stimulus. We found evidence indicating that men experience greater and more rapid sexual arousal when exposed to erotic stimuli than do women. Our results point out that self-regulation of DLPFC activation is modulated by subjective arousal and that cognitive appraisal of the sexual stimulus (valence) plays a secondary role in this regulation. PMID:17316990
Leon-Carrion, Jose; Martín-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; Damas-López, Jesús; Pourrezai, Kambiz; Izzetoglu, Kurtulus; Barroso Y Martin, Juan Manuel; Dominguez-Morales, M Rosario
Emotionally arousing events are typically better remembered and more resistant to forgetting than neutral events. Findings from word list paradigms suggest that this may not hold for individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), who also tend to be less accurate as eyewitnesses under some circumstances. To test whether attenuated effects of arousal on memory may be responsible for poorer eyewitness testimonies in ASD, we asked adults with and without the disorder to view either arousing or neutral versions of a narrated slide sequence (Experiment 1) or video clip (Experiment 2) before assessing their memory for the material. Both groups exhibited increases in psychophysiological arousal during the arousing compared with the neutral version of the narratives, and both groups also demonstrated a memory advantage for the arousing events. Contrary to predictions, these observations indicate that stimulus induced arousal modulates memory for naturalistic events relatively typically in ASD. PMID:22309718
Maras, Katie L; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bowler, Dermot M
Context Sexual sadism is a psychiatric disorder in which sexual pleasure is derived from inflicting pain, suffering, and/or humiliation on others. While the psychological and forensic aspects of sexual sadism have been well-characterized, little is known about the neurocognitive circuitry associated with the disorder. Sexual sadists show increased peripheral sexual arousal when observing other individuals in pain. The neural mechanisms underlying this unusual response are not well understood. We predicted that sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, would show increased responses in brain regions associated with sexual arousal (amygdala, hypothalamus, ventral striatum) and affective pain processing (anterior cingulate, anterior insula) during pain observation. Objective To study the neural correlates of pain observation in sexual sadists and non-sadists. Design Case-control, cross-sectional study. Sexual sadists and non-sadists viewed 50 social scenes, 25 which depicted a person in pain (e.g., one person stabbing another person’s hand with scissors) and 25 thematically matched no-pain pictures (e.g., one person stabbing a table with scissors with another person’s hand nearby). Pain severity ratings (0 = none, 4 = severe) were acquired following each picture presentation. Setting Sand Ridge Secure Treatment Center, Mauston, Wisconsin. Participants 15 violent sexual offenders; eight sexual sadists and seven age, IQ, and education-matched non-sadists (defined by the Severe Sexual Sadism Scale). Main Outcome Measures Hemodynamic response revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and pain severity ratings. Results Sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, showed greater amygdala activation when viewing pain pictures. They also rated pain pictures higher on pain severity than non-sadists. Sexual sadists, but not non-sadists, showed a positive correlation between pain severity ratings and activity in the anterior insula. Conclusions These results provide neurobehavioral evidence of unusually heightened sensitivity to the pain of others in sexual sadists.
Harenski, Carla L.; Thornton, David M.; Harenski, Keith A.; Decety, Jean; Kiehl, Kent A.
Little is known about how men women conceptualize sexual desire. This descriptive study explored beliefs about the nature of sexual desire. Participants defined sexual desire in a free response format. The results suggest that there is no single common understanding of sexual desire. In particular, although men and women conceptualize the state of sexual desire in a manner similar to researchers and theorists (i.e., as a subjective, psychological experience rather than as a physiological or behavioral sexual event), sexual desire represents a more romantic, interpersonal experience for women than for men. Significantly more women than men believed that love and emotional intimacy are important goals of sexual desire, and fewer women than men viewed sexual activity as a goal of sexual desire. PMID:8743623
Regan, P C; Berscheid, E
Neurodermatitis is a chronic disease affecting the patient's psychosocial status and quality of life. It is associated with a variety of psychologic problems, including demoralization, depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and sleep disturbances. Coexistence of sexual dysfunction, especially in women, with several systemic diseases has gained interest in recent years. In this study, we evaluated sexual function in female patients with neurodermatitis. We enrolled 89 women (43 patients, 46 controls) in the study. Quality of life was assessed with the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to determine sexual function. Individuals with psychiatric disorders and/or those using antidepressants were excluded. The total DLQI score was 11.95 ± 5.65 in patients with neurodermatitis. The total FSFI score was significantly lower in patients compared with healthy controls (22.76 ± 5.31 and 28.83 ± 3.50, respectively; P = .001). Domain scores of FSFI (desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and satisfaction) except pain were significantly lower in patients with neurodermatitis (P = .001). The pain score was also lower in patients than controls, but the difference was not statistically significant (P = .073). Neurodermatitis may be associated with sexual dysfunction, and patients with neurodermatitis should be evaluated with regard to sexual function to provide a better quality of life. PMID:20864649
Ermertcan, Aylin Türel; Gencoglan, Gulsum; Temeltas, Gokhan; Horasan, Gonul Dinc; Deveci, Artuner; Ozturk, Ferdi
Learning of a food motivated delayed reinforcement autoshaping task was investigated in rats treated with water vehicle or the prototypical anxiogenic agent and alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (0.5 or 1.5 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before behavioral testing). Unconditioned exploratory rearing activity was monitored concomitantly with acquisition of a lever touch response. The low dose of yohimbine enhanced learning, but it also increased unconditioned behavioral arousal. The high dose retarded acquisition, but when it was withdrawn the animals learned but exploratory activity increased beyond control levels prior to acquisition. Learning thus appeared to be related to the behavioral arousal produced by yohimbine, suggesting that learning enhancement by anxiogenic substances is not due to a direct effect on processes intrinsic to information storage and retrieval; rather, anxiogenic substances may be important modulators of vigilance and performance variables. PMID:3613864
Huang, M S; Messing, R B; Sparber, S B
Cognition-enhancing effects of no-otropic drugs are currently ascribed to an increase in arousal level. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of three doses of oxiracetam (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg IP) on a radial maze task and on slow wave sleep (SWS) latency in a familiar environment. The 25- and 100-mg/kg doses, but not the 50-mg/kg, significantly improved performance in the memory task. On the other hand, SWS latency was significantly increased by 50 and 100 mg/kg, with the effect of the 25-mg/kg dose going in the same direction but only approaching significance. These results give only a partial support to the "arousal factor hypothesis." Other factors are probably involved in the promnesic effects of oxiracetam. PMID:8146219
Cavoy, A; Van Golf-Racht, B; Delacour, J
Sexual pain is an underrecognized and poorly treated constellation of disorders that significantly impact affected women and their partners. Recognized as a form of chronic pain, sexual pain disorders are heterogeneous and include dyspareunia (superficial and deep), vaginismus, vulvodynia, vestibulitis, and noncoital sexual pain disorder. Women too often tolerate pain in the belief that this will meet their partners' needs. This article provides a review of the terminology and definition of the condition, theories on the pathophysiology, diagnostic considerations, and recommendations on the management of female sexual pain. PMID:20393420
Boardman, Lori A; Stockdale, Colleen K
Sex response in women is expressed by different phases (desire, arousal, lubrication, plateau, orgasm and resolution). Any divergence would lead to female sexual dysfunction (FSD), which cause distress and agony. The psychological factors incorporate inhibitions from personality, depression, angedonia, anxiety and coital pain. Such inhibitions would isolate women to seek pleasures in unnatural means of satisfaction. While the medical problems
PHCOG REV; Shoeb Qureshi; Zaman Ara; Viquar Fatima Qureshi; S. S. Al-Rejaie; A. M. Aleisa; S. A. Bakheet; O. A. Al-Shabanah; Mohammad Rehan Qureshi; Roohi Fatima; Mohammad Farhan Qureshi; Abdullah M. Al-Bekairi
The current study used latent profile analysis (LPA) to examine anger control in 257 second-grade children (?8 years of age). Anger was induced through losing a game and prize to a confederate who cheated. Three components of anger control were assessed: self-report of awareness of anger, observed intensity of angry facial expressions, and skin conductance reactivity. These components served as indicators in an LPA conducted to determine whether distinct groups of children who differed in anger control profiles would emerge. Five groups were found: (a) Physiology-and-Expression Controllers (high self-report, low expression, low physiological arousal), (b) Expression-Only Controllers (high self-report, low expression, high physiological arousal), (c) Non-controllers (high self-report, high expression, medium physiological arousal), (d) Non-reactive (low self-report, low expression, low physiological arousal), and (e) Non-reporters (low self-report, medium expression, medium physiological arousal). These findings are discussed in terms of implications for the assessment of children's anger control skills and intervention programs for children's anger management. PMID:21397250
Smith, Marissa; Hubbard, Julie A; Laurenceau, Jean-Philippe
Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties.
McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy
This report focuses on recent policy, and academic and clinical developments in the therapeutic management of sex offenders, including the need for more robust assessment and risk management protocols. Information is provided on current thinking about psychological and pharmacological interventions. Meta-analytic studies clearly indicate that cognitive behavioural and relapse prevention programmes are the most effective intervention, but there is a small amount of literature suggesting that pharmacological treatments may have some utility. With advances in our understanding of the neural substrates of deviant sexual arousal we may be able to develop and trial novel neuropharmacological agents that target dysfunctional neurochemical circuits in this field.
Background: Sexual disorders among diabetic men have been proved in different studies but sexual dysfunction of diabetic women has received attention only recently. Neuropathy, vascular impairment, and psychological complaints have been implicated in the pathogenesis of decreased libido, low arousability, decreased vaginal lubrication, orgasmic dysfunction, and dyspareunia among diabetic women. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in different areas among diabetic women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 women who were recruited from a diabetes center, based on questionnaires completed by them. Data regarding demographic features, physical complications, and sexual disorders were obtained. Medical records of patients were used to obtain body mass index (BMI) and details of complications. Results: Mean age of participants, duration of diabetes, and BMI was 48.8 ± 0.4, 8.9 ± 0.32 years, and 28.9 ± 0.23, respectively. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 32.3%. Low sexual desire was seen in 81.8%, disorders of arousal in 78.3%, of orgasm in 47.5%, and 35.1% had disorder in resolution area. There was no significant relationship between some factors such as age, duration of diabetes, BMI, and frequency of sexual dysfunction. Frequency of diabetic complications demonstrated a significant effect on the prevalence of sexual dysfunction. Conclusion: Sexual problems are frequent among diabetic women and deserve more attention in clinical practice and researches.
Omidvar, Shabnam; Niaki, Maryam T.; Amiri, Fatemeh Nasiri; Kheyrkhah, Farzan
The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000 ) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF; Rosen et al., 1997 ) are two of the most widely used measures of sexual dysfunction. However, they have potential measurement and psychometric flaws that have not been addressed in the literature. This article examines the measurement capabilities of these measures based on data collected from an online study in 2010. A convenience sample of 518 sexually active adults (65% female) drawn from the general community were included in the analyses. Both measures displayed critical theoretical and measurement problems for the assessment of sexual problems beyond sexual arousal, and for the sexual desire domains in particular. Based on these results, we encourage clinicians and researchers to think critically about whether the FSFI and IIEF are appropriate measures for their practice and research. In particular, these measures are inappropriate for use among individuals who are not currently sexually active, and research with a focus other than sexual arousal should consider supplementary measures of sexual function. The psychometric properties of these measures should be reassessed in clinical samples, but the theoretical issues with the measures raised in this article are relevant across clinical and research contexts. PMID:24826876
Forbes, Miriam K; Baillie, Andrew J; Schniering, Carolyn A
One of the essential tasks of neuropsychoanalysis is to investigate the neural correlates of sexual drives. Here, we consider the four defining characteristics of sexual drives as delineated by Freud: their pressure, aim, object, and source. We systematically examine the relations between these characteristics and the four-component neurophenomenological model that we have proposed based on functional neuroimaging studies, which comprises a cognitive, a motivational, an emotional and an autonomic/neuroendocrine component. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal (SA) have thrown a new light on the four fundamental characteristics of sexual drives by identifying their potential neural correlates. While these studies are essentially consistent with the Freudian model of drives, the main difference emerging between the functional neuroimaging perspective on sexual drives and the Freudian theory relates to the source of drives. From a functional neuroimaging perspective, sources of sexual drives, conceived by psychoanalysis as processes of excitation occurring in a peripheral organ, do not seem, at least in adult subjects, to be an essential part of the determinants of SA. It is rather the central processing of visual or genital stimuli that gives to these stimuli their sexually arousing and sexually pleasurable character. Finally, based on functional neuroimaging results, some possible improvements to the psychoanalytic theory of sexual drives are suggested. PMID:24672467
One of the essential tasks of neuropsychoanalysis is to investigate the neural correlates of sexual drives. Here, we consider the four defining characteristics of sexual drives as delineated by Freud: their pressure, aim, object, and source. We systematically examine the relations between these characteristics and the four-component neurophenomenological model that we have proposed based on functional neuroimaging studies, which comprises a cognitive, a motivational, an emotional and an autonomic/neuroendocrine component. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal (SA) have thrown a new light on the four fundamental characteristics of sexual drives by identifying their potential neural correlates. While these studies are essentially consistent with the Freudian model of drives, the main difference emerging between the functional neuroimaging perspective on sexual drives and the Freudian theory relates to the source of drives. From a functional neuroimaging perspective, sources of sexual drives, conceived by psychoanalysis as processes of excitation occurring in a peripheral organ, do not seem, at least in adult subjects, to be an essential part of the determinants of SA. It is rather the central processing of visual or genital stimuli that gives to these stimuli their sexually arousing and sexually pleasurable character. Finally, based on functional neuroimaging results, some possible improvements to the psychoanalytic theory of sexual drives are suggested.
The relative predictive abilities of two indices of test anxiety were investigated. The galvanic skin response (GSR) and the Test Anxiety Scale for Children (TASC) were used as predictor variables for IQ and achievement test performance. The results of multiple linear regression analysis indicated that neither the TASC nor the GSR, combined over…
Nighswander, James K.; Beggs, Donald L.
Studied male students who viewed an aggressive television program or a neutral one. Half of the students were then angered by a confederate. Results indicated angered men who had seen the aggressive film were most aggressive and exhibited the lowest average pulse rates both before and after shock delivery. (Author/JAC)
Thomas, Margaret Hanratty
Definitions of sexual sadism in ICD-10 and DSM-IV will be presented as well as the historical routes of the concept. Today studies on differently selected clinical samples reveal a different distribution of sexual sadism versus masochism with masochism prevailing in general especially outpatient psychiatric facilities, and sadism prevailing in forensic settings, thus corroborating the concept of two separated diagnoses sadism
Wolfgang Berner; Peter Berger; Andreas Hill
... healthy aging. As we age, our bodies undergo changes that may hinder the rewarding sex life enjoyed until this time. For example, hormone levels decrease, medical conditions may affect sexual performance, chronic pain may get in the way, and surgery can have a severe impact on sexual response. ...
Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)
Leith, David E.
Knowledge about the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on human sexual behaviors and partner interactions remains limited. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesize that OXT should be able to positively influence parameters of sexual function and couple interactions. Employing a naturalistic setting involving 29 healthy heterosexual couples (n=58 participants), we analyzed the acute effects of intranasally administered OXT (24IU) on sexual drive, arousal, orgasm and refractory aspects of sexual behavior together with partner interactions. Data were assessed by psychometric instruments (Acute Sexual Experiences Scale, Arizona Sexual Experience Scale) as well as biomarkers, such as cortisol, ?-amylase and heart rate. Intranasal OXT administration did not alter "classical" parameters of sexual function, such as sexual drive, arousal or penile erection and lubrication. However, analysis of variance and a hierarchical linear model (HLM) revealed specific effects related to the orgasmic/post-orgasmic interval as well as parameters of partner interactions. According to HLM analysis, OXT increased the intensity of orgasm, contentment after sexual intercourse and the effect of study participation. According to ANOVA analysis, these effects were more pronounced in men. Men additionally indicated higher levels of sexual satiety after sexual intercourse with OXT administration. Women felt more relaxed and subgroups indicated better abilities to share sexual desires or to empathize with their partners. The effect sizes were small to moderate. Biomarkers indicated moderate psychophysiological activation but were not affected by OXT, gender or method of contraception. Using a naturalistic setting, intranasal OXT administration in couples exerted differential effects on parameters of sexual function and partner interactions. These results warrant further investigations, including subjects with sexual and relationship problems. PMID:24503174
Behnia, Behnoush; Heinrichs, Markus; Bergmann, Wiebke; Jung, Stefanie; Germann, Janine; Schedlowski, Manfred; Hartmann, Uwe; Kruger, Tillmann H C
Some suggest that arousal is the essential element in order to engage the amygdala. However, the role of arousal in the larger emotional memory network may differ depending on the valence (positive, negative) of the to-be-remembered information. The goal of the current study was to determine the influence of arousal-based changes in amygdalar connectivity for positive and negative items. Participants were shown emotional and neutral pictures while they underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. The emotional pictures varied by valence (positive or negative), and arousal (high or low). Approximately 45 minutes later, outside of the scanner, participants took a surprise recognition test. Effective connectivity analysis examined how arousal affected successful encoding activity. For negative information, arousal increased the strength of amygdala connections to the inferior frontal gyrus and the middle occipital gyrus, while for positive information arousal decreased the strength of these amygdala efferents. Further, while the effect of arousal on memory for positive information was restricted to amygdalar efferents, arousal had a more widespread effect for negative items, enhancing connectivity between other nodes of the emotional memory network. These findings emphasize that the effect of arousal on the connectivity within the emotional memory network depends on item valence.
Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Addis, Donna Rose; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction", "cardiovascular diseases", "coronary artery disease", "myocardial infarct" and "prevalence" was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity. PMID:24270960
Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gastão; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature regarding the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular diseases. An article search of the ISI Web of Science and PubMed databases using the search terms "sexual dysfunction”, “cardiovascular diseases”, “coronary artery disease", “myocardial infarct" and “prevalence” was performed. In total, 893 references were found. Non-English-language and repeated references were excluded. After an abstract analysis, 91 references were included for full-text reading, and 24 articles that evaluated sexual function using validated instruments were selected for this review. This research was conducted in October 2012, and no time restrictions were placed on any of the database searches. Reviews and theoretical articles were excluded; only clinical trials and epidemiological studies were selected for this review. The studies were mostly cross-sectional, observational and case-control in nature; other studies used prospective cohort or randomized clinical designs. In women, all domains of sexual function (desire, arousal, vaginal lubrication, orgasm, sexual dissatisfaction and pain) were affected. The domains prevalent in men included erectile dysfunction and premature ejaculation and orgasm. Sexual dysfunction was related to the severity of cardiovascular disease. When they resumed sexual activity, patients with heart disease reported significant difficulty, including a lack of interest in sex, sexual dissatisfaction and a decrease in the frequency of sexual activity.
Nascimento, Elisabete Rodrigues; Maia, Ana Claudia Ornelas; Pereira, Valeska; Soares-Filho, Gastao; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso
Background: Sexual instinct which is the cause of numerous changes in an individual’s life could be influenced by different factors such as menopause and ageing. This study was designed to compare sexual dysfunction before and after menopause. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Participants were 174 menopausal women who referred to medical health centers of Isfahan, Iran. Data were collected through self constructed sexual dysfunctions questionnaire in relation to their sexual activities before and after menopause. The reliability and validity of this questionnaire was determined by content validity and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Findings: Findings showed that the relative frequency of sexual dysfunctions was 38% in the productive period and 72.4% in the menopause period. There was a significant association between sexual dysfunctions before and after the menopause period (p < 0.001). Sexual dysfunctions in these women in the productive and menopause period were 49.2% and 62.6% in desire disorder, 34.3% and 34.9% in dyspareunia, 26.8% and 75.3% in arousal disorder, 23.5% and 56.3% in orgasmic disorder and 16.4% and 15.6% in vaginismus, respectively. Conclusions: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in productive and menopause periods, and menopause could be a factor to maintain or intensify sexual dysfunctions.
Beigi, Marjan; Fahami, Fariba
Conservation biologists increasingly face the need to provide legislators, courts and conservation managers with data on causal mechanisms underlying conservation problems such as species decline. To develop and monitor solutions, conservation biologists are progressively using more techniques that are physiological. Here, we review the emerging discipline of conservation physiology and suggest that, for conservation strategies to be successful, it is
Martin Wikelski; Steven J. Cooke
This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…
Spinks, W. L.
Sexual dysfunction is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Male erectile dysfunction (MED) has been reported in around 80% of subjects and more than half of female patients fulfill criteria for diagnosis as female sexual arousal Disorder (FSAD). While some evidence supports a role for cavernosal fibrosis, abundant data suggest that MED is yet another clinical feature of SSc related to vasculopathy. The contribution of vasculopathy to the more complex issues of female sexual dysfunction is less clear. Inhibitors of Type V phosphodiesterase are effective in men with MED secondary to SSc. Limited study in women suggests inconsistent effects on behavior (frequency) but not on measures related to perfusion. Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life and an important domain for the caregiver to address; it is not clear that it warrants primary consideration as a consistent measure of scleroderma-related vasculopathy.
Impens, Ann Julie; Seibold, James R.
Research examining the sexual behaviors and experiences of behaviorally bisexual men is limited. Most studies focus primarily on highlighting sexual risk behaviors among groups of "men who have sex with men (MSM)" or "gay and bisexual men," which may not be appropriate in terms of behaviorally bisexual men's sexual repertoires with both men and women. This study aimed to assess a broad range of sexual behaviors and associated experiences among bisexual men living in the midwestern United States. An interviewer-administered questionnaire containing items from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior assessed lifetime and recent (i.e., past 6 months and last event) sexual behaviors and experiences with both male and female partners among a diverse sample of 75 behaviorally bisexual men. Responses were quantified and analyzed using descriptive and multivariate statistics. A wide range of sexual behaviors with partners of both genders was found. Vaginal intercourse and oral sex with both men and women were the most commonly reported behaviors. Subjective reports of pleasure, arousal, and sexual function during sexual activity were similar with both male and female sexual partners. Many participants reported using condoms during insertive sexual behaviors with male and female partners, but less during oral sex. Unprotected receptive anal sex was less commonly reported. Overall, participants reported a variety of sexual behaviors and experiences; however, unlike other populations, they shared these with partners of both genders. Results have implications for interventions targeting the sexual behaviors and associated issues among behaviorally bisexual men. PMID:22187027
Dodge, Brian; Schnarrs, Phillip W; Reece, Michael; Martinez, Omar; Goncalves, Gabriel; Malebranche, David; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Nix, Ryan; Fortenberry, J Dennis
Twenty heterosexual rapists, 10 non-sex-offender patients from the same maximum security psychiatric institution, and 10 men with low socioeconomic status recruited from the local community were presented with audiotaped narrations while their penile tumescence was measured. The story categories were as follows: female victim\\/partner (neutral situation, consenting sex, rape, nonsexual violence, con- senting bondage and spanking, masochistic bondage and spanking,
Vernon L. Quinsey; Terry C. Chaplin; Douglas Upfold
We analyzed associations of dissatisfaction with sexual life and desire for change in female medical students. Students enrolled in medical schools in North America between February and July 2008 were invited to participate in an internet-based survey of sexual function. The principle outcome measure was a single item question on sexual life satisfaction and desire for change. Women who reported dissatisfaction and desire for change were classified as 'sexually bothered'. The survey also assessed ethnodemographic factors, student status, sexual history and depressive symptoms. Respondents completed the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Index of Sexual Life. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance and multivariable logistic regression were utilized to analyze responses. There were 661 non-virgin female subjects with data adequate for analysis. Whereas 281 (43%) of these met criteria for high risk of female sexual dysfunction (HRFSD) based on FSFI scoring, just 173 (26%) reported sexual bother. Among women with HRFSD, 126 (45%) reported sexual bother; in women without HRFSD, 362 (95%) were not sexually bothered. Interference in sexual life from tiredness and stress were associated with sexual bother. Progressively better scores on the FSFI desire, orgasm and satisfaction domains were significantly associated with lower odds of sexual bother. Few women in this cohort with FSFI score >26.55 reported sexual bother. Women with FSFI <26.55 had greater odds of sexual bother but this criterion alone was not pathognomonic for sexual concerns. Issues of sexual desire and orgasm appear to have a more important role than lubrication, arousal and sexual pain issues in this population. PMID:22971616
Shindel, A W; Breyer, B N; Smith, J F
Childhood arousals, awakenings, and sleep disturbances during the night are common problems for both patients and their families. Additionally, inadequate sleep may contribute to daytime sleepiness, behavioral problems, and other important consequences of pediatric sleep disorders. Arousals, awakenings, and sleep disturbances can be quantified by routine polysomnography, and arousal scoring is generally performed as part of the standard polysomnogram. Here we review current approaches to quantification of arousals and sleep disturbances and examine outcomes that have been associated with these measures. Initial data suggest that computer-assisted identification of nonvisible arousals, cyclic alternating patterns, or respiratory cycle-related EEG changes may complement what can be accomplished by human scorers. Focus on contiguous bouts of sleep or specific sleep stages may prove similarly useful. Incorporation of autonomic arousal measures—such as heart rate variability, pulse transit time, or peripheral arterial tone—into standard reports may additionally capture subtle sleep fragmentation.
Paruthi, Shalini; Chervin, Ronald D.
This study examined how valence and arousal affect the processes linked to subsequent memory for emotional information. While undergoing an fMRI scan, participants viewed neutral pictures and emotional pictures varying by valence and arousal. After the scan, participants performed a recognition test. Subsequent memory for negative or high arousal information was associated with occipital and temporal activity, while memory for positive or low arousal information was associated with frontal activity. Regression analyses confirmed that for negative or high arousal items, temporal lobe activity was the strongest predictor of later memory whereas for positive or low arousal items, frontal activity corresponded most strongly with later memory. These results suggest that the types of encoding processes relating to memory (e.g., sensory vs. elaborative processing) can differ based on the affective qualities of emotional information.
Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.
Previous studies have demonstrated that 1 function of positive emotion is the undoing of physiological arousal produced by negative emotions. These studies have used single-subject paradigms, in which emotions were induced by films in college-age individuals. In the present study, we examined the relationship between physiological down-regulation and positive emotion in a sample of 149 middle-aged and older married couples engaged in a 15-min discussion of an area of marital conflict. During the conversation, autonomic and somatic physiological activity was measured, and emotional behaviors were recorded and subsequently coded. We found that during 20-s periods of down-regulation (where physiology transitioned from high arousal to low arousal), couples showed an increase in positive emotional behavior compared with periods without down-regulation. The finding was quite robust, suggesting that the undoing effect of positive emotion generalizes across age, sex, and marital satisfaction. The advantages of using positive emotion as an emotion regulation strategy are discussed. PMID:20677864
Yuan, Joyce W; McCarthy, Megan; Holley, Sarah R; Levenson, Robert W
Rationale: Respiratory polygraphy is an accepted alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) diagnosis, although it underestimates the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) because respiratory polygraphy cannot identify arousals. Objectives: We performed a multicentric, randomized, blinded crossover study to determine the agreement between home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) and PSG, and between simultaneous respiratory polygraphy (respiratory polygraphy with PSG) (SimultRP) and PSG by means of 2 AHI scoring protocols with or without hyperventilation following flow reduction considered as a surrogate arousal. Methods: We included suspected SAHS patients from 8 hospitals. They were assigned to home and hospital protocols at random. We determined the agreement between respiratory polygraphy AHI and PSG AHI scorings using Bland and Altman plots and diagnostic agreement using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The agreement in therapeutic decisions (continuous positive airway pressure treatment or not) between HRP and PSG scorings was done with likelihood ratios and post-test probability calculations. Results: Of 366 randomized patients, 342 completed the protocol. AHI from HRP scorings (with and without surrogate arousal) had similar agreement with PSG. AHI from SimultRP with surrogate arousal scoring had better agreement with PSG than AHI from SimultRP without surrogate arousal. HRP with surrogate arousal scoring had slightly worse ROC curves than HRP without surrogate arousal, and the opposite was true for SimultRP scorings. HRP with surrogate arousal showed slightly better agreement with PSG in therapeutic decisions than for HRP without surrogate arousal. Conclusion: Incorporating a surrogate arousal measure into HRP did not substantially increase its agreement with PSG when compared with the usual procedure (HRP without surrogate