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1

The relationship between women's subjective and physiological sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous literature presents discordant results on the relationship between physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. In this study, the use of hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) revealed a significant concordance between continuous measures of physiological and subjective sexual arousal as assessed during exposure to erotic stimuli in a laboratory setting. We propose that past studies that have found little or

Alessandra H. Rellini; Katie M. McCall; Patrick K. Randall; Cindy M. Meston

2005-01-01

2

Ephedrine-Activated Physiological Sexual Arousal in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present investigation was designed to provide the first empirical examination of the effects of ephedrine sulfate, an a- and b-adrenergic agonist, on subjective and physiological sexual arousal in women. The purpose was to help elucidate the effects of increased peripheral adrenergic activity on sexual response in women. Methods: Twenty sexually functional women partici- pated in 2 experimental conditions

Cindy M. Meston; Julia R. Heiman

1998-01-01

3

The cortisol response during physiological sexual arousal in adult women with a history of childhood sexual abuse  

PubMed Central

Many women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience difficulties becoming sexually aroused. This study measured cortisol and physiological sexual arousal during exposure to sexual stimuli in women with and without a history of CSA. CSA survivors showed a smaller decrease in cortisol during sexual arousal than the non-sexually abused, control group potentially due to an increase in cortisol in some of the participants in the CSA group. Physiological sexual arousal was weaker in CSA survivors compared to women with no history of sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms showed characteristics consistent with mediation for the relationship between a history of CSA and inhibited sexual arousal responses.

Rellini, Alessandra H.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Delville, Yvon; Meston, Cindy M.

2009-01-01

4

Physiological and subjective sexual arousal in self-identified asexual women.  

PubMed

Asexuality can be defined as a lifelong lack of sexual attraction. Empirical research on asexuality reveals significantly lower self-reported sexual desire and arousal and lower rates of sexual activity; however, the speculation that there may also be an impaired psychophysiological sexual arousal response has never been tested. The aim of this study was to compare genital (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) and subjective sexual arousal in asexual and non-asexual women. Thirty-eight women between the ages of 19 and 55 years (10 heterosexual, 10 bisexual, 11 homosexual, and 7 asexual) viewed neutral and erotic audiovisual stimuli while VPA and self-reported sexual arousal and affect were measured. There were no significant group differences in the increased VPA and self-reported sexual arousal response to the erotic film between the groups. Asexuals showed significantly less positive affect, sensuality-sexual attraction, and self-reported autonomic arousal to the erotic film compared to the other groups; however, there were no group differences in negative affect or anxiety. Genital-subjective sexual arousal concordance was significantly positive for the asexual women and non-significant for the other three groups, suggesting higher levels of interoceptive awareness among asexuals. Taken together, the findings suggest normal subjective and physiological sexual arousal capacity in asexual women and challenge the view that asexuality should be characterized as a sexual dysfunction. PMID:20857185

Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag A

2010-09-21

5

Indirect Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on Sexual Risk-Taking: The Roles of Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal  

PubMed Central

Three experiments supported the idea that alcohol fosters sexual risk-taking in men and women, in part, through its effects on sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, increasing alcohol dosage (target blood alcohol levels of .00, .04, .08%) heightened men’s and women’s risk-taking intentions. Alcohol’s effect was indirect via increased subjective sexual arousal; also, men exhibited greater risk-taking than women. In Experiment 2, an extended dosage range (target blood alcohol levels of .00, .06, .08, .10%) heightened men’s risk-taking intentions. Alcohol’s effect again was indirect via subjective arousal. Physiological sexual arousal, which was unaffected by alcohol, increased risk-taking via increased subjective arousal. In Experiment 3, alcohol increased women’s risk-taking indirectly via subjective arousal, but alcohol-attenuated physiological arousal had no effect on risk-taking. Implications for alcohol myopia theory and prevention interventions are discussed.

George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.; Stoner, Susan A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

2011-01-01

6

Effect of Sildenafil on Subjective and Physiologic Parameters of the Female Sexual Response in Women with Sexual Arousal Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dysfunction is a complaint of 30-50% of American women. Aside from hormone replacement therapy, there are no current FDA-approved medical treatments for female sexual complaints. The goal of this pilot study was to determine safety and efficacy of sildenafil for use in women with sexual arousal disorder (SAD). Evaluations were completed on 48 women with complaints of SAD. Physiologic

Jennifer R. Berman; Laura A. Berman; H. Lin; E. Flaherty; N. Lahey; Irwin Goldstein; Jean Cantey-Kiser

2001-01-01

7

The effects of sympathetic activation on physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This investigation was designed to examine the effects of acute exercise on physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women. In Experiment 1, Ss participated in two experimental sessions in which they viewed a neutral film followed by an erotic film. In one of these sessions, Ss were exposed to 20 min of intense exercise prior to viewing the films. Subjective

Cindy M. Meston; Boris B. Gorzalka

1995-01-01

8

Effect of sildenafil on subjective and physiologic parameters of the female sexual response in women with sexual arousal disorder.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction is a complaint of 30-50% of American women. Aside from hormone replacement therapy, there are no current FDA-approved medical treatments for female sexual complaints. The goal of this pilot study was to determine safety and efficacy of sildenafil for use in women with sexual arousal disorder (SAD). Evaluations were completed on 48 women with complaints of SAD. Physiologic measurements, including genital blood flow, vaginal lubrication, intravaginal pressure-volume changes, and genital sensation were recorded pre- and postsexual stimulation at baseline and following 100 mg sildenafil. Subjective sexual function was assessed using a validated sexual function inventory at baseline and following 6 weeks of home use of sildenafil. At termination of the study patients also completed an intervention efficacy index (FIEI). Following sildenafil, poststimulation physiologic measurements improved significantly compared to baseline. Baseline subjective sexual function complaints, including low arousal, low desire, low sexual satisfaction, difficulty achieving orgasm, decreased vaginal lubrication, and dyspareunia also improved significantly following 6 weeks home use of sildenafil. Sildenafil appears to significantly improve both subjective and physiologic parameters of the female sexual response. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are currently in progress to further determine efficacy of this medication for treatment of female sexual dysfunction complaints in different populations of women. PMID:11554201

Berman, J R; Berman, L A; Lin, H; Flaherty, E; Lahey, N; Goldstein, I; Cantey-Kiser, J

9

Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal in Self-Identified Asexual Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asexuality can be defined as a lifelong lack of sexual attraction. Empirical research on asexuality reveals significantly\\u000a lower self-reported sexual desire and arousal and lower rates of sexual activity; however, the speculation that there may\\u000a also be an impaired psychophysiological sexual arousal response has never been tested. The aim of this study was to compare\\u000a genital (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA)

Lori A. BrottoMorag; Morag A. Yule

2011-01-01

10

Sexual arousal: similarities and differences between men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual arousal encompasses activation of physiological systems that coordinate sexual function in both sexes and can be divided into central arousal, peripheral non-genital arousal, and genital arousal. Genital arousal leads to erection in men and to vaginal lubrication and clitoral\\/vulvar (vestibular bulb) congestion in women. Persisting biases in the understanding of the pathophysiology of sexual arousal are exemplified by the

Alessandra Graziottin

2004-01-01

11

The Physiology of Sexual Arousal in the Human Female: A Recreational and Procreational Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes induced by human sexual arousal serve reproductive and recreational functions. The current sexual phase model (desire, excitation, orgasm, and resolution) conveys little about this duarchy. Lack of spontaneous sexual desire in a third of nonclinic females indicates that the D phase needs splitting into D1 (the spontaneous endogenous activation of desire) and D2 (desire activated by sexual excitation at

Roy J. Levin

2002-01-01

12

Concordance Between Women s Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal Is Associated with Consistency of Orgasm During Intercourse But Not Other Sexual Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have found a discordance between women s genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. We hypothesized that the association between the physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency during penile-vaginal intercourse but not for orgasm consistency during other sexual behaviors. We confirmed this specific hypothesis in a sample

STUART Brody; Ellen Laan; RIK H. W. VAN LUNSEN

2003-01-01

13

The physiology of sexual arousal in the human female: a recreational and procreational synthesis.  

PubMed

Changes induced by human sexual arousal serve reproductive and recreational functions. The current sexual phase model (desire, excitation, orgasm, and resolution) conveys little about this duarchy. Lack of spontaneous sexual desire in a third of nonclinic females indicates that the D phase needs splitting into D1 (the spontaneous [endogenous] activation of desire) and D2 (desire activated by sexual excitation at and during the E phase). Attempts to link D1 with reproduction by studies monitoring it over the menstrual cycle revealed a D1 peak just before or at ovulation, but its reliability is criticized because of the poor identification of the time of ovulation. Sexual arousal initiates enhanced genital blood flow, leading to the formation of a neurogenic transudate, lubricating the vagina, partly buffering its acidity, and increasing its oxygen tension all features that enhance spermatozoal function and survival. Orgasm occurs with vaginal and uterine contractions. The latter have been misinterpreted as powering rapid sperm transport to facilitate fertilization, but such fast transport would lead to the tubal deposition of noncapacitated, incompetent spermatozoa. Vagino-cervico elevation, however, delays rapid sperm transport and allows the initiation of decoagulation and sperm capacitation before the elevation resolves. The fastest transport of spermatozoa from cervix to the fallopian tubes occurs in the nonaroused female by uterine/subendometrial smooth muscle peristalsis. There is some evidence that even this may be reduced for a time after coitus, adding to the transport delay. If a number of the changes induced by sexual arousal are inadequately expressed, sexual as well as reproductive dysfunctions could arise. PMID:12238607

Levin, Roy J

2002-10-01

14

Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim. In the present

Lisa Dawn Hamilton; Alessandra H. Rellini; Cindy M. Meston

2008-01-01

15

The impact of anxiety on sexual arousal in women  

PubMed Central

This study examined the impact of state anxiety, trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity on physiological and self-report measures of sexual arousal and sexual function in a non-clinical sample of women. Physiological sexual responses to an erotic stimulus were assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography, and subjective reactions were measured using questionnaires. Results suggested a curvilinear relationship between state anxiety and physiological sexual arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA). Trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity were correlated with self-reported sexual arousal outside the laboratory. The findings may be interpreted in light of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) influences on sexual arousal and potential cognitive interference mechanisms associated with anxiety.

Bradford, Andrea; Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

16

Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians  

PubMed Central

Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal.

Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

2010-01-01

17

Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in women’s cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal.

Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

2008-01-01

18

The impact of anxiety on sexual arousal in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the impact of state anxiety, trait anxiety, and anxiety sensitivity on physiological and self-report measures of sexual arousal and sexual function in a non-clinical sample of women. Physiological sexual responses to an erotic stimulus were assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography, and subjective reactions were measured using questionnaires. Results suggested a curvilinear relationship between state anxiety and physiological sexual

Andrea Bradford; Cindy M. Meston

2006-01-01

19

Sexual Arousal Patterns of Bisexual Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Therehaslongbeencontroversyaboutwhether bisexual men are substantially sexually aroused by both sexes. We investigated genital and self-reported sexual arousal to male and female sexual stimuli in 30 heterosex- ual, 33 bisexual, and 38 homosexual men. In general, bi- sexualmendidnothavestronggenitalarousaltobothmale

Gerulf Rieger; Meredith L. Chivers; J. Michael Bailey

2005-01-01

20

The complexities of female sexual arousal disorder: potential role of pharmacotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identifying any role for pharmacotherapy in women's sexual arousal disorders requires an understanding of the components of sexual arousal. Furthermore, an analysis of female sexual arousal disorders necessitates distinguishing between the absence of physiological genital responding and lack of attention to, or dislike of, any physiological responding. Pharmacologically enhancing a suboptimal physiological vasocongestive response is possible. Current studies involve both

Rosemary Basson

2002-01-01

21

Conscious Regulation of Sexual Arousal in Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of this study were to examine the effectiveness of emotional reappraisal in regulating male sexual arousal and to investigate a set of variables theoretically linked to sexual arousal regulation success. Participants first completed a series of online sexuality questionnaires. Subsequently, they were assessed for their success in regulating sexual arousal in the laboratory. Results showed that the ability

Jason Winters; Kalina Christoff; Boris B. Gorzalka

2009-01-01

22

Thermographic measurement of sexual arousal: A discriminant validity analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermographic measurement was discovered to be a valid method for assessing human sexual arousal, in that it achieved adequate discriminant validity and that it covaried with self-reports of sexual arousal. The advantages of this procedure over other physiological methods are that it provides a thermogram indicating flow rate and transfer of heat, allows for cross-gender comparisons, and is a more

Paul R. Abramson; Lisa B. Perry; T. Talbot Seeley; Diane Masters Seeley; Alan B. Rothblatt

1981-01-01

23

The Effects of Yohimbine Plus L-arginine Glutamate on Sexual Arousal in Postmenopausal Women with Sexual Arousal Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of the nitric oxide-precursor L-arginine combined with the a2-blocker yohimbine on subjective and physiological sexual arousal in postmenopausal women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder. Twenty-four women participated in three treatment sessions in which self-report and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmograph) sexual responses to erotic stimuli were measured following treatment with either L-arginine glutamate (6 g) plus yohimbine

Cindy M. Meston; Manuel Worcel

2002-01-01

24

Psychophysiological Sexual Arousal in Women with a History of Child Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

On the basis of literature that suggests that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher baseline sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity than healthy controls and research that suggests that the SNS plays a critical role in female physiological sexual arousal, we examined the impact of SNS activation through intense exercise on sexual arousal in

Alessandra H. Rellini; Cindy M. Meston

2006-01-01

25

Laboratory-Induced Hyperventilation Differentiates Female Sexual Arousal Disorder Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective\\u000a and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing,

Lori A. Brotto; Carolin Klein; Boris B. Gorzalka

2009-01-01

26

Voluntary control of male sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight adult male volunteers attempted to suppress sexual arousal while viewing a sexually explicit videotape and generate an arousal response while viewing a neutral videotape. Attendance to the stimuli was assured by requiring subjects to provide an ongoing verbal description of the videotape they were viewing. While significant effects in controlling arousal were obtained, the degree of subject success varied

John M. Mahoney; Donald S. Strassberg

1991-01-01

27

Subjective sexual arousal to films of masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 male and 102 female undergraduate volunteers. Following the film, Ss responded to 3 measures of subjective sexual arousal and to 7 measures of affective responses. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Males

Donald L. Mosher; Paul R. Abramson

1977-01-01

28

Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

1977-01-01

29

Disorders of Female Sexual Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Joanne is one of approximately 11.3 million Americans with a history of cancer [1] and, like an increasing number of survivors,\\u000a she is struggling with adjustments to her quality of life following cancer treatment. Of particular interest to this chapter\\u000a is that, among other things, Joanne is suffering from female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD), which has been traditionally\\u000a defined as

Tuuli M. Kukkonen; Sabina Sarin

30

ORIGINAL RESEARCH—OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT The Sexual Arousal and Desire Inventory (SADI): A Multidimensional Scale to Assess Subjective Sexual Arousal and Desire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Sexual arousal and desire are integral parts of the human sexual response that reflect physiological, emotional, and cognitive processes. Although subjective and physiological aspects of arousal and desire tend to be experienced concurrently, their differences become apparent in certain experimental and clinical populations in which one or more of these aspects are impaired. There are few subjective scales that

Rachel Toledano; James Pfaus

31

Sexual fantasies and sexual arousal in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatments of female sexual arousal dysfunction for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors could greatly benefit from more information on mechanisms to the sexual arousal problems specific to this population. In this study, 60 CSA survivors and 120 women with no history of CSA (NCSA) participated in an Internet-based survey on sexual arousal and sexual fantasies. Self-reported sexual arousal was measured

Julia Camuso; Alessandra H. Rellini

2010-01-01

32

ORIGINAL RESEARCH—CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY Psychophysiological Assessment in Premenopausal Sexual Arousal Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a complex diagnostic category whose definition continues to evolve. Aim. The purpose of this study was to explore the physiological patterns of genital arousal in 31 women with and 30 women without sexual arousal difficulties using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. In addition, subtypes of FSAD, based on a recently proposed redefinition, were explored on

Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Boris B. Gorzalka

33

Psychopathy and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal in a sample of 65 sexual offenders, with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Psychopathy, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised and phallometric indexes of deviant sexual arousal were significantly correlated, r(63) =.28, p <. 02. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that this relationship,

RALPH C. SERIN; P. BRUCE MALCOLM; ARUNIMA KHANNA; HOWARD E. BARBAREE

1994-01-01

34

Voluntary vaginal musculature contractions as an enhancer of sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a study of the effects of vaginal musculature contractions (Kegel's exercises) on both subjective and physiological measures of sexual arousal, 30 normal females were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The first group was informed about these exercises and was asked to practice them both during lab sessions and during the week intervening between sessions. The second group

Madelyn Renée Messé; James H. Geer

1985-01-01

35

The Role of Attention in Sexual Arousal: Implications for Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on the role of attention in sexual arousal is reviewed, especially that which has implications for noninvasive treatment of sexual dysfunction. Findings suggest that voluntary control of sexual arousal can be achieved through attentional focus on nonsexual cognitions or sexual fantasy. Cognitive biases may direct attention and thus facilitate or impede sexual arousal. Sexual arousal may be influenced

David C. de Jong

2009-01-01

36

The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n=16) and dysfunctional (n=16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased

Cindy M. Meston

2006-01-01

37

Patterns of Appropriate and Deviant Sexual Arousal: The Behavioral Treatment of Multiple Sexual Deviations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Single-subject experimental methodology was used to evaluate the relationship between distinct patterns of deviant sexual arousal and heterosexual arousal. The theoretical and clinical implications of a functional independence among various patterns of sexual arousal are discussed. (Author)|

Brownell, Kelly D.; And Others

1977-01-01

38

The physiology of human sexual function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terminology for the complexities of human sexual activity is discussed and the male and female sexual arousal to orgasm is described with its underlying physiological mechanisms. The original four-phased human sexual response cycle of Masters & Johnson (Excitation, Plateau, Orgasm, Resolution) is now modified by amalgamation of the plateau phase into the excitation phase and the addition of two

Roy Levin; Alan Riley

2007-01-01

39

Sexual arousal patterns: normal and deviant.  

PubMed

The fetish objects in these case histories were unique enough, and the attraction to the objects strong enough, that the individuals could clearly track their interest from early childhood through adulthood. It is much easier to retrieve remote, explicit memories, such as events (eg, a party where balloons popped) or playing with objects, than to recall the process of sexual development with no distinct markers in the individual's history. Because these distinct experiences predated identified sexuality, became a focus of attention for the individual, and then were incorporated into the individual's sexual interests and masturbatory fantasies, it was possible to accurately track the patterns of sexual arousal. We were also able to clearly identify how these men attempted to blend their deviant interests into sexual relationships with partners and the consequences of their efforts. If we are to understand how sexual interests develop, a number of obstacles need to be overcome. Sexual interest has to be openly discussed. Parents need to appreciate how the early sexual interests of their children can go awry, contaminate their adult relationships, and lead to problematic lives. Researchers need a means of understanding how to communicate with children about their earliest interests, sexual interests, and sexual behaviors in a nonjudgmental manner. Until then, tracking unusual interests that lead to erotic interests is the first step in the overall process of understanding how sexual interest develops and is assimilated, either successfully or unsuccessfully, into an individual's adult sexual life. PMID:18996304

Abel, Gene G; Coffey, Latricia; Osborn, Candice A

2008-12-01

40

Physiological arousal in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Physiological arousal was,measured,in 12- to 22-year-old females,with either fragile X, Turner syndrome, or neither disorder to explore potential differences in the manifestation of arousal and anxiety in adolescents and young women. Physiological arousal was,measured,at

Cynthia S. Keysor; Daniel R. McLeod; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric

2002-01-01

41

Topical Alprostadil in the Treatment of Female Sexual Arousal Disorder: A Pilot Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of topical alprostadil* USP (prostaglandin E 1 ) cream in 8 patients with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD). Each patient was administered a single intravaginal dose of placebo followed by escalating intravaginal doses of the active drug at 2-week intervals. Alprostadil's effectiveness in enhancing subjective and physiological arousal during visual

Anita Islam; Jules Mitchel; Raymond Rosen; Nancy Phillips; Charletta Ayers; David Ferguson; James Yeager

2001-01-01

42

The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments  

PubMed Central

Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered.

Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

1998-01-01

43

The Roles of Testosterone and Alpha-Amylase in Exercise-Induced Sexual Arousal in Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Several studies have demonstrated that moderate exercise increases genital response to erotic stimuli in women. The increase in genital arousal could be the result of various changes that can occur in response to exercise including changes in hormone levels, neurotransmitter levels, mood, and autonomic nervous system activity. Aim The present study was an attempt to shed light on two such mechanisms through which exercise enhances sexual arousal. Method Sixteen participants came into the lab on two separate occasions: during one visit, they filled out questionnaires for 20 minutes, and during the other visit, they exercised on a treadmill for 20 minutes. The questionnaires and exercise were both followed by the presentation of a neutral then erotic film during which the women’s physiological sexual arousal was measured. Saliva samples were taken at baseline, prefilm, and postfilm. Main Outcome Measures Subjective arousal was measured using a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Testosterone and ?-amylase (a marker of sympathetic nervous system [SNS] activity) were measured via saliva assays. Results Findings replicated previous studies showing a significant increase in physiological sexual arousal with exercise. There was a significant increase in ?-amylase across the study in the exercise condition, but not in the no-exercise condition. There were no differences in testosterone levels between the exercise and no-exercise conditions. Conclusions SNS activity is one mechanism through which exercise increases genital sexual arousal. Testosterone does not mediate the relationship between exercise and genital sexual arousal.

Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fogle, Emily A.; Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

44

Acute Effects of Nicotine on Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Chronic nicotine treatment has deleterious effects on vascular functioning and catecholamine modu- lation, which may compromise erectile functioning. Evidence that long-term cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for introducing impotence is robust. However, limited studies have focused on the acute effects of smoking on physiological sexual response, and none have investigated the deleterious effects of isolated nicotine on

Christopher B. Harte; Cindy M. Meston

2008-01-01

45

Alcohol and Erectile Response: The Effects of High Dosage in the Context of Demands to Maximize Sexual Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although drinking often precedes men's sexual activity, basic questions about alcohol's effects on men's sexual arousal remain unanswered. Inconsistencies in findings from studies examining subjective and physiological effects on erectile functioning suggest these effects are context specific, for example, dependent on whether a man wants to maximize or suppress his arousal. To address unresolved questions about alcohol and erectile functioning,

William H. George; Kelly Cue Davis; Jeanette Norris; Julia R. Heiman; Rebecca L. Schacht; Susan A. Stoner; Kelly F. Kajumulo

2006-01-01

46

Sympathetic nervous system activity and female sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of a series of human and animal studies that were conducted in an effort to better understand autonomic nervous system influences on female sexual arousal are presented. The effects of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation on self-report and vaginal photoplethysmographic measures of sexual arousal were examined in 4 studies using intense acute exercise, and in 1 study using

Cindy M Meston

2000-01-01

47

Intercourse Orgasm Consistency, Concordance of Women's Genital and Subjective Sexual Arousal, and Erotic Stimulus Presentation Sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies report discordance between women's genital (vaginal pulse amplitude) and subjective sexual arousal responses to erotica. Consistent with our previous research, I hypothesized that the association between physiological and subjective domains would be greater for women with greater orgasmic consistency (OC) during penile-vaginal intercourse but not for OC during masturbation or noncoital partnered sexual activities. I confirmed this specific

Stuart Brody

2007-01-01

48

The assessment and treatment of deviant sexual arousal with adolescents who have offended sexually  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available data suggest that only a minority of adolescents who commit sexual crimes demonstrate deviant sexual arousal to younger children and\\/or sexual violence. However, deviant sexual arousal is a risk factor for repeated sexual offending, and it is frequently an important target in specialised treatment programmes. This paper provides a review of the various techniques that have been used

James Worling

2012-01-01

49

The assessment and treatment of deviant sexual arousal with adolescents who have offended sexually  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available data suggest that only a minority of adolescents who commit sexual crimes demonstrate deviant sexual arousal to younger children and\\/or sexual violence. However, deviant sexual arousal is a risk factor for repeated sexual offending, and it is frequently an important target in specialised treatment programmes. This paper provides a review of the various techniques that have been used

James Worling

2011-01-01

50

Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

2010-12-24

51

Effects of Experimentally Adopted Sexual Schemas on Vaginal Response and Subjective Sexual Arousal: A Comparison Between Women with Sexual Arousal Disorder and Sexually Healthy Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study evaluated and compared the effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response, subjective\\u000a sexual arousal, and affect in 17 women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) and 17 sexually healthy women. Positive\\u000a and negative cognitive schemas were presented to participants before viewing sexually explicit video segments. They were asked\\u000a to temporarily adopt both schemas, and vaginal

Laura S. Middleton; Stephanie W. Kuffel; Julia R. Heiman

2008-01-01

52

The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n=16) and dysfunctional (n=16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) responses among sexually functional but not dysfunctional women, and substantially decreased correlations between self-report and VPA measures of sexual arousal. Self-focused attention did not significantly impact subjective sexual arousal in sexually functional or dysfunctional women. Trait private self-consciousness was positively related to sexual desire, orgasm, compatibility, contentment and sexual satisfaction. Public self-consciousness was correlated with sexual pain. The findings are discussed in terms of Masters and Johnson's [Masters, W. H. & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown) concepts of "spectatoring" and "sensate focus." PMID:15927143

Meston, Cindy M

2005-05-31

53

Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants  

PubMed Central

Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases genital arousal in healthy women, likely due to increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suppress SNS activity, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which suppress the SNS less. Method Women reporting antidepressant-related sexual arousal problems (N=47) participated in three counterbalanced sessions where they watched an erotic film while we recorded genital and SNS arousal. In two sessions, women exercised for 20 min, either 5 or 15 min prior to the films. Results During the no-exercise condition, women taking SSRIs showed significantly less genital response than women taking SNRIs. Exercise prior to sexual stimuli increased genital arousal in both groups. Women reporting greater sexual dysfunction had larger increases in genital arousal post-exercise. For women taking SSRIs, genital arousal was linked to SNS activity. Conclusions Exercise may improve antidepressant-related genital arousal problems.

Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.

2012-01-01

54

Impact of generalized brain arousal on sexual behavior  

PubMed Central

Although there is an extensive amount known about specific sensory and motor functions of the vertebrate brain, less is understood about the regulation of global brain states. We have recently proposed that a function termed generalized arousal (Ag) serves as the most elemental driving force in the nervous system, responsible for the initial activation of all behavioral responses. An animal with increased generalized CNS arousal is characterized by greater motor activity, increased responsivity to sensory stimuli, and greater emotional lability. Implicit in this theory was the prediction that increases in generalized arousal would augment specific motivated behaviors that depend on arousal. Here, we address the idea directly by testing two lines of mice bred for high or low levels of generalized arousal and assessing their responses in tests of specific forms of behavioral arousal, sex and anxiety/exploration. We report that animals selected for differential generalized arousal exhibit marked increases in sensory, motor, and emotional reactivity in our arousal assay. Furthermore, male mice selected for high levels of generalized arousal were excitable and showed more incomplete mounts before the first intromission (IN), but having achieved that IN, they exhibited far fewer IN before ejaculating, as well as ejaculating much sooner after the first IN, thus indicating a high level of sexual arousal. Additionally, high-arousal animals of both sexes exhibited greater levels of anxiety-like behaviors and reduced exploratory behavior in the elevated plus maze and light-dark box tasks. Taken together, these data illustrate the impact of Ag on motivated behaviors.

Weil, Zachary M.; Zhang, Qiuyu; Hornung, Allison; Blizard, David; Pfaff, Donald W.

2010-01-01

55

Predictors of sexual assertiveness: the role of sexual desire, arousal, attitudes, and partner abuse.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to test interpersonal, attitudinal, and sexual predictors of sexual assertiveness in a Spanish sample of 1,619 men and 1,755 women aged 18-87 years. Participants completed measures of sexual assertiveness, solitary and dyadic sexual desire, sexual arousal, erectile function, sexual attitudes, and frequency of partner abuse. In men, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, more positive attitudes toward sexual fantasies and erotophilia, higher dyadic desire, and higher sexual arousal. In women, higher sexual assertiveness was predicted by less non-physical abuse, less solitary sexual desire and higher dyadic sexual desire, arousal, erotophilia, and positive attitudes towards sexual fantasies. Results were discussed in the light of prevention and educational programs that include training in sexual assertiveness skills. PMID:22875718

Santos-Iglesias, Pablo; Sierra, Juan Carlos; Vallejo-Medina, Pablo

2012-08-09

56

Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.  

PubMed

The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship. PMID:23519591

Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

2013-03-22

57

Persistent Sexual Arousal Syndrome Associated with Increased Soy Intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Persistent sexual arousal syndrome is an uncommon sexual complaint. Patients with this disorder can be distressed by the escalation of tension in the pelvic region and the prevailing necessity to diminish the pressure by self-stimulation. Patients frequently suffer from guilt or shame and often do not seek medical care. There are many potential causes of this disorder; however, a

Alison Amsterdam; Nadeem Abu-Rustum; Jeanne Carter; Michael Krychman

2005-01-01

58

Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia: the application of laser Doppler imaging to sexual pain.  

PubMed

Introduction.? Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) report lower sexual arousal than nonaffected women, however, laboratory studies of arousal have reported contradictory results about whether group differences exist in genital and subjective arousal. Aim.? To examine genital and subjective sexual arousal in women with and without PVD. Methods.? Eligible women with and without PVD (N?=?42) attended a laboratory session that included an interview, questionnaire completion, and genital imaging. A direct measure of superficial blood flow-laser Doppler imaging-was used to assess vulvar blood flow levels while participants watched three films, including an erotic film. Participants answered questions about their level of sexual arousal before, during, and after the erotic film. Main Outcome Measures.? Average vulvar blood flow levels during the baseline and erotic films, numerical ratings of subjective sexual arousal and anxiety, as well as questionnaire measures of arousal. Results.? There was a significant group difference in genital arousal, whereby the PVD group showed a lower genital response to the erotic film, as well as a significant interaction between baseline blood flow and group membership. Separate group regression analyses demonstrated that baseline blood flow explained a substantial amount of the variance in erotic film blood flow in the control group (70%), while only 27% was explained by this variable in the PVD group. There were no differences in subjective sexual arousal or anxiety between the groups. Across questionnaire measures, women with PVD reported lower sexual arousal than the control group. Conclusions.? The results suggest that women with PVD show lower genital responsiveness than nonaffected women to sexual stimuli in a laboratory setting and that their genital arousal is likely impacted by a number of biopsychosocial factors. Boyer SC, Pukall CF, and Chamberlain SM. Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia: The application of laser Doppler imaging to sexual pain. J Sex Med **;**:**-**. PMID:22846436

Boyer, Stéphanie C; Pukall, Caroline F; Chamberlain, Susan M

2012-07-30

59

Sexual arousal to female children in gynephilic men.  

PubMed

Phallometric assessments of single-victim sexual offenders against children have suggested that only about 50% of these men are more attracted to children than they are to adults. This has raised the question of what motivates the other 50% of men to approach young girls for sex. Freund et al. showed that gynephilic men (i.e., men preferentially attracted to adult women) evidenced greater arousal to images of prepubescent girls than to images of males of any age or to nonerotic images, arguing that gynephilic men may approach prepubescent girls as a "surrogate" for their preferred erotic targets (i.e., adult women). One might argue that these phallometric results are artifactual, given that they were obtained in a time period during which images of nudity were far less common than they are today (thus any female nudity might have elicited arousal). To address this issue, the authors examined the sexual arousal patterns of 214 contemporary men who, based on self-report, offense history, and phallometric responses, were purely gynephilic. Results showed the "classical control profile": the greatest arousal to adult women, systematically decreasing arousal as the female stimuli became younger, and essentially no arousal to any age categories of males or to neutral (nonerotic) stimuli. Arousal to both pubescent and prepubescent girls was significantly greater than to neutral stimuli (p < .001 for both). Thus, Freund et al.'s results still appear to be valid, and the explanation for child molesting that they suggest still seems to be feasible. PMID:20562410

Lykins, Amy D; Cantor, James M; Kuban, Michael E; Blak, Thomas; Dickey, Robert; Klassen, Philip E; Blanchard, Ray

2010-06-18

60

Physiologic Measures of Sexual Function in Women: A Review  

PubMed Central

Objective To review and describe physiologic measures of assessing sexual function in women Design Literature review Setting Studies that utilize instruments designed to measure female sexual function Patients Women participating in studies of female sexual function Interventions Various instruments that measure physiologic features of female sexual function Main Outcome Measures Appraisal of the various instruments, including their advantages and disadvantages. Results Many unique physiologic methods of evaluating female sexual function have been developed over the last four decades. Each method has its benefits and limitations. Conclusions Many physiologic methods exist, but most are not well-validated. Additionally, there has been an inability to correlate most physiologic measures with subjective measures of sexual arousal. Furthermore, given the complex nature of the sexual response in women, physiologic measures should be considered in context of other data, including the history, physical exam, and validated questionnaires. Nonetheless, the existence of appropriate physiologic measures is vital to our understanding of female sexual function and dysfunction.

Woodard, Terri L.; Diamond, Michael P.

2009-01-01

61

The heat of the moment: the effect of sexual arousal on sexual decision making  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the social importance of decisions taken in the ''heat of the moment,'' very little research has examined the effect of sexual arousal on judgment and decision mak- ing. Herewe examine the effect of sexual arousal, induced by self-stimulation, on judg- ments and hypothetical decisions made by male college students. Students were assigned to be in either a state of

Dan Ariely; George Loewenstein

2006-01-01

62

Physiological arousal and attention in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological reactivity has been well documented in WWII, Korean Conflict, and Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, these individuals have demonstrated cognitive impairments within the domains of attention, concentration, new learning, and memory. However, there has been no research examining the impact of physiological arousal on attention in individuals with PTSD. This study documents the level of

J. Mark Davis; Henry E. Adams; Madeline Uddo; Jennifer J. Vasterling; Patricia B. Sutker

1996-01-01

63

Affective consequences of inadequately explained physiological arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reexamined S. Schachter and J. E. Singer's reported demonstration of cognitively influenced physiological determinants in the experience of emotion. In the present study with 85 male undergraduates, reports of affective state by placebo-injected and epinephrine-injected Ss, who were misinformed about possible somatic effects and exposed to a euphoric confederate, did not differ. (34 ref)

Gary D. Marshall; Philip G. Zimbardo

1979-01-01

64

Hormonal and genetic influences on arousalsexual and otherwise  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic influences on lordosis, a mammalian social behavior, are amenable for study because of the relative simplicity of both stimuli and response. The neural circuit for lordosis involves a supraspinal loop, which is controlled by an estrogen- and progesterone-dependent signal from the medial hypothalamus and results in heightened sexual motivation. In turn, this involves elevated states of arousal, defined by

Donald Pfaff; Jonathan Frohlich; Maria Morgan

2002-01-01

65

Menstrual cycle phase and sexual arousability in women.  

PubMed

Sexual arousability of women has not been consistently found to vary significantly over phases of the menstrual cycle. We studied changes in the temperature of a labium minus and subjective sexual and genital arousal recorded on semantic scales while watching erotic video in 12 women with natural menstrual cycles and 12 women using low-dose estrogen oral contraceptive pills. Natural cycle phase was ascertained by blood progesterone. Subjects were tested twice, with an interval of about 2 weeks. Half of each group had their first test during their luteal phase, the others during their follicular phase. Women tested for the first time in their follicular phase were sexually more aroused than women tested for the first time during their luteal phase. This was true for both objective (i.e., a labium minus change in temperature) and subjective genital arousal. When these women were retested in their alternative phase of the menstrual cycle, those who were then follicular did not score higher than those who were then luteal. On the contrary, the latter group scored as high as when tested during their follicular phase. This phenomenon was observed both in women with and without oral contraception. The nature of the menstrual phase (i.e., natural or pill-induced) seems irrelevant in this respect. Sexual arousal achieved during the first session appeared to be correlated with an increase in desire for making love during the rest of the day and night. Only 1 of 12 women tested during their luteal phase indicated an increase in desire to make love, while 6 of 12 women tested during their follicular phase indicated an increase. Apparently the menstrual cycle phase during the first test determines the immediate response and indirectly affects the response during the second test approximately 10 days later. In a random block design the difference in sexual response between follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle disappears. PMID:1768223

Slob, A K; Ernste, M; van der Werff ten Bosch, J J

1991-12-01

66

Dissociation of sexual arousal and sexual proclivity in the garden snail, Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Sexual arousal (intensity of courtship) and sexual proclivity (tendency to court) in Helix aspersa can be reliably measured using externally observable correlates. Snails with sexual proclivity are significantly more likely to turn toward an anesthetized conspecific after contacting it than are sexually unreceptive snails. Sexual arousal can be inferred from the stage of a snail's genital eversion, which appears only during courtship. The higher the stage of the eversion, the shorter the time required to complete introductory courtship behavior and the higher the rate of successful copulation, the fewer the number of breaks and pauses during courtship, and the longer the time a snail will spend in contact with an anesthetized conspecific. Sexual proclivity has no effect on feeding or locomotory behavior; however, sexual arousal inhibits feeding and increases locomotor activity. Snails that were allowed daily contact with conspecifics required less time to complete introductory courtship behavior relative to snails that were isolated from conspecifics for 1 week. This suggests that daily contact increases sexual arousal. A greater percentage of isolated snails exhibited courtship behavior than did snails which had experienced daily conspecific contact. This suggests that isolation increases sexual proclivity. These differences indicate that sexual arousal is not merely due to an increase in sexual proclivity. PMID:2241758

Adamo, S A; Chase, R

1990-09-01

67

Sex Differences in Patterns of Genital Sexual Arousal: Measurement Artifacts or True Phenomena?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal have been reported recently. Men’s genital arousal is typically more category-specific\\u000a than women’s, such that men experience their greatest genital arousal to stimuli depicting their preferred sex partners whereas\\u000a women experience significant genital arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and non-preferred sex partners. In\\u000a addition, men’s genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns

Kelly D. Suschinsky; Martin L. Lalumière; Meredith L. Chivers

2009-01-01

68

A study of fantasy-based sexual arousal in women.  

PubMed

The self-reported use of sexual fantasy as an aspect of sexual behavior in natural settings was examined with respect to genital responding to both sexual fantasy and an erotic audiotape within the laboratory. It was predicted that subjects who self-reported a higher frequency of using sexual fantasy during either masturbation or sexual interaction with a partner in extralaboratory settings would be more highly responsive on genital measures of sexual arousal obtained when the subject was generating sexual fantasy within the laboratory. Forty-five female subjects (median age, 21) completed a battery of questionnaires, which included three scales of general imagery ability and frequency, and a detailed sexual history. All subjects then experienced an initial nonstimulated baseline period followed by a second baseline period and an exposure to an erotic audiotape. Genital responding was measured by vaginal photoplethysmography. Those subjects who reported more frequent use of fantasy during masturbation outside the laboratory showed greater genital responses during both fantasy and tape-elicited arousal than those reporting less use of masturbatory fantasy. One of the imagery questionnaires yielded a significant correlation with genital response in the fantasy condition. It appears that cognitive factors have predictive significance for measures of vaginal pressure pulse responses to erotic tape recordings and fantasies. PMID:7073468

Stock, W E; Geer, J H

1982-02-01

69

Social odours, sexual arousal and pairbonding in primates  

PubMed Central

We describe the role of social odours in sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in biparental and cooperatively breeding primates. Social odours are complex chemical mixtures produced by an organism that can simultaneously provide information about species, kinship, sex, individuality and reproductive state. They are long lasting and have advantages over other modalities. Both sexes are sensitive to changes in odours over the reproductive cycle and experimental disruption of signals can lead to altered sexual behaviour within a pair. We demonstrate, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that social odours indicating reproductive state directly influence the brain areas responsible for sexual behaviour. Social odours also influence other brain areas typically involved in motivation, memory and decision making, suggesting that these signals have more complex functions in primates than mere sexual arousal. We demonstrate a rapid link between social odours and neuroendocrine responses that are modulated by a male's social status. Recent work on humans shows similar responses to social odours. We conclude with an integration of the importance of social odours on sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in socially biparental and cooperatively breeding species, suggesting new research directions to integrate social behaviour, neural activation and neuroendocrine responses.

Snowdon, Charles T; Ziegler, Toni E; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Ferris, Craig F

2006-01-01

70

Effects of Positive and Negative Mood on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional Males  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of positive and negative musical mood induction on subjective and objective sexual arousal were examined in a group of sexually functional males (N = 24). Subjects evidenced significantly greater objective and subjective sexual response in the positive mood induction condition relative to both baseline and a neutral control condition. In contrast, the negative mood induction condition yielded significantly less

William B. Mitchell; Patricia Marten Dibartolo; Timothy A. Brown; David H. Barlow

1998-01-01

71

Dopamine and Norepinephrine Responses to Film-Induced Sexual Arousal in Sexually Functional and Sexually Dysfunctional Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to assess potential differences between sexually functional and dysfunctional women in dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) responses to erotic stimuli. Blood levels of homovanillic acid (HVA; the major metabolite of DA) and NE were taken during the showing of a nonsexual and a sexual film from 9 women with female sexual arousal disorder and hypoactive sexual

C. M. Meston; K. M. McCALL

2005-01-01

72

Intact Physiological Response to Arousal with Impaired Emotional Recognition in Alexithymia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The purpose of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the recognition of emotion and physiological response to emotion (i.e. arousal) in alexithymia. Methods: This study investigated differences in physiological arousal state, as measured by continuous heart rate, electrodermal activity (EDA) and self-reported emotional intensity before and after exposure to an emotionally arousing or neutral videotape among

Linda A. Stone; Kristy A. Nielson

2001-01-01

73

Enhancement of experienced sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli through misattribution of unrelated residual excitation.  

PubMed

In a pretest, three phases of recovery from a standard physical exercise were determined. In Phase 1, subjects experienced high levels of physiological excitation and recognized that their arousal was due to exercise. In Phase 2, subjects maintained substantial excitatory residues from the exercise but felt that their arousal had returned to base level. In Phase 3, subjects' excitatory responses had decayed, and they knew they had recovered from the exercise. Subjects in the main experiment were exposed to an erotic film in the first, second, or third recovery phase after performing the exercise. Subjects viewing the film during the second recovery phase reported being more sexually aroused by the film and evaluated the film more positively than subjects in the other two conditions. Counter to the notion of arousal as a simple energizer of all behavior, these findings were interpreted as supporting excitation-transfer theory, which posits that residual excitation enhances emotional responses to unrelated, immediately present stimuli only when the prevailing arousal cannot be attributed to its actual source. PMID:1206469

Cantor, J R; Zillmann, D; Bryant, J

1975-07-01

74

Differential Effects of Sympathetic Activation on Sexual Arousal in Sexually Dysfunctional and Functional Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation, induced via acute exercise, on sexual arousal in women was studied. In 2 experimental sessions, 36 women viewed a neutral film followed by an erotic film. In 1 session, the women were exposed to 20 min of intense exercise before viewing the films. Twelve women were sexually functional, 12 experienced significant impairments

Cindy M. Meston; Boris B. Gorzalka

1996-01-01

75

Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders

2011-01-01

76

Immersiveness and physiological arousal within panoramic video-based virtual reality.  

PubMed

In this paper, we discuss findings from a study that used panoramic video-based virtual environments (PVVEs) to induce self-reported anger. The study assessed "immersiveness" and physiological correlates of anger arousal (i.e., heart rate, blood pressure, galvanic skin response [GSR], respiration, and skin temperature). Results indicate that over time, panoramic video-based virtual scenarios can be, at the very least, physiologically arousing. Further, it can be affirmed from the results that hypnotizability, as defined by the applied measures, interacts with group on physiological arousal measures. Hence, physiological arousal appeared to be moderated by participant hypnotizability and absorption levels. PMID:17711358

Macedonio, Mary F; Parsons, Thomas D; DiGiuseppe, Raymond A; Weiderhold, Brenda K; Rizzo, Albert A

2007-08-01

77

An inventory for the measurement of female sexual arousability: The SAI  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the development of a self-report Sexual Arousability Inventory (SAI) for women. Sexual arousability was defined as the sum of a respondent's ratings of 28 erotic experiences along a 7-point Likert arousal dimension. Multiple-regression and factor analyses were used to select valid items from a 131-item pool and build in factorial purity. The SAI has concurrent validity with

Emily Franck Hoon; Peter W. Hoon; John P. Wincze

1976-01-01

78

NEUROENDOCRINE AND CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO SEXUAL AROUSAL AND ORGASM IN MEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data regarding the neuroendocrine response pattern to sexual arousal and orgasm in man are inconsistent. In this study, ten healthy male volunteers were continuously monitored for their cardiovascular and neuroendocrine response to sexual arousal and orgasm. Blood was continuously drawn before, during and after masturbation-induced orgasm and analyzed for plasma concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating

Tillmann Krüger; Michael S Exton; Cornelius Pawlak; Alexander von zur Mühlen; Uwe Hartmann; Manfred Schedlowski

1998-01-01

79

Sexually Arousing Events and Relapse to Heroin-Seeking in Sexually Experienced Male Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shaham, Y., J. Puddicombe and J. Stewart. Sexually arousing events and relapse to heroin-seeking in sexually experienced male rats. Physiol Behav 61(2) 337–341, 1997.—We have shown previously, using a reinstatement procedure, that both priming injections of heroin and exposure to footshock stress reinstate heroin-taking behavior following prolonged drug-free periods. In the present study, we examined the effects of another highly

Yavin Shaham; Jennifer Puddicombe; Jane Stewart

1997-01-01

80

Sexual arousal and orgasm in subjects who experience forced or non-consensual sexual stimulation – a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review examines whether unsolicited or non-consensual sexual stimulation of either females or males can lead to unwanted sexual arousal or even to orgasm. The conclusion is that such scenarios can occur and that the induction of arousal and orgasm does not indicate that the subjects consented to the stimulation. A perpetrator’s defence simply built upon the fact that evidence

Roy J. Levin; Willy van Berlo

2004-01-01

81

Involuntary Attention and Physiological Arousal Evoked by Structural Features and Emotional Content in TV Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Examines how emotional content in televised messages intensifies physiological attentional responses. Explains that heart rate data indicating both shorter-term responses and longer-term arousal were collected from 10 female and 4 male advertising students. Finds that emotional content increases physiological arousal in viewers and that heart…

Lang, Annie

1990-01-01

82

Social isolation during peri-adolescence or adulthood: effects on sexual motivation, testosterone and corticosterone response under conditions of sexual arousal in male rats.  

PubMed

Reproductive functions in adult organism are known to be affected by different factors. Effects of social environment at the postnatal ontogenesis attract particular attention since it has deep impact on the development of physiological and emotional state of an individual. Effects of chronic social isolation at different ages on male sexual motivation, testosterone and corticosterone response under conditions of sexual arousal were studied in Wistar rats. After weaning at the 21st [corrected] day of age, rats of one group were isolated for six weeks and after that they were housed in groups of five per cage for ten weeks (Iso3-9). Rats of the second group were housed in groups of five animals per cage till 13 weeks of age, and then they were isolated for six weeks (Iso13-19). Rats of the control group were housed in groups during the experiment. Adult 19 week- old male rats were tested under conditions of sexual arousal. The expression of sexual motivation was estimated as the behavioral activity of a male at the transparent perforated partition separating a receptive female. Isolation of adult male rats reduced the number of approaches to the partition, while the period of time a male spent at the partition was not changed and testosterone response was enhanced as compared to control rats. Chronic social isolation during peri-adolescence reduced sexual motivation and prevented arousal-induced elevation of testosterone. Plasma corticosterone increases at sexual arousal in the two groups of isolated rats did not differ from that in controls. Our results are evidence that social isolation during the post-maturity stage (Iso13-19) did not diminish the manifestation of sexual motivation and hormonal response to a receptive female, while isolation during peri-adolescence attenuated behavioral and hormonal expression of sexual arousal in adult males. PMID:23347014

Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Bulygina, Veta V; Tikhonova, Maria A; Maslova, Larissa N

2013-02-28

83

Women's Sexual Arousal: Effects of High Alcohol Dosages and Self-Control Instructions  

PubMed Central

The basic relationship between alcohol and women’s sexual arousal – especially genital arousal –received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson & Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed the same pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol’s impact on the variability of women’s sexual responding.

George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

2011-01-01

84

Sexual arousal decreases the functional synchronization between cortical areas in young men.  

PubMed

The prefrontal cortex and its connections with other cortical areas participate in processing erotic stimuli and hence sexual arousal. Visual erotic stimuli elicit sexual arousal that is associated with changes in electroencephalographic activity. The electroencephalographic correlation analysis provides information on the functional synchronization among areas. This study analyzed the functional interaction among the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices during sexual arousal in young men induced by observing erotic photographs. In 2 groups of heterosexual men-an erotic stimulation group and a neutral stimulation group-the authors recorded electroencephalograms at the F3, F4, T3, T4, P3, and P4 derivations under 2 conditions: baseline and visual stimulation. Heart rate was monitored as a measure of peripheral activation. Participants in the erotic stimulation group reported a moderate degree of sexual arousal and a decrease in heart rate. Decreased inter- and intrahemispheric correlations of the fast frequencies were obtained only in erotic stimulation. These data support differential hemisphere participation in modulating sexual arousal and show that decreased synchronization patterns between prefrontal and posterior cortices (parietal and temporal) favor sexual arousal in young men. The results of this study may contribute to a better understanding of the central nervous system's mechanisms that underlie sexual arousal. PMID:23356552

Hernández-González, Marisela; Amezcua Gutiérrez, Claudia; Martin, Araceli Sanz; Sánchez, Koral Rivera; Guevara, Miguel Angel

2013-01-28

85

Feelings of Disgust and Disgust-Induced Avoidance Weaken following Induced Sexual Arousal in Women  

PubMed Central

Background Sex and disgust are basic, evolutionary relevant functions that are often construed as paradoxical. In general the stimuli involved in sexual encounters are, at least out of context strongly perceived to hold high disgust qualities. Saliva, sweat, semen and body odours are among the strongest disgust elicitors. This results in the intriguing question of how people succeed in having pleasurable sex at all. One possible explanation could be that sexual engagement temporarily reduces the disgust eliciting properties of particular stimuli or that sexual engagement might weaken the hesitation to actually approach these stimuli. Methodology Participants were healthy women (n?=?90) randomly allocated to one of three groups: the sexual arousal, the non-sexual positive arousal, or the neutral control group. Film clips were used to elicit the relevant mood state. Participants engaged in 16 behavioural tasks, involving sex related (e.g., lubricate the vibrator) and non-sex related (e.g., take a sip of juice with a large insect in the cup) stimuli, to measure the impact of sexual arousal on feelings of disgust and actual avoidance behaviour. Principal Findings The sexual arousal group rated the sex related stimuli as less disgusting compared to the other groups. A similar tendency was evident for the non-sex disgusting stimuli. For both the sex and non-sex related behavioural tasks the sexual arousal group showed less avoidance behaviour (i.e., they conducted the highest percentage of tasks compared to the other groups). Significance This study has investigated how sexual arousal interplays with disgust and disgust eliciting properties in women, and has demonstrated that this relationship goes beyond subjective report by affecting the actual approach to disgusting stimuli. Hence, this could explain how we still manage to engage in pleasurable sexual activity. Moreover, these findings suggest that low sexual arousal might be a key feature in the maintenance of particular sexual dysfunctions.

Borg, Charmaine; de Jong, Peter J.

2012-01-01

86

Involuntary Attention and Physiological Arousal Evoked by Structural Features and Emotional Content in TV Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Structural features of television elicit involuntary physiological attentional responses in viewers. Mild emotional content in televised messages intensifies these responses, possibly through mediation of emotion-elicited arousal, which was also demonstrated. Heart rate data were collected and analyzed using novel techniques to show both short-term attentional responses and longer term arousal in subjects viewing commercial messages.

ANNIE LANG

1990-01-01

87

Self-reported sexual arousability in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.  

PubMed

As part of a larger study of psychosexual development and sexual functioning in women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), we assessed self-reported sexual arousability with the Sexual Arousability Inventory-Short Form (SAI-SF; Hoon & Chambless, 1998). Compared to their unaffected sisters/female cousins (n = 15), women with CAH (n = 30) reported significantly lower sexual arousability on the SAI, with an effect size, using Cohen's d, of 1.16. For both the CAH women alone and combined with the controls, higher self-reported sexual arousability was significantly associated with (a) relationship status (married or cohabitating with a man versus being single or not in a relationship); (b) higher levels of sexual attraction to men in fantasy in the past 12 months on the Erotic Response and Orientation Scale (Storms, 1980); (c) higher Kinsey interview ratings of a heterosexual orientation in behavior in the past 12 months; and (d) more sexual experiences with men, according to a modified version of the Zuckerman (1973) Heterosexual Experience Scale (HES), in the past 12 months and lifetime (all ps < .001-.05). CAH women who were simple virilizers (versus salt-wasters) and those assigned female at birth (versus delayed or male) tended to report higher levels of sexual arousability (p < .10). Self-reported degree of satisfaction with genital surgery and genital function was also associated with higher levels of arousability. For CAH women and both groups combined, multiple regression analysis showed that the sole predictor of self-reported sexual arousability was HES lifetime sexual experiences with men. We discuss the results in the context of assessing sexual function and dysfunction in women with CAH. PMID:15672602

Zucker, Kenneth J; Bradley, Susan J; Oliver, Gillian; Blake, Jennifer; Fleming, Susan; Hood, Jane

88

Observational Stance as a Predictor of Subjective and Genital Sexual Arousal in Men and Women.  

PubMed

Observational stance refers to the perspective a person takes while viewing a sexual stimulus, either as a passive observer (observer stance) or an active participant (participant stance). The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between observational stance and sexual arousal (subjective and genital) across a range of sexual stimuli that do or do not correspond with a participant's sexual attraction (preferred or nonpreferred stimuli, respectively). Regression analyses revealed that, for men (n = 44), participant stance significantly predicted subjective and genital arousal. Women's (n = 47) observer and participant stance predicted subjective arousal but not genital arousal. Analysis of variance showed that participant stance was greatest under preferred sexual stimuli conditions for all groups of participants, while observer stance scores revealed a less consistent pattern of response. This was particularly true for opposite-sex-attracted women, whose ratings of observer stance were lowest for preferred stimuli. Observational stance does not appear to account for gender differences in specificity of sexual arousal; for men, however, participant stance uniquely predicted genital response after controlling for sexual attractions. Similarities in the relationships between men's and women's observational stance and sexual responses challenge previous claims of gender differences in how men and women view erotica. PMID:23514448

Bossio, Jennifer A; Spape, Jessica; Lykins, Amy D; Chivers, Meredith L

2013-03-20

89

Changes in the magnitude of the eyeblink startle response during habituation of sexual arousal.  

PubMed

Modulation of the startle response was used to examine emotional processing of sexual stimulation across trials within a session. Eyeblink startle was elicited by a probe (burst of intense white noise) presented intermittently while men were viewing an erotic film segment. Repeated display of the film segment resulted in a progressive decrease in sexual arousal. Habituation of sexual arousal was accompanied by a reduction over trials in the extent the men felt absorbed when viewing the erotic stimulus and by an increase over trials in the magnitude of the eyeblink startle response. Replacing the familiar stimulus by a novel erotic stimulus increased in sexual arousal and absorption and reduced startle (novelty effect), while dishabituation was evident for all three response measures when the familiar stimulus was reintroduced. This pattern of results indicates that with repeated presentation an erotic stimulus is experienced not only as less sexually arousing but also as less appetitive and absorbing. The question of whether habituation of sexual arousal is mediated by changes in attentional and affective processing over trials is discussed, as are clinical contexts in which eyeblink startle can be used in studying aspects of sexual functioning. PMID:10846806

Koukounas, E; Over, R

2000-06-01

90

Enhancement of experienced sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli through misattribution of unrelated residual excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pretest with 15 male undergraduates, 3 phases of recovery from a standard physical exercise were determined. In Phase 1, Ss experienced high levels of physiological excitation and recognized that their arousal was due to exercise. In Phase 2, Ss maintained substantial excitatory residues from the exercise but felt that their arousal had returned to base level. In Phase

Joanne R. Cantor; Dolf Zillmann; Jennings Bryant

1975-01-01

91

Physiological Concomitants of the Alcohol State: Arousal or Relaxation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment was designed to discriminate among two diametrically opposed states, arousal and relaxation, which have been attributed to alcohol ingestion. Male social drinker subjects were assigned to form two independent groups of ten subjects each. Baseline measure of heart rate, skin conductance level (SCL), pulse wave amplitude and ear lobe…

Zeiner, Arthur R.

92

Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Instructional Set on Women’s Sexual Arousal Vary Based on Sexual Abuse History  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The influence of alcohol intoxication and arousal instructional set on psychophysiological measures of sexual responding was\\u000a examined in a non-clinical sample of sexually abused (SA) and non-sexually abused (NSA) women. Participants (n=42) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (target blood alcohol level = .08%) or non-alcoholic drinks and to receive\\u000a instructions to maximize or suppress their sexual response to

Rebecca L. Schacht; William H. George; Julia R. Heiman; Kelly Cue Davis; Jeanette Norris; Susan A. Stoner; Kelly F. Kajumulo

2007-01-01

93

Victim blame and sexual arousal to rape cues in rapists and nonoffenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of victim blame on sexual arousal to depictions of rape in 18 men from the community and 18 incarcerated rapists, providing the first test of the inhibition model of rape (Barbaree, Marshall, & Lanthier, 1979) using an identified population of sexually aggressive men. Rapists were expected to show a stronger effect of victim blame. It

Michael C. Seto; Howard E. Barbaree

1993-01-01

94

Neural Activations of the Acquisition of Conditioned Sexual Arousal: Effects of Contingency Awareness and Sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Learning processes like classical conditioning are involved in mediating sexual behavior. Yet, the neural bases underlying these processes have not been investigated so far. Aim. The aim of this study was to explore neural activations of classical conditioning of sexual arousal with respect to sex differences and contingency awareness. Methods. In the acquisition phase, a geometric figure (CS+) was

Tim Klucken; Jan Schweckendiek; Christian J. Merz; Katharina Tabbert; Bertram Walter; Sabine Kagerer; Dieter Vaitl; Rudolf Stark

2009-01-01

95

The effects of immediate, delayed, and residual sympathetic activation on sexual arousal in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a recent experiment, Meston and Gorzalka (1995) [Behaviour, Research and Therapy, 33, 651–664] demonstrated a facilitatory effect of sympathetic activation, via acute exercise, on female sexual arousal. The present investigation was designed to examine the time course of this effect. Thirty-six sexually functional women participated in two experimental sessions in which they viewed a neutral film followed by an

Cindy M. Meston; Boris B. Gorzalka

1996-01-01

96

Children Sexual Arousal and Primary School Teachers' Perceptions of Sex Education Training Needs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research was to identify primary school teachers' conceptions about sex education in classroom. More precisely, in this paper we analyse teachers' perceptions of children's behaviour concerned with sexuality arousal, teachers' perceptions of their specific training needs to teach sexuality topics and the influent factors in these conceptions. The research was developed in three steps: a questionnaire

Zélia Anastácio; Graça Carvalho; Pierre Clement

97

Caffeine-induced physiological arousal accentuates global processing biases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of caffeine-induced arousal on global versus local object focus were investigated in non-habitual consumers using a double-blind, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Following an overnight fast, low caffeine consumers (N=36; M=42.5mg\\/day caffeine) completed 5 counterbalanced test sessions (normal consumption, 0mg, 100mg, 200mg, and 400mg) separated by at least 3days. During each session, volunteers either consumed their normal amount of caffeine

Caroline R. Mahoney; Tad T. Brunyé; Grace Giles; Harris R. Lieberman; Holly A. Taylor

2011-01-01

98

[The effect of social isolation during juvenile period on the sexual arousal in adult rats].  

PubMed

The effects of chronic postweaning social isolation combined with subsequent resocialization on the sexual arousal were studied in male rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension (ISIAH strain) and in Wistar rats. Young males were isolated on the Day 21 of postnatal life for 6 weeks. Then they were kept in groups of 5. 4-month males underwent the partition test: a receptive female was introduced into the male's cage, but the male and the female were separated by a transparent partition. The number of approaches to the partition and total time spent near the partition during the test served as an index of sexual motivation. Hormonal component of sexual arousal was estimated by measuring plasma testosterone level. No interstrain differences in magnitude of the sexual arousal were observed. However, chronic social isolation during juvenile period caused a genotype-dependent diminution of sexual motivation in the adult male rats of both strains. The decrease of sexual motivation in ISIAH rats was more pronounced as compared to Wistar rats. Moreover, the social isolation during the juvenile period completely abolished the female-induced rise in plasma testosterone in ISIAH and Wistar male rats. Plasma corticosterone level was increased during the period of sexual arousal, but this rise of corticosterone was not affected by the social conditions during postweaning period. PMID:16408645

Bulygina, V V; Amstislavskaia, T G; Maslova, L N

2005-11-01

99

Sexually arousing events and relapse to heroin-seeking in sexually experienced male rats.  

PubMed

We have shown previously, using a reinstatement procedure, that both priming injections of heroin and exposure to footshock stress reinstate heroin-taking behavior following prolonged drug-free periods. In the present study, we examined the effect of another highly arousing event, exposure to a sexually active female, on reinstatement of heroin-seeking. Male rats were first given sexual experience, being allowed to copulate on 4 occasions with sexually active females and were then trained to self-administer heroin (100 micrograms/kg per infusion, IV) for 4 3-h sessions/day for 5-6 days and 1 6-h session/day for an additional 6 days. Extinction sessions were then given for 4 days, 6-h/day, during which saline was substituted for heroin. On tests for reinstatement, males were presented with: 1. The wire-mesh side of an empty cage (baseline condition), 2. the sight, odor, and smell of a sexually inactive female, 3. the sight, odor, and smell of a female in heat, 4. a female in heat, and allowed to copulate, 5. intermittent footshock (15 min, 0.5 mA, 0.5 s on, mean off period of 40 s), or 6. a priming injection of heroin (0.25 mg/kg, SC). Reinstatement of heroin-taking behavior was observed after exposure to the priming injection of heroin and to footshock stress. Reinstatement of heroin-taking behavior was not induced by exposure to the females in any of the conditions. Thus, motivational arousal, as such, does not appear to be a sufficient stimulus for relapse to heroin-taking. PMID:9035267

Shaham, Y; Puddicombe, J; Stewart, J

1997-02-01

100

Are Our Definitions of Women's Desire, Arousal and Sexual Pain Disorders Too Broad and Our Definition of Orgasmic Disorder Too Narrow?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since each individual female sexual dysfunction is complex, it is necessary to subtype them in addition to dividing them into lifelong or acquired disorder. The complexity of women's sexual arousal necessitates appreciation of a number of different types of arousal disorders that vary not only in etiology but also in management. The coexistence of sexual arousal and sexual desire, which

Rosemary Basson

2002-01-01

101

Anxiety and arousal: physiological changes and their perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to self-reports, most patients with chronic anxiety disorders exhibit increased muscle tension but not autonomic hyperarousal when at rest. Under everyday stress they tend to react with less physiological flexibility than normal controls. However, they overreact subjectively and physiologically to stimuli that are anxiety-provoking. Diminished physiological flexibility may be either a constitutional trait in anxious individuals, a partial but

Rudolf Hoehn-Saric; Daniel R. McLeod

2000-01-01

102

An Investigation of Relationships between Perceived Subject Matter Difficulty and Physiological Arousal During Achievement Testing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A physiological measure, which does not possess the limitations of traditional self-report measures of test anxiety, was used to measure arousal during a simulated achievement testing situation. A sample of 119 fifth and sixth grade students ranked four academic subjects (arithmetic, language arts, social studies, and science) from "most…

Nighswander, James K.; Beggs, Donald L.

103

Perceived and physiological arousal during a stress task: Can they differentiate between anxiety and depression?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background - Anxiety and depression might be two different valid constructs that often co-occur, or they could be different manifestations of the same underlying vulnerability. A theoretical framework to address this question is the tripartite model, by Clark and Watson, which hypothesizes that physiological hyperarousal (PH) is specific for anxiety. Knowledge about the relationship between PH, psychophysiological measures, perceived arousal,

Gwendolyn C. Dieleman; Jan van der Ende; Frank C. Verhulst; Anja C. Huizink

2010-01-01

104

Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

2010-01-01

105

A physiological valence\\/arousal model from musical rhythm to heart rhythm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies how the musical-rhythmic features affect the performance of heart rate variability (HRV). A physiological valence\\/arousal model of such a relationship is proposed. A systematic experiment was performed, subjecting human subjects to four different drum loops, in which was tried to define a set of rhythmic features (and 'factors') that could be correlated with the observed HRV readings.

Hui-Min Wang; Yaw-Chern Lee; Brad S. Yen; Chun-Yen Wang; Sheng-Chieh Huang; Kea-Tiong Tang

2011-01-01

106

Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

2010-01-01

107

Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-Solving Deficits among Adolescent Self-Injurers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses.…

Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2008-01-01

108

The Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal on Determinants of Sexual Risk in Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

Primary prevention efforts aimed at sexual risk behaviors are critical. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal, as well as person variables of alcohol sex expectancies and attitudes toward condom use, on hypothesized determinants of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The participants were 117 MSM aged 21–50 years who were randomly assigned to one of six separate experimental conditions created by the combination of beverage administration (water control, placebo or alcohol designed to raise blood alcohol level to .07%) and sexual arousal (low or high, manipulated by participants’ viewing non-erotic or mildly erotic film clips). Participants attended two experimental sessions. The first session included completing questionnaires about beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sex and attitudes toward condoms’ effect on sexual pleasure. The second session involved the beverage condition and arousal manipulations. Following these, participants viewed and responded to two interactive videos depicting high sexual risk scenarios. Participants also completed the CARE, a measure of risk perceptions. The dependent variables were behavioral skills, intentions to have unsafe sex, and “risk exposure,” derived from responses to the videos. The results of both planned and exploratory analyses showed general support for the hypothesized enhancement of alcohol’s effects on sexual risk by both sexual arousal and expectancies. Also as predicted, condom attitudes showed direct relationships to risk exposure and intentions. Implications of the findings for models of alcohol’s effects on sexual risk and for the development of HIV prevention interventions were discussed.

Palfai, Tibor; Vanable, Peter A.; Heath, Jessie; Woolf-King, Sarah E.

2013-01-01

109

Factors that Influence Sexual Arousal in Men: A Focus Group Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of men’s sexual response and its components as well as the factors\\u000a or types of situations that men describe as facilitating or interfering with sexual arousal. Six focus groups, involving 50\\u000a mostly white, heterosexual men (M age = 35.2 years; range, 18–70), were conducted. As it was previously found in women (Graham, Sanders,

Erick Janssen; Kimberly R. McBride; William Yarber; Brandon J. Hill; Scott M. Butler

2008-01-01

110

Sexual activity and risk taking in young heterosexual men: the relevance of sexual arousability, mood, and sensation seeking.  

PubMed

In this research we explored three aspects of personality relevant to sexual activity and sexual risk taking in heterosexual men. Men with low inhibition of sexual arousal in the face of risk (low SIS2) reported more partners with whom they use no condoms and more lifetime "one night stands." Men who experience increased sexual interest in states of depression (MSQ) reported more partners in the past year and more one night stands. The disinhibition subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale was predictive of whether sexual intercourse had occurred in the past 6 months, and also of the number of sexual partners in the past year. A measure of an intention to practice safer sex was strongly related to measures of sexual arousability and inhibition (SIS/SES). We discuss some clear similarities and also some interesting differences with a parallel study of gay men. Individual differences in sexual excitation and inhibition proneness and the relation between mood and sexuality are clearly relevant to high-risk sexual behavior and should be taken into consideration when designing behavioral interventions. PMID:15326543

Bancroft, John; Janssen, Erick; Carnes, Lori; Goodrich, David; Strong, David; Long, J Scott

2004-05-01

111

The Effects of Hysterectomy on Sexual Arousal in Women with a History of Benign Uterine Fibroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research indicates hysterectomy surgery may adversely affect the pelvic autonomic nerves and autonomic mechanisms are integral to the sexual arousal response in women. This study explored the possibility that women who undergo hysterectomy may experience an impaired vasocongestive response to erotic stimulation. Thirty-two women with a history of benign uterine fibroids who had (n = 15) or had not (n

Cindy M. Meston

2004-01-01

112

A Mindfulness-Based Group Psychoeducational Intervention Targeting Sexual Arousal Disorder in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Despite their widespread prevalence, there are no existing evidence-based psychological treatments for women with sexual desire and arousal disorder. Mindfulness, the practice of relaxed wakefulness, is an ancient eastern practice with roots in Buddhist meditation which has been found to be an effective component of psycho- logical treatments for numerous psychiatric and medical illnesses. In recent years, mindfulness has

Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Mijal Luria

2008-01-01

113

Biofeedback-assisted sexual arousal in females a comparison of visual and auditory modalities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of instructional set and biofeedback modality upon the ability of 23 females to achieve control over sexual arousal. Two levels of instructional set (increase, decrease) were completely crossed with three feedback modalities (audio, visual, no feedback). Changes in vaginal blood volume (VBV) and vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) were monitored by a vaginal

Emily Franck Hoon

1980-01-01

114

An Integrative Theoretical Framework for Understanding Sexual Motivation, Arousal, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative theoretical framework and model for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior is presented, combining the principles of incentive motivation theory and the hierarchical control of behavior. It is intended to stimulate discussion. The framework can serve as a “route map” in understanding the links between different component processes and their interactions, as well as the relations between different

Frederick Toates

2009-01-01

115

The Mediating Effect of Daily Stress on the Sexual Arousal Function of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychopathologies such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often proposed as mediators of the sexual arousal dysfunction experienced by women with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, PTSD symptoms are only part of the difficulties experienced by these women. Other factors to consider include negative affectivity and perceived daily stress. To assess the mediating role of PTSD symptoms, negative affectivity,

Gena Zollman; Alessandra Rellini; Danielle Desrocher

2012-01-01

116

Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study.  

PubMed

Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n=19) compared to a comparison group (n=11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to have a decrease in salivary cortisol following the stressor, while the comparison group was more likely to have an increase (p=.02). However, there was no difference in electrodermal activity, a measure of sympathetic arousal, or vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic activity, between groups. These findings implicate a differential neuroendocrine response to social stress in children with HFA despite similar sympathetic and parasympathetic responses during a stressor. Further studies are required to substantiate this finding. PMID:22081773

Levine, Todd P; Sheinkopf, Stephen J; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

2012-01-01

117

Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study  

PubMed Central

Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n=19) compared to a comparison group (n=11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to have a decrease in salivary cortisol following the stressor, while the comparison group was more likely to have an increase (p=.02). However, there was no difference in electrodermal activity, a measure of sympathetic arousal, or vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic activity, between groups. These findings implicate a differential neuroendocrine response to social stress in children with HFA despite similar sympathetic and parasympathetic responses during a stressor. Further studies are required to substantiate this finding.

Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

2011-01-01

118

Sexual Arousal Attributions and Gender Identity Perceptions of Child Molesters.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyses of deviant sexual behaviors have most often derived from psychodynamic or behavioral theory. Little systematic research attention has been paid to the role of intervening cognitive variables such as social perception and the causal attribution process. Two studies were conducted to examine differences in cognition between child molesters…

Johnston, Shawn A.; And Others

119

Clitoral Sexual Arousal: Neuronal Tracing Study From the Clitoris Through the Spinal Tracts  

PubMed Central

Purpose Although genital tactile stimulation is regarded as a precursor to sexual arousal and a recognized initiator of central nervous system arousal, specific afferent neural pathways transmit sensory stimuli of arousal, beginning at the epithelial level on the clitoris and following the course of arousal stimuli through the central nervous system. Limited knowledge exists of the pathway from the cutaneous receptors of nerves originating in the epithelial tissue of the clitoris and continuing to spinal cord afferents. Such information may contribute to an understanding of sexual arousal, particularly in female vertebrates. We further defined the neural pathways and mechanisms responsible for arousal originating in the epithelium of the clitoris as well as related neural pathways to the spinal cord in a murine model. Materials and Methods We performed a comprehensive review of the published relevant clinical and histological material from human and nonhuman vertebrate studies. In 29 adult female C57B1/6 mice the distribution of pelvic nerves and vessels was mapped. Gross dissection of 4 female mice was facilitated by resin injection of the vascular system in 2. Neuronal tracing was performed in 25 mice that received clitoral injection of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase into the clitoris and were sacrificed after 72 to 96 hours. The spinal cord and periclitoral tissue were removed and fixed. Immunohistochemistry was performed. Results Gross anatomy of the mouse clitoris showed that pudendal and hypogastric nerves have a major role in the innervation of the external genitalia. Neuronal tracing revealed that the greatest nerve density was noted in the L5/6 spinal cord. The distribution extended from S1 to L2 with no labeling seen in the L3 spinal cord. Wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase labeling was seen caudal in levels S1 through L4 and rostral in L2. Conclusions Understanding the neuroanatomy of the clitoris using a murine model may provide a valuable tool for the study of sexual arousal disorders and the further understanding of sexual function related to neural pathologies and trauma.

Martin-Alguacil, Nieves; Schober, Justine M.; Sengelaub, Dale R.; Pfaff, Donald W.; Shelley, Deborah N.

2009-01-01

120

Behavioral control over aversive events: Does control that requires effort reduce anxiety and physiological arousal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigated whether the amount of effort required to control an aversive event influenced the amount of anxiety and physiological arousal associated with the aversive event. 89 male undergraduates participated in a 3 (unavoidable threat, avoidable threat, no threat)?×?2 (high-effort task performance, low-effort task performance)?×?2 (anticipation period, performance period) factorial experiment. Results indicate that (a) the aversive event (threat of electrical

Sheldon Solomon; David S. Holmes; Kevin D. McCaul

1980-01-01

121

Concordance Between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the concordance (or synchrony\\/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment measurement for two of three tasks. Within the treatment group, heart rate changes

Terri Landon Bacow; Jill Ehrenreich May; Molly Choate-Summers; Donna B. Pincus; Sara G. Mattis

2010-01-01

122

The impact of alcohol and alcohol expectancies on male perception of female sexual arousal in a date rape analog  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of alcohol and alcohol expectancies on men's perception of female sexual arousal and men's ability to discriminate accurately female sexual intentions in a dating situation was examined. In a 2 (alcohol) X 2 (expectancy) balanced placebo design, men were exposed to an audiotape of a date rape and asked to signal when the man should stop making sexual

Alan M. Gross; Ted Bennett; Lawrence Sloan; Brian P. Marx; John Juergens

2001-01-01

123

Effect of Transcendental Meditation versus resting on physiological and subjective arousal.  

PubMed

On four successive days, 10 highly trained and experienced meditators were asked to relax for 5 minutes, meditate for 20 minutes, and then relax for 5 minutes. In contrast, 10 other subjects who had no training or experience with meditation were asked to relax for 5 minutes, rest for 20 minutes, and then relax for 5 minutes. Physiological arousal (heart rate, skin resistance, respiration rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure) and subjective arousal (cognitive, somatic, relaxation) were measured throughout the experiment. Results indicated that (a) prior to meditating or resting, meditators tended to have higher heart rates and diastolic blood pressure than did nonmeditators, (b) meditation was associated with generally reduced arousal, but (c) while meditating, meditators did not evidence lower levels of arousal than nonmeditators did while resting. This investigation employed controls, which were not used in previous investigations, and the results place qualifications on previously reported results. The results have implications for the study of personality functioning, stress management, and psychotherapy. PMID:6348250

Holmes, D S; Solomon, S; Cappo, B M; Greenberg, J L

1983-06-01

124

Concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress among Vietnam combat veterans undergoing challenge testing for PTSD.  

PubMed

This study examined concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress during a laboratory challenge task. Data were collected during the multisite VA Cooperative Study 334 in the early 1990s examining psychophysiological arousal among combat-exposed Vietnam veterans with (n = 775) and without (n = 369) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants were presented with 6 standardized neutral scenes and 6 standardized combat scenes. Participants provided a subjective rating of distress after each slide. During the presentation, levels of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded. Using linear mixed effects modeling, both HR level and SC level exhibited significant positive associations with subjective distress ratings (pr = .33, p < .001 and pr = .19, p < .001, respectively). Individuals with PTSD demonstrated greater concordance between their distress ratings and SC level during exposure to combat slides than participants without PTSD (pr = .28, p < .001 vs. pr = .18, p < .001). Although a significant association was found between subjective distress and HR reactivity and SC reactivity, these findings were not moderated by PTSD status. The results of these analyses suggest that patients' reports of distress during exposure-based treatments might serve as approximate measures of actual physiological arousal. PMID:22848013

Marx, Brian P; Bovin, Michelle J; Suvak, Michael K; Monson, Candice M; Sloan, Denise M; Fredman, Steffany J; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

2012-07-27

125

Persistent genital arousal and restless genitalia: sexual dysfunction or subtype of vulvodynia?  

PubMed

We conducted a literature review of patients' conditions described under persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, vulvodynia and male genital skin pain of unknown aetiology (penoscrotodynia). Our aim is to improve the understanding of the condition, unify nomenclature and promote evidence-based practice. The most prominent symptom in persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome is a spontaneous, unwelcomed, intrusive and distressing vulval sensation. There are similarities between the clinical presentation of vulvodynia, penoscrotodynia, persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome patients. The aetiology of persistent genital arousal disorder and restless genital syndrome, similar to vulvodynia, could be better explained in terms of neuro-vascular dysfunction, genital peripheral neuropathy and/or dysfunctional micro-vascular arterio-venous shunting. Erythromelalgia lends itself to explain some cases of restless genital syndrome, who have concurrent restless legs syndrome; and therefore draw parallels with the red scrotum syndrome. The published literature supports the concept of classifying restless genital syndrome as a sub-type of vulvodynia rather than sexual dysfunction. PMID:23970620

Markos, Ar; Dinsmore, Wallace

2013-08-01

126

Physiological oxidative stress after arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrel.  

PubMed

Hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), Spermophilus parryii, is characterized by a profound decrease in oxygen consumption and metabolic demand during torpor that is punctuated by periodic rewarming episodes, during which oxygen consumption increases dramatically. The extreme physiology of torpor or the surge in oxygen consumption during arousal may increase production of reactive oxygen species, making hibernation an injurious process for AGS. To determine if AGS tissues experience cellular stress during rewarming, we measured carbonyl proteins, lipid peroxide end products and percent oxidized glutathione in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of torpid, hibernating (hAGS), late arousal (laAGS), and cold-adapted, euthermic AGS (eAGS). In BAT carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxide end products were higher in eAGS and laAGS than in hAGS. By contrast, in liver, no significant difference in carbonyl proteins was observed. In another group of animals, comparison of carbonyl proteins and percent oxidized glutathione in frontal cortex, liver, and BAT of eAGS and hAGS showed no evidence of oxidative stress associated with torpor. These results indicate that increased thermogenesis associated with arousal AGS results in tissue specific oxidative stress in BAT but not in liver. Moreover, torpor per se is largely devoid of oxidative stress, likely due to suppression of oxidative metabolism. PMID:19233307

Orr, Adrienne L; Lohse, Lonita A; Drew, Kelly L; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

2009-02-20

127

Physiological oxidative stress after arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrel  

PubMed Central

Hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), Spermophilus parryii, is characterized by a profound decrease in oxygen consumption and metabolic demand during torpor that is punctuated by periodic rewarming episodes, during which oxygen consumption increases dramatically. The extreme physiology of torpor or the surge in oxygen consumption during arousal may increase production of reactive oxygen species, making hibernation an injurious process for AGS. To determine if AGS tissues experience cellular stress during rewarming, we measured carbonyl proteins, lipid peroxide end products and percent oxidized glutathione in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of torpid, hibernating (hAGS), late arousal (laAGS), and cold-adapted, euthermic AGS (eAGS). In BAT carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxide end products were higher in eAGS and laAGS than in hAGS. By contrast, in liver, no significant difference in carbonyl proteins was observed. In another group of animals, comparison of carbonyl proteins and percent oxidized glutathione in frontal cortex, liver, and BAT of eAGS and hAGS showed no evidence of oxidative stress associated with torpor. These results indicate that increased thermogenesis associated with arousal AGS results in tissue specific oxidative stress in BAT but not in liver. Moreover, torpor per se is largely devoid of oxidative stress, likely due to suppression of oxidative metabolism.

Orr, Adrienne L.; Lohse, Lonita A.; Drew, Kelly L.; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

2009-01-01

128

The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract Intellectual Ability on Men's and Women's Go/No-Go Task Performance  

PubMed Central

While a number of studies have assessed the role of personality traits, situational variables, and drug use on sexual risk behaviors, fewer studies have employed experimental methods to examine cognitive processes that may underlie risky sexual decision making. This study used a go/no-go paradigm to examine how individual difference variables and sexual arousal influence discrimination learning and sexual and nonsexual decision making. A total of 28 men (M age = 20 years) and 25 women (M age = 19 years) completed self-report measures of impulsivity, abstract intellectual ability, and sexual excitation and inhibition and participated in a laboratory experiment. The experiment consisted of two go/no-go tasks with sexual stimuli and two tasks with neutral stimuli, preceded by either sexually arousing or sexually neutral stimulus presentations. Task performance was measured by totals of false alarms and misses. Individuals high in impulsivity and low in abstract intellectual ability committed more false alarms in conditions involving sexually arousing stimuli. Furthermore, higher sexual excitation scores were linked to more misses. These findings indicate that cognitive processes associated with decision making that occurs in the “heat of the moment” are influenced by a combination of situational and sexual and nonsexual individual difference variables.

Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Janssen, Erick; Fridberg, Daniel J.; Finn, Peter R.; Heiman, Julia R.

2011-01-01

129

Is there an inhibitory role of cortisol in the mechanism of male sexual arousal and penile erection?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. It has been speculated for more than 2 decades whether there is a significance of adrenal corticosteroids, such as cortisol, in the process of normal male sexual function, especially in the control of sexual arousal and the penile erectile tissue. However, only few in vivo studies have been carried out up until now on the effects of cortisol on human

Stefan Ückert; Mark H. Fuhlenriede; Armin J. Becker; Christian G. Stief; Friedemann Scheller; Wolfram H. Knapp; Udo Jonas

2003-01-01

130

When playing together feels different: effects of task types and social contexts on physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming contexts.  

PubMed

This study examines how task types (violent vs. nonviolent) and social contexts (solo vs. collaborative) affect physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming. Our results show that social contexts modify the effects of violent game tasks on arousal. When compared with solo play, collaborative play led to a significant decrease in arousal in response to violent tasks, while leading to a slight increase for nonviolent tasks. The findings point to the importance of understanding how social contexts of game playing shape psychological experiences in multiplayer online games. PMID:19006459

Lim, Sohye; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

2009-02-01

131

Startle response and anxiety sensitivity: subcortical indices of physiologic arousal and fear responding.  

PubMed

There is a well-established and clinically meaningful relation between the cognitive-affective-based construct of anxiety sensitivity (AS) and risk for the development and maintenance of anxiety psychopathology (B. J. Cox, Fuentes, Borger, & Taylor, 2001). Research findings within this area have revealed mixed results; however, there is evidence to suggest that some individuals with anxiety disorder diagnoses may demonstrate enhanced subcortical arousal (e.g., exaggerated startle response to unexpected, aversive stimuli [A. M. Waters et al., 2008], and deficient prepulse inhibition [PPI; S. Ludewig, Ludewig, Geyer, Hell, & Vollenweider, 2002]), it is presently unclear whether these differences are found within the general population. To address this gap in the extant literature, the current investigation examined the impact of AS on acoustic startle response magnitude and PPI. Results indicated that individuals high and low in AS differ with regard to subcortical measures of arousal, with individuals expressing high levels of AS demonstrating enhanced startle response and deficient PPI. Results are discussed in terms of the role of the cognitive-affective-based factor of AS in the context of physiologic markers for vulnerability for anxiety psychopathology. PMID:22775129

McMillan, Katherine A; Asmundson, Gordon J G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Carleton, R Nicholas

2012-07-09

132

Women, Alcohol, and Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption increases subjective sexual desire, arousal, and pleasure for many women, although it lowers physiological\\u000a arousal. Despite the general belief that alcohol disinhibits female sexual behaviors, alcohol leads to changes in sexual behavior\\u000a only for a minority of women. Expectancies about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior may be important mediators of the\\u000a alcohol-sexual behavior linkage. There also

Linda J. Beckman; Kimberly T. Ackerman

133

Sexual Arousal and Self-Control: Results from a Preliminary Experimental Test of the Stability of Self-Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A central proposition of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Theory of Crime is the relative stability of low self-control, however research on "self-control strength" suggests that it may vary across contexts. The current study examines these differing conceptions by randomly assigning participants to one of two sexual arousal conditions or…

Bouffard, Jeffrey; Kunzi, Tasha

2012-01-01

134

Neural correlates of sexual arousal in the spinal cords of able-bodied men: A spinal fMRI investigation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine whether functional magnetic resonance imaging of the spinal cord (spinal fMRI) could be used to map neural activity throughout the lower thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord regions during sexual arousal in healthy men. To this end, it was found that viewing erotic films and genital self-stimulation both elicited predominantly increased signal,

Natalie Kozyrev; Chase R. Figley; Marcalee S. Alexander; J. Scott Richards; Rachael L. Bosma; Patrick W. Stroman

2012-01-01

135

Report of spontaneous and persistent genital arousal in women attending a sexual health clinic.  

PubMed

The frequency of spontaneous genital arousal (GA) and persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) in women is unknown. The aim of this study was to conduct an anonymous survey to assess the frequency and nature of spontaneous GA and PGAD in women attending a walk-in sexual health clinic in London. Female patients completed a questionnaire, which included demographic information, medical, psychiatric and gynaecology history, the hospital anxiety and depression scale, and a somatization scale. Patients were then asked to complete three questions regarding spontaneous and persistent GA. Any patient with one or more symptoms then answered questions about the distress, intensity and duration of sensations. Ninety-six subjects participated. The mean age was 28.97 years. Thirty-two women (33.3%) answered 'yes' to at least one question regarding spontaneous or persistent GA and six women (6.3%) women answered 'yes' to all three questions. Only one subject fulfilled all five diagnostic criteria for PGAD. In conclusion, women report a high rate of spontaneous GA in the absence of desire or excitement. This has not been well described previously. A small proportion of women report multiple features of spontaneous and persistent GA, with chronicity over years, but without distress in most cases. Larger studies are needed. PMID:19625580

Garvey, L J; West, C; Latch, N; Leiblum, S; Goldmeier, D

2009-08-01

136

A review of anxiety and sexual arousal in human sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical accounts have traditionally emphasized the importance of anxiety in the development and maintenance of sexual dysfunction (e.g., Masters & Johnson, 1970). However, a review of empirical research suggests anxiety, operationalized in a variety of ways, has no effect or facilitates genital responding in heterosexual men and women. The apparent contradiction between the clinical and empirical literature might be resolved

Michael C. Seto

1992-01-01

137

Neural correlates of sexual arousal in the spinal cords of able-bodied men: a spinal fMRI investigation.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine whether spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging could be used to map neural activity throughout the lower thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord regions during sexual arousal in healthy men. The authors found that viewing erotic films and genital self-stimulation elicited predominantly increased signal, indicative of amplified neuronal input to the dorsal and ventral horns and in the autonomic preganglionic nuclei of the lower thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spinal cord. In addition, linear regression analyses revealed a number of robust correlations (|R| ? 0.7) between signal intensity changes in these spinal cord regions and self-reported ratings of mental and physical sexual arousal. Taken together, these results demonstrate that spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging is an effective and sensitive technique for mapping the neural correlates of sexual arousal in the spinal cords of able-bodied men. Most important, the results from this study indicate that spinal cord functional magnetic resonance imaging may have important applications as a clinical tool for assessing and mapping the changes that occur in the spinal cords of men suffering from sexual dysfunction as a result of spinal cord trauma. PMID:22900624

Kozyrev, Natalie; Figley, Chase R; Alexander, Marcalee S; Richards, J Scott; Bosma, Rachael L; Stroman, Patrick W

2012-01-01

138

ORIGINAL RESEARCH—WOMEN'S SEXUAL HEALTH The Impact of Body Awareness on Sexual Arousal in Women with Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. The impact of self-awareness during sexual activity has been widely discussed. However, research has been largely focused on the effects of performance anxiety in male erectile functioning. It has been suggested that physical appearance concerns may have a similar influence on sexual function in women as does men's self-awareness about erectile function. However, the role that physical appearance or

Brooke N. Seal; Cindy M. Meston

139

The effect of type A personality on physiological arousal while playing computer games.  

PubMed

Despite the widespread use of computer games, there is a lack of systematic research in the area--particularly on their "addictiveness" potential. Anecdotal evidence suggests that computer game addiction may be due to arousal properties of computer games, although other factors may be important. This study examined the relationship between Type A personality and arousal in computer-game play. It was hypothesised that, during computer-game play, Type A and Type B subjects would have significantly higher heart rates as compared with baseline levels and that Type A subjects would experience a significantly greater increase in arousal when playing a computer game than Type B subjects. These hypotheses were both supported and the results are discussed in relation to arousal, personality, and addiction. PMID:7484336

Griffiths, M D; Dancaster, I

140

Arousal state feedback as a potential physiological generator of the ultradian REM/NREM sleep cycle.  

PubMed

Human sleep episodes are characterized by an approximately 90-min ultradian oscillation between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep stages. The source of this oscillation is not known. Pacemaker mechanisms for this rhythm have been proposed, such as a reciprocal interaction network, but these fail to account for documented homeostatic regulation of both sleep stages. Here, two candidate mechanisms are investigated using a simple model that has stable states corresponding to Wake, REM sleep, and NREM sleep. Unlike other models of the ultradian rhythm, this model of sleep dynamics does not include an ultradian pacemaker, nor does it invoke a hypothetical homeostatic process that exists purely to drive ultradian rhythms. Instead, only two inputs are included: the homeostatic drive for Sleep and the circadian drive for Wake. These two inputs have been the basis for the most influential Sleep/Wake models, but have not previously been identified as possible ultradian rhythm generators. Using the model, realistic ultradian rhythms are generated by arousal state feedback to either the homeostatic or circadian drive. For the proposed 'homeostatic mechanism', homeostatic pressure increases in Wake and REM sleep, and decreases in NREM sleep. For the proposed 'circadian mechanism', the circadian drive is up-regulated in Wake and REM sleep, and is down-regulated in NREM sleep. The two mechanisms are complementary in the features they capture. The homeostatic mechanism reproduces experimentally observed rebounds in NREM sleep duration and intensity following total sleep deprivation, and rebounds in both NREM sleep intensity and REM sleep duration following selective REM sleep deprivation. The circadian mechanism does not reproduce sleep state rebounds, but more accurately reproduces the temporal patterns observed in a normal night of sleep. These findings have important implications in terms of sleep physiology and they provide a parsimonious explanation for the observed ultradian rhythm of REM/NREM sleep. PMID:23220346

Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A; Klerman, E B

2012-12-05

141

The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract Intellectual Ability on Men’s and Women’s Go\\/No-Go Task Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

While a number of studies have assessed the role of personality traits, situational variables, and drug use on sexual risk\\u000a behaviors, fewer studies have employed experimental methods to examine cognitive processes that may underlie risky sexual\\u000a decision making. This study used a go\\/no-go paradigm to examine how individual difference variables and sexual arousal influence\\u000a discrimination learning and sexual and nonsexual

Kathryn R. Macapagal; Erick Janssen; Daniel J. Fridberg; Peter R. Finn; Julia R. Heiman

142

Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.  

PubMed

Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity. PMID:21117979

Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

2010-11-30

143

Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…

Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

1994-01-01

144

Relationship of Cognitive and Emotional Components of Test Anxiety to Physiological Arousal and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Worry was found to be more highly negatively related to examination grades than was Emotionality or pulse rate and worry was more highly negatively related to expectancy than was Emotionality. However, pulse rate was no more highly related to Emotionality than to Worry, suggesting that questionnaire and direct measures of autonomic arousal are…

Morris, Larry W.; Liebert, Robert M.

1970-01-01

145

Effects of Music on Physiological Arousal: Explorations into Tempo and Genre  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments explore the validity of conceptualizing musical beats as auditory structural features and the potential for increases in tempo to lead to greater sympathetic arousal, measured using skin conductance. In the first experiment, fast- and slow-paced rock and classical music excerpts were compared to silence. As expected, skin conductance response (SCR) frequency was greater during music processing than during

Francesca R. Dillman Carpentier; Robert F. Potter

2007-01-01

146

Gender difference in brain activation to audio-visual sexual stimulation; do women and men experience the same level of arousal in response to the same video clip?  

PubMed

Factors related to sexual arousal are different in men and women. The conditions for women to become aroused are more complex. However, the conventional audio-visual stimulation (AVS) materials used to evaluate sexual arousal are universal. In the present study, we investigated sexual differences in the response to different types of AVS by studying activated areas of the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was performed during two types of AVS in 20 healthy heterosexual volunteers (aged 20-28 years, 10 men and 10 women). The two AVS types were: (1) mood type, erotic video clips with a concrete story and (2) physical type, directly exposing sexual intercourse and genitalia. fMRI images were analyzed and compared for each stimulation with a Mann-Whitney U test, with statistical significance set at P<0.05. Men preferred the physical type of AVS to the mood type (mean arousal score 2.14 vs 1.86 in females) and women preferred the mood type (mean arousal score 2.14 vs 1.86 in males) (P<0.05). Degrees of activation in brain areas differed between genders and types of AVS for each gender. This should be considered when applying the AVS method to evaluate and diagnose female sexual dysfunction. PMID:23303334

Chung, W S; Lim, S M; Yoo, J H; Yoon, H

2013-01-10

147

An evaluation of the physiological affects of anticipation, activity arousal and recovery in sprinting Greyhounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to separate the physically induced effects of activity from the psychologically induced effects of anticipation of activity. The purpose of this study was to determine if a psychological experience (i.e., activity anticipation) would cause a significant physiological reaction in athletic and working dogs. Physiological reaction to a psychological experience was determined by measuring physiological parameters (rectal

Robert L. Gillette; T. Craig Angle; Jennifer S. Sanders; Fred J. DeGraves

2011-01-01

148

Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.  

PubMed

Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions. PMID:21653264

Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

2011-01-01

149

The Roles of Testosterone and Alpha-Amylase in Exercise-Induced Sexual Arousal in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Several studies have demonstrated that moderate exercise increases genital response to erotic stimuli in women. The increase in genital arousal could be the result of various changes that can occur in response to exercise including changes in hormone levels, neurotransmitter levels, mood, and autonomic nervous system activity. Aim. The present study was an attempt to shed light on two

Lisa Dawn Hamilton; Emily A. Fogle; Cindy M. Meston

2008-01-01

150

Positron Emission Tomography and sexual arousal in a sadist and two controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron Emission Tomography (PT) scans of the brain were compared in a sexual sadist and two community controls. The participants heard either an erotic audiotape or a sexually neutral tape while penile circumference was monitored. Results showed reliable penile differences between erotic and neutral stimuli. PT results showed that the right hemisphere of the brain was more activated than the

E. S. Garnett; C. Nahmias; G. Wortzman; R. Langevin; R. Dickey

1988-01-01

151

Patterns of sexual arousal of accused child molesters involved in custody disputes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penile plethysmography was used to examine sexual preferences of individuals accused of child molestation in the course of custody conflicts. Information regarding the alleged offenders, victims, and sex offense was gathered. In comparison to accused offenders who are not engaged in custody disputes, the subjects were more often accused of sexually abusing a younger child who was a biological relative.

Richard D. McAnulty; Henry E. Adams

1990-01-01

152

Specificity of the neuroendocrine response to orgasm during sexual arousal in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have demonstrated that sexual activity produces tran- sient sympathoadrenal activation and a pronounced, long- lasting increase in prolactin in men and women. However, by analyzing endocrine alterations at 10-min intervals, a precise assignment of these changes to the pre-, peri- and postorgasmic periods was not possible. Thus, the current study aimed to accurately differentiate the endocrine response to sexual

T H C Krüger; P Haake; D Chereath; W Knapp; O E Janssen; M S Exton; M Schedlowski; U Hartmann

2003-01-01

153

SSI Prize Essay for Female Sexual Dysfunction—Clinical ‘Clinical evaluation of female sexual function: effects of age and estrogen status on subjective and physiologic sexual responses’  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: 30–50% of American women complain of sexual dysfunction. Aging, menopause, and a decline in circulating estrogen levels significantly increase the incidence of sexual complaints. Evaluaton of physiologic components of the female sexual response has, in the past, been technically challenging and difficult to standardize. We describe methodology for evaluating physiologic and subjective components of the female sexual response in

JR Berman; LA Berman; TJ Werbin; EE Flaherty; NM Leahy; I Goldstein

1999-01-01

154

An In Vivo Assessment of Physiological Arousal in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study measured physiological function (heart rate [HR], systolic blood pressure [SBP], diastolic blood pressure [DBP], sublingual temperature, and respiration rate) in a nonresearch setting—the medical triage area of a large Veterans Affairs Medical Center while patients were awaiting physical examination. Subjects were 32 Vietnam veterans with combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 26 Vietnam-era veterans with no combat

Robert J. Gerardi; Terence M. Keane; Beth J. Cahoon; Guy W. Klauminzer

1994-01-01

155

Predator Cat Odors Activate Sexual Arousal Pathways in Brains of Toxoplasma gondii Infected Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable

Patrick K. House; Ajai Vyas; Robert Sapolsky

2011-01-01

156

The Sensitivity of Event Logs, Self-Administered Questionnaires and Photoplethysmography to Detect Treatment-Induced Changes in Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Introduction The literature provides little evidence on what type of endpoints should be used to assess treatment-induced improvement in female sexual function. Aim The main goal of this study was to provide empiric evidence on the sensitivity of different types of measures for detecting treatment-induced changes in female sexual dysfunction diagnosis. Methods The measures investigated in this study included event logs, self-administered questionnaires (Female Sexual Functioning Index; FSFI), vaginal photoplethysmography, and continuous subjective sexual arousal measured during exposure to erotic videos. Participants were 24 women with female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) who received sex therapy, placebo, or gingko biloba in a four-arm double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. FSAD was diagnosed utilizing a semistructured interview administered at pre- and post-treatment. Those women who did not meet FSAD criteria at post-treatment (N = 10) were labeled as “improved,” while women who still met FSAD criteria (N = 14) were categorized as “not improved” even if they showed signs of improvements. Main Outcome Measure Change scores from pre- to post-treatment on the FSFI, event logs, vaginal photoplethysmography, and continuous subjective levels of sexual arousal were used to predict whether women improved at post-treatment. Results were checked with exact logistic regression to control for the small sample size. Results The FSFI was the only measure to significantly predict whether women improved at post-treatment. The findings from this study lend support for the use of validated questionnaires as endpoint criteria in detecting treatment-induced changes in women’s sexual dysfunction.

Rellini, Alessandra; Meston, Cindy

2010-01-01

157

Predator Cat Odors Activate Sexual Arousal Pathways in Brains of Toxoplasma gondii Infected Rats  

PubMed Central

Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor.

House, Patrick K.; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

2011-01-01

158

Cerebral Activation Associated with Sexual Arousal in Response to a Pornographic Clip: A 15O–H 2O PET Study in Heterosexual Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study attempted to use PET and 15O–H2O to measure changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during sexual arousal evoked in 10 young heterosexual males while they watched a pornographic video clip, featuring heterosexual intercourse. This condition was compared with other mental setups evoked by noisy, nature, and talkshow audiovisual clips. Immediately after each clip, the participants answered three

M. Bocher; R. Chisin; Y. Parag; N. Freedman; Y. Meir Weil; H. Lester; E. Mishani; O. Bonne

2001-01-01

159

Efficacy and Safety of Topical Alprostadil Cream for the Treatment of Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD): A Double-Blind, Multicenter, Randomized, and Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses of a novel alprostadil cream in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 94 women presenting with female sexual arousal disorder of at least 6 month’s duration. We sent the subjects home with 10 premeasured doses of 500 µg, 1000 µg, or 1500 µg alprostadil or a placebo cream to be applied

HARIN PADMA-NATHAN; CANDACE BROWN; JANE FENDL; SHAWKI SALEM; JAMES YEAGER; RONALD HARNINGR

2003-01-01

160

Toward personalized sexual medicine (part 1): integrating the "dual control model" into differential drug treatments for hypoactive sexual desire disorder and female sexual arousal disorder.  

PubMed

In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a useful approach to treat common symptoms in subgroups of women with HSDD. PMID:23130782

Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

2012-11-06

161

Alcohol and human sexuality: Review and integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summarizes physiological findings and reviews the psychological experimental literature investigat- ing the relationship between alcohol and human sexuality. Specifically, the authors attempt to recon- cile the apparent contradictions found in the effects of alcohol on male and female sexual responding. The review concludes (a) that alcohol disinhibits psychological sexual arousal and suppresses physio- logical responding, the former effect being stronger

Leif C. Crowe; William H. George

1989-01-01

162

Sexual activity, health and well-being – the beneficial roles of coitus and masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial and well-being effects of human sexual arousal induced by coitus or masturbation are reviewed. Greater sexual satisfaction and some health rewards are given by coitally obtained orgasms even though those from masturbation may be more physiologically intense. The functionality of the circulatory, neural and muscular systems of the male and female genitalia are maintained by arousal and orgasm

Roy J. Levin

2007-01-01

163

Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. PMID:23169570

Puppo, Vincenzo

2012-11-21

164

Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Helping Behavior, Aggressive Thoughts, Angry Feelings, and Physiological Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Meta-analytic procedures were used to review the results from 85 studies on violent video game effects. Violent video games\\u000a increase aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, and arousal levels, and decrease helpful behaviors. The\\u000a effects occurred for both children and adults and for both males and females. The more violent the video game, the stronger\\u000a the effects. Violent video game

Brad Bushman

2004-01-01

165

Incidence of sexual dysfunction: a prospective survey in Ghanaian females  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Sexuality is a complex phenomenon that is being influenced by psychological as well as physiological factors. Its dysfunction includes desire, arousal, orgasmic and sex pain disorders. The present study aimed to assess the incidence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and related risk factors in a cohort of Ghanaian women. METHOD: The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) was administered

Nafiu Amidu; William KBA Owiredu; Eric Woode; Otchere Addai-Mensah; Lawrence Quaye; Abass Alhassan; Edmond A Tagoe

2010-01-01

166

Can adult offenders with intellectual disabilities use mindfulness-based procedures to control their deviant sexual arousal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adults with intellectual disability who commit sexual offences against children are prosecuted and sometimes diverted to mental health facilities for training and treatment. Of the few treatment modalities used with this population, cognitive–behavioral approaches appear to hold most promise. In a preliminary study, we assessed whether three adult sexual offenders with intellectual disability could learn to control their deviant sexual

Nirbhay N. Singh; Giulio E. Lancioni; Alan S. W. Winton; Ashvind N. Singh; Angela D. Adkins; Judy Singh

2011-01-01

167

ORIGINAL RESEARCH—FSD PHARMACOTHERAPY Efficacy and Safety of Alprostadil Cream for the Treatment of Female Sexual Arousal Disorder: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study in Chinese Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. To date, no approved medication is available for the treatment of female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Aim. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a novel alprostadil topical cream for the treatment of FSAD. Methods. This was a multicenter, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design dose-ranging study. Four hundred female patients with

Qinping Liao; Miao Zhang; Li Geng; Xiangping Wang; Xuehong Song; Pei Xia; Tao Lu; Mingqi Lu; Vivian Liu

168

The impact of physical training on endocrine modulation, muscle physiology and sexual functions in elderly men  

Microsoft Academic Search

With rapidly growing geriatric population and with the improvement in quality of life, sexuality is becoming an increasingly important aspect of aging. This paper is dealing with the investigation of the role of physical training program of moderate intensity on endocrine modulation, skeletal muscle physiology, improvement of depression and of sexual function in elderly men.

C. R. Revnic; A. S. Nica; F. Revnic

2007-01-01

169

Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to…

Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

2009-01-01

170

Physiological Arousal for Companion Dogs Working With Their Owners in Animal-Assisted Activities and Animal-Assisted Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the physiological reactions of companion dogs (Canis familiaris) used in animal-assisted activities and animal-assisted therapy by measur- ing salivary cortisol concentrations. The dog caregivers (owners) collected saliva samples (a) at 3 control days without therapeutic work, (b) directly before and after each therapeutic session during 3 consecutive months, and (c) again at 3 control days without therapeutic

Dorit Karla Haubenhofer; Sylvia Kirchengast

2006-01-01

171

Anatomy and Physiology of Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sexual dysfunction is a significant age–related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women in the United States. The female sexual response cycle is initiated by neurotransmitter–mediated vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle relaxation resulting in increased pelvic blood flow, vaginal lubrication, and clitoral and labial engorgement. These mechanisms are mediated by a combination of neuromuscular

Jennifer R. Berman; Sapana P. Adhikari; Irwin Goldstein

2000-01-01

172

Hedonic arousal, time intervals, and excitation transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zillmann’s (1978, 1983) excitation transfer theory was tested in relation to arousal processes opposite in hedonic valence.\\u000a Sixty female subjects, randomly assigned to six experimental conditions, were initially exposed either to arousal stimulation\\u000a positive in hedonic valence (sexual humor), or to arousal stimulation negative in hedonic valence (insulting remarks), or\\u000a to a neutral unarousing task. In each condition, half of

Ludmilla V. Rickwood; Graham Price

1988-01-01

173

Functional wiring of hypocretin and LC-NE neurons: implications for arousal  

PubMed Central

To survive in a rapidly changing environment, animals must sense their external world and internal physiological state and properly regulate levels of arousal. Levels of arousal that are abnormally high may result in inefficient use of internal energy stores and unfocused attention to salient environmental stimuli. Alternatively, levels of arousal that are abnormally low may result in the inability to properly seek food, water, sexual partners, and other factors necessary for life. In the brain, neurons that express hypocretin neuropeptides may be uniquely posed to sense the external and internal state of the animal and tune arousal state according to behavioral needs. In recent years, we have applied temporally precise optogenetic techniques to study the role of these neurons and their downstream connections in regulating arousal. In particular, we have found that noradrenergic neurons in the brainstem locus coeruleus (LC) are particularly important for mediating the effects of hypocretin neurons on arousal. Here, we discuss our recent results and consider the implications of the anatomical connectivity of these neurons in regulating the arousal state of an organism across various states of sleep and wakefulness.

Carter, Matthew E.; de Lecea, Luis; Adamantidis, Antoine

2013-01-01

174

Psychophysiological Consequences of Unexplained Arousal: A Posthypnotic Suggestion Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases in heart and respiration rate) with and without amnesia for its source in

Philip G. Zimbardo; Stephen LaBerge; Lisa D. Butler

1993-01-01

175

Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.  

PubMed

Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation. PMID:23861759

Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

2013-07-05

176

Prenatal Loud Music and Noise: Differential Impact on Physiological Arousal, Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Spatial Behavior in One Day-Old Chicks  

PubMed Central

Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation.

Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

2013-01-01

177

Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin.  

PubMed

During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared to before pregnancy. A common experience with motherhood is a decrease in sexual desire. Although the lifestyle and peripheral physiological changes associated with parturition might decrease a woman's sexual interest, we hypothesized that there are also hormone-mediated changes in women's neural response to sexual and infant stimuli with altered reproductive priorities. We predicted that amygdala activation to sexually arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum versus nulliparous women, and altered with intranasal oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually arousing pictures, infant pictures, and neutral pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Half of the women received a dose of exogenous oxytocin before scanning. As predicted, nulliparous women subjectively rated sexual pictures to be more arousing, and infant pictures to be less arousing, than did postpartum women. However, nulliparous women receiving the nasal oxytocin spray rated the infant photos as arousing as did postpartum women. Right amygdala activation was lower in postpartum versus nulliparous women in response to sexual, infant, and neutral images, suggesting a generalized decrease in right amygdala responsiveness to arousing images with parturition. There was no difference in right amygdala activation with nasal spray application. Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli. PMID:23085496

Rupp, Heather A; James, Thomas W; Ketterson, Ellen D; Sengelaub, Dale R; Ditzen, Beate; Heiman, Julia R

2012-10-18

178

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part II: Physiological and Pharmacological Manipulations and Pathological Alterations of Locus Coeruleus Activity in Humans  

PubMed Central

The locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, gives rise to fibres innervating most structures of the neuraxis. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped to unravel the neuronal circuitry controlling a number of physiological functions in which the LC plays a central role. Two such functions are the regulation of arousal and autonomic activity, which are inseparably linked largely via the involvement of the LC. Alterations in LC activity due to physiological or pharmacological manipulations or pathological processes can lead to distinct patterns of change in arousal and autonomic function. Physiological manipulations considered here include the presentation of noxious or anxiety-provoking stimuli and extremes in ambient temperature. The modification of LC-controlled functions by drug administration is discussed in detail, including drugs which directly modify the activity of LC neurones (e.g., via autoreceptors, storage, reuptake) or have an indirect effect through modulating excitatory or inhibitory inputs. The early vulnerability of the LC to the ageing process and to neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) is of considerable clinical significance. In general, physiological manipulations and the administration of stimulant drugs, ?2-adrenoceptor antagonists and noradrenaline uptake inhibitors increase LC activity and thus cause heightened arousal and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast, the administration of sedative drugs, including ?2-adrenoceptor agonists, and pathological changes in LC function in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing reduce LC activity and result in sedation and activation of the parasympathetic nervous system.

Samuels, E. R; Szabadi, E

2008-01-01

179

Koro: A state of sexual panic or altered physiology?  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Koro&’ is a syndrome clinically characterized by an acute panic reaction about genital retraction and fear of impending death. It has been regarded as a purely psychogenic illness, initiated by cultural sexual myths and beliefs. Recent global reportings of Koro from diverse ethno-cultural contexts, however, support the role of physical factors in vulnerable individuals. These include penile changes as a

Arabinda N. Chowdhury

1996-01-01

180

Summation of arousal in partial fetishism.  

PubMed

A summation model of classical conditioning was used to describe the deviant sexual arousal pattern of a male psychiatric patient. Penile assessment showed a response to a compound stimulus (radio static plus a picture of a woman) that was approximately equal to the sum of the responses to each component alone. The subject's self-report of sexual arousal followed a similar pattern. A distinction was made between total and partial fetishism. It was suggested that what may be particularly troublesome in partial fetishism is the potential for high levels of summated arousal. PMID:3235698

Junginger, J

1988-12-01

181

Normal and Persistent Genital Arousal in Women: New Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in women's sexual functioning has increased in recent years although the primary emphasis has been on deficits in both genital and subjective sexual response. Female sexual psychophysiology research suggests that women are capable of greater sexual responsiveness than previously thought and can experience genital response in the absence of a subjective experience of sexual arousal. Women who report relatively

Sandra R. Leiblum; Meredith L. Chivers

2007-01-01

182

Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder in Women: Case Reports of Association with Anti-Depressant Usage and Withdrawal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known with certitude about the triggers of persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) in women, although there appears to be certain common features of the disorder. Women complain of unbidden feelings of genital arousal that are qualitatively different from sexual arousal that is preceded by sexual desire\\/and or subjective arousal. The majority of women find PGAD distressing and report

Sandra R. Leiblum; David Goldmeier

2008-01-01

183

Persistent genital arousal in women – a new syndrome entity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: The persistent sexual arousal syndrome (PSAS) is a newly described entity where women become involuntarily aroused genitally for extended periods in time in the absence of sexual desire. Genital vasoengorgement and oedema have been observed. These women are found to be usually very distressed. The cause of the syndrome in the majority of cases is unknown, although a number

David Goldmeier; Sandra R Leiblum

2006-01-01

184

Self-awareness of the male sexual response after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare the studied variables. Forty spinal cord injured male patients and a control group composed of 50 able-bodied male individuals filled in a questionnaire that assessed sexual behaviour, functioning and satisfaction. Comparing the control group with the injured group in the postinjury period, there was no significant difference in the sexual desire; however, in relation to sexual arousal and the orgasm intensity, there was a significant difference. The same results were found when comparing the injured participants' preinjury and postinjury period reports. It was clear that the injury significantly reduced sexual arousal among quadriplegic participants and orgasm intensity among both quadriplegic and paraplegic men. The spinal cord injury had a significant impact on sexual arousal and orgasm physiological response, although the sexual desire perception was not significantly altered, indicating that spinal cord injury affects these men's sexual behaviour in terms of sexual performance and body sensitivity. PMID:19011580

Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R; Mendes, Aline K

2009-12-01

185

The functional neuroanatomy of male psychosexual and physiosexual arousal: A quantitative meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Reproductive behavior is mandatory for conservation of species and mediated by a state of sexual arousal (SA), involving both complex mental processes and bodily reactions. An early neurobehavioral model of SA proposes cognitive, emotional, motivational, and autonomic components. In a comprehensive quantitative meta-analysis on previous neuroimaging findings, we provide here evidence for distinct brain networks underlying psychosexual and physiosexual arousal. Psychosexual (i.e., mental sexual) arousal recruits brain areas crucial for cognitive evaluation, top-down modulation of attention and exteroceptive sensory processing, relevance detection and affective evaluation, as well as regions implicated in the representation of urges and in triggering autonomic processes. In contrast, physiosexual (i.e., physiological sexual) arousal is mediated by regions responsible for regulation and monitoring of initiated autonomic processes and emotions and for somatosensory processing. These circuits are interconnected by subcortical structures (putamen and claustrum) that provide exchange of sensorimotor information and crossmodal processing between and within the networks. Brain deactivations may imply attenuation of introspective processes and social cognition, but be necessary to release intrinsic inhibition of SA. Hum Brain Mapp, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23674246

Poeppl, Timm B; Langguth, Berthold; Laird, Angela R; Eickhoff, Simon B

2013-05-14

186

Female sexual arousal in amphibians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity

Walter Wilczynski; Kathleen S. Lynch

2011-01-01

187

Hypocretin/Orexin in Arousal and Stress  

PubMed Central

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) participates in the regulation of arousal and arousal-related process. For example, HCRT axons and receptors are found within a variety of arousal-related systems. Moreover, when administered centrally, HCRT exerts robust wake-promoting actions. Finally, a dysregulation of HCRT neurotransmission is associated with the sleep/arousal disorder, narcolepsy. Combined, these observations suggested that HCRT might be a key transmitter system in the regulation of waking. Nonetheless, subsequent evidence indicates that HCRT may not play a prominent role in the initiation of normal waking. Instead HCRT may participate in a variety of processes such as consolidation of waking and/or coupling metabolic state with behavioral state. Additionally, substantial evidence suggests a potential involvement of HCRT in high-arousal conditions, including stress. Thus, HCRT neurotransmission is closely linked to high-arousal conditions, including stress, and HCRT administrations exerts a variety of stress-like physiological and behavioral effects that are superimposed on HCRT-induced increases in arousal. Combined, this evidence suggests the hypothesis that HCRT may participate in behavioral responding under high-arousal aversive conditions. Importantly, these actions of HCRT may not be limited to stress. Like stress, appetitive conditions are associated with elevated arousal levels and a stress-like activation of various physiological systems. These and other observations suggest that HCRT may, at least in part, exert affectively-neutral actions that are important under high-arousal conditions associated with elevated motivation and/or need for action.

Berridge, Craig W.; Espana, Rodrigo A.; Vittoz, Nicole M.

2009-01-01

188

Hypocretin/orexin in arousal and stress.  

PubMed

Multiple lines of evidence indicate that hypocretin/orexin (HCRT) participates in the regulation of arousal and arousal-related process. For example, HCRT axons and receptors are found within a variety of arousal-related systems. Moreover, when administered centrally, HCRT exerts robust wake-promoting actions. Finally, a dysregulation of HCRT neurotransmission is associated with the sleep/arousal disorder, narcolepsy. Combined, these observations suggested that HCRT might be a key transmitter system in the regulation of waking. Nonetheless, subsequent evidence indicates that HCRT may not play a prominent role in the initiation of normal waking. Instead HCRT may participate in a variety of processes such as consolidation of waking and/or coupling metabolic state with behavioral state. Additionally, substantial evidence suggests a potential involvement of HCRT in high-arousal conditions, including stress. Thus, HCRT neurotransmission is closely linked to high-arousal conditions, including stress, and HCRT administration exerts a variety of stress-like physiological and behavioral effects that are superimposed on HCRT-induced increases in arousal. Combined, this evidence suggests the hypothesis that HCRT may participate in behavioral responding under high-arousal aversive conditions. Importantly, these actions of HCRT may not be limited to stress. Like stress, appetitive conditions are associated with elevated arousal levels and a stress-like activation of various physiological systems. These and other observations suggest that HCRT may, at least in part, exert affectively neutral actions that are important under high-arousal conditions associated with elevated motivation and/or need for action. PMID:19748490

Berridge, Craig W; España, Rodrigo A; Vittoz, Nicole M

2009-09-11

189

Effect of combined psycho-physiological stretching and breathing therapy on sexual satisfaction  

PubMed Central

Background During the last few decades, marital tensions and stresses have influenced various dimensions of life. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of combined psycho-physiological therapy (stretching therapy combined with breathing exercise) on sexual satisfaction among heterosexual men. Methods For this research, we used “convenience sampling” to select 80 males, who were then split equally into two groups, the intervention group and the control group, both groups containing men who had voiced a desire to be in the experimental group. For collection of data, we used an identical quasi-experimental design called the “nonequivalent control group.” Therapy sessions, each lasting 90 to 120 min, were carried out on the same 3 days of the week (Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday) for a total of 20 sessions. The volunteers were selected from heterosexual men with stable relationships, who had been married a minimum of 6 months and were ages 20 to 55 years of age. Pre-tests, post-tests, and follow-up tests were conducted in a clinic at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM [1] ). For assessment, we used the sexual satisfaction subscale of the ENRICH [2] questionnaire. Results The intervention group had better post-test scores than the control group. Also, follow-up test scores for the intervention group were marginally better than those for the control group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Combined psycho-physiological therapy including stretching and breathing exercise leads to improved sexual satisfaction.

2013-01-01

190

Arousal, Personality, and Assortative Mating in Marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that there is significant assortative mating for intelligence. However, where personality is concerned, the picture is less clear, and where physiologically referenced individual differences are concerned, there is a negligible body of available research. A compound major individual difference variable having a putative physiological basis–arousal and the stimulation-seeking motive, which has not heretofore been investigated in studies

Frank H. Farley; Sandy A. Davis

1977-01-01

191

Sex Differences in Response to Visual Sexual Stimuli: A Review  

PubMed Central

This article reviews what is currently known about how men and women respond to the presentation of visual sexual stimuli. While the assumption that men respond more to visual sexual stimuli is generally empirically supported, previous reports of sex differences are confounded by the variable content of the stimuli presented and measurement techniques. We propose that the cognitive processing stage of responding to sexual stimuli is the first stage in which sex differences occur. The divergence between men and women is proposed to occur at this time, reflected in differences in neural activation, and contribute to previously reported sex differences in downstream peripheral physiological responses and subjective reports of sexual arousal. Additionally, this review discusses factors that may contribute to the variability in sex differences observed in response to visual sexual stimuli. Factors include participant variables, such as hormonal state and socialized sexual attitudes, as well as variables specific to the content presented in the stimuli. Based on the literature reviewed, we conclude that content characteristics may differentially produce higher levels of sexual arousal in men and women. Specifically, men appear more influenced by the sex of the actors depicted in the stimuli while women’s response may differ with the context presented. Sexual motivation, perceived gender role expectations, and sexual attitudes are possible influences. These differences are of practical importance to future research on sexual arousal that aims to use experimental stimuli comparably appealing to men and women and also for general understanding of cognitive sex differences.

Rupp, Heather A.; Wallen, Kim

2009-01-01

192

Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general model of affective aggression was used to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures.Experiment 1 examined hot temperatureeffectson hostileaffect, hostilecognition,perceived arousal, and physiological arousal in the context of a study of video games. Experiment 2 examined hot temperature effects on hostile affect, perceived and physiological arousal, and general positive and negative affect in the context of briefaerobicexercise. Consistent results were

Craig A. Anderson; William E. Deuser; K. M. DeNeve

1995-01-01

193

Valence, arousal and word associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed at testing the relative effects of valence and arousal on the generation of unusual first associates in response to non-emotional inducers. To examine this question, four specific moods varying along both the valence and the arousal dimensions were induced: happiness (positive mood, high arousal), serenity (positive mood, low arousal), anger (negative mood, high arousal) and sadness (negative

Anne-Laure Gilet; Christophe Jallais

2011-01-01

194

The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli  

PubMed Central

Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function.

Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

2011-01-01

195

Arriving at the diagnosis of female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Female sexual dysfunctions include a group of sexual complaints and disorders affecting women of all ages, and stemming from a heterogeneous array of etiologies and contributing factors. The classification system for sexual dysfunctions in the woman has evolved from a linear categorization of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders to one that is more complex and overlapping. Personal distress is a key factor in defining a sexual problem as a dysfunction. The recently released Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, edition 5, collapses former definitions of female sexual disorders and moves away from the older linear model of diagnostic categories. Physicians should be open to discussing sexual problems with women, and may make use of validated questionnaires in the office setting. Evaluation tools available for assessing sexual function in the woman are in use in the research setting, as are physiological measures of assessment. PMID:24012196

Latif, Erin Z; Diamond, Michael P

2013-09-04

196

Are there optimal levels of arousal to memory? Effects of arousal, centrality, and familiarity on brand memory in video games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a modified first-person shooter game, Counter Strike 2, this study tested (1) if the Yerkes–Dodson law could be applied to the relationship between physiological arousal (skin conductance) and brand memory in the new interactive technology setting; (2) if central and familiar ads are better recognized; and (3) if there are any interaction effects among arousal, centrality, and familiarity on

Eui Jun Jeong; Frank A. Biocca

197

Arousal and affective responses to writing styles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although arousal measures have been employed to predict responses to television programs and music, they have not been used previously to evaluate print media. In this study, skin conductance response (SCR) and a mood scale were used to measure physiological and affective responses to three factors of newswriting style: narrative vs. traditional; direct quotations vs. paraphrased statements; and active vs.

Lewis Donohew

1981-01-01

198

Noradrenergic Modulation of Arousal  

PubMed Central

Through a highly divergent efferent projection system, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system. State-dependent neuronal discharge activity of locus coeruleus neurons has long-suggested a role of this system in the induction of an alert waking state. More recent work supports this hypothesis, demonstrating robust wake-promoting actions of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system. Norepinephrine enhances arousal, in part, via actions of ?- and ?1-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the general regions of the medial septal area and the medial preoptic areas. Recent anatomical studies suggest that arousal-enhancing actions of norepinephrine are not limited to the locus coeruleus system and likely include the A1 and A2 noradrenergic cell groups. Thus, noradrenergic modulation of arousal state involves multiple noradrenergic systems acting with multiple subcortical regions. Pharmacological studies indicate that the combined actions of these systems are necessary for the sustained maintenance of arousal levels associated with spontaneous waking. Enhanced arousal state is a prominent aspect of both stress and psychostimulant drug action and evidence indicates that noradrenergic systems likely play an important role in both stress-related and psychostimulant-induced arousal. These and other observations suggest that the dysregulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission could well contribute to the dysregulation of arousal associated with a variety of behavioral disorders including insomnia and stress-related disorders.

Berridge, Craig W.

2008-01-01

199

The role of mechanical devices in treating female sexual dysfunction and enhancing the female sexual response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a common medical problem estimated to affect about 40 million American women. In 1998, the American Foundation of Urologic Disease (AFUD) Consensus Panel classified FSD into four different categories: sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder, orgasmic disorder, and sexual pain disorder. This article will focus on the role of mechanical devices to treat sexual arousal

Kevin L. Billups

2002-01-01

200

State-trait arousal and daytime sleepiness after sleep restriction.  

PubMed

The importance of an arousal system in the regulation of sleepiness has been widely recognised in contexts of insomnia theory and research. Arousal is also incorporated in some general models of sleepiness and is considered one of the principal factors regulating sleepiness in a model by De Valck and Cluydts (2003), in which arousal has both state and trait components. In the present experimental study, we explored the effects of state and trait components of arousal on subjective sleepiness and sleep latency during daytime. On a day after partial sleep deprivation, 28 good sleepers aged 18-26 years took part in two successive experimental conditions, in which the state arousal was manipulated by laboratory tasks. We measured physiological (heart rate, frequency of skin conductance responses) and subjective (Energy, Tension, Anxiety) indices of state arousal, while trait arousal was operationalised as electrodermal lability. After a moderately stressful task, which induced a relatively higher state arousal, the participants reported lower sleepiness and took longer to fall asleep than after a simple psychomotor task. Trait arousal was not associated with daytime sleepiness. The results of this study support the idea that short-term changes of state arousal are important for the regulation of sleepiness in good sleepers, even in a situation which is only moderately stressful. PMID:23541996

Bakotic, Marija; Radosevic-Vidacek, Biserka

2013-03-27

201

Psychophysiological consequences of unexplained arousal: a posthypnotic suggestion paradigm.  

PubMed

This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases in heart and respiration rate) with and without amnesia for its source in a two-phase procedure. Only the hypnotizable Ss were expected to differ between conditions. As predicted, for the hypnotizable Ss, unexplained arousal produced significant and dramatic effects when compared with explained arousal, including misattributions. These results are considered within a conceptual framework of the role of discontinuous experiences in the development of psychopathological symptoms in normal persons. PMID:8408959

Zimbardo, P G; LaBerge, S; Butler, L D

1993-08-01

202

The Prevalence of Phimosis of the Clitoris in Women Presenting to the Sexual Dysfunction Clinic: Lack of Correlation to Disorders of Desire, Arousal and Orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical examination of the genitalia was performed during an evaluation of women with sexual health problems. Cephalad displacement of the right and left labia minora enables full retraction of the clitoral prepuce and complete exposure of the glans clitoris, under normal circumstances. We defined clitoral examination as abnormal when the cephalad force resulted in varying degrees of incomplete foreskin retraction

Ricardo Munarriz; Lily Talakoub; Wendy Kuohung; Melissa Gioia; Lisa Hoag; Elizabeth Flaherty; Kweonsik Min; Seong Choi; Irwin Goldstein

2002-01-01

203

Buspirone and Paraphilic Sexual Behavior.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews literature concerning buspirone's effect on sexual functioning. Presents three hypotheses: that buspirone's facilitation of sexual functioning is not solely a result of its anxiolytic effects; that buspirone facilitates nonparaphilc arousal but inhibits paraphilic sexual arousal; and that buspirone's efficacy in reducing paraphilic…

Fedoroff, J. Paul; Fedoroff, Ingrid C.

1992-01-01

204

Measurement of risk of sexual violence through phallometric testing.  

PubMed

The use of phallometric testing to determine risk of sexual violence is becoming more widely recognized throughout the world. This technique involves the precise measurement of circumferential change in the penis from flaccidity to erection in response to both 'normal' and deviant sexual stimuli. Phallometric testing is the only pure measure of sexual arousal, and unlike other physiological measures such as heart rate and GSR it is not influenced by arousal states such as fear and anger. The current published research compares the phallometric testing profiles of incarcerated sexual offenders with those of incarcerated nonsexual offenders. Specifically, the sexual arousal of 100 convicted rapists, pedophiles, and nonsexual offenders is examined. This research identifies what differentiates these groups and what best predicts risk of sexual aggression. Implications of these results include the possibility of using phallometric testing as a screening tool for those who work with vulnerable populations (e.g., child care workers, teachers). The principal benefit of phallometric testing, however, lies in the identification of those incarcerated men who are at greatest risk to sexually reoffend and who should thus be denied release from jail. PMID:19362036

Howes, Richard J

2009-04-09

205

How Women’s Nonconscious Association of Sex with Submission Relates to Their Subjective Sexual Arousability and Ability to Reach Orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common cultural stereotypes promote women’s submission to men, especially within intimate heterosexual relationships. Mirroring these stereotypes, women possess nonconscious associations between sex and submission (Sanchez, Kiefer & Ybarra, 2006). Moreover, women’s sex-submission associations predict greater reports of engagement in submissive sexual behavior (Sanchez et al., 2006). In the present research, we again found that women associate sex with submission at

Amy K. Kiefer; Diana T. Sanchez; Christina J. Kalinka; Oscar Ybarra

2006-01-01

206

Control of arousal by the orexin neurons.  

PubMed

The orexin-producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus play an essential role in promoting arousal and maintaining wakefulness. These neurons receive a broad variety of signals related to environmental, physiological and emotional stimuli; they project to almost every brain region involved in the regulation of wakefulness; and they fire most strongly during active wakefulness, high motor activation, and sustained attention. This review focuses on the specific neuronal pathways through which the orexin neurons promote wakefulness and maintain high level of arousal, and how recent studies using optogenetic and pharmacogenetic methods have demonstrated that the locus coeruleus, the tuberomammillary nucleus, and the basal forebrain are some of the key sites mediating the arousing actions of orexins. PMID:23683477

Alexandre, Chloe; Andermann, Mark L; Scammell, Thomas E

2013-05-15

207

Physiological Mechanisms of Sexual Dysfunction Side Effects Associated With Antidepressant Medication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dysfunction side effects have been associated with antidepressant medication, especially with serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Neurotransmitters appear to be involved, especially dopamine and serotonin, but the processes by which they influence sexual dysfunction are not clear.

John B. Murray

1998-01-01

208

Physiology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included…

Kay, Ian

2008-01-01

209

Sexual differences in physiological integration in the dioecious shrub Lindera triloba: a field experiment using girdling manipulation  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims It is important to consider the modular level when verifying sexual dimorphism in dioecious plants. Nevertheless, between-sex differences in resource translocation among modules (i.e. physiological integration) have not been tested at the whole-plant level. In this study, sexual differences in physiological integration were examined among ramets, within a genet in the dioecious sprouting shrub Lindera triloba, by a field experiment with girdling manipulation. Methods Female and male genets were randomly assigned to girdled or intact groups. Girdling of the main ramets was conducted in May 2009 by removing a ring of bark and cambium approx. 1 cm wide at a height of 80–100 cm. The effects of treatment and sex on ramet dynamics (mortality, recruitment and diameter growth) and inflorescence production during 1 year after girdling were examined. Key Results The diameter growth rate of main ramets of both sexes was lower at ground level (D0) but higher at breast height (dbh) in girdled than in intact groups. In sprouted ramets with a dbh of 0–2 cm, males in girdled groups had lower growth rates at D0 than those of intact groups, whereas no girdling effect was found for females. The main ramets in girdled groups produced more inflorescences than intact groups, irrespective of sex, but male ramets showed a greater response to the treatment than females. Conclusions In L. triloba, physiological integration exists at the whole-plant level, and sprouted ramets are dependent on assimilates translocated from main ramets, but this dependence weakens as sprouted ramets get larger. Female sprouted ramets can grow in a physiologically independent manner from the main ramet earlier than those of males. This study highlights the importance of considering modular structures and physiological integration when evaluating sexual differences in demographic patterns of clonal plants.

Isogimi, Tomohiro; Matsushita, Michinari; Watanabe, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Michiko

2011-01-01

210

25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disciplinary authority over him or her. (b) Sexual contact is any touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of the person for the purpose of arousing or gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing,...

2010-04-01

211

25 CFR 11.407 - Sexual assault.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...disciplinary authority over him or her. (b) Sexual contact is any touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of the person for the purpose of arousing or gratifying sexual desire, or for the purpose of abusing,...

2009-04-01

212

Association between smoking cessation and sexual health in men  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide the first empirical investigation of the association between smoking cessation and indices of physiological and subjective sexual health in men. Subjects and methods Male smokers, irrespective of erectile dysfunction status, who were motivated to stop smoking (‘quitters’), were enrolled in an 8-week smoking cessation programme involving a nicotine transdermal patch treatment and adjunctive counselling. Participants were assessed at baseline (while smoking regularly), at mid-treatment (while using a high-dose nicotine transdermal patch), and at a 4-week post-cessation follow-up. Physiological (circumferential change via penile plethysmography) and subjective sexual arousal indices (continuous self-report), as well as self-reported sexual functioning were assessed at each visit. Results Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that, at follow-up, successful quitters (n = 20), compared with those who relapsed (n = 45), showed enhanced erectile tumescence responses, and faster onset to reach maximum subjective sexual arousal. Although successful quitters displayed across-session enhancements in sexual function, they did not show a differential improvement compared with unsuccessful quitters. Conclusion Smoking cessation significantly enhances both physiological and self-reported indices of sexual health in long-term male smokers, irrespective of baseline erectile impairment. It is hoped that these results may serve as a novel means to motivate men to stop smoking.

Harte, Christopher B.; Meston, Cindy M.

2011-01-01

213

Short- and Long-term Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Sexual Dysfunction in Women  

PubMed Central

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) facilitates blood flow, influences nitric oxide systems, and has a relaxant effect on smooth muscle tissue. These processes are important to the sexual response in women and, hence, it is feasible that GBE may have a therapeutic effect. The present study was the first to provide an empirical examination of the effects of both short- and long-term GBE administration on subjective and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmography) measures of sexual function in women with Sexual Arousal Disorder. A single dose of 300 mg GBE had a small but significant facilitatory effect on physiological, but not subjective, sexual arousal compared to placebo in 99 sexually dysfunctional women. The long-term effects of GBE on sexual function were assessed in 68 sexually dysfunctional women who were randomly assigned to 8 weeks treatment of either (1) GBE (300 mg/daily), (2) placebo, (3) sex therapy which focused on training women to attend to genital sensations, or (4) sex therapy plus GBE. When combined with sex therapy, but not alone, long-term GBE treatment significantly increased sexual desire and contentment beyond placebo. Sex therapy alone significantly enhanced orgasm function compared with placebo. Long-term GBE administration did not significantly enhance arousal responses beyond placebo. It was concluded that (1) neither short- or long-term administration of GBE alone substantially impacts sexual function in women, (2) a substantial placebo effect on sexual function exists in women with sexual concerns, and (3) teaching women to focus on genital sensations during sex enhances certain aspects of women’s sexual functioning.

Rellini, Alessandra H.; Telch, Michael J.

2010-01-01

214

Replications and extensions in arousal assessment for sex offenders with developmental disabilities.  

PubMed

Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795

Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

215

REPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS IN AROUSAL ASSESSMENT FOR SEX OFFENDERS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES  

PubMed Central

Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed.

Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

216

Sexually mature and immature yearling male European ground squirrels: A comparison of behavioral and physiological parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early puberty may increase lifetime reproductive success, but may also entail diverse costs. In male European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus), age at sexual maturity varies among individuals. We compared sexually active and inactive yearling males under standardized conditions in outdoor enclosures. Non-reproductive yearling males hibernated significantly longer than mature males and emerged when the mating period had already started. Testosterone

Anna Strauss; Elvira Mascher; Rupert Palme; Eva Millesi

2007-01-01

217

Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

218

The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that…

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

219

Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

220

CNS arousal mechanisms bearing on sex and other biologically regulated behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It now seems possible to move beyond analyzing only the mechanisms for specific sexual behaviors to the analysis of ‘generalized arousal’ that underlies all motivated behaviors. Our science has advanced sufficiently to attack mechanisms linking specific motivations to these general arousal mechanisms that intrinsically activate all biologically-regulated behaviors including ingestive behaviors. Learning from the well-developed reproductive behavior paradigm, we know

Nino Devidze; Anna W. Lee; Jin Zhou; Donald W. Pfaff

2006-01-01

221

The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

222

Persistent genital arousal disorder associated with functional hyperconnectivity of an epileptic focus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder (PGAD) refers to the experience of persistent sensations of genital arousal that are felt to be unprovoked, intrusive and unrelieved by one or several orgasms. It is often mistaken for hypersexuality since PGAD often results in a high frequency of sexual behaviour. At present little is known with certainty about the etiology of this condition. We

F. Anzellotti; R. Franciotti; L. Bonanni; G. Tamburro; M. G. Perrucci; A. Thomas; V. Pizzella; G. L. Romani; M. Onofrj

2010-01-01

223

Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder Misdiagnosed Because of Islamic Religious Bathing Rituals: A Report of Three Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent genital arousal disorder is not well known or adequately understood by physicians. The disorder is characterized by a persistent and highly unwanted state of genital arousal and orgasm-like feelings. Ghusl is an ablution in Islamic culture, which is an obligatory ritual wherein the body is washed thoroughly after exposure to religious contaminants such as sexual intercourse, menstruation, and childbirth.

Ejder Akgun Yildirim; Munevver Hacioglu; Altan Essizoglu; Ilker Kucukparlak

2012-01-01

224

Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder Misdiagnosed Due to Islamic Religious Bathing Rituals: A Report of 3 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is not well known or adequately understood by physicians. PGAD is characterized by a persistent and highly unwanted state of genital arousal and orgasm-like feelings. “Ghusl” is an ablution in Islamic culture, which is an obligatory ritual wherein the body is washed thoroughly after exposure to “religious contaminants,” such as sexual intercourse, menstruation, and childbirth.

Ejder Akgun Yildirim; Munevver Hacioglu; Altan Essizoglu; Ilker Kucukparlak

2012-01-01

225

Perceptions of Sexuality as Related to Sexual Functioning and Sexual Risk in Women with Different Types of Childhood Abuse Histories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of one's sexuality, self-reported sexual functioning, and sexual risk were examined in a community sample of 148 women with histories of either childhood sexual abuse (n = 26), both childhood sexual and physical abuse (n = 44), and neither form of abuse (n = 78). Controlling for depression and anxiety, the groups did not differ on sexual desire, arousal\\/orgasm,

Kelly A. Schloredt; Julia R. Heiman

2003-01-01

226

Investigation of Attitudinal, Social Arousal, and Demographic Variables in Sex Offenders and Normals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The study was undertaken to:(1) develop a measure of social perception, a neglected aspect of social skills, for use in this project; (2) determine the relationship of sexual arousal variables, attitudinal variables, personality variables, and social perc...

W. D. Murphy

1982-01-01

227

Online Sexual Activity Experience of Heterosexual Students: Gender Similarities and Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared male and female university students’ experiences with online sexual activity (OSA) and tested a model\\u000a explaining gender differences in OSA. OSAs were categorized as non-arousal (e.g., seeking sexuality information), solitary-arousal\\u000a (e.g., viewing sexually explicit materials), or partnered-arousal (e.g., sharing sexual fantasies). Participants (N = 217) completed measures of OSA experience, sexual attitudes, and sexual experience. Significantly more men than

Krystelle ShaughnessyE; E. Sandra Byers; Lindsay Walsh

2011-01-01

228

Sexual Picture Processing Interferes with Decision-Making Under Ambiguity.  

PubMed

Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use. PMID:23733155

Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

2013-06-01

229

The evolving sexual health paradigm: transforming definitions into sexual health practices.  

PubMed

Sexual health is an evolving paradigm that integrates a positive approach to sexuality with existing public health policy and practice for reducing the burdens of sexually transmitted infections, including those due to HIV. The sexual health paradigm rests in commitment to sexual rights, sexual knowledge, sexual choice, and sexual pleasure, as well as key elements of sexuality addressed by sexual desire, sexual arousal, and sexual function, and sexual behaviors. The sexual health paradigm offers new approaches to supporting general health and well being while reducing the burdens of sexual diseases and their consequences. PMID:24088679

Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-10-01

230

CNS arousal mechanisms bearing on sex and other biologically regulated behaviors.  

PubMed

It now seems possible to move beyond analyzing only the mechanisms for specific sexual behaviors to the analysis of 'generalized arousal' that underlies all motivated behaviors. Our science has advanced sufficiently to attack mechanisms linking specific motivations to these general arousal mechanisms that intrinsically activate all biologically-regulated behaviors including ingestive behaviors. Learning from the well-developed reproductive behavior paradigm, we know that sex hormone effects on hypothalamic neurons have been studied to a point where receptor mechanisms are relatively well understood, a neural circuit for a sex steroid-dependent behavior has been worked out, and several functional genomic regulations have been discovered. Here we focus for the first time on three chemical systems that signal 'generalized arousal' and which impact hormone-dependent hypothalamic neurons of importance to sexual arousal: histamine, norepinephrine and enkephalin. Progress in linking generalized arousal to specific motivational mechanisms is reviewed. PMID:16769096

Devidze, Nino; Lee, Anna W; Zhou, Jin; Pfaff, Donald W

2006-06-30

231

Sexual functioning and self?reported depressive symptoms among college women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an exploratory study comparing 47 college?aged women reporting depressive symptoms but not receiving antidepressant medication to 47 age?matched controls. We examined various dimensions of sexual functioning, including sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, pain, pleasure, and satisfaction. The women with depressive symptoms reported more inhibited sexual arousal, more inhibited orgasm, more sexual pain problems, and less sexual satisfaction and pleasure

Penny Frohlich; Cindy Meston

2002-01-01

232

Level of postassault sexual functioning in rape and incest victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a systematic study, 372 sexual assault survivors and 99 women with no history of sexual assault were interviewed with regard to their sexual histories to determine the incidence and types of sexual dysfunctions in these two samples. The women also completed the Sexual Arousability Inventory. Of the sexual assault survivors, 58.6% of the women were experiencing sexual dysfunctions, with

Judith V. Becker; Linda J. Skinner; Gene G. Abel; Joan Cichon

1986-01-01

233

Stepping Up the Pressure: Arousal Can Be Associated with a Reduction in Male Aggression  

PubMed Central

The attentional myopia model of behavioral control (Mann & Ward, 2007) was tested in an experiment investigating the relationship between physiological arousal and aggression. Drawing on previous work linking arousal and narrowed attentional focus, the model predicts that arousal will lead to behavior that is relatively disinhibited in situations in which promoting pressures to aggress are highly salient. In situations in which inhibitory pressures are more salient, the model predicts behavior that is relatively restrained. In the experiment, 81 male undergraduates delivered noise-blasts against a provoking confederate while experiencing either high or low levels of physiological arousal and, at the same time, being exposed to cues that served either to promote or inhibit aggression. In addition to supporting the predictions of the model, this experiment provided some of the first evidence for enhanced control of aggression under conditions of heightened physiological arousal. Implications for interventions designed to reduce aggression are discussed.

Ward, Andrew; Mann, Traci; Westling, Erika H.; Creswell, J. David; Ebert, Jeffrey P.; Wallaert, Matthew

2009-01-01

234

Virginity Lost, Satisfaction Gained? Physiological and Psychological Sexual Satisfaction at Heterosexual Debut  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the literature's focus on (hetero)sexual initiation, little is known about the degree to which young people are satisfied by their first vaginal intercourse experience, let alone the factors that predict satisfaction. This study analyzed data from a cross-sectional survey of 1,986 non-Hispanic White and Black 18- to 25-year-old respondents from four university campuses. Respondents were asked to rate the

Jenny A. Higgins; James Trussell; Nelwyn B. Moore; J. Kenneth Davidson

2010-01-01

235

Narratives of Desire in Mid-Age Women With and Without Arousal Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is controversy about the nature of women's sexual desire. The aim was to explore narrative descriptions of sexual desire among mid-aged women in hopes of clarifying how women define and experience sexual desire, and how these might differ among women with and without female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Mid-aged women without (age: M = 45, n = 12) and with (age: M = 55, n = 10)

Lori A. Brotto; Julia R. Heiman; Deborah L. Tolman

2009-01-01

236

A Specific Role for the Thalamus in Mediating the Interaction of Attention and Arousal in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological basis for the interaction of selective attention and arousal is not clearly understood. Here we present evi- dence in humans that specifically implicates the thalamus in this interaction. We used functional magnetic resonance imag- ing to measure brain activity during the performance of an attentional task under different levels of arousal. Activity evoked in the ventrolateral thalamus by

C. M. Portas; G. Rees; A. M. Howseman; O. Josephs; R. Turner; C. D. Frith

1998-01-01

237

Puberty and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-07-01

238

Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that emotional states may be considered a function of a state of physiological arousal and of a cognition appropriate to this state of arousal. From this follows these propositions: (a) Given a state of physiological arousal for which an individual has no immediate explanation, he will label this state and describe his feelings in terms of the

Stanley Schachter; Jerome Singer

1962-01-01

239

Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality

Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

1997-01-01

240

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEXUAL SELF-CONCEPT INVENTORY FOR EARLY ADOLESCENT GIRLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sexual Self-Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed to assess sexual self-concept in an ethnically diverse sample of urban early adolescent girls. Three scales (Sexual Arousability, Sexual Agency, and Negative Sexual Affect) were shown to be distinct and reliable dimensions of girls' sexual self-concepts. Validity was established through comparisons with established instruments. Sexual Arousability and Sexual Agency were associated with positive

Lucia F. O'Sullivan; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Ian W. McKeague

2006-01-01

241

Female sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem with detrimental effects on woman’s quality of life. It also has an economical\\u000a and societal impact. It is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain, which lead to personal\\u000a distress. The etiology of sexual dysfunction is frequently multifactorial as it relates to general physical and mental well-being,\\u000a quality of

Erdogan Aslan; Michelle Fynes

2008-01-01

242

Reducing dimensionality in a database of sleep EEG arousals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sleep studies are carried out in order to diagnose those diseases associated with the sleep. The standard technique consists on monitoring various bio-physiological signals of the patient during sleep. The resulting recording, the polysomnography (PSG) is then analyzed offline by the physician. This supposes a very time-consuming task and therefore automation of these analyses is desirable. An arousal during sleep

Diego Álvarez-Estévez; Noelia Sánchez-Maroño; Amparo Alonso-Betanzos; Vicente Moret-Bonillo

2011-01-01

243

Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

2008-01-01

244

Spontaneous Variations in Level of Arousal among Aged Individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess whether spontaneous interindividual variations in arousal level appreciated by telemetric recordings of physiological variables were related to mental performance and functional ability in institutionalized aged subjects. The sample studied was made up of 18 subjects (16 women and 2 men) aged 82–97, living in an old age home in Paris. Telemetric recordings

J. Poitrenaud; P. Hazemann; F. Lille

1978-01-01

245

Regulation of sleepiness: the role of the arousal system.  

PubMed

Sleepiness is a widespread phenomenon in the busy industrial countries, and many studies have identified its significant negative impacts on individuals and society. Particularly important are the data that associate sleepiness with the risk of accidents at workplace and in transport, pointing to shift workers as the most vulnerable population. It is generally accepted that two basic physiological processes regulate sleepiness: homeostatic and circadian rhythmic processes. Recent research has proposed the third component regulating sleepiness, that is, the wake drive or the arousal system. The role of the arousal system in regulating sleepiness has partly been addressed by the studies of the pathophysiology of insomnia, which is often described as a disorder of hyperarousal. Experimental and correlational studies on the relation between sleepiness and arousal in good sleepers have generally indicated that both physiological and cognitive arousal are related to the standard measures of sleepiness. Taking into account the role of the arousal system in regulating sleepiness widens the possibilities for the management of sleep disorders and could also help in solving the problem of excessive sleepiness at work and the wheel. PMID:22548850

Bakoti?, Marija; Radoševi?-Vida?ek, Biserka

2012-01-01

246

Comparative physiological, ultrastructural and proteomic analyses reveal sexual differences in the responses of Populus cathayana under drought stress.  

PubMed

Drought is a major abiotic stress, limiting the survival and growth of young plants. However, little is known about sex-dependent responses to drought at the proteome level. In this study, we carried out investigations on comparative proteomics, combined with physiological and organelle structure analyses, in males and females of Populus cathayana Rehd. Three-month-old poplar cuttings were treated at 30% of field capacity and at 100% field capacity as a control in a greenhouse for 40 days. Drought greatly inhibited plant growth, damaged the photosynthetic system and destructed the structures of chloroplasts, mitochondria and cellular membranes. However, males suffered less from the adverse effects of drought than did females. Using 2-DE, 563 spots were detected, of which 64 spots displayed significant drought effect and 44 spots displayed a significant sex by drought interaction effect. The results suggest that the different responses to drought stress detected between the sexes have a close relationship to the changes in the expression of sex-dependent proteins, including, e.g. photosynthesis-related proteins, homeostasis-related proteins and stress response proteins. These proteins could contribute to a physiological advantage under drought, giving potential clues for understanding sexual differences in the performance of plants in different environments. PMID:20455211

Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Fugui; Peng, Shuming; Ma, Wujun; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang

2010-07-01

247

Pornography and the sex offender: Patterns of previous exposure and arousal effects of pornographic stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Showed 63 male sex and 66 male criminal code offenders a series of 26 slides depicting different sexual behaviors. Ss were also interviewed about their past exposure to pornography. No differences were found between the 2 groups on the measure of rated overall sexual arousal to the slides. Numerous differences were found between the 2 groups in their past exposure

Royer F. Cook; Robert H. Fosen; Asher Pacht

1971-01-01

248

Women's sexual function and dysfunction: current uncertainties, future directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is increasing evidence that women at the outset of sexual activity do not need to have sexual desire, as in ‘drive’, and that many do not distinguish desire from arousal. Multiple modes of investigation confirm poor correlation between women's subjective arousal and measured genital congestion. Suggested revisions to the DSM-IV definitions of sexual disorder have been published: there is

R Basson

2008-01-01

249

Adolescents' Exposure to Sexually Explicit Internet Material and Sexual Preoccupancy: A Three-Wave Panel Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents' use of sexually explicit Internet material (SEIM) increased their sexual preoccupancy (i.e., a strong cognitive engagement in sexual issues). Further, we wanted to know (a) whether subjective sexual arousal mediated a potential influence of exposure to SEIM on sexual preoccupancy and (b) whether this process differed between male and

Jochen Peter; Patti M. Valkenburg

2008-01-01

250

Remembering Pictures: Pleasure and Arousal in Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incidental memory performance for pictures that varied along the affective dimensions of pleasantness and arousal was assessed. For both an immediate and delayed (1 year later) free-recall task, only the arousal dimension had a stable effect on memory performance: Pictures rated as highly arousing were remembered better than low-arousal stimuli. This effect was corroborated in a speeded recognition test, in

Margaret M. Bradley; Mark K. Greenwald; Margaret C. Petry; Peter J. Lang

1992-01-01

251

Memory for thematically arousing events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many studies have indicated that emotional arousalimproves memory for thecenter, or gist, of an event butundermines memory for the event’speriphery. However, all of these studies have elicited emotion by showing participants some salient visual stimulus intended to arouse\\u000a them (e.g., the sight of a wound). This stimulus may have served as anattention magnet, and this, not the arousal, may have

Cara Laney; Hannah V. Campbell; Friderike Heuer; Daniel Reisberg

2004-01-01

252

Effects of emotional state on sexual desire and sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study explored effects of emotional states on sexual desire and dysfunction. Three basic emotion dimensions, pleasure-displeasure, arousal-nonarousal, and dominance-submissiveness, served as the independent factors. Factor analysis of a sexual desire and problems questionnaire yielded a single factor with sexual desire as one pole and sexual problems as the opposite pole. The resulting “sexual desire” scale had a KR-20

Albert Mehrabian; Linda Stanton-Mohr

1985-01-01

253

The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

2011-06-11

254

Does Subliminal Exposure to Sexual Stimuli Have the Same Effects on Men and Women?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three studies explored gender differences in explicit and implicit components of sexual arousal following brief exposure to a sexual stimulus. Whereas Study 1 assessed reports of sexual arousal following subliminal exposure to a sexual or a neutral picture, Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of the same priming procedure on accessibility of sex-related thoughts assessed with a pictorial judgment

Omri Gillath; Mario Mikulincer; Gurit E. Birnbaum; Phillip R. Shaver

2007-01-01

255

Sexual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the premorbid and present sexual functioning of 75 people with PD (32 women and 43 men). Women reported difficulties with arousal (87.5%), with reaching orgasm (75.0%), with low sexual desire (46.9%), and wih sexual dissatisfaction (37.5%). Men reported erectile dysfunction (68.4%), sexual dissatisfaction (65.1%), premature ejaculation (40.6%), and difficulties reaching

GILA BRONNER; VLADIMIR ROYTER; AMOS D. KORCZYN; NIR GILADI

2004-01-01

256

Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes in North Carolina found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior. However, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also present in one third of the sample. The relationship between

Mary E. Van Bourgondiera; Nancy C. Reichle; Ann Palmer

1997-01-01

257

Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence

Irwin Goldstein

258

Persistent genital arousal disorder in women: case reports of association with anti-depressant usage and withdrawal.  

PubMed

Little is known with certitude about the triggers of persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) in women, although there appears to be certain common features of the disorder. Women complain of unbidden feelings of genital arousal that are qualitatively different from sexual arousal that is preceded by sexual desire/and or subjective arousal. The majority of women find PGAD distressing and report only brief relief with orgasm. In this article, we describe five women who believe they developed PGAD either after withdrawing from selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) anti-depressants or while using them. We discuss these sexual symptoms in relation to what is already known about prolonged SSRI withdrawal syndromes and the possible etiologies of these conditions. While not a common cause of PGAD, it is possible that use of, and withdrawal from, pharmacological agents contributes to the development of PGAD. PMID:18224549

Leiblum, Sandra R; Goldmeier, David

2008-01-01

259

Arousal and Anxiety Correlates of Gymnastic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests on a women's gymnastic team to explore correlation between arousal, anxiety, and performance, revealed limited relationships between performance and arousal/anxiety measures and indicated that gymnastic ability is the best correlate of gymnastic performance. (JD)

Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

1976-01-01

260

Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.  

PubMed

Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799

Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

2008-01-18

261

Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance, across\\u000a baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither\\u000a syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was associated with poor arithmetic\\u000a performance and less risk

Jane Roberts; Michèle M. M. Mazzocco; Melissa M. Murphy; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric

2008-01-01

262

Arousal from sleep mechanisms in infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arousals from sleep allow sleep to continue in the face of stimuli that normally elicit responses during wakefulness and also permit awakening. Such an adaptive mechanism implies that any malfunction may have clinical importance. Inadequate control of arousal in infants and children is associated with a variety of sleep-related problems. An excessive propensity to arouse from sleep favors the development

Patricia Franco; Ineko Kato; Heidi L. Richardson; Joel S. C. Yang; Enza Montemitro; Rosemary S. C. Horne

2010-01-01

263

Reconceptualizing Arousal: Psychobiological States in Motor Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review of research dealing with psychologically induced arousal and motor performance focuses on the hypothesized inverted-? function relating arousal to performance. The inverted-? hypothesis is supported only in a weak and psychologically trivial fashion: Subjects with incentive will outperform either those with none or those responding to a serious and plausible threat; the arousal level of the first group

Rob Neiss

1988-01-01

264

Free Recall of Differentially Arousing Words.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Subjects in an independent groups free learning experiment recalled list of low- or high-arousal words, matched for imagery and frequency and exposed randomly for 3 seconds and 9 seconds. Extrapolating neural consolidation theory to previous work on serial position effects led to the predictions that (1) arousal facilitates primacy; (2) arousal

Osborne, John W.

265

Maturation of Spontaneous Arousals in Healthy Infants  

PubMed Central

Objective: The propensity to arouse from sleep is an integrative part of the sleep structure and can have direct implications in various clinical conditions. This study was conducted to evaluate the maturation of spontaneous arousals during the first year of life in healthy infants. Design: Nineteen infants were studied with nighttime polysomnography on 3 occasions: aged 2 to 3 months, 5 to 6 months, and 8 to 9 months. Ten infants with a median age of 3 weeks were added to the main study to assess the maturation of arousals from birth. The infants were born full-term, were healthy at the time of study, and had no history of apnea. Sleep-state and cardiorespiratory parameters were scored according to recommended criteria. Arousals were differentiated into subcortical activations or cortical arousals, according to the presence of autonomic and/or electroencephalographic changes. Frequencies of subcortical activations and cortical arousals were studied at different ages in both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Results: During sleep time, the frequency of total arousals, cortical arousals, and subcortical activations decreased with age. The maturation of the arousal events differed according to sleep states and types of arousals. With age, cortical arousals increased in REM sleep (P = 0.006) and decreased in NREM sleep (P = 0.01). Subcortical activations decreased with age in REM (P < 0.001) and NREM sleep (P < 0.001). Conclusions: During total sleep time, the frequency of cortical arousals and subcortical activations decreased with maturation. However, the maturation process was different between cortical arousals and subcortical activations. This finding suggests a difference in the maturational sequence of the different brain centers regulating arousals. Citation: Montemitro E; Franco P; Scaillet S; Kato I; Groswasser J; Villa MP; Kahn A; Sastre JP; Ecochard R; Thiriez G; Lin JS. Maturation of spontaneous arousals in healthy infants. SLEEP 2008;31(1):47-54.

Montemitro, Enza; Franco, Patricia; Scaillet, Sonia; Kato, Ineko; Groswasser, Jose; Villa, Maria Pia; Kahn, Andre; Sastre, Jean-Pierre; Ecochard, Rene; Thiriez, Gerard; Lin, Jian-Sheng

2008-01-01

266

Affective picture processing and motivational relevance: arousal and valence effects on ERPs in an oddball task.  

PubMed

There are two dominant theories of affective picture processing; one that attention is more deeply engaged by motivationally relevant stimuli (i.e., stimuli that activate both the appetitive and aversive systems), and two that attention is more deeply engaged by aversive stimuli described as the negativity bias. In order to identify the theory that can best account for affective picture processing, event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 34 participants during a modified oddball paradigm in which levels of stimulus valence, arousal, and motivational relevance were systematically varied. Results were partially consistent with motivated attention models of emotional perception, as P3b amplitude was enhanced in response to highly arousing and motivationally relevant sexual and unpleasant stimuli compared to respective low arousing and less motivationally relevant stimuli. However P3b amplitudes were significantly larger in response to the highly arousing sexual stimuli compared to all other affective stimuli, which is not consistent with either dominant theory. The current study therefore highlights the need for a revised model of affective picture processing and provides a platform for further research investigating the independent effects of sexual arousal on cognitive processing. PMID:19232373

Briggs, Kate E; Martin, Frances H

2009-02-14

267

A Periclitoral Mass as a Cause of Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is an intrusive and unremitting disorder for which several possible etiologies and treatments have been suggested. AIM: To describe a woman who developed PGAD in association with a periclitoral mass, a potential physical cause of the disorder that has not been previously described in the medical literature. METHODS: A postmenopausal woman presented with 6 months of persistent, unrelenting genital arousal and clitoral pain that was unrelated to sexual stimuli. Careful examination revealed a tender, firm, mobile, left-sided mass that appeared to compress the dorsal nerve of the clitoris. RESULTS: Complete excision of the mass resulted in full resolution of her symptoms over several weeks. CONCLUSION: Localized causes of persistent genital arousal, though rare, should be included in the differential diagnosis PGAD as detection and treatment can lead to a complete recovery. Bedell S, Goldstein AT, and Burrows L. A periclitoral mass as a cause of persistent genital arousal disorder. J Sex Med **;**:**-**. PMID:23577645

Bedell, Sarah; Goldstein, Andrew Todd; Burrows, Lara

2013-04-11

268

Shining light on wakefulness and arousal.  

PubMed

Alterations in arousal states are associated with multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, including generalized anxiety disorders, addiction, schizophrenia, and depression. Therefore, elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms controlling the boundaries between arousal, hyperarousal, and hypoarousal is a crucial endeavor in biological psychiatry. Substantial research over several decades has identified distinct arousal-promoting neural populations in the brain; however, how these nuclei act individually and collectively to promote and maintain wakefulness and various arousal states is unknown. We have recently applied optogenetic technology to the repertoire of techniques used to study arousal. Here, we discuss the recent results of these experiments and propose future use of this approach as a way to understand the complex dynamics of neural circuits controlling arousal and arousal-related behaviors. PMID:22440618

de Lecea, Luis; Carter, Matthew E; Adamantidis, Antoine

2012-03-20

269

Shining Light on Wakefulness and Arousal  

PubMed Central

Alterations in arousal states are associated with multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including generalized anxiety disorders, addiction, schizophrenia, and depression. Therefore, elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms controlling the boundaries between arousal, hyperarousal, and hypoarousal is a crucial endeavor in biological psychiatry. Substantial research over several decades has identified distinct arousal-promoting neural populations in the brain; however, how these nuclei act individually and collectively to promote and maintain wakefulness and various arousal states is unknown. We have recently applied optogenetic technology to the repertoire of techniques used to study arousal. Here, we discuss the recent results of these experiments and propose future use of this approach as a way to understand the complex dynamics of neural circuits controlling arousal and arousal-related behaviors.

de Lecea, Luis; Carter, Matthew E.; Adamantidis, Antoine

2013-01-01

270

Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures  

PubMed Central

Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location without interfering with picture-location binding for nearby pictures. In addition, arousal-enhanced picture-location memory binding is not just a side effect of enhanced memory for the picture itself, as it occurs both when recognition memory is good and when it is poor.

Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

2008-01-01

271

Chemoreception and asphyxia-induced arousal.  

PubMed

Arousal protects against the adverse and potentially fatal effects of asphyxia during sleep. Asphyxia stimulates the carotid bodies and central chemoreceptors but the sequence of events leading to arousal is uncertain. In this review, the theoretical mechanisms leading to arousal from sleep are briefly summarized and the issue of whether central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) or other types of CO2-responsive CNS neurons contribute to asphyxia-induced arousal is discussed. We focus on the role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus, the raphe and the locus coeruleus and emphasize the anatomical and neurophysiological evidence which suggests that these putative central chemoreceptors could contribute to arousal independently of their effects on breathing. Finally, we describe recent attempts to test the contribution of specific brainstem pathways to asphyxia-induced arousal using optogenetic and other tools and the possible contribution of a group of hypoxia-sensitive brainstem neurons (the C1 cells) to breathing and arousal. PMID:23608705

Guyenet, Patrice G; Abbott, Stephen B G

2013-04-19

272

Effects of alcohol on male sexual responding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen adult males participated in a repeated measures design in which they served as their own control to determine the effects of various amounts of alcohol on: (1) their sexual arousal elicited by erotic motion-pictures, as measured by a penile transducer, (2) the ability to voluntarily inhibit their arousal to those same films in accordance with instructions, and (3) the

H. B. Rubin; Donald E. Henson

1976-01-01

273

Revised definitions of women's sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Existing definitions of women's sexual disorders are based mainly on genitally focused events in a linear sequence model (desire, arousal and orgasm). Aim. To revise definitions based on an alternative model reflecting women's reasons\\/incentives for sexual activity beyond any initial awareness of sexual desire. Methods. An International Definitions Committee of 13 experts from seven countries repeatedly communicated, proposed new

Rosemary Basson; Sandra Leiblum; Lori Brotto; Leonard Derogatis; Jean Fourcroy; E. T. M. Laan; Alessandra Graziottin; Julia R. Heiman; Ellen Laan; Cindy Meston; Leslie Schover; Jacques van Lankveld; Willibrord Weijmar Schultz

2004-01-01

274

Sex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: an eye-tracking study in men and women.  

PubMed

Men and women exhibit different neural, genital, and subjective arousal responses to visual sexual stimuli. The source of these sex differences is unknown. We hypothesized that men and women look differently at sexual stimuli, resulting in different responses. We used eye tracking to measure looking by 15 male and 30 female (15 normal cycling (NC) and 15 oral contracepting (OC)) heterosexual adults viewing sexually explicit photos. NC Women were tested during their menstrual, periovulatory, and luteal phases while Men and OC Women were tested at equivalent intervals, producing three test sessions per individual. Men, NC, and OC Women differed in the relative amounts of first looks towards, percent time looking at, and probability of looking at, defined regions of the pictures. Men spent more time, and had a higher probability of, looking at female faces. NC Women had more first looks towards, spent more time, and had a higher probability of, looking at genitals. OC Women spent more time, and had a higher probability of, looking at contextual regions of pictures, those featuring clothing or background. Groups did not differ in looking at the female body. Menstrual cycle phase did not affect women's looking patterns. However, differences between OC and NC groups suggest hormonal influences on attention to sexual stimuli that were unexplained by subject characteristic differences. Our finding that men and women attend to different aspects of the same visual sexual stimuli could reflect pre-existing cognitive biases that possibly contribute to sex differences in neural, subjective, and physiological arousal. PMID:17362952

Rupp, Heather A; Wallen, Kim

2007-02-12

275

General Anesthesia and Altered States of Arousal: A Systems Neuroscience Analysis  

PubMed Central

Placing a patient in a state of general anesthesia is crucial for safely and humanely performing most surgical and many nonsurgical procedures. How anesthetic drugs create the state of general anesthesia is considered a major mystery of modern medicine. Unconsciousness, induced by altered arousal and/or cognition, is perhaps the most fascinating behavioral state of general anesthesia. We perform a systems neuroscience analysis of the altered arousal states induced by five classes of intravenous anesthetics by relating their behavioral and physiological features to the molecular targets and neural circuits at which these drugs are purported to act. The altered states of arousal are sedation-unconsciousness, sedation-analgesia, dissociative anesthesia, pharmaco-logic non-REM sleep, and neuroleptic anesthesia. Each altered arousal state results from the anesthetic drugs acting at multiple targets in the central nervous system. Our analysis shows that general anesthesia is less mysterious than currently believed.

Brown, Emery N.; Purdon, Patrick L.; Van Dort, Christa J.

2011-01-01

276

Cardiac activation during arousal in humans: further evidence for hierarchy in the arousal response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: One major subject of discussion in sleep studies is whether bursts of K-complexes (K-bursts) and delta waves (D-bursts), expressions of a subcortical arousal, truly reflect an arousal response during sleep. To address this question we studied the changes in heart rate (HR) during spontaneous arousals in healthy subjects.Methods: Twenty-seven healthy adults were examined. Arousals were graded in 4 levels,

Emilia Sforza; Christophe Jouny; Vincent Ibanez

2000-01-01

277

Female sexual health.  

PubMed

Many aspects of sexual health relate to either preventative medicine (contraception) or managing normal physiological states (pregnancy, menopause). This article looks at some of the emergency aspects of female sexual health including genital tract trauma and genital infections. PMID:12786642

Bryan, Sheila

2003-06-01

278

Women's Scores on the Sexual Inhibition\\/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS\\/SES): Gender Similarities and Differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sexual Inhibition\\/Sexual Excitation Scales (SIS\\/SES) assess individual propensities to become sexually aroused and to inhibit arousal. Prior analyses of men's SIS\\/SES data (Janssen, Vorst, Finn, & Bancroft, 2002a) yielded one excitation factor (SES) and two inhibitory factors (SIS1\\/Threat of Performance Failure and SIS2\\/Threat of Performance Consequences). The current study utilized a dataset of 2,045 undergraduates (1,067 women and 978

Deanna Carpenter; Erick Janssen; Cynthia Graham; Harrie Vorst; Jelte Wicherts

2008-01-01

279

The Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale: Psychometric Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale (SSCS) is reported that aims to measure individual variability with\\u000a regard to the construct of self-consciousness as experienced in sexual situations. The construct relates to the attentional-capacity\\u000a model of sexual arousal. Sexual self-consciousness may constitute a vulnerability factor for the development of sexual dysfunction.\\u000a In the present study, men and women with sexual

Jacques J. D. M. van Lankveld; Wendy E. H. Geijen; Heidi Sykora

2008-01-01

280

Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN)

Laura A. Thomas; Kevin S. LaBar

2005-01-01

281

The neurobiology of sexual function.  

PubMed

This article provides a review of the past and current literature on the neurobiology of sexual function. The influence of endocrine, neurotransmitter, and central nervous system influences on male and female sexual function are discussed for sexual desire, arousal, and orgasm or ejaculation stages of sexual responding. Endocrine factors reviewed include the following: androgens, estrogens, progesterone, prolactin, oxytocin, cortisol, and pheromones. Neurotransmitters and neuropeptides discussed include nitric oxide, serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, opioids, acetylcholine, histamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid. Central nervous system influences on sexual function are discussed briefly with reference to brainstem regions, the hypothalamus, and the forebrain. PMID:11074867

Meston, C M; Frohlich, P F

2000-11-01

282

Physiological quantities of naturally occurring steroid hormones (androgens and progestogens), precursors and metabolites in beef of differing sexual origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation gives a comprehensive overview of the naturally occurring steroid hormones, their precursors and\\u000a metabolites in the food-stuff beef. Thus, comparison values have been established using modern analytical techniques for the\\u000a evaluation of the alimentary administration of hormones via beef and for the evaluation of detected residues. The utilization\\u000a of hormone patterns in meat samples enables the sexual

Mathias Hartwig; Sonja Hartmann; Hans Steinhart

1997-01-01

283

Sexual selection based on egg colour: physiological models and egg discrimination experiments in a cavity-nesting bird  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been proposed that the blue-green bird egg colourations of many avian species may constitute a sexually selected female\\u000a signal that males can use to modulate their parental investment. A fundamental untested assumption for the validation of this\\u000a hypothesis is that males can accurately assess differences in the colour of eggs. A recent review suggests that this could\\u000a be

Jesús M. Avilés; Juan J. Soler; Nathan S. Hart

284

Tense and energetic arousal routes to consumer attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arousal is an interesting phenomenon in consumer behavior. Thayer (1978b) suggested the existence of two dimensions of arousal — energetic arousal (energy–sleep) and tense arousal (tension–calmness). Although developed in the 1970s, this model has rarely been adopted in consumer studies about effects of arousal on consumer evaluations such as attitudes. To address potential contributions of the two-dimensional arousal model in

Xiaomeng Fan

2011-01-01

285

The empathic, physiological resonance of stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological resonance between individuals is considered fundamental to the biological capacity for empathy. Observers of pain and distress commonly exhibit increases in reported distress, autonomic arousal, facial mimicry, and overlapping neural activity. An important, unstudied question is whether physiological stress can also resonate. Physiological stress is operationalized as activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes. People

Tony W. Buchanan; Sara L. Bagley; R. Brent Stansfield; Stephanie D. Preston

2011-01-01

286

The empathic, physiological resonance of stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological resonance between individuals is considered fundamental to the biological capacity for empathy. Observers of pain and distress commonly exhibit increases in reported distress, autonomic arousal, facial mimicry, and overlapping neural activity. An important, unstudied question is whether physiological stress can also resonate. Physiological stress is operationalized as activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes. People

Tony W. Buchanan; Sara L. Bagley; R. Brent Stansfield; Stephanie D. Preston

2012-01-01

287

Eszopiclone increases the respiratory arousal threshold and lowers the apnoea/hypopnoea index in obstructive sleep apnoea patients with a low arousal threshold  

PubMed Central

Recent insights into sleep apnoea pathogenesis reveal that a low respiratory arousal threshold (awaken easily) is important for many patients. As most patients experience stable breathing periods mediated by upper-airway dilator muscle activation via accumulation of respiratory stimuli, premature awakening may prevent respiratory stimuli build up as well as the resulting stabilization of sleep and breathing. The aim of the present physiological study was to determine the effects of a non-benzodiazepine sedative, eszopiclone, on the arousal threshold and the AHI (apnoea/hypopnoea index) in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. We hypothesized that eszopiclone would increase the arousal threshold and lower the AHI in patients with a low arousal threshold (0 to ?15 cmH2O). Following a baseline overnight polysomnogram with an epiglottic pressure catheter to quantify the arousal threshold, 17 obstructive sleep apnoea patients, without major hypoxaemia [nadir SaO2 (arterial blood oxygen saturation) >70%], returned on two additional nights and received 3 mg of eszopiclone or placebo immediately prior to each study. Compared with placebo, eszopiclone significantly increased the arousal threshold [?14.0 (?19.9 to ?10.9) compared with ?18.0 (?22.2 to ?15.1) cmH2O; P < 0.01], and sleep duration, improved sleep quality and lowered the AHI without respiratory event prolongation or worsening hypoxaemia. Among the eight patients identified as having a low arousal threshold, reductions in the AHI occurred invariably and were most pronounced (25 ± 6 compared with 14 ± 4 events/h of sleep; P < 0.01). In conclusion, eszopiclone increases the arousal threshold and lowers the AHI in obstructive sleep apnoea patients that do not have marked overnight hypoxaemia. The greatest reductions in the AHI occurred in those with a low arousal threshold. The results of this single night physiological study suggest that certain sedatives may be of therapeutic benefit for a definable subgroup of patients. However, additional treatment strategies are probably required to achieve elimination of apnoea.

ECKERT, Danny J.; OWENS, Robert L.; KEHLMANN, Geoffrey B.; WELLMAN, Andrew; RAHANGDALE, Shilpa; YIM-YEH, Susie; WHITE, David P.; MALHOTRA, Atul

2012-01-01

288

EEG analysis of frontal lobe area in arousal maintenance state against sleepiness.  

PubMed

This paper describes EEG analysis of frontal lobe area in arousal maintenance state against sleepiness. Arousal maintenance state is considered different physiological state from the normal sleep onset. To analyze the EEG of frontal area might be important because we believe that the arousal maintenance state against sleepiness causes neuron activities from the frontal lobe, which coordinates behavior, to hypothalamus, which coordinates wakefulness and sleep. It is, however, hard to use EEG signals in the frontal area consistently because blinking artifacts are mixed in the EEG signals. In this paper, we have analyzed the EEG signals of the frontal lobe in arousal maintenance state against sleepiness after removing the eye-blinking artifact from the scalp EEG signals using an ICA denoising method. As a result, the EEG signals of the frontal area in the arousal maintenance state against sleepiness have wide bandwidth as in the EEG of the occipital area. It strengthens our speculation, i.e., the EEG desynchronization occurs because of the neuron activities from the frontal lobe to hypothalamus in order to maintain arousal state against sleepiness. PMID:23366539

Yoshida, Hisashi; Tanaka, Youki; Kikkawa, Sho

2012-01-01

289

Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal

Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2012-01-01

290

Orexin A Activates Locus Coeruleus Cell Firing and Increases Arousal in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization of orexin neuropeptides in the lateral hypothalamus has focused interest on their role in ingestion. The orexigenic neurones in the lateral hypothalamus, however, project widely in the brain, and thus the physiological role of orexins is likely to be complex. Here we describe an investigation of the action of orexin A in modulating the arousal state of rats

Jim J. Hagan; Ron A. Leslie; Sara Patel; Martyn L. Evans; Trevor A. Wattam; Steve Holmes; Christopher D. Benham; Stephen G. Taylor; Carol Routledge; Panida Hemmati; Richard P. Munton; Tracey E. Ashmeade; Ajit S. Shah; Jonathan P. Hatcher; Paula D. Hatcher; Declan N. C. Jones; Martin I. Smith; David C. Piper; A. Jackie Hunter; Rod A. Porter; Neil Upton

1999-01-01

291

Stuck on you: Face-to-face arousal and gaze aversion in Williams syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. During face-to-face questioning typically developing children and adults use gaze aversion (GA), away from their questioner, when thinking. GA increases with question difficulty and improves the accuracy of responses. We investigate whether individuals with Williams syndrome (WS), associated with hypersociability and atypical face gaze, use GA to manage cognitive load and whether physiological arousal is associated with looking at

Gwyneth Doherty-Sneddon; Deborah M. Riby; Lesley Calderwood; Leanne Ainsworth

2009-01-01

292

Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction  

PubMed Central

The European eel migrates 5,000–6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10–12 mg fat/km which is 4–6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61–0.67 m s?1, which is ~60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s?1 and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols.

van den Thillart, Guido E. E. J. M.

2010-01-01

293

Men and women differ in amygdala response to visual sexual stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men are generally more interested in and responsive to visual sexually arousing stimuli than are women. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to show that the amygdala and hypothalamus are more strongly activated in men than in women when viewing identical sexual stimuli. This was true even when women reported greater arousal. Sex differences were specific to the

Rebecca A Herman; Carla L Nolan; Kim Wallen; Stephan Hamann

2004-01-01

294

The relationship between negative mood and sexuality in heterosexual college women and men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative mood states, such as depression and anxiety, are typically associated with decreased sexual interest and arousal. However, there is also some evidence that depressed or anxious mood may increase sexual interest or arousal in some individuals. In this study, 663 female college students (mean age = 18.9 years, SD = 1.21) answered questions regarding the effects of anxious and

Amy D. Lykins; Erick Janssen; Cynthia A. Graham

2006-01-01

295

Effects of voice on emotional arousal  

PubMed Central

Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music.

Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

2013-01-01

296

Effects of voice on emotional arousal.  

PubMed

Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P; Li, H Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

2013-10-01

297

Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus)  

PubMed Central

Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-identity while others encode for arousal, we studied infants of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus). Kittens are an excellent model for analysing vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal. They strongly depend on the care of their mother. Thus, the acoustical conveyance of sender-identity and arousal may be important for their survival. Results We recorded calls of 18 kittens in an experimentally-induced separation paradigm, where kittens were spatially separated from their mother and siblings. In the Low arousal condition, infants were just separated without any manipulation. In the High arousal condition infants were handled by the experimenter. Multi-parametric sound analyses revealed that kitten isolation calls are individually distinct and differ between the Low and High arousal conditions. Our results suggested that source- and filter-related parameters are important for encoding sender-identity, whereas time-, source- and tonality-related parameters are important for encoding arousal. Conclusion Comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence for commonalities in non-verbal cues encoding sender-identity and arousal across mammals comparable to paralinguistic cues in humans. This favours the establishment of general concepts for voice recognition and emotions in humans and animals.

2012-01-01

298

Sleep-Related Arousal Versus General Cognitive Arousal in Primary Insomnia  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The present study aimed at further investigating trait aspects of sleep-related cognitive arousal and general cognitive arousal and their association with both objective and subjective sleep parameters in primary insomnia patients. Methods: A clinical sample of 182 primary insomnia patients and 54 healthy controls was investigated using 2 nights of polysomnography, subjective sleep variables, and a questionnaire on sleep-related and general cognitive arousal. Results: Compared to healthy controls, primary insomnia patients showed both more sleep-related and general cognitive arousal. Furthermore, sleep-related cognitive arousal was closely associated with measures of sleep-onset and sleep-maintenance problems, while general cognitive arousal was not. Conclusions: Cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia might benefit from dedicating more effort to psychological interventions that are able to reduce sleep-related cognitive arousal. Citation: Spiegelhalder K; Regen W; Feige B; Hirscher V; Unbehaun T; Nissen C; Riemann D; Baglioni C. Sleep-related arousal versus general cognitive arousal in primary insomnia. J Clin Sleep Med 2012;8(4):431-437.

Spiegelhalder, Kai; Regen, Wolfram; Feige, Bernd; Hirscher, Verena; Unbehaun, Thomas; Nissen, Christoph; Riemann, Dieter; Baglioni, Chiara

2012-01-01

299

Interobserver Variability in Recognizing Arousal in Respiratory Sleep Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Daytime sleepiness is a common consequence of repeated arousal in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Arousal indices are sometimes used to make decisions on treatment, but there is no evidence that arousals are detected similarly even by experienced observers. Using the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousal in terms of the accompanying electroencephalogram (EEG) changes, we have quantified interobserver

MICHAEL J. DRINNAN; ALAN MURRAY; CLIVE J. GRIFFITHS; G. JOHN GIBSON

1998-01-01

300

Sleep position, autonomic function, and arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMSTo investigate and compare heart rate variability (HRV) and responses of heart rate and arousal to head-up tilting in infants sleeping prone and supine.METHODSThirty seven healthy infants aged 2–4 months were studied. HRV was measured for 500 beats while they were in a horizontal position. Subjects were then tilted 60° head-up, and heart rate recorded over 1 minute and arousal

B C Galland; G Reeves; B J Taylor; D P G Bolton

1998-01-01

301

Age differences, cerebral arousability, and human intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes an empirical test of the cerebral arousability theory of intelligence which predicts that EEG-intelligence correlations will vary systematically as a function of age-related changes in cerebral arousal. Data were obtained from 76 subjects, in six different age-groups, with equal numbers of males and females in each group. AEP measures evaluated the amplitude, frequency and variability of EEG

David L. Robinson

1997-01-01

302

Cluster Analytic Detection of Disgust-Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated detection of disgust-arousal could have applications in diagnosing and treating obsessive-compulsive disorder and Huntington's disease. For achieving this ability, experimental data was used first to examine the thermal response of ¿facial muscles of disgust¿ to other common negative and positive expressions of emotive states. An attempt was then made to detect disgust-arousal through classification of affect-educed thermal variations measured

Masood Mehmood Khan

2009-01-01

303

32 CFR 776.36 - Prohibited sexual relations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or (ii) Any touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of a person or causing such person to touch the sexual or other intimate parts of the covered...purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of either party. (b)...

2009-07-01

304

32 CFR 776.36 - Prohibited sexual relations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or (ii) Any touching of the sexual or other intimate parts of a person or causing such person to touch the sexual or other intimate parts of the covered...purpose of arousing or gratifying the sexual desire of either party. (b)...

2010-07-01

305

Conscious Processing of Sexual Information: Mechanisms of Appraisal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To elucidate some of the activational mechanisms of sexual response, this study investigated the effects of conscious appraisal of sexual and neutral stimuli on a categorization task and on ratings of sexual arousal. Conscious appraisal is dependent on memory, regulatory, and attentional processes, interacting with one another. It is proposed that regulation is activated by attention, furnished by representations from

Mark Spiering; Walter Everaerd; Ellen Laan

2004-01-01

306

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Female Sexual Function Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Female Sexual Functioning Index (Rosen et al., 2000) was designed to assess the key dimensions of female sexual functioning using six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. A full-scale score was proposed to represent women's overall sexual function. The fifth revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is currently underway and includes a proposal to combine

Emily A. Opperman; Lindsay E. Benson; Robin R. Milhausen

2011-01-01

307

The impact of rheumatic diseases on sexual function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being’s life and is more than of only the sexual act. Normal sexual functioning\\u000a consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling\\u000a of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning.\\u000a The reasons

Antonio G. Tristano

2009-01-01

308

Duplex Doppler Ultrasound Assessment of Clitoral Hemodynamics After Topical Administration of Alprostadil in Women with Arousal and Orgasmic Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are limited hemodynamic data in women with arousal or orgasmic disorders and even fewer normative control hemodynamic data in women without sexual dysfunction. In addition, there is limited experience with topical vasoactive agents (used to maximize genital smooth muscle relaxation) applied to the external genitalia during hemodynamic evaluations. The aim of this study was to report duplex Doppler ultrasound

A. Bechara; M. V. BERTOLINO; A. CASAB; R. MUNARRIZ; I. GOLDSTEIN; A. Morin; F. Secin; B. Literat; M. Pesaresi; N. FREDOTOVICH

2003-01-01

309

Sexual behavior in adults with autism.  

PubMed

A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes in North Carolina found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior. However, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also present in one third of the sample. The relationship between sexual behavior and demographic variables and other types of behaviors is explored. Information regarding group home sexuality policies and procedures are described. PMID:9105963

Van Bourgondien, M E; Reichle, N C; Palmer, A

1997-04-01

310

Affective?arousal factors in the recall of thematic stories by amnesic and demented patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of affective?arousal factors in alcoholic Korsakoff and Huntington's Disease (HD) patients' ability to recall prose passages was examined. Four types of emotionally toned stories (i.e., neutral, happy, sad, sexual) were read to these patients, and they were asked for an immediate and delayed (after a 30?sec distractor task) recall of each story. The results confirmed a previous report

Eric Granholm; Jessica Wolfe; Nelson Butters

1985-01-01

311

Emotional Arousal Can Impair Feature Binding in Working Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate whether emotional arousal affects memorial feature binding, we had participants complete a short-term source-monitoring task—remembering the locations of four different pictures over a brief delay. On each trial, the four pictures were all either high arousal, medium arousal, or low arousal. Memory for picture-location conjunctions decreased as arousal increased. In addition, source memory for the loca- tion of

Mara Mather; Karen J. Mitchell; Carol L. Raye; Deanna L. Novak; Erich J. Greene; Marcia K. Johnson

2006-01-01

312

Is It the Content or the Person? Examining Sexual Content in Promotional Announcements and Sexual Self-Schema  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual content is a prominent feature in television promotional announcements, but its effect has received little scholarly attention. This study tested the efficacy of both sexual content and a personality variable (sexual self-schema) on consumers' attitudes toward the promo, the advertised program, viewing intention, and self-reported arousal. Results showed that sex appeal had main effects on all dependent variables, and

Yinjiao Ye; Shuhua Zhou

2007-01-01

313

Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.  

PubMed

Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics. PMID:20887690

Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

2010-10-01

314

Sexual Self-Schemas, Sexual Dysfunction, and the Sexual Responses of Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulating evidence points to the mediating effects of sexual self-schemas on the sexual difficulties of women with a history\\u000a of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The following study adds to the extant literature by investigating (1) sexual function and\\u000a (2) sexual satisfaction utilizing validated measures, and reporting on the relationship between sexual self-schemas and physiological\\u000a (vaginal photoplethysmography), subjective, and affective responses

Alessandra H. RelliniCindy; Cindy M. Meston

2011-01-01

315

Dopamine and Male Sexual Function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of the D1/D2 dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine for the treatment of erectile dysfunction provides strong support in favor of a participation of the dopaminergic system in the control of sexual function. However, the exact involvement of dopamine in the control of sexual motivation and genital arousal in males is unknown. Experimental data in male rats suggested an implication

François Giuliano; Julien Allard

2001-01-01

316

Progress in Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a significant age-related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women that causes personal distress and has negative effects on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Definitions: The female sexual response cycle consists of three phases: desire, arousal, and orgasm, and is initiated by non-adrenergic\\/non-cholinergic, e.g. vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and

Fatma Ferda Verit; Ercan Yeni; Hasan Kafali

2006-01-01

317

The Relationship Between Anxiety and Sexual Functioning in Lesbians and Heterosexual Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between anxiety and sexual functioning was studied in relation to women's sexual orientation. Participants in lesbian relationships (n = 42) and heterosexual relationships (n = 78) completed the Multidimensional Anxiety Questionnaire and Female Sexual Function Index. No difference was found between groups on the anxiety measure, but lesbians scored higher than heterosexuals on sexual functioning scales for arousal

Tera E. Beaber; Paul D. Werner

2009-01-01

318

Cardiovascular changes associated with sexual arousal and orgasm in men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indices of cardiovascular function were measured in seven men while they masturbated to ejaculation. Cardiac electrical activity, respiration, finger pulse, and anal contractions were monitored. Orgasm was determined by the onset of anal contractions. While there were marked individual differences, reliable changes were observed in heart rate, pulse transit time, pulse amplitude, and pulse rise velocity during masturbation. In addition,

Benjamin Graber; Scott Balogh; Denis Fitzpatrick; Shelton Hendricks

1991-01-01

319

Physiological Aspects of Communication via Mutual Gaze.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on various social science projects undertaken to investigate nonverbal communication. Findings indicated that mutual gaze influences physiological arousal, an actor can gaze in such a way that he or she manipulates the other person's physiology, and a subject's response to a mutual gaze is a good predictor of dominance or submission in…

Mazur, Allan; And Others

1980-01-01

320

Neurogenic female sexual dysfunction: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of various spinal lesions on female sexual response has recently been investigated in detail. Studies of women\\u000a with neurologic disabilities and studies of animal models have provided substantial information regarding the spinal control\\u000a of sexual responses. In this report, the authors explore findings regarding the neurologic pathways underlying the spinal\\u000a control of sexual arousal and orgasm. Information available

Marca L. Sipski; Anousheh Behnegar

2001-01-01

321

Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth  

SciTech Connect

Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%.

Tissue, D.T.

1989-01-01

322

How Arousal Affects Younger and Older Adults' Memory Binding  

PubMed Central

A number of recent studies have shown that associative memory for within-item features is enhanced for emotionally arousing items, whereas arousal-enhanced binding is not seen for associations between distinct items (for a review see Mather, 2007). The costs and benefits of arousal in memory binding have been examined for younger adults but not for older adults. The present experiment examined whether arousal would enhance younger and older adults' within-item and between-item memory binding. The results revealed that arousal improved younger adults' within-item memory binding but not that of older adults. Arousal worsened both groups' between-item memory binding.

Nashiro, Kaoru; Mather, Mara

2009-01-01

323

Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and arousal.  

PubMed

The hypnogenic function of the rostral hypothalamic region, particularly the preoptic area (POA) was established previously on the basis of lesion, neuronal unit recording, and neurochemical and thermal stimulation studies. Recent studies have mapped the locations of putative sleep-promoting neurons in the POA using c-Fos immunostaining techniques and confirmed these findings with electrophysiological methods. Segregated groups of sleep-active neurons have been localized in the ventrolateral POA (vlPOA) and median preoptic nucleus (MnPN). MnPN and vlPOA sleep-active neurons express the inhibitory transmitter, GABA. In vlPOA neurons, GABA is co-localized with a second inhibitory transmitter, galanin. Descending projections from these sites terminate in putative arousal-promoting cell groups, including histaminergic, serotonergic, orexinergic, noradrenergic, and cholinergic neurons. These findings suggest the hypothesis that non-REM sleep occurs as a consequence of GABAergic and galaninergic inhibition of arousal-promoting neurons resulting from activation of vlPOA and MnPN sleep-promoting neurons. In support of this hypothesis, it was shown that putative sleep-promoting and arousal-promoting neurons exhibit reciprocal changes in discharge across the sleep-wake cycle and that GABA release in wake-promoting sites increases during nonREM sleep. In addition, some POA sleep-active neurons are warm-sensitive. Local POA warming inhibits discharge of multiple arousal-promoting neuronal groups. POA warming, unit recording, and lesion studies also show that POA regulates the amount of delta EEG activity within nonREM sleep, and index of the depth of sleep. Finally, there is evidence that arousal systems inhibit vlPOA and MnPN neurons and the POA hypnogenic mechanism. Mutually-inhibitory interactions between sleep-promoting and arousal-promoting systems are hypothesized to form a functional sleep-wake switch. PMID:12957869

McGinty, Dennis; Szymusiak, Ronald

2003-09-01

324

Sexual Abuse History, Alcohol Intoxication, and Women's Sexual Risk Behavior  

PubMed Central

We examined potential differences in women’s likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as sexually non-abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06%, .08%, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette. Dependent measures included vaginal pulse amplitude, likelihood of engaging in condom use and risky sexual behaviors described in the vignette, self-reported sexual arousal, and mood. NSA and ASA women did not differ on any dependent measures. CSA women reported lower likelihoods of condom use and unprotected intercourse relative to NSA and ASA women. Intoxicated women reported greater sexual arousal, positive mood, and likelihood of risky sex relative to sober women. Intoxicated CSA women reported more likelihood of unprotected oral sex and less likelihood of condom use relative to intoxicated NSA and ASA and sober CSA women. CSA women’s increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be driven by non-condom use and behavioral changes while intoxicated. These findings provide preliminary insight into situational influences affecting CSA women’s increased STI risk.

Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

2011-01-01

325

Molecular Connections Between Arousal and Metabolic Disease: Orexin and Modafinil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Obesity and metabolic diseases are known to be tightly linked to arousal-sleep cycles. Further, both metabolic disease and arousal are known to have significant impacts on cognitive function in humans and animals. Importantly, the armed forces represent a...

S. C. Benoit

2007-01-01

326

The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information  

PubMed Central

Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information.

Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

2009-01-01

327

Molecular Connections Between Arousal and Metabolic Disease: Orexin and Modafinil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Metabolic diseases are known to be tightly linked to arousal-sleep cycles and impact cognitive function. Importantly, the armed forces represent a population at significant risk for increased stress and disrupted arousal-sleep cycles. Because the incidenc...

S. C. Benoit

2009-01-01

328

Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the role of homosexual arousal in exclusively heterosexual men who ad-mitted negative affect toward homosexual individuals. Participants consisted of a group of homo-phobic men (n = 35) and a group of nonhomophobic men (n = 29); they were assigned to groups on the basis of their scores on the Index of Homophobia (W. W. Hudson & W.

Henry E. Adams; Lester W. Wright; Bethany A. Lohr

1996-01-01

329

The hypocretins: Setting the arousal threshold  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a short period in the late 1990s, three groups converged on the discovery of a neuropeptide system, centred in the dorsolateral hypothalamus, that regulates arousal states, influences feeding and is implicated in the sleep disorder narcolepsy. Subsequent studies have illuminated many aspects of the circuitry of the hypocretin (also called orexin) system, which also influences hormone secretion and autonomic

Luis de Lecea; J. Gregor Sutcliffe

2002-01-01

330

Persistent genital arousal disorder associated with functional hyperconnectivity of an epileptic focus.  

PubMed

Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder (PGAD) refers to the experience of persistent sensations of genital arousal that are felt to be unprovoked, intrusive and unrelieved by one or several orgasms. It is often mistaken for hypersexuality since PGAD often results in a high frequency of sexual behaviour. At present little is known with certainty about the etiology of this condition. We described a woman with typical PGAD symptoms and orgasmic seizures that we found to be related to a specific epileptic focus. We performed a EEG/MEG and fMRI spontaneous activity study during genital arousal symptoms and after the chronic administration of 300 mg/day of topiramate. From MEG data an epileptic focus was localized in the left posterior insular gyrus (LPIG). FMRI data evidenced that sexual excitation symptoms with PGAD could be correlated with an increased functional connectivity (FC) between different brain areas: LPIG (epileptic focus), left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior and superior temporal gyrus and left inferior parietal lobe. The reduction of the FC observed after antiepileptic therapy was more marked in the left than in the right hemisphere in agreement with the lateralization identified by MEG results. Treatment completely abolished PGAD symptoms and functional hyperconnectivity. The functional hyperconnectivity found in the neuronal network including the epileptic focus could suggest a possible central mechanism for PGAD. PMID:20144694

Anzellotti, F; Franciotti, R; Bonanni, L; Tamburro, G; Perrucci, M G; Thomas, A; Pizzella, V; Romani, G L; Onofrj, M

2010-02-06

331

Arousal and Merriment as Decision Drivers Among Young Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arousal among young consumers plays a key role in buying decisions. Shopping arousal is largely driven by store attractions, interpersonal influences, self-reference criteria, and comparative gains. Arousal-led retail sales strategies for affordable fashion and entertainment products drive buying decisions of young consumers. Managers of retailing firms need to consider promoting shopping arousal with the advent of one-to-one marketing, media-targeted direct

Rajagopal

2009-01-01

332

Sex Radical Communities and the Future of Sexual Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many urban-based gay male, lesbian, and mixed-gender sexually radical communities (such as leather and\\/or S\\/M groups) portray their interests in sexuality in terms of arousal and pleasure. The writings of many gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and queers involved in such communities suggest that sexual pleasure is based on individual preference, and that all sexual activities need only the consent of participating

Kathy Rudy

1999-01-01

333

The sexually sadistic serial killer.  

PubMed

This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing. PMID:8914287

Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

1996-11-01

334

THE TWO-AROUSAL HYPOTHESIS: RETICULAR FORMATION AND LIMBIC SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

POSTULATES THAT THERE ARE 2 MAJOR SYSTEMS IN THE BRAIN THAT MAINTAIN THE ONGOING BEHAVIOR OF THE VERTEBRATE ORGANISM. AROUSAL SYSTEM I IS RELATED TO THE RETICULAR ACTIVATING SYSTEM. IT MAINTAINS THE AROUSAL OF THE ORGANISM, AND PROVIDES THE ORGANIZATION FOR RESPONSES. AROUSAL SYSTEM II IS RELATED TO THE LIMBIC SYSTEM, AND PROVIDES CONTROL OF RESPONSES THROUGH INCENTIVE RELATED STIMULI.

ARYEH ROUTTENBERG

1968-01-01

335

Don't Look down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target…

Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

2009-01-01

336

What is an arousal and how should it be quantified?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathologically severe daytime sleepiness is one of the main symptoms seen in a respiratory sleep clinic and is due to repeated arousal from sleep. Which types of arousal are most important in causing this is uncertain and most studies have only found loose relationships between indices of arousal frequency and the severity of the ensuing daytime sleepiness. Recent attempts to

Robert J. O. Davies; Lesley S. Bennett; John R. Stradling

1997-01-01

337

Effects of prenatal sensory stimulation on heart rate and behavioral measures of arousal in bobwhite quail embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a number of studies have demonstrated the effects of altered prenatal experience on subsequent behavioral development, how these effects are achieved remains a topic of enduring interest. The present study examined the immediate effects of unimodal and multimodal prenatal sensory stimulation on physiological and behavioral arousal in bobwhite quail embryos. Embryos were videotaped and their heart rate was monitored

Greg D. Reynolds; Robert Lickliter

2002-01-01

338

The effect of the amount of blood in a violent video game on aggression, hostility, and arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study utilized the General Aggression Model, with an emphasis on aggression-related priming, to explore the different effects on hostility, physiological arousal, and state aggression in those who played a violent video game (Mortal Kombat: Deadly Alliance) with differing levels of blood (maximum, medium, low, and off). Simple effects analyses showed that those in the maximum blood and medium

Christopher P. Barlett; Richard J. Harris; Callie Bruey

2008-01-01

339

Self?report scales of communication apprehension and autonomic arousal (heart rate): A test of construct validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research has typically relied upon self?report scales of communication apprehension without assessing construct validity. This study attempts to assess the construct validity of selected scales and the constructs “communication anxiety” and “communication fear.” The results indicate higher levels of physiological arousal increase for females. Only scales purporting to measure communication fear were able to predict an a priori product

D. Thomas Porter

1974-01-01

340

Taking it in the ear: On musico-sexual synergies and the (queer) possibility that music is sex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across ages and cultures, music's relationship to sexual allure and its adept capacity for invoking pleasure, eroticism, and desire are well established. Music's ability to arouse and channel sexual urges and desires renders it both a dynamic mode of gender and sexual signification and a putative agent of moral corruption. Music can convey coded sexual innuendo, give shape to a

Jodie Taylor

2012-01-01

341

The timing of changes in girls' sexual cognitions and behaviors in early adolescence: a prospective, cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This small, prospective cohort study of 162 12- to 15-year-old girls examines timing of changes in sexual cognitions and behaviors (breast fondling, genital contact, and sexual intercourse) over a 1-year period. Methods: Girls from community sites in New York City provided information about sexual experiences and related cognitions (arousability, sexual agency, abstinence attitudes, perceived parental and peer approval, and

Lucia F. O'Sullivan; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

2005-01-01

342

Menopause and sexuality: key issues in premature menopause and beyond.  

PubMed

Woman's sexuality encompasses sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationships. It is modulated throughout life by life and reproduction-related events, health, relationships, and sociocultural variables. The aging process and menopause are two potent contributors to female sexual dysfunction. The earlier the menopause, the more severe and complex the impact on sexuality is. The younger the woman, the less she realizes the different key goals of her life cycle (falling in love, having a satisfying sexual life, forming a stable couple, getting married, having a family) and the more pervasive the consequences on her sexual identity, sexual function, and sexual relationship can be. Premature menopause is an amplified paradigm of the complex impact menopause can have on women's and couple's sexuality. This paper will focus on biologically based sexual issues, namely desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders, as well as key questions encountered in infertility. The concepts of "symptom inducer" and "symptom carrier" will also be addressed. PMID:20840281

Graziottin, Alessandra

2010-09-01

343

Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.  

PubMed

Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

2013-05-14

344

Exploring the Relationship Between Erotic Disruption During the Latency Period and the Use of Sexually Explicit Material, Online Sexual Behaviors, and Sexual Dysfunctions in Young Adulthood  

Microsoft Academic Search

The researchers explored the theoretical prism of Sigmund Freud's latency period (6-to-12 years of age), to ascertain whether an absence of erotic arousal during latency is fundamentally essential for children to attain healthy psychosexual development. Exploratory factor analysis discovered two factors that measured erotic disruption during the latency period (i.e., exposure to sexually explicit material [SEM] and child sexual abuse).

Sallie A. Hunt; Shane W. Kraus

2009-01-01

345

Anticipated Violence, Arousal, and Enjoyment of Movies: Viewers' Reactions to Violent Previews Based on Arousal-Seeking Tendency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the effects of violent portrayals in movie previews on viewers' arousal and anticipated enjoyment of movies based on their arousal-seeking tendencies. A total of 159 college students watched 6 movie previews, each in a violent or nonviolent version, and reported their expectations of enjoying watching the movies. The results show that high arousal seekers reported a higher

Guang-Xin Xie; Moon J. Lee

2008-01-01

346

Validation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in Women with Female Orgasmic Disorder and in Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA The Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) is a self-report measure of sexual functioning that has been validated on a clinically diagnosed sample of women with female sexual arousal disorder. The present investigation extended the validation of the FSFI to include women with a primary clinical

CINDY M. MESTON

2003-01-01

347

Arousal and mood factors in the "Mozart effect".  

PubMed

Some investigators of the "Mozart effect" have not controlled for the influence of differences in arousal or mood induced by treatment conditions. Studies by Rideout and colleagues reported differences in spatial reasoning after listening to a Mozart sonata compared against a relaxation instruction tape. The conditions may have affected subjects' arousal differentially, with the sonata increasing arousal and the relaxation instructions decreasing arousal, which could have affected spatial reasoning performance. Evidence is cited in support of this suggestion and indicates the importance of analyzing the influence of arousal differences in Mozart effect research. PMID:11011888

Steele, K M

2000-08-01

348

Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias  

PubMed Central

Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks.

Halasz, Peter; Kelemen, Anna; Szucs, Anna

2012-01-01

349

Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias.  

PubMed

Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous "liberation theory" of Tassinari and the "state dissociation hypothesis" of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Sz?cs, Anna

2012-05-10

350

Electroencephalogram Characteristics of Autonomic Arousals During Sleep in Healthy Men  

PubMed Central

Objective Many sleep disorders involve frequent, brief arousals, not appreciated during conventional sleep stage scoring due to lack of electroencephalogram (EEG) desynchronization. We evaluated the temporal relation between heart rate (HR) changes, an index of autonomic activation, and EEG in seven healthy subjects during sleep. Methods We identified bouts of tachycardia-bradycardia and performed spectral analysis of EEG during these. We also identified cortical arousals by the appearance of EEG alpha activity. This allowed us to dichotomize bouts of tachycardia-bradycardia by presence or absence of cortical arousal. Results During non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, bouts with or without cortical arousal occurred with approximately equal frequency. Those with cortical arousals usually preceded onset of EEG changes. Those without cortical arousals were followed by increases in delta but not alpha power. EEG did not change during bouts in REM sleep. Conclusions Capturing bouts of tachycardia-bradycardia is relatively easy via computerized algorithm. Bouts occur with cortical arousal or with slow wave synchronization suggestive of subcortical arousal. Thus, changes in HR may be useful index of arousal. Significance These brief bursts of tachycardia-bradycardia are consistent with autonomic arousal. Such a measure may be among the first in a continuum of arousal ending with frank awakening.

Togo, Fumiharu; Cherniack, Neil S.; Natelson, Benjamin H.

2008-01-01

351

Interplay between Affect and Arousal in Recognition Memory  

PubMed Central

Background Emotional states linked to arousal and mood are known to affect the efficiency of cognitive performance. However, the extent to which memory processes may be affected by arousal, mood or their interaction is poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings Following a study phase of abstract shapes, we altered the emotional state of participants by means of exposure to music that varied in both mood and arousal dimensions, leading to four different emotional states: (i) positive mood-high arousal; (ii) positive mood-low arousal; (iii) negative mood-high arousal; (iv) negative mood-low arousal. Following the emotional induction, participants performed a memory recognition test. Critically, there was an interaction between mood and arousal on recognition performance. Memory was enhanced in the positive mood-high arousal and in the negative mood-low arousal states, relative to the other emotional conditions. Conclusions/Significance Neither mood nor arousal alone but their interaction appears most critical to understanding the emotional enhancement of memory.

Greene, Ciara M.; Bahri, Pooja; Soto, David

2010-01-01

352

Nocturnal epileptic seizures versus the arousal parasomnias  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Zusammenfassung\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Fragestellung\\u000a   Es werden Studien bewertet, die klinische Bilder nächtlicher Frontallappenepilepsie und Arousal-Parasomnien vergleichen. Differential-diagnostische\\u000a Kriterien und deren Interrater-Reliabilität werden bestimmt. Es wird untersucht, ob bei den Erkrankungen der gleiche Arousalmechanismus\\u000a zugrunde liegt.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patienten und Methoden\\u000a   Patienten mit Frontallappen epilepsie wurden videopolysomnographisch untersucht und ihre Anfälle wurden typisiert: Paroxysmale\\u000a Arousal (PA), nächtliche paroxysmale Dystonie (NPD) und epileptische nächtliche Wanderungen (ENW).

Pasquale Montagna; Federica Provini; Francesca Bisulli; Paolo Tinuper

2008-01-01

353

Arousal Modulation in Cocaine-Exposed Infants  

PubMed Central

The ability to modulate arousal is a critical skill with wide-ranging implications for development. In this study, the authors examined arousal regulation as a function of levels of prenatal cocaine exposure in 107 infants at 4 months of age using a “still-face” procedure. Facial expressions were coded. A greater percentage of heavily cocaine-exposed infants, compared with those who were unexposed to cocaine, showed less enjoyment during en face play with their mothers and continued to show negative expressions during the resumption of play following a period when the interaction was interrupted. This finding was independent of other substance exposure, neonatal medical condition, environmental risk, maternal contingent responsivity, and concurrent maternal sensitivity and vocalizations.

Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

2006-01-01

354

Spontaneous brain activity relates to autonomic arousal  

PubMed Central

Although possible sources and functions of the resting state networks (RSN) of the brain have been proposed, most evidence relies on circular logic and reverse inference. We propose that autonomic arousal provides an objective index of psychophysiological states during rest that may also function as a driving source of the activity and connectivity of RSN. Recording blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal using functional magnetic resonance imaging and skin conductance simultaneously during rest in human subjects, we found that the spontaneous fluctuations of BOLD signals in key nodes of RSN are associated with changes in non-specific skin conductance response, a sensitive psychophysiological index of autonomic arousal. Our findings provide evidence of an important role for the autonomic nervous system to the spontaneous activity of the brain during ‘rest’.

Fan, Jin; Xu, Pengfei; Van Dam, Nicholas T.; Eilam-Stock, Tehila; Gu, Xiaosi; Luo, Yuejia; Hof, Patrick R.

2012-01-01

355

Managing female sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. PMID:24074537

Buster, John E

2013-10-01

356

Psychostimulants and motivated behavior: Arousal and cognition.  

PubMed

Motivated, goal-directed behavior requires the coordination of multiple behavioral processes that facilitate interacting with the environment, including arousal, motivation, and executive function. Psychostimulants exert potent modulatory influences on these processes, providing a useful tool for understanding the neurobiology of motivated behavior. The neural mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants have been extensively studied over the past 50 years. In contrast, the study of the neurobiology of the arousal-enhancing and executive-modulating actions of psychostimulants was only initiated relatively recently. This latter work identifies a series of dose-dependent actions of psychostimulants within a network of prefrontal cortical and subcortical sites that coordinate the arousal-promoting and cognition-modulating effects of these drugs. These actions are dependent on a variety of catecholamine receptor subtypes, including noradrenergic ?1 and ?2 receptors and dopaminergic D1 receptors. In the prefrontal cortex, psychostimulants exert inverted-U shaped modulatory actions that are apparent at the levels of the neuron and behavior. Collectively, these observations provide new insight into the neurobiology underlying motivated, goal-directed behavior. PMID:23164814

Berridge, Craig W; Arnsten, Amy F T

2012-11-16

357

Differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers: developmental antecedents and behavioral comparisons.  

PubMed

This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148

Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S

2011-01-01

358

[Sexual addiction? When sexual behavior gets out of control].  

PubMed

The authors differentiates deviant (paraphilic) and non-deviant forms of a sexual addictive symptomatology. For the non-deviant forms, the diagnostic term paraphilia-related disorder is used. According to etiological factors, the authors discuss an interaction of a biological vulnerability, attachment and relationship problems, disorders of affect regulation as well as disinhibition of sexual excitation. Some individuals react to negative emotions, like depression or anxiety, with an increased sexual arousal. They may try to cope with negative emotions by being sexually active. However, the importance of the sexual stimulus itself should not be ignored. The authors describe specific psychotherapy, the attendance of self-help groups, and pharmacological treatment, especially with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:20198357

Briken, P; Basdekis-Jozsa, R

2010-04-01

359

Becoming the victim: Beyond sadism in serial sexual murderers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The behavior and characteristics of sexually sadistic serial murderers have been described primarily in relation to their paraphilic arousal to the control and torture of their victims. Sadistic sexual murderers who demonstrate both sadism and masochism have been described, but less is known about this type of offender. This article will review a number of hypotheses proposed to explain these

James L. Knoll; Robert R. Hazelwood

2009-01-01

360

A Social Episode Model of Human Sexual Behavior  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A social episode model of sexual behavior is proposed with emphasis placed on arousal as a crucial variable. This model argues against a disease or deficiency concept of homosexuality. The authors hold a therapist should adequately respond to a valid sexual orientation request. (Author)

Meyer, Robert G.; Freeman, William M.

1976-01-01

361

Orgasm-induced prolactin secretion: feedback control of sexual drive?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies from our laboratory have investigated the hormonal response to various forms of sexual stimulation, including film, masturbation, and coitus in both men and women. This series of studies clearly demonstrated that plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are substantially increased for over 1h following orgasm (masturbation and coitus conditions) in both men and women, but unchanged following sexual arousal without

Tillmann H. C Krüger; Philip Haake; Uwe Hartmann; Manfred Schedlowski; Michael S Exton

2002-01-01

362

Sexual dysfunction before antidepressant therapy in major depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Decreased sexual interest and function both occur as a consequence of antidepressant medication use, and are especially associated with serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs). However, few investigators have reported the base rate for disturbances in sexual desire, arousal and orgasm or ejaculation in patients with major depression (MD) prior to antidepressant treatment. The purpose of this report is to define

Sidney H. Kennedy; Susan E. Dickens; Beata S. Eisfeld; R. Michael Bagby

1999-01-01

363

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... Exams Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About ... Normal? Male Reproductive System Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About ...

364

Heterosexual Male Perpetrators of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Preliminary Neuropsychiatric Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents data from a series of prelimary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and

Lisa J. Cohen; Konstantin Nikiforov; Sniezyna Gans; Olga Poznansky; Pamela McGeoch; Carrie Weaver; Enid Gertmanian King; Ken Cullen; Igor Galynker

2002-01-01

365

The relationship of sexual abuse and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual adult female STD patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some effects of sexual abuse, for example, heightened sexual activity, are also risk factors for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, Social Cognitive theory suggests that the reduced self-esteem and increased sexual arousal that can result from abuse might alter self-efficacy for performing a behavior and expected outcomes of the behavior, making adoption of preventive behavior more difficult.

Nancy J. Thompson; Jennifer Sharpe Potter; Catherine A. Sanderson; Edward W. Maibach

1997-01-01

366

Non-Erotic Thoughts, Attentional Focus, and Sexual Problems in a Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Barlow’s model of sexual dysfunction, anxiety in sexual situations leads to attentional focus on sexual performance\\u000a at the expense of erotic cues, which compromises sexual arousal. This negative experience will enhance anxiety in future sexual\\u000a situations, and non-erotic thoughts (NETs) relevant to performance will receive attentional priority. Previous research with\\u000a student samples (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006; Purdon &

Andrea L. Nelson; Christine Purdon

2011-01-01

367

Synaesthesia and sexuality: the influence of synaesthetic perceptions on sexual experience  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which a certain stimulus induces a concurrent sensory perception; it has an estimated prevalence of 4%. Sexual arousal as an inducer for synaesthetic perceptions is rarely mentioned in the literature but can be found sometimes in case reports about subjective orgasmic experiences. Aims: To examine whether synaesthetic perceptions during sexual intercourse have an impact on the sexual experience and the extent of sexual trance compared to non-synaesthetes. Methods: In total, 19 synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia (17 female; 2 male) were included as well as corresponding control data of 36 non-synaesthetic subjects (n = 55). Two questionnaires were used to assess relevant aspects of sexual function and dysfunction (a German adaption of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning, KFSP) as well as the occurrence and extent of sexual trance (German version of the Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire, OAVAV). Additionally qualitative interviews were conducted in some subjects to further explore the nature of sexual experiences in synaesthetes. Main Outcome Measures: Sexual experience and extent of sexual trance during intercourse. Results: Synaesthetes depicted significantly better overall sexual function on the KFSP with increased scores for the subscale “sexual appetence” but coevally significant lower subscale scores for “sexual satisfaction.” Sexual dysfunction was not detected in this sample. Synaesthetes depicted significantly higher levels of the subscales “oceanic boundlessness” and “visionary restructuralization” than controls using the OAVAV. Qualitative interviews revealed varying synaesthetic perceptions during the different states of arousal. Furthermore, synaesthetes reported an unsatisfactory feeling of isolation caused by the idiosyncratic perceptions. Conclusions: Synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia seem to experience a deeper state of sexual trance without, however, enhanced satisfaction during sexual intercourse.

Nielsen, Janina; Kruger, Tillmann H. C.; Hartmann, Uwe; Passie, Torsten; Fehr, Thorsten; Zedler, Markus

2013-01-01

368

Synaesthesia and sexuality: the influence of synaesthetic perceptions on sexual experience.  

PubMed

Introduction: Synaesthesia is a phenomenon in which a certain stimulus induces a concurrent sensory perception; it has an estimated prevalence of 4%. Sexual arousal as an inducer for synaesthetic perceptions is rarely mentioned in the literature but can be found sometimes in case reports about subjective orgasmic experiences. Aims: To examine whether synaesthetic perceptions during sexual intercourse have an impact on the sexual experience and the extent of sexual trance compared to non-synaesthetes. Methods: In total, 19 synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia (17 female; 2 male) were included as well as corresponding control data of 36 non-synaesthetic subjects (n = 55). Two questionnaires were used to assess relevant aspects of sexual function and dysfunction (a German adaption of the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning, KFSP) as well as the occurrence and extent of sexual trance (German version of the Altered States of Consciousness Questionnaire, OAVAV). Additionally qualitative interviews were conducted in some subjects to further explore the nature of sexual experiences in synaesthetes. Main Outcome Measures: Sexual experience and extent of sexual trance during intercourse. Results: Synaesthetes depicted significantly better overall sexual function on the KFSP with increased scores for the subscale "sexual appetence" but coevally significant lower subscale scores for "sexual satisfaction." Sexual dysfunction was not detected in this sample. Synaesthetes depicted significantly higher levels of the subscales "oceanic boundlessness" and "visionary restructuralization" than controls using the OAVAV. Qualitative interviews revealed varying synaesthetic perceptions during the different states of arousal. Furthermore, synaesthetes reported an unsatisfactory feeling of isolation caused by the idiosyncratic perceptions. Conclusions: Synaesthetes with sexual forms of synaesthesia seem to experience a deeper state of sexual trance without, however, enhanced satisfaction during sexual intercourse. PMID:24137152

Nielsen, Janina; Kruger, Tillmann H C; Hartmann, Uwe; Passie, Torsten; Fehr, Thorsten; Zedler, Markus

2013-10-16

369

Assessment and treatment of compulsive sexual behavior.  

PubMed

The hallmarks of compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) are recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, and behaviors that cause individuals distress in daily functioning. Clinical signs of CSB can include anxiety, depression, somatic complaints, alcohol or drug use or dependency, relationship problems, or signs of abuse. This article describes the symptoms of paraphilic and nonparaphilic CSB and discusses their epidemiology, etiology, as well as comorbid psychiatric conditions. It also presents screening questions that clinicians can use with patients suspected of having CSB and outlines medical and psychiatric treatment for the condition. When CSB is suspected, referral to a clinician experienced in treating sexual disorders is recommended. PMID:12921375

Coleman, Eli; Raymond, Nancy; McBean, Anne

2003-07-01

370

Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

2002-04-01

371

Sexuality in the puerperium: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pregnancy and the puerperium herald dramatic and complex physiological, psychological, interpersonal, and sexual changes in a woman and in the marital process. Pregnancy tends to have an increasingly negative effect on sexual desire, expression, and satisfaction as term approaches. Clinical variables discussed include anatomic and physiological changes, puerperal sexual response patterns, marital adjustment, body image, dyspareunia related to episiotomy, lactation,

Kenneth J. Reamy; Susan E. White

1987-01-01

372

Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed.

Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

2012-01-01

373

Inhibition of NMDA Type Glutamate Receptors Induces Arousal from Torpor in Hibernating Arctic Ground Squirrels (Urocitellus parryii)  

PubMed Central

Hibernation is an adaptation to overcome periods of resource limitation often associated with extreme climatic conditions. The hibernation season consists of prolonged bouts of torpor that are interrupted by brief interbout arousals. Physiological mechanisms regulating spontaneous arousals are poorly understood, but may be related to a need for gluconeogenesis or elimination of metabolic wastes. Glutamate is derived from glutamine through the glutamate-glutamine cycle and from glucose via the pyruvate carboxylase pathway when nitrogen balance favors formation of glutamine. The present study tests the hypothesis that activation of NMDA type glutamate receptors (NMDAR) maintains torpor in arctic ground squirrel (AGS; Urocitellus parryii).Administration of NMDAR antagonists MK-801 (5mg/kg,ip) that crosses blood-brain barrier and AP5 (5mg/kg,ip) that does not cross the blood brain barrier induced arousal in AGS. Central administration of MK-801 (0.2, 2, 20 or 200 ?g; icv) to hibernating AGS failed to induce arousal. Results suggest that activation of NMDAR at a peripheral or circumventricular site is necessary to maintain prolonged torpor and that a decrease in glutamate at these sites may contribute to spontaneous arousal in AGS.

Jinka, Tulasi R.; Rasley, Brian T.; Drew, Kelly L.

2012-01-01

374

Theory and evidence bearing on a Scale of Trait Arousability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trait Arousability is defined, in part, by strength of arousal response to sudden increases in complexity, variation, novelty,\\u000a and\\/or unexpectedness of stimuli. The Trait Arousability Scale related positively to increases in diastolic pressure when\\u000a angered, to heart disease, incidence of illnesses, conditioned aversions, avoidance of social contacts in high-density dormitories,\\u000a dissatisfaction and lowered performance in high density workplaces, recall of

Albert Mehrabian

1995-01-01

375

Evaluating multimodal affective fusion using physiological signals  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present an evaluation of an affective multimodal fusion approach utilizing dimensional representations of emotion. The evaluation uses physiological signals as a reference measure of users' emotional states. Surface electromyography (EMG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) signals are known to be correlated with specific dimensions of emotion (Pleasure and Arousal) and are compared here to real time

Stephen W. Gilroy; Marc O. Cavazza; Valentin Vervondel

2011-01-01

376

Neural and hormonal mechanisms of reproductive-related arousal in fishes.  

PubMed

The major classes of chemicals and brain pathways involved in sexual arousal in mammals are well studied and are thought to be of an ancient, evolutionarily conserved origin. Here we discuss what is known of these neurochemicals and brain circuits in fishes, the oldest and most species-rich group of vertebrates from which tetrapods arose over 350 million years ago. Highlighted are case studies in vocal species where well-delineated sensory and motor pathways underlying reproductive-related behaviors illustrate the diversity and evolution of brain mechanisms driving sexual motivation between (and within) sexes. Also discussed are evolutionary insights from the neurobiology and reproductive behavior of elasmobranch fishes, the most ancient lineage of jawed vertebrates, which are remarkably similar in their reproductive biology to terrestrial mammals. PMID:20950618

Forlano, Paul M; Bass, Andrew H

2010-10-13

377

Neural and hormonal mechanisms of reproductive-related arousal in fishes  

PubMed Central

The major classes of chemicals and brain pathways involved in sexual arousal in mammals are well studied and are thought to be of an ancient, evolutionarily conserved origin. Here we discuss what is known of these neurochemicals and brain circuits in fishes, the oldest and most species-rich group of vertebrates from which tetrapods arose over 200 million years ago. Highlighted are case studies in vocal species where well-delineated sensory and motor pathways underlying reproductive-related behaviors illustrate the diversity and evolution of brain mechanisms driving sexual motivation between (and within) sexes. Also discussed are evolutionary insights from the neurobiology and reproductive behavior of elasmobranch fishes, the most ancient lineage of jawed vertebrates, which are remarkably similar in their reproductive biology to terrestrial mammals.

Forlano, Paul M.; Bass, Andrew H.

2010-01-01

378

Bibliotherapy for low sexual desire: evidence for effectiveness.  

PubMed

This study examines the effectiveness of bibliotherapy for low sexual desire among women, which is the most frequent sexual concern brought to counselors. Forty-five women responded to an advertisement for participation in a study on low sexual desire and were assigned to either the intervention or the wait-list control group. The intervention group completed the Hurlbert Index of Sexual Desire (HISD; Apt & Hurlbert, 1992) and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI; R. Rosen et al., 2000), read the self-help book under study in 6 weeks, and completed the measures a second time. The control group completed the same measures 6 weeks apart. Results demonstrated that the intervention group made statistically greater gains over time as compared with the control group on measures of sexual desire (HISD and FSFI Desire subscale), sexual arousal (FSFI Arousal subscale), sexual satisfaction (FSFI Satisfaction subscale), and overall sexual functioning (FSFI Total Score). A subset of participants in the intervention group participated in a 7-week follow-up study, and these participants maintained their gains in sexual desire and overall sexual functioning. Findings have important implications for future research on the efficacy of bibliotherapy generally and for low sexual desire specifically. Results also have vital implications for the treatment of low sexual desire. PMID:22774869

Mintz, Laurie B; Balzer, Alexandra M; Zhao, Xinting; Bush, Hannah E

2012-07-01

379

Ecstasy and Sex Among Young Heterosexual Women: A Qualitative Analysis of Sensuality, Sexual Effects, and Sexual Risk Taking  

Microsoft Academic Search

MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) Ecstasy has been shown to heighten senses, feelings of intimacy, and communication. This study addresses sensual and sexual responses to Ecstasy and the potential for risky sexual behavior. Qualitative data from 41 heterosexual female Ecstasy users in New York City (ages 18–29) were analyzed. Women reported both heightened sexual (e.g., desire, arousal, orgasmic intensity) and sensual (e.g., deep

Kristine E. P. Kennedy; Christian Grov; Jeffrey T. Parsons

2010-01-01

380

The Effect of Pre-Existing Affect on the Sexual Responses of Women With and Without a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives.\\u000a Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties\\u000a in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on

Alessandra H. Rellini; Samantha Elinson; Erick Janssen; Cindy M. Meston

381

Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Health Among University Students in the United States  

PubMed Central

Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P < .05) correlates of both physiological and psychological satisfaction included sexual guilt, sexual self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships.

Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J. Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B.

2011-01-01

382

Sexual Functioning After Treatment for Testicular Cancer—Review and Meta-Analysis of 36 Empirical Studies Between 1975–2000  

Microsoft Academic Search

Literature concerning sexual functioning after treatment for testicular cancer from 1975–2000 is reviewed. After a literature search in Medline and Psylit was conducted, as well as a search for cross-references made, a meta-analysis was performed. To describe sexual functioning, several aspects of the sexual response cycle were used: sexual desire, sexual arousal, erection, and orgasm; ejaculatory function, sexual activity, and

Grieteke Jonker-Pool; Harry B. M. Van de Wiel; Harald J. Hoekstra; DirkTh. Sleijfer; Mels F. Van Driel; Jean P. Van Basten; HeimenSchraffordt Koops

2001-01-01

383

Validation of the Sexual Excitation\\/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women and Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the current investigation was to develop a scale that would assess propensity for sexual arousal in response\\u000a to a broad range of stimuli and sexual situations in both men and women. In Study 1, data from a nonclinical sample of 481\\u000a male and female students (graduate and undergraduate) were submitted to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses in

Robin R. Milhausen; Cynthia A. Graham; Stephanie A. Sanders; William L. Yarber; Scott B. Maitland

2010-01-01

384

Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

2012-01-01

385

Volitional Control of Autonomic Arousal: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrodermal activity reflects autonomic sympathetic innervation of dermal sweat glands providing an index of emotion-related bodily states of arousal. Relaxation techniques, which are facilitated by external (bio)feedback of electrodermal activity, can be used by trained subjects to actively control bodily and emotional arousal. Biofeedback relaxation provides an experimental model to explore neural mechanisms contributing to emotional representations and intentional autonomic

Hugo D. Critchley; Raphael N. Melmed; Eric Featherstone; Christopher J. Mathias; Raymond J. Dolan

2002-01-01

386

Arousals and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Observations of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) show a restless sleep. But there is no significant disturbance of sleep macrostructure as in adult OSAS patients. It will be proved, whether the analysis of arousals permits a comprehensive characterization of this respiratory related sleep disturbance. Considering the problems in EEG-arousals detection in dependence of age and maturation we

S. Scholle; G. Zwacka

2001-01-01

387

Molecular Connections between Arousal and Metabolic Disease: Orexin and Modafinil.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Obesity and metabolic diseases are known to be tightly linked to arousal-sleep cycles. Further both metabolic disease and arousal are known to have significant impacts on cognitive function in humans and animals. Importantly the armed forces represent a p...

S. C. Benoit

2008-01-01

388

Sensation-Seeking and Differentially Arousing Television Commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors predicted (a) that disinhibited consumers would react more favorably to advertising that was high in arousal and (b) that inhibited consumers would react more favorably to advertising that was low in arousal. They tested these predictions by having U.S. college students evaluate both the commercial and the product being marketed in 1 of 2 beer commercials. The prospective

Christopher Leone; Justin Darienzo

2000-01-01

389

Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

2010-01-01

390

A neural circuit for circadian regulation of arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unknown aspect of behavioral state regulation is how the circadian oscillator of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) regulates sleep and waking. In this report, we describe the necessary elements for a circuit that provides circadian regulation of arousal. Trans-synaptic retrograde tracing revealed a prominent indirect projection from the SCN to the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC), a brain arousal system.

Sheng Chen; Yan Zhu; Michael L. Oshinsky; Gary Aston-Jones

2001-01-01

391

Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.  

PubMed

Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation. PMID:22873402

Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

2012-08-09

392

Color preference, arousal, and the theory of psychological reversals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theory of psychological reversals asserts that there are two levels of preferred felt arousal, one high and one low. Only one of them is preferred at a given time, although discrete switches (“reversals”) occur from time to time, so that each level is preferred at different times. In order to document such changes in preferred levels of arousal, 75

Jean Walters; Michael J. Apter; Sven Svebak

1982-01-01

393

Memory Performance After Arousal from Different Sleep Stages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning material was presented to independent groups of subjects either after arousal from non-Rapid Eye Movement (non-REM) sleep, after arousal from REM sleep, or under conditions of no prior sleep. Measures of immediate and subsequent free recall were taken. (Editor)

Stones, M. J.

1977-01-01

394

Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

2010-01-01

395

Tuning arousal with optogenetic modulation of locus coeruleus neurons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neural activity in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus correlates with periods of wakefulness and arousal. However, it is unclear whether tonic or phasic activity in these neurons is necessary or sufficient to induce transitions between behavioral states and to promote long-term arousal. Using optogenetic tools in mice, we found that there is a frequency-dependent, causal relationship among locus coeruleus firing, cortical

Matthew E Carter; Ofer Yizhar; Sachiko Chikahisa; Hieu Nguyen; Antoine Adamantidis; Seiji Nishino; Karl Deisseroth; Luis de Lecea

2010-01-01

396

"Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

Ashcraft, Catherine

2006-01-01

397

"Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

Ashcraft, Catherine

2006-01-01

398

Physiological Correlates of Stress-Induced Decrements in Human Perceptual Performance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Stress-induced changes in human performance have been thought to result from alterations in the 'multidimensional arousal state' of the individual, as indexed by alterations in the physiological and psychological mechanisms controlling performance. Identi...

G. A. McLean L. T. Smith T. J. Hill C. J. Rubenstein

1993-01-01

399

Feature selection for multimodal emotion recognition in the arousal-valence space.  

PubMed

Emotion recognition is a challenging research problem with a significant scientific interest. Most of the emotion assessment studies have focused on the analysis of facial expressions. Recently, it has been shown that the simultaneous use of several biosignals taken from the patient may improve the classification accuracy. An open problem in this area is to identify which biosignals are more relevant for emotion recognition. In this paper, we perform Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE) to select a subset of features that allows emotion classification. Experiments are carried out over a multimodal database with arousal and valence annotations, and a diverse range of features extracted from physiological, neurophysiological, and video signals. Results show that several features can be eliminated while still preserving classification accuracy in setups of 2 and 3 classes. Using a small subset of the features, it is possible to reach 70% accuracy for arousal and 60% accuracy for valence in some experiments. Experimentally, it is shown that the Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) is relevant for arousal classification, while the electroencephalogram (EEG) is relevant for valence. PMID:24110691

Torres, Cristian A; Orozco, Alvaro A; Alvarez, Mauricio A

2013-07-01

400

Sexual problems among married Nigerian women.  

PubMed

We interviewed and examined 293 married women, 15-49 years of age, seeking primary care at a teaching hospital in central Nigeria. One or more sexual problems were identified in 71% of women. The proportion of specific sexual problems was 39% for a desire problem, 40% for an arousal problem, 31% for a sex pain problem and 55% for an orgasmic problem. Poor marital communication, lack of foreplay, Islamic religion and advancing age were independently associated with a desire problem. Absence of foreplay was independently associated with an arousal problem. Lack of foreplay, lower abdominal pain, gynaecological conditions, working outside the home and younger age were independently associated with a sex pain problem. The absence of foreplay, poor marital communication and being a housewife were independently associated with an orgasmic problem. Sexual problems are common among married Nigerian women seeking outpatient care. PMID:17066072

Ojomu, F; Thacher, T; Obadofin, M

2006-10-26

401

Usefulness of differentiating arousal responses within communication theories: Orienting response or defensive arousal within nonverbal theories of expectancy violation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arousal has become a central variable within much of communication research from deception to emotional communication. Specifically, several communication theories attempting to explain how one interactant's unexpected involvement changes affect another's posit arousal as a central variable directly or indirectly influencing the behavioral changes. Similar to these theories, which place emphasis on expectancies (anticipatory sets concerning typical interaction behaviors), psychophysiology

Beth A. Le Poire; Judee K. Burgoon

1996-01-01

402

Masturbation and premarital sexual intercourse among college women: Making choices for sexual fulfillment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the potential value of masturbation as an alternative to high-risk sexual practices, there is a need to investigate factors surrounding this method of physiological sexual fulfillment. Therefore, this study examined the differences, if any, between women who have engaged in masturbation only (MO), both masturbation and sexual intercourse (MSI), and sexual intercourse only (SIO). An anonymous questionnaire was administered

J. Kenneth Davidson Sr; Nelwyn B. Moore

1994-01-01

403

Does dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) activation return to baseline when sexual stimuli cease?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental question in human sexuality regards the neural substrate underlying sexually-arousing representations. Lesion and neuroimaging studies suggest that dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC) plays an important role in regulating the processing of visual sexual stimulation. The aim of this Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) study was to explore DLPFC structures involved in the processing of erotic and non-sexual films. fNIRS was

Jose Leon-Carrion; Juan Francisco Martín-Rodríguez; Jesús Damas-López; Kambiz Pourrezai; Kurtulus Izzetoglu; Juan Manuel Barroso y Martin; M. Rosario Dominguez-Morales

2007-01-01

404

A Psychoeducational Intervention for Sexual Dysfunction in Women with Gynecologic Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of early-stage cervical and endometrial cancer has been associated with significant sexual difficulties in at least\\u000a half of women following hysterectomy. Despite the fact that women report such sexual side effects to be the most distressing\\u000a aspect of their cancer treatment, evidence-based treatments for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD), the most common sexual\\u000a symptom in this group, do not

Lori A. Brotto; Julia R. Heiman; Barbara Goff; Benjamin Greer; Gretchen M. Lentz; Elizabeth Swisher; Hisham Tamimi; Amy Van Blaricom

2008-01-01

405

Alcohol, Sexual Arousal, and Sexually Aggressive Decision-Making: Preventative Strategies and Forensic Psychology Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational choice theory outlines that human behavior is based on the perceived costs and benefits that will result from any given behavior. Before engaging in any behavior (criminal or not) the individual rationally weighs the costs and benefits associated with the outcome of the behavior. If the perceived benefits of the behavior outweigh the costs then the individual “rationally” chooses

Charlotte A. Dudley

2005-01-01

406

Assessment of Tripartite Factors of Emotion in Children and Adolescents II: Concurrent Validity of the Affect and Arousal Scales for Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors assessed the reliability and validity of the Affect and Arousal Scale for Children (AFARS; Chorpita, Daleiden, Moffitt, Yim, & Umemoto, 2000). The AFARS is a new measure of children's positive affect (PA), negative affect (NA), and physiological hyperarousal (PH). In the first study, 176 school children, 7 to 17 years of age, were administered measures of childhood worry,

Eric Daleiden; Bruce F. Chorpita; Weili Lu

2000-01-01

407

A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception  

PubMed Central

Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width.

Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

2012-01-01

408

Brain circuitry mediating arousal from obstructive sleep apnea.  

PubMed

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a disorder of repetitive sleep disruption caused by reduced or blocked respiratory airflow. Although an anatomically compromised airway accounts for the major predisposition to OSA, a patient's arousal threshold and factors related to the central control of breathing (ventilatory control stability) are also important. Arousal from sleep (defined by EEG desynchronization) may be the only mechanism that allows airway re-opening following an obstructive event. However, in many cases arousal is unnecessary and even worsens the severity of OSA. Mechanisms for arousal are poorly understood. However, accumulating data are elucidating the relevant neural pathways and neurotransmitters. For example, serotonin is critically required, but its site of action is unknown. Important neural substrates for arousal have been recently identified in the parabrachial complex (PB), a visceral sensory nucleus in the rostral pons. Moreover, glutamatergic signaling from the PB contributes to arousal caused by hypercapnia, one of the arousal-promoting stimuli in OSA. A major current focus of OSA research is to find means to maintain airway patency during sleep, without sleep interruption. PMID:23810448

Chamberlin, Nancy L

2013-06-28

409

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... experiences, free of coercion, discrimination and violence. [1] Sexual Health News & Information HHS Statement on LGBT Health Awareness ... infectious diseases, reproductive health and sexual violence prevention. Sexual Health Topics Sexually Transmitted Diseases Up-to-date information ...

410

Melanocortins in sexual function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The melanocortin system is involved in mainly regulatory activity in many physiologic systems. Of the five subtypes of receptors,\\u000a the MC4R appears most associated with sexual modulation. The MC4R subtype is found in the central nervous system in sites\\u000a known to be associated with sexual function, and preclinical evidence points to the importance of regions of the hypothalamus.\\u000a There is

Jeremy P. W. Heaton; Alvaro Morales; Michael A. Adams

2004-01-01

411

Breaking out of the dominant paradigm: a new look at sexual attraction.  

PubMed

Concepts of sexuality based on the physical sex of partners limit the way in which human sexuality is conceived and investigated. The shift in focus of inquiry from the sexual identity of individuals to the structure of their sexual relationships is an important step towards exploding concepts that, for the most part, have been severely restricted to male-female genital distinctions. This article argues that the genital organs are not the prime focus of sexual attraction. Careful studies may reveal that sexual arousal is based on criteria that transcend genital categories. To determine the basis of sexual attraction it is important to investigate an amalgam of characteristics--those related and unrelated to the partners' physical sex. There are indications that individuals with a greater mix of feminine and masculine characteristics (both mental and physical) are actually more arousing than those who fall closer to the stereotypes. The arts, it is suggested, have exploited this phenomenon. PMID:6533179

Kaplan, G T; Rogers, L J

1984-01-01

412

Sexual problems in gay men: an overview of empirical research.  

PubMed

This article summarizes the findings and theoretical perspectives of 19 empirical studies of sexual problems in gay men. In order to understand these problems better, various differences between male homosexual and heterosexual functioning are discussed first. The studies included differ widely in terms of the issues explored, the populations studied, and the way data have been collected. In a few studies, researchers generally have looked at the prevalence and experience of sexual problems. In other studies, researchers have focused on the etiology and treatment of specific problems, such as sexual desire disorders, sexual aversion, excitement and arousal problems, orgasm disorders, sexual pain disorders and sexual compulsivity. Overall it is surprising how little is known about these problems in gay men. This is also true, however, for same-sex sexuality in general. Suggestions are made for studies that will enable us to obtain a better understanding of sexual problems in gay men. PMID:12666738

Sandfort, T G; de Keizer, M

2001-01-01

413

Interactions between epinephrine, ascending vagal fibers, and central noradrenergic systems in modulating memory for emotionally arousing events  

PubMed Central

It is well-established that exposure to emotionally laden events initiates secretion of the arousal-related hormone epinephrine in the periphery. These neuroendocrine changes and the subsequent increase in peripheral physiological output play an integral role in modulating brain systems involved in memory formation. The impermeability of the blood brain barrier to epinephrine represents an important obstacle in understanding how peripheral hormones initiate neurochemical changes in the brain that lead to effective memory formation. This obstacle necessitated the identity of a putative pathway capable of conveying physiological changes produced by epinephrine to limbic structures that incorporate arousal and affect related information into memory. A major theme of the proposed studies is that ascending fibers of the vagus nerve may represent such a mechanism. This hypothesis was tested by evaluating the contribution of ascending vagal fibers in modulating memory for responses learned under behavioral conditions that produce emotional arousal by manipulating appetitive stimuli. A combination of electrophysiological recording of vagal afferent fibers and in vivo microdialysis was employed in a second study to simultaneously assess how elevations in peripheral levels of epinephrine affect vagal nerve discharge and the subsequent potentiation of norepinephrine release in the basolateral amygdala. The final study used double immunohistochemistry labeling of c-fos and dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme for norepinephrine synthesis to determine if epinephrine administration alone or stimulation of the vagus nerve at an intensity identical to that which improved memory in Experiment 1 produces similar patterns of neuronal activity in brain areas involved in processing memory for emotional events. Findings emerging from this collection of studies establish the importance of ascending fibers of the vagus nerve as an essential pathway for conveying the peripheral consequences of physiological arousal on brain systems that encode new information into memory storage.

Chen, C. C.; Williams, C. L.

2012-01-01

414

Confirmatory factor analysis of the female sexual function index.  

PubMed

The Female Sexual Functioning Index (Rosen et al., 2000 ) was designed to assess the key dimensions of female sexual functioning using six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. A full-scale score was proposed to represent women's overall sexual function. The fifth revision to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) is currently underway and includes a proposal to combine desire and arousal problems. The objective of this article was to evaluate and compare four models of the Female Sexual Functioning Index: (a) single-factor model, (b) six-factor model, (c) second-order factor model, and (4) five-factor model combining the desire and arousal subscales. Cross-sectional and observational data from 85 women were used to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis on the Female Sexual Functioning Index. Local and global goodness-of-fit measures, the chi-square test of differences, squared multiple correlations, and regression weights were used. The single-factor model fit was not acceptable. The original six-factor model was confirmed, and good model fit was found for the second-order and five-factor models. Delta chi-square tests of differences supported best fit for the six-factor model validating usage of the six domains. However, when revisions are made to the DSM-5, the Female Sexual Functioning Index can adapt to reflect these changes and remain a valid assessment tool for women's sexual functioning, as the five-factor structure was also supported. PMID:22126229

Opperman, Emily A; Benson, Lindsay E; Milhausen, Robin R

2011-11-29

415

Sexual satisfaction and sexual drive in spinal cord injured women.  

PubMed

Levels of sexual satisfaction and sexual drive in women with spinal cord injuries were examined. Eighty-four spinal cord injured (SCI) women and thirty-seven able-bodied (AB) control subjects completed the Derogatis Sexual Functioning Inventory which measured current level of sexual functioning in 10 areas: information, experience, drive, attitude, psychological symptoms, affect, gender role definition, fantasy, body image, and sexual satisfaction. When compared with AB women, SCI women had significantly lower levels of sexual satisfaction and sexual drive and significantly higher levels of psychological symptoms and negative affect. Among SCI women, sexual satisfaction decreased significantly with age. Among AB women, sexual satisfaction increased significantly with age. Married SCI women were no longer less sexually satisfied than AB women. Results support conclusions from previous self-report studies in which significant decreases in sexual satisfaction and drive were reported for SCI women. Implications for continued research on the psychological and physiological aspects of sexuality and sexual functioning in SCI women are discussed. PMID:9863935

Black, K; Sipski, M L; Strauss, S S

1998-07-01

416

Pain Tolerance, Arousal, and Personality Relationships of Athletes and Nonathletes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, college athletes and nonathletes performed a muscular endurance task to determine pain tolerance, during which galvanic skin-response measures of arousal were obtained. The Bernreuter Personality Inventory was administered after this treatment. (JS)

Ellison, Kerry; Freischlag, Jerry

1975-01-01

417

Pharmacogenetics of glutamate system genes and SSRI-associated sexual dysfunction  

PubMed Central

We examined whether polymorphisms in the GRIK2, GRIA3, and GRIA1 genes were associated with SSRI-associated sexual well-dysfunction in 114 participants treated for depression. One polymorphism in GRIA1 (rs1994862) was associated with arousal dysfunction, providing further evidence for the role of GRIA1 in mechanisms underlying SSRI-associated sexual side effects.

Bishop, Jeffrey R.; Chae, Sharon S.; Patel, Shitalben; Moline, Jessica; Ellingrod, Vicki L.

2012-01-01

418

The Importance of Individual Differences in Pornography Use: Theoretical Perspectives and Implications for Treating Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reviews the extant literature regarding pornography's influence on antisocial attitudes, sexual arousal, and sexually aggressive behavior in both noncriminal and criminal samples. The article concludes that when examined in the context of multiple, interacting factors, the findings are highly consistent across experimental and nonexperimental studies and across differing populations in showing that pornography use can be a risk

Drew A. Kingston; Neil M. Malamuth; Paul Fedoroff; William L. Marshall

2009-01-01

419

Pharmacogenetics of glutamate system genes and SSRI-associated sexual dysfunction.  

PubMed

We examined whether polymorphisms in the GRIK2, GRIA3 and GRIA1 genes were associated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-associated sexual dysfunction in 114 participants treated for depression. One polymorphism in GRIA1 (rs1994862) was associated with arousal dysfunction, providing further evidence for the role of GRIA1 in mechanisms underlying SSRI-associated sexual side effects. PMID:22534499

Bishop, Jeffrey R; Chae, Sharon S; Patel, Shitalben; Moline, Jessica; Ellingrod, Vicki L

2012-04-24

420

Sex differences in viewing sexual stimuli: An eye-tracking study in men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men and women exhibit different neural, genital, and subjective arousal responses to visual sexual stimuli. The source of these sex differences is unknown. We hypothesized that men and women look differently at sexual stimuli, resulting in different responses. We used eye tracking to measure looking by 15 male and 30 female (15 normal cycling (NC) and 15 oral contracepting (OC))

Heather A. Rupp; Kim Wallen

2007-01-01

421

Sexual behaviors during sleep associated with polysomnographically confirmed parasomnia overlap disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parasomnia overlap disorder (POD) refers to a sleep disorder characterized by the association of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with NREM sleep parasomnia in the same patient. Sexual behaviors during sleep (SBS) can include most wakeful sexual activities and are classified in the ICSD-2 as a variant of confusional arousals and sleepwalking, both NREM parasomnias. A case of SBS associated

Alessandro Cicolin; Antonella Tribolo; Alessandra Giordano; Elisabetta Chiarot; Elena Peila; Anna Terreni; Caterina Bucca; Roberto Mutani

2011-01-01

422

Arousal, EEG spectral power and pulse transit time in UARS and mild OSAS subjects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS) and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) are associated with arousals and autonomic activation. Pulse transit time (PTT) has been used to recognize transient arousals. We examined the accuracy of PTT to recognize arousals, and the relationship between PTT deflection and visual and non-visual arousals.Methods: Ten UARS and 10 mild OSAS subjects were studied via

D. Poyares; C. Guilleminault; A. Rosa; M. Ohayon; U. Koester

2002-01-01

423

The effects of repetitive arousal from sleep on cardiovascular autonomic control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previous study found that the sympathoexcitatory cardiovascular effects of arousal are relatively long lasting. In this study, we examine (1) whether the cumulative effects of arousal can lead to significant changes in autonomic control and (2) how the frequency of arousals affect the magnitude of these effects. Ten healthy subjects were aroused from sleep every 30 seconds, 1 minute

J. Chaicharn; M. Carrington; J. Trinder; M. C. K. Khoo

2004-01-01

424

Atypical modulation of cognitive control by arousal in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of viewing high-arousal pictures on regional brain activations elicited by a cognitive control task in participants with high-functioning autism and neurotypical controls. Specifically, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of brief presentations of highly arousing pictures (i.e., both very pleasant and very unpleasant) on the processing of stimuli requiring cognitive control. Similar

Gabriel S. Dichter; Aysenil Belger

2008-01-01

425

Aroused Versus Calm Positive Affects as Predictors of Lipids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The authors hypothesized that high-pleasure low-arousal (HPLA) would predict a subsequent decrease of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TRI), as well as a subsequent increase of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). The authors also hypothesized that high-pleasure high-arousal (HPHA) would have the opposite effects on these blood lipids, predicting a subsequent increase of LDL-C and TRI, and a decrease

Arie Shirom; Samuel Melamed; Shlomo Berliner; Itzhak Shapira

2009-01-01

426

The effects of arousal on liking and believability of commercials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines how arousal and the pace of television commercials affect viewers' attitudes toward the ad claims (Aad-c), the non-claim elements (Aad-nc), the advertised brands (Ab), and purchase intentions (PI). Fast paced ads produced higher Aad-nc, Ab, and PI scores than slow paced ads. Arousing ads produced higher Ab and PI, but lower Aad-c. Results also found significant interactions

Kak Yoon; Paul Bolls; Annie Lang

1998-01-01

427

Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing  

PubMed Central

Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP) component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli). Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content) spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing.

Paulmann, Silke; Bleichner, Martin; Kotz, Sonja A.

2013-01-01

428

Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and fatigue were assessed in 21 depressed and 37 never-depressed undergraduates.

Cynthia W. Karlson; Natalie R. Stevens; Christy A. Olson; Nancy A. Hamilton

2010-01-01

429

Energetics of arousal episodes in hibernating arctic ground squirrels.  

PubMed

Arctic ground squirrels overwintering in northern Alaska experience average soil temperature of -10 degrees C. To examine energetic costs of arousing from hibernation under arctic compared to temperate conditions, captive ground squirrels were maintained in ambient temperatures (T(a)) of 2, -5 and -12 degrees C. Rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production were used to estimate metabolic rate and fuel use during the three phases of arousal episodes: rewarming, euthermia, and recooling. Respiratory quotient comparisons suggest exclusive use of lipid during rewarming and mixed fuel use during euthermia. Animals rewarming from torpor at T(a) -12 degrees C took longer, consumed more oxygen, and attained higher peak rates of oxygen consumption when compared to 2 degrees C. T(a) had no significant effect on cost or duration of the euthermic phase. Animals recooled faster at -12 degrees C than at 2 degrees C, but total oxygen consumption was not different. T(a) had no significant effect on the total cost of arousal episodes when all three phases are included. Arousal episodes account for 86% of estimated costs of a complete hibernation cycle including torpor when at 2 degrees C and only 23% at -12 degrees C. Thus, due to the higher costs of steady-state metabolism during torpor, proportional metabolic costs of arousal episodes at T(a) characteristic of the Arctic are diminished compared to relative costs of arousals in more temperate conditions. PMID:19277682

Karpovich, Shawna A; Tøien, Øivind; Buck, C Loren; Barnes, Brian M

2009-03-11

430

Atypical Modulation of Cognitive Control by Arousal in Autism  

PubMed Central

We examined the effects of viewing high-arousal pictures on regional brain activations elicited by a cognitive control task in participants with high-functioning autism and neurotypical controls. Specifically, using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of brief presentations of highly arousing pictures (i.e., both very pleasant and very unpleasant) on the processing of stimuli requiring cognitive control. Similar to previous findings, when stimuli with high cognitive control demands were preceded by low-arousal pictures, individuals with autism demonstrated regional brain activations that were comparable to neurotypical control individuals. When the presentation of the cognitive control stimuli was preceded by high-arousal pictures, however, the control group was characterized by relatively greater activation in the right lateral midfrontal cortex in response to cognitive control stimuli. In contrast, preceding high-arousal stimuli did not modulate activity elicited in this region by cognitive control stimuli in the autism group. Differential modulation of right lateral midfrontal activation by high-arousal stimuli in autism is consistent with the “inefficiency model” of brain functioning in autism spectrum disorders, and contributes to a growing body of evidence that autism may be characterized by anomalous sensitivity of cognitive control brain regions to social-emotional context.

Dichter, Gabriel S.; Belger, Aysenil

2008-01-01

431

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men's Sexual Aggression Intentions.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men's perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men's self-reported sexual aggression intentions. METHOD: After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. RESULTS: Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720

Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Kiekel, Preston A

2012-02-20

432

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men's Sexual Aggression Intentions  

PubMed Central

Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication.

Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.

2012-01-01

433

Wakefulness and arousal in neonates born to women with schizophrenia: diminished arousal and its association with neurological deviations.  

PubMed

Arousal at 3-4 days of age was blindly assessed during the course of a standardized neurological examination of offspring born to index women with schizophrenic (n = 20), schizo-affective (n = 12), affective (n = 19) and unspecified functional (n = 4) psychoses, as well as 70 offspring born to control women with no history of psychosis. The offspring of women with schizophrenia was the only index group to differ from controls in showing significantly reduced arousal. Among the offspring of schizophrenics, reduced arousal was associated with neurological abnormality and deviant sensitivity to stimulation but not with obstetric complications. Only a subgroup of schizophrenics' offspring showed these characteristics. Deviations in arousal, neurological status and sensitivity may be part of a more generalized pattern representing a possibly genetically based neurodevelopmental disorder evident within this particular group at heightened risk for schizophrenia. PMID:8908690

Schubert, E W; Blennow, G; McNeil, T F

1996-10-18

434

On making nursing undergraduate human reproductive physiology content meaningful and relevant: discussion of human pleasure in its biological context.  

PubMed

The traditional presentation of the Reproductive Physiology component in an Anatomy and Physiology course to nursing undergraduates focuses on the broad aspects of hormonal regulation of reproduction and gonadal anatomy, with the role of the higher centres of the brain omitted. An introductory discussion is proposed which could precede the lectures on the reproductive organs. The discussion gives an overview of the biological significance of human pleasure, the involvement of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the role of pleasure in the survival of the individual and even species. Pleasure stimuli (positive and negative) and the biological significance of naturally-induced pleasurable experiences are briefly discussed in the context of reproduction and the preservation of genetic material with an aim to foster relevancy between subject material and human behaviour in any type of society. The tenderness of this aspect of the human existence is well-understood because of its invariable association with soul-revealing human expressions such as love, infatuation, sexual flirtations, all of which are underpinned by arousal, desire and/or pleasure. Assuming that increased knowledge correlates with increased confidence, the proposed approach may provide the nurse with an adequate knowledge base to overcome well-known barriers in communicating with their patients about matters of sexual health and intimacy. PMID:21377251

McClusky, Leon Mendel

2011-03-04

435

A functional approach to sexual selection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Sexual selection theory is a robust and dynamic field within evolutionary biology, yet despite decades of research, remarkably little is known of the mechanistic bases of mate choice and male competition. 2. Because many aspects of sexual selection involve dynamic movements, and are physically challenging, the limits of sexual selection may be defined by key functional and physiological

DUNCAN J. IRSCHICK; ANTHONY HERREL; BIEKE VANHOOYDONCK; RAOUL VAN DAMME

2007-01-01

436

The impact of an ostomy on sexuality.  

PubMed

Creation of an ostomy results in physiological and psychological changes that affect sexuality. Major physiological complications for men include erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory difficulties. For women, dyspareunia is the most common physiological complication. The presence of an ostomy can alter a person's body image, which, in turn, influences the desire for sexual activity. Sexuality concerns should be addressed with all patients undergoing ostomy placement. The PLISSIT model, which outlines four stages of interventions used in sexual counseling, can be used to guide nursing care. PMID:11107381

Sprunk, E; Alteneder, R R

437

Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R)  

PubMed Central

Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This paper presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1983) produced 8 factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.

Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Mustanski, Brian

2013-01-01

438

Do Snoring Sounds Arouse the Snorer?  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Respiratory cycle-related electroencephalographic (EEG) changes (RCREC), especially in delta and sigma frequencies, are thought to reflect subtle, breath-to-breath inspiratory microarousals that are exacerbated in association with increased work of breathing in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We wondered whether snoring sounds could create these microarousals, and investigated whether earplugs, anticipated to alter snoring perception, might affect RCREC. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: An accredited, academic sleep laboratory. Patients: Adults (n = 400) referred for suspected OSA. Interventions: Subjects were randomly assigned to use earplugs or not during a night of diagnostic polysomnography. Results: Two hundred three of the participants were randomized to use earplugs. Earplug use was associated with lower RCREC in delta EEG frequencies (0.5-4.5 Hz), although not in other frequencies, after controlling for potential confounds (P = 0.048). This effect of earplug use was larger among men in comparison with women (interaction term P = 0.046), and possibly among nonobese subjects in comparison with obese subjects (P = 0.081). However, the effect of earplug use on delta RCREC did not differ significantly based on apnea severity or snoring prominence as rated by sleep technologists (P > 0.10 for each). Conclusions: This randomized controlled trial is the first study to show that perception of snoring sounds, as modulated by earplugs, can influence the cortical EEG during sleep. However, the small magnitude of effect, lack of effect on RCREC in EEG frequencies other than delta, and absence of effect modulation by apnea severity or snoring prominence suggest that perception of snoring is not the main explanation for RCREC. Citation: Chirakalwasan N; Ruzicka DL; Burns JW; Chervin RD. Do snoring sounds arouse the snorer? SLEEP 2013;36(4):565-571.

Chirakalwasan, Naricha; Ruzicka, Deborah L.; Burns, Joseph W.; Chervin, Ronald D.

2013-01-01

439

Pelvic Floor Dysfunction: Women's Sexual Concerns Unraveled.  

PubMed

INTRODUCTION: Sexual function of women suffering from pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and/or urinary incontinence (UI) is adversely affected. However, our current understanding of the exact relationship between female sexual dysfunction and POP and/or UI is incomplete. A qualitative study can improve our understanding by describing what women themselves perceive as the real problem. AIM: To gain a more in-depth understanding of the impact of POP and/or UI on the different categories of female sexual dysfunction by way of a qualitative study. METHODS: Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted in 37 women scheduled for pelvic floor surgery, and one was excluded from analysis due to incomplete recordings. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The impact of POP and/or UI on female sexual function. RESULTS: Only 17% of women were completely positive about their sex life. Both POP and UI had a negative effect on body image. Women with POP had a negative image of their vagina, which caused them to be insecure about their partner's sexual experience, while women with UI were embarrassed about their incontinence and pad use, and feared smelling of urine. Worries about the presence of POP during sexual activity, discomfort from POP, and reduced genital sensations were the most important reasons for decreased desire, arousal, and difficulty reaching an orgasm in women with POP. Fear of incontinence during intercourse affected desire, arousal, and orgasm and could be a cause for dyspareunia in women with UI. Desire was divided into two main elements: "drive" and "motivation." Although "drive," i.e., spontaneous sexual interest, was not commonly affected by POP and/or UI, a decrease in "motivation" or the willingness to engage in sexual activity was the most common sexual dysfunction mentioned. CONCLUSIONS: Body image plays a key role in the sexual functioning of women with POP and/or UI with the biggest impact on women's "motivation." PMID:23347592

Roos, Anne-Marie; Thakar, Ranee; Sultan, Abdul H; Burger, Curt W; Paulus, Aggie T G

2013-01-24

440

The empathic, physiological resonance of stress.  

PubMed

Physiological resonance between individuals is considered fundamental to the biological capacity for empathy. Observers of pain and distress commonly exhibit increases in reported distress, autonomic arousal, facial mimicry, and overlapping neural activity. An important, unstudied question is whether physiological stress can also resonate. Physiological stress is operationalized as activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) and sympatho-adrenomedullary (SAM) axes. People often report an aversive state resulting from the stress of another, but this could be conveyed through resonating arousal or distress, without activating the physiological stress response. Physiological stress is particularly important to examine since it commonly occurs chronically, with known negative effects on health. Salivary cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) were measured in both speakers and observers during a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to assess activation of the HPA and SAM axes (respectively). Cortisol (but not sAA) responses resonated between speakers and observers. The cortisol response of observers increased with trait empathy and was not related to the speaker's subjective fear or distress. This study provides a novel method for examining physiological resonance, and indicates that we can indeed catch another's physiological stress, suggesting a specific health risk for those in the social network of stressed individuals. PMID:21777106

Buchanan, Tony W; Bagley, Sara L; Stansfield, R Brent; Preston, Stephanie D

2011-07-21

441

Arousal and Affective Responses to Writing Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Measured the physiological and affective responses to three factors of newswriting style: narrative vs. traditional; direct quotations vs. paraphrased statements; and active vs. passive verbs and adjectives. (Mass suicides in Guyana were used as stimulus news stories.) Narrative style, direct quotations, and active verbs and adjectives produced…

Donohew, Lewis

1981-01-01

442

Autonomic Arousal in the Presence of Psychopathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors analyzed 584 questionnaires from mental health and criminal justice professionals in 12 U.S. cities concerning their physical reaction while interviewing a psychopathic subject. Of the respondents who had interviewed a psychopathic subject, 77.3% reported a physical reaction. Their narratives describe a physiological change, most often dermatological and least often pulmonary, due to likely sympathetic activation of their autonomic

J. Reid Meloy; M. J. Meloy

2003-01-01

443

Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.  

PubMed

Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation. PMID:23418428

Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

2013-02-13

444

Neural Correlates of Erotic Stimulation under Different Levels of Female Sexual Hormones  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N?=?12), and a different group of females (nC group; N?=?12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation.

Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmuller, Daniela; Gron, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

2013-01-01

445

Sexual Activity and Satisfaction in Healthy Community-dwelling Older Women  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Female sexual dysfunction is a focus of medical research but few studies describe the prevalence and covariates of recent sexual activity and satisfaction in older community-dwelling women. METHODS 1303 older women from the Rancho Bernardo Study were mailed a questionnaire on general health, recent sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS 806 of 921 respondents (87.5%) age ?40 years answered questions about recent sexual activity. Their median age was 67; mean years since menopause, 25; most were upper-middle class; 57% had attended at least one year of college; 90% reported good to excellent health. Half (49.8%) reported sexual activity within the past month with or without a partner, the majority of whom reported arousal (64.5%), lubrication (69%), and orgasm (67.1%) at least most of the time, although one-third reported low, very low, or no sexual desire. Although frequency of arousal, lubrication, and orgasm decrease with age, the youngest (<55 yrs) and oldest (>80 yrs) women reported a higher frequency of orgasm satisfaction. Emotional closeness during sex was associated with more frequent arousal, lubrication, and orgasm; estrogen therapy was not. Overall, two-thirds of sexually active women were moderately or very satisfied with their sex life, as were almost half of sexually inactive women. CONCLUSION Half these women were sexually active, with arousal, lubrication, and orgasm maintained into old age, despite low libido in one-third. Sexual satisfaction increased with age and did not require sexual activity.

Trompeter, Susan E.; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

2011-01-01

446

Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles  

PubMed Central

Objective The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. Method A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. Results In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Conclusions Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men.

Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

2008-01-01

447

Drug treatment of paraphilic and nonparaphilic sexual disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Paraphilias are characterized by recurrent, intense, sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors, over a period of ?6 months, generally involving nonhuman objects, suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or children or other noncon-senting persons. These fantasies, urges, and behaviors produce clinically significant distress or impairments in social, occupational, and other important areas of functioning.Objective: The goal of

David R. P. Guay

2009-01-01

448

Neurophysiology and Pharmacology of Female Genital Sexual Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaginal sexual arousal is a vasocongestive and neuromuscular event controlled by facilitatory parasympathetic and inhibitory sympathetic inputs. Autonomic preganglionic parasympathetic and inhibitory sympathetic fibers to the vagina and clitoris originate in the spinal cord in the sacral parasympathetic nucleus at the sacral level and in the dorsal gray commissure and the intermediolateral cell column at the thoracolumbar level, respectively. Parasympathetic

François Giuliano; Olivier Rampin; Julien Allard

2002-01-01

449

Antidepressant-associated sexual dysfunction: impact, effects, and treatment  

PubMed Central

Sexual dysfunction is a common side effect of antidepressants and can have significant impact on the person’s quality of life, relationships, mental health, and recovery. The reported incidence of sexual dysfunction associated with antidepressant medication varies considerably between studies, making it difficult to estimate the exact incidence or prevalence. The sexual problems reported range from decreased sexual desire, decreased sexual excitement, diminished or delayed orgasm, to erection or delayed ejaculation problems. There are a number of case reports of sexual side effects, such as priapism, painful ejaculation, penile anesthesia, loss of sensation in the vagina and nipples, persistent genital arousal and nonpuerperal lactation in women. The focus of this article is to explore the incidence, pathophysiology, and treatment of antidepressant iatrogenic sexual dysfunction.

Higgins, Agnes; Nash, Michael; Lynch, Aileen M

2010-01-01

450

CAP characteristics differ in patients with arousal parasomnias and frontal and temporal epilepsies.  

PubMed

Arousal parasomnias (AP) and frontal and temporal epilepsies consist of pathologic arousals originating in abnormal thalamocortical circuits, reflecting increased sleep instability and arousal oscillations--the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP). In this study, the authors aim to investigate the CAP characteristics in 27 patients with AP, 22 patients with frontal and temporal epilepsies, and age- and gender-matched 20 healthy subjects. The mean CAP sequence and cycle was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (P < 0.003). The total CAP duration was always higher in the patients with AP than in those with frontal and temporal epilepsies, reaching statistically significant level at the first (P = 0.044), second (P = 0.024), third (P = 0.010), and sixth (P < 0.001) sleep cycles. The duration of A1 in descending branch (P = 0.062) and trough phase of sleep cycles (P = 0.038) was longer in the patients with AP. The duration of A2 subtype of CAP in ascending branch (P = 0.039) and the number (P = 0.036) and duration (P = 0.050) of A3 subtype of CAP in descending branch of sleep cycles were higher in the patients with frontal and temporal epilepsies. This difference in CAP parameters might suggest that AP are associated with milder activation in specific brain areas, showing a similar evolution with physiologic homeostatic decrease in sleep synchronization. Frontal and temporal epilepsies, however, is associated with a moderate-to-powerful activation in wider brain networks. PMID:23912580

Benbir, Gulcin; Kutlu, Ayse; Gozubatik-Celik, Gokcen; Karadeniz, Derya

2013-08-01

451

Nearpoint visual stress: a physiological model.  

PubMed

The nearpoint visual stress theory holds that a tendency for convergence to localize closer than accommodation is intrinsic to the nearpoint visual demands imposed by our culture. A physiological model is presented, suggesting that this effector system mismatch arises from the activation of autonomic reflexes related to stress, vigilant attention and information-processing. Autonomic arousal exerts a cycloplegic-like effect. Excess accommodative effort, which must be exerted to achieve required accommodation, produces a tendency towards overconvergence. The demand for integration of accommodation and convergence, essential for efficient nearpoint function, is thus incompatible with our own physiology, since autonomic arousal is inherent in task demands for attention and mental effort associated with reading. Additionally, autonomic arousal is generated by the high levels of stress pervasive in our society. Various refractive, binocular and accommodative deviations may arise adaptively in order to resolve this mismatch and facilitate efficient nearpoint visual function. These nearpoint stress-induced visual disorders parallel stress-induced systemic illness in that both result from the activation of physiological processes which are inappropriate for the demands and stresses of our society. PMID:6512145

Birnbaum, M H

1984-11-01

452

The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish.  

PubMed

During waking behavior, animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states, and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However, there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. After a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context. PMID:23100441

Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C; Burgess, Harold A

2012-10-24

453

The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish  

PubMed Central

During waking behavior animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. Following a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context.

Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C.; Burgess, Harold A.

2012-01-01

454

The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent  

PubMed Central

Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus.

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bryant, Gregory A.; Kaye, Peter

2012-01-01

455

Evidence for Arousal-Biased Competition in Perceptual Learning  

PubMed Central

Arousal-biased competition theory predicts that arousal biases competition in favor of perceptually salient stimuli and against non-salient stimuli (Mather and Sutherland, 2011). The current study tested this hypothesis by having observers complete many trials in a visual search task in which the target either always was salient (a 55° tilted line among 80° distractors) or non-salient (a 55° tilted line among 50° distractors). Each participant completed one session in an emotional condition, in which visual search trials were preceded by negative arousing images, and one session in a non-emotional condition, in which the arousing images were replaced with neutral images (with session order counterbalanced). Test trials in which the target line had to be selected from among a set of lines with different tilts revealed that the emotional condition enhanced identification of the salient target line tilt but impaired identification of the non-salient target line tilt. Thus, arousal enhanced perceptual learning of salient stimuli but impaired perceptual learning of non-salient stimuli.

Lee, Tae-Ho; Itti, La