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Sample records for physiological sexual arousal

  1. The effects of false positive and false negative physiological feedback on sexual arousal: a comparison of women with or without sexual arousal disorder.

    PubMed

    McCall, Katie M; Meston, Cindy M

    2007-08-01

    The effects of false positive and false negative physiological feedback (vaginal photoplethymograph response print-out) on women's sexual arousal were examined. Participants included women without sexual dysfunction (n=16) and women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n=15). Measures of subjective sexual arousal, physiological sexual arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude), expectancies, affect, and anxiety were obtained in response to viewing an erotic film. Results indicated that false positive feedback significantly increased subjective levels of sexual arousal, whereas false negative feedback significantly decreased subjective levels of sexual arousal in both groups. Sexually functional women had overall higher expectancies for sexual arousal than women with SAD. Unexpectedly, false positive feedback did not significantly impact physiological sexual arousal in sexually functional women; however, it resulted in significantly decreased responses in physiological sexual arousal in women with SAD. False negative feedback had no significant effect on physiological sexual response in sexually functional women or women with SAD. PMID:17333325

  2. Indirect Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on Sexual Risk-Taking: The Roles of Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R.; Stoner, Susan A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments supported the idea that alcohol fosters sexual risk-taking in men and women, in part, through its effects on sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, increasing alcohol dosage (target blood alcohol levels of .00, .04, .08%) heightened men’s and women’s risk-taking intentions. Alcohol’s effect was indirect via increased subjective sexual arousal; also, men exhibited greater risk-taking than women. In Experiment 2, an extended dosage range (target blood alcohol levels of .00, .06, .08, .10%) heightened men’s risk-taking intentions. Alcohol’s effect again was indirect via subjective arousal. Physiological sexual arousal, which was unaffected by alcohol, increased risk-taking via increased subjective arousal. In Experiment 3, alcohol increased women’s risk-taking indirectly via subjective arousal, but alcohol-attenuated physiological arousal had no effect on risk-taking. Implications for alcohol myopia theory and prevention interventions are discussed. PMID:18431618

  3. Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women’s physiological sexual arousal

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Harte, Christopher B.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that women’s physiological sexual arousal is facilitated by moderate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation. Literature also suggests that the level of SNS activation may play a role in the degree to which SNS activity affects sexual arousal. We provide the first empirical examination of a possible curvilinear relationship between SNS activity and women’s genital arousal using a direct measure of SNS activation in 52 sexually functional women. The relationship between heart rate variability (HRV), a specific and sensitive marker of SNS activation, and vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), a measure of genital arousal, was analyzed. Moderate increases in SNS activity were associated with higher genital arousal, while very low or very high SNS activation was associated with lower genital arousal. These findings imply that there is an optimal level of SNS activation for women’s physiological sexual arousal. PMID:22092348

  4. A female sex offender with multiple paraphilias: a psychologic, physiologic (laboratory sexual arousal) and endocrine case study.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Swaminath, S; Baxter, D; Poulin, C

    1990-05-01

    A 20 year old female pedophile exhibiting multiple paraphilias and who had been both a victim of incest and an active participant, undertook extensive clinical, psychometric, endocrine and laboratory sexual arousal studies. Her psychiatric, psychometric and physiologic arousal profiles showed similarities to those of a sizable proportion of male child molesters, especially incestors. It is suggested that laboratory arousal tests (using the vaginal photoplethysmograph) may have a role in the assessment of some female sex offenders. PMID:2346901

  5. Relations Between Trait Impulsivity, Behavioral Impulsivity, Physiological Arousal, and Risky Sexual Behavior among Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Derefinko, Karen J.; Peters, Jessica R.; Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Walsh, Erin C.; Adams, Zachary W.; Lynam, Donald R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how impulsivity-related traits (negative urgency, sensation seeking, and positive urgency), behavioral measures of risk taking and reward seeking, and physiological reactivity related to three different risky sexual behaviors in sexually active undergraduate men (N = 135). Regression analyses indicated that sensation seeking and behavioral risk-taking predicted unique variance in number of sexual partners. These findings suggest that, for young men, acquisition of new partners is associated with need for excitement and reward and willingness to take risks to meet those needs. Sensation seeking, behavioral risk-taking, and skin conductance reactivity to arousing stimuli was related to ever having engaged in sex with a stranger, indicating that, for men, willingness to have sex with a stranger is related not only to the need for excitement and risk-taking but also with innate responsiveness to arousing environmental triggers. In contrast, regression analyses indicated that young men who were impulsive in the context of negative emotions were less likely to use condoms, suggesting that emotion-based impulsivity may be an important factor in negligent prophylactic use. This study adds to the current understanding of the divergence between the correlates of risky sexual behaviors and may lend utility to the development of individualized HIV prevention programming. PMID:24958252

  6. Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not the synonyms), the activation of specific brain areas as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxygucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic areas as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

  7. Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in women’s cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. PMID:18624961

  8. Circulating Endocannabinoid Concentrations and Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Carolin; Hill, Matthew N.; Chang, Sabrina C.H.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Gorzalka, Boris B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Several lines of evidence point to the potential role of the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning. These include results from studies describing the subjective effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in humans and the observable effects of exogenous cannabinoids on sexual functioning in other species, as well as results from studies investigating the location of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and periphery, and the effects of cannabinoid receptor activation on neurotransmitters implicated in sexual functioning. While these lines of research suggest a role for the endocannabinoid system in female sexual functioning, no studies investigating the relationship between concentrations of endogenous cannabinoids (i.e., arachidonoylethanolamide [AEA] and 2-arachidonoylglycerol [2-AG]) and sexual functioning have been conducted in any species. Aim To measure circulating endocannabinoid concentrations in relation to subjective and physiological indices of sexual arousal in women (n = 21). Methods Serum endocannabinoid (AEA and 2-AG) concentrations were measured immediately prior to, and immediately following, viewing of neutral (control) and erotic (experimental) film stimuli in a repeated measures design. Physiological sexual arousal was measured via vaginal photoplethysmography. Subjective sexual arousal was measured both continuously and non-continuously. Pearson’s correlations were used to investigate the relationships between endocannabinoid concentrations and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Changes in AEA and 2-AG concentrations from pre- to post-film and in relation to physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal. Results Results revealed a significant relationship between endocannabinoid concentrations and female sexual arousal, whereby increases in both physiological and subjective indices of sexual arousal were significantly associated with decreases in AEA, and increases in subjective indices of sexual arousal were significantly associated with decreases in 2-AG. Conclusions These findings support the hypothesis that the endocannabinoid system is involved in female sexual functioning, with implications for furthering understanding of the biological mechanisms underlying female sexual functioning. PMID:22462722

  9. Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

    1977-01-01

    A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

  10. Performance demand and sexual arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Laan, E; Everaerd, W; Van Aanhold, M T; Rebel, M

    1993-01-01

    Up to now, no experimental studies have inquired into the possible role of performance demand in female sexuality. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of performance demand on sexual arousal in functional women, using explicit instructions. Forty-eight female subjects were asked to respond with maximum sexual arousal within 2 min, both during sexual fantasy and while watching an erotic film excerpt. Photoplethysmographic pulse amplitude was continuously recorded and self-report ratings of sexual arousal and affective reactions were collected after each erotic condition. Subjects were also instructed to continuously indicate their subjective sexual excitement during the conditions by means of a lever. Performance demand resulted in higher genital responses and was most effective in the fantasy condition. These results corroborate the findings for functional men. Although for both measures of subjective experience of sexual arousal performance demand yielded significantly higher ratings, this was conditioned by the order in which subjects were exposed to conditions. Women who masturbate with a mean frequency of 4 times a month reported higher subjective sexual arousal during performance demand conditions as compared with women who masturbate substantially more or who do not masturbate. Genital vasocogestion did not differ between masturbation-groups. Continuous subjective monitoring yielded lower correlations with vasocongestion than discrete ratings of sexual arousal and appears to be more sensitive to order effects. PMID:8417725

  11. Disgust and Sexual Arousal in Young Adult Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Grauvogl, Andrea; de Jong, Peter; Peters, Madelon; Evers, Silvia; van Overveld, Mark; van Lankveld, Jacques

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that disgust may interfere with healthy sexual functioning by demonstrating that women with sexual pain disorders are characterized by heightened disgust propensity, relatively strong (physiological and subjective) disgust responses when exposed to sexual stimuli, and relatively strong automatic sex-disgust memory associations. To broaden the understanding of the relationship between sex and disgust, Study 1 tested the relationship between trait disgust and sexual functioning in both men (N = 109) and women (N = 187), and showed that specifically for women both relatively high disgust propensity and high sensitivity were related to lower sexual functioning. Study 2 focused on healthy young adults (N = 19 men and N = 24 women), and tested the relationship between trait disgust and automatic sex-disgust associations as well as the predictive value of trait disgust propensity for participants' level of sexual arousal while watching an erotic video. Participants completed a single-target Implicit Association Task and self-report measures of trait disgust propensity, disgust sensitivity, and sexual functioning. Furthermore, genital and subjective sexual arousal was measured, while participants were watching neutral and erotic video clips. Women showed stronger sex-disgust associations and reported higher disgust propensity than men. Overall, indices of trait disgust and sex-disgust associations were not strongly associated with sexual functioning or sexual arousability. Unexpectedly, specifically in men, high levels of trait disgust sensitivity predicted higher levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Overall, no strong evidence was found to support the view that, among young adults without sexual difficulties, high trait disgust or relatively strong automatic sex-disgust associations are associated with low sexual functioning and low sexual arousal. PMID:25231820

  12. Laboratory-induced hyperventilation differentiates female sexual arousal disorder subtypes.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Klein, Carolin; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2009-08-01

    The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing, a technique previously found to increase SNS activity, immediately prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Physiological arousal (i.e., vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured via the vaginal photoplethysmograph and subjective arousal was measured via self-report questionnaires. LIH differentiated women with SAD from those in the control group, with LIH increasing VPA in the latter, but having no significant effect in the heterogeneous SAD group. However, among subtypes of SAD, LIH differentiated women with genital (n = 16) and subjective (n = 16) subtypes of SAD from women with combined SAD (n = 28) and women without sexual difficulties. Specifically, women in the control group and those with combined SAD had a significant increase in VPA whereas women with genital or subjective SAD had a significant decrease in VPA following LIH. There was no significant effect of LIH on any self-report measure of sexual arousal following erotic stimuli. Implications of the results for the conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:18343989

  13. Psychopathology and Deviant Sexual Arousal in Incarcerated Sexual Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serin, Ralph C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between psychopathology and deviant sexual arousal in sexual offenders (n=65), with approximately equal numbers of rapists and child molesters. Differentiating between rapists, extrafamilial pedophiles, and incest offenders revealed that the relationship between psychopathology and arousal was most apparent for…

  14. The effect of condoms in sexually explicit narratives on male sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Gaither, G A; Rosenkranz, R R; Amato-Henderson, S; Plaud, J J; Bigwood, S J

    1996-01-01

    Research into why people choose not to use condoms despite a growing AIDS epidemic has tapped the attitude that the use of condoms somehow interferes with the progression of the sexual act or lessens sexual pleasure. The current study investigated the effects on male sexual arousal of condom use described in sexually explicit audiotaped narratives. The sexual arousal of 14 male university students was measured physiologically by penile plethysmography and by self-report using a within-subjects design. Subjects listened to 10 audiotaped scripts, half of which included the use of a condom and half of which did not. No significant differences in either physiological or subjective arousal data were found between conditions. PMID:8743622

  15. Sexual arousal patterns: normal and deviant.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gene G; Coffey, Latricia; Osborn, Candice A

    2008-12-01

    The fetish objects in these case histories were unique enough, and the attraction to the objects strong enough, that the individuals could clearly track their interest from early childhood through adulthood. It is much easier to retrieve remote, explicit memories, such as events (eg, a party where balloons popped) or playing with objects, than to recall the process of sexual development with no distinct markers in the individual's history. Because these distinct experiences predated identified sexuality, became a focus of attention for the individual, and then were incorporated into the individual's sexual interests and masturbatory fantasies, it was possible to accurately track the patterns of sexual arousal. We were also able to clearly identify how these men attempted to blend their deviant interests into sexual relationships with partners and the consequences of their efforts. If we are to understand how sexual interests develop, a number of obstacles need to be overcome. Sexual interest has to be openly discussed. Parents need to appreciate how the early sexual interests of their children can go awry, contaminate their adult relationships, and lead to problematic lives. Researchers need a means of understanding how to communicate with children about their earliest interests, sexual interests, and sexual behaviors in a nonjudgmental manner. Until then, tracking unusual interests that lead to erotic interests is the first step in the overall process of understanding how sexual interest develops and is assimilated, either successfully or unsuccessfully, into an individual's adult sexual life. PMID:18996304

  16. Field conditioning of sexual arousal in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Heather; Peterson, Kathryn; Garner, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Background Human sexual classical conditioning effects are less robust compared with those obtained in other animals. The artificiality of the laboratory environment and/or the unconditioned stimulus (US) used (e.g. watching erotic film clips as opposed to participating in sexual activity) may contribute to this discrepancy. The present experiment used a field study design to explore the conditioning of human sexual arousal. Method Seven heterosexual couples were instructed to include a novel, neutrally preferred scent as the conditioned stimulus (CS + ) during sexual interaction and another novel scent during non-sexual coupled-interaction (e.g. watching a movie, studying together). Seven control couples used both scents during non-sexual interaction. Conducted over a 2-week period, both experimental and control couples had three sexual interactions (oral sex and/or intercourse). In addition, experimental couples had three, while the controls had six, non-sexual interactions. Genital responding to and affective preference for the odors were assessed in the laboratory before and after the experience in the men. Results We observed significantly increased genital responding to the CS+ in the experimental relative to the control group; however, conditioned responses were not much stronger than those obtained during laboratory conditioning. Experimental males also showed a trend for decreased preference for the CS– odor. They may have learned that this odor predicted that sexual interaction with their partner would not occur. Conclusion The present study provides another demonstration of conditioned sexual arousal in men, specifically an instance of such learning that happened in a real-world setting. It also suggests that inhibitory learning may occur, at least with the affective measure. PMID:24693347

  17. The experimental analysis of human sexual arousal: Some recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Bryan; Barnes, Dermot

    1998-01-01

    Experimental analyses of human sexual arousal have been decidedly sparse. Recent developments in the analysis of derived relational responding, however, have opened the way for a modern behavior-analytic treatment of complex or “novel” human behavior, including specific instances of human sexual arousal. The current article examines some of these developments and their relevance to the analysis of emotional behavior, with a focus on sexual arousal. Recent research that has examined the acquisition of sexual stimulus functions within a relational frame paradigm is then outlined. Finally, a series of relational frame interpretations of a variety of human sexual arousal phenomena is offered. PMID:22478296

  18. Habituation of male sexual arousal: effects of attentional focus.

    PubMed

    Koukounas, E; Over, R

    2001-09-01

    Three experiments are reported demonstrating that levels of penile tumescence and subjective sexual arousal are greater when men employ participant-oriented rather than spectator-oriented attentional focus while viewing an erotic film segment. Under each instructional set, there was a reduction in sexual arousal during repeated erotic stimulation. As sexual arousal habituated, the men reported feeling less absorbed during erotic stimulation. When these associated changes in attentional focus (absorption) were partialled out through analysis of covariance, sexual arousal remained relatively stable over trials, suggesting that sexual arousal is less likely to habituate if attentional focus remains constant during repeated erotic stimulation. Further directions for studying associations between habituation of sexual arousal and cognitive processing are discussed. PMID:11473795

  19. Increasing neutral distraction inhibits genital but not subjective sexual arousal of sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    PubMed

    van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; van den Hout, Marcel A

    2004-12-01

    To assess the effects of distraction and level of erotic stimulation on physiological and subjective sexual arousal, sexually dysfunctional (n = 23) and functional (n = 26) men were studied. It was hypothesized from previous investigations that men with erectile dysfunction would show a different genital response pattern to distraction during sexual stimulation when compared with sexually functional men. Distraction load was manipulated through different verbal instructions about how to deal with pairs of random digits. Erotic stimulation level was manipulated through the selection of erotic video content. In both groups, increasing distraction was found to increasingly inhibit genital responding, but not to affect subjective arousal. Both physiological and subjective arousal were higher when erotic stimulation level was high. An interaction effect of distraction and erotic stimulation level was observed: the linear dose-response association that was found during high erotic stimulation was not found under low stimulation conditions, which may reflect a floor effect. The implications of the findings for the cognitive theory of sexual arousal disorder are discussed. PMID:15483369

  20. Brief Emotion Regulation Training Facilitates Arousal Control During Sexual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    van Overveld, Mark; Borg, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    Disgust, a negative emotion which evokes strong behavioral avoidance tendencies, has been associated with sexual dysfunction. Recently, it was postulated that healthy sexual functioning requires a balance between excitatory (increased sexual arousal) and inhibitory processes (lowered disgust levels). This suggests that amplification of excitatory processes (like sexual arousal) could be a valuable addition to treatments for affect-based sexual dysfunctions. The major aim of the present study was to establish whether up-regulation could effectively enhance arousal levels during sexual stimuli, and whether such a training would simultaneously reduce disgust. Students (N = 163, mean age = 20.73 years, SD = 2.35) were trained in up-regulation of affect using either a sexual arousal film (i.e., female-friendly erotic movie) or a threat arousal film clip (i.e., horror movie), while control groups viewed the films without training instructions. Following this, participants viewed and rated state emotions during a series of pictures (sexual, disgusting, or neutral). Up-regulation of mood successfully enhanced general arousal in both groups, yet these arousal levels were not paralleled by reductions in disgust. Overall, the findings indicate that emotion regulation training by maximizing positive affect and general arousal could be an effective instrument to facilitate affect-related disturbances in sexual dysfunctions. PMID:25258109

  1. Alcohol and erectile response: the effects of high dosage in the context of demands to maximize sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R; Schacht, Rebecca L; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2006-11-01

    Although drinking often precedes men's sexual activity, basic questions about alcohol's effects on men's sexual arousal remain unanswered. Inconsistencies in findings from studies examining subjective and physiological effects on erectile functioning suggest these effects are context specific, for example, dependent on whether a man wants to maximize or suppress his arousal. To address unresolved questions about alcohol and erectile functioning, the authors evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of penile circumference change and self-reported sexual arousal. In Study 1, a target BAC of .10% (vs. .00%) attenuated peak circumference change from a neutral baseline but did not affect mean change, latency to arousal onset (a 5% increase in circumference from baseline), latency to peak achieved arousal, or subjective arousal, which correlated moderately with physiological indices. In Study 2, instructions to maximize (vs. suppress) arousal increased peak and mean circumference change and interacted with a target BAC of .08% (vs. .00%) to influence latency to arousal onset. Sober men instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to arousal onset than did those instructed to suppress arousal; however, intoxicated men did not show a differential pattern. Moreover, compared with intoxicated counterparts, sober men instructed to maximize arousal showed a marginally shorter latency to arousal onset. Overall, alcohol and arousal instructions had small but discernible effects. Findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in alcohol's impact on erectile functioning. PMID:17115874

  2. Uncovering category specificity of genital sexual arousal in women: The critical role of analytic technique.

    PubMed

    Pulverman, Carey S; Hixon, J Gregory; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-10-01

    Based on analytic techniques that collapse data into a single average value, it has been reported that women lack category specificity and show genital sexual arousal to a large range of sexual stimuli including those that both match and do not match their self-reported sexual interests. These findings may be a methodological artifact of the way in which data are analyzed. This study examined whether using an analytic technique that models data over time would yield different results. Across two studies, heterosexual (N = 19) and lesbian (N = 14) women viewed erotic films featuring heterosexual, lesbian, and gay male couples, respectively, as their physiological sexual arousal was assessed with vaginal photoplethysmography. Data analysis with traditional methods comparing average genital arousal between films failed to detect specificity of genital arousal for either group. When data were analyzed with smoothing regression splines and a within-subjects approach, both heterosexual and lesbian women demonstrated different patterns of genital sexual arousal to the different types of erotic films, suggesting that sophisticated statistical techniques may be necessary to more fully understand women's genital sexual arousal response. Heterosexual women showed category-specific genital sexual arousal. Lesbian women showed higher arousal to the heterosexual film than the other films. However, within subjects, lesbian women showed significantly different arousal responses suggesting that lesbian women's genital arousal discriminates between different categories of stimuli at the individual level. Implications for the future use of vaginal photoplethysmography as a diagnostic tool of sexual preferences in clinical and forensic settings are discussed. PMID:26118962

  3. Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

  4. The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women.

    PubMed

    Meston, Cindy M

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n=16) and dysfunctional (n=16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) responses among sexually functional but not dysfunctional women, and substantially decreased correlations between self-report and VPA measures of sexual arousal. Self-focused attention did not significantly impact subjective sexual arousal in sexually functional or dysfunctional women. Trait private self-consciousness was positively related to sexual desire, orgasm, compatibility, contentment and sexual satisfaction. Public self-consciousness was correlated with sexual pain. The findings are discussed in terms of Masters and Johnson's [Masters, W. H. & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown) concepts of "spectatoring" and "sensate focus." PMID:15927143

  5. Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney A.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases genital arousal in healthy women, likely due to increasing sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which suppress SNS activity, and selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), which suppress the SNS less. Method Women reporting antidepressant-related sexual arousal problems (N=47) participated in three counterbalanced sessions where they watched an erotic film while we recorded genital and SNS arousal. In two sessions, women exercised for 20 min, either 5 or 15 min prior to the films. Results During the no-exercise condition, women taking SSRIs showed significantly less genital response than women taking SNRIs. Exercise prior to sexual stimuli increased genital arousal in both groups. Women reporting greater sexual dysfunction had larger increases in genital arousal post-exercise. For women taking SSRIs, genital arousal was linked to SNS activity. Conclusions Exercise may improve antidepressant-related genital arousal problems. PMID:22403029

  6. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology-Implications for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia. PMID:26483949

  7. The Role of Sexual Arousal in Sexually Aggressive Behavior: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Performed meta-analyses on nine studies of subjects' (n=434) penile responsivity to rape stimuli. Mean effect size for raw score data suggested that most sexual aggressors against women exhibit slightly more rape arousal than control or comparison subjects, whereas mean effect size for rape index (rape arousal:consenting sexual arousal) data

  8. Effects of deep pressure stimulation on physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Stacey; Lane, Shelly J; Mullen, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Deep pressure stimulation has been used in therapeutic practice because of the assumption that it changes physiological arousal. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of deep pressure stimulation, applied with a Vayu Vest (Therapeutic Systems), on both autonomic arousal and performance in a normative adult sample. A repeated-measures, repeated-baseline design was used with participants completing a performance test before and after deep pressure application. A convenience sample of 50 adults participated in the study. Results showed that wearing the Vayu Vest for even short periods of time reduced sympathetic arousal and non-stimulus-driven electrical occurrences. Concomitant increases in parasympathetic arousal were found. Performance improvements were noted after wearing the Vayu Vest, potentially because of changes in arousal. We conclude that deep pressure stimulation is capable of eliciting changes in autonomic arousal and may be a useful modality in diagnostic groups seen by occupational therapy practitioners. PMID:25871605

  9. Effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response and subjective sexual arousal: a comparison between women with sexual arousal disorder and sexually healthy women.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Laura S; Kuffel, Stephanie W; Heiman, Julia R

    2008-12-01

    The present study evaluated and compared the effects of experimentally adopted sexual schemas on vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect in 17 women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD) and 17 sexually healthy women. Positive and negative cognitive schemas were presented to participants before viewing sexually explicit video segments. They were asked to temporarily adopt both schemas, and vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in each schema condition. Participants in both groups had significantly greater vaginal response and reported more subjective sexual arousal in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition. Sexually healthy women demonstrated significantly higher subjective sexual arousal than women with FSAD, but there were no significant group differences in vaginal response. Moreover, participants in both groups reported higher levels of Positive Affect and Vigor in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition but higher levels of Negative Affect, Tension-Anxiety, and Anger-Hostility in the negative schema condition than in the positive schema condition. These findings demonstrate the impact of cognitions on sexual arousal, which has important implications for addressing cognitions in the treatment of FSAD. Moreover, these findings have implications for the conceptualization of FSAD, which may be best characterized as a complex, heterogeneous cluster of symptoms. PMID:18256919

  10. Assessment of female sexual arousal in forensic populations.

    PubMed

    Knack, Natasha M; Murphy, Lisa; Ranger, Rebekah; Meston, Cindy; Fedoroff, J Paul

    2015-04-01

    Sexual offenses cause significant harm to victims, their families, and society as a whole and thus are an important social concern. While it is commonly assumed that sexual offenses are committed solely by males, research has shown that approximately 5 % of sex crimes in the USA and Canada are committed by females. Penile plethysmography (PPG) is a method to measure male genital arousal, which is commonly used in the assessment and treatment of male sex offenders and men with paraphilic sexual interests. Similarly, vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) is a test to measure female genital arousal and is commonly used to assess female sexual dysfunctions. Although VPP is currently the most validated method to measure genital arousal in women, its use with female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests has been almost nonexistent. One explanation for this is that some research has suggested that female genital arousal may not be category-specific, meaning that women will respond to any sexual cues, not just those involving their preferred sexual interests. However, not all research supports this finding. Due to the potential benefits of using VPP in the assessment and treatment of female sex offenders or females with paraphilic sexual interests, it is important that further research be done before dismissing the use of VPP in forensic populations. The purpose of this article is to review the current research on VPP and its applicability to female sex offenders and females with paraphilic sexual interests. PMID:25749745

  11. Arousal and physiological toughness: implications for mental and physical health.

    PubMed

    Dienstbier, R A

    1989-01-01

    From W.B. Cannon's identification of adrenaline with "fight or flight" to modern views of stress, negative views of peripheral physiological arousal predominate. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) arousal is associated with anxiety, neuroticism, the Type A personality, cardiovascular disease, and immune system suppression; illness susceptibility is associated with life events requiring adjustments. "Stress control" has become almost synonymous with arousal reduction. A contrary positive view of peripheral arousal follows from studies of subjects exposed to intermittent stressors. Such exposure leads to low SNS arousal base rates, but to strong and responsive challenge- or stress-induced SNS-adrenal-medullary arousal, with resistance to brain catecholamine depletion and with suppression of pituitary adrenal-cortical responses. That pattern of arousal defines physiological toughness and, in interaction with psychological coping, corresponds with positive performance in even complex tasks, with emotional stability, and with immune system enhancement. The toughness concept suggests an opposition between effective short- and long-term coping, with implications for effective therapies and stress-inoculating life-styles. PMID:2538855

  12. Alcohol, sexual arousal, and the transfer of excitation.

    PubMed

    McCarty, D; Diamond, W; Kaye, M

    1982-06-01

    Investigations of the alcohol-related disinhibition of responses to deviant sexual stimuli suggest that the pharmacological actions of ethanol have little influence on the disinhibition process. The mere belief that alcohol is consumed is sufficient to induce increased sexual arousal. Studies with conventional stimuli, however, suggest that interactions occur between the pharmacological presence of ethanol and the psychological expectations of its presence. Thus, this article examines the contribution of pharmacological, cognitive, and environmental variables to perceived sexual arousal. A balanced-placebo design varied drink instruction and drink content independently. Pictures that elicited either a low or moderate level of self-reported sexual arousal were viewed and evaluated by men (n = 64) and women (n = 64) after completing their drinks. The evaluations and arousal measures suggested significant Instruction X Content X Arousal interactions. The strongest perceptions of arousal occurred among individuals who did not know they were drinking alcohol (i.e., subjects who were told that their alcoholic drinks did not contain alcohol). Apparently, when drinkers were unaware of the alcohol intoxication, the pharmacological excitation induced by alcohol transferred to the perception and evaluation of the slides. PMID:7108741

  13. The conditioning of human sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    O'Donohue, W; Plaud, J J

    1994-06-01

    Although most theories of human sexual behavior claim that much normal sexual behavior is learned, and theories of the etiology and modification of paraphilic and dysfunctional sexual behavior also claim that abnormal sexual behavior is learned and can be counterconditioned, there is no systematic review examining the relationship between conditioning and human sexual behavior. We review research addressing whether habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, and operant conditioning processes are involved in human sexual behavior. We conclude that, due to the methodological problems of extant studies, the basis for asserting the existence of relationships between habituation, sensitization, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and sexual behavior is tenuous. PMID:8024444

  14. Barratt Impulsivity and Neural Regulation of Physiological Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Hu, Jianping; Wu, Po-Lun; Chao, Herta H.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Theories of personality have posited an increased arousal response to external stimulation in impulsive individuals. However, there is a dearth of studies addressing the neural basis of this association. Methods We recorded skin conductance in 26 individuals who were assessed with Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11) and performed a stop signal task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging data were processed and modeled with Statistical Parametric Mapping. We used linear regressions to examine correlations between impulsivity and skin conductance response (SCR) to salient events, identify the neural substrates of arousal regulation, and examine the relationship between the regulatory mechanism and impulsivity. Results Across subjects, higher impulsivity is associated with greater SCR to stop trials. Activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) negatively correlated to and Granger caused skin conductance time course. Furthermore, higher impulsivity is associated with a lesser strength of Granger causality of vmPFC activity on skin conductance, consistent with diminished control of physiological arousal to external stimulation. When men (n = 14) and women (n = 12) were examined separately, however, there was evidence suggesting association between impulsivity and vmPFC regulation of arousal only in women. Conclusions Together, these findings confirmed the link between Barratt impulsivity and heightened arousal to salient stimuli in both genders and suggested the neural bases of altered regulation of arousal in impulsive women. More research is needed to explore the neural processes of arousal regulation in impulsive individuals and in clinical conditions that implicate poor impulse control. PMID:26079873

  15. Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia: the application of laser Doppler imaging to sexual pain.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Stphanie C; Pukall, Caroline F; Chamberlain, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    Introduction.? Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) report lower sexual arousal than nonaffected women, however, laboratory studies of arousal have reported contradictory results about whether group differences exist in genital and subjective arousal. Aim.? To examine genital and subjective sexual arousal in women with and without PVD. Methods.? Eligible women with and without PVD (N?=?42) attended a laboratory session that included an interview, questionnaire completion, and genital imaging. A direct measure of superficial blood flow-laser Doppler imaging-was used to assess vulvar blood flow levels while participants watched three films, including an erotic film. Participants answered questions about their level of sexual arousal before, during, and after the erotic film. Main Outcome Measures.? Average vulvar blood flow levels during the baseline and erotic films, numerical ratings of subjective sexual arousal and anxiety, as well as questionnaire measures of arousal. Results.? There was a significant group difference in genital arousal, whereby the PVD group showed a lower genital response to the erotic film, as well as a significant interaction between baseline blood flow and group membership. Separate group regression analyses demonstrated that baseline blood flow explained a substantial amount of the variance in erotic film blood flow in the control group (70%), while only 27% was explained by this variable in the PVD group. There were no differences in subjective sexual arousal or anxiety between the groups. Across questionnaire measures, women with PVD reported lower sexual arousal than the control group. Conclusions.? The results suggest that women with PVD show lower genital responsiveness than nonaffected women to sexual stimuli in a laboratory setting and that their genital arousal is likely impacted by a number of biopsychosocial factors. Boyer SC, Pukall CF, and Chamberlain SM. Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia: The application of laser Doppler imaging to sexual pain. J Sex Med **;**:**-**. PMID:22846436

  16. Sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal: evidence for domain specificity in men and women.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F

    2014-08-01

    Men have been shown to estimate their likelihood of engaging in sexually coercive behaviors and also uncommon and unprotected sexual behaviors as higher when they are in an acute state of sexual arousal. The present research sought to test (1) whether sexual arousal effects could be replicated under more controlled laboratory settings, (2) whether women showed the same pattern of results, and (3) whether this effect was specific to sexual disinhibition or would generalize to non-sexual disinhibited behavior. In two experimental studies, male and female participants (Study 1: N = 84; Study 2: N = 86) were either sexually aroused by acoustically presented erotic narratives or listened to sexually non-arousing neutral narratives. Afterwards, they self-estimated their likelihood of engaging in a variety of behaviors that could be characterized as sexual or non-sexual disinhibited behavior. Results replicated the previously established effect of sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal for men and provided the first evidence for a similar effect in women. No arousal effects were observed for non-sexual behavior, rendering alternative explanations based on mere indifferent responding unlikely. The discussion focused on a plausible explanation for this effect. PMID:25091213

  17. Patterns of sexual arousal in homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Jerome A; Janssen, Erick

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this stimulus would induce relatively low levels of response in heterosexual and homosexual men. A sample of 59 men (19 homosexual, 13 bisexual, and 27 heterosexual) were presented with a series of 4-min sexual videos while their genital and subjective sexual responses were measured continuously. Bisexual men did not differ significantly in their responses to male homosexual stimuli (depicting men engaging in sex) from homosexual men, and they did not differ significantly in their responses to heterosexual (depicting two women, without same-sex contact, engaged in sex with a man) and lesbian (depicting women engaging in sex) stimuli from heterosexual men. However, bisexual men displayed significantly higher levels of both genital and subjective sexual arousal to a bisexual stimulus (depicting a man engaged in sex with both a man and a woman) than either homosexual or heterosexual men. The findings of this study indicate that bisexuality in men is associated with a unique and specific pattern of sexual arousal. PMID:21387117

  18. Preliminary evidence that acute and chronic daily psychological stress affect sexual arousal in sexually functional women.

    PubMed

    Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Vigeveno, Daan; Laan, Ellen

    2007-09-01

    It is assumed that psychological stress may inhibit sexual arousal in women. Research on the effect of (acute and chronic) psychological stressors on genital and subjective sexual arousal, however, is scarce. To investigate whether psychological stressors indeed inhibit sexual responding, sexually functional women were randomly assigned to an experimental condition (n=30) in which acute psychological stress was induced by a frustrating computer task or a control condition (n=29). After the acute psychological stress or control induction women were exposed to an erotic stimulus. Genital sexual arousal was assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography. Self-report ratings of subjective sexual arousal were collected after the erotic stimulus. Furthermore, women were post hoc divided into a 'low' and a 'high' chronic stress group, based on their pre-assessment scores on a chronic daily stress questionnaire. As predicted, it was found that women in the acute stress condition responded with lower levels of genital and subjective sexual arousal to an erotic stimulus than women in the control condition. In addition, women with high levels of chronic stress responded with lower levels of genital sexual arousal to an erotic stimulus than women with low levels of chronic stress. Chronic stress did not affect the level of subjective sexual arousal. PMID:17481578

  19. Alcohol, selective attention and sexual arousal in men.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G T; Niaura, R S; Adler, J L

    1985-03-01

    Thirty-two men social drinkers were randomly assigned to the cells of a balanced placebo design to investigate the effects of expected and actual alcohol consumption on sexual responsiveness. Using a dichotic listening task, erotic and nonerotic information was presented in the nonattended channel while subjects performed simple (low-attention demand) and complex (high-attention demand) numerical tasks presented in the attended channel. Penile tumescence was recorded continuously in response to all audiotaped information. The high-attention demand task significantly interfered with sexual arousal compared with the low-attention demand task, primarily because of the significant suppressant effect of alcohol on arousal during the complex task. The lack of differences in tumescence under the two cognitive tasks when subjects were sober is inconsistent with the cognitive interference model of sexual arousal. Alcohol expectations increased arousal during the low-attention demand task, whereas actual alcohol consumption decreased arousal only during the high-attention demand task. Both effects are attributed to the different effects of these separate variables on attentional processes. The clinical implications are discussed. PMID:3990295

  20. Cognitive Factors in Sexual Arousal: The Role of Distraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geer, James H.; Fuhr, Robert

    1976-01-01

    Four groups of male undergraduates were instructed to perform complex cognitive operations when randomly presented single digits of a dichotic listening paradigm. An erotic tape recording was played into the nonattended ear. Sexual arousal varied directly as a function of the complexity of the distracting cognitive operations. (Author)

  1. Resting physiological arousal is associated with the experience of music-induced chills.

    PubMed

    Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

    2014-08-01

    In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions. PMID:24814935

  2. Social odours, sexual arousal and pairbonding in primates

    PubMed Central

    Snowdon, Charles T; Ziegler, Toni E; Schultz-Darken, Nancy J; Ferris, Craig F

    2006-01-01

    We describe the role of social odours in sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in biparental and cooperatively breeding primates. Social odours are complex chemical mixtures produced by an organism that can simultaneously provide information about species, kinship, sex, individuality and reproductive state. They are long lasting and have advantages over other modalities. Both sexes are sensitive to changes in odours over the reproductive cycle and experimental disruption of signals can lead to altered sexual behaviour within a pair. We demonstrate, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), that social odours indicating reproductive state directly influence the brain areas responsible for sexual behaviour. Social odours also influence other brain areas typically involved in motivation, memory and decision making, suggesting that these signals have more complex functions in primates than mere sexual arousal. We demonstrate a rapid link between social odours and neuroendocrine responses that are modulated by a male's social status. Recent work on humans shows similar responses to social odours. We conclude with an integration of the importance of social odours on sexual arousal and maintaining pairbonds in socially biparental and cooperatively breeding species, suggesting new research directions to integrate social behaviour, neural activation and neuroendocrine responses. PMID:17118925

  3. Specificity of sexual arousal for sexual activities in men and women with conventional and masochistic sexual interests.

    PubMed

    Chivers, Meredith L; Roy, Carolyn; Grimbos, Teresa; Cantor, James M; Seto, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Prior studies consistently report that men's genital responses correspond to their sexual activity interests (consenting vs. coercive sex) whereas women's responses do not. For women, however, these results may be confounded by the sexual activities studied and lack of suitable controls. We examined the subjective and genital arousal responses of men and women with conventional (22 men and 15 women) or masochistic sexual interests (16 men and 17 women) to narratives describing conventional sex or masochistic sex. The aims of the studies were twofold: (1) to examine whether gender differences in the specificity of sexual arousal previously observed for gender also exist for sexual activity interests; and (2) to examine whether men and women with masochistic sexual interests demonstrate specificity of sexual response for their preferred sexual activities. Surprisingly, the pattern of results was very similar for men and women. Both men and women with conventional sexual interests (WCI) reported more sexual arousal, and responded more genitally, to conventional than to masochistic sex, demonstrating specificity of sexual arousal for their preferred sexual activities. Despite showing specificity for conventional sexual activities, the genital responses of WCI were still gender nonspecific. In contrast, women and men with masochistic sexual interests demonstrated nonspecific subjective and genital responses to conventional and masochistic sex. Indices of genital and subjective sexual arousal to masochistic versus conventional stimuli were positively and significantly correlated with self-reported thoughts, fantasies, interests, and behaviors involving masochism. The results suggest that gender similarities in the specificity of sexual arousal for sexual activity exist despite consistent gender differences in the specificity of sexual arousal for gender. PMID:24057208

  4. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the regulation of physiological arousal

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H.; Ide, Jaime S.; Luo, Xi; Farr, Olivia M.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies show a correlation between activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and skin conductance measurements. However, little is known whether this brain region plays a causal role in regulating physiological arousal. To address this question, we employed Granger causality analysis (GCA) to establish causality between cerebral blood oxygenation level-dependent and skin conductance signals in 24 healthy adults performing a cognitive task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that activity of the vmPFC not only negatively correlated with skin conductance level (SCL) but also Granger caused SCL, thus establishing the direction of influence. Importantly, across participants, the strength of Granger causality was negatively correlated to phasic skin conductance responses elicited by external events during the behavioral task. In contrast, activity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex positively correlated with SCL but did not show a causal relationship in GCA. These new findings indicate that the vmPFC plays a causal role in regulating physiological arousal. Increased vmPFC activity leads to a decrease in skin conductance. The findings may also advance our understanding of dysfunctions of the vmPFC in mood and anxiety disorders that involve altered control of physiological arousal. PMID:23620600

  5. Alcohol, sexual arousal, and self-control.

    PubMed

    Abrams, D B; Wilson, G T

    1983-07-01

    The effects of alcohol on self-regulation were investigated using delay of gratification for viewing time for an erotic film as the primary dependent measure. Other measures included reflection--impulsivity, locus of control, sexual-guilt scores, and continuous recording of subject's penile tumescence. Using a balanced placebo design, subjects were led to believe that they had consumed an alcoholic or a nonalcoholic beverage, and half of each of these two groups received either alcohol or tonic water. In addition, the effects of three doses of alcohol (placebo, low dose, high dose) were investigated. Instructional set, regardless of drink content, resulted in longer delay times and increased thoughts with sexual content. Although there was no significant relation between increasing dose of alcohol and delay time, there was an interaction between locus-of-control scores and alcohol dose. Externalizers showed an inverse linear relation between increasing dose of alcohol and delay time. Internalizers showed the opposite trend. Implications for the self-regulation of sexual behavior under the influence of alcohol are discussed. PMID:6886965

  6. The DSM diagnostic criteria for female sexual arousal disorder.

    PubMed

    Graham, Cynthia A

    2010-04-01

    This article reviews and critiques the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for Female Sexual Arousal Disorder (FSAD). An overview of how the diagnostic criteria for FSAD have evolved over previous editions of the DSM is presented and research on prevalence and etiology of FSAD is briefly reviewed. Problems with the essential feature of the DSM-IV-TR diagnosis-"an inability to attain, or to maintain...an adequate lubrication-swelling response of sexual excitement"-are identified. The significant overlap between "arousal" and "desire" disorders is highlighted. Finally, specific recommendations for revision of the criteria for DSM-V are made, including use of a polythetic approach to the diagnosis and the addition of duration and severity criteria. PMID:19777335

  7. Sexual arousal and the quality of semen produced by masturbation.

    PubMed

    van Roijen, J H; Slob, A K; Gianotten, W L; Dohle, G R; van der Zon, A T; Vreeburg, J T; Weber, R F

    1996-01-01

    The influence of sexual arousal on the quality of semen produced by masturbation was investigated. One group of 29 patients referred to our andrology outpatient clinic (group A) and one group of 14 healthy potential sperm donors filled out a questionnaire after having produced two semen samples, at least 1 month apart, by masturbation. Changes in questionnaire scores between first and second visit were compared with changes in semen characteristics between those two occasions to identify statistically significant correlations. A second group of 23 subfertility patients (group B) were asked to produce a semen sample by masturbation in a designated room at the hospital without additional sexual stimulation, and a second sample while viewing a sexually explicit video. Differences in questionnaire scores and semen characteristics obtained with visual erotic stimulation (VES) and without VES were analysed. In group A, the change in sexual arousal and change in intensity of orgasm correlated with change in semen volume (r = 0.38, P < 0.05; r = 0.48, P < 0.01 respectively). In healthy donors and group B, however, no such correlation was found. With VES in group B, significantly higher scores were given for 'feeling at ease/relaxed' (P < 0.01), 'sexual arousal' (P < 0.001), 'quality of erection' (P = 0.01), 'intensity of orgasm' (P < 0.05), 'satisfaction after orgasm' (P < 0.05), and 'ease with which orgasm was achieved' (P < 0.001) with VES compared to without VES. There was no statistically significant improvement in semen quality with VES compared to without VES. It is concluded that sexual arousal has no significant influence on the quality of an ejaculate produced by masturbation. On the other hand, providing a patient with a sexually stimulating video is obviously a facilitative factor when the patient 'has to' produce a semen sample for analysis. The use of visual erotic stimulation is recommended when patients and donors have to produce a semen sample in the university surroundings of a fertility clinic. PMID:8671177

  8. Does menstrual cycle phase influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal?

    PubMed

    Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-07-01

    Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080

  9. The effects of immediate, delayed, and residual sympathetic activation on sexual arousal in women.

    PubMed

    Meston, C M; Gorzalka, B B

    1996-02-01

    In a recent experiment, Meston and Gorzalka (1995) [Behaviour, Research and Therapy, 33, 651-664] demonstrated a facilitatory effect of sympathetic activation, via acute exercise, on female sexual arousal. The present investigation was designed to examine the time course of this effect. Thirty-six sexually functional women participated in two experimental sessions in which they viewed a neutral film followed by an erotic film. In one of these sessions, Ss were exposed to 20 min of intense exercise (stationary cycling) prior to viewing the films. Subjective (self-report) and physiological (photoplethysmograph) sexual arousal were measured at either 5 min, 15 min, or 30 min post-exercise. Acute exercise marginally decreased vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) and had no effect on vaginal blood volume (VBV) responses to an erotic film when measured 5 min post-exercise. At 15 min post-exercise, exercise significantly increased VPA and marginally increased VBV responses. At 30 min post-exercise, both VPA and VBV responses to an erotic film were marginally increased. Acute exercise had no significant effect on subjective perceptions of sexual arousal in any of the experimental conditions. PMID:8741721

  10. A Streetcar Named "Derousal"? A Psychophysiological Examination of the Desire-Arousal Distinction in Sexually Functional and Dysfunctional Women.

    PubMed

    Sarin, Sabina; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that desire and arousal problems are highly interrelated in women. Therefore, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) were removed from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), and a new diagnostic category, female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD), was created to include both arousal and desire difficulties. However, no research has tried to distinguish these problems based on psychosocial-physiological patterns to identify whether unique profiles exist. This study compared psychosocial-physiological patterns in a community sample of 84 women meeting DSM-IV (American Psychiatric Association, 2000 ) criteria for HSDD (n = 22), FSAD (n = 18), both disorders (FSAD/HSDD; n = 25), and healthy controls (n = 19). Women completed self-report measures and watched neutral and erotic films while genital arousal (GA) and subjective arousal (SA) were measured. Results indicated that GA increased equally for all groups during the erotic condition, whereas women with HSDD and FSAD/HSDD reported less SA than controls or FSAD women. Women in the clinical groups also showed lower concordance and greater impairment on psychosocial variables as compared to controls, with women with FSAD/HSDD showing lowest functioning. Results have important implications for the classification and treatment of these difficulties. PMID:26457746

  11. Self-Injurious Behaviors, PTSD Arousal, and General Health Complaints Within a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Sexually Abused Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Terri L.; Chard, Kathleen M.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Etzel, Julie C.

    2004-01-01

    Eighty-nine adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, presenting for psychological treatment, were assessed for self-reported rates of self-injurious behaviors (SIB), health complaints, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of physiological arousal. A composite measure of current SIB was significantly and positively associated

  12. Sildenafil citrate for female sexual arousal disorder: a future possibility?

    PubMed

    Schoen, Corina; Bachmann, Gloria

    2009-04-01

    Female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD) is a common disorder encountered in clinical practice, with self-reported arousal difficulties reported in up to 26% of American women. Various oral therapies for FSAD have been studied, including sildenafil citrate, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that is currently used to treat male erectile dysfunction. In vitro studies of sildenafil citrate have demonstrated smooth-muscle relaxation in clitoral tissue, and phosphodiesterase type-5 has been shown to be present in vaginal, clitoral and labial smooth muscle; these findings have led to theories that sildenafil citrate might be successful for treating FSAD. This Review discusses the data from clinical trials that have assessed sildenafil citrate for the treatment of FSAD; the trials show that sildenafil citrate is moderately effective. Sildenafil citrate may also be effective in women with FSAD secondary to multiple sclerosis, diabetes or antidepressant use; however, more trials in these patient populations are required to confirm these findings. PMID:19352396

  13. The Impact of Sexual Arousal on Sexual Risk-Taking and Decision-Making in Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna; Cramer, Kenneth M; Shuper, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal has emerged as an important contextual feature in sexual encounters that can impact safer-sex decision-making. We conducted two experiments that investigated the effects of sexual arousal among male and female participants. Experiment 1 (N = 144) examined the impact of sexual around on sexual health decision-making. Sexually explicit and neutral video clips as well as hypothetical romantic scenarios were used to evaluate the effects of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking intentions. Men and women who reported higher levels of sexual arousal also displayed greater intentions to participate in risky sexual behavior (e.g., unprotected sex with a new sex partner). Experiment 2 (N = 122) examined the impact of sexual arousal on general risk-taking, using the same videos clips as in Experiment 1 and a modified version of a computerized Blackjack card game. Participants were offered a chance to make either a risky play or a safe play during ambiguous conditions. Increased sexual arousal in Experiment 2 was associated with impulsivity and a greater willingness to make risky plays in the Blackjack game. These findings suggest that, in situations where there are strong sexually visceral cues, both men and women experiencing strong sexual arousal may have lower inhibitions and may experience impaired decision-making. This phenomenon may have an impact during sexual encounters and may contribute to a failure to use appropriate prophylactic protection. PMID:26310879

  14. Self-appraisals of arousal-oriented online sexual activities in university and community samples.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Byers, E Sandra; Clowater, Sarah L; Kalinowski, Alana

    2014-08-01

    Arousal-oriented online sexual activities (OSAs) are any activities on the Internet that involve sexually explicit and/or sexually arousing stimuli. These can be solitary-arousal activities, requiring only one person be involved. They can also be partnered-arousal activities that involve at least two people interacting (Shaughnessy, Byers, & Walsh, 2011). Most researchers have focused on the negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs on users' sexual life and life in general. Yet, these activities can also have positive outcomes. In two separate studies, we examined men's and women's perceptions of the positive and negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience. Study 1 included heterosexual university students (N = 191); Study 2 consisted of heterosexual and sexual minority individuals from the community (N = 316). Participants completed a background questionnaire and measures of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience and outcomes of these experiences. Overall, solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA was common among study participants. In both studies, participants reported significantly greater positive than negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs, albeit the overall impact was small. We did not find significant gender differences or differences by sexual orientation in positive or negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs. Our results suggest that, for most people, participating in solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs has little impact on them. PMID:23740466

  15. Assessing female sexual arousal with the labial thermistor: response specificity and construct validity.

    PubMed

    Prause, N; Heiman, J R

    2009-05-01

    The labial thermistor offers several potential psychometric advantages over existing measures of female sexual response; however, the thermistor lacked data to support these presumed advantages, especially with respect to its discriminant validity. In this study, both the labial thermistor was worn simultaneously with the vaginal photoplethysmograph as women viewed films. They also indicated their level of subjective sexual arousal using a lever. The labial thermistor discriminated sexual from nonsexual arousing stimuli and was sensitive to different levels of sexual arousal. The correspondence of the instrument with subjective sexual arousal, measured using a continuous lever, was lower during the mildly arousing sexual film and higher during the maximally sexual arousing film. One woman reported that the labial thermistor was very uncomfortable, while others indicated no or mild discomfort from each instrument. The vaginal photoplethysmograph largely replicated the effects documented by the labial thermistor, although it did not discriminate sexual stimuli of different intensity nor correspond with women's continuous lever responses as closely during the more arousing stimulus. Difficulties recording simultaneously with these instruments are noted. The labial thermistor adequately discriminates between generally arousing and sexually arousing stimuli, increasing its utility as a measure for between-subject study designs. PMID:19041673

  16. Assessing Women’s Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

  17. Factors associated with sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking, and sexual satisfaction among African-American adolescent females

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Jessica M.; Smearman, Erica; Brody, Gene H.; Milhausen, Robin; Philibert, Robert A.; DiClemente, Ralph J.

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality-related constructs such as sexual arousal, sexual sensation seeking (SSS) and sexual satisfaction have been related to sexual behaviors that place one at risk for adverse consequences such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs), HIV, and unintended pregnancy. The biopsychosocial model posits an array of factors, ranging from social environmental factors, biological, and psychological predispositions that may be associated with these sexuality constructs in adolescent samples. African-American females aged 14-20 were recruited from reproductive health clinics for an HIV intervention. Baseline survey and follow-up DNA data (N=304) was used to assess biological, psychological and social environmental associations with the sexuality constructs of arousal, SSS, and sexual satisfaction. In multivariable linear regressions, a higher depressive symptom rating was associated with higher arousability while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower arousability. Impulsivity and perceived peer norms supportive of unsafe sexual behaviors were associated with increased SSS, and short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower SSS. Higher social support was also associated with higher levels of sexual satisfaction while short serotonin allele(s) status was associated with lower satisfaction. The sexuality constructs were also significantly related to number of sex partners, frequency of vaginal sex, and number of unprotected vaginal sex acts in the past six months. These findings emphasize the importance of understanding biopsychosocial factors, including the role of serotonin as an indicator of natural variations in sexual inclination and behaviors, that influence sexuality constructs, which in turn are associated with sexual behaviors, to allow further refinement of sexual health clinical services and programs and promote the development of healthy sexuality. PMID:24262218

  18. Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

    2013-08-01

    The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship. PMID:23519591

  19. Sexual Touching and Difficulties with Sexual Arousal and Orgasm Among U.S. Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the non-genitally-focused sexual behavior of those experiencing sexual difficulties. The objective of this study was to review the theory supporting a link between sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm, and to examine associations between these constructs among older adults in the United States. The data were from the 2005–2006 National Social Life Health and Aging Project, which surveyed 3,005 community-dwelling men and women ages 57–85 years. The 1,352 participants who had had sex in the past year reported on their frequency of sexual touching and whether there had been a period of several months or more in the past year when they were unable to climax, had trouble getting or maintaining an erection (men) or had trouble lubricating (women). Women also reported how of ten they felt sexually aroused during partner sex in the last 12 months. The odds of being unable to climax were greater by 2.4 times (95% CI 1.2–4.8) among men and 2.8 times (95% CI 1.4–5.5) among women who sometimes, rarely or never engaged in sexual touching, compared to those who always engaged in sexual touching, controlling for demographic factors and physical health. These results were attenuated but persisted after controlling for emotional relationship satisfaction and psychological factors. Similar results were obtained for erectile difficulties among men and subjective arousal difficulties among women, but not lubrication difficulties among women. Infrequent sexual touching is associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties among older adults in the United States. PMID:22160881

  20. Physiophenomenology in retrospect: Memory reliably reflects physiological arousal during a prior threatening experience.

    PubMed

    McCall, Cade; Hildebrandt, Lea K; Bornemann, Boris; Singer, Tania

    2015-12-15

    Psychologists have long studied links between physiology and subjective feelings, but little is known about how those links are preserved in memory. Here we examine this question via arousal, a subjective feeling with strong physiological correlates. Using virtual reality, we immersed participants in a threatening scene (Room 101) where they confronted a variety of disturbing events. Later, participants watched the scene on a desktop computer while continuously rating how aroused they remembered feeling. Analyses of those time series revealed that retrospective reports were coherent with participants' unique patterns in physiological arousal (skin conductance and heart rate) during the original events. Analyses further revealed that coherence did not depend on simulating physiological arousal and that it was particularly strong among individuals high in interoceptive accuracy. These data demonstrate that memory encodes physiological information during emotional episodes such that individuals' recall of arousal reliably reflects physiological signals as they unfolded over time. PMID:26529679

  1. The association between testosterone, sexual arousal, and selective attention for erotic stimuli in men.

    PubMed

    Alexander, G M; Sherwin, B B

    1991-09-01

    Twenty-six, eugonadal men between the ages of 18 and 27 participated in this investigation of the relationship between sexual arousal, testosterone (T) levels, and the processing of sexual information. At each of the two test sessions, subjects gave a blood sample, listened to an erotic or neutral priming audiotape, and completed a dichotic listening task designed to assess selective attention for sexual stimuli. Subjective levels of sexual arousal to the audiotape and sexual attitudes and sexual experience were assessed by self-report measures. Contrary to our hypothesis, there was no relationship between levels of free T and the strength of the selective attention bias for sexual stimuli. However, men who were more distracted by the sexual material in the task reported higher levels of sexual arousal to erotic imagery than men who were less distracted by the sexual material in the task (P less than 0.01). Moreover, men who were more sexually aroused by the erotic audiotape made significantly less shadowing errors in the erotic prime condition then they did during the neutral prime condition (P less than 0.05). There was a negative association between T and shadowing errors in the erotic prime condition (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that lower thresholds for sexual arousal are associated with a greater bias to attend to sexual information and that T may have effects on cognitive-motivational aspects of sexual behavior by enhancing attention to relevant stimuli. PMID:1937428

  2. Acute Effects of Intoxication and Arousal on Approach/Avoidance Biases Toward Sexual Risk Stimuli in Heterosexual Men.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Maisto, Stephen A; Wray, Tyler B; Emery, Noah N

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the effects of alcohol intoxication and physiological arousal on cognitive biases toward erotic stimuli and condoms. Ninety-seven heterosexual men were randomized to 1 of 6 independent conditions in a 2 (high arousal or control) × 3 (alcohol target BAC = 0.08, placebo, or juice control) design and then completed a variant of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT). The AAT assessed reaction times toward approaching and avoiding erotic stimuli and condoms with a joystick. Consistent with hypotheses, the alcohol condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli, whereas the control and placebo groups exhibited an approach bias toward condom stimuli. Similarly, the participants in the high arousal condition exhibited an approach bias toward erotic stimuli and the low arousal control condition exhibited an approach bias toward condoms. The results suggest that acute changes in intoxication and physiological arousal independently foster biased responding toward sexual stimuli and these biases are associated with sexual risk intentions. PMID:25808719

  3. Cognitions, emotions, and sexual response: analysis of the relationship among automatic thoughts, emotional responses, and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Nobre, Pedro J; Pinto-Gouveia, Jos

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between automatic thoughts and emotions presented during sexual activity and their correlation with sexual arousal was investigated. A total of 491 individuals (163 women and 232 men without sexual problems and 47 women and 49 men with a DSM-IV diagnosis of sexual dysfunction) completed the Sexual Modes Questionnaire (SMQ; Nobre and Pinto-Gouveia, Journal of Sex Research, 40, 368-382, 2003). Results indicated several significant correlations among automatic thoughts, emotions, and sexual arousal. Erection concern thoughts in the men and failure/disengagement thoughts and lack of erotic thoughts in the women presented the most significant negative correlations with sexual arousal. Additionally, sadness and disillusion were positively related to these negative cognitions and negatively associated with sexual arousal in both sexes. On the other hand, pleasure and satisfaction were negatively associated with the above-mentioned negative cognitions and positively associated with subjective sexual arousal in both men and women. Overall, findings support the hypothesis that cognitive, emotional, and behavioral dimensions are closely linked and suggest a mode typical of sexual dysfunction composed of negative automatic thoughts, depressive affect, and low subjective sexual arousal. PMID:17960474

  4. Sexual Response in Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: A Controlled Laboratory Study Measuring Vaginal Blood Flow and Subjective Sexual Arousal.

    PubMed

    Both, Stephanie; Ter Kuile, Moniek; Enzlin, Paul; Dekkers, Olaf; van Dijk, Marieke; Weijenborg, Philomeen

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that women with diabetes mellitus are at higher risk to develop sexual dysfunctions. In the current study, we hypothesized that lower genital arousal response-as a consequence of diabetes-related damage to nerves and blood vessels-might play a part in these higher prevalence rates. Vaginal blood flow, subjective sexual response, and clitoral sensitivity were compared between women with diabetes and healthy controls, and associations with diabetes complications were investigated. In pre- and postmenopausal women with type 1 diabetes (n = 42) and healthy controls (n = 46), vaginal blood flow was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA). VPA was assessed at rest, during erotic film viewing, and during vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. Subjective sexual arousal was measured using a questionnaire. Clitoral sensitivity was assessed by a vibration perception test. Data on diabetes complications were obtained from medical records, and neuropathy was assessed by quantitative sensory testing. VPA, subjective sexual arousal, and clitoral sensitivity were not significantly different between women with diabetes and controls. Nevertheless, women with diabetes who had retinopathy showed significantly lower VPA than women without retinopathy, and women with diabetes who had neuropathy showed significantly higher sensation thresholds for vibrotactile clitoral stimulation. The results do not support the hypothesis of a disrupted genital arousal response in women with diabetes. However, the observed associations between retinopathy and vaginal blood flow, and between neuropathy and clitoral sensitivity, suggest that diabetes-related complications might adversely affect the physiological basis of female sexual response. PMID:26054485

  5. Sexual arousal decreases the functional synchronization between cortical areas in young men.

    PubMed

    Hernndez-Gonzlez, Marisela; Amezcua Gutirrez, Claudia; Martin, Araceli Sanz; Snchez, Koral Rivera; Guevara, Miguel Angel

    2013-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex and its connections with other cortical areas participate in processing erotic stimuli and hence sexual arousal. Visual erotic stimuli elicit sexual arousal that is associated with changes in electroencephalographic activity. The electroencephalographic correlation analysis provides information on the functional synchronization among areas. This study analyzed the functional interaction among the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices during sexual arousal in young men induced by observing erotic photographs. In 2 groups of heterosexual men-an erotic stimulation group and a neutral stimulation group-the authors recorded electroencephalograms at the F3, F4, T3, T4, P3, and P4 derivations under 2 conditions: baseline and visual stimulation. Heart rate was monitored as a measure of peripheral activation. Participants in the erotic stimulation group reported a moderate degree of sexual arousal and a decrease in heart rate. Decreased inter- and intrahemispheric correlations of the fast frequencies were obtained only in erotic stimulation. These data support differential hemisphere participation in modulating sexual arousal and show that decreased synchronization patterns between prefrontal and posterior cortices (parietal and temporal) favor sexual arousal in young men. The results of this study may contribute to a better understanding of the central nervous system's mechanisms that underlie sexual arousal. PMID:23356552

  6. Women’s Sexual Arousal: Effects of High Alcohol Dosages and Self-Control Instructions

    PubMed Central

    George, William H.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Hendershot, Christian S.; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

    2011-01-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women’s sexual arousal – especially genital arousal –received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson & Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed the same pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol’s impact on the variability of women’s sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  7. Women's sexual arousal: effects of high alcohol dosages and self-control instructions.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Schacht, Rebecca L; Hendershot, Christian S; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2011-05-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women's sexual arousal - especially genital arousal - received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson and Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed an undifferentiated pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol's impact on the variability of women's sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  8. The effects of target attractiveness on men's sexual arousal in response to erotic auditory stimuli.

    PubMed

    Hawk, Skyler T; Tolman, Ryan; Mueller, Charles W

    2007-02-01

    Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images held within semantic memory and pattern-matched with an erotic auditory stimulus facilitate higher self-reported arousal, and at a more rapid rate, than unattractive images. Participants in an "Unattractive" condition experienced slower rates and lower mean levels of arousal in response to an auditory stimulus, compared to participants in an "Attractive" or "No Picture" condition. No differences existed between groups in maximum arousal scores or the tendency to visualize the target during the listening task. Implications for the role of imagery in sexual response, possible measurement issues, and suggestions for future research are addressed in the discussion. PMID:17599268

  9. Covariation of sexual desire and sexual arousal: the effects of anger and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bozman, A W; Beck, J G

    1991-02-01

    To test Kaplan's model of hypoactive sexual desire, this investigation examined the effects of anger and anxiety presented during sexual stimuli. Subjects included 24 male undergraduates, free from psychological and medical problems that interfere with sexual function. Each subject was presented with three audiotapes, containing sexual content and statements by the participants that were designed to evoke anger or anxiety or that were situationally appropriate (control condition). Penile tumescence and sexual desire were monitored continuously. Results indicated significant differences in sexual desire in each of the three conditions, with desire highest during the control condition, followed by the anxiety condition, and last, the anger condition. Tumescence was decreased during the anger condition, relative to the control and anxiety conditions, which were not significantly different from one another. These findings partially support Kaplan's model of maintaining factors in hypoactive sexual desire, by demonstrating that anger may be the primary mechanism through which sexual desire and arousal are inhibited. In this study, anxiety impaired desire but did not affect tumescence. Implications for the study of emotional influences on sexual responding are discussed, including the need for investigation of other parameters of sexual motivation. PMID:2003771

  10. Effects of depressive symptoms and experimentally adopted schemas on sexual arousal and affect in sexually healthy women.

    PubMed

    Kuffel, Stephanie W; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-04-01

    The present study examined the effects of depressive mood symptoms and experimentally adopted sexual schemas on women's sexual arousal and affect. Women's vaginal response, subjective sexual arousal, and affect were measured in response to sexually explicit visual material in a laboratory setting. At baseline on a self-report measure, women with depressive mood symptoms (n = 28) reported significantly lower sexual desire than women with normal mood (n=28), but no significant differences in arousal, orgasm, satisfaction, or pain. Participants were asked to adopt both a positive and negative sexual self-schema prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Women in both mood groups demonstrated significantly greater subjective sexual arousal, vaginal response, and positive affect in the positive schema condition than in the negative schema condition when controlling for anxiety. There were no main effects for mood symptoms. These findings support an information processing conceptualization of sexual arousal and suggest that an acute dose of cognitive sexual schemas can significantly impact subsequent sexual and affective responses. Implications of findings for the assessment and treatment of sexual dysfunction are noted. PMID:16752119

  11. The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

    2011-01-01

    Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

  12. Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n = 19) compared to a comparison group (n = 11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to…

  13. Dissociation during sex and sexual arousal in women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elizabeth R; Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2014-07-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience dissociative symptoms and sexual difficulties with greater frequency than women without a history of CSA. Current models of sexual dysfunction for sexual abuse survivors suggest that dissociation may mediate the relationship between CSA and sexual arousal difficulties. Dissociation, however, is often conceptualized as a single construct in studies of CSA and not as separate domains as in the dissociation literature. In the present study, women with (CSA, N = 37) and without (NSA, N = 22) a history of CSA recruited from the community were asked to indicate the frequency and intensity of their experience in two dissociation subgroups, derealization and depersonalization, during sex with a partner and in their daily life. Findings showed that, in the NSA group, more depersonalization during sex with a partner was associated with lower sexual arousal functioning. However, for both the NSA and CSA groups, more derealization during sex was associated with higher sexual arousal functioning. No measure of dissociation was significantly associated with sexual responses in the laboratory. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between different forms of dissociation (i.e., derealization and depersonalization) in the study of sexual arousal functioning. In addition, the findings challenge the notion that dissociation is a main predictor of sexual arousal problems in survivors of CSA and suggest that a more nuanced relationship may exist. PMID:24297658

  14. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Diana S; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M T; Meston, Cindy M

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women's genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  15. Disgust versus Lust: Exploring the Interactions of Disgust and Fear with Sexual Arousal in Women

    PubMed Central

    Fleischman, Diana S.; Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Fessler, Daniel M. T.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Sexual arousal is a motivational state that moves humans toward situations that inherently pose a risk of disease transmission. Disgust is an emotion that adaptively moves humans away from such situations. Incongruent is the fact that sexual activity is elementary to human fitness yet involves strong disgust elicitors. Using an experimental paradigm, we investigated how these two states interact. Women (final N=76) were assigned to one of four conditions: rate disgust stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; watch a pornographic clip then rate disgust stimuli; rate fear stimuli then watch a pornographic clip; or watch a pornographic clip then rate fear stimuli. Women’s genital sexual arousal was measured with vaginal photoplethysmography and their disgust and fear reactions were measured via self-report. We did not find that baseline disgust propensity predicted sexual arousal in women who were exposed to neutral stimuli before erotic content. In the Erotic-before-Disgust condition we did not find that sexual arousal straightforwardly predicted decreased image disgust ratings. However, we did find some evidence that sexual arousal increased self-reported disgust in women with high trait disgust and sexual arousal decreased self-reported disgust in women with low trait disgust. Women who were exposed to disgusting images before erotic content showed significantly less sexual arousal than women in the control condition or women exposed to fear-inducing images before erotic content. In the Disgust-before-Erotic condition the degree of self-reported disgust was negatively correlated with genital sexual arousal. Hence, in the conflict between the ultimate goals of reproduction and disease avoidance, cues of the presence of pathogens significantly reduce the motivation to engage in mating behaviors that, by their nature, entail a risk of pathogen transmission. PMID:26106894

  16. Increased sexual arousal in patients with movement disorders.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Moro, Adriana; Moscovich, Mariana; Munhoz, Renato P

    2016-04-01

    Increased of sexual arousal (ISA) has been described in different neurological diseases. The purpose of this study was present a case series of ISA in patients with movement disorders. Method Fifteen patients with different forms of movement disorders (Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Tourette´s syndrome, spinocerebellar ataxia type 3), were evaluated in the Movement Disorders Unit of the Federal University of Paraná. Results Among Parkinson's disease patients there were seven cases with different forms of ISA due to dopaminergic agonist use, levodopa abuse, and deep brain stimulation (DBS). In the group with hyperkinetic disorders, two patients with Huntington's disease, two with Tourette's syndrome, and four with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 presented with ISA. Conclusions ISA in this group of patients had different etiologies, predominantly related to dopaminergic treatment or DBS in Parkinson's disease, part of the background clinical picture in Huntington's disease and Tourette's syndrome, and probably associated with cultural aspects in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 3. PMID:27097003

  17. Observational stance as a predictor of subjective and genital sexual arousal in men and women.

    PubMed

    Bossio, Jennifer A; Spape, Jessica; Lykins, Amy D; Chivers, Meredith L

    2014-01-01

    Observational stance refers to the perspective a person takes while viewing a sexual stimulus, either as a passive observer (observer stance) or an active participant (participant stance). The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between observational stance and sexual arousal (subjective and genital) across a range of sexual stimuli that do or do not correspond with a participant's sexual attraction (preferred or nonpreferred stimuli, respectively). Regression analyses revealed that, for men (n = 44), participant stance significantly predicted subjective and genital arousal. Women's (n = 47) observer and participant stance predicted subjective arousal but not genital arousal. Analysis of variance showed that participant stance was greatest under preferred sexual stimuli conditions for all groups of participants, while observer stance scores revealed a less consistent pattern of response. This was particularly true for opposite-sex-attracted women, whose ratings of observer stance were lowest for preferred stimuli. Observational stance does not appear to account for gender differences in specificity of sexual arousal; for men, however, participant stance uniquely predicted genital response after controlling for sexual attractions. Similarities in the relationships between men's and women's observational stance and sexual responses challenge previous claims of gender differences in how men and women view erotica. PMID:23514448

  18. Effects of Antidepressant Treatment on Sexual Arousal in Depressed Women: A Preliminary fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jong-Chul; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Gwang-Won; Eun, Sung-Jong; Lee, Moo-Suk; Han, Kyung-Lae; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Objective There was a recent study to explore the cerebral regions associated with sexual arousal in depressed women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this neuroimaging study was to investigate the effects of antidepressant treatment on sexual arousal in depressed women. Methods Seven depressed women with sexual arousal dysfunction (mean age: 41.7±13.8, mean scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17): 35.6±7.1 and 34.9±3.1, respectively) and nine healthy women (mean age: 40.3±11.6) underwent fMRI before and after antidepressant treatment. The fMRI paradigm contrasted a 1 minute rest period viewing non-erotic film with 4 minutes of sexual stimulation viewing an erotic video film. Data were analyzed by SPM 2. The relative number of pixels activated in each period was used as an index of activation. All depressed women were treated with mirtazapine (mean dosage: 37.5 mg/day) for 8 to 10 weeks. Results Levels of brain activity during sexual arousal in depressed women significantly increased with antidepressant treatment (p<0.05) in the regions of the hypothalamus (3.0% to 11.2%), septal area (8.6% to 27.8%) and parahippocampal gyrus (5.8% to 14.6%). Self-reported sexual arousal during visual sexual stimulation also significantly increased post-treatment, and severity of depressive symptoms improved, as measured by the BDI and HAMD-17 (p<0.05). Conclusion These results show that sexual arousal dysfunction of depressed women may improve after treatment of depression, and that this improvement is associated with increased activation of the hypothalamus, septal area, and parahippocampal gyrus during sexual arousal. PMID:23251203

  19. Physiological Concomitants of the Alcohol State: Arousal or Relaxation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiner, Arthur R.

    This experiment was designed to discriminate among two diametrically opposed states, arousal and relaxation, which have been attributed to alcohol ingestion. Male social drinker subjects were assigned to form two independent groups of ten subjects each. Baseline measure of heart rate, skin conductance level (SCL), pulse wave amplitude and ear lobe

  20. Physiological Concomitants of the Alcohol State: Arousal or Relaxation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeiner, Arthur R.

    This experiment was designed to discriminate among two diametrically opposed states, arousal and relaxation, which have been attributed to alcohol ingestion. Male social drinker subjects were assigned to form two independent groups of ten subjects each. Baseline measure of heart rate, skin conductance level (SCL), pulse wave amplitude and ear lobe…

  1. The relationship of deviant sexual arousal and psychopathy in incest offenders, extrafamilial child molesters, and rapists.

    PubMed

    Firestone, P; Bradford, J M; Greenberg, D M; Serran, G A

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between deviant sexual arousal, as measured by auditory phallometric stimuli, and psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, was examined in 156 incest offenders, 260 extrafamilial child molesters, and 123 rapists. Subjects in each group had never been convicted of another type of sexual offense. Replicating previous research, rapists were more psychopathic than incest offenders and child molesters. Deviant sexual arousal to auditory stimuli was evident only on the Pedophile Index for child molesters. When the relationship between psychopathy and deviant sexual arousal was evaluated in the three groups combined, several significant correlations emerged. However, a finer analysis of these correlations revealed that child molesters evidenced a significant correlation between psychopathy and the Rape Index and psychopathy and the Pedophile Index. There were no such significant findings in the incest offender or rapist groups. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:11055527

  2. Systemic and cavernous plasma levels of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide during sexual arousal in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Becker, Armin J; Uckert, Stefan; Stief, Christian G; Scheller, Friedemann; Knapp, Wolfram H; Machtens, Stefan A; Kuczyk, Markus A; Jonas, Udo

    2002-05-01

    Results from basic research scrutiny indicate a role for non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic transmitters, among which there are various peptides, in the physiology of normal male sexual function. Nevertheless, it is not yet known which particular peptides are essentially involved in maintaining sexual arousal and regulating penile tumescence and rigidity in adult males. Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), a peptide with smooth muscle relaxing properties, is considered to be one of the factors that contributes to such control. The present study was performed to evaluate the significance of VIP in normal male sexual function. We determined the plasma levels of VIP in the systemic and cavernous blood of 54 healthy adult male volunteers, who were exposed to visual and tactile erotic stimuli in order to elicit penile tumescence and erection. Whole blood was aspirated from the corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein during penile flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity and detumescence, and VIP was quantified in plasma aliquots by means of a radioimmunoassay. Of the 54 volunteers, 16 were permitted to masturbate and ejaculate, and blood was then again withdrawn from the cavernous meshwork and the cubital vein in order to measure VIP. All VIP levels were registered within the normal physiological range from 3.0-30 pmol/l. No increase in median VIP plasma levels was observed in the systemic and cavernous blood when the flaccid penis became rigid. During penile detumescence, mean cavernous VIP level increased to 11.9+/-7.8 pmol/l (baseline: 8.6+/-3.0 pmol/l), whereas VIP remained unaltered in the systemic circulation. Following ejaculation, mean VIP level in the cavernous blood was elevated to 25.3+/-10.9 pmol/l, whereas, in the systemic blood, no significant changes were registered. Our results support the hypothesis that VIP plays a functional role in the mechanism of male sexual arousal. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the peptide is not the main non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic mediator of penile tumescence and rigidity in human males. PMID:12088193

  3. Effects of alcohol intoxication and instructional set on women's sexual arousal vary based on sexual abuse history.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Heiman, Julia R; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2007-10-01

    The influence of alcohol intoxication and arousal instructional set on psychophysiological measures of sexual responding was examined in a non-clinical sample of sexually abused (SA) and non-sexually abused (NSA) women. Participants (n=42) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (target blood alcohol level = .08%) or non-alcoholic drinks and to receive instructions to maximize or suppress their sexual response to erotic films. Measures included vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA), self-reported sexual arousal, and mood. SA classification interacted with instruction condition such that NSA women's VPA scores were higher under maximize than suppress instructions, but this did not occur for SA women. SA classification interacted with alcohol such that, compared to their sober counterparts, intoxicated NSA women reported less sexual arousal, whereas intoxicated SA women reported more sexual arousal than their sober counterparts. Moreover, positive mood ratings were highest among intoxicated SA women. Findings indicate that alcohol may affect women differently based on SA history and imply that SA history may be associated with differences in response to subsequent sexual situations. PMID:17364230

  4. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology-Effects of psychostimulant abuse.

    PubMed

    Urbano, Francisco J; Bisagno, Verónica; González, Betina; Celeste Rivero-Echeto, María; Muñiz, Javier A; Luster, Brennon; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Garcia-Rill, Edgar

    2015-11-01

    This review describes the interactions between the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and the thalamocortical system. Experiments using modulators of cholinergic receptors in the PPN clarified its role on psychostimulant-induced locomotion. PPN activation was found to be involved in the animal's voluntary search for psychostimulants. Every PPN neuron is known to generate gamma band oscillations. Voltage-gated calcium channels are key elements in the generation and maintenance of gamma band activity of PPN neurons. Calcium channels are also key elements mediating psychostimulant-induced alterations in the thalamic targets of PPN output. Thus, the PPN is a key substrate for maintaining arousal and REM sleep, but also in modulating psychostimulant self-administration. PMID:26779323

  5. The effect of pain-related fear on sexual arousal in women with superficial dyspareunia.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Marieke; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Janssen, Sabine A; Laan, Ellen

    2007-10-01

    The role of pain-related fear in the etiology and/or maintenance of superficial dyspareunia is still unclear. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of pain-related fear on sexual arousal in women with superficial dyspareunia (n=48) and women without sexual complaints (n=48). To induce pain-related fear, participants were told that they had a 60% chance of receiving painful stimuli while being exposed to one of two erotic film clips. Genital arousal was assessed using vaginal photoplethysmography. Self-reported ratings of genital sensations and affect were collected after both erotic stimulus presentations. Elevated levels of skin conductance and higher ratings of experienced threat during the pain threat condition indicated that fear was successfully elicited. Pain-related fear impeded genital arousal in all women. Women of both groups reported significantly less positive affect and more negative affect when threatened. Although women with dyspareunia did not differ in their genital responsiveness from women without sexual complaints, they experienced overall significantly more negative affect than the control group. The present results indicate that pain-related fear reduces genital and subjective sexual responding in women with and without sexual problems. We conclude that emotional appraisal of the sexual situation determines genital responsiveness in both sexually dysfunctional and functional women. PMID:17303453

  6. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology – Deep brain stimulation (DBS)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; D’Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the wake/sleep symptoms present in Parkinson׳s disease, and the role of the pedunculopontine nucleus in these symptoms. The physiology of PPN cells is important not only because it is a major element of the reticular activating system, but also because it is a novel target for deep brain stimulation in the treatment of gait and postural deficits in Parkinson׳s disease. A greater understanding of the physiology of the target nuclei within the brainstem and basal ganglia, amassed over the past decades, has enabled increasingly better patient outcomes from deep brain stimulation for movement disorders. PMID:26779322

  7. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology - Deep brain stimulation (DBS).

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; D'Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2015-11-01

    This review describes the wake/sleep symptoms present in Parkinson׳s disease, and the role of the pedunculopontine nucleus in these symptoms. The physiology of PPN cells is important not only because it is a major element of the reticular activating system, but also because it is a novel target for deep brain stimulation in the treatment of gait and postural deficits in Parkinson׳s disease. A greater understanding of the physiology of the target nuclei within the brainstem and basal ganglia, amassed over the past decades, has enabled increasingly better patient outcomes from deep brain stimulation for movement disorders. PMID:26779322

  8. The effects of alcohol and sexual arousal on determinants of sexual risk in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Maisto, Stephen A; Palfai, Tibor; Vanable, Peter A; Heath, Jessie; Woolf-King, Sarah E

    2012-08-01

    Primary prevention efforts aimed at sexual risk behaviors are critical. This experiment was designed to investigate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal, as well as person variables of alcohol sex expectancies and attitudes toward condom use, on hypothesized determinants of sexual risk behaviors among men who have sex with men (MSM). The participants were 117 MSM aged 21-50 years who were randomly assigned to one of six separate experimental conditions created by the combination of beverage administration (water control, placebo or alcohol designed to raise blood alcohol level to .07%) and sexual arousal (low or high, manipulated by participants' viewing non-erotic or mildly erotic film clips). Participants attended two experimental sessions. The first session included completing questionnaires about beliefs about alcohol's effects on sex and attitudes toward condoms' effect on sexual pleasure. The second session involved the beverage condition and arousal manipulations. Following these, participants viewed and responded to two interactive videos depicting high sexual risk scenarios. Participants also completed the CARE, a measure of risk perceptions. The dependent variables were behavioral skills, intentions to have unsafe sex, and "risk exposure," derived from responses to the videos. The results of both planned and exploratory analyses showed general support for the hypothesized enhancement of alcohol's effects on sexual risk by both sexual arousal and expectancies. Also as predicted, condom attitudes showed direct relationships to risk exposure and intentions. Implications of the findings for models of alcohol's effects on sexual risk and for the development of HIV prevention interventions were discussed. PMID:22009480

  9. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment

  10. Physiological-Cognitive-Emotional Responses to Defense-Arousing Communication: Overview and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    A 328-item checklist, suitable for the self-reporting of responses to any stimulus event, was administered to 107 upper division college students in an attempt to investigate the physiological-cognitive-emotional responses to defense arousing communication and to discover a greater range of the key features of the phenomena of "defensiveness."…

  11. Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-Solving Deficits among Adolescent Self-Injurers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However,…

  12. Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

  13. Satiation therapy: a procedure for reducing deviant sexual arousal.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, W L

    1979-01-01

    Two single-case experiments demonstrated the efficacy of satiation therapy with adult males who had long-standing deviant sexual interests. The procedure involves the pairing of prolonged masturbation (1 hour) with the verbalization by the patient of his deviant sexual fantasies and in both cases the designs permitted the attribution of control over aberrant responding to the satiation therapy. The results are discussed in terms of the possible active ingredients of the procedure. PMID:511807

  14. Physiologic Arousal to Social Stress in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Todd P.; Sheinkopf, Stephen J.; Pescosolido, Matthew; Rodino, Alison; Elia, Gregory; Lester, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about arousal to socially stressful situations in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders. This preliminary study investigates physiologic arousal in children with high functioning autism (HFA, n=19) compared to a comparison group (n=11) before, during, and after the Trier Social Stress Test. The HFA group was more likely to have a decrease in salivary cortisol following the stressor, while the comparison group was more likely to have an increase (p=.02). However, there was no difference in electrodermal activity, a measure of sympathetic arousal, or vagal tone, a measure of parasympathetic activity, between groups. These findings implicate a differential neuroendocrine response to social stress in children with HFA despite similar sympathetic and parasympathetic responses during a stressor. Further studies are required to substantiate this finding. PMID:22081773

  15. Development of a sexually differentiated behavior and its underlying CNS arousal functions.

    PubMed

    Kow, Lee-Ming; Florea, Cristina; Schwanzel-Fukuda, Marlene; Devidze, Nino; Kami Kia, Hosein; Lee, Anna; Zhou, Jin; Maclaughlin, David; Donahoe, Patricia; Pfaff, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This chapter addresses questions regarding lordosis behavior, the most extremely sexually differentiated behavior that has been analyzed for its neural and molecular mechanisms. Analysis of this behavior has proved for the first time that specific biochemical reactions in specific nerve cell groups in the brain determine a mammalian behavior. Lordosis is done by the female but not by the male. How did the process of sexual differentiation occur? A large literature implicates high levels of testosterone during a critical period during development as being responsible for the defeminization of the brain. A new idea, however, offers the possibility of direct genetic influences independent of testosterone levels themselves. We propose here that Mullerian Inhibiting Substance (MIS) and its receptors could constitute an example of a nonandrogenic genetic influence. Further, specific sexual behaviors depend on underlying arousal states in the central nervous system (CNS). We have proposed the concept of generalized CNS arousal and provide information as to how generalized arousal forces interact with specifically sexual influences, thus to facilitate sexually differentiated mating behaviors. PMID:17498546

  16. Cybersex addiction: Experienced sexual arousal when watching pornography and not real-life sexual contacts makes the difference.

    PubMed

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Pekal, Jaro; Schulte, Frank P; Brand, Matthias

    2013-06-01

    Background and aims Cybersex addiction is discussed controversially, while empirical evidence is widely missing. With respect to its mechanisms of development and maintenance Brand et al. (2011) assume that reinforcement due to cybersex should lead to the development of cue-reactivity and craving explaining recurrent cybersex use in the face of growing but neglected negative consequences. To support this hypothesis, two experimental studies were conducted. Methods In a cue-reactivity paradigm 100 pornographic cues were presented to participants and indicators of sexual arousal and craving were assessed. The first study aimed at identifying predictors of cybersex addiction in a freely recruited sample of 171 heterosexual males. The aim of the second study was to verify the findings of the first study by comparing healthy (n = 25) and problematic (n = 25) cybersex users. Results The results show that indicators of sexual arousal and craving to Internet pornographic cues predicted tendencies towards cybersex addiction in the first study. Moreover, it was shown that problematic cybersex users report greater sexual arousal and craving reactions resulting from pornographic cue presentation. In both studies, the number and subjective quality of real-life sexual contacts were not associated to cybersex addiction. Discussion The results support the gratification hypothesis, which assumes reinforcement, learning mechanisms, and craving to be relevant processes in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Poor or unsatisfying sexual real-life contacts cannot sufficiently explain cybersex addiction. Conclusions Positive reinforcement in terms of gratification plays a major role in cybersex addiction. PMID:26165929

  17. Patterns of Sexual Arousal in Young, Heterosexual Men Who Experience Condom-Associated Erection Problems (CAEP)

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Erick; Sanders, Stephanie A.; Hill, Brandon J.; Amick, Erick; Oversen, Drake; Kvam, Peter; Ingelhart, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Condom-associated erection problems (CAEP) are reported by a substantial number of young men and are associated with inconsistent and/or incomplete condom use. The underlying mechanisms of CAEP are not well understood and research examining the possibility that men who report CAEP differ from other men in their sexual responsivity is lacking. Aim This study used psychophysiological methods to examine whether men who report CAEP have a higher threshold for sexual arousal, a stronger need for tactile stimulation, and/or more easily lose their sexual arousal due to neutral distractors or performance-related demands. Methods A total of 142 young, heterosexual men (53% reporting CAEP) were presented with four 3-minute erotic film clips. Three film clips were combined with one of the following manipulations: 1) distraction, 2) performance demand, or 3) vibrotactile stimulation. One erotic film clip was presented with no further instructions or manipulations. Main Outcome Measures Average penile circumference changes during the first, second, and third minute (Time) of the erotic film stimuli (Condition) were submitted to a mixed-model ANOVA with Condition and Time as within-subjects factors and Group (CAEP/No-CAEP) as between-subjects factor. Results Significant main effects of Condition and Time and a significant interaction of Group×Time were found. No significant interactions involving Condition were found. Men who reported CAEP had smaller erectile responses during the first minute, regardless of film condition, than men who reported no CAEP (F(1,141)=8.64, p<.005). Conclusion The findings suggest that men with and without CAEP differ in the ease with which they become sexually aroused. Men reporting CAEP needed more time and/or more intense stimulation to become aroused. To our knowledge, this study is the first to use psychophysiological methods to assess sexual responsivity in men who report CAEP. PMID:24787349

  18. Attachment and physiological reactivity to infant crying in young adulthood: dissociation between experiential and physiological arousal in insecure adoptees.

    PubMed

    Schoenmaker, Christie; Huffmeijer, Renske; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van den Dries, Linda; Linting, Mariëlle; van der Voort, Anja; Juffer, Femmie

    2015-02-01

    The associations between attachment representations of adopted young adults and their experiential and physiological arousal to infant crying were examined. Attachment representations were assessed with the Attachment Script Assessment (ASA), and the young adults listened to infant cries, during which ratings of cry perception were collected and physiological reactivity was measured. Secure adoptees showed a well-integrated response to infant distress: heart-rate increases and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) withdrawal were coupled with heightened perception of urgency in these individuals. In insecure adoptees RSA withdrawal was absent, and a combination of lowered perceived urgency and heightened sympathetic arousal was found, reflecting a deactivating style of emotional reactivity. Overall, our findings support the idea that internal working models of attachment explain individual differences in the way attachment-related information is processed. PMID:25460537

  19. Visuospatial Working Memory Capacity Predicts Physiological Arousal in a Narrative Task.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Lisa; Nicoladis, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Physiological arousal that occurs during narrative production is thought to reflect emotional processing and cognitive effort (Bar-Haim et al. in Dev Psychobiol 44:238-249, 2004). The purpose of this study was to determine whether individual differences in visuospatial working memory and/or verbal working memory capacity predict physiological arousal in a narrative task. Visuospatial working memory was a significant predictor of skin conductance level (SCL); verbal working memory was not. When visuospatial working memory interference was imposed, visuospatial working memory was no longer a significant predictor of SCL. Visuospatial interference also resulted in a significant reduction in SCL. Furthermore, listener ratings of narrative quality were contingent upon the visuospatial working memory resources of the narrator. Potential implications for educators and clinical practitioners are discussed. PMID:26718206

  20. Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ågmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. PMID:24125786

  1. Stability of Self-Reported Arousal to Sexual Fantasies Involving Children in a Clinical Sample of Pedophiles and Hebephiles.

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Dorit; Krupp, Jurian; Scherner, Gerold; Amelung, Till; Beier, Klaus M

    2016-07-01

    In forensic research, there is a controversial discussion concerning the changeability or stability of pedophilia. Seto (2012) conceptualized pedophilia as a sexual age orientation characterized by an early onset, correlations with sexual and romantic behavior, and stability over time. However, empirical data are sparse and are mostly based on samples of detected offenders. The present study examined self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children in a clinical sample of pedo-/hebephiles. In Study 1, retrospective self-reports on the age of onset and duration of sexual interest in minors were examined. In Study 2, the stability and variability of self-reported arousal to sexual fantasies involving children were evaluated prospectively. Non-prosecuted self-identifying pedo-/hebephilic men seeking professional help were recruited within the Berlin Prevention Project Dunkelfeld. Between 2005 and 2013, 494 participants completed the intake assessment. Self-reported data were collected via questionnaire focusing on sexual arousal to fantasies during masturbation involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent minors. Subsequent assessments of sexual arousal were obtained for 121 of the participants. The average time between the first and last assessment was approximately 29 months. Spearman's correlation coefficients examined the between-group rank-order and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests examined the within-individual mean-level stability. The majority of subjects reported an early onset of their pedo-/hebephilic sexual arousal. The rank-order stability was medium to high. Over the investigated period, the majority of subjects showed no or only minimal decrease or increase of self-reported sexual arousal. These results suggested that sexual arousal to fantasies involving prepubescent and/or early pubescent children is stable. Furthermore, the results support the conceptualization of pedo-/hebephilia as a sexual age orientation in men. PMID:27113471

  2. Experimental effects of exposure to pornography: the moderating effect of personality and mediating effect of sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Hald, Gert Martin; Malamuth, Neil N

    2015-01-01

    Using a randomly selected community sample of 200 Danish young adult men and women in a randomized experimental design, the study investigated the effects of a personality trait (agreeableness), past pornography consumption, and experimental exposure to non-violent pornography on attitudes supporting violence against women (ASV). We found that lower levels of agreeableness and higher levels of past pornography consumption significantly predicted ASV. In addition, experimental exposure to pornography increased ASV but only among men low in agreeableness. This relationship was found to be significantly mediated by sexual arousal with sexual arousal referring to the subjective assessment of feeling sexually excited, ready for sexual activities, and/or bodily sensations associated with being sexually aroused. In underscoring the importance of individual differences, the results supported the hierarchical confluence model of sexual aggression and the media literature on affective engagement and priming effects. PMID:24729134

  3. AB033. Comparing male and female sexual arousal, utilizing fMRI: a theoretical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Banner, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The goal of this research was to define to mechanism of action for sexual arousal between the mind and the body for young men and women in the San Francisco Bay area. Working within the paradigm of the Sexual Response Cycle, helped to create the framework for understanding the male and female sexual response with sexual function and dysfunction at the core. The young male cohort was a group of heterosexual men who had experienced sexual function previously. The young female cohort was a group of heterosexual women who had experienced hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) previously. To review the fMRI research with male and female sexual arousal conducted at Stanford Medical Center and to propose some new research hypotheses. Methods Young (between the ages of 18 and 30), heterosexual, right-handed (for the sake of research consistency) men and women were recruited for this research, after obtaining IRB approval and Informed Consent. The young male study was completed within one month of initiating recruitment. The initial female study took six months and over 280 applicants to find 20 participants for the initial study. This cohort was used to define the stimuli for the women because we thought it might be different than it was for the men. The second female study took over a year to complete and included 20 young women with no history of sexual dysfunction (NHSD) as compared to 16 women with HSDD. Each group included approximately 20 participants initially, after the phone screening, completing the Informed Consent, and remaining in the 3T fMRI scanner at Stanford Medical Center to view and respond to the various stimuli as it was presented to them. The protocol called for them to receive the stimuli in various orders between relaxation, sports stimuli, and sexual stimuli. Their heart rate, respiration, sexual/genital responses were monitored with either a turgometer (male) or vaginal photoplethysomograph (VPP-female), behavioral responses, and brain activation were all correlated with the kind of stimuli they were receiving at the time. Results After a block analysis data assessment, the results demonstrated the young men had sexual arousal activation: in the right subinsular region, including the claustrum, left caudate and putamen, right middle occipital/middle temporal gyri, bilateral cingulated gyrus and right sensiormotor and pre-motor regions. This was in contrast to the female results, which demonstrated more behavioral response to the erotic stimuli by the NHSD women. Additionally, women with NHSD showed more activation in the bilateral entorhinal cortex. And, women with HSDD showed more activation in the medial frontal gyrus (Broadman Area-BA10), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) and bilateral putamen. Findings were consistent across three experimental sessions. The results suggest differences between NHSD and HSDD women in encoding sexual stimuli, retrieval of past erotic experiences or both. Conclusions While this presentation demonstrates gender differences of sexual arousal in brain activation, clearly, there is more work to be done to define the science behind the hypotheses. Some additional hypotheses to be explored might include: comparing male and female sexual arousal with fMRI technology across the lifespan; and, with various diseases and disorders. Once the science is defined, we might be able to more effectively understand the etiology and efficacy of various treatment methods for various diseases and disorders.

  4. Concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress among Vietnam combat veterans undergoing challenge testing for PTSD.

    PubMed

    Marx, Brian P; Bovin, Michelle J; Suvak, Michael K; Monson, Candice M; Sloan, Denise M; Fredman, Steffany J; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kaloupek, Danny G; Keane, Terence M

    2012-08-01

    This study examined concordance between physiological arousal and subjective distress during a laboratory challenge task. Data were collected during the multisite VA Cooperative Study 334 in the early 1990s examining psychophysiological arousal among combat-exposed Vietnam veterans with (n = 775) and without (n = 369) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Study participants were presented with 6 standardized neutral scenes and 6 standardized combat scenes. Participants provided a subjective rating of distress after each slide. During the presentation, levels of heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were recorded. Using linear mixed effects modeling, both HR level and SC level exhibited significant positive associations with subjective distress ratings (pr = .33, p < .001 and pr = .19, p < .001, respectively). Individuals with PTSD demonstrated greater concordance between their distress ratings and SC level during exposure to combat slides than participants without PTSD (pr = .28, p < .001 vs. pr = .18, p < .001). Although a significant association was found between subjective distress and HR reactivity and SC reactivity, these findings were not moderated by PTSD status. The results of these analyses suggest that patients' reports of distress during exposure-based treatments might serve as approximate measures of actual physiological arousal. PMID:22848013

  5. The interaction of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention affects genital, but not subjective, sexual arousal in sexually functional women.

    PubMed

    van Lankveld, Jacques; Bergh, Simone

    2008-04-01

    In this study we investigated the effects of state and trait aspects of self-focused attention on genital and subjective sexual arousal of sexually functional, healthy women during presentation of audiovisual erotic stimuli. Psychophysiological sexual response was measured as vaginal pulse amplitude using a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Experiential aspects of sexual arousal were measured both during stimulus presentation and retrospectively after stimulus offset. Trait level of sexual self-focus was measured with the Sexual Self-Consciousness Scale. State self-focus was induced by switching on a TV camera that pointed at the participant's face and upper torso. A manipulation check revealed that both groups experienced equally elevated levels of self-focused attention of their physical appearance. Induction of state self-focus per se did not affect genital responses, but an interaction effect of self-focus and participants' level of trait sexual self-focus was revealed. Compared with women with low scores on this trait, women with high scores exhibited smaller genital responses when state self-focus was induced. Both groups did not differ when no self-focus was induced. Increase of state self-focus did not affect subjective sexual arousal, but participants with a high level of trait sexual self-focus reported stronger subjective arousal, compared with those with low trait level. The results were discussed with reference to previous work in this field. Some implications for treatment of sexual arousal disorder were discussed. PMID:18325482

  6. Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: a critical review.

    PubMed

    McConaghy, N

    1989-08-01

    Wheeler and Rubin (1987) advanced evidence that penile volume responses (PVRs) were no more sensitive than penile circumference responses (PCRs) in measuring erection which the authors incorrectly identified with sexual arousal. Knowledge of the literature would have led them to question that identification and the methodology of their study. PVRs have repeatedly been demonstrated to assess validly not erection but the sexual orientation of individuals, when derived from the early stage of erectile response to brief stimuli that were from their onset of moderate erotic strength. PCR assessment has been of the degree of erection to stimuli of 2-10 min duration. No success has been reported using PCR measures of erection to classify subjects individually as to their sexual orientation. Classification of groups of 30 but not 6 homosexuals was successful using their PCRs to nudes. Attempts to identify rapists and pedophiles from normals, and aggressive from nonaggressive rapists and pedophiles by PCRs have failed to be replicated. In comparing PVRs and PCRs, Wheeler and Rubin used as stimuli three 10-min presentations of a film which apparently did not immediately introduce erotic material. This procedure would not elicit meaningful PVRs. Though never validated as a measure of individuals' sexual arousal, PCR measures of erection are currently widely recommended for assessment and determining treatment of individual sex offenders. If these assessments could affect or are believed by the offenders to affect the outcome of the legal processes in which they are involved, the procedure is not only scientifically unsupported, it is unethical. PMID:2673137

  7. No longer his and hers, but ours: examining sexual arousal in response to erotic stories designed for both sexes.

    PubMed

    Scott, Christina L; Cortez, Angelberto

    2011-01-01

    Research on sexual arousal and erotica has focused primarily on men and women's responses to erotic films and stories designed for a sex-specific audience. To reduce the confounds of relying on separate materials when evaluating sex differences in arousal, the present study designed suggestive and explicit erotic stories that were rated as being equally appealing to men and women. Participants were 212 undergraduate students who completed self-report measures of sexual self-esteem, sexual desire, and pre- and posttest measures of arousal. As hypothesized, women in the suggestive and explicit conditions reported a significant increase in sexual arousal; however, only men who read the explicit story demonstrated significant elevations in arousal. The creation of "equally appealing" erotic stories has challenged the existing research paradigm and has initiated the investigation of sexual arousal from a set of common materials designed for both sexes. The benefits of creating a series of equally appealing erotic materials extends beyond empirical research and may ultimately facilitate greater openness and communication between heterosexual couples. PMID:21512937

  8. Physiological oxidative stress after arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrel

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Adrienne L.; Lohse, Lonita A.; Drew, Kelly L.; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), Spermophilus parryii, is characterized by a profound decrease in oxygen consumption and metabolic demand during torpor that is punctuated by periodic rewarming episodes, during which oxygen consumption increases dramatically. The extreme physiology of torpor or the surge in oxygen consumption during arousal may increase production of reactive oxygen species, making hibernation an injurious process for AGS. To determine if AGS tissues experience cellular stress during rewarming, we measured carbonyl proteins, lipid peroxide end products and percent oxidized glutathione in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of torpid, hibernating (hAGS), late arousal (laAGS), and cold-adapted, euthermic AGS (eAGS). In BAT carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxide end products were higher in eAGS and laAGS than in hAGS. By contrast, in liver, no significant difference in carbonyl proteins was observed. In another group of animals, comparison of carbonyl proteins and percent oxidized glutathione in frontal cortex, liver, and BAT of eAGS and hAGS showed no evidence of oxidative stress associated with torpor. These results indicate that increased thermogenesis associated with arousal AGS results in tissue specific oxidative stress in BAT but not in liver. Moreover, torpor per se is largely devoid of oxidative stress, likely due to suppression of oxidative metabolism. PMID:19233307

  9. When playing together feels different: effects of task types and social contexts on physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming contexts.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sohye; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

    2009-02-01

    This study examines how task types (violent vs. nonviolent) and social contexts (solo vs. collaborative) affect physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming. Our results show that social contexts modify the effects of violent game tasks on arousal. When compared with solo play, collaborative play led to a significant decrease in arousal in response to violent tasks, while leading to a slight increase for nonviolent tasks. The findings point to the importance of understanding how social contexts of game playing shape psychological experiences in multiplayer online games. PMID:19006459

  10. Effects of increasing and decreasing physiological arousal on anticipation timing performance during competition and practice.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Michael J; Smith, Mike; Bryant, Elizabeth; Eyre, Emma; Cook, Kathryn; Hankey, Joanne; Tallis, Jason; Clarke, Neil; Jones, Marc V

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if the effects of changes in physiological arousal on timing performance can be accurately predicted by the catastrophe model. Eighteen young adults (8 males, 10 females) volunteered to participate in the study following ethical approval. After familiarisation, coincidence anticipation was measured using the Bassin Anticipation Timer under four incremental exercise conditions: Increasing exercise intensity and low cognitive anxiety, increasing exercise intensity and high cognitive anxiety, decreasing exercise intensity and low cognitive anxiety and decreasing exercise intensity and high cognitive anxiety. Incremental exercise was performed on a treadmill at intensities of 30%, 50%, 70% and 90% heart rate reserve (HRR) respectively. Ratings of cognitive anxiety were taken at each intensity using the Mental Readiness Form 3 (MRF3) followed by performance of coincidence anticipation trials at speeds of 3 and 8 mph. Results indicated significant condition × intensity interactions for absolute error (AE; p = .0001) and MRF cognitive anxiety intensity scores (p = .05). Post hoc analysis indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in AE across exercise intensities in low-cognitive anxiety conditions. In high-cognitive anxiety conditions, timing performance AE was significantly poorer and cognitive anxiety higher at 90% HRR, compared to the other exercise intensities. There was no difference in timing responses at 90% HRR during competitive trials, irrespective of whether exercise intensity was increasing or decreasing. This study suggests that anticipation timing performance is negatively affected when physiological arousal and cognitive anxiety are high. PMID:25469534

  11. Distinguishing specific sexual and general emotional effects in fMRI-subcortical and cortical arousal during erotic picture viewing.

    PubMed

    Walter, Martin; Bermpohl, Felix; Mouras, Harold; Schiltz, Kolja; Tempelmann, Claus; Rotte, Michael; Heinze, Hans Jochen; Bogerts, Bernhard; Northoff, Georg

    2008-05-01

    Sexual activity involves excitement with high arousal and pleasure as typical features of emotions. Brain activations specifically related to erotic feelings and those related to general emotional processing are therefore hard to disentangle. Using fMRI in 21 healthy subjects (11 males and 10 females), we investigated regions that show activations specifically related to the viewing of sexually intense pictures while controlling for general emotional arousal (GEA) or pleasure. Activations in the ventral striatum and hypothalamus were found to be modulated by the stimulus' specific sexual intensity (SSI) while activations in the anterior cingulate cortex were associated with an interaction between sexual intensity and emotional valence. In contrast, activation in other regions like the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, the mediodorsal thalamus and the amygdala was associated only with a general emotional component during sexual arousal. No differences were found in these effects when comparing females and males. Our findings demonstrate for the first time neural differentiation between emotional and sexual components in the neural network underlying sexual arousal. PMID:18329905

  12. Skeletal muscle proteomics: carbohydrate metabolism oscillates with seasonal and torpor-arousal physiology of hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    The physiology of small mammalian hibernators shifts profoundly over a year, from summer homeothermy to winter heterothermy. Torpor-arousal cycles define high-amplitude tissue activity fluctuations in winter, particularly for skeletal muscle, which contributes to the energetically demanding rewarming process via shivering. To better understand the biochemistry underlying summer-winter and torpor-arousal transitions, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mas spectrometry to the soluble proteins from hindlimb muscle of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in two summer and six winter states. Two hundred sixteen protein spots differed by sampled state. Significantly, intrawinter protein adjustment was a minor component of the dataset despite large discrepancies in muscle activity level among winter states; rather, the bulk of differences (127/138 unequivocally identified proteins spots) occurred between summer and winter. We did not detect any proteomic signatures of skeletal muscle atrophy in this hibernator nor any differential seasonal regulation of protein metabolism. Instead, adjustments to metabolic substrate preferences dominated the detected proteomic differences. Pathways of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) were summer enriched, whereas the winter proteome was enriched for fatty acid β-oxidation. Nevertheless, our data suggest that some reliance on carbohydrate reserves is maintained during winter. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), which reversibly prepares glucose subunits for either glycolysis or glycogenesis, showed apparent winter state-specific phosphorylation. PGM1 was phosphorylated during rewarming and dephosphorylated by interbout arousal, implying that glucose supplements lipid fuels during rewarming. This, along with winter elevation of TCA cycle enzymes, suggests that hindlimb muscles are primed for rapid energy production and that carbohydrates are an important fuel for shivering thermogenesis. PMID:21865542

  13. Emergence of nonsexual crimes and their relationship to sexual crime characteristics and the deviant arousal of male adolescent sexual offenders: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Akakpo, Tohoro F; Burton, David L

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explore nonsexual crimes committed by a sample of 437 incarcerated adolescent sexual offenders as well as deviant arousal and its relationships to nonsexual and sexual crimes. Over 50% of the juvenile sexual offenders in this sample have committed nonsexual offenses. In addition, nonsexual crimes, particularly general delinquency, were significantly correlated to a number of characteristics of sexual crimes committed by the youth. Previous research has shown that sexually abusive youth are more likely to recidivate nonsexual crimes, and among the implications of this study is the need for treatment providers and service delivery systems to address nonsexual as well as sexual crimes. PMID:24818552

  14. The effect of negative emotion on deductive reasoning: examining the contribution of physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Blanchette, Isabelle; Leese, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    In three experiments, we explore the link between peripheral physiological arousal and logicality in a deductive reasoning task. Previous research has shown that participants are less likely to provide normatively correct responses when reasoning about emotional compared to neutral contents. Which component of emotion is primarily involved in this effect has not yet been explored. We manipulated the emotional value of the reasoning stimuli through classical conditioning (Experiment 1), with simultaneous presentation of negative/neutral pictures (Experiment 2), or by using intrinsically negative/neutral words (Experiment 3). We measured skin conductance (SC) and subjective affective ratings of the stimuli. In all experiments, we observed a negative relationship between SC and logicality. Participants who showed greater SC reactivity to negative stimuli compared to neutral stimuli were more likely to make logical errors on negative, compared to neutral reasoning contents. There was no such link between affective ratings of the stimuli and the effect of emotion on reasoning. PMID:21106478

  15. Physiological Markers of Arousal Change with Psychological Treatment for Insomnia: A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Christopher B.; Kyle, Simon D.; Gordon, Christopher J.; Espie, Colin A.; Grunstein, Ronald R.; Mullins, Anna E.; Postnova, Svetlana; Bartlett, Delwyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate if Sleep Restriction Therapy for insomnia is associated with modifications to physiological arousal, indexed through overnight measures of plasma cortisol concentrations and core body temperature. Methods In a pre-to-post open label study design, eleven patients with chronic and severe Psychophysiological Insomnia underwent 5 weeks of Sleep Restriction Therapy. Results Eight (73%) patients out of 11 consented completed therapy and showed a decrease in insomnia severity pre-to-post treatment (mean (SD): 18.1 (2.8) versus 8.4 (4.8); p = .001). Six patients were analyzed with pre-to-post overnight measures of temperature and cortisol. Contrary to our hypothesis, significantly higher levels of plasma cortisol concentrations were found during the early morning at post-treatment compared to baseline (p < .01), while no change was observed in the pre-sleep phase or early part of the night. Core body temperature during sleep was however reduced significantly (overall mean [95% CI]: 36.54 (°C) [36.3, 36.8] versus 36.45 [36.2, 36.7]; p < .05). Conclusions Sleep Restriction Therapy therefore was associated with increased early morning cortisol concentrations and decreased core body temperature, supporting the premise of physiological changes in functioning after effective therapy. Future work should evaluate change in physiological variables associated with clinical treatment response. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ANZCTR 12612000049875 PMID:26683607

  16. Sexual Arousal and Self-Control: Results from a Preliminary Experimental Test of the Stability of Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey; Kunzi, Tasha

    2012-01-01

    A central proposition of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Theory of Crime is the relative stability of low self-control, however research on "self-control strength" suggests that it may vary across contexts. The current study examines these differing conceptions by randomly assigning participants to one of two sexual arousal conditions or

  17. Sexual Arousal and Self-Control: Results from a Preliminary Experimental Test of the Stability of Self-Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Jeffrey; Kunzi, Tasha

    2012-01-01

    A central proposition of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Theory of Crime is the relative stability of low self-control, however research on "self-control strength" suggests that it may vary across contexts. The current study examines these differing conceptions by randomly assigning participants to one of two sexual arousal conditions or…

  18. Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.

    PubMed

    Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play. PMID:19280624

  19. Emotion regulation, physiological arousal and PTSD symptoms in trauma-exposed individuals

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Laura; Wild, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective studies suggest a link between PTSD and difficulty regulating negative emotions. This study investigated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and the ability to regulate negative emotions in real-time using a computerised task to assess emotion regulation. Method Trauma-exposed ambulance workers (N = 45) completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, PTSD symptoms and depression. Participants then completed a computer task requiring them to enhance, decrease or maintain their negative emotions in response to unpleasant images. Skin conductance responses (SCR) were recorded and participants also made ratings of emotion intensity. Immediately after the computer task, participants were asked to describe the strategies they had used to regulate their negative emotions during the task and recorded spontaneous intrusions for the unpleasant images they had seen throughout the following week. Results PTSD symptoms were associated with difficulty regulating (specifically, enhancing) negative emotions, greater use of response modulation (i.e., suppression) and less use of cognitive change (i.e., reappraisal) strategies to down-regulate their negative emotions during the task. More intrusions developed in participants who had greater reductions in physiological arousal whilst decreasing their negative emotions. Limitations PTSD was measured by self-report rather than by a clinician administered interview. The results suggest a relationship between emotion regulation ability and PTSD symptoms rather than emotion regulation and PTSD. Conclusions Difficulty regulating negative emotions may be a feature of trauma-exposed individuals with PTSD symptoms, which may be linked to the types of strategies they employ to regulate negative emotions. PMID:24727342

  20. Measurement of sexual arousal in male homosexuals: effects of instructions and stimulus modality.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Barlow, D H; Blanchard, E B; Mavissakalian, M

    1975-11-01

    Erections were measured in 20 male homosexual subjects under three instructional conditions and within three stimulus modalities. The three conditions were arousal (e.g., imagine yourself involved and get aroused), suppression (e.g., imagine yourself involved bu suppress erection responses), and rearousal (e.g., imagine yourself involved and get aroused). The three stimulus modalities studied were video tapes, slides or pictures, and audio tapes of homosexual cues. The results show that video tape generates the highest level of arousal, audio tape the lowest level of arousal, and slides an intermediate level. Both video tape and slides show substantial voluntary suppression effects. During suppression, video tape continues to elicit relatively high levels of arousal in contrast to slides and audio tapes, which are equally low. PMID:1212091

  1. Oral contraceptive use and female genital arousal: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Seal, Brooke N; Brotto, Lori A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2005-08-01

    This study explored effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on physiological sexual arousal as measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Sixteen women aged 18-29 viewed audiovisual neutral and erotic stimuli before and an average of 6 weeks following the onset of OCP use. Although subjective measures of sexual arousal, including perceptions of genital arousal, significantly increased in response to erotic stimuli both before and after OCP onset, physiological sexual arousal only increased before OCP use. A comparison of individual responses before and after OCP onset reveals a much higher degree of intrasubject variability after OCP onset. We discuss these findings as they relate to OCP use as a confounding methodological variable to consider in future investigations employing vaginal photoplethysmography. PMID:19817038

  2. Speech Accommodation and the Effects of Cognitive Uncertainty and Physiological Arousal upon It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherblom, John; La Riviere, Conrad

    In order to investigate speech accommodation--the way in which communicators influence each other's speaking patterns and rhythms--a study examined its occurrence, as well as the extent of a conversational partner's influence, and the influence of interpersonal uncertainty and differences in arousal level upon that accommodation process.…

  3. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links with Pragmatic Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did…

  4. Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

    1994-01-01

    Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…

  5. Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

    1994-01-01

    Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,

  6. Watching pornographic pictures on the Internet: role of sexual arousal ratings and psychological-psychiatric symptoms for using Internet sex sites excessively.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Schächtle, Ulrich; Schöler, Tobias; Altstötter-Gleich, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Excessive or addictive Internet use can be linked to different online activities, such as Internet gaming or cybersex. The usage of Internet pornography sites is one important facet of online sexual activity. The aim of the present work was to examine potential predictors of a tendency toward cybersex addiction in terms of subjective complaints in everyday life due to online sexual activities. We focused on the subjective evaluation of Internet pornographic material with respect to sexual arousal and emotional valence, as well as on psychological symptoms as potential predictors. We examined 89 heterosexual, male participants with an experimental task assessing subjective sexual arousal and emotional valence of Internet pornographic pictures. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and a modified version of the IAT for online sexual activities (IATsex), as well as several further questionnaires measuring psychological symptoms and facets of personality were also administered to the participants. Results indicate that self-reported problems in daily life linked to online sexual activities were predicted by subjective sexual arousal ratings of the pornographic material, global severity of psychological symptoms, and the number of sex applications used when being on Internet sex sites in daily life, while the time spent on Internet sex sites (minutes per day) did not significantly contribute to explanation of variance in IATsex score. Personality facets were not significantly correlated with the IATsex score. The study demonstrates the important role of subjective arousal and psychological symptoms as potential correlates of development or maintenance of excessive online sexual activity. PMID:21117979

  7. Subjective sexual arousal in response to erotica: effects of gender, guided fantasy, erotic stimulus, and duration of exposure.

    PubMed

    Youn, Gahyun

    2006-02-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of gender, guided fantasy, erotic stimulus (with or without audio), and exposure duration on the subjective sexual arousal of participants watching a 10-min erotic video excerpt depicting sexual activities between a heterosexual adult couple. The excerpt was shown to 105 male and 110 female undergraduates, and sexual arousal was measured four times, at intervals of 1, 4, 7, and 10,min from the onset of the excerpt. While no erotic stimulus effect was found, analysis of variance showed main effects of gender, guided fantasy, and exposure duration, and three two-way interactions of gender x guided fantasy, gender x exposure duration, and guided fantasy x exposure duration. According to the results of simple effects tests, the gender effects were found regardless of whether they had firstly experienced a guided fantasy, while the guided fantasy effect was detected only for the females. The simple main effects for gender were found at all four time intervals, while the pattern of within-subject contrasts at the four time intervals for the males was different from that for the females. The simple main effects for guided fantasy were not found at 1,min and 4,min, but at 7,min and 10,min, while the pattern of within-subject contrasts at the four time intervals for the guided fantasy present condition was different from that for the absent condition. The findings involving gender differences were discussed in the context of biological and social factors. PMID:16502156

  8. Gender difference in brain activation to audio-visual sexual stimulation; do women and men experience the same level of arousal in response to the same video clip?

    PubMed

    Chung, W S; Lim, S M; Yoo, J H; Yoon, H

    2013-01-01

    Factors related to sexual arousal are different in men and women. The conditions for women to become aroused are more complex. However, the conventional audio-visual stimulation (AVS) materials used to evaluate sexual arousal are universal. In the present study, we investigated sexual differences in the response to different types of AVS by studying activated areas of the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). fMRI was performed during two types of AVS in 20 healthy heterosexual volunteers (aged 20-28 years, 10 men and 10 women). The two AVS types were: (1) mood type, erotic video clips with a concrete story and (2) physical type, directly exposing sexual intercourse and genitalia. fMRI images were analyzed and compared for each stimulation with a Mann-Whitney U test, with statistical significance set at P<0.05. Men preferred the physical type of AVS to the mood type (mean arousal score 2.14 vs 1.86 in females) and women preferred the mood type (mean arousal score 2.14 vs 1.86 in males) (P<0.05). Degrees of activation in brain areas differed between genders and types of AVS for each gender. This should be considered when applying the AVS method to evaluate and diagnose female sexual dysfunction. PMID:23303334

  9. The arousing power of everyday materials: an analysis of the physiological and behavioral responses to visually and tactually presented textures.

    PubMed

    Etzi, Roberta; Gallace, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has shown that during multisensory perception, vision frequently dominates over the other sensory modalities. However, it is still unclear whether sensory dominance also implies the generation of a greater state of arousal. Here, we assess the psycho-physiological reactions to different materials when presented tactually (Group 1) or visually (Group 2). In Group 1, the participants' forearm was stroked with different textures (satin, tinfoil, leather, sandpaper and abrasive sponge), by either a male or a female experimenter. The speed of stimulation was set to elicit a vigorous response of C-tactile afferents, involved in the perception of the more pleasant aspects of touch. The participants were asked to rate the pleasantness of the stimulation. In Group 2, the same textures were presented only visually, and the participants were asked to rate the imagined pleasantness of being touched by those stimuli. Skin conductance responses were recorded in both groups. The results revealed that the tactile presentation of the stimuli led to higher skin conductance responses than the visual presentation; this difference was higher for women than for men. Smooth materials were perceived as more pleasant than rough materials, but no differences in terms of skin conductance responses were found among them. Moreover, the textures were rated as less pleasant when presented visually than when presented tactually. These findings are relevant to understand how physiological arousal is modulated by different senses and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in hedonic tactile perception. PMID:26842855

  10. Electroencephalographic activity during sexual behavior: a novel approach to the analysis of drug effects on arousal and motivation relevant for sexual dysfunctions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-González, Marisela; Guevara, Miguel Angel; Agmo, Anders

    2014-06-01

    The neurobiological bases of human sexual behavior are only partly understood. The etiology of most human sexual dysfunctions is not understood at all. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made in the treatment of some male sexual disorders. The prime example should be erectile deficiency, where several efficient and safe treatments are available. Pharmacological treatment for premature ejaculation is also available, although it is still in an early stage. Disorders of sexual desire have attracted much attention when women are affected but far less so when men are concerned. Whereas animal models appropriate for testing treatments for problems with erection and premature ejaculation are available, it is questionable whether such models of the desire disorders have predictive validity. There seems to be many factors involved both in reduced and enhanced sexual desire, most of which are unknown. In this review we present some data suggesting that an electroencephalographic analysis of brain activity during exposure to sexually relevant stimuli in male rats and men and during execution of sexual behaviors in male rats may provide useful information. The effects of a commonly used drug, ethanol, on the electroencephalogram recorded during sexual events in rats and men are also described. Although this approach to the analysis of the central nervous activity associated with sexual desire, arousal and behavior is still in its infancy, the data obtained so far show a remarkable similarity between men and rats. This suggests that animal studies of electroencephalographic responses to drugs in sexual contexts may be useful for predicting effects in the human male. PMID:24534418

  11. The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

    Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

  12. Male victims of sexual assault: phenomenology, psychology, physiology.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Clayton M; Beckson, Mace

    2011-01-01

    Myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality, are widespread in legal and medical communities, as well as among agencies providing services to sexual assault victims. These include perceptions that men in noninstitutionalized settings are rarely sexually assaulted, that male victims are responsible for their assaults, that male sexual assault victims are less traumatized by the experience than their female counterparts, and that ejaculation is an indicator of a positive erotic experience. As a result of the prevalence of such beliefs, there is an underreporting of sexual assaults by male victims; a lack of appropriate services for male victims; and, effectively, no legal redress for male sexual assault victims. By comparison, male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Many male victims, either because of physiological effects of anal rape or direct stimulation by their assailants, have an erection, ejaculate, or both during the assault. This is incorrectly understood by assailant, victim, the justice system, and the medical community as signifying consent by the victim. Studies of male sexual physiology suggest that involuntary erections or ejaculations can occur in the context of nonconsensual, receptive anal sex. Erections and ejaculations are only partially under voluntary control and are known to occur during times of extreme duress in the absence of sexual pleasure. Particularly within the criminal justice system, this misconception, in addition to other unfounded beliefs, has made the courts unwilling to provide legal remedy to male victims of sexual assault, especially when the victim experienced an erection or an ejaculation during the assault. Attorneys and forensic psychiatrists must be better informed about the physiology of these phenomena to formulate evidence-based opinions. PMID:21653264

  13. Face to face versus Facebook: does exposure to social networking web sites augment or attenuate physiological arousal among the socially anxious?

    PubMed

    Rauch, Shannon M; Strobel, Cara; Bella, Megan; Odachowski, Zachary; Bloom, Christopher

    2014-03-01

    The present study tested two competing hypotheses about the effect of Facebook exposure on the physiological arousal level of participants who then encountered the stimulus person in a face-to-face situation. Facebook exposure may attenuate later arousal by providing increased comfort and confidence, but it is also possible that Facebook exposure will augment arousal, particularly among the socially anxious. Participants completed a measure of social anxiety and were exposed to a stimulus person via Facebook, face to face, or both. Galvanic skin response was recorded during the exposures to the stimulus person. Results were consistent with the augmentation hypothesis: a prior exposure on Facebook will lead to increased arousal during a face-to-face encounter, particularly for those high in social anxiety. PMID:24180223

  14. Physiological Arousal in Autism and Fragile X Syndrome: Group Comparisons and Links With Pragmatic Language

    PubMed Central

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E.; Losh, Molly

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 28 with typical development (TD), aged 4–15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860

  15. Physiological arousal in autism and fragile X syndrome: group comparisons and links with pragmatic language.

    PubMed

    Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E; Losh, Molly

    2013-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860

  16. The strength of sexual arousal as a function of the age of the sex offender: comparisons among pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Ray; Barbaree, Howard E

    2005-10-01

    Previous research has shown that sexual arousability in human males declines from its peak in early adolescence until old age. This study compared the rates of decline in three groups of males: those most attracted sexually to prepubescent children (pedophiles), those most attracted to pubescent children (hebephiles), and those most attracted to physically mature persons (teleiophiles). The participants were 2,028 patients referred to Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health from 1995 to 2004 for evaluation of criminal or otherwise disturbing sexual behavior, but not for erectile or ejaculatory problems. All underwent phallometric assessment for erotic age-preference. This is a psychophysiological technique in which an individual's penile blood volume is monitored while he is presented with a standardized set of laboratory stimuli depicting male and female children, pubescents, and adults. The experimental measure of sexual arousability was the average of the participant's three greatest penile responses to any stimulus category, expressed in cubic cm of blood volume increase. The results showed that sexual arousability was an inverse function of age, and that there were no differences between the pedophiles, hebephiles, and teleiophiles in the rate at which arousability declined. PMID:16341604

  17. Rape-myth congruent beliefs in women resulting from exposure to violent pornography: effects of alcohol and sexual arousal.

    PubMed

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R

    2006-09-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers (N = 134) read an eroticized rape depiction after completing an alcohol administration protocol. As predicted, intoxicated participants were less likely to label the depicted events as rape than their sober counterparts. A path analytic model illustrated that participants' self-reported sexual arousal to the stimulus, as influenced by alcohol consumption and expectancies, resulted in increased rape myth congruent perceptions of the victim and decreased labeling of the incident as rape. Findings suggest that acute alcohol intoxication during violent pornography exposure may ultimately result in women developing more calloused attitudes toward rape and rape victims. PMID:16893966

  18. Is There a Relationship Between Tic Frequency and Physiological Arousal? Examination in a Sample of Children with Co-Occurring Tic and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conelea, Christine A.; Ramanujam, Krishnapriya; Walther, Michael R.; Freeman, Jennifer B.; Garcia, Abbe M.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is the contextual variable most commonly implicated in tic exacerbations. However, research examining associations between tics, stressors, and the biological stress response has yielded mixed results. This study examined whether tics occur at a greater frequency during discrete periods of heightened physiological arousal. Children with co-occurring tic and anxiety disorders (n = 8) completed two stress induction tasks (discussion of family conflict, public speech). Observational (tic frequencies) and physiological (heart rate) data were synchronized using The Observer XT, and tic frequencies were compared across periods of high and low heart rate. Tic frequencies across the entire experiment did not increase during periods of higher heart rate. During the speech task, tic frequencies were significantly lower during periods of higher heart rate. Results suggest that tic exacerbations may not be associated with heightened physiological arousal and highlight the need for further tic research using integrated measurement of behavioral and biological processes. PMID:24662238

  19. Acute effects of caffeine supplementation on cortical arousal, anxiety, physiological response and marksmanship in close quarter combat.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Suarez, Vicente Javier; Robles-Pérez, José Juan

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies have researched the ergogenic effect of caffeine in different shooting actions, but none of them in a stressful combat action. This study aimed to analyse the effect of a dose of 400 mg of caffeine monohydrate on the psycho-physiological response and marksmanship of soldiers in close quarter combat (CQC). We analysed the heart rate, blood lactate concentration, cortical arousal, state anxiety and marksmanship of 19 soldiers in the Spanish Army (38.9 ± 4.1 years; 177.4 ± 5.3 cm; 78.8 ± 7.6 kg) before and after a CQC simulation in a double-blind procedure. Caffeine intake did not improve shooting performance in CQC; however, it increased cognitive and somatic anxiety levels. Practitioner Summary: According to the previous literature, the ingestion of caffeine could help soldiers in operations conducted in sleep deprivation conditions, but in stressful combat situations it does not improve the marksmanship of soldiers. PMID:25848703

  20. Predator cat odors activate sexual arousal pathways in brains of Toxoplasma gondii infected rats.

    PubMed

    House, Patrick K; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor. PMID:21858053

  1. Predator Cat Odors Activate Sexual Arousal Pathways in Brains of Toxoplasma gondii Infected Rats

    PubMed Central

    House, Patrick K.; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor. PMID:21858053

  2. Toward personalized sexual medicine (part 1): integrating the "dual control model" into differential drug treatments for hypoactive sexual desire disorder and female sexual arousal disorder.

    PubMed

    Bloemers, Jos; van Rooij, Kim; Poels, Saskia; Goldstein, Irwin; Everaerd, Walter; Koppeschaar, Hans; Chivers, Meredith; Gerritsen, Jeroen; van Ham, Diana; Olivier, Berend; Tuiten, Adriaan

    2013-03-01

    In three related manuscripts we describe our drug development program for the treatment of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD). In this first theoretical article we will defend the hypothesis that different causal mechanisms are responsible for the emergence of HSDD: low sexual desire in women (with HSDD) could be due to either a relative insensitive brain system for sexual cues or to enhanced activity of sexual inhibitory mechanisms. This distinction in etiological background was taken into account when designing and developing new pharmacotherapies for this disorder. Irrespective of circulating plasma levels of testosterone, administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. The effects of an increase in sexual sensitivity of the brain depend on the motivational state of an individual. It might activate sexual excitatory mechanisms in low sensitive women, while it could evoke (or strengthen) sexual inhibitory mechanisms in women prone to sexual inhibition. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5i)-mediated increase in genital sexual response. Accordingly, a single dose of T+PDE5i might enhance sexual responsiveness, especially in women with low sensitivity to sexual cues. In other women sexual stimulation might elicit a prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated phasic increase in sexual inhibition, in which activity of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) is involved. We hypothesize that a single dose of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor agonist (5-HT(1A)ra) will reduce the sexual-stimulation-induced PFC-mediated sexual inhibition during a short period after administration. Consequently, treatment with T+5-HT(1A)ra will be more effective, in particular in women exhibiting sexual inhibition. Based on the results of our efficacy studies described in parts 2 and 3 of the series, we conclude that tailoring on-demand therapeutics to different underlying etiologies might be a useful approach to treat common symptoms in subgroups of women with HSDD. PMID:23130782

  3. Anxiety sensitivity and post-traumatic stress reactions: Evidence for intrusions and physiological arousal as mediating and moderating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Olatunji, Bunmi O; Fan, Qianqian

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of research has implicated anxiety sensitivity (AS) and its dimensions in the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the mechanism(s) that may account for the association between AS and PTSD remains unclear. Using the "trauma film paradigm," which provides a prospective experimental tool for investigating analog intrusion development, the present study examines the extent to which intrusions mediate the association between AS and the development of posttraumatic stress reactions. After completing a measure of AS and state mood, unselected participants (n = 45) viewed a 10 min film of graphic scenes of fatal traffic accidents and then completed a second assessment of state mood. Participants then kept a daily diary to record intrusions about the film for a one-week period. Post-traumatic stress reactions about the film were then assessed after the one-week period. The results showed that general AS and physical and cognitive concerns AS predicted greater post-traumatic stress reactions about the film a week later. Furthermore, the number of intrusions the day after viewing the traumatic film, but not fear and disgust in response to the trauma film, mediated the association between general AS (and AS specifically for physical and cognitive concerns) and post-traumatic stress reactions a week later. Subsequent analysis also showed that physiological arousal during initial exposure to the traumatic film moderated the association between general AS and the number of intrusions reported the day after viewing the film. The implications of these analog findings for conceptualizing the mechanism(s) that may interact to explain the role of AS in the development of PTSD and its effective treatment are discussed. PMID:26121496

  4. Prenatal letrozole produces a subpopulation of male rats with same-sex preference and arousal as well as female sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Olvera-Hernndez, Sandra; Chavira, Roberto; Fernndez-Guasti, Alonso

    2015-02-01

    Disruption of the sexual differentiation process during critical periods in male rodents produces changes in partner preference and sexual behavior. In this study we used prenatal (gestation days 10-22) letrozole (0.31 and 0.56 ?g/kg) to inhibit aromatase and alter normal sexual differentiation of males. These animals and control rats (injected with vehicle) were used when adults to study: a) sexual preference (where the experimental male could choose to interact with a receptive female or a sexually experienced male); b) masculine and feminine sexual behaviors (tested in cylindrical arenas); c) non-contact erections when exposed to a female or a male and, d) serum sex steroids and gonadotropin levels. The results showed that 30% of the males treated with letrozole (0.56 ?g/kg) had same-sex preference, 33% displayed lordosis and 63% showed non-contact erections in the presence of a sexually experienced male. However, 44% of these males also exhibited complete masculine sexual behavior towards receptive females. None of the control males displayed lordosis when mounted by another male and very few (12%) showed non-contact erections when exposed to a sexually experienced male. Similar low percentages were found in those males prenatally treated with the low letrozole dose (0.31 ?g/kg). No difference was found in the serum levels of testosterone, estradiol, LH and FSH between control and letrozole-treated males regardless of their sexual preference. These results indicate that prenatal selective inhibition of aromatization produces feminization of sexual partner preference, arousal and sexual behavior but does not affect masculine sexual behavior. PMID:25462593

  5. Physiological reactivity in a community sample of sexually aggressive young men: a test of competing hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R

    2014-01-01

    Men's sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually aggressive and 40 non-aggressive men). In a laboratory protocol, the men were exposed to neutral, negative-affect-inducing, and positive-affect-inducing stimuli. Men's salivary cortisol concentrations and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured throughout the laboratory procedure. Sexually aggressive men demonstrated (1) lower overall cortisol levels and (2) lower EDA reactivity in some conditions as compared to non-aggressive men. Results of this study were consistent with the idea that men's sexual aggression is associated with physiological hyporeactivity, a physiological profile that has been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits. PMID:24310818

  6. Toward a Theory of Sexual Aggression: A Quadripartite Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Gordon C. Nagayama; Hirschman, Richard

    1991-01-01

    Addresses need for unified theoretical model of sexually aggressive behavior against adult females by integrating elements of existing models into quadripartite model which accounts for heterogeneity of sexual aggressors by prominence of potential etiological factors. Model components (physiological sexual arousal, cognitions justifying sexual

  7. Sexual victimization history, depression, and task physiology as predictors of sexual revictimization: results from a 6-month prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Wilson, Laura C; Patriquin, Michelle A; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-02-01

    The current study examined depression and physiological reactivity to a sexual threat task as longitudinal predictors of sexual revictimization in women with sexual victimization histories. The sample included 14 young adult women (M(age) = 19.15) who reported child sexual abuse. Heart rate and root mean square of the successive differences were measured at baseline and during the presentation of sexual victimization-related words during an Emotional Stroop task. Results indicated that women who reported a greater history of childhood sexual abuse and adult sexual victimization were at increased risk for sexual revictimization 6 months after initial data collection. Furthermore, even after accounting for their childhood and adult sexual victimization histories and depression symptoms, women who exhibited reduced, or blunted, physiological activity during the sexual victimization stimuli of the Stroop task were more likely to report sexual revictimization during the 6-month follow-up. The findings suggest that sexual victimization survivors may benefit from interventions that address physiological blunting and the recognition of sexual threat cues in their environment. PMID:24923892

  8. Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.

    PubMed

    Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

    2001-09-01

    Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

  9. Anatomy and physiology of the clitoris, vestibular bulbs, and labia minora with a review of the female orgasm and the prevention of female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Puppo, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This review, with 21 figures and 1 video, aims to clarify some important aspects of the anatomy and physiology of the female erectile organs (triggers of orgasm), which are important for the prevention of female sexual dysfunction. The clitoris is the homologue of the male's glans and corpora cavernosa, and erection is reached in three phases: latent, turgid, and rigid. The vestibular bulbs cause "vaginal" orgasmic contractions, through the rhythmic contraction of the bulbocavernosus muscles. Because of the engorgement with blood during sexual arousal, the labia minora become turgid, doubling or tripling in thickness. The corpus spongiosum of the female urethra becomes congested during sexual arousal; therefore, male erection equals erection of the female erectile organs. The correct anatomical term to describe the erectile tissues responsible for female orgasm is the female penis. Vaginal orgasm and the G-spot do not exist. These claims are found in numerous articles that have been written by Addiego F, Whipple B, Jannini E, Buisson O, O'Connell H, Brody S, Ostrzenski A, and others, have no scientific basis. Orgasm is an intense sensation of pleasure achieved by stimulation of erogenous zones. Women do not have a refractory period after each orgasm and can, therefore, experience multiple orgasms. Clitoral sexual response and the female orgasm are not affected by aging. Sexologists should define having sex/love making when orgasm occurs for both partners with or without vaginal intercourse. PMID:23169570

  10. Testing cognitive predictors of individual differences in the sexual psychophysiological responses of sexually functional women.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Jessica; Seehuus, Martin; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2015-07-01

    The literature on sexual responses shows a large and not fully understood between-women variance in sexual responses and in strength of coherence between physiological and subjective sexual responses. This study investigated cognitive factors theorized to be associated with sexual responses that could explain such variance. Specifically, we investigated the predictive value of sexual excitation/inhibition and sexual schemas on sexual response and coherence. Vaginal photoplethysmography and continuous subjective sexual arousal were collected from 29 young women while they watched a control/erotic video sequence. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that high sexual excitation and schemas related to passion and romance were related to higher coherence. These findings support the notion that cognitive factors that enhance sexual arousal contribute to the large variation seen in the coherence of sexual response as measured in the laboratory. PMID:25816911

  11. Arousal from sleep - The physiological and subjective effects of a 15 dB/A/ reduction in aircraft flyover noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levere, T. E.; Davis, N.

    1977-01-01

    The present research was concerned with whether or not a 15 dB(A) reduction in overall noise level would lessen the sleep disturbing properties of jet aircraft flyover noise and, if less disturbing, whether this would be subjectively appreciated by the sleeping individual. The results indicate that a reduction of 15 dB (A) does result in less sleep disruption but only during sleep characterized by fast-wave electroencephalographic activity. During sleep characterized by slow-wave electroencephalographic activity, such a reduction in the sleep-disturbing properties of jet aircraft noise has little effect. Moreover, even when effective during fast-wave sleep, the decreased arousal produced by the lower noise levels is not subjectively appreciated by the individual in terms of his estimate of the quality of his night's sleep. Thus, reducing the overall noise level of jet aircraft flyovers by some 15 dB(A), is, at best, minimally beneficial to sleep.

  12. Sexual Dysfunction and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... problem in a person’s sexual desire, arousal, or orgasm. Sexual dysfunction is common. It affects as many ... of the phases of sexual response (desire, arousal, orgasm, resolution) as well as pain disorders may contribute ...

  13. Physiological Reactivity in a Community Sample of Sexually Aggressive Young Men: A Test of Competing Hypotheses

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Zoë D.; Janssen, Erick; Goodrich, David; Heiman, Julia R.

    2015-01-01

    Men’s sexually aggressive behavior potentially could relate to either physiological hyporeactivity or hyperreactivity, and these two different physiological profiles could be associated with different underlying causes of sexual aggression. Thus, measurement of physiological reactivity could provide insight into mechanisms relevant to the etiology of sexual aggression. The relationship between sexual aggression and physiological reactivity was investigated in 78 community men (38 sexually aggressive and 40 non-aggressive men). In a laboratory protocol, the men were exposed to neutral, negative-affect-inducing, and positive-affect-inducing stimuli. Men’s salivary cortisol concentrations and electrodermal activity (EDA) were measured throughout the laboratory procedure. Sexually aggressive men demonstrated (1) lower overall cortisol levels and (2) lower EDA reactivity in some conditions as compared to non-aggressive men. Results of this study were consistent with the idea that men’s sexual aggression is associated with physiological hyporeactivity, a physiological profile that has been found to be associated with externalizing behaviors and psychopathic traits. PMID:24310818

  14. 'For men arousal is orientation': Bodily truthing, technosexual scripts, and the materialization of sexualities through the phallometric test.

    PubMed

    Waidzunas, Tom; Epstein, Steven

    2015-04-01

    We trace the history of the phallometric test--which measures erections of men exposed to visual erotic stimuli to characterize sexualities--in order to account for its functioning as a 'truthing technology'. On the basis of a content analysis of 410 key scientific journal article abstracts, we argue that since its invention in Czechoslovakia in the 1950s, phallometry has been employed within three distinct assemblages: as a test of predominance of sexual desire, as a test for therapeutic efficacy, and as a threshold test of sexual risk. Drawing on works of theorists of materialization and proponents of script theory, we argue that within each assemblage phallometric testing materializes male desire and renders it measurable via a 'technosexual script'. We consider the performative effects of phallometry in establishing scientific conceptions of normal and abnormal sexualities. At the same time, through attention to debates among practitioners and broader controversies surrounding the employment of phallometry, we examine the limits of researchers' abilities to establish the broader credibility of the test and capture the phenomenon of sexual desire. This analysis contributes to the study of truthing technologies (or 'truth machines') as a class, while also helping to build bridges between science and technology studies and sexuality studies. PMID:26477205

  15. [Symptomatology and treatment of persistent genital arousal disorder. Case report].

    PubMed

    Erős, Erika; Brockhauser, Ildikó; Pólyán, Edina

    2015-04-01

    Persistent genital arousal disorder is a rare condition among women characterized by unwanted and intrusive sexual arousal that can persist for an extended period of time and unrelated to sexual desire or sexual stimuli. Since its first documentation in 2001, numerous studies have been dedicated to investigate its specifics. The persistent genital arousal occurs in the absence of sexual interest and fantasies and it causes excessive psychological suffering. Masturbation, spontaneous orgasm or sexual intercourse can offer only a temporary relief. Researches provide a limited insight into the characteristics of persistent genital arousal disorder. This paper presents a case and summarizes the scientific findings on prevalence, etiology and treatment perspectives. PMID:25845321

  16. Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seok-Kyun; Kim, Gwang-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Kang, Heoung-Keun

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. Materials and Methods A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. Results The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Conclusion Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males. PMID:22563262

  17. Sexual selection by cryptic female choice on male seminal products - a new bridge between sexual selection and reproductive physiology.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, W G; Cordero, C

    1995-12-01

    Selection clearly focuses on differences in reproduction, but studies of reproductive physiology generally have been carried out in a near vacuum of modern evolutionary theory. This lack of contact between the two fields may be about to change. New ideas indicate that sexual selection by cryptic female choice has affected the evolution of products in male semen that influence female reproductive behavior and physiology. PMID:21237123

  18. Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…

  19. Anxiety sensitivity moderates the relationship of changes in physiological arousal with flight anxiety during in vivo exposure therapy.

    PubMed

    Busscher, Bert; Spinhoven, Philip; van Gerwen, Lucas J; de Geus, Eco J C

    2013-02-01

    Physiological sensations and discomfort constitute the major symptoms reported by aviophobics. Anxiety sensitivity (AS) seems to moderate the relationship between self-reported somatic sensations and flight anxiety, and AS has been identified as a vulnerability factor for flight phobia. In this study we examined whether AS moderates the effects of somatic sensations and autonomic nervous system reactivity on flight anxiety induced by real flight. In fifty aviophobics participating in Cognitive Behaviour Group Therapy (CBGT), flight anxiety, somatic sensations and autonomic nervous system reactivity were assessed during a guided return flight. Results indicate that physiological reactivity interacted with AS. Changes in heart rate and parasympathetic activity were more strongly associated with changes in reported flight anxiety for high AS participants, and less for participants low on AS. Results did not indicate a moderating effect of AS on the relationship between self-reported somatic sensations and flight anxiety. Our results suggest that therapy for flight phobia might benefit from addressing the physical effect of anxiety, by means of cognitive restructuring and exposure to interoceptive stimuli, particularly in aviophobics high in AS. PMID:23262117

  20. Prenatal Loud Music and Noise: Differential Impact on Physiological Arousal, Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Spatial Behavior in One Day-Old Chicks

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation. PMID:23861759

  1. Female sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Rao, T.S. Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M.

    2015-01-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35–40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  2. Female sexuality.

    PubMed

    Rao, T S Sathyanarana; Nagaraj, Anil Kumar M

    2015-07-01

    Sex is a motive force bringing a man and a woman into intimate contact. Sexuality is a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy, and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. Though generally, women are sexually active during adolescence, they reach their peak orgasmic frequency in their 30 s, and have a constant level of sexual capacity up to the age of 55 with little evidence that aging affects it in later life. Desire, arousal, and orgasm are the three principle stages of the sexual response cycle. Each stage is associated with unique physiological changes. Females are commonly affected by various disorders in relation to this sexual response cycle. The prevalence is generally as high as 35-40%. There are a wide range of etiological factors like age, relationship with a partner, psychiatric and medical disorders, psychotropic and other medication. Counseling to overcome stigma and enhance awareness on sexuality is an essential step in management. There are several effective psychological and pharmacological therapeutic approaches to treat female sexual disorders. This article is a review of female sexuality. PMID:26330647

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part II: Physiological and Pharmacological Manipulations and Pathological Alterations of Locus Coeruleus Activity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Samuels, E. R; Szabadi, E

    2008-01-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, gives rise to fibres innervating most structures of the neuraxis. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped to unravel the neuronal circuitry controlling a number of physiological functions in which the LC plays a central role. Two such functions are the regulation of arousal and autonomic activity, which are inseparably linked largely via the involvement of the LC. Alterations in LC activity due to physiological or pharmacological manipulations or pathological processes can lead to distinct patterns of change in arousal and autonomic function. Physiological manipulations considered here include the presentation of noxious or anxiety-provoking stimuli and extremes in ambient temperature. The modification of LC-controlled functions by drug administration is discussed in detail, including drugs which directly modify the activity of LC neurones (e.g., via autoreceptors, storage, reuptake) or have an indirect effect through modulating excitatory or inhibitory inputs. The early vulnerability of the LC to the ageing process and to neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) is of considerable clinical significance. In general, physiological manipulations and the administration of stimulant drugs, α2-adrenoceptor antagonists and noradrenaline uptake inhibitors increase LC activity and thus cause heightened arousal and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast, the administration of sedative drugs, including α2-adrenoceptor agonists, and pathological changes in LC function in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing reduce LC activity and result in sedation and activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. PMID:19506724

  4. Adrenaline, arousal and sport.

    PubMed

    Krahenbuhl, G S

    1975-01-01

    In general, the literautre review provides theoretical explanations for the popular, common-sense belief that a little stress improves performance, whereas when stress becomes severe, performance declines and ultimately breaks down. In terms of psychological stress (as opposed to physiological) the single most important variable appears to be the subject's interpretation of the stress-producing stimuli. Increases in adrenaline and noradrenaline accompany a variety of emotional responses, but differential proportions are not seen as characterizing the various emotions. Noradrenaline secretion appears to be related to physiological stress, or the amount of work attempted by the organism. Adrenaline secretion seems to be more-directly related to mental stress and emotional response. As emotional involvement increases, adrenal medullary secretion of adrenaline increases. The accompanying physiological and metabolic responses faciltate performance to a point; however, extremely high levels of arousal may adversely affect the athlete's proficiency. This is expecially true of sport skills requiring steadiness, precision, and concentration. Finally, for the sake of perspective, it should be stated that any contribution or complication created by the catecholamines is minimal when the entire ability range of competitors is considered. Whereas near superhuman feats by ordinary individuals caught in life-threatening situations have been reported, variations of great magnitude are unlikely in sport. The average individual is not transformed into a world class athlete merely by "getting the adrenaline flowing." Among athletes of similar physical stature and physiological function, however, adrenaline and arousal may certainly tip the scale of performance in sport. PMID:1195705

  5. Lower sexual interest in postpartum women: relationship to amygdala activation and intranasal oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    RUPP, HEATHER A.; JAMES, THOMAS W.; KETTERSON, ELLEN D.; SENGELAUB, DALE R.; DITZEN, BEATE; HEIMAN, JULIA R.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, women experience significant changes in their neuroendocrine profiles and social behavior compared to before pregnancy. A common experience with motherhood is a decrease in sexual desire. Although the lifestyle and peripheral physiological changes associated with parturition might decrease a woman’s sexual interest, we hypothesized that there are also hormone-mediated changes in women’s neural response to sexual and infant stimuli with altered reproductive priorities. We predicted that amygdala activation to sexually arousing stimuli would be suppressed in postpartum versus nulliparous women, and altered with intranasal oxytocin administration. To test this, we measured amygdala activation using fMRI in response to sexually arousing pictures, infant pictures, and neutral pictures in 29 postpartum and 30 nulliparous women. Half of the women received a dose of exogenous oxytocin before scanning. As predicted, nulliparous women subjectively rated sexual pictures to be more arousing, and infant pictures to be less arousing, than did postpartum women. However, nulliparous women receiving the nasal oxytocin spray rated the infant photos as arousing as did postpartum women. Right amygdala activation was lower in postpartum versus nulliparous women in response to sexual, infant, and neutral images, suggesting a generalized decrease in right amygdala responsiveness to arousing images with parturition. There was no difference in right amygdala activation with nasal spray application. Postpartum women therefore appear to experience a decrease in sexual interest possibly as a feature of a more generalized decrease in amygdala responsiveness to arousing stimuli. PMID:23085496

  6. Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood.

    PubMed

    Meston, Cindy M; Lorenz, Tierney A

    2013-07-01

    Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood. PMID:24748915

  7. Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood. PMID:24748915

  8. Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.

    PubMed

    Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

    2005-11-15

    From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS. PMID:16216690

  9. Sex Differences in Response to Visual Sexual Stimuli: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Rupp, Heather A.; Wallen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews what is currently known about how men and women respond to the presentation of visual sexual stimuli. While the assumption that men respond more to visual sexual stimuli is generally empirically supported, previous reports of sex differences are confounded by the variable content of the stimuli presented and measurement techniques. We propose that the cognitive processing stage of responding to sexual stimuli is the first stage in which sex differences occur. The divergence between men and women is proposed to occur at this time, reflected in differences in neural activation, and contribute to previously reported sex differences in downstream peripheral physiological responses and subjective reports of sexual arousal. Additionally, this review discusses factors that may contribute to the variability in sex differences observed in response to visual sexual stimuli. Factors include participant variables, such as hormonal state and socialized sexual attitudes, as well as variables specific to the content presented in the stimuli. Based on the literature reviewed, we conclude that content characteristics may differentially produce higher levels of sexual arousal in men and women. Specifically, men appear more influenced by the sex of the actors depicted in the stimuli while women’s response may differ with the context presented. Sexual motivation, perceived gender role expectations, and sexual attitudes are possible influences. These differences are of practical importance to future research on sexual arousal that aims to use experimental stimuli comparably appealing to men and women and also for general understanding of cognitive sex differences. PMID:17668311

  10. Effect of combined psycho-physiological stretching and breathing therapy on sexual satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background During the last few decades, marital tensions and stresses have influenced various dimensions of life. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of combined psycho-physiological therapy (stretching therapy combined with breathing exercise) on sexual satisfaction among heterosexual men. Methods For this research, we used “convenience sampling” to select 80 males, who were then split equally into two groups, the intervention group and the control group, both groups containing men who had voiced a desire to be in the experimental group. For collection of data, we used an identical quasi-experimental design called the “nonequivalent control group.” Therapy sessions, each lasting 90 to 120 min, were carried out on the same 3 days of the week (Sunday, Tuesday, and Thursday) for a total of 20 sessions. The volunteers were selected from heterosexual men with stable relationships, who had been married a minimum of 6 months and were ages 20 to 55 years of age. Pre-tests, post-tests, and follow-up tests were conducted in a clinic at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM [1] ). For assessment, we used the sexual satisfaction subscale of the ENRICH [2] questionnaire. Results The intervention group had better post-test scores than the control group. Also, follow-up test scores for the intervention group were marginally better than those for the control group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions Combined psycho-physiological therapy including stretching and breathing exercise leads to improved sexual satisfaction. PMID:23522405

  11. Sexual Dimorphism in Circadian Physiology Is Altered in LXRα Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Feillet, Céline; Guérin, Sophie; Lonchampt, Michel; Dacquet, Catherine; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Delaunay, Franck; Teboul, Michèle

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian circadian timing system coordinates key molecular, cellular and physiological processes along the 24-h cycle. Accumulating evidence suggests that many clock-controlled processes display a sexual dimorphism. In mammals this is well exemplified by the difference between the male and female circadian patterns of glucocorticoid hormone secretion and clock gene expression. Here we show that the non-circadian nuclear receptor and metabolic sensor Liver X Receptor alpha (LXRα) which is known to regulate glucocorticoid production in mice modulates the sex specific circadian pattern of plasma corticosterone. Lxrα-/- males display a blunted corticosterone profile while females show higher amplitude as compared to wild type animals. Wild type males are significantly slower than females to resynchronize their locomotor activity rhythm after an 8 h phase advance but this difference is abrogated in Lxrα-/- males which display a female-like phenotype. We also show that circadian expression patterns of liver 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (Pepck) differ between sexes and are differentially altered in Lxrα-/- animals. These changes are associated with a damped profile of plasma glucose oscillation in males but not in females. Sex specific alteration of the insulin and leptin circadian profiles were observed in Lxα-/- females and could be explained by the change in corticosterone profile. Together this data indicates that LXRα is a determinant of sexually dimorphic circadian patterns of key physiological parameters. The discovery of this unanticipated role for LXRα in circadian physiology underscores the importance of addressing sex differences in chronobiology studies and future LXRα targeted therapies. PMID:26938655

  12. A brief mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral intervention improves sexual functioning versus wait-list control in women treated for gynecologic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brotto, Lori A.; Erskine, Yvonne; Carey, Mark; Ehlen, Tom; Finlayson, Sarah; Heywood, Mark; Kwon, Janice; McAlpine, Jessica; Stuart, Gavin; Thomson, Sydney; Miller, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Goal The goal of this study was to evaluate a mindfulness-based cognitive behavioral intervention for sexual dysfunction in gynecologic cancer survivors compared to a wait-list control group. Methods Thirty-one survivors of endometrial or cervical cancer (mean age 54.0, range 31–64) who self-reported significant and distressing sexual desire and/or sexual arousal concerns were assigned either to three, 90-minute mindfulness-based cognitive behavior therapy sessions or two months of wait-list control prior to entering the treatment arm. Validated measures of sexual response, sexual distress, and mood, as well as laboratory-evoked physiological and subjective sexual arousal were assessed at pre-, one month post-, and 6-months following treatment. Results There were no significant effects of the wait-list condition on any measure. Treatment led to significant improvements in all domains of sexual response, and a trend towards significance for reducing sexual distress. Perception of genital arousal during an erotic film was also significantly increased following the intervention despite no change in physiologically-measured sexual arousal. Conclusions A brief mindfulness-based intervention was effective for improving sexual functioning. Geographic restrictions permitted only a select sample of survivors to participate, thus, the generalizability of the findings is limited. Future studies should aim to develop online modalities for treatment administration to overcome this limitation. PMID:22293042

  13. Sexual Difficulties

    MedlinePlus

    ... Women with heart disease may have problems with orgasm or worry that sex is not safe. Chronic ... sex Trouble becoming aroused (vaginal dryness) and having orgasms Pain during sex or sexual activity Talk to ...

  14. Leuprolide acetate suppresses pedophilic urges and arousability.

    PubMed

    Schober, Justine M; Kuhn, Phyllis J; Kovacs, Paul G; Earle, James H; Byrne, Peter M; Fries, Ruth A

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA) for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36-58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months. Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile Plethysmography, PPG), as well as strong sexual urges toward children and masturbatory frequency involving thoughts of children (polygraph), were measured every 3 months. On LA, testosterone decreased to castrate levels. Penile tumescence was significantly suppressed compared with baseline, but sufficient response remained to detect pedophilic interest. Pedophilic interest was also detected by visual reaction times. When asked about having pedophilic urges and masturbating to thoughts of children, all subjects self-reported a decrease. Polygraph responses indicated subjects were not deceptive. On placebo, testosterone and physiologic arousal eventually rose to baseline. As noted by polygraph, at baseline and on placebo, subjects were deceptive regarding increased pedophilic urges and masturbatory frequency. Interest preference, as measured by Abel Assessment and Monarch PPG, was generally unchanged throughout the study. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented with LA significantly reduced pedophilic fantasies, urges, and masturbation; however, pedophilic interest did not change during 1 year of therapy. Deceptive responses by polygraph suggested that self-report was unreliable. Follow-up utilizing objective measures is essential for monitoring efficacy of treatment in pedophilia. Our study supports the premise that suppression of pedophilic behavior is possible. LA may augment cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and help break the sequence leading to a re-offense. PMID:16362253

  15. The role of salivary cortisol and DHEA-S in response to sexual, humorous, and anxiety-inducing stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    Stress and anxiety are commonly thought to be detrimental to sexual function. Several studies in both the human and animal literature, however, have found that inducing anxiety can enhance sexual function in women. The mechanisms that explain a negative relationship between physical and psychological stress and sexual functioning are well documented, but little is known about how stress or anxiety might have a facilitatory effect on sexual arousal. As an initial step in exploring the relationship between anxiety and sexual arousal, the present study examined the role of the autonomic nervous system, and the adrenal hormones cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) in response to a sexual film, an anxiety-inducing film, and a humorous film. Nineteen premenopausal women (mean age 24.4 years) who were free from sexual difficulties came into the lab on three separate days. At each session they were shown an anxiety-inducing, sexually arousing, or humorous (control) film while their physiological arousal was measured. They also provided saliva samples before and after each film. Cortisol significantly decreased, while DHEA-S increased in the sexual and humorous conditions. Neither hormone changed significantly in the anxiety-inducing condition. Autonomic nervous system activity measured by heart rate and heart rate variability did not change in response to the sexual or anxiety-inducing films, but heart rate variability increased significantly in response to the humorous film. The cortisol/DHEA-S ratio at the post-sexual film time point was significantly negatively correlated with genital arousal (measured by vaginal pulse amplitude). Anxiety-inducing films did not result in a physiological stress response, which can explain why they do not impair sexual function. PMID:21195074

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF PRESESSION FACTORS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF DEVIANT AROUSAL

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession masturbation lowered arousal levels and both participants suppressed arousal to varying degrees. These outcomes suggest the potential for consideration and manipulation of presession factors as treatment components for sex offenders with developmental disabilities. PMID:22219524

  17. Sequential Analysis of Autonomic Arousal and Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, John; Symons, Frank; Sng, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    There have been limited direct tests of the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) regulates arousal. In this study, two autonomic biomarkers for physiological arousal (heart rate [HR] and the high-frequency [HF] component of heart rate variability [HRV]) were investigated in relation to SIB for 3 participants with intellectual

  18. Sequential Analysis of Autonomic Arousal and Self-Injurious Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoch, John; Symons, Frank; Sng, Sylvia

    2013-01-01

    There have been limited direct tests of the hypothesis that self-injurious behavior (SIB) regulates arousal. In this study, two autonomic biomarkers for physiological arousal (heart rate [HR] and the high-frequency [HF] component of heart rate variability [HRV]) were investigated in relation to SIB for 3 participants with intellectual…

  19. Noradrenergic Modulation of Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Craig W.

    2008-01-01

    Through a highly divergent efferent projection system, the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system. State-dependent neuronal discharge activity of locus coeruleus neurons has long-suggested a role of this system in the induction of an alert waking state. More recent work supports this hypothesis, demonstrating robust wake-promoting actions of the locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system. Norepinephrine enhances arousal, in part, via actions of ?- and ?1-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the general regions of the medial septal area and the medial preoptic areas. Recent anatomical studies suggest that arousal-enhancing actions of norepinephrine are not limited to the locus coeruleus system and likely include the A1 and A2 noradrenergic cell groups. Thus, noradrenergic modulation of arousal state involves multiple noradrenergic systems acting with multiple subcortical regions. Pharmacological studies indicate that the combined actions of these systems are necessary for the sustained maintenance of arousal levels associated with spontaneous waking. Enhanced arousal state is a prominent aspect of both stress and psychostimulant drug action and evidence indicates that noradrenergic systems likely play an important role in both stress-related and psychostimulant-induced arousal. These and other observations suggest that the dysregulation of noradrenergic neurotransmission could well contribute to the dysregulation of arousal associated with a variety of behavioral disorders including insomnia and stress-related disorders. PMID:18199483

  20. Sexual and affective responses to same- and opposite-sex stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men: assessment and manipulation of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick

    2014-07-01

    Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24473940

  1. Physiological basis of starvation resistance in Drosophila leontia: analysis of sexual dimorphism.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Dau Dayal

    2014-06-01

    Geographically varying starvation stress has often been considered as a natural selector that constrains between-population differences for starvation resistance (SR) in Drosophila species. On the Indian subcontinent, a dozen Drosophila species have shown clinal variations in SR across latitude, but the evolved physiological basis of such contrasting adaptations is largely unknown. In the present study, I untangled the physiological basis of sex-specific as well as between-population divergence for SR in D. leontia, collected across a latitudinal transect of the Indian subcontinent (11°45'-31°19'N). Secondly, I tested the assumptions that hardening to starvation stress facilitates an increased survival under subsequent lethal levels of starvation, and such plastic effects differ between the sexes. I observed several interesting results. In contrast to a steeper cline of starvation-related traits with latitude in females, a shallower gradient was observed for males. Females stored higher (~1.3-fold) dry-mass-specific levels of body lipids and glycogen contents, and utilized these both of these energy resources under starvation stress, whereas the starved males metabolized only body lipids as a source of energy. Conversely, the rate of body lipid utilization and threshold need were considerably higher in females as compared with males. Between-population differences were significant for storage levels of energy reserves only, but not for other avenues (rate of metabolite utilization and threshold need) of SR for both sexes. These findings indicate that multiple pathways shape the physiological basis of sexual dimorphism for SR in D. leontia. Further, single or multiple bouts of starvation hardening conferred an increased longevity (~4-9 h; P<0.001) under subsequent lethal levels of starvation stress for females only, and such plastic responses were consistent with a decrease in rate of metabolite utilization. Nevertheless, between-population effects were non-significant for absolute hardening capacity (AHC=KSR-C). Altogether, these findings suggest that similar evolutionary constraints have resulted in divergent genetic as well as plastic responses to evolve adaptations under starvation stress, and account for the observed sexual dimorphism for basal SR in D. leontia. PMID:24871919

  2. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology—Implications for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; D’Onofrio, Stasia; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by major sleep/wake disturbances including increased vigilance and arousal, decreased slow wave sleep, and increased REM sleep drive. Other arousal-related symptoms include sensory gating deficits as exemplified by decreased habituation of the blink reflex. There is also dysregulation of gamma band activity, suggestive of disturbances in a host of arousal-related mechanisms. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of the disease. Recent discoveries on the physiology of the pedunculopontine nucleus help explain many of these disorders of arousal in, and point to novel therapeutic avenues for, schizophrenia. PMID:26483949

  3. Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2015-01-01

    Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label. PMID:24328817

  4. Psychophysiological consequences of unexplained arousal: a posthypnotic suggestion paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zimbardo, P G; LaBerge, S; Butler, L D

    1993-08-01

    This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases in heart and respiration rate) with and without amnesia for its source in a two-phase procedure. Only the hypnotizable Ss were expected to differ between conditions. As predicted, for the hypnotizable Ss, unexplained arousal produced significant and dramatic effects when compared with explained arousal, including misattributions. These results are considered within a conceptual framework of the role of discontinuous experiences in the development of psychopathological symptoms in normal persons. PMID:8408959

  5. Arousal-Augmented Priming Effects: Rock Music Videos and Sex Object Schemas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Christine Hall; Krygowski, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Investigates effects of undergraduate students' physiological arousal induced by physical activity on schematic priming effects from music videos. Finds that in high-arousal conditions priming effects were more extreme and more closely resembled music video content than in low-arousal conditions. (SR)

  6. Relationship between Arousal Intensity and Heart Rate Response to Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Hanly, Patrick; Younes, Magdy

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The visual appearance of cortical arousals varies considerably, from barely meeting scoring criteria to very intense arousals. Arousal from sleep is associated with an increase in heart rate (HR). Our objective was to quantify the intensity of arousals in an objective manner using the time and frequency characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and to determine whether HR response to arousal correlates with arousal intensity so determined. Design: Post hoc analysis of 20 preexisting polysomnography (PSG) files. Setting: Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited). Participants: N/A. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Arousals were scored using the American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. The EEG signals' time and frequency characteristics were determined using wavelet analysis. An automatic algorithm was developed to scale arousal intensity based on the change in wavelet features and data from a training set obtained from 271 arousals visually scaled between zero and nine (most intense). There were 2,695 arousals in 20 PSGs that were scaled. HR response (?HR) was defined as the difference between the highest HR in the interval [arousal-onset to (arousal-end +8 sec)] and the highest HR between 2 and 12 sec preceding arousal onset. There was a strong correlation between arousal scale and ?HR within each subject (average r: 0.95 0.04). The slope of the relationship varied among subjects (0.7-2.4 min-1/unit scale). Conclusions: Arousal intensity, quantified by wavelet transform, is strongly associated with arousal-related tachycardia, and the gain of the relationship varies among subjects. Quantifying arousal intensity in PSGs provides additional information that may be clinically relevant. Citation: Azarbarzin A; Ostrowski M; Hanly P; Younes M. Relationship between arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal. SLEEP 2014;37(4):645-653. PMID:24899756

  7. Different patterns of sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. Results of an investigation by semistructured interview of schizophrenic and neurotic patients and methadone-substituted opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Teusch, L; Scherbaum, N; Böhme, H; Bender, S; Eschmann-Mehl, G; Gastpar, M

    1995-05-01

    Little is known about sexual dysfunctions associated with psychiatric disorders and psychopharmacological treatment. In the present study schizophrenic patients (n = 45, mostly under neuroleptic treatment), neurotic patients (n = 50, mostly treated without medication), methadone-substituted opiate addicts (n = 37), and normal controls (n = 41) were included. They were interviewed with the aid of a sex-differentiated semistructured questionnaire on sexual function. All the methadone-substituted opiate addicts and nearly all the schizophrenic patients suffered from dysfunctions in at least one criterion. The three clinical groups differed significantly from the controls in sexual interest, emotional arousal, physiological arousal (erectile function/vaginal lubrication), performance (ejaculatory function/vaginism, dyspareunia), and orgasm satisfaction. Characteristic patterns of dysfunction were found in the male patients. The schizophrenic patients had significantly more dysfunctions of interest, physiological arousal, performance, and orgasm than the controls. Emotional arousal, erectile and ejaculatory functions, and orgasm satisfaction were impaired more frequently in the male schizophrenics than in the neurotic patients. Reduced sexual interest, emotional arousal, and orgasm satisfaction were reported more frequently by the methadone-substituted opiate addicts than by the neurotic men. Emotional arousal was even more frequently reduced than in the schizophrenic men. There was no correlation between sexual dysfunction and particular neuroleptics or neuroleptic or methadone dosage. The results are compared with the literature and suggestions made for further investigations. PMID:7568370

  8. Early adversity, elevated stress physiology, accelerated sexual maturation, and poor health in females.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Jay; Ruttle, Paula L; Boyce, W Thomas; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2015-06-01

    Evolutionary-minded developmentalists studying predictive-adaptive-response processes linking childhood adversity with accelerated female reproductive development and health scientists investigating the developmental origins of health and disease (DOoHaD) may be tapping the same process, whereby longer-term health costs are traded off for increased probability of reproducing before dying via a process of accelerated reproductive maturation. Using data from 73 females, we test the following propositions using path analysis: (a) greater exposure to prenatal stress predicts greater maternal depression and negative parenting in infancy, (b) which predicts elevated basal cortisol at 4.5 years, (c) which predicts accelerated adrenarcheal development, (d) which predicts more physical and mental health problems at age 18. Results prove generally consistent with these propositions, including a direct link from cortisol to mental health problems. DOoHaD investigators should consider including early sexual maturation as a core component linking early adversity and stress physiology with poor health later in life in females. PMID:25915592

  9. Measurement of risk of sexual violence through phallometric testing.

    PubMed

    Howes, Richard J

    2009-04-01

    The use of phallometric testing to determine risk of sexual violence is becoming more widely recognized throughout the world. This technique involves the precise measurement of circumferential change in the penis from flaccidity to erection in response to both 'normal' and deviant sexual stimuli. Phallometric testing is the only pure measure of sexual arousal, and unlike other physiological measures such as heart rate and GSR it is not influenced by arousal states such as fear and anger. The current published research compares the phallometric testing profiles of incarcerated sexual offenders with those of incarcerated nonsexual offenders. Specifically, the sexual arousal of 100 convicted rapists, pedophiles, and nonsexual offenders is examined. This research identifies what differentiates these groups and what best predicts risk of sexual aggression. Implications of these results include the possibility of using phallometric testing as a screening tool for those who work with vulnerable populations (e.g., child care workers, teachers). The principal benefit of phallometric testing, however, lies in the identification of those incarcerated men who are at greatest risk to sexually reoffend and who should thus be denied release from jail. PMID:19362036

  10. Physiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  11. Anxiety, Arousability and Neuroticism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Zahhar, Nabil; Hocevar, Dennis

    With the availability of so many definitions of and assessment devices for anxiety, researchers have stressed that the dimensionality of anxiety needs further investigation. To examine the dimensionality of three components of anxiety (trait anxiety, arousability, and neuroticism) two studies were conducted. In the first study, 123 high school…

  12. Sexual abuse in children - what to know

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual abuse - children ... abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitals Rubbing the abuser's genitals against a child's ...

  13. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology - Implications for insomnia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    We consider insomnia a disorder of waking rather than a disorder of sleep. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of insomnia, mainly representing an overactive waking drive. We determined that high frequency activity during waking and REM sleep is controlled by two different intracellular pathways and channel types in PPN cells. We found three different PPN cell types that have one or both channels and may be active during waking only, REM sleep only, or both. These discoveries point to a specific mechanism and novel therapeutic avenues for insomnia. PMID:26483950

  14. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    PubMed

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in turn, predicted earlier initiation of alcohol by age 16. Among boys, there also existed a significant baseline RSA by baseline cortisol interaction. Boys with low baseline RSA and high baseline cortisol had the highest levels of behavioral dysregulation. This increase in behavioral dysregulation was in turn related to initiation of alcohol use by age 16 and lower age of first sexual intercourse. We found sex-specific pathways to the initiation of alcohol use and risky sexual behavior through the combined activity of parasympathetic and neuroendocrine functioning. The study of multiple physiological systems may suggest new pathways to the study of age of onset of substance use and engagement in risky sexual behavior in adolescents. PMID:25033835

  15. Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal?

    PubMed

    Adams, H E; Wright, L W; Lohr, B A

    1996-08-01

    The authors investigated the role of homosexual arousal in exclusively heterosexual men who admitted negative affect toward homosexual individuals. Participants consisted of a group of homophobic men (n = 35) and a group of nonhomophobic men (n = 29); they were assigned to groups on the basis of their scores on the Index of Homophobia (W. W. Hudson & W. A. Ricketts, 1980). The men were exposed to sexually explicit erotic stimuli consisting of heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian videotapes, and changes in penile circumference were monitored. They also completed an Aggression Questionnaire (A. H. Buss & M. Perry, 1992). Both groups exhibited increases in penile circumference to the heterosexual and female homosexual videos. Only the homophobic men showed an increase in penile erection to male homosexual stimuli. The groups did not differ in aggression. Homophobia is apparently associated with homosexual arousal that the homophobic individual is either unaware of or denies. PMID:8772014

  16. Success of sildenafil treatment in neurogenic female sexual dysfunction caused by L5-S1 intervertebral disk rupture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Dean; Zaslau, Stanley

    2007-06-01

    Female sexual dysfunction can be founded by disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain. Physiologic sexual dysfunction can, in many cases, be the result of impaired neurovascular tone to the clitoris and vagina. The vagina and clitoris both contain erectile tissue and phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5). Accordingly, the use of sildenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, has been studied in relation to neurogenic female sexual dysfunction. The present case report addresses neurogenic female sexual dysfunction from the result of a ruptured L5-S1 intervertebral disk. The patient was treated with sildenafil, and her symptoms were recorded using a Female Sexual Function Index score. Discussion of the use of sildenafil in women, with an emphasis on female neurovascular sexual physiology and function, is reviewed. PMID:17593108

  17. REPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS IN AROUSAL ASSESSMENT FOR SEX OFFENDERS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795

  18. Trazodone Increases the Respiratory Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and a Low Arousal Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 6% (-11.5 1.4 versus -15.3 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 12 versus 39 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway anatomy in these patients. Citation: Eckert DJ; Malhotra A; Wellman A; White DP. Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold. SLEEP 2014;37(4):811-819. PMID:24899767

  19. The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

    2011-01-01

    Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

  20. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    PubMed

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. PMID:26003238

  1. Sexually compulsive men and inhibited sexual desire.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, B W

    1994-01-01

    Sexually compulsive males report extremely high rates of desire involving paraphiliac activity. Desire and arousal in partner sex is usually low or unstable. Cognitive-behavioral strategies and techniques are presented based on four components in the assessment/intervention process: 1) eliminating or reducing paraphiliac arousal; 2) sex education, changing sexual attitudes, self-disclosure, sexual assertiveness, and reduction of guilt and shame; 3) confronting secrecy and cognitive distortions, increasing empathy for victims, awareness of harm to others, and commitment to abstain from compulsive, abusive behavior; and 4) developing a healthy sexual desire and arousal pattern that nurtures and maintains an intimate relationship. The motivated male (especially with a partner he is comfortable with, attracted to, and trusts) can develop a pleasurable, erotic sexual pattern that allows him to maintain desire during partner sex. PMID:7996591

  2. Olfactory regulation of the sexual behavior and reproductive physiology of the laboratory mouse: effects and neural mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kelliher, Kevin R; Wersinger, Scott R

    2009-01-01

    In many species, chemical compounds emitted by conspecifics exert profound effects on reproductive physiology and sexual behavior. This is particularly true in the mouse, where such cues advance and delay puberty, suppress and facilitate estrous cycles, and cause the early termination of pregnancy. They also facilitate sexual behavior and inform mate selection. The mouse has a rich and complex repertoire of social behaviors. The technologies of molecular genetics are well developed in the mouse. Gene expression can be experimentally manipulated in the mouse relatively easily and in a time- and tissue-specific manner. Thus, the mouse is an excellent model in which to investigate the genetic, neural, and hormonal bases by which chemical compounds released by other mice affect physiology and behavior. These chemical cues are detected and processed by the olfactory system and other specialized but less well characterized sensory organs. The sensory information reaches brain regions that regulate hormone levels as well as those that are involved in behavior and alters the function of these brain regions. The effects of these chemical compounds have important implications for the laboratory animal facility as well as for researchers. We begin with an overview of the basic structure and function of the olfactory system and of the connections among brain regions that receive olfactory stimuli. We discuss the effects of chemosensory cues on the behavior and physiology of the organism along with what is known about the neural and hormonal mechanisms underlying these effects. We also describe some of the implications for the laboratory animal facility. PMID:19106450

  3. Boredom and arousal: comparison of tasks differing in visual complexity.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J P; Thackray, R I; Pearl, J; Parish, T S

    1976-08-01

    This experiment was designed to examine the relationship of boredom to arousal. 32 male subjects participated, with 16 subjects performing a low-visual-complexity task and the remainder performing a task high in visual complexity. Both physiological and subjective measures were obtained. Responses to subjective questionnaires showed significant increases in boredom for both groups. Physiological measures indicated a mixed pattern of change. These results suggest a complex response pattern for the construct of boredom which cannot be described as clearly showing either increasing or decreasing arousal. PMID:958805

  4. Female Sexual Dysfunction

    MedlinePlus

    ... a low sex drive or trouble having an orgasm. Some women are not bothered by this, but ... sexual desire Trouble becoming aroused Trouble having an orgasm Pain during sex A woman might have more ...

  5. Sexually different morphological, physiological and molecular responses of Fraxinus mandshurica flowers to floral development and chilling stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Qi, Fenghui; Yan, Chaofu; Zhan, Yaguang

    2016-02-01

    Fraxinus mandshurica is considered a dioecious hardwood, and the temporal separation of the maturation of the male and female flowers is one reason that F. mandshurica has become an endangered species in China. Rainfall and low temperature influence pollen formation and dispersal and the blooming of female flowers. Therefore, low fertilization efficiency strongly influences the population of F. mandshurica. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated the sex-specific morphological, physiological and molecular differentiation of F. mandshurica during flowering and its responses to low temperature. In this study, we investigated the sexual differences in the morphological, physiological, and biochemical parameters of F. mandshurica during flowering and determined the physiological and biochemical parameters and expression levels of related genes in response to low-temperature stress induced by exposure to 4 °C (chilling stress) during pollen dispersal and fertilization. Our study supports the hypothesis that male flowers suffer more severe injuries while female flowers are more adaptable to environmental stress during flower development in F. mandshurica. The results showed higher physiological and biochemical levels of malondialdehyde, proline, and soluble sugar, as well as the expression of genes involved in calcium signaling, cold shock and DNA methylation in male flowers compared with female flowers, which suggested that male flowers suffer from more serious peroxidation than female flowers. In contrast, higher antioxidant capacity and FmaCAT expression were detected in female flowers, providing preliminary evidence that male flowers rapidly fade after pollination and further demonstrating that female flowers need a much stronger antioxidant enzyme system to maintain embryonic growth. Most peaks related to physiological and molecular responses were observed at 2-4 h and 8-10 h of exposure to chilling stress in the female and male flowers, respectively. This trend implies that female flowers have higher adaptability to low temperature during fertilization. PMID:26744995

  6. Can fear arousal in public health campaigns contribute to the decline of HIV prevalence?

    PubMed

    Green, Edward C; Witte, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Most American health professionals who work in HIV/AIDS do not support the use of fear arousal in AIDS preventive education, believing it to be counterproductive. Meanwhile, many Africans, whether laypersons, health professionals, or politicians, seem to believe there is a legitimate role for fear arousal in changing sexual behavior. This African view is the one more supported by the empirical evidence, which suggests that the use of fear arousal in public health campaigns often works in promoting behavior change, when combined with self-efficacy. The authors provide overviews of the prevailing American expert view, African national views, and the most recent findings on the use of fear arousal in behavior change campaigns. Their analysis suggests that American, post-sexual-revolution values and beliefs may underlie rejection of fear arousal strategies, whereas a pragmatic realism based on personal experience underlies Africans' acceptance of and use of the same strategies in AIDS prevention campaigns. PMID:16624790

  7. Anatomy of the Vulva and the Female Sexual Response.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Jennifer; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-03-01

    The female vulva is an intricate structure comprising several components. Each structure has been described separately, but the interplay among them and physiologic significance remain controversial. The structures extend inferiorly from the pubic arch and include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, vestibule, and clitoris. The clitoris is widely accepted as the most critical anatomic structure to female sexual arousal and orgasm. The female sexual response cycle is also very complex, requiring emotional and mental stimulation in addition to end organ stimulation. PMID:26880506

  8. Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use. PMID:23733155

  9. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of…

  10. The Arousal-Performance Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrisberg, Craig A.

    1994-01-01

    One theme in discussing physical activity and stress is the relationship between emotional arousal and motor performance. Different research models have produced converging evidence for the notion that motor performance relates to a state of optimal arousal. Themes emerging from the literature and recommendations for future consideration are…

  11. Can Arousal Modulate Response Inhibition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinbach, Noam; Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine if and how arousal can modulate response inhibition. Two competing hypotheses can be drawn from previous literature. One holds that alerting cues that elevate arousal should result in an impulsive response and therefore impair response inhibition. The other suggests that alerting enhances processing of

  12. Are rapists differentially aroused by coercive sex in phallometric assessments?

    PubMed

    Lalumière, Martin L; Quinsey, Vernon L; Harris, Grant T; Rice, Marnie E; Trautrimas, Caroline

    2003-06-01

    In this chapter we examine whether rapists are sexually aroused by coercive, nonconsensual sex. This question is theoretically important because it speaks to a potential sexual motivation underlying rape. It is also clinically important in that it may reveal an important assessment and treatment target. We first revisit and update quantitative reviews of studies that examined the phallometric responses of rapists and other men. We then present new data on the discriminative and diagnostic validity of a phallometric test for rapists. Finally, we discuss methodological and conceptual issues in phallometric assessment and the nature of rapists' sexual interests. PMID:12839900

  13. The motivation behind serial sexual homicide: is it sex, power, and control, or anger?

    PubMed

    Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

    2006-07-01

    Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented. PMID:16882237

  14. Stepping Up the Pressure: Arousal Can Be Associated with a Reduction in Male Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew; Mann, Traci; Westling, Erika H.; Creswell, J. David; Ebert, Jeffrey P.; Wallaert, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The attentional myopia model of behavioral control (Mann & Ward, 2007) was tested in an experiment investigating the relationship between physiological arousal and aggression. Drawing on previous work linking arousal and narrowed attentional focus, the model predicts that arousal will lead to behavior that is relatively disinhibited in situations in which promoting pressures to aggress are highly salient. In situations in which inhibitory pressures are more salient, the model predicts behavior that is relatively restrained. In the experiment, 81 male undergraduates delivered noise-blasts against a provoking confederate while experiencing either high or low levels of physiological arousal and, at the same time, being exposed to cues that served either to promote or inhibit aggression. In addition to supporting the predictions of the model, this experiment provided some of the first evidence for enhanced control of aggression under conditions of heightened physiological arousal. Implications for interventions designed to reduce aggression are discussed. PMID:18561301

  15. Sex Differences in Phenotypic Plasticity Affect Variation in Sexual Size Dimorphism in Insects: From Physiology to Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Stillwell, R. Craig; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.; Teder, Tiit; Davidowitz, Goggy; Fox, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Males and females of nearly all animals differ in their body size, a phenomenon called sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The degree and direction of SSD vary considerably among taxa, including among populations within species. A considerable amount of this variation is due to sex differences in body size plasticity. We examine how variation in these sex differences is generated by exploring sex differences in plasticity in growth rate and development time and the physiological regulation of these differences (e.g., sex differences in regulation by the endocrine system). We explore adaptive hypotheses proposed to explain sex differences in plasticity, including those that predict that plasticity will be lowest for traits under strong selection (adaptive canalization) or greatest for traits under strong directional selection (condition dependence), but few studies have tested these hypotheses. Studies that combine proximate and ultimate mechanisms offer great promise for understanding variation in SSD and sex differences in body size plasticity in insects. PMID:19728836

  16. Sexual Dimorphism in Offspring Glucose-Sensitive Hypothalamic Gene Expression and Physiological Responses to Maternal High-Fat Diet Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Dearden, Laura

    2014-01-01

    A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, we investigated offspring physiological and transcriptomic consequences of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding during pregnancy and/or lactation. We demonstrate that female offspring of high-fat/high-sugar diet-fed dams are particularly vulnerable to metabolic perturbation with body weight increases due to postnatal processes, whereas in utero effects of the diet ultimately lead to glucose homeostasis dysregulation. Furthermore, glucose- and maternal-diet sensitive gene expression modulation in the paraventricular hypothalamus is strikingly sexually dimorphic. In summary, we uncover female-specific, maternal diet-mediated in utero misprogramming of offspring glucose homeostasis and a striking sexual dimorphism in glucose- and maternal diet-sensitive paraventricular hypothalamus gene expression adjustment. Notably, female offspring metabolic vulnerability to maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet propagates a vicious cycle of obesity and type 2 diabetes in subsequent generations. PMID:24684305

  17. Sexual dimorphism in offspring glucose-sensitive hypothalamic gene expression and physiological responses to maternal high-fat diet feeding.

    PubMed

    Dearden, Laura; Balthasar, Nina

    2014-06-01

    A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, we investigated offspring physiological and transcriptomic consequences of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding during pregnancy and/or lactation. We demonstrate that female offspring of high-fat/high-sugar diet-fed dams are particularly vulnerable to metabolic perturbation with body weight increases due to postnatal processes, whereas in utero effects of the diet ultimately lead to glucose homeostasis dysregulation. Furthermore, glucose- and maternal-diet sensitive gene expression modulation in the paraventricular hypothalamus is strikingly sexually dimorphic. In summary, we uncover female-specific, maternal diet-mediated in utero misprogramming of offspring glucose homeostasis and a striking sexual dimorphism in glucose- and maternal diet-sensitive paraventricular hypothalamus gene expression adjustment. Notably, female offspring metabolic vulnerability to maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet propagates a vicious cycle of obesity and type 2 diabetes in subsequent generations. PMID:24684305

  18. Sympathetic arousal increases a negative memory bias in young women with low sex hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Barber, Sarah J; Chai, Audrey; Clewett, David V; Mather, Mara

    2015-12-01

    Emotionally arousing events are typically better attended to and remembered than neutral ones. Current theories propose that arousal-induced increases in norepinephrine during encoding bias attention and memory in favor of affectively salient stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis by manipulating levels of physiological arousal prior to encoding and examining how it influenced memory for emotionally salient images, particularly those that are negative rather than positive in valence. We also tested whether sex steroid hormones interact with noradrenergic activity to influence these emotional memory biases in women. Healthy naturally cycling women and women on hormonal contraception completed one of the following physiological arousal manipulations prior to viewing a series of negative, positive and neutral images: (1) immediate handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip immediately prior to encoding, (2) residual handgrip arousal-isometric handgrip 15min prior to encoding, or (3) no handgrip. Sympathetic arousal was measured throughout the session via pupil diameter changes. Levels of 17β-estradiol and progesterone were measured via salivary samples. Memory performance was assessed approximately 10min after encoding using a surprise free recall test. The results indicated that handgrip successfully increased sympathetic arousal compared to the control task. Under immediate handgrip arousal, women showed enhanced memory for negative images over positive images; this pattern was not observed in women assigned to the residual and no-handgrip arousal conditions. Additionally, under immediate handgrip arousal, both high estradiol and progesterone levels attenuated the memory bias for negative over positive images. Follow-up hierarchical linear models revealed consistent effects when accounting for trial-by-trial variability in normative International Affective Picture System valence and arousal ratings. These findings suggest that heightened sympathetic arousal interacts with estradiol and progesterone levels during encoding to increase the mnemonic advantage of negative over positive emotional material. PMID:26276087

  19. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was

  20. Arousal Modulation in Females with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jane; Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Murphy, Melissa M.; Hoehn-Saric, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    The present study was carried out to examine physiological arousal modulation (heart activity and skin conductance), across baseline and cognitive tasks, in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome and a comparison group of females with neither syndrome. Relative to the comparison group, for whom a greater increase in skin conductance was…

  1. At a supra-physiological concentration, human sexual hormones act as quorum-sensing inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Beury-Cirou, Amlie; Tannires, Mlanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulre, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 g/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 g/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

  2. At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Beury-Cirou, Amélie; Tannières, Mélanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulère, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

    2013-01-01

    N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

  3. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  4. Women's sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: the role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Zo D; Janssen, Erick; Laan, Ellen

    2010-08-01

    Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a "category-specific" genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for Study 2), results confirmed that, on average, women did not show category-specific genital responses or category-specific subjective sexual arousal. However, there was evidence of notable within-group variability; many women did respond to the stimuli in a category-specific manner. Heterosexual women were more likely than lesbian women to demonstrate category-specificity. Findings also revealed that category-specificity was associated with multiple factors, including affective responses to the erotic stimuli and sexual history. Results of this study highlight the complexity of women's sexual identities and sexual responses. PMID:19856092

  5. Comparing Indicators of Sexual Sadism as Predictors of Recidivism among Adult Male Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Drew A.; Seto, Michael C.; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Method: Five hundred and eighty six

  6. Comparing Indicators of Sexual Sadism as Predictors of Recidivism among Adult Male Sexual Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, Drew A.; Seto, Michael C.; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Method: Five hundred and eighty six…

  7. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

  8. Sexual selection and the physiological consequences of habitat choice by a fiddler crab.

    PubMed

    Allen, Bengt J; Levinton, Jeffrey S

    2014-09-01

    In mid-Atlantic salt marshes, reproductively active male sand fiddler crabs, Uca pugilator, use a single greatly enlarged major claw as both a weapon to defend specialized breeding burrows from other males and an ornament to attract females for mating. During the summer breeding season, females strongly prefer to mate with males controlling burrows in open areas high on the shore. Food availability decreases while temperature and desiccation stress increase with increasing shore height, suggesting that the timing and location of fiddler crab mating activity may result in a potential trade-off between reproductive success and physiological condition for male crabs. We compared thermal preferences in laboratory choice experiments to body temperatures of models and living crabs in the field and found that from the perspective of a fiddler crab, the thermal environment of the mating area is quite harsh relative to other marsh microhabitats. High temperatures significantly constrained fiddler crab activity on the marsh surface, a disadvantage heightened by strongly reduced food availability in the breeding area. Nevertheless, when the chance of successfully acquiring a mate was high, males accepted a higher body temperature (and concomitantly higher metabolic and water loss rates) than when the chances of mating were low. Likewise, experimentally lowering costs by adding food and reducing thermal stress in situ increased fiddler crab waving display levels significantly. Our data suggest that fiddler crabs can mitigate potential life history trade-offs by tuning their behavior in response to the magnitude of both energetic and non-energetic costs and benefits. PMID:24997775

  9. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well-understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally-negative information. Participants were randomly assigned to either a reappraisal condition in which they were instructed to think about their physiological arousal during a stressful task as functional and adaptive, or to one of two control conditions: attention reorientation and no instructions. Relative to controls, participants instructed to reappraise their arousal exhibited more adaptive cardiovascular stress responses – increased cardiac efficiency and lower vascular resistance – and decreased attentional bias. Thus, reappraising arousal shows physiological and cognitive benefits. Implications for health and potential clinical applications are discussed. PMID:21942377

  10. Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…

  11. Female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jennifer J; O'Connor, Kim M

    2015-05-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a common patient concern. After providing an overview regarding the various types of female sexual dysfunction, we will focus on history taking and treatment options for desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain disorders. Testosterone therapy and management of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor-associated sexual dysfunction are reviewed. Treatments for atrophic vaginitis are appraised. Patient cases lead the discussion, providing the reader with clinically relevant information. PMID:25841603

  12. Histological Correlates of Penile Sexual Sensation: Does Circumcision Make a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Guy; Krieger, John N; Morris, Brian J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The question of whether removal of sensory receptors in the prepuce by circumcision affects sensitivity and/or sexual pleasure is often debated. Aims To examine histological correlates relevant to penile sensitivity and sexual pleasure. Methods Systematic review of the scientific literature on penile structures that might affect sensitivity and sexual sensation. Articles were included if they contained original data on human male penile histology or anatomy. Individual articles, including reference lists, were evaluated. They were then considered in relation to physiological data from articles retrieved by a previous systematic review. Results We retrieved 41 publications on penile structure. Considered in the light of 12 reporting physiological measurements, our evaluation finds that sexual response is unlikely to involve Meissner’s corpuscles, whose density in the prepuce diminishes at the time of life when male sexual activity is increasing. Free nerve endings also show no correlation with sexual response. Because tactile sensitivity of the glans decreases with sexual arousal, it is unrelated to sexual sensation. Thermal sensitivity seems part of the reward mechanism of intercourse. Vibrational sensitivity is not related to circumcision status. Observations that penile sexual sensation is higher post circumcision are consistent with greater access of genital corpuscles to sexual stimuli after removal of the prepuce. This is based on the distribution of these corpuscles (which are located in the glans) and, in uncircumcised men, the position of the retracted prepuce during intercourse, rather than any change in the number of genital corpuscles. The scientific literature suggests that any sexual effect of circumcised men may depend solely on exposure of the glans and not on the absence of the prepuce. Conclusion Based on histological findings and correlates of sexual function, loss of the prepuce by circumcision would appear to have no adverse effect on sexual pleasure. Our evaluation supports overall findings from physiological measurements and survey data. PMID:26185672

  13. Irrational Beliefs and Anger Arousal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazaleus, Susan L.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between irrational beliefs and anger arousal in college students (N=342) who completed two questionnaires. Results showed men were more likely to endorse irrational beliefs regarding blame proneness and helplessness. Women reported more endorsement of the irrational belief regarding dependency. (BH)

  14. Arousal and Anxiety Correlates of Gymnastic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Tests on a women's gymnastic team to explore correlation between arousal, anxiety, and performance, revealed limited relationships between performance and arousal/anxiety measures and indicated that gymnastic ability is the best correlate of gymnastic performance. (JD)

  15. Transsexuals' sexual stories.

    PubMed

    Schrock, Douglas P; Reid, Lori L

    2006-02-01

    When viewed through a popular cultural lens, male-to-female transsexuals' sexual biographies can appear to indicate male transvestitism, heterosexuality, or homosexuality rather than transsexuality. How do transsexuals subvert such implications and construct transsexual identities? Drawing on K. Plummer's (1995) approach to sexual stories, we examine how nine male-to-female transsexuals construct their sexual pasts to accomplish what sociologists call "identity work." Interviewees used gendered sexual scripts, cultural discourse on the biological basis of male sexual arousal, and a discourse of therapeutic individualism to narratively defetishize autoerotic crossdressing, queer straight sex, refashion transvestic sex, and straighten out gay sex. PMID:16502155

  16. Power modulates over-reliance on false cardiac arousal when judging target attractiveness: the powerful are more centered on their own false arousal than the powerless.

    PubMed

    Jouffre, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Individuals attempting to label their emotions look for a plausible source of their physiological arousal. Co-occurrence of plausible sources can lead to the misattribution of real (or bogus) physiological arousal, resulting in physically attractive individuals being perceived as more attractive than they actually are. In two experiments, female participants heard bogus heart rate feedback while viewing photos of attractive male models. Compared with low-power and control participants, high-power participants rated reinforced photos (increased heart rate) more attractive than non-reinforced photos (stable heart rate) to a greater extent when they heard their own bogus heart rate feedback (Experiments 1 and 2) and to a lesser extent when they heard a recording of another participant's heart rate (Experiment 2). These findings, which suggest that power increases the tendency to misattribute one's physiological arousal to physically attractive individuals, are discussed with reference to theories linking power and social perception. PMID:25413717

  17. The effects of autobiographic sexual memory recall on the sexual response of sexually functional men.

    PubMed

    van Lankveld, Jacques; Martin, Alec; Hubben, Dave; Creutz, Nikky; Verboon, Peter

    2013-08-01

    In this experimental study, we investigated how recalling positive, negative, and affectively neutral autobiographic sexual experiences in their personal history affected the current sexual response of sexually functional male volunteers. Based on an attentional-capacity account of sexual arousal, we predicted that affectively charged autobiographic sexual memory recall, both with negative and positive valence, would negatively impact genital arousal, compared to recalling affectively neutral sexual experiences. We expected that subjective sexual arousal would not be differentially affected by emotional memory valence. We measured subjective and genital response to erotic video fragments in sexually functional volunteers (N=24) in a within-subjects, repeated-measures design. For the memory manipulation, participants received instructions to visualize and mentally re-experience positive, negative, and neutral sexual episodes from autobiographic memory. Memory instructions were found to result in the expected affective states. As predicted, compared to recalling neutral memory, mean genital response was significantly lower during recalling positive and negative memory. However, contrary to prediction, subjective sexual arousal was affected, when multilevel analysis was performed, including a time effect. The implications of the findings were discussed with respect to the advancement of theory and therapeutic intervention. PMID:23519590

  18. Chemoreception and asphyxia-induced arousal

    PubMed Central

    Guyenet, Patrice G.; Abbott, Stephen B.G.

    2013-01-01

    Arousal protects against the adverse and potentially fatal effects of asphyxia during sleep. Asphyxia stimulates the carotid bodies and central chemoreceptors but the sequence of events leading to arousal is uncertain. In this review, the theoretical mechanisms leading to arousal from sleep are briefly summarized and the issue of whether central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) or other types of CO2-responsive CNS neurons contribute to asphyxia-induced arousal is discussed. We focus on the role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus, the raphe and the locus coeruleus and emphasize the anatomical and neurophysiological evidence which suggests that these putative central chemoreceptors could contribute to arousal independently of their effects on breathing. Finally, we describe recent attempts to test the contribution of specific brainstem pathways to asphyxia-induced arousal using optogenetic and other tools and the possible contribution of a group of hypoxia-sensitive brainstem neurons (the C1 cells) to breathing and arousal. PMID:23608705

  19. Shining Light on Wakefulness and Arousal

    PubMed Central

    de Lecea, Luis; Carter, Matthew E.; Adamantidis, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in arousal states are associated with multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including generalized anxiety disorders, addiction, schizophrenia, and depression. Therefore, elucidating the neurobiological mechanisms controlling the boundaries between arousal, hyperarousal, and hypoarousal is a crucial endeavor in biological psychiatry. Substantial research over several decades has identified distinct arousal-promoting neural populations in the brain; however, how these nuclei act individually and collectively to promote and maintain wakefulness and various arousal states is unknown. We have recently applied optogenetic technology to the repertoire of techniques used to study arousal. Here, we discuss the recent results of these experiments and propose future use of this approach as a way to understand the complex dynamics of neural circuits controlling arousal and arousal-related behaviors. PMID:22440618

  20. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location without interfering with picture-location binding for nearby pictures. In addition, arousal-enhanced picture-location memory binding is not just a side effect of enhanced memory for the picture itself, as it occurs both when recognition memory is good and when it is poor. PMID:19190722

  1. Online sexual activity experience of heterosexual students: gender similarities and differences.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Byers, E Sandra; Walsh, Lindsay

    2011-04-01

    This study compared male and female university students' experiences with online sexual activity (OSA) and tested a model explaining gender differences in OSA. OSAs were categorized as non-arousal (e.g., seeking sexuality information), solitary-arousal (e.g., viewing sexually explicit materials), or partnered-arousal (e.g., sharing sexual fantasies). Participants (N = 217) completed measures of OSA experience, sexual attitudes, and sexual experience. Significantly more men than women reported engaging in solitary-arousal and partnered-arousal OSA and doing so more often. However, the men and women who reported having engaged in partnered-arousal activities reported equal frequencies of experience. There were no significant gender differences for engaging in non-arousal OSA experience. These results support the importance of grouping OSAs in terms of the proposed non-arousal, solitary-arousal, and partnered-arousal categories. Attitude toward OSA but not general attitudes toward or experiences with sexuality partially mediated the relationship between gender and frequency of engaging in arousal-oriented OSA (solitary and partnered OSA). This suggests that attitude toward OSA specifically and not gender socialization more generally account for gender differences in OSA experience. PMID:20467798

  2. The Development of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory for Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; McKeague, Ian W.

    2006-01-01

    The Sexual Self-Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed to assess sexual self-concept in an ethnically diverse sample of urban early adolescent girls. Three scales (Sexual Arousability, Sexual Agency, and Negative Sexual Affect) were shown to be distinct and reliable dimensions of girls' sexual self-concepts. Validity was established through…

  3. A Psychophysiological Study of Processing HIV/AIDS Public Service Announcements: The Effects of Novelty Appeals, Sexual Appeals, Narrative Versus Statistical Evidence, and Viewer's Sex.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jueman Mandy; Chen, Gina Masullo; Chock, T Makana; Wang, Yi; Ni, Liqiang; Schweisberger, Valarie

    2016-07-01

    This study used self-reports and physiological measures-heart rate (HR) and skin conductance level (SCL)-to examine the effects of novelty appeals, sexual appeals, narrative versus statistical evidence, and viewer's sex on cognitive and emotional processing of HIV/AIDS public service announcements (PSAs) among heterosexually active single college students. Novelty or sexual appeals differently affected self-reported attention and cognitive effort as measured by HR. High- rather than low-novelty HIV/AIDS PSAs, perceived as more attention-eliciting, did not lead to more cognitive effort. High- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs, not perceived as more attention-eliciting, led to more cognitive effort as reflected by greater HR deceleration. Novelty or sexual appeals also affected self-reported emotional arousal and SCL differently. HIV/AIDS PSAs with high rather than low levels of novelty or sexual appeals led to greater self-reported arousal, but not greater SCL. Message evidence interacted with message appeals to affect cognitive effort. Participants exerted greater cognitive effort during high- rather than low-novelty narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs, and during low- rather than high-novelty statistical ones. The advantage of high over low sexual appeals was more obvious in statistical than in narrative HIV/AIDS PSAs. Males reported greater emotional arousal than females during high- rather than low-sex HIV/AIDS PSAs. PMID:26642917

  4. Role of Partner Novelty in Sexual Functioning: A Review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Heather; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2015-01-01

    This review investigates whether sexual desire and arousal decline in response to partner familiarity, increase in response to partner novelty, and show differential responding in men and women. These questions were considered through the perspective of two leading evolutionary theories regarding human mating strategies: sexual strategies theory and attachment fertility theory. The hypotheses emerging from these theories were evaluated through a critical analysis of several areas of research including habituation of arousal to erotic stimuli, preferences regarding number of sexual partners, the effect of long-term monogamous relationships on sexual arousal and desire, and prevalence and risk factors associated with extradyadic behavior. The current literature best supports the predictions made by sexual strategies theory in that sexual functioning has evolved to promote short-term mating. Sexual arousal and desire appear to decrease in response to partner familiarity and increase in response to partner novelty in men and women. Evidence to date suggests this effect may be greater in men. PMID:25222339

  5. Yawning, acute stressors, and arousal reduction in Nazca booby adults and nestlings.

    PubMed

    Liang, Amy C; Grace, Jacquelyn K; Tompkins, Emily M; Anderson, David J

    2015-03-01

    Yawning is a familiar and phylogenetically widespread phenomenon, but no consensus exists regarding its functional significance. We tested the hypothesis that yawning communicates to others a transition from a state of physiological and/or psychological arousal (for example, due to action of a stressor) to a more relaxed state. This arousal reduction hypothesis predicts little yawning during arousal and more yawning (above baseline) during and after down-regulation of arousal. Experimental capture-restraint tests with wild adult Nazca boobies (Sula granti), a seabird, increased yawning frequency after release from restraint, but yawning was almost absent during tests. Natural maltreatment by non-parental adults also increased yawning by nestlings, but only after the maltreatment ended and the adult left. CORT (corticosterone) was a logical a priori element of the stress response affecting the stressor-yawning relationship under the arousal reduction hypothesis, and cannot be excluded as such for adults in capture-restraint tests but is apparently unimportant for nestlings being maltreated by adults. The arousal reduction hypothesis unites formerly disparate results on yawning: its socially contagious nature in some taxa, its clear pharmacological connection to the stress response, and its temporal linkage to transitions in arousal between consciousness and sleep. PMID:25498600

  6. Assessment of Wakefulness and Brain Arousal Regulation in Psychiatric Research.

    PubMed

    Sander, Christian; Hensch, Tilman; Wittekind, Dirk Alexander; Böttger, Daniel; Hegerl, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, much knowledge has been gained about sleep being a heterogeneous condition with several distinct sleep stages that represent fundamentally different physiological states. The same applies for the wake state which also comprises distinct global functional states (called vigilance stages). However, various terms and concepts have been introduced describing different aspects of wakefulness, and accordingly several methods of assessment exist, e.g. sleep laboratory assessments (Multiple Sleep Latency Test, Maintenance of Wakefulness Test), questionnaires (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), behavioural tasks (Psychomotor Vigilance Test) or electroencephalography (EEG)-based assessments (Alpha Attenuation Test, Karolinska Drowsiness Test). Furthermore, several theoretical concepts about the regulation of sleep and wakefulness have been put forward, and physiological correlates have been identified. Most relevant for healthy functioning is the regulation of brain arousal and the adaption of wakefulness to the environmental and situational needs so that the optimal balance between energy conservation and responsiveness can be obtained. Since one approach to the assessment of brain arousal regulation is the classification of EEG vigilance stages, a computer-based algorithm (Vigilance Algorithm Leipzig) has been introduced, allowing classification of EEG vigilance stages in EEG recordings under resting conditions. The time course of EEG vigilance stages in EEGs of 15-20 min duration allows estimation of the individual arousal regulation (hyperstable, adaptive, or unstable vigilance pattern). The vigilance model of affective disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder links a disturbed arousal regulation to the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and accordingly helps to explain and possibly also predict treatment effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for these conditions. PMID:26901462

  7. The effect of exercise-induced arousal on chosen tempi for familiar melodies.

    PubMed

    Jakubowski, Kelly; Halpern, Andrea R; Grierson, Mick; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-04-01

    Many previous studies have shown that arousal affects time perception, suggesting a direct influence of arousal on the speed of the pacemaker of the internal clock. However, it is unknown whether arousal influences the mental representation of tempo (speed) for highly familiar and complex stimuli, such as well-known melodies, that have long-term representations in memory. Previous research suggests that mental representations of the tempo of familiar melodies are stable over time; the aim of the present study was to investigate whether these representations can be systematically altered via an increase in physiological arousal. Participants adjusted the tempo of 14 familiar melodies in real time until they found a tempo that matched their internal representation of the appropriate tempo for that piece. The task was carried out before and after a physiologically arousing (exercise) or nonarousing (anagrams) manipulation. Participants completed this task both while hearing the melodies aloud and while imagining them. Chosen tempi increased significantly following exercise-induced arousal, regardless of whether a melody was heard aloud or imagined. These findings suggest that a change in internal clock speed affects temporal judgments even for highly familiar and complex stimuli such as music. PMID:25056004

  8. Specificity of autonomic arousal to anxiety in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Tabitha A; Anagnostou, Evdokia; Brian, Jessica; Chau, Tom; Kushki, Azadeh

    2016-04-01

    Anxiety is one of the most concerning comorbidities in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) due to its high prevalence, negative impact on physical and psychological well-being, and interaction with core deficits of ASD. Current assessment and treatment of anxiety, which rely on the observation of behavior and self-reports, are often ineffective as ASD is associated with deficits in communication and diminished introspective ability. In this light, autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity has been suggested as a marker of physiological arousal associated with anxiety. However, physiological arousal measured by ANS indices also occurs with other cognitive and emotional processes, and it is unclear whether anxiety-related arousal can be differentiated from that related to other cognitive processes. To address this gap, we investigated the use of linear and nonlinear classification techniques for differentiating anxiety-related arousal from arousal due to three cognitive processes (attention, inhibitory control, and social cognition) and physical activity based on electrocardiography signal features. Our results indicate that over 80% classification accuracy can be achieved, suggesting that ANS response can be used as a specific marker of anxiety-related arousal in a subgroup of children with ASD who demonstrate an increase in heart rate in response to anxiogenic stimuli. Autism Res 2016, 9: 491-501. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26389543

  9. Does subliminal exposure to sexual stimuli have the same effects on men and women?

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Mikulincer, Mario; Birnbaum, Gurit E; Shaver, Phillip R

    2007-05-01

    Three studies explored gender differences in explicit and implicit components of sexual arousal following brief exposure to a sexual stimulus. Whereas Study 1 assessed reports of sexual arousal following subliminal exposure to a sexual or a neutral picture, Studies 2 and 3 examined the effects of the same priming procedure on accessibility of sex-related thoughts assessed with a pictorial judgment task and a lexical decision task. The subliminal sexual prime did not have an effect on men's reports of sexual arousal, but caused women to report lower levels of sexual arousal. In contrast, the same subliminal sexual prime led to higher accessibility of sex-related thoughts in both men and women. It is therefore suggested that the subliminal sexual prime causes women to activate sex-related mental contents but to experience the result as somewhat aversive. PMID:17599269

  10. The influence of atypical antipsychotic drugs on sexual function.

    PubMed

    Just, Marek J

    2015-01-01

    Human sexuality is contingent upon many biological and psychological factors. Such factors include sexual drive (libido), physiological arousal (lubrication/erection), orgasm, and ejaculation, as well as maintaining normal menstrual cycle. The assessment of sexual dysfunction can be difficult due to the intimate nature of the problem and patients' unwillingness to discuss it. Also, the problem of dysfunction is often overlooked by doctors. Atypical antipsychotic treatment is a key component of mental disorders' treatment algorithms recommended by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence, the American Psychiatric Association, and the British Society for Psychopharmacology. The relationship between atypical antipsychotic drugs and sexual dysfunction is mediated in part by antipsychotic blockade of pituitary dopamine D2 receptors increasing prolactin secretion, although direct correlations have not been established between raised prolactin levels and clinical symptoms. Variety of mechanisms are likely to contribute to antipsychotic-related sexual dysfunction, including hyperprolactinemia, sedation, and antagonism of a number of neurotransmitter receptors (α-adrenergic, dopaminergic, histaminic, and muscarinic). Maintaining normal sexual function in people treated for mental disorders can affect their quality of life, mood, self-esteem, attitude toward taking medication, and compliance during therapy. PMID:26185449

  11. The influence of atypical antipsychotic drugs on sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Just, Marek J

    2015-01-01

    Human sexuality is contingent upon many biological and psychological factors. Such factors include sexual drive (libido), physiological arousal (lubrication/erection), orgasm, and ejaculation, as well as maintaining normal menstrual cycle. The assessment of sexual dysfunction can be difficult due to the intimate nature of the problem and patients’ unwillingness to discuss it. Also, the problem of dysfunction is often overlooked by doctors. Atypical antipsychotic treatment is a key component of mental disorders’ treatment algorithms recommended by the National Institute of Health and Clinical Excellence, the American Psychiatric Association, and the British Society for Psychopharmacology. The relationship between atypical antipsychotic drugs and sexual dysfunction is mediated in part by antipsychotic blockade of pituitary dopamine D2 receptors increasing prolactin secretion, although direct correlations have not been established between raised prolactin levels and clinical symptoms. Variety of mechanisms are likely to contribute to antipsychotic-related sexual dysfunction, including hyperprolactinemia, sedation, and antagonism of a number of neurotransmitter receptors (α-adrenergic, dopaminergic, histaminic, and muscarinic). Maintaining normal sexual function in people treated for mental disorders can affect their quality of life, mood, self-esteem, attitude toward taking medication, and compliance during therapy. PMID:26185449

  12. Synchronized arousal between performers and related spectators in a fire-walking ritual

    PubMed Central

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Xygalatas, Dimitris; Bulbulia, Joseph; Schjødt, Uffe; Jegindø, Else-Marie; Wallot, Sebastian; Van Orden, Guy; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Collective rituals are present in all known societies, but their function is a matter of long-standing debates. Field observations suggest that they may enhance social cohesion and that their effects are not limited to those actively performing but affect the audience as well. Here we show physiological effects of synchronized arousal in a Spanish fire-walking ritual, between active participants and related spectators, but not participants and other members of the audience. We assessed arousal by heart rate dynamics and applied nonlinear mathematical analysis to heart rate data obtained from 38 participants. We compared synchronized arousal between fire-walkers and spectators. For this comparison, we used recurrence quantification analysis on individual data and cross-recurrence quantification analysis on pairs of participants' data. These methods identified fine-grained commonalities of arousal during the 30-min ritual between fire-walkers and related spectators but not unrelated spectators. This indicates that the mediating mechanism may be informational, because participants and related observers had very different bodily behavior. This study demonstrates that a collective ritual may evoke synchronized arousal over time between active participants and bystanders. It links field observations to a physiological basis and offers a unique approach for the quantification of social effects on human physiology during real-world interactions. PMID:21536887

  13. Chronic stress and sexual function in women

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic stress is known to have negative effects on reproduction, but little is known about how it affects the sexual response cycle. The present study examined the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and the mechanisms that mediate this relationship. Aim To test the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and identify mechanisms that may explain this relationship. We predicted that women experiencing high levels of chronic stress would show lower levels of genital arousal & DHEAS and higher levels of cortisol and cognitive distraction compared to women with average levels of stress. Methods Women who were categorized as high in chronic stress (high stress group, n = 15) or average in chronic stress (average stress group; n = 15) provided saliva samples and watched an erotic film while having their genital and psychological arousal measured. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were vaginal pulse amplitude, psychological arousal, salivary cortisol, salivary DHEAS, and heart rate and compared them between women with high and average levels of chronic stress. Results Women in the high stress group had lower levels of genital, but not psychological arousal, had higher levels of cortisol, and reported more distraction during the erotic film than women in the average stress group. The main predictor of decreased genital sexual arousal was participants’ distraction scores. Conclusions High levels of chronic stress were related to lower levels of genital sexual arousal. Both psychological (distraction) and hormonal (increased cortisol) factors were related to the lower levels of sexual arousal seen in women high in chronic stress, but distraction was the only significant predictor when controlling for other variables. PMID:23841462

  14. First Reported Case of Isolated Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder in a Male

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, Bradford J.; Köhler, Tobias S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a newly recognized disorder in women. It is described as unwanted, persistent feelings of genital arousal unrelated to sexual desire and not relieved by orgasm. Its prevalence is estimated to approach 1% of young women. Until now, this has not been described in men. Aim. Here we present a case of a 27-year-old male with symptoms consistent with PGAD and describe successful treatment. Methods. A 27-year-old male presented to urology clinic with the chief complain of persistent feelings of impending orgasm. He reported a sensation similar, but not identical, to sexual arousal that did not occur in the setting of sexual thoughts or desire. Orgasm alleviated the arousal for only a short time after which the symptoms would return. This had become quite bothersome to him. Results. After assessing for a neurological cause and finding none, the patient was started on paroxetine daily with complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusions. PGAD is a disorder previously described only in females. Although symptoms of PGAD have been described in a male as part of another disorder complex, this report describes the first reported isolated case in a male and the successful treatment. PMID:25767735

  15. Factors Associated with Sexual Behavior Problems in Young Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Darlene Kordich; Mathews, Fred; Pearce, John

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of data from the clinical records of 100 sexually abused boys and girls, ages 3-7 years, identified five variables predictive of sexual behavior problems, including sexual arousal of the child during the abuse, perpetrator's use of sadism, a history of physical and emotional abuse, and who the child blames for the abuse. (DB)

  16. Estrogens, androgens and generalized behavioral arousal in gonadectomized female and male C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Xi; Gagnidze, Khatuna; Pfaff, Donald; Ågmo, Anders

    2015-08-01

    General arousal has been operationally defined as an enhanced motor activity and enhanced intensity of response to sensory stimuli. Even though the effects of gonadal hormones on mating behavior have been much studied, their potential effect on generalized arousal, as defined above, has never been evaluated. In the present study we employed a thoroughly validated assay of general arousal to determine the effects of estradiol (E) and testosterone (T) in gonadectomized female and male mice, respectively. The steroids were administered in three different ways: A fast-acting, water soluble preparation given intraperitoneally, an oil solution given subcutaneously, and an oil solution in a subcutaneous Silastic capsule. Motor activity and responses to sensory stimuli were recorded for 24h, 91h, and seven days following hormone administration, respectively. All measures of arousal varied according to the day/night cycle. The water soluble steroid preparation had no reliable effect. When the same doses of estradiol and testosterone were administered subcutaneously in an oil vehicle no effect of either treatment on arousal was observed. The subcutaneously implanted capsule containing estradiol or testosterone had a delayed effect on motor activity in females (four to seven days) but no effect in males. The long time required by the gonadal hormones for affecting arousal would be consistent with, but does not prove, a genomic action. The limited effects of E and T in our arousal assay suggest to us that the strongest actions of these hormones on arousal occur in the context of sequences of responses to sexually relevant stimuli. PMID:25936820

  17. The effects of false physiological feedback on tumescence and cognitive domains in sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jay M; Clark, Robert; Sbrocco, Tracy; Lewis, Evelyn L

    2009-08-01

    A false feedback paradigm was used to produce a discrepancy between expected and "actual" tumescence among 57 sexually dysfunctional and 58 sexually functional men randomly assigned to one of four false tumescence feedback conditions: negative (NEG), neutral (NEU), positive (POS), or no (NO) feedback. Participants predicted an erection score before viewing an erotic film and then received false tumescence feedback based on this score. Tumescence and cognitive ratings were obtained before and after the feedback. It was predicted that discrepancies would differ between dysfunctional and functional participants such that functional participants would have the ability to overcome discrepancies, whereas dysfunctional participants would not. As expected, POS decreased tumescence for dysfunctional participants and NO did not influence tumescence for either group. Unexpectedly, NEU decreased tumescence for dysfunctional participants and NEG decreased tumescence for functional participants. Despite tumescence changes, cognitive ratings generally followed the feedback that was given. These results only partially support current models of sexual dysfunction and behavioral regulation. Anxiety, self-focused attention, cognitive interference, and unexpectedness of the feedback could not account for the partial support. However, most feedback that was outside of the realm of the status quo for both functional and dysfunctional participants did decrease tumescence, despite outcome expectancies. These results suggest that both functional and dysfunctional men may be at risk for erectile failure should feedback about their performance be discrepant from what they expect. Prevention and treatment should focus on preparing men for occasional erectile failure and on helping them overcome discrepant feedback. PMID:18561016

  18. Building trust: Heart rate synchrony and arousal during joint action increased by public goods game.

    PubMed

    Mitkidis, Panagiotis; McGraw, John J; Roepstorff, Andreas; Wallot, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    The physiological processes underlying trust are subject of intense interest in the behavioral sciences. However, very little is known about how trust modulates the affective link between individuals. We show here that trust has an effect on heart rate arousal and synchrony, a result consistent with research on joint action and experimental economics. We engaged participants in a series of joint action tasks which, for one group of participants, was interleaved with a PGG, and measured their heart synchrony and arousal. We found that the introduction of the economic game shifted participants' attention to the dynamics of the interaction. This was followed by increased arousal and synchrony of heart rate profiles. Also, the degree of heart rate synchrony was predictive of participants' expectations regarding their partners in the economic game. We conclude that the above changes in physiology and behavior are shaped by the valuation of other people's social behavior, and ultimately indicate trust building process. PMID:26037635

  19. Cardiac, ventilatory and behavioural arousal responses evoked by electrical brain stimulation in the goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Quick, I A; Laming, P R

    1988-01-01

    Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were fitted with intracranial stainless steel microelectrodes for electrical evocation of behavioural arousal and its cardiac and ventilatory correlates. Behaviour was monitored on a videosystem and ECG electrodes and a buccal catheter were implanted to monitor physiological responses. Thresholds for responses were described in relation to the current spread likely to excite CNS tissue. Two types of responses were obtained. These were (A) cardiac and ventilatory responses alone, apparently due to stimulation of primary sensory pathways and (B) these responses and behavioural arousal responses which were elicited at higher thresholds. These latter, more complete expressions of arousal resulted from stimulation of the Dm/Dc region of the telencephalon, the dorsal diencephalon and the midbrain tegmentum. Response thresholds were higher and physiological response magnitudes lower in the midbrain tegmentum compared to the forebrain regions. PMID:3237785

  20. A Prospective Examination of the Role of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Physiological Asymmetry in the Development of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recent literature has emphasized the simultaneous assessment of multiple physiological stress response systems in an effort to identify biobehavioral risk factors of psychopathology in maltreated populations. The current study assessed whether an asymmetrical stress response, marked by activation in one system and a blunted response in

  1. A Prospective Examination of the Role of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Physiological Asymmetry in the Development of Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Recent literature has emphasized the simultaneous assessment of multiple physiological stress response systems in an effort to identify biobehavioral risk factors of psychopathology in maltreated populations. The current study assessed whether an asymmetrical stress response, marked by activation in one system and a blunted response in…

  2. Swimming physiology of European silver eels (Anguilla anguilla L.): energetic costs and effects on sexual maturation and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Palstra, Arjan P; van den Thillart, Guido E E J M

    2010-09-01

    The European eel migrates 5,000-6,000 km to the Sargasso Sea to reproduce. Because they venture into the ocean in a pre-pubertal state and reproduce after swimming for months, a strong interaction between swimming and sexual maturation is expected. Many swimming trials have been performed in 22 swim tunnels to elucidate their performance and the impact on maturation. European eels are able to swim long distances at a cost of 10-12 mg fat/km which is 4-6 times more efficient than salmonids. The total energy costs of reproduction correspond to 67% of the fat stores. During long distance swimming, the body composition stays the same showing that energy consumption calculations cannot be based on fat alone but need to be compensated for protein oxidation. The optimal swimming speed is 0.61-0.67 m s(-1), which is approximately 60% higher than the generally assumed cruise speed of 0.4 m s(-1) and implies that female eels may reach the Sargasso Sea within 3.5 months instead of the assumed 6 months. Swimming trials showed lipid deposition and oocyte growth, which are the first steps of sexual maturation. To investigate effects of oceanic migration on maturation, we simulated group-wise migration in a large swim-gutter with seawater. These trials showed suppressed gonadotropin expression and vitellogenesis in females, while in contrast continued sexual maturation was observed in silver males. The induction of lipid deposition in the oocytes and the inhibition of vitellogenesis by swimming in females suggest a natural sequence of events quite different from artificial maturation protocols. PMID:20390348

  3. Neuropeptidergic Signaling Partitions Arousal Behaviors in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Schoppik, David; Shi, Veronica J.; Zimmerman, Steven; Coleman, Haley A.; Greenwood, Joel; Soucy, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    Animals modulate their arousal state to ensure that their sensory responsiveness and locomotor activity match environmental demands. Neuropeptides can regulate arousal, but studies of their roles in vertebrates have been constrained by the vast array of neuropeptides and their pleiotropic effects. To overcome these limitations, we systematically dissected the neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal in larval zebrafish. We quantified spontaneous locomotor activity and responsiveness to sensory stimuli after genetically induced expression of seven evolutionarily conserved neuropeptides, including adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1b (adcyap1b), cocaine-related and amphetamine-related transcript (cart), cholecystokinin (cck), calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp), galanin, hypocretin, and nociceptin. Our study reveals that arousal behaviors are dissociable: neuropeptide expression uncoupled spontaneous activity from sensory responsiveness, and uncovered modality-specific effects upon sensory responsiveness. Principal components analysis and phenotypic clustering revealed both shared and divergent features of neuropeptidergic functions: hypocretin and cgrp stimulated spontaneous locomotor activity, whereas galanin and nociceptin attenuated these behaviors. In contrast, cart and adcyap1b enhanced sensory responsiveness yet had minimal impacts on spontaneous activity, and cck expression induced the opposite effects. Furthermore, hypocretin and nociceptin induced modality-specific differences in responsiveness to changes in illumination. Our study provides the first systematic and high-throughput analysis of neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal, demonstrates that arousal can be partitioned into independent behavioral components, and reveals novel and conserved functions of neuropeptides in regulating arousal. PMID:24573274

  4. Remodeling mitochondrial membranes during arousal from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Christopher; Thomas, Raymond H; Price, Edwin R; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Staples, James F

    2011-01-01

    During arousal from hibernation, body temperature (T(b)) increases by ?30C and liver mitochondrial respiration increases threefold in as little as 2 h. We analyzed liver mitochondria purified from ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to see whether membrane phospholipids were remodeled during spontaneous arousal. Cardiolipin content did not change among animals in torpor (T ? 5C), the early phase of arousal (T ? 15C), late arousal (T ? 30C), interbout euthermia (T ? 37C), and summer-active animals (T ? 37C) that do not hibernate. Phosphatidylcholine content increased in late arousal relative to interbout euthermia, while phosphatidylethanolamine decreased. Phospholipid monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) did not change throughout arousal, but polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and MUFA/PUFA decreased and increased, respectively. In the fatty acid conjugates of phospholipids, neither unsaturation index nor n-3/n-6 differed. Few changes in individual fatty acids were noted, but palmitoleic acid (16:1, n-7) was higher in interbout euthermia and summer. Although 16:1 accounted for less than 1.5% of phospholipid fatty acids, it correlated strongly and positively with succinate-fueled state 3 mitochondrial respiration. No other phospholipid characteristic measured here correlated with mitochondrial respiration. These data show that mitochondrial membranes are remodeled rapidly during arousal, but the contribution to reversible suppression of mitochondrial respiration remains unclear. PMID:21743257

  5. Pedunculopontine arousal system physiology – Implications for insomnia

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, Edgar; Luster, Brennon; Mahaffey, Susan; Bisagno, Veronica; Urbano, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    We consider insomnia a disorder of waking rather than a disorder of sleep. This review examines the role of the reticular activating system, especially the pedunculopontine nucleus, in the symptoms of insomnia, mainly representing an overactive waking drive. We determined that high frequency activity during waking and REM sleep is controlled by two different intracellular pathways and channel types in PPN cells. We found three different PPN cell types that have one or both channels and may be active during waking only, REM sleep only, or both. These discoveries point to a specific mechanism and novel therapeutic avenues for insomnia. PMID:26483950

  6. Amygdala responses to Valence and its interaction by arousal revealed by MEG.

    PubMed

    Styliadis, Charalampos; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a crucial role in the processing of emotions. The precise nature of its involvement is however unclear. We hypothesized that ambivalent findings from neuroimaging studies that report amygdala's activity in emotions, are due to distinct functional specificity of amygdala's sub-divisions and specifically to differential reactivity to arousal and valence. The goal of the present study is to characterize the amygdala response to affective stimuli by disentangling the contributions of arousal and valence. Our hypothesis was prompted by recent reports claiming anatomical sub-divisions of amygdala based on cytoarchitecture and the functional maps obtained from diverse behavioral, emotional, and physiological stimulation. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings from 12 healthy individuals passively exposed to affective stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) collection using a 2 (Valence levels)× 2 (Arousal levels) design. Source power was estimated using a beamformer technique with the activations referring to the amygdala sub-divisions defined through probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Right laterobasal amygdala activity was found to mediate negative valence (elicited by unpleasant stimuli) while left centromedial activity was characterized by an interaction of valence by arousal (arousing pleasant stimuli). We did not find a main effect for amygdala activations in any of its sub-divisions for arousal modulation. To the best of our knowledge, our findings from non-invasive MEG data indicate for the first time, a distinct functional specificity of amygdala anatomical sub-divisions in the emotional processing. PMID:23688672

  7. Same-Day Surgery Preparation: Reduction of Pediatric Patient Arousal and Distress through Participant Modeling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faust, Jan; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children (n=26) were exposed to one of three surgery preparatory conditions: participant modeling alone, participant modeling with mother, and standard procedure control. Children exposed to modeling alone had significant reductions in physiological arousal after treatment compared to other groups. Both modeling groups exhibited significantly…

  8. Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could…

  9. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality

  10. The Affect and Arousal Scales: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; Decuyper, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Affect and Arousal Scales (AFARS) were inspected in a combined clinical and population sample (N = 1,215). The validity of the tripartite structure and the relations between Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH) were investigated for boys and girls, younger (8-11

  11. The Affect and Arousal Scales: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; Decuyper, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Affect and Arousal Scales (AFARS) were inspected in a combined clinical and population sample (N = 1,215). The validity of the tripartite structure and the relations between Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH) were investigated for boys and girls, younger (8-11…

  12. Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

  13. Melatonin receptor signaling contributes to neuroprotection upon arousal from torpor in thirteen-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Christine; Ballinger, Mallory A; Andrews, Matthew T

    2015-11-15

    The brain of mammalian hibernators is naturally protected. Hibernating ground squirrels undergo rapid and extreme changes in body temperature and brain perfusion as they cycle between lengthy torpor bouts and brief periods of euthermia called interbout arousals (IBAs). Arousal from torpor to IBA occurs rapidly, but there is no evidence of brain injury accompanying this extreme physiological transition. Production of the hormone melatonin accompanies arousal, suggesting that it plays a protective role at this time. Here, we investigated mechanisms of melatonin receptor-mediated protection in the brain of the hibernating ground squirrel. We administered the competitive melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole (30 mg/kg ip) to ground squirrels at the predicted end of a torpor bout, triggering an arousal. We found that luzindole-treated animals exhibited caspase-3 activity two times higher than vehicle-treated animals in the hypothalamus at midarousal (P = 0.01), suggesting that melatonin receptor signaling is important for protection in this brain region. We also found a 30% decline in succinate-fueled mitochondrial respiration in luzindole-treated animals compared with vehicle-treated animals (P = 0.019), suggesting that melatonin receptor signaling is important for optimal mitochondrial function during arousal from torpor. The mitochondrial effects of luzindole treatment were seen only during the hibernation season, indicating that this effect is specifically important for arousal from torpor. These data provide evidence for the protective role of melatonin receptor signaling during the extreme physiological transition that occurs when a hibernating mammal arouses from torpor and provide further evidence for regional and seasonal changes in the hibernator brain. PMID:26354846

  14. Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Suzanne; Bensch, Michael; Halder, Sebastian; Hill, Jeremy; Nijboer, Femke; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Birbaumer, Niels; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography (EEG) often fails to assess both the level (i.e., arousal) and the content (i.e., awareness) of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations. We introduced epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) for monitoring of cortical physiology in a late-stage amytrophic lateral sclerosis patient in completely locked-in state (CLIS). Despite long-term application for a period of six months, no implant-related complications occurred. Recordings from the left frontal cortex were sufficient to identify three arousal states. Spectral analysis of the intrinsic oscillatory activity enabled us to extract state-dependent dominant frequencies at <4, ~7 and ~20 Hz, representing sleep-like periods, and phases of low and elevated arousal, respectively. In the absence of other biomarkers, ECoG proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring circadian rhythmicity, i.e., avoiding interference with the patient when he was sleeping and exploiting time windows of responsiveness. Moreover, the effects of interventions addressing the patient’s arousal, e.g., amantadine medication, could be evaluated objectively on the basis of physiological markers, even in the absence of behavioral parameters. Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient’s present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain-computer interfaces (BCI). PMID:25374532

  15. Implicit and explicit measurements of sexual preference in gay and heterosexual men: a comparison of priming techniques and the implicit association task.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Robert J; Wichter, Jan; Gray, Nicola S

    2008-08-01

    The present study examined how well implicit measures were able to predict sexual orientation. Most previous research in the sexual orientation domain has been dependent upon self-report, which requires explicit, conscious awareness of sexual orientation and/or erotic preferences. On the other hand, implicit measurements are thought to be able to reflect immediate automatic reactions that may not be available to introspection. A total of 50 heterosexual and 25 homosexual men completed two implicit measures: the Implicit Association Task (IAT) and the Priming Task (PT). Sexual orientation was determined by self-report. In the PT, participants classified words as either sexually attractive or unattractive. Each word was preceded by a "prime" that was a picture of either a male or a female. The IAT consisted of classifying these same words as sexually attractive or unattractive, and classifying the pictures as either male or female. Both the IAT and the PT had very good ability to predict sexual orientation with Area Under the Curves (AUC) of 0.97 and 0.86, respectively. Unlike many other reports of implicit measures of behavior, the IAT and the PT correlated strongly with each other, and also with the explicit measurements of sexual orientation. It was concluded that these implicit measures can provide a valuable tool for research into sexual orientation and erotic preference that can complement existing measures, such as self-report questionnaires and physiological changes in sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli. PMID:17333326

  16. Conditioned craving and arousal in cocaine addiction: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Childress, A; Ehrman, R; McLellan, A T; O'Brien, C

    1988-01-01

    Though data collection is still in progress, several significant findings are already apparent from our study of cocaine 'reminders': 1) In the laboratory, detoxified cocaine abusers show a differential responsivity to drug-related cocaine 'reminders', responding with strong signs of physiological arousal (peripheral skin temperature reductions and decreases in skin resistance) and subjective cocaine craving. 2) In extinction sessions, repeated, non-reinforced exposure to cocaine 'reminders' led to a complete reduction in craving to these stimuli by the fifteenth hour-long session. High and 'crash' responses were virtually eliminated by the sixth hour of extinction. 3) Physiological arousal to cocaine 'reminders' was often still in evidence even after fifteen hours of extinction. 4) Even after completing the current extinction protocol cocaine abusers may crave--and use--cocaine when experiencing drug 'reminders' in the natural environment. Clearly, detoxified cocaine abusers can experience conditioned craving and arousal to cocaine 'reminder' stimuli. These responses can be both intense and persistent, meaning that the abstinent cocaine abuser may be vulnerable long after detoxification is complete. Though the program of extinction described here is effective in reducing craving to cocaine-related stimuli presented in the context of the laboratory or clinic, this effect may not generalize well to the natural environment. We are currently considering two approaches to this problem: 1) One approach would attempt to increase the generalization of extinction by the use of even more realistic stimuli (e.g., the sight of real cocaine) and stimulus contexts (e.g., in vivo repeated exposures).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3136393

  17. Effects of voice on emotional arousal

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

  18. Arousal Effects on Visual Preferences in Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Judith M.; Karmel, Bernard Z.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the influence of arousal level on visual preferences by observing the looking preferences of 12 full-term neonates twice; once before feeding while unswaddled and once after feeding while swaddled. (Author/RH)

  19. Searching arousals: A fuzzy logic approach.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Vargas, Ramiro; Ahmed, Beena; Penzel, Thomas; Cvetkovic, Dean

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a computational approach to detect spontaneous, chin tension and limb movement-related arousals by estimating neuronal and muscular activity. Features extraction is carried out by Time Varying Autoregressive Moving Average (TVARMA) models and recursive particle filtering. Classification is performed by a fuzzy inference system with rule-based decision scheme based upon the AASM scoring rules. Our approach yielded two metrics: arousal density and arousal index to comply with standardised clinical benchmarking. The obtained statistics achieved error deviation around ±1.5 to ±30. These results showed that our system can differentiate amongst 3 different types of arousals, subject to inter-subject variability and up-to-date scoring references. PMID:26736862

  20. Mitochondrial physiology in the major arbovirus vector Aedes aegypti: substrate preferences and sexual differences define respiratory capacity and superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Soares, Juliana B R Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity. PMID:25803027

  1. Mitochondrial Physiology in the Major Arbovirus Vector Aedes aegypti: Substrate Preferences and Sexual Differences Define Respiratory Capacity and Superoxide Production

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Juliana B. R. Correa; Gaviraghi, Alessandro; Oliveira, Marcus F.

    2015-01-01

    Adult females of Aedes aegypti are facultative blood sucking insects and vectors of Dengue and yellow fever viruses. Insect dispersal plays a central role in disease transmission and the extremely high energy demand posed by flight is accomplished by a very efficient oxidative phosphorylation process, which take place within flight muscle mitochondria. These organelles play a central role in energy metabolism, interconnecting nutrient oxidation to ATP synthesis, but also represent an important site of cellular superoxide production. Given the importance of mitochondria to cell physiology, and the potential contributions of this organelle for A. aegypti biology and vectorial capacity, here, we conducted a systematic assessment of mitochondrial physiology in flight muscle of young adult A. aegypti fed exclusively with sugar. This was carried out by determining the activities of mitochondrial enzymes, the substrate preferences to sustain respiration, the mitochondrial bioenergetic efficiency and capacity, in both mitochondria-enriched preparations and mechanically permeabilized flight muscle in both sexes. We also determined the substrates preferences to promote mitochondrial superoxide generation and the main sites where it is produced within this organelle. We observed that respiration in A. aegypti mitochondria was essentially driven by complex I and glycerol 3 phosphate dehydrogenase substrates, which promoted distinct mitochondrial bioenergetic capacities, but with preserved efficiencies. Respiration mediated by proline oxidation in female mitochondria was strikingly higher than in males. Mitochondrial superoxide production was essentially mediated through proline and glycerol 3 phosphate oxidation, which took place at sites other than complex I. Finally, differences in mitochondrial superoxide production among sexes were only observed in male oxidizing glycerol 3 phosphate, exhibiting higher rates than in female. Together, these data represent a significant step towards the understanding of fundamental mitochondrial processes in A. aegypti, with potential implications for its physiology and vectorial capacity. PMID:25803027

  2. Vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal in the isolation calls of domestic kitten (Felis silvestris catus)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Human speech does not only communicate linguistic information but also paralinguistic features, e.g. information about the identity and the arousal state of the sender. Comparable morphological and physiological constraints on vocal production in mammals suggest the existence of commonalities encoding sender-identity and the arousal state of a sender across mammals. To explore this hypothesis and to investigate whether specific acoustic parameters encode for sender-identity while others encode for arousal, we studied infants of the domestic cat (Felis silvestris catus). Kittens are an excellent model for analysing vocal correlates of sender-identity and arousal. They strongly depend on the care of their mother. Thus, the acoustical conveyance of sender-identity and arousal may be important for their survival. Results We recorded calls of 18 kittens in an experimentally-induced separation paradigm, where kittens were spatially separated from their mother and siblings. In the Low arousal condition, infants were just separated without any manipulation. In the High arousal condition infants were handled by the experimenter. Multi-parametric sound analyses revealed that kitten isolation calls are individually distinct and differ between the Low and High arousal conditions. Our results suggested that source- and filter-related parameters are important for encoding sender-identity, whereas time-, source- and tonality-related parameters are important for encoding arousal. Conclusion Comparable findings in other mammalian lineages provide evidence for commonalities in non-verbal cues encoding sender-identity and arousal across mammals comparable to paralinguistic cues in humans. This favours the establishment of general concepts for voice recognition and emotions in humans and animals. PMID:23259698

  3. Assessment of the Effects of Perineoplasty on Female Sexual Function

    PubMed Central

    İnan, Cihan; Ağır, Meriç Çağrı; Sağır, Fulya Gökdağlı; Özer, Atınç; Özbek, Özlem; Dayanır, Hakan; Uysal, Gökçe Saygı; Uysal, Onur

    2015-01-01

    Background: The scar tissue formed by episiotomy during vaginal delivery, and the related pain, is very frequent. The change in the normal anatomy can cause cosmetic and physiologic problems. It can affect and cause deterioration in sexual functions. Therefore, making the right diagnosis and applying the right surgical procedures are very important. Aims: Our aim was to examine the effect of the perineoplasty operation on the sexual dysfunctions that present due to vaginal delivery. Study Design: Self-controlled study. Methods: Forty patients, who attended our clinic between April 2012 and May 2013, and who were between the ages of 20 and 50 years, were included in the study. The patients had complaints of scar tissue in the perineum and various sexual dysfunctions after vaginal delivery, and they were suitable for perineoplasty. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was applied to the patients before and 6 months after the operation, and the results were compared. Results: After the perineoplasty operation, there was a statistically significant improvement in the patients in the domains of sexual desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, and sexual satisfaction (p<0.005). However, there was no significant improvement in the feeling of pain during sexual intercourse (p=0.184). The mean±SD total FSFI score increased significantly after the operation (p<0.005). Conclusion: The sexual dysfunctions that develop due to perineal damage during vaginal delivery can benefit significantly from the perineoplasty operation if the indications are correct. However, vaginal perineoplasty did not provide an improvement in dyspareunia. PMID:26185713

  4. [The management of perpetrators of sexual violence].

    PubMed

    Arena, Gabrielle

    2014-01-01

    Sexual violence and crimes arouse rejection and hatred in our society. Perpetrators of sexual violence must comply with psychiatric treatment, without necessarily having requested it. Caregivers find it extremely difficult to engage themselves in the management of these patients. This context has favoured the setting up of specific consultations, signalling a potential new area of care. PMID:25095586

  5. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  6. Alexithymia predicts arousal-based processing deficits and discordance between emotion response systems during emotional imagery.

    PubMed

    Peasley-Miklus, Catherine E; Panayiotou, Georgia; Vrana, Scott R

    2016-03-01

    Alexithymia is believed to involve deficits in emotion processing and imagery ability. Previous findings suggest that it is especially related to deficits in processing the arousal dimension of emotion, and that discordance may exist between self-report and physiological responses to emotional stimuli in alexithymia. The current study used a well-established emotional imagery paradigm to examine emotion processing deficits and discordance in participants (N = 86) selected based on their extreme scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20. Physiological (skin conductance, heart rate, and corrugator and zygomaticus electromyographic responses) and self-report (valence, arousal ratings) responses were monitored during imagery of anger, fear, joy, and neutral scenes and emotionally neutral high arousal (action) scenes. Results from regression analyses indicated that alexithymia was largely unrelated to responses on valence-based measures (facial electromyography, valence ratings), but that it was related to arousal-based measures. Specifically, alexithymia was related to higher heart rate during neutral and lower heart rate during fear imagery. Alexithymia did not predict differential responses to action versus neutral imagery, suggesting specificity of deficits to emotional contexts. Evidence for discordance between physiological responses and self-report in alexithymia was obtained from within-person analyses using multilevel modeling. Results are consistent with the idea that alexithymic deficits are specific to processing emotional arousal, and suggest difficulties with parasympathetic control and emotion regulation. Alexithymia is also associated with discordance between self-reported emotional experience and physiological response to emotion, consistent with prior evidence. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26461248

  7. People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.

    PubMed

    Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

    2008-10-01

    Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external. PMID:19093614

  8. Musically induced arousal affects pain perception in females but not in males: a psychophysiological examination.

    PubMed

    Kenntner-Mabiala, Ramona; Gorges, Susanne; Alpers, Georg W; Lehmann, Andreas C; Pauli, Paul

    2007-04-01

    The present study investigated affective and physiological responses to changes of tempo and mode in classical music and their effects on heat pain perception. Thirty-eight healthy non-musicians (17 female) listened to sequences of 24 music stimuli which were variations of 4 pieces of classical music. Tempo (46, 60, and 95 beats/min) and mode (major and minor) were manipulated digitally, all other musical elements were held constant. Participants rated valence, arousal, happiness and sadness of the musical stimuli as well as the intensity and the unpleasantness of heat pain stimuli which were applied during music listening. Heart rate, respiratory rate and end-tidal PCO(2) were recorded. Pain ratings were highest for the fastest tempo. Also, participants' arousal ratings, their respiratory rate and heart rate were accelerated by the fastest tempo. The modulation of pain perception by the tempo of music seems to be mediated by the listener's arousal. PMID:17118518

  9. Neural correlates of processing negative and sexually arousing pictures.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

  10. Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.

    PubMed

    Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

    2010-10-01

    Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics. PMID:20887690

  11. The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

  12. Segregation of information about emotional arousal and valence in horse whinnies

    PubMed Central

    Briefer, Elodie F.; Maigrot, Anne-Laure; Mandel, Roi; Freymond, Sabrina Briefer; Bachmann, Iris; Hillmann, Edna

    2015-01-01

    Studying vocal correlates of emotions is important to provide a better understanding of the evolution of emotion expression through cross-species comparisons. Emotions are composed of two main dimensions: emotional arousal (calm versus excited) and valence (negative versus positive). These two dimensions could be encoded in different vocal parameters (segregation of information) or in the same parameters, inducing a trade-off between cues indicating emotional arousal and valence. We investigated these two hypotheses in horses. We placed horses in five situations eliciting several arousal levels and positive as well as negative valence. Physiological and behavioral measures collected during the tests suggested the presence of different underlying emotions. First, using detailed vocal analyses, we discovered that all whinnies contained two fundamental frequencies (“F0” and “G0”), which were not harmonically related, suggesting biphonation. Second, we found that F0 and the energy spectrum encoded arousal, while G0 and whinny duration encoded valence. Our results show that cues to emotional arousal and valence are segregated in different, relatively independent parameters of horse whinnies. Most of the emotion-related changes to vocalizations that we observed are similar to those observed in humans and other species, suggesting that vocal expression of emotions has been conserved throughout evolution. PMID:25897781

  13. Cognitive flexibility, heart rate variability, and resilience predict fine-grained regulation of arousal during prolonged threat.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Lea K; McCall, Cade; Engen, Haakon G; Singer, Tania

    2016-06-01

    Emotion regulation in the ongoing presence of a threat is essential for adaptive behavior. Threatening situations change over time and, as a consequence, require a fine-tuned, dynamic regulation of arousal to match the current state of the environment. Constructs such as cognitive flexibility, heart rate variability, and resilience have been proposed as resources for adaptive emotion regulation, especially in a moment-to-moment fashion. Nevertheless, none of these constructs has been empirically related to the dynamic regulation of arousal as it unfolds over the course of a prolonged threatening episode. Here, we do so by placing participants in a threatening and evolving immersive virtual environment called Room 101, while recording their skin conductance. Subsequently, participants rated their subjective arousal continuously over the course of the experience. Participants who had shown greater cognitive flexibility in a separate task (i.e., fewer task-switching costs when switching to evaluating the valence of positive stimuli) showed better regulation of physiological arousal (skin conductance level), during less-threatening phases of Room 101. Individuals with higher trait resilience and individuals with higher resting heart rate variability showed more regulation in terms of their subjective arousal experience. The results indicate that emotional, cognitive, and physiological flexibility support nuanced adaptive regulation of objective and experienced arousal in the ongoing presence of threats. Furthermore, the results indicate that these forms of flexibility differentially affect automatic and objective versus reflective and subjective processes. PMID:26899260

  14. Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth

    SciTech Connect

    Tissue, D.T.

    1989-01-01

    Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%.

  15. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures.

    PubMed

    Motelow, Joshua E; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M; Sachdev, Robert N S; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P; Englot, Dario J; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function, including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a critical mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  16. Decreased subcortical cholinergic arousal in focal seizures

    PubMed Central

    Motelow, Joshua E.; Li, Wei; Zhan, Qiong; Mishra, Asht M.; Sachdev, Robert N. S.; Liu, Geoffrey; Gummadavelli, Abhijeet; Zayyad, Zaina; Lee, Hyun Seung; Chu, Victoria; Andrews, John P.; Englot, Dario J.; Herman, Peter; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Impaired consciousness in temporal lobe seizures has a major negative impact on quality of life. The prevailing view holds that this disorder impairs consciousness by seizure spread to the bilateral temporal lobes. We propose instead that seizures invade subcortical regions and depress arousal, causing impairment through decreases rather than through increases in activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a rodent model, we found increased activity in regions known to depress cortical function including lateral septum and anterior hypothalamus. Importantly, we found suppression of intralaminar thalamic and brainstem arousal systems and suppression of the cortex. At a cellular level, we found reduced firing of identified cholinergic neurons in the brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus and basal forebrain. Finally, we used enzyme-based amperometry to demonstrate reduced cholinergic neurotransmission in both cortex and thalamus. Decreased subcortical arousal is a novel mechanism for loss of consciousness in focal temporal lobe seizures. PMID:25654258

  17. [Sexuality in overweight and obesity].

    PubMed

    Abrahamian, Heidemarie; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra

    2016-03-01

    The association between obesity and sexual dysfunction has been described in many studies. Neurobiological, hormonal, vascular and mental disturbances are the main reasons in male and in female gender. Sexual interest and desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, painful intercourse and premature ejaculation can be involved. Data for prevalence of sexual function disturbances in obese people are scarce and most studies were small. For screening of sexual function we recommend the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF)-Score, which contains 15 Items for males and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), which contains 19 items for females. Treatment of sexual function disturbances include lifestyle changes with an increase of physical activity, weight control, healthy eating and smoking cessation. Testosterone substitution in cases of real hypogonadism and treatment with PDE-5 inhibitors are well documented treatment options in male individuals. New treatment options for female patients with variable effectiveness are fibanserin, testosterone, bupropione and oxytocin. PMID:26811242

  18. Frontal alpha asymmetry and sexually motivated states.

    PubMed

    Prause, Nicole; Staley, Cameron; Roberts, Verena

    2014-03-01

    Anterior alpha asymmetry of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals has been suggested to index state approach (or avoidance) motivation. This model has not yet been extended to high approach-motivation sexual stimuli, which may represent an important model of reward system function. Sixty-five participants viewed a neutral and a sexually motivating film while their EEG was recorded, and reported their sexual feelings after each film. Greater alpha power in the left hemisphere during sexually motivated states was evident. A positive relationship between self-reported mental sexual arousal and alpha asymmetry was identified, where coherence between these indicators was higher in women. Notably, coherence was stronger when mental versus physical sexual arousal was rated. Alpha asymmetry appears to offer a new method for further examining this novel coherence pattern across men and women. PMID:24460762

  19. Music, perceived arousal, and intensity: psychophysiological reactions to Chopin's "Tristesse".

    PubMed

    Mikutta, Christian Alexander; Schwab, Simon; Niederhauser, Sandra; Wuermle, Othmar; Strik, Werner; Altorfer, Andreas

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigates the relation of perceived arousal (continuous self-rating), autonomic nervous system activity (heart rate, heart rate variability) and musical characteristics (sound intensity, musical rhythm) upon listening to a complex musical piece. Twenty amateur musicians listened to two performances of Chopin's "Tristesse" with different rhythmic shapes. Besides conventional statistical methods for analyzing psychophysiological reactions (heart rate, respiration rate) and musical variables, semblance analysis was used. Perceived arousal correlated strongly with sound intensity; heart rate showed only a partial response to changes in sound intensity. Larger changes in heart rate were caused by the version with more rhythmic tension. The low-/high-frequency ratio of heart rate variability increased--whereas the high frequency component decreased--during music listening. We conclude that autonomic nervous system activity can be modulated not only by sound intensity but also by the interpreter's use of rhythmic tension. Semblance analysis enables us to track the subtle correlations between musical and physiological variables. PMID:23763714

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Excitation/Sexual Inhibition Inventory for Women in a German Sample.

    PubMed

    Velten, Julia; Scholten, Saskia; Graham, Cynthia A; Margraf, Jürgen

    2016-02-01

    The Sexual Excitation Sexual/Inhibition Inventory for Women (SESII-W) is a self-report questionnaire for assessing propensities of sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) in women. According to the dual control model of sexual response, these two factors differ between individuals and influence the occurrence of sexual arousal in given situations. Extreme levels of SE and SI are postulated to be associated with sexual problems or risky sexual behaviors. Psychometric evaluation of the original scale yielded two higher order and eight lower order factors as well as satisfactory to good construct validity and reliability. The present study was designed to assess the psychometric properties of a German version of the SESII-W utilizing a large convenience sample of 2206 women. Confirmatory factor analysis showed a satisfactory overall model fit, with support for the five lower order factors of SE (Arousability, Sexual Power Dynamics, Smell, Partner Characteristics, Setting) and the three lower order factors of SI (Relationship Importance, Arousal Contingency, and Concerns about Sexual Function). Additionally, the scale demonstrated good convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and test-retest-reliability. The German SESII-W is a sufficiently reliable and valid measure for assessing SE and SI in women. Hence, its use can be recommended for future research in Germany that investigates women's sexual behaviors and experiences. PMID:26025455

  1. The Effects of Arousal on Cognitive Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulhus, Delroy L.; Lim, David T. K.

    Previous work has demonstrated the importance of Osgood's three semantic dimensions (Evaluation, Potency, Activity) in people's conceptions of various domains. To test the effects of arousal on how individuals use these dimensions, three studies were conducted. In each study, six stimuli from a particular domain were presented in pairs. Subjects…

  2. Psychiatric disorders and sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Waldinger, Marcel D

    2015-01-01

    Sexual problems are highly prevalent among patients with psychiatric disorders. They may be caused by the psychopathology of the psychiatric disorder but also by its pharmacotherapy. Both positive symptoms (e.g., psychosis, hallucinations) as well as negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia) of schizophrenia may negatively interfere with interpersonal and sexual relationships. Atypical antipsychotics have fewer sexual side-effects than the classic antipsychotics. Mood disorders may affect libido, sexual arousal, orgasm, and erectile function. With the exception of bupropion, agomelatine, mirtazapine, vortioxetine, amineptine, and moclobemide, all antidepressants cause sexual side-effects. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may particularly delay ejaculation and female orgasm, but also can cause decreased libido and erectile difficulties. SSRI-induced sexual side-effects are dose-dependent and reversible. Very rarely, their sexual side-effects persist after SSRI discontinuation. This is often preceded by genital anesthesia. Some personality characteristics are a risk factor for sexual dysfunction. Also patients with eating disorders may suffer from sexual difficulties. So far, research into psychotropic-induced sexual side-effects suffers from substantial methodologic limitations. Patients tend not to talk with their clinician about their sexual life. Psychiatrists and other doctors need to take the initiative to talk about the patient's sexual life in order to become informed about potential medication-induced sexual difficulties. PMID:26003261

  3. The limits of arousal's memory impairing effects on nearby information

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Gorlick, Marissa; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Showing an arousing central stimulus in a scene often leads to enhanced memory for the arousing central information and impaired memory for peripheral details. However, it is not clear from previous work whether arousing stimuli impair memory for all non-arousing nearby information or just background information. In several experiments, we tested how emotionally arousing pictures affect memory for nearby pictures and for background information. We found that when two pictures were presented together, having one of the pictures be arousing did not affect item and location memory for the other picture. In contrast, an arousing picture impaired memory for a background pattern. These findings suggest that arousal impairs memory for information that is the target of perceptual suppression, such as background information when there is a figure-ground distinction, but does not impair memory for other foreground information. PMID:19827704

  4. The sexual responses of sexual sadists.

    PubMed

    Seto, Michael C; Lalumière, Martin L; Harris, Grant T; Chivers, Meredith L

    2012-08-01

    On average, rapists show greater relative genital responses to rape stories than do nonrapists in the laboratory. It has been suggested that this robust group difference is explained by the fact that many rapists are sexually sadistic. It is not clear, however, what the critical cues underlying rapists' genital responses are, because rape stories used in previous research include a mix of sadistic cues of violence and victim injury as well as cues of victim resistance and nonconsent. The present study was conducted to identify the critical cues producing self-identified sadists' sexual responses, and thereby to test sexual sadism as an explanation of rapists' arousal pattern. The present study was also conducted to develop a new phallometric test for sexual sadism for research and clinical applications, given evidence of poor diagnostic reliability and validity. Eighteen self-identified male sadists, 22 men with some sadistic interests who did not meet all of our sadist criteria, and 23 nonsadists (all recruited from the community) were compared in their genital and subjective responses to a new set of stories that disentangle violence/injury cues from resistance/nonconsent cues. The three groups differed in both their genital and subjective responses: using indices of relative responding, sadists responded significantly more to cues of violence/injury than nonsadists and men with some sadistic interests. The group difference for cues of nonconsent was not significant. The results suggest that sexual sadism primarily involves arousal to violence/injury in a sexual context rather than resistance/nonconsent. PMID:22708887

  5. Sexual activity and aging.

    PubMed

    Ni Lochlainn, Mary; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-08-01

    Sexuality is an important component of emotional and physical intimacy that men and women experience throughout their lives. Research suggesting that a high proportion of men and women remain sexually active well into later life refutes the prevailing myth that aging and sexual dysfunction are inexorably linked. Age-related physiological changes do not render a meaningful sexual relationship impossible or even necessarily difficult. Many of these physiological changes are modifiable. There are various therapeutic options available to patients to achieve maximum sexual capacity in old age. This article reviews the prevalence of sexual activity among older adults, the problems these adults encounter with sexual activity, and the role of the health care professional in addressing these problems. The physiological sex-related changes that occur as part of the normal aging process in men and women are reviewed, as well as the effect of age-related physical and psychological illness on sexual function. The attitudes and perceptions of the media and general public toward sexual activity and aging are summarized. An understanding of the sexual changes that accompany the aging process may help general practitioners and other doctors to give practical and useful advice on sexuality as well as refute the misconception that aging equates to celibacy. A thorough awareness of this aspect of older people's quality of life can raise meaningful expectations for aging patients. PMID:23540950

  6. Identification of a dopamine pathway that regulates sleep and arousal in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Taro; Tomita, Jun; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Endo, Keita; Ito, Kei; Kume, Shoen; Kume, Kazuhiko

    2012-11-01

    Sleep is required to maintain physiological functions, including memory, and is regulated by monoamines across species. Enhancement of dopamine signals by a mutation in the dopamine transporter (DAT) decreases sleep, but the underlying dopamine circuit responsible for this remains unknown. We found that the D1 dopamine receptor (DA1) in the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFSB) mediates the arousal effect of dopamine in Drosophila. The short sleep phenotype of the DAT mutant was completely rescued by an additional mutation in the DA1 (also known as DopR) gene, but expression of wild-type DA1 in the dFSB restored the short sleep phenotype. We found anatomical and physiological connections between dopamine neurons and the dFSB neuron. Finally, we used mosaic analysis with a repressive marker and found that a single dopamine neuron projecting to the FSB activated arousal. These results suggest that a local dopamine pathway regulates sleep. PMID:23064381

  7. Aroused with heart: Modulation of heartbeat evoked potential by arousal induction and its oscillatory correlates.

    PubMed

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the visceral information is constantly processed by the brain, thereby potentially influencing cognition. One index of such process is the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an ERP component related to the cortical processing of the heartbeat. The HEP is sensitive to a number of factors such as motivation, attention, pain, which are associated with higher levels of arousal. However, the role of arousal and its associated brain oscillations on the HEP has not been characterized, yet it could underlie the previous findings. Here we analysed the effects of high- (HA) and low-arousal (LA) induction on the HEP. Further, we investigated the brain oscillations and their role in the HEP in response to HA and LA inductions. As compared to LA, HA was associated with a higher HEP and lower alpha oscillations. Interestingly, individual differences in the HEP modulation by arousal induction were correlated with alpha oscillations. In particular, participants with higher alpha power during the arousal inductions showed a larger HEP in response to HA compared to LA. In summary, we demonstrated that arousal induction affects the cortical processing of heartbeats; and that the alpha oscillations may modulate this effect. PMID:26503014

  8. Aroused with heart: Modulation of heartbeat evoked potential by arousal induction and its oscillatory correlates

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Caroline Di Bernardi; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the visceral information is constantly processed by the brain, thereby potentially influencing cognition. One index of such process is the heartbeat evoked potential (HEP), an ERP component related to the cortical processing of the heartbeat. The HEP is sensitive to a number of factors such as motivation, attention, pain, which are associated with higher levels of arousal. However, the role of arousal and its associated brain oscillations on the HEP has not been characterized, yet it could underlie the previous findings. Here we analysed the effects of high- (HA) and low-arousal (LA) induction on the HEP. Further, we investigated the brain oscillations and their role in the HEP in response to HA and LA inductions. As compared to LA, HA was associated with a higher HEP and lower alpha oscillations. Interestingly, individual differences in the HEP modulation by arousal induction were correlated with alpha oscillations. In particular, participants with higher alpha power during the arousal inductions showed a larger HEP in response to HA compared to LA. In summary, we demonstrated that arousal induction affects the cortical processing of heartbeats; and that the alpha oscillations may modulate this effect. PMID:26503014

  9. Scratching under positive and negative arousal in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Neal, Sarah J; Caine, Nancy G

    2016-02-01

    Scratching has been widely used as an indicator of anxiety in many primate species. However, a handful of studies have shown no change in scratching under anxiety-provoking circumstances. In addition, the existing literature has investigated scratching only in relation to negative arousal (i.e., anxiety), even though anxiety and excitement (positive arousal) share important physiological and behavioral correlates, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and locomotion. In the current study, we scored all instances of scratching in 11 outdoor-housed captive common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) during three contexts that were intended to be negatively arousing and three contexts that were intended to be positively arousing during a baseline, manipulation, and post-induction period. Summed across the three negative arousal contexts, the results showed that subjects exhibited significantly lower scratching rates during the manipulation than during either the baseline or post-induction periods, and the pattern of means was the same for all three of those contexts. Under the three contexts of positive arousal, subjects exhibited different patterns of scratching rates during the manipulation periods (play = increases, foraging = decreases, food anticipation = no change). Data from the current study, and a close examination of data from studies showing no change in scratching under anxiety-provoking circumstances, suggest that the anxiety-scratching relationship may be more complex than has been reported previously. Our results raise a potential concern about the unchallenged use of scratching as a behavioral indicator of anxiety in captive non-human primates, with important implications for welfare and management of these species. Am. J. Primatol. 78:216-226, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26530306

  10. Don't Look down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

    2009-01-01

    In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target…

  11. The Effect of Arousal on Warm Up Decrement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark H.

    1985-01-01

    This study examined whether particular strategies would enhance affective arousal and if these techniques would affect warm-up decrement during performance of a sport skill. One strategy eliminated warm-up decrement and two had no effect. Positive and negative arousal and the correlation of arousal level to warm-up decrement are explored.

  12. Arousal/Visual Preference Interactions in High-Risk Neonates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Judith M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Studied the organization of arousal and attention processes in 138 neurologically at-risk neonates by examining visual preferences when infants were in 3 arousal conditions that involved light panel stimuli. There were no differences in preferences in the two conditions that caused the most arousal. (LB)

  13. Towards a smart glove: arousal recognition based on textile Electrodermal Response.

    PubMed

    Valenza, Gaetano; Lanata, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale; De Rossi, Danilo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of using Electrodermal Response, acquired by a sensing fabric glove with embedded textile electrodes, as reliable means for emotion recognition. Here, all the essential steps for an automatic recognition system are described, from the recording of physiological data set to a feature-based multiclass classification. Data were collected from 35 healthy volunteers during arousal elicitation by means of International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures. Experimental results show high discrimination after twenty steps of cross validation. PMID:21096840

  14. The effects of increasing neutral distraction on sexual responding of women with and without sexual problems.

    PubMed

    Salemink, Elske; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M

    2006-04-01

    This study examined the influence of distraction on genital and subjective sexual responses of women with (N=20) and without (N=21) sexual problems. Female-produced erotic film fragments were presented to induce sexual response and a vaginal photoplethysmograph was used to measure genital sexual responding. Subjective sexual arousal was assessed in real time using a rotating button and, retrospectively, with visual analogue scales. Distraction load was manipulated through different verbal instructions on how to deal with pairs of digits. The results revealed an equally strong impeding effect of distraction on genital sexual responses and on subjective sexual responses when these were measured retrospectively in women with and without sexual problems. However, distraction did not affect subjective sexual responses when these were measured in real time. The implications of the finding that distraction equally affects women with and without sexual problems are discussed. PMID:16752120

  15. The sexually sadistic serial killer.

    PubMed

    Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

    1996-11-01

    This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing. PMID:8914287

  16. Survivorship: Sexual Dysfunction (Female), Version 1.2013

    PubMed Central

    Denlinger, Crystal S.; Carlson, Robert W.; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K. Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B.; Friedman, Debra L.; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S.; Ligibel, Jennifer A.; McCabe, Mary S.; McVary, Kevin T.; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G.; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O’Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D.; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L.; Urba, Susan G.; Wakabayashi, Mark T.; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. PMID:24586080

  17. Reproductive physiology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, G.F.; Russman, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the general pattern of avian physiology applies to cranes, we have identified many physiological mechanisms (e.g., effects of disturbance) that need further study. Studies with cranes are expensive compared to those done with domestic fowl because of the crane's larger size, low reproductive rate, and delayed sexual maturity. To summarize, the crane reproductive system is composed of physiological and anatomical elements whose function is controlled by an integrated neural-endocrine system. Males generally produce semen at a younger age than when females lay eggs. Eggs are laid in clutches of two (1 to 3), and females will lay additional clutches if the preceding clutches are removed. Both sexes build nests and incubate the eggs. Molt begins during incubation and body molt may be completed annually in breeding pairs. However, remiges are replaced sequentially over 2 to 3 years, or abruptly every 2 to 3 years in other species. Most immature birds replace their juvenal remiges over a 2 to 3 year period. Stress interferes with reproduction in cranes by reducing egg production or terminating the reproductive effort. In other birds, stress elevates corticosterone levels and decreases LHRH release. We know little about the physiological response of cranes to stress.

  18. Arousal Modulation in Cocaine-Exposed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Margaret; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The ability to modulate arousal is a critical skill with wide-ranging implications for development. In this study, the authors examined arousal regulation as a function of levels of prenatal cocaine exposure in 107 infants at 4 months of age using a “still-face” procedure. Facial expressions were coded. A greater percentage of heavily cocaine-exposed infants, compared with those who were unexposed to cocaine, showed less enjoyment during en face play with their mothers and continued to show negative expressions during the resumption of play following a period when the interaction was interrupted. This finding was independent of other substance exposure, neonatal medical condition, environmental risk, maternal contingent responsivity, and concurrent maternal sensitivity and vocalizations. PMID:9597364

  19. Contagious yawning, social cognition, and arousal: an investigation of the processes underlying shelter dogs' responses to human yawns.

    PubMed

    Buttner, Alicia Phillips; Strasser, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Studies of contagious yawning have reported inconsistent findings regarding whether dogs exhibit this behavior and whether it is mediated by social-cognitive processes or the result of physiological arousal. We investigated why some dogs yawn in response to human yawns; particularly, whether these dogs are exceptional in their ability to understand human social cues or whether they were more physiologically aroused. Sixty shelter dogs were exposed to yawning and nonyawning control stimuli demonstrated by an unfamiliar human. We took salivary cortisol samples before and after testing to determine the role of arousal in yawn contagion. Dogs were tested on the object-choice task to assess their sensitivity for interpreting human social cues. We found that 12 dogs yawned only in response to human yawns (i.e., appeared to exhibit yawn contagion), though contagious yawning at the population level was not observed. Dogs that exhibited yawn contagion did not perform better on the object-choice task than other dogs, but their cortisol levels remained elevated after exposure to human yawning, whereas other dogs had reduced cortisol levels following yawning stimuli relative to their baseline levels. We interpret these findings as showing that human yawning, when presented in a stressful context, can further influence arousal in dogs, which then causes some to yawn. Although the precise social-cognitive mechanisms that underlie contagious yawning in dogs are still unclear, yawning between humans and dogs may involve some communicative function that is modulated by context and arousal. PMID:23670215

  20. Don’t Look Down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception

    PubMed Central

    Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

    2012-01-01

    In a series of experiments we found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or non-arousing images before estimating the height of a two-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target size more than those who viewed non-arousing images. However, in Experiment 2, estimates of horizontal distances were not influenced by emotional arousal. In Experiment 3, we manipulated both valence and arousal cues and observed that arousal, but not valence, moderated height perception. In Experiment 4, participants either up-regulated or down-regulated their emotional experience while viewing emotionally arousing images, and a control group simply viewed the arousing images. Those participants who up-regulated their emotional experience overestimated height more than the control or down-regulated participants. In sum, emotional arousal influences estimates of height and this influence can be moderated by emotion regulation strategies. PMID:19203173

  1. Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal on Time Perception

    PubMed Central

    Van Volkinburg, Heather; Balsam, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We examined the influence of emotional arousal and valence on estimating time intervals. A reproduction task was used in which images from the International Affective Picture System served as the stimuli to be timed. Experiment 1 assessed the effects of positive and negative valence at a moderate arousal level and Experiment 2 replicated Experiment 1 with the addition of a high arousal condition. Overestimation increased as a function of arousal during encoding of times regardless of valence. For images presented during reproduction, overestimation occurred at the moderate arousal level for positive and negative valence but underestimation occurred in the negative valence high arousal condition. The overestimation of time intervals produced by emotional arousal during encoding and during reproduction suggests that emotional stimuli affect temporal information processing in a qualitatively different way during different phases of temporal information processing.

  2. Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Péter; Kelemen, Anna; Szűcs, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

  3. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Tampons, Pads, ... Sexual Attraction and Orientation Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Talking to Your Partner About Condoms Testicular Exams ...

  4. Managing female sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Buster, John E

    2013-10-01

    Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. PMID:24074537

  5. Sex Attracts: Investigating Individual Differences in Attentional Bias to Sexual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

  6. Impact of rheumatoid arthritis on sexual function

    PubMed Central

    Tristano, Antonio G

    2014-01-01

    Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being’s life and is more than just the sexual act. Normal sexual functioning consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The reasons for disturbing sexual functioning are multifactorial and comprise disease-related factors as well as therapy. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by progressive joint destruction resulting from chronic synovial inflammation. It leads to various degrees of disability, and ultimately has a profound impact on the social, economic, psychological, and sexual aspects of the patient’s life. This is a systemic review about the impact of RA on sexual functioning. PMID:24829873

  7. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed

    Grueter, Cyril C; Stoinski, Tara S

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a 'pornographic' effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  8. Homosexual Behavior in Female Mountain Gorillas: Reflection of Dominance, Affiliation, Reconciliation or Arousal?

    PubMed Central

    Grueter, Cyril C.; Stoinski, Tara S.

    2016-01-01

    Humans are unique among primates for not only engaging in same-sex sexual acts, but also forming homosexual pair bonds. To shed light on the evolutionary origins of homosexuality, data on the occurrence and contexts of same-sex behavior from nonhuman primates may be of particular significance. Homosexual behavior involving females is poorly researched in most primate taxa, exceptions being Japanese macaques, rhesus macaques, Hanuman langurs and bonobos. We present data on homosexual behavior in female mountain gorillas in the Virunga Volcanoes (Rwanda) and test four functional hypotheses, namely reconciliation, affiliation, dominance expression and sexual arousal. Homosexual interactions between females involved both ventro-dorsal and ventro-ventral copulations accompanied by vocalizations and courtship displays. The only sociosexual hypothesis that received partial empirical support is the social status hypothesis, i.e., that mounting reaffirms the dominance hierarchy. There is also some limited evidence that same-sex behavior reflects an overall state of arousal or is triggered via a ‘pornographic’ effect. An adaptive function of female homosexual behavior is not readily apparent, and we tentatively conclude (until a more rigorous test becomes available) that it may simply be related to sexual gratification or that it is an evolutionary by-product of an adaptation. PMID:27167861

  9. Differences between sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers: developmental antecedents and behavioral comparisons.

    PubMed

    Burton, David L; Duty, Kerry Jo; Leibowitz, George S

    2011-01-01

    This study compares sexually victimized and nonsexually victimized male adolescent sexual abusers on a number of variables. Self-report measures were administered to 325 male sexually abusive youth (average age 16) in six residential facilities in the Midwest, 55% of whom reported sexual victimization. The results indicate that the sexually victimized sexual abusers have more severe developmental antecedents (trauma, family characteristics, early exposure to pornography and personality) and recent behavioral difficulties (characteristics of sexual aggression, sexual arousal, use of pornography, and nonsexual criminal behavior) than the nonsexually victimized group. Results are contrasted with recent typological research, which found no relationship between sexual victimization and subtype membership. Treatment, research, and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:21259148

  10. [Sexual addiction? When sexual behavior gets out of control].

    PubMed

    Briken, P; Basdekis-Jozsa, R

    2010-04-01

    The authors differentiates deviant (paraphilic) and non-deviant forms of a sexual addictive symptomatology. For the non-deviant forms, the diagnostic term paraphilia-related disorder is used. According to etiological factors, the authors discuss an interaction of a biological vulnerability, attachment and relationship problems, disorders of affect regulation as well as disinhibition of sexual excitation. Some individuals react to negative emotions, like depression or anxiety, with an increased sexual arousal. They may try to cope with negative emotions by being sexually active. However, the importance of the sexual stimulus itself should not be ignored. The authors describe specific psychotherapy, the attendance of self-help groups, and pharmacological treatment, especially with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:20198357

  11. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32), medium (33-38), and positive (39-48). One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI< 26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI> 26.55). Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02), lubrication (p< 0.0001), orgasm (p= 0.002) and satisfaction (p= 0.002) were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important to emphasis the role of physicians and experts on education and counseling in this subject. PMID:27141546

  12. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bulllying

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying KidsHealth > For Teens > Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying ... being sexually harassed or bullied. What Are Sexual Bullying and Harassment? Just like other kinds of bullying, ...

  13. Norepinephrine at the nexus of arousal, motivation and relapse.

    PubMed

    España, Rodrigo A; Schmeichel, Brooke E; Berridge, Craig W

    2016-06-15

    Arousal plays a critical role in cognitive, affective and motivational processes. Consistent with this, the dysregulation of arousal-related neural systems is implicated in a variety of psychiatric disorders, including addiction. Noradrenergic systems exert potent arousal-enhancing actions that involve signaling at α1- and β-noradrenergic receptors within a distributed network of subcortical regions. The majority of research into noradrenergic modulation of arousal has focused on the nucleus locus coeruleus. Nevertheless, anatomical studies demonstrate that multiple noradrenergic nuclei innervate subcortical arousal-related regions, providing a substrate for differential regulation of arousal across these distinct noradrenergic nuclei. The arousal-promoting actions of psychostimulants and other drugs of abuse contribute to their widespread abuse. Moreover, relapse can be triggered by a variety of arousal-promoting events, including stress and re-exposure to drugs of abuse. Evidence has long-indicated that norepinephrine plays an important role in relapse. Recent observations suggest that noradrenergic signaling elicits affectively-neutral arousal that is sufficient to reinstate drug seeking. Collectively, these observations indicate that norepinephrine plays a key role in the interaction between arousal, motivation, and relapse. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26773688

  14. A Social Episode Model of Human Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Robert G.; Freeman, William M.

    1976-01-01

    A social episode model of sexual behavior is proposed with emphasis placed on arousal as a crucial variable. This model argues against a disease or deficiency concept of homosexuality. The authors hold a therapist should adequately respond to a valid sexual orientation request. (Author)

  15. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Rowe, D. L.

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena.

  16. Dynamics of large-scale brain activity in normal arousal states and epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P A; Rennie, C J; Rowe, D L

    2002-04-01

    Links between electroencephalograms (EEGs) and underlying aspects of neurophysiology and anatomy are poorly understood. Here a nonlinear continuum model of large-scale brain electrical activity is used to analyze arousal states and their stability and nonlinear dynamics for physiologically realistic parameters. A simple ordered arousal sequence in a reduced parameter space is inferred and found to be consistent with experimentally determined parameters of waking states. Instabilities arise at spectral peaks of the major clinically observed EEG rhythms-mainly slow wave, delta, theta, alpha, and sleep spindle-with each instability zone lying near its most common experimental precursor arousal states in the reduced space. Theta, alpha, and spindle instabilities evolve toward low-dimensional nonlinear limit cycles that correspond closely to EEGs of petit mal seizures for theta instability, and grand mal seizures for the other types. Nonlinear stimulus-induced entrainment and seizures are also seen, EEG spectra and potentials evoked by stimuli are reproduced, and numerous other points of experimental agreement are found. Inverse modeling enables physiological parameters underlying observed EEGs to be determined by a new, noninvasive route. This model thus provides a single, powerful framework for quantitative understanding of a wide variety of brain phenomena. PMID:12005890

  17. Comparison of physiological responses to affect eliciting pictures and music.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongwan; Wedell, Douglas H

    2016-03-01

    Recent investigations of the neural correlates of affect elicited from different modalities have found both modality-general and modality-specific representations (Chikazoe et al., 2014). The implications for how physiological responses to affect differ across stimulus modalities have not been fully investigated. This study examined similarities and differences between physiological signatures of affect derived from two different modes of presentation: visual pictures and auditory music sampled from an affective space defined by valence and arousal. Electromyography recordings for the zygomaticus major (EMGZ) and corrugator supercilii (EMGC) were measured along with heart rate and skin conductance level (SCL). Multidimensional scaling was used to visualize relationships from physiological and behavioral responses, and the observed relationships were statistically evaluated using multivariate and univariate analyses. Results for physiological measures demonstrated that valence was represented in the same general way across modalities, primarily reflected in EMGC responses. Arousal, however, was represented in a modality-specific manner, with SCL and EMGZ sensitive to music-based arousal but not picture-based arousal. Stimulus modality itself was predicted from EMGC. Thus, physiological responses to valence were similar across modalities but physiological responses to arousal differed across modalities. These results support the utility of testing for affective markers across modalities within the same experimental setting to reveal how physiological responses are linked to either affect, stimulus modality or both. PMID:26752207

  18. Animals may act as social buffers: Skin conductance arousal in children with autism spectrum disorder in a social context.

    PubMed

    O'Haire, Marguerite E; McKenzie, Samantha J; Beck, Alan M; Slaughter, Virginia

    2015-07-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience high rates of social stress and anxious arousal. Preliminary evidence suggests that companion animals can act as buffers against the adverse effects of social stress in adults. We measured continuous physiological arousal in children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children in a social context during four conditions: (a) a baseline of reading silently, (b) a scripted classroom activity involving reading aloud, (c) free play with peers and toys, and (d) free play with peers and animals (guinea pigs). Our results confirmed heightened arousal among children with ASD compared to TD children in all conditions, except when the animals were present. Children with ASD showed a 43% decrease in skin conductance responses during free play with peers in the presence of animals, compared to toys. Thus, animals may act as social buffers for children with ASD, conferring unique anxiolytic effects. PMID:25913902

  19. Orexin A activates locus coeruleus cell firing and increases arousal in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hagan, J J; Leslie, R A; Patel, S; Evans, M L; Wattam, T A; Holmes, S; Benham, C D; Taylor, S G; Routledge, C; Hemmati, P; Munton, R P; Ashmeade, T E; Shah, A S; Hatcher, J P; Hatcher, P D; Jones, D N; Smith, M I; Piper, D C; Hunter, A J; Porter, R A; Upton, N

    1999-09-14

    The localization of orexin neuropeptides in the lateral hypothalamus has focused interest on their role in ingestion. The orexigenic neurones in the lateral hypothalamus, however, project widely in the brain, and thus the physiological role of orexins is likely to be complex. Here we describe an investigation of the action of orexin A in modulating the arousal state of rats by using a combination of tissue localization and electrophysiological and behavioral techniques. We show that the brain region receiving the densest innervation from orexinergic nerves is the locus coeruleus, a key modulator of attentional state, where application of orexin A increases cell firing of intrinsic noradrenergic neurones. Orexin A increases arousal and locomotor activity and modulates neuroendocrine function. The data suggest that orexin A plays an important role in orchestrating the sleep-wake cycle. PMID:10485925

  20. Viewing Sexual Stimuli Associated with Greater Sexual Responsiveness, Not Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Prause, Nicole; Pfaus, James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent viewing visual sexual stimuli (VSS) has the potential to habituate the sexual response and generalize to the partner context. Aim The aim of this study was to examine whether the time spent viewing VSS is related to sexual responsiveness felt in the laboratory or with a sexual partner. Methods Nontreatment-seeking men (N = 280) reported their weekly average VSS viewing in hours. VSS hours were examined in relation to the sexual arousal experienced while viewing a standardized sexual film in the laboratory and erectile problems experienced with a sexual partner. Main Outcome Measures Self-reported sexual arousal in response to sexual films and erectile problems on the International Index of Erectile Function were the main outcome measures. Results More hours viewing VSS was related to stronger experienced sexual responses to VSS in the laboratory, was unrelated to erectile functioning with a partner, and was related to stronger desire for sex with a partner. Conclusions VSS use within the range of hours tested is unlikely to negatively impact sexual functioning, given that responses actually were stronger in those who viewed more VSS. PMID:26185674

  1. [Confusional arousal: a rare cause of self-injurious behaviour].

    PubMed

    Mortier, P; Vandenbulcke, M; Gabriëls, L

    2014-01-01

    Non-rapid eye movement (NREM) arousal sleep disorders (confusional arousal, somnambulism and sleep terror) are self-limiting and temporary phenomena which cannot be attributed to medical or psychiatric factors. However, very occasionally they can be the cause of unintentional injury to self or others. We describe the case of an 18-year-old who engaged in self-injurious behaviour while asleep. This behaviour could be attributed to confusional arousal. PMID:24535769

  2. Violent adolescent sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Roy J

    2002-10-01

    The past 20 years have brought a significant increase in the general knowledge about adolescent offenders and sexual offenders and the potential harm that they cause to victims. Currently, however, we are left with perhaps more questions than answers in several important areas. We have concluded that there is no single cause or etiologic agent common to all sexual offenders. Sexual offenders are by nature a complex and a heterogeneous group, and sexual offending is likely caused by multiple causation and interactive factors. Awareness has spread as to the necessity of providing appropriate assessment and treatment facilities for adolescents. The limited outcome studies indicate a lower recidivism rate for adolescent offenders than adult offenders. This may reflect a better prognosis for adolescent offenders who have not had years of reinforcement of deviant sexual arousal patterns and whose personality traits are more malleable than those of adult offenders. Further research is needed in the area of subclassification of sexual offenders, controlled treatment studies, and prospective longitudinal studies to determine more accurate risk assessment. PMID:12397897

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22391416

  4. Looking at the other side of the coin: a meta-analysis of self-reported emotional arousal in people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Llerena, Katiah; Strauss, Gregory P; Cohen, Alex S

    2012-12-01

    Abnormalities in emotional experience have long been viewed as core features of schizophrenia. Numerous studies indicate that people with schizophrenia report less pleasure than controls when reporting non-current feelings using trait, hypothetical, prospective, and retrospective emotional self-report formats; however, current research has demonstrated that schizophrenia patients and controls do not differ in their subjective reactions to emotional stimuli in most laboratory studies. Although substantial attention has been paid to studies examining self-reported valence in schizophrenia, subjective reports of arousal in response to affective stimuli have been neglected. Understanding the role of arousal in schizophrenia is imperative given that valence and arousal are differentially associated with physiological and behavioral responses. To understand the role of self-reported arousal, a meta-analysis of 26 published studies employing laboratory emotion induction paradigms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls was conducted. Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed electronic databases and reference lists from identified articles were used as data sources. Using a random effects model, analyses demonstrated that controls and people with schizophrenia reported similar levels of subjective arousal in response to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli; however, people with schizophrenia reported experiencing greater arousal than controls in response to neutral stimuli. Furthermore, moderator analyses suggested that gender and methodological factors, such as rating scale and stimulus type, may affect these patterns of results and play a key role in determining whether patients and controls differ in self-reported arousal. PMID:23040736

  5. LOOKING AT THE OTHER SIDE OF THE COIN: A META-ANALYSIS OF SELF-REPORTED EMOTIONAL AROUSAL IN PEOPLE WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Llerena, Katiah; Strauss, Gregory P.; Cohen, Alex S.

    2012-01-01

    Abnormalities in emotional experience have long been viewed as core features of schizophrenia. Numerous studies indicate that people with schizophrenia report less pleasure than controls when reporting non-current feelings using trait, hypothetical, prospective, and retrospective emotional self-report formats; however, current research has demonstrated that schizophrenia patients and controls do not differ in their subjective reactions to emotional stimuli in most laboratory studies. Although substantial attention has been paid to studies examining self-reported valence in schizophrenia, subjective reports of arousal in response to affective stimuli have been neglected. Understanding the role of arousal in schizophrenia is imperative given that valence and arousal are differentially associated with physiological and behavioral responses. To understand the role of self-reported arousal, a meta-analysis of 26 published studies employing laboratory emotion induction paradigms in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls was conducted. Medline, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and PubMed electronic databases and reference lists from identified articles were used as data sources. Using a random effects model, analyses demonstrated that controls and people with schizophrenia reported similar levels of subjective arousal in response to pleasant and unpleasant stimuli; however, people with schizophrenia reported experiencing greater arousal than controls in response to neutral stimuli. Furthermore, moderator analyses suggested that gender and methodological factors, such as rating scale and stimulus type, may affect these patterns of results and play a key role in determining whether patients and controls differ in self-reported arousal. PMID:23040736

  6. Chemosensory induced arousals during sleep in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Grupp, Kathrin; Maurer, Joachim T; Hörmann, Karl; Hummel, Thomas; Stuck, Boris A

    2008-10-17

    Only a limited number of studies is available addressing chemosensory stimulation during sleep. Recent work indicates that stimulation with a nasal irritant produces an increase in arousal frequency in non-REM sleep, whereas a selective olfactory stimulant does not. The present study focused on arousal reactions in REM sleep. Five young healthy volunteers were investigated during 27 nights. Using air-dilution olfactometry CO(2) was used for nasal irritation and H(2)S was used as a specific olfactory stimulant. Both stimuli were presented at four concentrations, odorless stimuli served as control. Other than in previous studies arousal latency was used as a dependent measure. Even the strongest olfactory stimulus did not produce an increase in arousal frequency in REM sleep whereas for irritation such an increase was clearly present. Latencies of arousal responses to CO(2) shortened with increasing stimulus concentrations. Olfactory stimulation does not lead to arousal reactions. In contrast, trigeminal stimulation produces a concentration-dependent increase in arousal frequency and decrease in arousal latency across all sleep stages. The present data shows for the first time that arousals are not present during REM sleep in response to selective olfactory stimuli. However, such changes are easily evoked by irritants activating the trigeminal nerve. PMID:18708121

  7. [Sexuality and cardiac arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Sztajzel, J

    2013-03-20

    For most patients, sexual activity represents a low risk of triggering cardiac arrhythmias. However, particularly in patients with an underlying heart disease, sexual activity may cause cardiac arrhythmias which may be sometimes serious. From a physiological point of view, sexual activity produces increased sympathetic activity and thereby probably reduced vagal tone which at different degrees may induce cardiac arrythmias. Several presently available autopsy-studies have shown that this happens very rarely and that it mostly affects men. Finally, recently published recommendations allow us to better advise patients with cardiac arrhytmias to engage in sexual activity or to defer it until the condition is stabilized and optimally controlled. PMID:23547362

  8. Physiological correlates of mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zacharias, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    A literature review was conducted to assess the basis of and techniques for physiological assessment of mental workload. The study findings reviewed had shortcomings involving one or more of the following basic problems: (1) physiologic arousal can be easily driven by nonworkload factors, confounding any proposed metric; (2) the profound absence of underlying physiologic models has promulgated a multiplicity of seemingly arbitrary signal processing techniques; (3) the unspecified multidimensional nature of physiological "state" has given rise to a broad spectrum of competing noncommensurate metrics; and (4) the lack of an adequate definition of workload compels physiologic correlations to suffer either from the vagueness of implicit workload measures or from the variance of explicit subjective assessments. Using specific studies as examples, two basic signal processing/data reduction techniques in current use, time and ensemble averaging are discussed.

  9. Sexual compulsivity, state affect, and sexual risk behavior in a daily diary study of gay and bisexual men.

    PubMed

    Grov, Christian; Golub, Sarit A; Mustanski, Brian; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2010-09-01

    Researchers have identified a strong link between sexual compulsivity (SC) and risky sexual behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM). Meanwhile, affect/mood has also been connected with negative sexual health outcomes (sexually transmitted infection/human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] transmission, sexual risk, sex under the influence of drugs/alcohol). Given that SC is characterized by marked distress around one's own sexual behavior, affect may play a central role in SC and HIV risk behavior. Data were taken from the Pillow Talk Project, a pilot study conducted in 2008-2009 with 50 highly sexually active MSM (9 or more male sex partners, ≤ 90 days), of which half displayed SC symptoms and half did not. Forty-seven men completed a daily diary online for 30 days (n = 1,060 diary days), reporting on their sexual behavior and concurrent affect: positive activation, negative activation, anxious arousal, and sexual activation. We conducted HLM analyses using daily affect (Level 1, within subjects) and SC and HIV status (Level 2, between subjects) to predict sexual behavior outcomes. Increased negative activation (characterized by fear, sadness, anger, and disgust) was associated with reduced sexual risk behavior, but less so among sexually compulsive MSM. Sexual activation was associated with increased sexual risk taking, but less so among sexually compulsive MSM. Anxious arousal was associated with increased sexual behavior, but not necessarily sexual risk taking. Findings indicate that affect plays key roles in sexual behavior and sexual risk taking; however, the association between affect and behavior may be different for sexually compulsive and non-sexually compulsive MSM. PMID:20853934

  10. Neural and hormonal mechanisms of reproductive-related arousal in fishes

    PubMed Central

    Forlano, Paul M.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    The major classes of chemicals and brain pathways involved in sexual arousal in mammals are well studied and are thought to be of an ancient, evolutionarily conserved origin. Here we discuss what is known of these neurochemicals and brain circuits in fishes, the oldest and most species-rich group of vertebrates from which tetrapods arose over 200 million years ago. Highlighted are case studies in vocal species where well-delineated sensory and motor pathways underlying reproductive-related behaviors illustrate the diversity and evolution of brain mechanisms driving sexual motivation between (and within) sexes. Also discussed are evolutionary insights from the neurobiology and reproductive behavior of elasmobranch fishes, the most ancient lineage of jawed vertebrates, which are remarkably similar in their reproductive biology to terrestrial mammals. PMID:20950618

  11. [The stress effect in the prenatal period on sexual excitation and sexual orientation of the mice males].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, E G; Amstislavskaia, T G; Bulygina, V V; Popova, N K

    2006-01-01

    Estrus female behind holed transparent partition produced sexual motivation and sexual arousal in males. It was manifested in behavioral changes (an increase in time spent near the partition) and the testosterone level augmentation in blood. Female mice were exposed to stress (1 h/day restraint) in the last week of gestation. Prenatal stress was shown to decrease the blood corticosterone level as well as to diminish sexual motivation and sexual arousal in adult male mice. Estrus female exposure produced a lesser behavioral response and a lesser testosterone level augmentation. No changes in weight of testicles, seminal vesicles or adrenal glands were found, but preputial gland weight increased. In prenatally stressed males, a female preference decrease and a male preference increase were revealed in the partner preference test. These data suggest that prenatal stress decreases sexual motivation in males and leads to clear predisposition to homosexuality, although it does not produce complete inversion of sexual orientation. PMID:16613063

  12. Sexual satisfaction and sexual health among university students in the United States.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Jenny A; Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B

    2011-09-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P < .05) correlates of both physiological and psychological satisfaction included sexual guilt, sexual self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships. PMID:21778509

  13. Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Health Among University Students in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J. Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P < .05) correlates of both physiological and psychological satisfaction included sexual guilt, sexual self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships. PMID:21778509

  14. Infralimbic cortex activation and motivated arousal induce histamine release

    PubMed Central

    Forray, María Inés; Torrealba, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Appetitive behaviours occur in a state of behavioural and physiological activation that allows the optimal performance of these goal-directed behaviours. Here, we tested the hypothesis that histamine neurons under the command of the infralimbic cortex are important to provide behavioural activation. Extracellular histamine and serotonin were measured by microdialysis of the medial prefrontal cortex in behaving rats in parallel with a picrotoxin microinjection into the infralimbic cortex. The injection aroused the rats behaviourally, increased histamine release and decreased serotonin levels. Inhibition of the infralimbic cortex with muscimol produced the opposite effects on neurotransmitter release. The behavioural activation induced by motivating hungry rats with caged food was paralleled by an immediate histamine release, whereas awakening induced by tapping their microdialysis bowl increased serotonin, but not histamine levels. In conclusion, picrotoxin injection into the infralimbic cortex produces behavioural activation together with histamine release; in a similar manner, induction of an appetitive state produced histamine release, likely related to increased behavioural activation characteristic of an appetitive behaviour. PMID:25746330

  15. Heterosexual male perpetrators of childhood sexual abuse: a preliminary neuropsychiatric model.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Lisa J; Nikiforov, Konstantin; Gans, Sniezyna; Poznansky, Olga; McGeoch, Pamela; Weaver, Carrie; King, Enid Gertmanian; Cullen, Ken; Galynker, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents data from a series of preliminary neuropsychiatric studies, including neuropsychological, personality, sexual history, plethysmographic and neuroimaging investigations, on a sample of 22 male, heterosexual, nonexclusive pedophiles and 24 demographically similar healthy controls. A psychobiological model of pedophilia is proposed, positing that early childhood sexual abuse leads to neurodevelopmental abnormalities in the temporal regions mediating sexual arousal and erotic discrimination and the frontal regions mediating the cognitive aspects of sexual desire and behavioral inhibition. In this way, pedophiles develop deviant pedophilic arousal. Subsequently, if there is comorbid personality pathology, specifically sociopathy and cognitive distortions, there will be failure to inhibit pedophilic behavior. PMID:12418359

  16. Differential effects of arousal in positive and negative autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S

    2012-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterised by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive vs. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects of emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within- and between-subject levels. In addition, the within-subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation. PMID:22873402

  17. Depression, Fatigue, and Pre-Sleep Arousal: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlson, Cynthia W.; Stevens, Natalie R.; Olson, Christy A.; Hamilton, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Fatigue is a common and debilitating symptom of clinical depression; however, the causes are not well understood. The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that subjective sleep, objective sleep, and arousal in the pre-sleep state would mediate the relationship between depression status and fatigue. Sleep, pre-sleep arousal, and…

  18. Differential Effects of Arousal in Positive and Negative Autobiographical Memories

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jaclyn Hennessey; Addis, Donna Rose; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2014-01-01

    Autobiographical memories are characterized by a range of emotions and emotional reactions. Recent research has demonstrated that differences in emotional valence (positive v. negative emotion) and arousal (the degree of emotional intensity) differentially influence the retrieved memory narrative. Although the mnemonic effects of valence and arousal have both been heavily studied, it is currently unclear whether the effects of emotional arousal are equivalent for positive and negative autobiographical events. In the current study, multilevel models were used to examine differential effects emotional valence and arousal on the richness of autobiographical memory retrieval both between and within subjects. Thirty-four young adults were asked to retrieve personal autobiographical memories associated with popular musical cues and to rate the valence, arousal, and richness of these events. The multilevel analyses identified independent influences of valence and intensity upon retrieval characteristics at the within and between subject levels. In addition, the within subject interactions between valence and arousal highlighted differential effects of arousal for positive and negative memories. These findings have important implications for future studies of emotion and memory, highlighting the importance of considering both valence and arousal when examining the role emotion plays in the richness of memory representation. PMID:22873402

  19. Reduction of the Misinformation Effect by Arousal Induced after Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Shaun M.; Nielson, Kristy A.

    2010-01-01

    Misinformation introduced after events have already occurred causes errors in later retrieval. Based on literature showing that arousal induced after learning enhances delayed retrieval, we investigated whether post-learning arousal can reduce the misinformation effect. 251 participants viewed four short film clips, each followed by a retention…

  20. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined

  1. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure

  2. Prediction of Gymnastic Performance from Arousal and Anxiety Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

    This study predicts gymnastic performance, arousal, and anxiety measures from past performances. Pulse rate and the Palmar Sweat Index were utilized as indicants of arousal. Anxiety was assessed by means of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Eighteen members of the Ithaca College women's varsity gymnastic team were tested throughout the 1973-74…

  3. Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

  4. Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewy, Richard

    In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

  5. Drug preference as a function of arousal and stimulus screening.

    PubMed

    Kern, M F; Kenkel, M B; Templer, D I; Newell, T G

    1986-02-01

    The sedating and arousing central nervous system effects of drugs have long been inferred to be a factor in their illicit use and abuse. The present study provides evidence to support this contention; specifically, preference for a particular drug is, in part, a function of arousal-seeking and stimulus-screening characteristics. In general, the results suggest that individuals who prefer central nervous system stimulants tend to have greater arousal-seeking tendencies and lower external stimulus screening ability than those who prefer central nervous system depressants. Opiate preferrers aligned more closely with stimulant preferrers than alcohol groups. Preferrers of hallucinogens were higher in internal stimulus screening than all other drug preference groups. Trait anxiety does not appear to be related to arousal seeking or to preference for arousing or sedating drugs. PMID:3710650

  6. Sexual behavior and autism spectrum disorders: an update and discussion.

    PubMed

    Kellaher, Denise C

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, we have gained a deeper understanding about sexuality among individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Greater interest in this subject and improvements in the empirical study of ASD populations are driving this enlightenment. The data is dispelling antiquated notions that ASD individuals are asexual, sexually unknowledgeable and inexperienced, and/or disinterested in relationships. We still have a ways to go in examining paraphilic or deviant arousal sexual behaviors among ASD individuals. This manuscript provides an update on sexuality research in ASD in the last few years. This is accompanied by a discussion of the paraphilic type sexual behaviors observed among some ASD individuals. PMID:25749749

  7. Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P

    2014-05-01

    This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

  8. "Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their

  9. "Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashcraft, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

  10. Sexual function among married menopausal women in Amol (Iran)

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Shabnam; Bakouie, Fatemeh; Amiri, Fatemeh Nasiri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Sexual activity is an important part of the human being's life but this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and menopause. But information about that is limited. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the status of sexual activity among married menopausal women in Amol, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive analytical study was conducted to describe the sexual activity and sexual dysfunction of women after menopause. Data were collected from health centers in Amol from 280 married women using a questionnaire (self-completed or by interview). Finding: Mean age of subjects were 55.9 ± 6.02 years. 23.4% of subjects reported that their sexual intercourse had been low. 70% of subjects reported a decrease in their sexual activities after menopause. Sexual dysfunctions includes sexual desire disorder 80% arousal dysfunction 80%, orgasmic dysfunction 25%, dyspareunia 55.6%, and lack of sexual satisfaction 43.2%. Conclusion: Findings revealed high percentage of sexual desire disorder and sexual arousal disorder in menopausal women. Therefore, we should have emphasis on counseling and education about sexual activities during the menopause period. PMID:22408336

  11. Soundtrack contents and depicted sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Pfaus, J G; Myronuk, L D; Jacobs, W J

    1986-06-01

    Male undergraduates were exposed to a videotaped depiction of heterosexual rape accompanied by one of three soundtracks: the original soundtrack (featuring dialogue and background rock music), relaxing music, or no sound. Subjective reports of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, perceived erotic content, and perceived pornographic content of the sequence were then provided by each subject. Results indicated that males exposed to the videotape accompanied by the original soundtrack found the sequence significantly more pornographic than males exposed to the sequence accompanied by either relaxing background music or no sound. Ratings of sexual arousal, general enjoyment, and the perceived erotic content, however, did not differ significantly across soundtrack conditions. These results are compatible with the assertion that the content of a video soundtrack may influence the impact of depicted sexual violence. PMID:3729702

  12. Empathy in sexually sadistic offenders: an experimental comparison with non-sadistic sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Nitschke, Joachim; Istrefi, Shota; Osterheider, Michael; Mokros, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that severe sexual sadism and psychopathy are phenotypically different, although both are characterized by deficits in emotional processing. We assessed empathic capacity in a sample of 12 sexual sadists in comparison with 23 non-sadistic offenders using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET). All participants were forensic patients under mandatory treatment orders who had committed sexual offenses. The MET is a computerized rating task that differentiates and measures cognitive and emotional components of empathy, or perspective-taking versus compassionate components. To identify the effects of possible empathy deficits caused by psychopathic traits, we controlled both samples for psychopathy as a covariate, measured by the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). According to our results, sexual sadists did not differ from non-sadistic sexual offenders with regard to emotional empathy for either positive or negative stimuli. The results suggest that severe sexual sadism is a distinct, pathological sexual arousal response, not a deficit in emotional processing. PMID:22417758

  13. A functional endophenotype for sexual orientation in humans.

    PubMed

    Ponseti, Jorge; Bosinski, Hartmut A; Wolff, Stephan; Peller, Martin; Jansen, Olav; Mehdorn, Hubertus M; Büchel, Christian; Siebner, Hartwig R

    2006-11-15

    Sexually arousing visual stimuli activate the human reward system and trigger sexual behavior. Here we performed event-related fMRI during visual processing of sexual core stimuli to pinpoint a neuronal correlate of sexual preference in humans. To dissociate gender of the stimulus from sexual preference, we studied male and female heterosexual and homosexual volunteers while they viewed sexual and nonsexual control stimuli. In contrast to previous work, we used core single-sex stimuli displaying male and female sexually aroused genitals. Since stimuli lacked any additional contextual information, they evoked no activity related to neuronal processing of faces, gestures or social interactions. Our prediction was that the sexual preference of the observer determines the neuronal responsiveness to pure male or female sexual stimuli in the human reward and motor system. Consistent with our prediction, the ventral striatum and the centromedian thalamus, showed a stronger neuronal response to preferred relative to non-preferred stimuli. Likewise, the ventral premotor cortex which is a key structure for imitative (mirror neurons) and tool-related (canonical neurons) actions showed a bilateral sexual preference-specific activation, suggesting that viewing sexually aroused genitals of the preferred sex triggers action representations of sexual behavior. The neuronal response of the ventral striatum, centromedian thalamus and ventral premotor cortex to preferred sexual stimuli was consistent across all groups. We propose that this invariant response pattern in core regions of the human reward and motor system represents a functional endophenotype for sexual orientation independent of the gender of the observer and gender of the stimulus. PMID:16979350

  14. [A Matter of Nerves - Applied Neurophysiology of Female Sexuality].

    PubMed

    Bischof, Karoline

    2015-06-17

    Sexual problems are often attributed to psychological or physical deficits that are difficult to modify, or to a poor lover. In contrast, the neurophysiological interaction between body and brain can be understood as fundamental for the genital and emotional experience of sexuality. Neuropsychological discoveries and clinical observations show that elevated muscle tension, superficial breathing and reduced body movement, as employed by many individuals during sexual arousal, will limit the perception of arousal and the degree of sexual pleasure. In contrast, deep breathing and variations in movement and muscle tension support it. Through the use of self awareness exercises and physical learning steps, patients can integrate their sexuality and increases its resistance to psychological, medical and relational interferences. PMID:26081382

  15. Experimental assessments of behavioral and anatomical components of female chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) sexual attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Bielert, C; Girolami, L

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in order to separate the effects of the behavioral and the anatomical components of female sexual attractiveness in baboons. In the first experiment, two ovariectomized females were given increasing dosages of exogenous estradiol benzoate, and data were collected on their behavior as well as on male sexual arousal as assessed by the occurrence of coagulated seminal emissions of the type that result from masturbation. Male sexual arousal levels increased positively with the females' perineal swellings and appeared relatively unrelated to the females' behavior. In the second experiment, data were collected from five different groups of males in a systematic fashion across the period of a full menstrual cycle for their varied stimulus female partners. Behavior observations were carried out on the five different stimulus females, and ratings also were made of fluctuations in their perineal tumescence. The results of this experiment make it clear that male sexual arousal fluctuated across the study cycles in a fashion very similar to that of the perineal swellings of the stimulus females. Behavior was shown during all phases of the cycle, and, although it may have had a positive influence on male arousal during the follicular phase of the female's cycle, it had no apparent effect during the luteal phase. These results taken together establish for the first time that an estrogen stimulated female perineum per se has the potential to sexually arouse the male baboon. In addition, the data suggest that, although behavior may exert a positive effect on male arousal, in the absence of an estrogen stimulated perineum it is not sufficient to arouse males to masturbate. Finally the results establish that, although intact females appear to show behavior increases which may be arousing to males around the time of ovulation, these behaviors do not have to be shown by a female in order to arouse a male, provided she is swollen. PMID:3704067

  16. Emotion and language: Valence and arousal affect word recognition

    PubMed Central

    Brysbaert, Marc; Warriner, Amy Beth

    2014-01-01

    Emotion influences most aspects of cognition and behavior, but emotional factors are conspicuously absent from current models of word recognition. The influence of emotion on word recognition has mostly been reported in prior studies on the automatic vigilance for negative stimuli, but the precise nature of this relationship is unclear. Various models of automatic vigilance have claimed that the effect of valence on response times is categorical, an inverted-U, or interactive with arousal. The present study used a sample of 12,658 words, and included many lexical and semantic control factors, to determine the precise nature of the effects of arousal and valence on word recognition. Converging empirical patterns observed in word-level and trial-level data from lexical decision and naming indicate that valence and arousal exert independent monotonic effects: Negative words are recognized more slowly than positive words, and arousing words are recognized more slowly than calming words. Valence explained about 2% of the variance in word recognition latencies, whereas the effect of arousal was smaller. Valence and arousal do not interact, but both interact with word frequency, such that valence and arousal exert larger effects among low-frequency words than among high-frequency words. These results necessitate a new model of affective word processing whereby the degree of negativity monotonically and independently predicts the speed of responding. This research also demonstrates that incorporating emotional factors, especially valence, improves the performance of models of word recognition. PMID:24490848

  17. Distraction by emotional sounds: Disentangling arousal benefits and orienting costs.

    PubMed

    Max, Caroline; Widmann, Andreas; Kotz, Sonja A; Schröger, Erich; Wetzel, Nicole

    2015-08-01

    Unexpectedly occurring task-irrelevant stimuli have been shown to impair performance. They capture attention away from the main task leaving fewer resources for target processing. However, the actual distraction effect depends on various variables; for example, only target-informative distractors have been shown to cause costs of attentional orienting. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that high arousing emotional distractors, as compared with low arousing neutral distractors, can improve performance by increasing alertness. We aimed to separate costs of attentional orienting and benefits of arousal by presenting negative and neutral environmental sounds (novels) as oddballs in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Participants categorized pictures while task-irrelevant sounds preceded visual targets in two conditions: (a) informative sounds reliably signaled onset and occurrence of visual targets, and (b) noninformative sounds occurred unrelated to visual targets. Results confirmed that only informative novels yield distraction. Importantly, irrespective of sounds' informational value participants responded faster in trials with high arousing negative as compared with moderately arousing neutral novels. That is, costs related to attentional orienting are modulated by information, whereas benefits related to emotional arousal are independent of a sound's informational value. This favors a nonspecific facilitating cross-modal influence of emotional arousal on visual task performance and suggests that behavioral distraction by noninformative novels is controlled after their motivational significance has been determined. PMID:26053245

  18. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation.

    PubMed

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F; Beek, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation in the literature, which warrants further examination in future research. PMID:26579048

  19. Arousal and exposure duration affect forward step initiation

    PubMed Central

    Bouman, Daniëlle; Stins, John F.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Emotion influences parameters of goal-directed whole-body movements in several ways. For instance, previous research has shown that approaching (moving toward) pleasant stimuli is easier compared to approaching unpleasant stimuli. However, some studies found that when emotional pictures are viewed for a longer time, approaching unpleasant stimuli may in fact be facilitated. The effect of viewing duration may have modulated whole-body approach movement in previous research but this has not been investigated to date. In the current study, participants initiated a step forward after viewing neutral, high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. The viewing duration of the stimuli was set to seven different durations, varying from 100 to 4000 ms. Valence and arousal scores were collected for all stimuli. The results indicate that both viewing duration and the arousal of the stimuli influence kinematic parameters in forward gait initiation. Specifically, longer viewing duration, compared to shorter viewing duration, (a) diminished the step length and peak velocity in both neutral and emotional stimuli, (b) increased reaction time in neutral stimuli and, (c) decreased reaction time in pleasant and unpleasant stimuli. Strikingly, no differences were found between high-arousal pleasant and high-arousal unpleasant stimuli. In other words, the valence of the stimuli did not influence kinematic parameters of forward step initiation. Instead the arousal level (neutral: low; pleasant and unpleasant: high) explained the variance found in the results. The kinematics of forward gait initiation seemed to be reflected in the subjective arousal scores, but not the valence scores. So it seems arousal affects forward gait initiation parameters more strongly than valence. In addition, longer viewing duration seemed to cause diminished alertness, affecting GI parameters. These results shed new light on the prevailing theoretical interpretations regarding approach motivation in the literature, which warrants further examination in future research. PMID:26579048

  20. Elevated arousal at time of decision-making is not the arbiter of risk avoidance in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Davies, A. C.; Radford, A. N.; Pettersson, I. C.; Yang, F. P.; Nicol, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that humans recall previously experienced physiological responses to aid decision-making under uncertainty. However, little is known about the mechanisms used by non-human animals to integrate risk perception with predicted gains and losses. We monitored the behaviour and physiology of chickens when the choice between a high-gain (large food quantity), high-risk (1 in 4 probability of receiving an air-puff) option (HGRAP) or a low-gain (small food quantity), no-risk (of an air-puff) (LGNAP) option. We assessed when arousal increased by considering different stages of the decision-making process (baseline, viewing, anticipation, reward periods) and investigated whether autonomic responses influenced choice outcome both immediately and in the subsequent trial. Chickens were faster to choose and their heart-rate significantly increased between the viewing and anticipation (post-decision, pre-outcome) periods when selecting the HGRAP option. This suggests that they responded physiologically to the impending risk. Additionally, arousal was greater following a HGRAP choice that resulted in an air-puff, but this did not deter chickens from subsequently choosing HGRAP. In contrast to human studies, we did not find evidence that somatic markers were activated during the viewing period, suggesting that arousal is not a good measure of avoidance in non-human animals. PMID:25643655

  1. Arousal-biased competition in perception and memory

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Sutherland, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    Our everyday surroundings besiege us with information. The battle is for a share of our limited attention and memory, with the brain selecting the winners and discarding the losers. Previous research shows that both bottom-up and top-down factors bias competition in favor of high priority stimuli. We propose that arousal during an event increases this bias both in perception and in long-term memory of the event. Arousal-biased competition theory provides specific predictions about when arousal will enhance and when it will impair memory for events, accounting for some puzzling contradictions in the emotional memory literature. PMID:21660127

  2. Doing it … wild? On the role of the cerebral cortex in human sexual activity

    PubMed Central

    Georgiadis, Janniko R.

    2012-01-01

    Background We like to think about sexual activity as something fixed, basic and primal. However, this does not seem to fully capture reality. Even when we relish sex, we may be capable of mentalizing, talking, voluntarily postponing orgasm, and much more. This might indicate that the central control mechanisms of sexual activity are quite flexible and susceptible to learning mechanisms, and that cortical brain areas play a critical part. Objective This study aimed to identify those cortical areas and mechanisms most consistently implicated in sexual activity. Design A comprehensive review of the human functional neuroimaging literature on sexual activity, i.e. genital stimulation and orgasm, is made. Results Genital stimulation recruits the classical somatosensory matrix, but also areas far beyond that. The posterior insula may be particularly important for processing input from the engorged penis and coordinating penile responses. Extrastriate visual cortex tracks sexual arousal and responds to genital stimulation even when subjects have their eyes closed. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is also tightly coupled to sexual arousal, but low activity in this area predicts high sexual arousal. Conclusion This review has indicated cortical sites where activity is moderated by tactile genital inflow and high sexual arousal. Behavioral implications are discussed and where possible the relevance for learning mechanisms is indicated. Overall, it is clear that the cerebral cortex has something to say about sexual activity. PMID:24693348

  3. Extinction and Renewal of Conditioned Sexual Responses

    PubMed Central

    Brom, Mirte; Laan, Ellen; Everaerd, Walter; Spinhoven, Philip; Both, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extinction involves an inhibitory form of new learning that is highly dependent on the context for expression. This is supported by phenomena such as renewal and spontaneous recovery, which may help explain the persistence of appetitive behavior, and related problems such as addictions. Research on these phenomena in the sexual domain is lacking, where it may help to explain the persistence of learned sexual responses. Method Men (n = 40) and women (n = 62) participated in a differential conditioning paradigm, with genital vibrotactile stimulation as US and neutral pictures as conditional stimuli (CSs). Dependent variables were genital and subjective sexual arousal, affect, US expectancy, and approach and avoid tendencies towards the CSs. Extinction and renewal of conditioned sexual responses were studied by context manipulation (AAA vs. ABA condition). Results No renewal effect of genital conditioned responding could be detected, but an obvious recovery of US expectancy following a context change after extinction (ABA) was demonstrated. Additionally, women demonstrated recovery of subjective affect and subjective sexual arousal. Participants in the ABA demonstrated more approach biases towards stimuli. Conclusions The findings support the context dependency of extinction and renewal of conditioned sexual responses in humans. This knowledge may have implications for the treatment of disturbances in sexual appetitive responses such as hypo- and hypersexuality. PMID:25170909

  4. Sexual sadism: avoiding its misuse in sexually violent predator evaluations.

    PubMed

    Frances, Allen; Wollert, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), Task Force has recently rejected the proposal to include coercive paraphilia as an official diagnosis, reaffirming that rape is a crime and not a mental disorder. We hope this will discourage what has been the inappropriate practice of giving rapists the made-up diagnosis of paraphilia, NOS, nonconsent, to facilitate their psychiatric commitment under sexually violent predator (SVP) statutes. Losing the paraphilia, NOS, option has tempted some SVP evaluators to overdiagnose sexual sadism, which is an official DSM mental disorder. To prevent this improper application and to clarify those rare instances in which this diagnosis might apply, we present a brief review of the research on sexual sadism; an annotation of its definitions that have been included in the DSM since the Third Edition, published in 1980, and in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10); and a two-step process for making a diagnostic decision. Rape and sexual sadism have in common violence, cruelty, and a callous indifference on the part of the perpetrator to the suffering of the victim, but they differ markedly in motivation. Rapists use violence to enforce the victim's cooperation, to express aggression, or both. In contrast, in sexual sadism, the violence, domination, and infliction of pain and humiliation are a preferred or necessary precondition for sexual arousal. Only a small proportion of rapists qualify for the diagnosis of sexual sadism. PMID:22960924

  5. Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).

    PubMed

    Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n=86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  6. Frequent Arousals from Winter Torpor in Rafinesque’s Big-Eared Bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Joseph S.; Lacki, Michael J.; Thomas, Steven C.; Grider, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n = 86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque’s big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

  7. Sexual Desire Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Keith A.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

  8. Energetical bases of extraversion: effort, arousal, EEG, and performance.

    PubMed

    Beauducel, André; Brocke, Burkhard; Leue, Anja

    2006-11-01

    This study investigates an extension of H.J. Eysenck's [Eysenck, H.J., 1967. The Biological Basis of Personality. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL] arousal theory of extraversion, incorporating an effort system as a control system for different aspects of arousal. Extraverts were expected to have lower levels of reticocortical arousal than introverts, to invest more effort, and to have lower task performance in a monotonous vigilance task. In a 40-min vigilance task, participants had to react to the shorter of two 1 kHz tones presented binaurally at an event rate of 200 per 10 min. Spontaneous EEG, event-related potential, and performance data of 40 extremely introverted and 41 extremely extraverted students were available for statistical analysis. A tendency for lower arousal levels of extraverts (alpha 2 band), the expected higher effort investment (P300) and a lower performance (hits) of extraverts were found. PMID:16426692

  9. Tuning arousal with optogenetic modulation of locus coeruleus neurons

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Matthew E.; Yizhar, Ofer; Chikahisa, Sachiko; Nguyen, Hieu; Adamantidis, Antoine; Nishino, Seiji; Deisseroth, Karl; de Lecea, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Neural activity in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus correlates with periods of wakefulness and arousal. However, whether tonic or phasic activity in these neurons is necessary or sufficient to induce behavioral state transitions and promote long-term arousal is unresolved. We used optogenetic tools in mice to demonstrate a frequency-dependent, causal relationship between locus coeruleus firing, cortical activity, sleep-to-wake transitions, and general locomotor arousal. Surprisingly, we also found that sustained, high-frequency stimulation of the locus coeruleus at frequencies 5 Hz and above caused reversible behavioral arrests. These results suggest that the locus coeruleus is finely tuned to regulate organismal arousal and that bursts of noradrenergic over-excitation cause behavioral attacks similar to those observed in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:21037585

  10. Eyes Wide Shopped: Shopping Situations Trigger Arousal in Impulsive Buyers

    PubMed Central

    Serfas, Benjamin G.; Bttner, Oliver B.; Florack, Arnd

    2014-01-01

    The present study proposes arousal as an important mechanism driving buying impulsiveness. We examined the effect of buying impulsiveness on arousal in non-shopping and shopping contexts. In an eye-tracking experiment, we measured pupil dilation while participants viewed and rated pictures of shopping scenes and non-shopping scenes. The results demonstrated that buying impulsiveness is closely associated with arousal as response to viewing pictures of shopping scenes. This pertained for hedonic shopping situations as well as for utilitarian shopping situations. Importantly, the effect did not emerge for non-shopping scenes. Furthermore, we demonstrated that arousal of impulsive buyers is independent from cognitive evaluation of scenes in the pictures. PMID:25489955

  11. Measures of psychophysiological arousal among resettled traumatized Iraqi refugees seeking psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Slewa-Younan, Shameran; Chippendale, Kerenze; Heriseanu, Andreea; Lujic, Sanja; Atto, John; Raphael, Beverley

    2012-06-01

    Resettled refugees living in Western countries frequently report high levels of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study sought to measure levels of physiological arousal in a group of resettled Iraqi refugees in Australia receiving psychological treatment. A continuous recording of electrocardiogram (ECG) data was used to examine baseline heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) in refugees (n = 25) and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (n = 23). Descriptively, PTSD (48%) was the most commonly noted disorder followed equally by major depressive episode (36%) and dysthymia (36%) in the refugees. Examination of the physiological data indicated that the refugee group had increased resting HR compared with healthy controls (78.84 vs. 60.08 beats per minute, p < .001). No significant differences were noted in the HRV data with age, gender, and years of education included in the model. This finding highlights the importance of examining levels of arousal in refugees presenting with mental health complaints to provide appropriate treatment strategies. PMID:22685092

  12. Sexual knowledge of Canadian adolescents after completion of high school sexual education requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Maya M; Lim, Rodrick; Langford, Cindy; Seabrook, Jamie A; Speechley, Kathy N; Lynch, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Formal sexual education is a mandatory component of the high school curriculum in most Canadian provinces. The present study was a preliminary assessment of sexual knowledge among a sample of Ontario adolescents who had completed their high school sexual education requirements. METHODS: A questionnaire, testing understanding of the learning objectives of Ontarios minimally required high school sexual education course, was distributed in a paediatric emergency department to 200 adolescent patients who had completed the course. RESULTS: Respondents demonstrated good understanding of pregnancy physiology and sexually transmitted infections, but poor understanding of concepts related to reproductive physiology, contraception, HIV/AIDS and sexual assault. Most respondents could not identify Canadas age of sexual consent. CONCLUSIONS: Respondents demonstrated concerning gaps in sexual knowledge despite completion of their sexual education requirements. Further studies must determine whether a representative, population-based student sample would exhibit similar findings. Sexual education currently offered in Ontario may require investigation. PMID:24421660

  13. Nonconscious processing of sexual information: a generalization to women.

    PubMed

    Spiering, Mark; Everaerd, Walter; Karsdorp, Petra; Both, Stephanie; Brauer, Marieke

    2006-08-01

    Sexually competent stimuli may nonconsciously activate sexual memory and set up sexual responding. In men, subliminally presented sexual pictures facilitated recognition of sexual information. The goal of the two experiments reported here was to investigate to what extent this result can be generalized to women. A direct replication in women failed in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, besides the male-oriented sexual picture set, pictures of two other sets were presented: female-oriented sexual pictures and baby pictures. Effects of the menstrual cycle were also examined. In Experiment 2 only male-oriented pictures showed a facilitation effect. Sensitivity for reproductive stimuli was enhanced during the midluteal phase. Like men, women may nonconsciously recognize a stimulus as sexual. This recognition process seems unrelated to the potential of the stimulus to elicit subjective arousal. PMID:17599249

  14. Physiological and behavioral signatures of reflective exploratory choice.

    PubMed

    Otto, A Ross; Knox, W Bradley; Markman, Arthur B; Love, Bradley C

    2014-12-01

    Physiological arousal, a marker of emotional response, has been demonstrated to accompany human decision making under uncertainty. Anticipatory emotions have been portrayed as basic and rapid evaluations of chosen actions. Instead, could these arousal signals stem from a "cognitive" assessment of value that utilizes the full environment structure, as opposed to merely signaling a coarse, reflexive assessment of the possible consequences of choices? Combining an exploration-exploitation task, computational modeling, and skin conductance measurements, we find that physiological arousal manifests a reflective assessment of the benefit of the chosen action, mirroring observed behavior. Consistent with the level of computational sophistication evident in these signals, a follow-up experiment demonstrates that anticipatory arousal is modulated by current environment volatility, in accordance with the predictions of our computational account. Finally, we examine the cognitive costs of the exploratory choice behavior these arousal signals accompany by manipulating concurrent cognitive demand. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the arousal that accompanies choice under uncertainty arises from a more reflective and "cognitive" assessment of the chosen action's consequences than has been revealed previously. PMID:24664860

  15. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  16. Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Catie; Leopold, David A.; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Mandelkow, Hendrik; Picchioni, Dante; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Frank Q.; Turchi, Janita N.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in brain activity accompanying shifts in vigilance and arousal can interfere with the study of other intrinsic and task-evoked characteristics of brain function. However, the difficulty of tracking and modeling the arousal state during functional MRI (fMRI) typically precludes the assessment of arousal-dependent influences on fMRI signals. Here we combine fMRI, electrophysiology, and the monitoring of eyelid behavior to demonstrate an approach for tracking continuous variations in arousal level from fMRI data. We first characterize the spatial distribution of fMRI signal fluctuations that track a measure of behavioral arousal; taking this pattern as a template, and using the local field potential as a simultaneous and independent measure of cortical activity, we observe that the time-varying expression level of this template in fMRI data provides a close approximation of electrophysiological arousal. We discuss the potential benefit of these findings for increasing the sensitivity of fMRI as a cognitive and clinical biomarker. PMID:27051064

  17. Tracking brain arousal fluctuations with fMRI.

    PubMed

    Chang, Catie; Leopold, David A; Schölvinck, Marieke Louise; Mandelkow, Hendrik; Picchioni, Dante; Liu, Xiao; Ye, Frank Q; Turchi, Janita N; Duyn, Jeff H

    2016-04-19

    Changes in brain activity accompanying shifts in vigilance and arousal can interfere with the study of other intrinsic and task-evoked characteristics of brain function. However, the difficulty of tracking and modeling the arousal state during functional MRI (fMRI) typically precludes the assessment of arousal-dependent influences on fMRI signals. Here we combine fMRI, electrophysiology, and the monitoring of eyelid behavior to demonstrate an approach for tracking continuous variations in arousal level from fMRI data. We first characterize the spatial distribution of fMRI signal fluctuations that track a measure of behavioral arousal; taking this pattern as a template, and using the local field potential as a simultaneous and independent measure of cortical activity, we observe that the time-varying expression level of this template in fMRI data provides a close approximation of electrophysiological arousal. We discuss the potential benefit of these findings for increasing the sensitivity of fMRI as a cognitive and clinical biomarker. PMID:27051064

  18. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types.

    PubMed

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls-the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)-across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  19. Evolution and human sexuality.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

  20. Arousal Model Components in Television Programming: Form Activity and Violent Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, James H., Jr.; Krull, Robert

    In research reported in this paper, an attempt was made to isolate arousal components due to the "form" of a television program from arousal components due to the "content" of the program. The following hypotheses were formulated: (1) emotional arousal will take place in programing segments depicting violent acts, (2) arousal due to the cognitive…

  1. Problems in Sexual Functioning among Male OEF/OIF Veterans Seeking Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Badour, Christal L.; Gros, Daniel F.; Szafranski, Derek D.; Acierno, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Objective Few studies have examined sexual dysfunction among Operations Enduring/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The present study investigated predictors of erectile dysfunction [ED] and self-reported sexual problems among 150 male combat veterans seeking outpatient treatment for PTSD within the Veterans Affairs healthcare system. Method Participants completed clinical interviews and several questionnaires including measures of sexual arousal and sexual desire. A medical records review was also conducted to document evidence of an ED diagnosis or associated medication use. Results An ED diagnosis was present for 12% of the sample, and 10% were taking associated medications. Sexual arousal problems were reported by sixty-two percent of partnered veterans. Sexual desire problems were endorsed by 63% of the total sample, and by 72% of partnered veterans. Age was the only significant predictor of ED diagnosis or medication use. Age, race, PTSD diagnosis (versus subclinical symptoms), depression, and social support predicted self-reported sexual arousal problems; while race, combat exposure, social support, and avoidance/numbing symptoms of PTSD predicted self-reported sexual desire problems. Conclusions Sexual problems are common among male OEF/OIF combat veterans seeking treatment for PTSD. Moreover, avoidance/numbing symptoms robustly predicted sexual desire problems. These findings highlight the importance of expanding assessment of sexual dysfunction and support the need for additional research in this area. PMID:25596624

  2. Group mindfulness-based therapy significantly improves sexual desire in women.

    PubMed

    Brotto, Lori A; Basson, Rosemary

    2014-06-01

    At least a third of women across reproductive ages experience low sexual desire and impaired arousal. There is increasing evidence that mindfulness, defined as non-judgmental present moment awareness, may improve women's sexual functioning. The goal of this study was to test the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy, either immediately or after a 3-month waiting period, in women seeking treatment for low sexual desire and arousal. Women participated in four 90-min group sessions that included mindfulness meditation, cognitive therapy, and education. A total of 117 women were assigned to either the immediate treatment (n = 68, mean age 40.8 yrs) or delayed treatment (n = 49, mean age 42.2 yrs) group, in which women had two pre-treatment baseline assessments followed by treatment. A total of 95 women completed assessments through to the 6-month follow-up period. Compared to the delayed treatment control group, treatment significantly improved sexual desire, sexual arousal, lubrication, sexual satisfaction, and overall sexual functioning. Sex-related distress significantly decreased in both conditions, regardless of treatment, as did orgasmic difficulties and depressive symptoms. Increases in mindfulness and a reduction in depressive symptoms predicted improvements in sexual desire. Mindfulness-based group therapy significantly improved sexual desire and other indices of sexual response, and should be considered in the treatment of women's sexual dysfunction. PMID:24814472

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men’s Sexual Aggression Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720

  4. Perceiving blocks of emotional pictures and sounds: effects on physiological variables

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Anne-Marie; van Wouwe, Nelleke; Mühl, Christian; van Erp, Jan; Toet, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on physiological effects of emotion-inducing images and sounds examine stimulus locked variables reflecting a state of at most a few seconds. We here aimed to induce longer lasting emotional states using blocks of repetitive visual, auditory, and bimodal stimuli corresponding to specific valence and arousal levels. The duration of these blocks enabled us to reliably measure heart rate variability as a possible indicator of arousal. In addition, heart rate and skin conductance were determined without taking stimulus timing into account. Heart rate was higher for pleasant and low arousal stimuli compared to unpleasant and high arousal stimuli. Heart rate variability and skin conductance increased with arousal. Effects of valence and arousal on cardiovascular measures habituated or remained the same over 2-min intervals whereas the arousal effect on skin conductance increased. We did not find any effect of stimulus modality. Our results indicate that blocks of images and sounds of specific valence and arousal levels consistently influence different physiological parameters. These parameters need not be stimulus locked. We found no evidence for differences in emotion induction between visual and auditory stimuli, nor did we find bimodal stimuli to be more potent than unimodal stimuli. The latter could be (partly) due to the fact that our bimodal stimuli were not optimally congruent. PMID:23801957

  5. Effects of olfactory bulb ablation on cardiac and ventilatory arousal responses and their habituation in the goldfish Carassius auratus.

    PubMed

    Rooney, D J; Laming, P R

    1984-11-01

    The effects of olfactory bulb ablation on the cardiac and ventilatory arousal responses to the onset of illumination and habituation of these responses were investigated in goldfish. Bulbectomy did not effect the magnitude of response on novel stimulus presentation. Normal, sham operated, and olfactory bulb-ablated animals showed similar rates of habituation. These results suggest that deficits in feeding and sexual behavior in goldfish are due to the loss of specific olfactory influences on lower brain centers and not due to a decrease in general responsiveness. PMID:6525140

  6. Individual Differences in the Effects of Mood on Sexuality: The Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R)

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Erick; Macapagal, Kathryn R.; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Previous research using the Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ) has revealed substantial variability in how negative mood impacts sexual response and behavior. However, the MSQ does not address differences between desire for solo or partnered sexual activity, examine the effects of sexual activity on mood, or assess the effects of positive mood. This paper presents the development and factor structure of the Revised Mood and Sexuality Questionnaire (MSQ-R). An exploratory factor analysis in a sample of heterosexual men, homosexual men, and heterosexual women (N = 1983) produced 8 factors. Considerable variability was found in how moods influence sexual desire and arousal, in the effects of mood on sexual behavior, and in the reciprocal effects of sexual activity on mood. Among other findings, heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual and homosexual men to experience increased sexual desire and arousal when anxious or stressed, whereas homosexual men and heterosexual women were less likely than heterosexual men to experience increased desire when sad or depressed. Heterosexual men and women were more likely than homosexual men to report increased desire when in a positive mood. Intercorrelations and correlations with various sexual behaviors varied by group. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:22963331

  7. On making nursing undergraduate human reproductive physiology content meaningful and relevant: discussion of human pleasure in its biological context.

    PubMed

    McClusky, Leon Mendel

    2012-01-01

    The traditional presentation of the Reproductive Physiology component in an Anatomy and Physiology course to nursing undergraduates focuses on the broad aspects of hormonal regulation of reproduction and gonadal anatomy, with the role of the higher centres of the brain omitted. An introductory discussion is proposed which could precede the lectures on the reproductive organs. The discussion gives an overview of the biological significance of human pleasure, the involvement of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the role of pleasure in the survival of the individual and even species. Pleasure stimuli (positive and negative) and the biological significance of naturally-induced pleasurable experiences are briefly discussed in the context of reproduction and the preservation of genetic material with an aim to foster relevancy between subject material and human behaviour in any type of society. The tenderness of this aspect of the human existence is well-understood because of its invariable association with soul-revealing human expressions such as love, infatuation, sexual flirtations, all of which are underpinned by arousal, desire and/or pleasure. Assuming that increased knowledge correlates with increased confidence, the proposed approach may provide the nurse with an adequate knowledge base to overcome well-known barriers in communicating with their patients about matters of sexual health and intimacy. PMID:21377251

  8. Stimulus type does not affect infant arousal response patterns.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Heidi L; Walker, Adrian M; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2010-03-01

    Previous studies have examined infant arousal responses to various arousal stimuli; however it is unclear whether the patterns of responses to different stimuli are comparable within subjects across early development. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of both respiratory and somatosensory stimulation on arousal processes in the same infants throughout the first 6 months of life. Ten healthy term infants were studied with daytime polysomnography at 2-4 weeks, 2-3 and 5-6 months. Infants were challenged with both hypoxia (15% O(2), balanced N(2)) and a pulsatile air-jet to the nostrils. Stimulus-induced sub-cortical activations (SCA) and cortical arousals (CA) were expressed as percentages of total arousals. Heart rate (HR) changes and electroencephalogram (EEG) desynchronization were also contrasted for the two stimuli. During active sleep (AS), there was no significant effect of stimulus type on proportions of CA at any of the ages studied. During quiet sleep (QS), hypoxia elicited higher CA proportions than the air-jet at 2-3 and 5-6 months (P < 0.01). Overall, HR responses associated with SCA and CA and the duration of EEG desynchronization during CA were similar for both stimuli. Mild hypoxia and nasal air-jet stimulation produce qualitatively similar patterns of arousal responses during the first 6 months of life, supporting the concept of a final common neural pathway of cortical activation. Quantitatively, full CA from QS is more likely with hypoxia, in keeping with it being a life-threatening stimulus. This study supports the nasal air-jet as an appropriate stimulus for assessing developmental patterns of infant arousal process. PMID:19691474

  9. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal.

    PubMed

    Kosse, Christin; Burdakov, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioral state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise). An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behavior, and bases for disease. PMID:25368557

  10. A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal

    PubMed Central

    Kosse, Christin; Burdakov, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioral state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise). An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behavior, and bases for disease. PMID:25368557

  11. [Distinguishing normal identity formation process for sexual minorities from obsessive compulsive disorder with sexual orientation obsessions].

    PubMed

    Igartua, Karine J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In synthesizing a homosexual or bisexual identity, an individual may go through different stages before coming to a positive healthy identity. It is likely that there will be a period in which homosexual yearnings will be unwanted. Sometimes this distress leads the person to consult a health professional. Conversion therapy has been proven both ineffective and harmful and therefore has been ethically prohibited by all major psychiatric and psychological associations. The responsible clinician will attempt to assist the individual in his acceptance of his sexual minority. Occasionally individuals without homoeroticism consult because of distress related to sexual identity questioning which poses a different problem for clinicians especially if the situation goes unrecognized. The objective of this paper is to describe homosexual obsessive compulsive disorder (HOCD) and distinguish it clinically from the normal process of sexual minority identity formation in western culture.Methods A literature review yielded very few descriptions of homosexual OCD. A retrospective chart review of all patients seen in the last 3 years at the McGill University Sexual Identity Centre was conducted to identify all the cases of OCD. Six cases were found, 4 of which were of HOCD and are presented. Similarities between cases are highlighted.Results All cases were young men with relatively little relationship and sexual experience. Most were rather shy and had some other obsessional history in the past though often at a sub-clinical threshold. Obsessional doubt about their orientation was very distressing and did not abate over time as would normally occur with a homoerotic individual. The four patients who had an obsession of being gay despite little or no homoerotism are presented in detail. They all presented mental compulsions, avoidance and physiological monitoring. Continuous internal debate trying to prove or disprove sexual orientation was a ubiquitous mental compulsion. They all spent a majority of time monitoring their physiological reactions to members of both sexes to check for arousal. They attempted homosexual activity and were disgusted by it, yet this did not end their questioning. They avoided relationships with the opposite sex, being either too anxious to initiate, or too conflicted to maintain them. The obsession with being gay seemed like a horrific thought symptomatic of homophobia, however the level of horror was out of proportion to the patient's overall level of homonegativity suggesting that the horror came mostly from feeling like their core identity was threatened.Conclusion HOCD can present in ways similar to normal homosexual identity formation. A thorough exploration of eroticism towards both sexes as well as prior history of subclinical anxiety should help distinguish the two. Treatment of HOCD should combine education about sexuality and OCD as well as usual OCD treatments such as relaxation techniques, cognitive restructuring, mindfulness training and pharmacology. PMID:26966852

  12. Neural Correlates of Erotic Stimulation under Different Levels of Female Sexual Hormones

    PubMed Central

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12), and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation. PMID:23418428

  13. Neural correlates of erotic stimulation under different levels of female sexual hormones.

    PubMed

    Abler, Birgit; Kumpfmüller, Daniela; Grön, Georg; Walter, Martin; Stingl, Julia; Seeringer, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated variable influences of sexual hormonal states on female brain activation and the necessity to control for these in neuroimaging studies. However, systematic investigations of these influences, particularly those of hormonal contraceptives as compared to the physiological menstrual cycle are scarce. In the present study, we investigated the hormonal modulation of neural correlates of erotic processing in a group of females under hormonal contraceptives (C group; N = 12), and a different group of females (nC group; N = 12) not taking contraceptives during their mid-follicular and mid-luteal phases of the cycle. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure hemodynamic responses as an estimate of brain activation during three different experimental conditions of visual erotic stimulation: dynamic videos, static erotic pictures, and expectation of erotic pictures. Plasma estrogen and progesterone levels were assessed in all subjects. No strong hormonally modulating effect was detected upon more direct and explicit stimulation (viewing of videos or pictures) with significant activations in cortical and subcortical brain regions previously linked to erotic stimulation consistent across hormonal levels and stimulation type. Upon less direct and less explicit stimulation (expectation), activation patterns varied between the different hormonal conditions with various, predominantly frontal brain regions showing significant within- or between-group differences. Activation in the precentral gyrus during the follicular phase in the nC group was found elevated compared to the C group and positively correlated with estrogen levels. From the results we conclude that effects of hormonal influences on brain activation during erotic stimulation are weak if stimulation is direct and explicit but that female sexual hormones may modulate more subtle aspects of sexual arousal and behaviour as involved in sexual expectation. Results may provide a basis for future imaging studies on sexual processing in females, especially in the context of less explicit erotic stimulation. PMID:23418428

  14. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Boris; Krueger, Tillmann; Paul, Thomas; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Leygraf, Norbert; Schedlowski, Manfred; Gizewski, Elke

    2008-01-01

    Objective The neurobiological mechanisms of deviant sexual preferences such as pedophilia are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze whether brain activation patterns of homosexual pedophiles differed from those of a nonpedophile homosexual control group during visual sexual stimulation. Method A consecutive sample of 11 pedophile forensic inpatients exclusively attracted to boys and 12 age-matched homosexual control participants from a comparable socioeconomic stratum underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visual sexual stimulation procedure that used sexually stimulating and emotionally neutral photographs. Sexual arousal was assessed according to a subjective rating scale. Results In contrast to sexually neutral pictures, in both groups sexually arousing pictures having both homosexual and pedophile content activated brain areas known to be involved in processing visual stimuli containing emotional content, including the occipitotemporal and prefrontal cortices. However, during presentation of the respective sexual stimuli, the thalamus, globus pallidus and striatum, which correspond to the key areas of the brain involved in sexual arousal and behaviour, showed significant activation in pedophiles, but not in control subjects. Conclusions Central processing of visual sexual stimuli in homosexual pedophiles seems to be comparable to that in nonpedophile control subjects. However, compared with homosexual control subjects, activation patterns in pedophiles refer more strongly to subcortical regions, which have previously been discussed in the context of processing reward signals and also play an important role in addictive and stimulus-controlled behaviour. Thus future studies should further elucidate the specificity of these brain regions for the processing of sexual stimuli in pedophilia and should address the generally weaker activation pattern in homosexual men. PMID:18197269

  15. Sexual Activity and Satisfaction in Healthy Community-dwelling Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Trompeter, Susan E.; Bettencourt, Ricki; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Female sexual dysfunction is a focus of medical research but few studies describe the prevalence and covariates of recent sexual activity and satisfaction in older community-dwelling women. METHODS 1303 older women from the Rancho Bernardo Study were mailed a questionnaire on general health, recent sexual activity, sexual satisfaction, and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS 806 of 921 respondents (87.5%) age ≥40 years answered questions about recent sexual activity. Their median age was 67; mean years since menopause, 25; most were upper-middle class; 57% had attended at least one year of college; 90% reported good to excellent health. Half (49.8%) reported sexual activity within the past month with or without a partner, the majority of whom reported arousal (64.5%), lubrication (69%), and orgasm (67.1%) at least most of the time, although one-third reported low, very low, or no sexual desire. Although frequency of arousal, lubrication, and orgasm decrease with age, the youngest (<55 yrs) and oldest (>80 yrs) women reported a higher frequency of orgasm satisfaction. Emotional closeness during sex was associated with more frequent arousal, lubrication, and orgasm; estrogen therapy was not. Overall, two-thirds of sexually active women were moderately or very satisfied with their sex life, as were almost half of sexually inactive women. CONCLUSION Half these women were sexually active, with arousal, lubrication, and orgasm maintained into old age, despite low libido in one-third. Sexual satisfaction increased with age and did not require sexual activity. PMID:22195529

  16. EXERCISE IMPROVES SEXUAL FUNCTION IN WOMEN TAKING ANTIDEPRESSANTS: RESULTS FROM A RANDOMIZED CROSSOVER TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2014-01-01

    Background In laboratory studies, exercise immediately before sexual stimuli improved sexual arousal of women taking antidepressants [1]. We evaluated if exercise improves sexual desire, orgasm, and global sexual functioning in women experiencing antidepressant-induced sexual side effects. Methods Fifty-two women who were reporting antidepressant sexual side effects were followed for 3 weeks of sexual activity only. They were randomized to complete either three weeks of exercise immediately before sexual activity (3×/week) or 3 weeks of exercise separate from sexual activity (3×/week). At the end of the first exercise arm, participants crossed to the other. We measured sexual functioning, sexual satisfaction, depression, and physical health. Results Exercise immediately prior to sexual activity significantly improved sexual desire and, for women with sexual dysfunction at baseline, global sexual function. Scheduling regular sexual activity significantly improved orgasm function; exercise did not increase this benefit. Neither regular sexual activity nor exercise significantly changed sexual satisfaction. Conclusions Scheduling regular sexual activity and exercise may be an effective tool for the behavioral management of sexual side effects of antidepressants. PMID:24754044

  17. Brain response to visual sexual stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual males.

    PubMed

    Paul, Thomas; Schiffer, Boris; Zwarg, Thomas; Krüger, Tillmann H C; Karama, Sherif; Schedlowski, Manfred; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2008-06-01

    Although heterosexual and homosexual individuals clearly show differences in subjective response to heterosexual and homosexual sexual stimuli, the neurobiological processes underlying sexual orientation are largely unknown. We addressed the question whether the expected differences in subjective response to visual heterosexual and homosexual stimuli may be reflected in differences in brain activation pattern. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers, 12 heterosexuals and 12 homosexuals, were included in the study. BOLD signal was measured while subjects were viewing erotic videos of heterosexual and homosexual content. SPM02 was used for data analysis. Individual sexual arousal was assessed by subjective rating. As compared to viewing sexually neutral videos, viewing erotic videos led to a brain activation pattern characteristic for sexual arousal in both groups only when subjects were viewing videos of their respective sexual orientation. Particularly, activation in the hypothalamus, a key brain area in sexual function, was correlated with sexual arousal. Conversely, when viewing videos opposite to their sexual orientation both groups showed absent hypothalamic activation. Moreover, the activation pattern found in both groups suggests that stimuli of opposite sexual orientation triggered intense autonomic response and may be perceived, at least to some extent, as aversive. PMID:17636559

  18. The relation between valence and arousal in subjective experience.

    PubMed

    Kuppens, Peter; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Russell, James A; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-07-01

    Affect is basic to many if not all psychological phenomena. This article examines 2 of the most fundamental properties of affective experience--valence and arousal--asking how they are related to each other on a moment to moment basis. Over the past century, 6 distinct types of relations have been suggested or implicitly presupposed in the literature. We critically review the available evidence for each proposal and argue that the evidence does not provide a conclusive answer. Next, we use statistical modeling to verify the different proposals in 8 data sets (with Ns ranging from 80 to 1,417) where participants reported their affective experiences in response to experimental stimuli in laboratory settings or as momentary or remembered in natural settings. We formulate 3 key conclusions about the relation between valence and arousal: (a) on average, there is a weak but consistent V-shaped relation of arousal as a function of valence, but (b) there is large variation at the individual level, so that (c) valence and arousal can in principle show a variety of relations depending on person or circumstances. This casts doubt on the existence of a static, lawful relation between valence and arousal. The meaningfulness of the observed individual differences is supported by their personality and cultural correlates. The malleability and individual differences found in the structure of affect must be taken into account when studying affect and its role in other psychological phenomena. PMID:23231533

  19. Emotional arousal and multiple memory systems in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Packard, Mark G.; Goodman, Jarid

    2012-01-01

    Emotional arousal induced by stress and/or anxiety can exert complex effects on learning and memory processes in mammals. Recent studies have begun to link study of the influence of emotional arousal on memory with earlier research indicating that memory is organized in multiple systems in the brain that differ in terms of the “type” of memory they mediate. Specifically, these studies have examined whether emotional arousal may have a differential effect on the “cognitive” and stimulus-response “habit” memory processes sub-served by the hippocampus and dorsal striatum, respectively. Evidence indicates that stress or the peripheral injection of anxiogenic drugs can bias animals and humans toward the use of striatal-dependent habit memory in dual-solution tasks in which both hippocampal and striatal-based strategies can provide an adequate solution. A bias toward the use of habit memory can also be produced by intra-basolateral amygdala (BLA) administration of anxiogenic drugs, consistent with the well documented role of efferent projections of this brain region in mediating the modulatory influence of emotional arousal on memory. In some learning situations, the bias toward the use of habit memory produced by emotional arousal appears to result from an impairing effect on hippocampus-dependent cognitive memory. Further research examining the neural mechanisms linking emotion and the relative use of multiple memory systems should prove useful in view of the potential role for maladaptive habitual behaviors in various human psychopathologies. PMID:22470324

  20. The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Bryant, Gregory A; Kaye, Peter

    2012-10-23

    Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus. PMID:22696288

  1. The dorsal raphe modulates sensory responsiveness during arousal in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Yokogawa, Tohei; Hannan, Markus C.; Burgess, Harold A.

    2012-01-01

    During waking behavior animals adapt their state of arousal in response to environmental pressures. Sensory processing is regulated in aroused states and several lines of evidence imply that this is mediated at least partly by the serotonergic system. However there is little information directly showing that serotonergic function is required for state-dependent modulation of sensory processing. Here we find that zebrafish larvae can maintain a short-term state of arousal during which neurons in the dorsal raphe modulate sensory responsiveness to behaviorally relevant visual cues. Following a brief exposure to water flow, larvae show elevated activity and heightened sensitivity to perceived motion. Calcium imaging of neuronal activity after flow revealed increased activity in serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe. Genetic ablation of these neurons abolished the increase in visual sensitivity during arousal without affecting baseline visual function or locomotor activity. We traced projections from the dorsal raphe to a major visual area, the optic tectum. Laser ablation of the tectum demonstrated that this structure, like the dorsal raphe, is required for improved visual sensitivity during arousal. These findings reveal that serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe have a state-dependent role in matching sensory responsiveness to behavioral context. PMID:23100441

  2. Teenage Sexuality

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Share Teenage Sexuality Page Content Article Body Sex and sexuality During this time, many young people ... be ready to have sexual intercourse? Will having sex help my relationship? If I am attracted to ...

  3. Sexual Assault

    MedlinePlus

    Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

  4. Effect of alcohol on elicited male sexual response.

    PubMed

    Farkas, G M; Rosen, R C

    1976-03-01

    Sixteen young men drunk three doses of alcohol and their sexual arousal was measured by the changes in penile diameter. The lowest alcohol dose (BAC of 0.025%) was associated with maximum penile diameter increase; marked suppression of response was found at BACs of 0.05% and above. PMID:4660

  5. Eyelid Opening with Trigeminal Proprioceptive Activation Regulates a Brainstem Arousal Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Hama, Yuki; Yuzuriha, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    Eyelid opening stretches mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle to activate the proprioceptive fiber supplied by the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus. This proprioception induces reflex contractions of the slow-twitch fibers in the levator palpebrae superioris and frontalis muscles to sustain eyelid and eyebrow positions against gravity. The cell bodies of the trigeminal proprioceptive neurons in the mesencephalon potentially make gap-junctional connections with the locus coeruleus neurons. The locus coeruleus is implicated in arousal and autonomic function. Due to the relationship between arousal, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and skin conductance, we assessed whether upgaze with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation activates sympathetically innervated sweat glands and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Specifically, we examined whether 60° upgaze induces palmar sweating and hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal cortex in 16 subjects. Sweating was monitored using a thumb-mounted perspiration meter, and prefrontal cortex activity was measured with 45-channel, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and 2-channel NIRS at Fp1 and Fp2. In 16 subjects, palmar sweating was induced by upgaze and decreased in response to downgaze. Upgaze activated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex with an accumulation of integrated concentration changes in deoxyhemoglobin, oxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin levels in 12 subjects. Upgaze phasically and degree-dependently increased deoxyhemoglobin level at Fp1 and Fp2, whereas downgaze phasically decreased it in 16 subjects. Unilateral anesthetization of mechanoreceptors in the supratarsal Müller muscle used to significantly reduce trigeminal proprioceptive evocation ipsilaterally impaired the increased deoxyhemoglobin level by 60° upgaze at Fp1 or Fp2 in 6 subjects. We concluded that upgaze with strong trigeminal proprioceptive evocation was sufficient to phasically activate sympathetically innervated sweat glands and appeared to induce rapid oxygen consumption in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and to rapidly produce deoxyhemoglobin to regulate physiological arousal. Thus, eyelid opening with trigeminal proprioceptive evocation may activate the ventromedial prefrontal cortex via the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus and locus coeruleus. PMID:26244675

  6. What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.

    PubMed

    Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

    2014-01-01

    Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

  7. The effects of valence and arousal on time perception in individuals with social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Jung-Yi; Lee, Jang-Han

    2015-01-01

    Time distortion in individuals with social anxiety has been defined as the seemingly slower passage of time in social situations and is related to both arousal and valence. Consequently, adaptive behavior is disrupted and interpersonal situations avoided. We explored the effects of valence and arousal on time distortion in individuals with social anxiety. Participants were assigned to two groups, High Anxiety (HA) and Low Anxiety (LA), presented with four types of facial expression stimuli (positive-high arousal, positive-low arousal, negative-high arousal, and negative-low arousal), and asked to estimate the duration of stimulus presentation. Results indicated that, relative to other stimuli, the HA and LA groups perceived longer presentation for high-arousal negative and low-arousal positive stimuli, respectively. These findings suggest that anxious individuals’ time distortion was more severe in situations that evoked high arousal and involved negative emotion. PMID:26347679

  8. The effects of valence and arousal on time perception in individuals with social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jung-Yi; Lee, Jang-Han

    2015-01-01

    Time distortion in individuals with social anxiety has been defined as the seemingly slower passage of time in social situations and is related to both arousal and valence. Consequently, adaptive behavior is disrupted and interpersonal situations avoided. We explored the effects of valence and arousal on time distortion in individuals with social anxiety. Participants were assigned to two groups, High Anxiety (HA) and Low Anxiety (LA), presented with four types of facial expression stimuli (positive-high arousal, positive-low arousal, negative-high arousal, and negative-low arousal), and asked to estimate the duration of stimulus presentation. Results indicated that, relative to other stimuli, the HA and LA groups perceived longer presentation for high-arousal negative and low-arousal positive stimuli, respectively. These findings suggest that anxious individuals' time distortion was more severe in situations that evoked high arousal and involved negative emotion. PMID:26347679

  9. Hypothalamic feedforward inhibition of thalamocortical network controls arousal and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Carolina Gutierrez; Cadavieco, Marta Carus; Jego, Sonia; Ponomarenko, Alexey; Korotkova, Tatiana; Adamantidis, Antoine

    2016-02-01

    During non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep, synchronous synaptic activity in the thalamocortical network generates predominantly low-frequency oscillations (<4 Hz) that are modulated by inhibitory inputs from the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN). Whether TRN cells integrate sleep-wake signals from subcortical circuits remains unclear. We found that GABA neurons from the lateral hypothalamus (LHGABA) exert a strong inhibitory control over TRN GABA neurons (TRNGABA). We found that optogenetic activation of this circuit recapitulated state-dependent changes of TRN neuron activity in behaving mice and induced rapid arousal during NREM, but not REM, sleep. During deep anesthesia, activation of this circuit induced sustained cortical arousal. In contrast, optogenetic silencing of LHGABA-TRNGABA transmission increased the duration of NREM sleep and amplitude of delta (1-4 Hz) oscillations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that TRN cells integrate subcortical arousal inputs selectively during NREM sleep and may participate in sleep intensity. PMID:26691833

  10. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  11. Differential impact of beliefs on valence and arousal.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Antoinette; Goel, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Many cognitive accounts of emotional processing assume that emotions have representational content that can be influenced by beliefs and desires. It is generally thought that emotions also have non-cognitive, affective components, including valence and arousal. To clarify the impact of cognition on these affective components we asked participants to rate sentences along cognitive and affective dimensions. For the former case, participants rated the believability of the material. For the latter case, they provided valence and arousal ratings. Across two experiments, we show that valence and arousal are differently influenced by beliefs, suggesting that these two largely independent affective components of emotion differ in their cognitive penetrability. While both components depended upon overall comprehension of sentence meaning, only valence was influenced by the consistency of the sentences with participants' beliefs (i.e., whether it was believable or unbelievable). We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding cognition-emotion relationships. PMID:22783982

  12. Preliminary support for a generalized arousal model of political conservatism.

    PubMed

    Tritt, Shona M; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  13. Differential impact of beliefs on valence and arousal

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Antoinette; Goel, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Many cognitive accounts of emotional processing assume that emotions have representational content that can be influenced by beliefs and desires. It is generally thought that emotions also have non-cognitive, affective components, including valence and arousal. To clarify the impact of cognition on these affective components we asked participants to rate sentences along cognitive and affective dimensions. For the former case, participants rated the believability of the material. For the latter case, they provided valence and arousal ratings. Across two experiments, we show that valence and arousal are differently influenced by beliefs, suggesting that these two largely independent affective components of emotion differ in their cognitive penetrability. While both components depended upon overall comprehension of sentence meaning, only valence was influenced by the consistency of the sentences with participants’ beliefs (i.e., whether it was believable or unbelievable). We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding cognition-emotion relationships. PMID:22783982

  14. Effects of implantation of hypertrophied androgenic glands on sexual characters and physiology of the reproductive system in the female red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus.

    PubMed

    Khalaila, I; Katz, T; Abdu, U; Yehezkel, G; Sagi, A

    2001-03-01

    The role of the androgenic gland (AG), an organ unique to male Crustacea, in the development of sex characters and physiology of the reproductive system has not been fully documented in the red claw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus. To investigate the role of the AG in this species, the effect of implanting hypertrophied AGs into immature female animals was followed. Of the female animals with AG implants, 91.6% developed male-like propodi, including the red patch characteristic of males of this species. The development of female secondary sex characteristics such as a wider abdomen, a wider endopod, and simple setation was inhibited. At the end of the experiment, the ovaries of the AG-implanted females contained mostly lipid-stage oocytes, with a small number of oocytes at the early yolk stage. The gonadosomatic index of the AG-implanted females was significantly lower than that of the control (sperm duct-implanted or sham-operated) females, which had mature oocytes with a well-defined perinuclear zone and yolk globules. An immunohistochemical test using an antibody developed against a 106-kDa secondary vitellogenic polypeptide showed only slight immunoreactivity in the oocytes of AG-implanted females compared with abundant immunoreactivity in control ovaries. In the polypeptide profile of the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) from the hemolymph of AG-implanted females, the 206- and 79-kDa secondary vitellogenesis-specific polypeptides were not found, whereas they were present in the profile of control females. In contrast, the female-specific 177-kDa polypeptide was present in the polypeptide profile of hemolymph HDL of both AG-implanted females and control females. It seems therefore that while secondary sex characters were masculinized under the influence of the implanted AG, the process of vitellogenesis was suppressed but not fully eliminated in the AG-implanted females. PMID:11254366

  15. Chemosensory stimulation during sleep - Arousal responses to gustatory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stuck, B A; Moutsis, T T; Bingel, U; Sommer, J U

    2016-05-13

    The processing of nociceptive, visual, vibrotactile, thermal and acoustic stimuli during sleep has been extensively investigated in the past. Recently, interest has focused on the impact of olfactory stimulation on sleep. In contrast to all other sensory systems, olfactory stimulation does not lead to an increased arousal frequency, regardless of hedonicity and concentration. The impact of the second chemosensory system, gustation, on sleep however has not been investigated to date. Twenty-one normosmic and normogeusic volunteers of both genders, aged 19-33years, participated in the trial. Stimulation was performed with a gustometer using the following aqueous solutions: saccharose 20% (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% (salty), citrate 5% (sour), and quinine 0.02% (bitter). A tasteless solution was used as negative control. Capsaicin, a strong trigeminal stimulus, served as positive control. Primary outcome was arousal frequency per stimulus in each sleep stage, as assessed with polysomnography. The frequency of arousals decreased in deeper sleep stages (N1: 211 arousals of 333 stimuli=63%, N2: 676/2728=25%, N3: 43/1378=3%, REM: 57/1010=6%). Statistically significant differences in terms of arousal frequency were found in N2 between the negative control and NaCl 100μl (p<0.001), saccharose 100μl, citrate 50μl & 100μl, and quinine 100μl (p<0.05). Capsaicin led to complete awakenings in 94% of stimuli (30/32). These results demonstrate that gustatory stimulation during sleep induces arousals depending on stimulus intensity and sleep stage, which is different to olfactory stimulation and may be related to differences in central processing of the two chemosensory systems. PMID:26921652

  16. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts empathic concern and autonomic arousal while perceiving harm to others.

    PubMed

    Smith, Karen E; Porges, Eric C; Norman, Greg J; Connelly, Jessica J; Decety, Jean

    2014-02-01

    Recent research indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin and the gene for the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in the modulation of various social behaviors, including those related to empathy and sensitivity to others. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that genetic variation in OXTR is associated with autonomic reactions when perceiving others in distress. We also explore the possibility that individual disposition in empathic concern would differ by OXTR genotype. To address these questions, 51 male participants (18-35 years of age), genotyped for OXTR rs53576, viewed a social interaction containing high levels of individual distress and apparent physical pain. Electrodermal activity, a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity, was collected during the presentation of the stimuli. Participants also completed a self-report dispositional measure of empathy prior to starting the study and provided ratings of arousal while viewing the stimuli. OXTR variant rs53576 GG individuals showed increased levels of sympathetic and subjective arousal in response to the stimuli compared to A allele carriers. GG homozygotes also expressed greater levels of empathic concern. These findings support the importance of the oxytocin receptor variation in emotional and physiological reactions to the affective experiences of other conspecifics. PMID:24295535

  17. Oxytocin receptor gene variation predicts empathic concern and autonomic arousal while perceiving harm to others

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Greg J.; Connelly, Jessica J.; Decety, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Recent research indicates that the neuropeptide oxytocin and the gene for the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) have been implicated in the modulation of various social behaviors, including those related to empathy and sensitivity to others. In this study, we examine the hypothesis that genetic variation in OXTR is associated with autonomic reactions when perceiving others in distress. We also explore the possibility that individual disposition in empathic concern would differ by OXTR genotype. To address these questions, fifty-one male participants (18–35 years of age), genotyped for OXTR rs53576, viewed a social interaction containing high levels of individual distress and apparent physical pain. Electrodermal activity, a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity, was collected during the presentation of the stimuli. Participants also completed a self-report dispositional measure of empathy prior to starting the study and provided ratings of arousal while viewing the stimuli. OXTR variant rs53576 GG individuals showed increased levels of sympathetic and subjective arousal in response to the stimuli compared to A allele carriers. GG homozygotes also expressed greater levels of empathic concern. These findings support the importance of the oxytocin receptor variation in emotional and physiological reactions to the experiences of other conspecifics. PMID:24295535

  18. How to handle anxiety: The effects of reappraisal, acceptance, and suppression strategies on anxious arousal.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Heering, Sanna; Sawyer, Alice T; Asnaani, Anu

    2009-05-01

    It has been suggested that reappraisal strategies are more effective than suppression strategies for regulating emotions. Recently, proponents of the acceptance-based behavior therapy movement have further emphasized the importance of acceptance-based emotion regulation techniques. In order to directly compare these different emotion regulation strategies, 202 volunteers were asked to give an impromptu speech in front of a video camera. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The Reappraisal group was instructed to regulate their anxious arousal by reappraising the situation; the Suppression group was asked to suppress their anxious behaviors; and the Acceptance group was instructed to accept their anxiety. As expected, the Suppression group showed a greater increase in heart rate from baseline than the Reappraisal and Acceptance groups. Moreover, the Suppression group reported more anxiety than the Reappraisal group. However, the Acceptance and Suppression groups did not differ in their subjective anxiety response. These results suggest that both reappraising and accepting anxiety is more effective for moderating the physiological arousal than suppressing anxiety. However, reappraising is more effective for moderating the subjective feeling of anxiety than attempts to suppress or accept it. PMID:19281966

  19. The association between body esteem and sexual desire among college women.

    PubMed

    Seal, Brooke N; Bradford, Andrea; Meston, Cindy M

    2009-10-01

    Relationships between body image variables and sexuality have been found among several groups of women. However, research has largely focused on generalized experiences of sexuality. With the exception of two studies which focused on specific medical populations, to our knowledge there has been no investigation of the relationship between body image and acute measures of sexual response. In the current study, we investigated the relationships between body esteem, sexual response to erotica in a laboratory-setting, and self-reported sexual functioning in a non-clinical sample of 85 college women. Women participated in one study session, during which mental sexual arousal, perceptions of physical arousal, and sexual desire were assessed. Results showed that higher body esteem was significantly positively related to sexual desire in response to erotica in the laboratory setting. Similarly, higher body esteem was positively related to self-reported measures of sexual desire, as assessed by a validated measure of sexual function. The sexual attractiveness and weight concern subscales of the Body Esteem Scale, which relate to body characteristics that are most likely to be under public scrutiny, were particularly linked to sexual desire. This is the first study to show that body esteem is related to sexual responses to a standardized erotic stimulus in a laboratory setting. PMID:19280331

  20. Sexual Excitability and Dysfunctional Coping Determine Cybersex Addiction in Homosexual Males.

    PubMed

    Laier, Christian; Pekal, Jaro; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Cybersex addiction (CA) has been mostly investigated in heterosexual males. Recent findings have demonstrated an association between CA severity and indicators of sexual excitability, and that coping by sexual behaviors mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA symptoms. The aim of this study was to test this mediation in a sample of homosexual males. Seventy-one homosexual males were surveyed online. Questionnaires assessed symptoms of CA, sensitivity to sexual excitation, pornography use motivation, problematic sexual behavior, psychological symptoms, and sexual behaviors in real life and online. Moreover, participants viewed pornographic videos and indicated their sexual arousal before and after the video presentation. Results showed strong correlations between CA symptoms and indicators of sexual arousal and sexual excitability, coping by sexual behaviors, and psychological symptoms. CA was not associated with offline sexual behaviors and weekly cybersex use time. Coping by sexual behaviors partially mediated the relationship between sexual excitability and CA. The results are comparable with those reported for heterosexual males and females in previous studies and are discussed against the background of theoretical assumptions of CA, which highlight the role of positive and negative reinforcement due to cybersex use. PMID:26374928

  1. The influence of arousal and expectation on eyewitness memory in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiho; Park, Kevin Kiwon; Lee, Jang-Han

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of arousal and expectation on eyewitness memory. We exposed 97 participants to an immersive eyewitness experience by creating four virtual reality stimulus environments. The participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: arousing and expected, arousing and unexpected, nonarousing and expected, and nonarousing and unexpected. The results revealed that memory performance for an arousing encounter was significantly lower than that for a nonarousing encounter, and that memory performance for an unexpected environment was significantly lower compared with an expected one. In addition, memory performance was lowest in the condition that was both arousing and unexpected. No interaction between arousal and expectation was found. PMID:25405783

  2. Positive Body Image and Sexual Functioning in Dutch Female University Students: The Role of Adult Romantic Attachment.

    PubMed

    van den Brink, Femke; Smeets, Monique A M; Hessen, David J; Woertman, Liesbeth

    2016-07-01

    This study focused on links between romantic attachment, positive body image, and sexual functioning. Dutch female university students (N = 399) completed an online survey that included self-report items about body appreciation, sexual functioning, and romantic attachment. A proposed conceptual model was tested using structural equation modeling and a good fit to the data was found. Results revealed that attachment avoidance in a romantic context was negatively related to sexual arousal, vaginal lubrication, the ability to reach orgasm, and sexual satisfaction. Attachment anxiety was negatively related to body appreciation which, in turn, was positively related to sexual desire and arousal. Findings indicated that romantic attachment is meaningfully linked to body appreciation and sexual functioning. Therefore, the concept of adult attachment may be a useful tool for the treatment of sexual problems of young women. PMID:25778405

  3. Arousing suspicion and violating trust: the lived ideology of safe sex talk.

    PubMed

    Gavin, J

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses issues surrounding sexual negotiation between young men and women, specifically on the assumptions informing two commonly perceived risks associated with safe sex talk with a sexual partner: arousing suspicion and violating trust. By utilizing a distinction between lived and intellectual ideologies, these issues are explored through an examination of the tensions that exist between young people's understandings of official safe sex advice and their common sense understandings of safe sex practices. The ways in which these tensions are negotiated are explored, and some common sense impediments to putting safe sex advice into practice are identified. Taking a Shotterian approach to meaning construction, the present study focuses on 19 audience-group conversations about two AIDS-related teen television programs. These conversations are analyzed through the foregrounding of audience action problems and accounts. It emerges that the initiation of safe sex talk raises questions about the talker's past, the answers to which can undermine trust between partners. This loss of trust, however, has different meanings when applied to men and women. For a man, it means that he can no longer be trusted to be discreet, while for a woman it means that she is no longer considered to be a trustworthy or low-risk partner. It was concluded that effective safe sex advice needs to take into consideration such local, common sense understandings in order to bridge the gap between the lived and the intellectual ideologies of safe sex talk. PMID:12295878

  4. Stirring images: fear, not happiness or arousal, makes art more sublime.

    PubMed

    Eskine, Kendall J; Kacinik, Natalie A; Prinz, Jesse J

    2012-10-01

    Which emotions underlie our positive experiences of art? Although recent evidence from neuroscience suggests that emotions play a critical role in art perception, no research to date has explored the extent to which specific emotional states affect aesthetic experiences or whether general physiological arousal is sufficient. Participants were assigned to one of five conditions-sitting normally, engaging in 15 or 30 jumping jacks, or viewing a happy or scary video-prior to rating abstract works of art. Only the fear condition resulted in significantly more positive judgments about the art. These striking findings provide the first evidence that fear uniquely inspires positively valenced aesthetic judgments. The results are discussed in the context of embodied cognition. PMID:22309722

  5. A Dose of Kindness: Empathic Arousal and Helping Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coke, Jay S.; Batson, C. Daniel

    This paper explores the role of empathic arousal in mediating helping behavior. Undergraduates listened to a recording of a radio newscast that described the situation of a young woman whose parents had been killed in an automobile accident. Subjects were instructed either to imagine how the woman felt about her situation (imagine condition), or…

  6. Imagery Arousal as a Function of Exposure to Artistic Stimuli.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilotta, Joseph

    The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent music and art can arouse imagery experiences in an audience. Because of the relationship found between imagery and the arts in past research, it was hypothesized that artistic stimuli would have a greater influence on imagery than other kinds of stimuli (art-information or non-artistic).…

  7. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon

  8. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and

  9. Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma

    PubMed Central

    Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized β-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993

  10. Emotional Arousal of Beginning Physics Teachers during Extended Experimental Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant; Henderson, Senka; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Teachers often have difficulty implementing inquiry-based activities, leading to the arousal of negative emotions. In this multicase study of beginning physics teachers in Australia, we were interested in the extent to which their expectations were realized and how their classroom experiences while implementing extended experimental investigations…

  11. Manipulations of subjects' level of arousal in dichotic listening.

    PubMed

    Asbjörnsen, A; Hugdahl, K; Bryden, M P

    1992-07-01

    The effects of manipulation of the subject's level of arousal on the right ear advantage (REA) in dichotic listening to CV-syllables were investigated. There were three different arousal manipulations under high and low incentive levels. Negative manipulations involved threat of electric shock (high incentive) or noise (low incentive) for incorrect answers. Positive manipulations involved the possibility to earn a substantial (high incentive) or small (low incentive) sum of money for correct answers. A third, neutral, condition involved no specific instructions about consequences for correct or incorrect answers. Thirty-six females participated in the study. Heart rate was recorded as an independent measure of change in level of arousal as a function of the experimental instructions. The results showed that the high negative condition abolished the REA effect, with a non-significant difference between ears. This was caused by both an increase in correct left ear reports and a decrease in correct right ear reports. The other arousal conditions had no effect on the REA. The results are discussed in terms of right hemisphere dominance for aversive emotional processing in dichotic listening. PMID:1642859

  12. Emotional Valence and Arousal Effects on Memory and Hemispheric Asymmetries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mneimne, Malek; Powers, Alice S.; Walton, Kate E.; Kosson, David S.; Fonda, Samantha; Simonetti, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    This study examined predictions based upon the right hemisphere (RH) model, the valence-arousal model, and a recently proposed integrated model (Killgore & Yurgelun-Todd, 2007) of emotion processing by testing immediate recall and recognition memory for positive, negative, and neutral verbal stimuli among 35 right-handed women. Building upon…

  13. Emotional Arousal and Attitude Change During Simulation Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Steven J.

    Psysiological and behavioral indices of emotional arousal and mood during performance in a simulation game were investigated. The hypotheses tested were: (1) there will be attitude change following participation in the social simulation game, Ghetto; (2) this change in attitude will be related to the players' emotional involvement in the game as…

  14. Creative People Create Values: Creativity and Positive Arousal in Negotiations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schei, Vidar

    2013-01-01

    Most negotiations are ill-structured situations, and the ability to identify novel options is likely to be crucial for success. This study, therefore, examined how creativity impacts negotiation processes and outcomes, and how this effect is moderated by positive arousal. The negotiators' creative personality and their state of positive arousal…

  15. Weighted Vests, Stereotyped Behaviors and Arousal in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgetts, Sandra; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Misiaszek, John E.

    2011-01-01

    The homeostatic theory of stereotyped behaviors assumes that these behaviors modulate arousal. Weighted vests are used to decrease stereotyped behaviors in persons with autism because the input they provide is thought to serve the same homeostatic function. This small-n, randomized and blinded study measured the effects of wearing a weighted vest…

  16. A Model of Anxious Arousal for Public Speaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Amber N.; Sawyer, Chris R.; Behnke, Ralph R.

    2009-01-01

    With the goal of identifying the characteristics or traits students bring to the classroom that predispose them to panic when faced with the threat of presenting in front of an audience, this study introduced a subtype of public-speaking state anxiety--anxious arousal. Specifically, this study examined the extent to which trait anxiety and…

  17. Optimal Levels of Emotional Arousal in Experiential Therapy of Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carryer, Jonathan R.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between length of time spent expressing highly aroused emotion and therapeutic outcome. Method: Thirty-eight clients (14 male, 24 female) between the ages of 22 and 60 years (M = 39.5, SD = 9.71), treated for depression with experiential therapy, were rated on working alliance and expressed emotional…

  18. Excluded and behaving unethically: social exclusion, physiological responses, and unethical behavior.

    PubMed

    Kouchaki, Maryam; Wareham, Justin

    2015-03-01

    Across 2 studies, we investigated the ethical consequences of physiological responses to social exclusion. In Study 1, participants who were socially excluded were more likely to engage in unethical behavior to make money and the level of physiological arousal experienced during exclusion--measured using galvanic skin response--mediated the effects of exclusion on unethical behavior. Likewise, in Study 2, results from a sample of supervisor-subordinate dyads revealed a positive relationship between experience of workplace ostracism and unethical behaviors as rated by the immediate supervisors. This relationship was mediated by employees' reports of experienced physiological arousal. Together, the results of these studies demonstrate that physiological arousal accompanies social exclusion and provides an explanatory mechanism for the increased unethical behavior in both samples. Theoretical implications of these findings for research on ethical behavior and social exclusion in the workplace are discussed. PMID:25314369

  19. The hypocretins/orexins: integrators of multiple physiological functions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingcheng; Hu, Zhian; de Lecea, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The hypocretins (Hcrts), also known as orexins, are two peptides derived from a single precursor produced in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. Over the past decade, the orexin system has been associated with numerous physiological functions, including sleep/arousal, energy homeostasis, endocrine, visceral functions and pathological states, such as narcolepsy and drug abuse. Here, we review the discovery of Hcrt/orexins and their receptors and propose a hypothesis as to how the orexin system orchestrates these multifaceted physiological functions. PMID:24102345

  20. Is the torpor-arousal cycle of hibernation controlled by a non-temperature-compensated circadian clock?

    PubMed

    Malan, André

    2010-06-01

    During the hibernation season, mammalian hibernators alternate between prolonged bouts of torpor with a reduced body temperature (Tb) and short arousals with a return to euthermy. Evidence is presented here to show that this metabolic-and also physiological and neuroanatomical-rhythm is controlled by a clock, the torpor-arousal (TA) clock. The temperature dependence of torpor bout duration in 3 species of Spermophilus (published data) may be described by assuming that the TA clock is a circadian clock (probably not the suprachiasmatic clock) that has lost its temperature compensation. This loss might result either from a permanent deletion, or more likely from a seasonal epigenetic control at the level of the clock gene machinery. This hypothesis was verified over the full Tb range on published data from 5 other species (a monotreme, a marsupial, and 3 placental mammals). In a hibernation season, instantaneous subjective time of the putative TA clock was summated over each torpor bout. For each animal, torpor bout length (TBL) was accurately predicted as a constant fraction of a subjective day, for actual durations in astronomical time varying between 4 and 13 to 20 days. The resulting temperature dependence of the interval between arousals predicts that energy expenditure over the hibernation season will be minimal when Tb is as low as possible without eliciting cold thermogenesis. PMID:20484688

  1. Physiological assessment of task underload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Harris, Randall L., Sr.; Pope, Alan T.

    1988-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research efforts directed at underload, boredom, or complacency in high-technology work environments is to detect conditions or states of the operator that can be demonstrated to lead to performance degradation, and then to intervene in the environment to restore acceptable system performance. Physiological measures may provide indices of changes in condition or state of the operator that may be of value in high-technology work environments. The focus of the present study was on the use of physiological measures in the assessment of operator condition or state in a task underload scenario. A fault acknowledgement task characterized by simple repetitive responses with minimal novelty, complexity, and uncertainty was employed to place subjects in a task underload situation. Physiological measures (electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and pupil diameter) were monitored during task performance over a one-hour test session for 12 subjects. Each of the physiological measures exhibited changes over the test session indicative of decrements in subject arousal level. While high correlations between physiological measures were found across subjects, individual differences between subjects support the use of profiling techniques to establish baselines unique to each subject.

  2. Between DSM and ICD: Paraphilias and the Transformation of Sexual Norms.

    PubMed

    Giami, Alain

    2015-07-01

    The simultaneous revision of the two major international classifications of disease, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and the International Classification of Diseases, serves as an opportunity to observe the dynamic processes through which social norms of sexuality are constructed and are subject to change in relation to social, political, and historical context. This article argues that the classifications of sexual disorders, which define pathological aspects of "sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges or behaviors" are representations of contemporary sexual norms, gender identifications, and gender relations. It aims to demonstrate how changes in the medical treatment of sexual perversions/paraphilias passed, over the course of the 20th century, from a model of pathologization (and sometimes criminalization) of non-reproductive sexual behaviors to a model that reflects and privileges sexual well-being and responsibility, and pathologizes the absence or the limitation of consent in sexual relations. PMID:25933671

  3. Unconscious Desire: The Affective and Motivational Aspects of Subliminal Sexual Priming.

    PubMed

    Gillath, Omri; Collins, Tara

    2016-01-01

    Sexual arousal is thought to be the result of the processing of sexual cues at two levels: conscious and unconscious. Whereas numerous studies have examined the affective and motivational responses to supraliminal (consciously processed) sexual cues, much less is known regarding the responses to subliminal (processed outside of one's awareness) sexual cues. Five studies examined responses to subliminal sexual cues. Studies 1–3 demonstrated increases in adults' positive affect following exposure to subliminal sexual cues compared to control cues. Study 4 demonstrated that the positive affect resulting from exposure to subliminal sexual cues increased motivation to further engage in a neutral task. Study 5 provided evidence suggesting that the affect and motivation found in Studies 1–4 were associated with motivation to engage in sex specifically, rather than a general approach motivation. The implications of these findings for the processing of subliminal sexual cues and for human sexuality are discussed. PMID:26494359

  4. Examining gender specificity of sexual response with concurrent thermography and plethysmography.

    PubMed

    Huberman, Jackie S; Chivers, Meredith L

    2015-10-01

    Men's genital responses are significantly greater to sexual stimuli of their preferred gender compared to their nonpreferred gender (gender-specific), whereas androphilic (i.e., sexually attracted to men) women's genital responses are similar to sexual stimuli depicting either women or men (gender-nonspecific). This gendered pattern of genital response has only been demonstrated using vaginal photoplethysmography (VPP) in women and primarily penile plethysmography (PPG) in men. These measures assess different aspects of genital vasocongestion, thereby limiting comparisons between genders. Thermography is a newer sexual psychophysiology methodology that measures genital vasocongestion via temperature change and is better suited to assess sexual response between genders because the dependent measure, change in genital temperature, is similar for women and men. Further, previous studies have assessed gender specificity of sexual response across relatively short sexual stimuli, allowing only the examination of initial phases of sexual response. We examined gender specificity of sexual arousal by measuring women's and men's genital responses to lengthier stimuli with concurrent thermography and VPP/PPG. Gynephilic men (i.e., sexually attracted to women; n = 27) and androphilic women (n = 28) viewed 10-min films depicting men masturbating, women masturbating, and a nonsexual film, and reported feelings of sexual arousal while genital responses were assessed. Across measures, men's sexual responses were gender-specific and women's responses were gender-nonspecific, indicating that the gender difference in gender specificity of arousal is robust to methodology and stimulus duration. These findings replicate previous research, extend knowledge of gendered sexual response, and highlight the utility of multimethod approaches in sexual psychophysiology. PMID:26153384

  5. The role of hypocretin in driving arousal and goal-oriented behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Boutrel, Benjamin; Cannella, Nazzareno; de Lecea, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The hypocretins (Hcrts), also called orexins, are two neuropeptides secreted by a few thousand neurons restricted to the lateral hypothalamus. The Hcrt peptides bind to two receptors located in nuclei associated with diverse cognitive and physiological functions. Experimental evidence has demonstrated that the physiological roles of hypocretins extend far beyond its initial role in food consumption, and has emerged as a key system in the fields of sleep disorders and drug addiction. Here, we discuss recent evidence demonstrating a key role of hypocretin in the motivation for reward seeking in general, and drug taking in particular, and we delineate a physiological framework for this peptidergic system in orchestrating the appropriate levels of alertness required for the elaboration and the execution of goal-oriented behaviors. We propose a general role for hypocretins in mediating arousal, especially when an organism must respond to unexpected stressors and environmental challenges, which serve to shape survival behaviors. We also discuss the limit of the current experimental paradigms to address the question of how a system normally involved in the regulation of vigilance states and hyperarousal may promote a pathological state that elicits compulsive craving and relapse to drug seeking. PMID:19948148

  6. Usefulness of Differentiating Arousal Responses Within Communication Theories: Orienting Response or Defensive Arousal Within Nonverbal Theories of Expectancy Violation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Poire, Beth A.; Burgoon, Judee K.

    1996-01-01

    States that arousal has become a central variable within much of communication research from deception to emotional communication. Describes a two-part study that explored the application of the "orienting response" to these interpersonal communication theories explaining violations of expectancies. Concludes that the orientation response did…

  7. Adolescent sexual matricide following repetitive mother-son incest.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, L B

    1999-07-01

    A case of a 16-year-old male who committed a sexual matricide following years of mother-son incest is reported. After murdering his mother by strangulation, which itself was sexually arousing, the youngster engaged in both vaginal and anal necrophilia. The homicide occurred while the perpetrator was in a dissociative state and experiencing what has been referred to as a catathymic crisis: the sudden release of emotionally charged psychic conflict and tension, resulting in extreme violence within an interpersonal bond. Discussion of maternal image and maternal sexual conduct in relationship to the psychosexual development of adolescent males offers insight into the motivation in this extremely rare case. PMID:10432609

  8. White-nose syndrome-affected little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) increase grooming and other active behaviors during arousals from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A; Reeder, DeeAnn M

    2013-10-01

    White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious disease of hibernating bats linked to the death of an estimated 5.7 million or more bats in the northeastern United States and Canada. White-nose syndrome is caused by the cold-loving fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), which invades the skin of the muzzles, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. Previous work has shown that WNS-affected bats arouse to euthermic or near euthermic temperatures during hibernation significantly more frequently than normal and that these too-frequent arousals are tied to severity of infection and death date. We quantified the behavior of bats during these arousal bouts to understand better the causes and consequences of these arousals. We hypothesized that WNS-affected bats would display increased levels of activity (especially grooming) during their arousal bouts from hibernation compared to WNS-unaffected bats. Behavior of both affected and unaffected hibernating bats in captivity was monitored from December 2010 to March 2011 using temperature-sensitive dataloggers attached to the backs of bats and infrared motion-sensitive cameras. The WNS-affected bats exhibited significantly higher rates of grooming, relative to unaffected bats, at the expense of time that would otherwise be spent inactive. Increased self-grooming may be related to the presence of the fungus. Elevated activity levels in affected bats likely increase energetic stress, whereas the loss of rest (inactive periods when aroused from torpor) may jeopardize the ability of a bat to reestablish homeostasis in a number of physiologic systems. PMID:24502712

  9. Gender and visibility of sexual cues influence eye movements while viewing faces and bodies.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hietanen, Jari K; Santtila, Pekka; Hyönä, Jukka

    2012-12-01

    Faces and bodies convey important information for the identification of potential sexual partners, yet clothing typically covers many of the bodily cues relevant for mating and reproduction. In this eye tracking study, we assessed how men and women viewed nude and clothed, same and opposite gender human figures. We found that participants inspected the nude bodies more thoroughly. First fixations landed almost always on the face, but were subsequently followed by viewing of the chest and pelvic regions. When viewing nude images, fixations were biased away from the face towards the chest and pelvic regions. Fixating these regions was also associated with elevated physiological arousal. Overall, men spent more time looking at female than male stimuli, whereas women looked equally long at male and female stimuli. In comparison to women, men spent relatively more time looking at the chests of nude female stimuli whereas women spent more time looking at the pelvic/genital region of male stimuli. We propose that the augmented and gender-contingent visual scanning of nude bodies reflects selective engagement of the visual attention circuits upon perception of signals relevant to choosing a sexual partner, which supports mating and reproduction. PMID:22402995

  10. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can

  11. Distinct Brain Systems Underlie the Processing of Valence and Arousal of Affective Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielen, M. M. A.; Heslenfeld, D. J.; Heinen, K.; Van Strien, J. W.; Witter, M. P.; Jonker, C.; Veltman, D. J.

    2009-01-01

    Valence and arousal are thought to be the primary dimensions of human emotion. However, the degree to which valence and arousal interact in determining brain responses to emotional pictures is still elusive. This functional MRI study aimed to delineate neural systems responding to valence and arousal, and their interaction. We measured neural…

  12. Conditions under which Arousal Does and Does Not Elevate Height Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of experiments that explore the boundary conditions for how emotional arousal influences height estimates. Four experiments are presented, which investigated the influence of context, situation-relevance, intensity, and attribution of arousal on height estimates. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the environmental context to signal either danger (viewing a height from above) or safety (viewing a height from below). High arousal only increased height estimates made from above. In Experiment 2, two arousal inductions were used that contained either 1) height-relevant arousing images or 2) height-irrelevant arousing images. Regardless of theme, arousal increased height estimates compared to a neutral group. In Experiment 3, arousal intensity was manipulated by inserting an intermediate or long delay between the induction and height estimates. A brief, but not a long, delay from the arousal induction served to increase height estimates. In Experiment 4, an attribution manipulation was included, and those participants who were made aware of the source of their arousal reduced their height estimates compared to participants who received no attribution instructions. Thus, arousal that is attributed to its true source is discounted from feelings elicited by the height, thereby reducing height estimates. Overall, we suggest that misattributed, embodied arousal is used as a cue when estimating heights from above that can lead to overestimation. PMID:24699393

  13. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

    2010-01-01

    Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can…

  14. Sexual dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and its affected domains

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Zabandan, Neda; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is presented with characteristic complications such as chronic an ovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism which can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. Objective: Herein we evaluated the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in infertile PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 130 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS who were referred due to infertility were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Results: The frequency of sexual dysfunction was verified 57.7% in PCOS patients with the domains of desire and arousal being commonly affected in 99.2% and 98.5%of cases respectively. BMI had a significant effect on sexual desire and arousal (p=0.02) while the effect of hirsutism was significant on all domains (p<0.001 for total FSFI score) except for dyspareunia. Conclusion: PCOS patients markedly suffer from sexual dysfunction as comorbidity. It seems appropriate to screen all PCOS patients for sexual function with a simple short questionnaire such as FSFI. Targeted interventions could be considered to help improve their quality of life along with other treatments. PMID:25408703

  15. Pornography and the Male Sexual Script: An Analysis of Consumption and Sexual Relations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chyng; Bridges, Ana; Johnson, Jennifer A; Ezzell, Matthew B

    2016-05-01

    Pornography has become a primary source of sexual education. At the same time, mainstream commercial pornography has coalesced around a relatively homogenous script involving violence and female degradation. Yet, little work has been done exploring the associations between pornography and dyadic sexual encounters: What role does pornography play inside real-world sexual encounters between a man and a woman? Cognitive script theory argues media scripts create a readily accessible heuristic model for decision-making. The more a user watches a particular media script, the more embedded those codes of behavior become in their worldview and the more likely they are to use those scripts to act upon real life experiences. We argue pornography creates a sexual script that then guides sexual experiences. To test this, we surveyed 487 college men (ages 18-29 years) in the United States to compare their rate of pornography use with sexual preferences and concerns. Results showed the more pornography a man watches, the more likely he was to use it during sex, request particular pornographic sex acts of his partner, deliberately conjure images of pornography during sex to maintain arousal, and have concerns over his own sexual performance and body image. Further, higher pornography use was negatively associated with enjoying sexually intimate behaviors with a partner. We conclude that pornography provides a powerful heuristic model which is implicated in men's expectations and behaviors during sexual encounters. PMID:25466233

  16. Physiological Waterfalls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leith, David E.

    1976-01-01

    Provides background information, defining areas within organ systems where physiological waterfalls exist. Describes pressure-flow relationships of elastic tubes (blood vessels, airways, renal tubules, various ducts). (CS)

  17. Adolescent Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharpe, Thomasina H.

    2003-01-01

    This article offers a medical and psychosocial perspective of adolescent sexual development. Sub-types of sexual development are discussed as well as treatment implications for allied health providers. (Contains 38 references.) (Author)

  18. Sexual Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... big part of being human. Love, affection and sexual intimacy all play a role in healthy relationships. ... both men and women. Factors that can affect sexual health include Fear of unplanned pregnancy Concerns about ...

  19. The prevalence of female sexual dysfunction among migraine patients

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Mohammad; Toghae, Mansoureh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Saffari, Elaheh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) defines as any disorder in the process of sexual contact including 6 main domains, desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, orgasm satisfaction and pain. This study was conducted to evaluate prevalence of sexual dysfunction disorder in women with migraine headache and also find the associated factors related to migraine characteristics. Methods: A total of 69 eligible woman patients fulfilling criteria for migraine participated in this study. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), a multi-dimensional self-report implement for appraisal of Female Sexual Function during the past month were utilized in this study. The information related to migraine including frequency, duration of headache attack, severity of headache according to visual analog scale (VAS) score and headache impact test (HIT) score were obtained using a self-administrated questionnaire. Results: About 68.4% of patients had an FSFI score < 28. In domains of desire 73.7%, arousal 64.9%, lubrication 21.1%, orgasm 33.3%, satisfaction 17.5%, and pain 40.4% of patients reported some degree of dysfunction. Among variables related to migraine characteristics, only a significant association between frequency and sexual dysfunction were recorded (P < 0.05). Conclusion: FSD is prevalent among migraine patients. The frequency of a migraine attack is associated with FSD. Serotonin mechanisms such as 5HT2, 5HT3 agonist have been hypothesized as a shared etiology for migraine and sexual dysfunction. PMID:25874050

  20. Sexual disorders not otherwise specified: compulsive, addictive, or impulsive?

    PubMed

    Stein, D J; Black, D W; Pienaar, W

    2000-01-01

    Paraphilias are recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving nonhuman objects. These paraphilias cause the suffering or humiliation of the patient or patient's partner, or children, or other nonconsenting persons. However, in many patients symptoms involve more culturally acceptable patterns (eg, repetitive masturbation, Internet pornography); such hypersexual symptoms have been labeled as compulsive, addictive, or impulsive. Growing evidence supports the existence of a discrete syndrome characterized by recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving patterns that fall outside the definition of paraphilia. There is, however, high comorbidity with paraphilia. While such symptoms have been labeled as sexual compulsion or addiction, these terms are problematic in this context. Modern nosology has neglected this entity, although the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), category of sexual disorders not otherwise specified includes hypersexual behaviors as an example. We suggest that the DSM-IV category of sexual disorders be modified to include explicitly diagnostic criteria for a disorder characterized by hypersexual symptoms involving patterns that fall outside of the current definition of paraphilia. The disorder might be classified as one of the paraphilias, or as paraphilia-related. In the absence of a comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis of this disorder, we suggest that it simply be termed hypersexual disorder. PMID:18311101

  1. Rowing Physiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  2. Psychophysiological Reactivity in Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Ben-Amitay, Galit; Kimchi, Nir; Wolmer, Leo; Toren, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Sexual abuse has physiological and emotional implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neurobiological sequels of childhood sexual trauma by monitoring physiological variables among sexually abused girls and women compared to controls. We assessed posttrauma and traumatic life events of 35 females sexually abused in their childhood (age range 7-51 years) and 25 control females (age range 7-54 years). Electroencephalography, frontalis electromyography, electrodermal activity, and heart rate parameters were recorded while watching sets of pictures representing neutral and trauma-suggestive stimuli. A minority of participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Abused females displayed significant elevations in heart rate, electromyography, and electroencephalography while viewing allusive stimuli and elevated heart rate while viewing neutral stimuli. The dysfunctional regulation of the physiological stress system associated with child sexual abuse may endanger the victims with various stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26934544

  3. Sleep bruxism: an oromotor activity secondary to micro-arousal.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Rompr, P; Montplaisir, J Y; Sessle, B J; Lavigne, G J

    2001-10-01

    Spontaneous rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) during sleep occurs in relation to transient activation in the cerebral and autonomic nervous systems of normal subjects and in patients with sleep bruxism (SB). In this study, we made a quantitative assessment of the sequential changes in cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) and autonomic-cardiac activities associated with micro-arousals preceding RMMA episodes. We matched 10 SB patients with 10 normal subjects. The onset of RMMA episodes was defined in terms of the onset of activation in the suprahyoid muscles. In SB patients, an increase in cortical EEG activity was observed 4 seconds before the onset of suprahyoid activity in 79% of episodes. A significant acceleration in heart rate was initiated one cardiac cycle before RMMA onset. A clear sequence of cortical to autonomic-cardiac activation precedes jaw motor activity in SB patients. This suggests that SB is a powerful oromotor manifestation secondary to micro-arousal. PMID:11706956

  4. Sexual disorders among elderly: An epidemiological study in south Indian rural population

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana Rao, T. S.; Ismail, Shajahan; Darshan, M. S.; Tandon, Abhinav

    2015-01-01

    Background: Realizing a dearth of data on this topic, especially in the Indian context, an epidemiological study was conducted in a south Indian rural population to identify the sexual activity patterns and sexual problems among the population above 60 years of age. Objectives: (1) Assessment of sexual activity patterns among individuals above 60 years. (2) Assessment of the prevalence of sexual disorders among individuals above 60 years. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 259 participants, which included both males and females above 60 years of age. Subjects who were sexually active and fulfilled the study criteria were administered Arizona Sexual Experience Scale as a screening tool, for the presence of sexual problems. Those who were found to have sexual problems were interviewed further using appropriate questionnaires. Results: Only 27.4% of the individuals above 60 years were sexually active, and it progressively dropped as age advanced and none were sexually active after 75 years of age. Among the sexually active males, erectile dysfunction (ED) was prevalent in 43.5%, premature ejaculation in 10.9%, hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSSD) in 0.77% and anorgasmia in 0.38% of the subjects. Among females, arousal disorder was prevalent in 28%, HSSD in 16%, anorgasmia in 20% and dyspareunia in 8% of the subjects. Conclusion: The study gives us an insight into the sexual problems of the elderly and brings home the point that sexual problems are very much common among both men and women in the older population. Among elderly males, ED is the most common sexual disorder whereas in elderly females, arousal disorder is the most prevalent female sexual dysfunction, implicating biology plays an important role in men, whereas psychology plays an important role in women sexual functioning. PMID:26600575

  5. The subliminal affective priming effects of faces displaying various levels of arousal: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    Li, Tian-Tian; Lu, Yong

    2014-11-01

    This study on the subliminal affective priming effects of faces displaying various levels of arousal employed event-related potentials (ERPs). The participants were asked to rate the arousal of ambiguous medium-arousing faces that were preceded by high- or low-arousing priming faces presented subliminally. The results revealed that the participants exhibited arousal-consistent variation in their arousal level ratings of the probe faces exclusively in the negative prime condition. Compared with high-arousing faces, the low-arousing faces tended to elicit greater late positive component (LPC, 450-660ms) and greater N400 (330-450ms) potentials. These findings support the following conclusions: (1) the effect of subliminal affective priming of faces can be detected in the affective arousal dimension; (2) valence may influence the subliminal affective priming effect of the arousal dimension of emotional stimuli; and (3) the subliminal affective priming effect of face arousal occurs when the prime stimulus affects late-stage processing of the probe. PMID:25258346

  6. Control of arousal through neuropeptide afferents of the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Zitnik, Gerard A

    2016-06-15

    The locus coeruleus-norepinephine (LC-NE) system is implicated in mediating several aspects of arousal. Alterations in LC neuronal discharge is associated with distinct changes in behavior, cognition, sensory processing and regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Changes in LC output and subsequent release of NE in target brain regions help adjust arousal state to respond appropriately to environmental conditions and behavioral circumstances. One way in which LC activity is controlled is through release of endogenous neuropeptides. Based on the sleep-wake cycle and environmental cues specific neuropeptide afferent systems are activated, innervating the LC. These neuropeptides include: corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), orexin (ORX), endogenous opioids, substance P (SP), melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and somatostatin (SS). This review summarizes studies examining the neuroanatomical projections of these neuropeptides, their receptors in the LC, the actions on LC neurons and downstream NE release, as well as the behavioral and cognitive effects associated individual neuropeptide-mediated innervation of the LC. Finally, the relationship between individual neuropeptides, the LC-NE system and various clinical disorders is discussed, providing evidence for possible therapeutic targets for treatment of several arousal- and stress-related disorders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26688115

  7. Movement arousals and sleep-related disordered breathing in adults.

    PubMed

    Collard, P; Dury, M; Delguste, P; Aubert, G; Rodenstein, D O

    1996-08-01

    Sleep fragmentation (an increase in the number of short EEG arousals) is considered a major determinant of excessive daytime sleepiness but is seldom quantified in sleep studies, and reference values are scarce at best. We present data on the movement arousal index (MAI) in five groups of subjects: normals, simple snorers, patients with the sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS), and patients with sleep-related oxygen desaturations due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or neuromusculoskeletal disorders. In normal subjects, the MAI was 13 +/- 7 (mean +/- SD). MAI was distinctly increased in most patients with SAHS and was strongly correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index and loss of both slow wave and REM sleep. It was corrected to normal by nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). There was some overlap of MAI between SAHS patients and snorers, suggesting that a minority of nonapneic snorers may suffer from daytime sleepiness due to upper airway dysfunction. Sleep fragmentation is not a feature of sleep-related hypoventilation due to COPD or neuromusculoskeletal disorders, and an increase of the number of movement arousals (MA) is very suggestive of upper airway dysfunction and of potential success of CPAP. Quantification of sleep fragmentation is feasible and clinically useful; it should be included in the assessment of sleep-related breathing disorders. PMID:8756822

  8. Adolescence, Sexual Conflict, and Anorexia Nervosa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Felicia F.

    1984-01-01

    Suggests that the high incidence of anorexia nervosa in adolescent girls may be related to developmental sexual pressure. Symptoms appear with the onset of puberty and are related to physiological and psychological changes. (JAC)

  9. When Are Sexual Difficulties Distressing for Women? The Selective Protective Value of Intimate Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have shown that sexual functioning and sexually related personal distress are weakly related in women, with only a minority of sexual difficulties resulting in significant levels of distress. However, there has been little systematic research to date on which factors moderate the relationship between sexual functioning and sexual distress. Aim To assess the degree to which relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderate the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in college-age women. Methods Two hundred women (mean age = 20.25) completed surveys assessing sexual functioning, relational intimacy, attachment anxiety, and sexual distress. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Dimensions of Relationship Quality Scale, and the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment. Results Relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderated the association between multiple aspects of sexual functioning and sexual distress. For lubrication and sexual pain, functioning was more strongly associated with distress in low-intimacy vs. high-intimacy relationships, but only for women with high levels of attachment anxiety. Results regarding desire were mixed and neither intimacy nor attachment anxiety interacted with subjective arousal or orgasm in predicting distress. Conclusion Both relational intimacy and attachment anxiety are important moderators of the association between sexual functioning and subjective sexual distress in women. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20701676

  10. Sexual dysfunctions among people living with AIDS in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Tubino Scanavino, Marco; Abdo, Carmita Helena Najjar

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sexual dysfunction symptoms in patients with HIV have not been fully investigated in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To investigate the association between sexual dysfunction symptoms and AIDS among participants in the Brazilian Sex Life Study. METHODS The Brazilian Sex Life Study is a cross-sectional population study. The participants answered an anonymous self-responsive inquiry. It was applied to a population sample in 18 large Brazilian cities. Answers given by those who reported having AIDS (75) were compared with those who reported not having AIDS (control; 150). This was a case-control study nested in a cross-sectional population study. RESULTS In females, AIDS was associated with “sexual inactivity over the last 12 months” and “does not maintain sexual arousal until the end of the sex act” (P < 0.05) after adjusting for race and thyroid disease. Compared to the control group, men with AIDS had more difficulty becoming sexually aroused (they required more help from their partner to begin the sex act, they required longer foreplay than they wished, they reported losing sexual desire before the end of the sex act, and they required longer to ejaculate than they desired) (P < 0.05). After adjusting for sexual orientation, sex hormone deficiency, depression, and alcoholism, only “does not have sexual desire,” “have longer foreplay,” and dyspareunia were associated with AIDS. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The results support the hypothesis that sexual dysfunctions are associated with AIDS. Men with AIDS need more time and stimulation to develop a sexual response, and a significant portion (37%) of women with AIDS reported sexual inactivity over the last 12 months. PMID:20535370

  11. Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Faubion, Stephanie S; Rullo, Jordan E

    2015-08-15

    Sexual dysfunction in women is a common and often distressing problem that has a negative impact on quality of life and medication compliance. The problem is often multifactorial, necessitating a multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment approach that addresses biological, psychological, sociocultural, and relational factors. Criteria for sexual interest/arousal disorder require the presence of at least three specific symptoms lasting for at least six months. Lifelong anorgasmia may suggest the patient is unfamiliar or uncomfortable with self-stimulation or sexual communication with her partner. Delayed or less intense orgasms may be a natural process of aging due to decreased genital blood flow and dulled genital sensations. Genito-pelvic pain/penetration disorder includes fear or anxiety, marked tightening or tensing of the abdominal and pelvic muscles, or actual pain associated with attempts toward vaginal penetration that is persistent or recurrent for at least six months. Treatment depends on the etiology. Estrogen is effective for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with genitourinary syndrome of menopause. Testosterone, with and without concomitant use of estrogen, is associated with improvements in sexual functioning in naturally and surgically menopausal women, although data on long-term risks and benefits are lacking. Bupropion has been shown to improve the adverse sexual effects associated with antidepressant use; however, data are limited. Psychotherapy or sex therapy is useful for management of the psychological, relational, and sociocultural factors impacting a woman's sexual function. Clinicians can address many of these issues in addition to providing education and validating women's sexual health concerns. PMID:26280233

  12. Orexin mediates initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naïve male rats, but is not critical for sexual performance

    PubMed Central

    Di Sebastiano, Andrea R.; Yong-Yow, Sabrina; Wagner, Lauren; Lehman, Michael N.; Coolen, Lique M.

    2010-01-01

    The hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin mediates arousal, sleep, and naturally rewarding behaviors, including food intake. Male sexual behavior is altered by orexin receptor-1 agonists or antagonists, suggesting a role for orexin-A in this naturally rewarding behavior. However, the specific role of endogenous orexin-A or B in different elements of male sexual behavior is currently unclear. Therefore, the current studies utilized markers for neural activation and orexin cell-specific lesions to test the hypothesis that orexin is critical for sexual motivation and performance in male rats. First, cFos expression in orexin neurons was demonstrated following presentation of a receptive or non-receptive female without further activation by different elements of mating. Next, the functional role of orexin was tested utilizing orexin-B conjugated saporin, resulting in orexin cell body lesions in the hypothalamus. Lesions were conducted in sexually naïve males and subsequent sexual behavior was recorded during four mating trials. Lesion males showed shortened latencies to mount and intromit during the first, but not subsequent mating trials, suggesting lesions facilitated initiation of sexual behavior in sexually naïve, but not experienced males. Likewise, lesions did not affect sexual motivation in experienced males, determined by runway tests. Finally, elevated plus maze tests demonstrated reduced anxiety-like behaviors in lesioned males, supporting a role for orexin in anxiety associated with initial exposure to the female in naïve animals. Overall, these findings show that orexin is not critical for male sexual performance or motivation, but may play a role in arousal and anxiety related to sexual behavior in naïve animals. PMID:20541554

  13. Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

    2014-12-01

    The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory. PMID:24604603

  14. Sexual uses of alcohol and drugs and the associated health risks: A cross sectional study of young people in nine European cities

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Calafat, Amador; Juan, Montse; Ramon, Anna; Rodriguez, José A; Mendes, Fernando; Schnitzer, Susanne; Phillips-Howard, Penny

    2008-01-01

    Background Young people in European countries are experiencing high levels of alcohol and drug use and escalating levels of sexually transmitted infections. Individually these represent major public health priorities. Understanding of the association between sex and substance use, and specifically the strategic roles for which young people utilise substances to facilitate sexual activity, remains limited. Methods Respondent driven sampling methodology was used in nine European cities to survey 1,341 16–35 year olds representing youth and younger adults who routinely engage in nightlife. Participants self-completed questionnaires, designed to gather demographic, social, and behavioural data on historic and current substance use and sexual behaviour. Results Respondents reported strategic use of specific substances for different sexual purposes. Substances differed significantly in the purposes for which each was deployed (e.g. 28.6% of alcohol users use it to facilitate sexual encounters; 26.2% of cocaine users use it to prolong sex) with user demographics also relating to levels of sexual use (e.g. higher levels of: ecstasy use by males to prolong sex; cocaine use by single individuals to enhance sensation and arousal). Associations between substance use and sex started at a young age, with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine or ecstasy use before age 16 all being associated with having had sex before the age of 16 (odds ratios, 3.47, 4.19, 5.73, 9.35 respectively). However, sexes differed and substance use under 16 years was associated with a proportionately greater increase in early sex amongst girls. Respondents' current drug use was associated with having multiple sexual partners. Thus, for instance, regular cocaine users (c.f. never users) were over five times more likely to have had five or more sexual partners in the last 12 months or have paid for sex. Conclusion An epidemic of recreational drug use and binge drinking exposes millions of young Europeans to routine consumption of substances which alter their sexual decisions and increase their chances of unsafe and regretted sex. For many, substance use has become an integral part of their strategic approach to sex, locking them into continued use. Tackling substances with both physiological and psychological links to sex requires approaching substance use and sexual behaviour in the same way that individuals experience them; as part of the same social process. PMID:18471281

  15. Cardiac and ventilatory arousal responses and their habituation in goldfish: effects of the intensity of the eliciting stimulus.

    PubMed

    Rooney, D J; Laming, P R

    1986-01-01

    Recordings were made of cardiac and ventilatory responses of goldfish to the onset of 10 sec illumination presented at 2 min intervals. These responses were measured by increases in cardiac interbeat interval, ventilatory interbreath interval and by reductions in ventilatory amplitude. Four groups of fish were subjected to intensities of 52, 78, 90 and 160 lux. Habituation of responses was considered to have occurred when its magnitude fell within the limits of normal variation of the physiological variable. It was found that the more intense the stimulus the greater was the magnitude of the initial physiological response and correlated with this the number of stimulus presentations required for habituation. The relationship between stimulus intensity, initial response magnitude and resistance to habituation was consistent for cardiac responses. The results are discussed with respect to current knowledge of arousal and its habituation. PMID:3737707

  16. Masturbation Frequency and Sexual Function Domains Are Associated With Serum Reproductive Hormone Levels Across the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Huiyong; Avis, Nancy E.; Greendale, Gail A.; Harlow, Siobán D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether reproductive hormones are related to sexual function during the menopausal transition. Design: The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiethnic cohort study of the menopausal transition located at seven US sites. At baseline, the 3302 community-based participants, aged 42–52, had an intact uterus and at least one ovary and were not using exogenous hormones. Participants self-identified as White, Black, Hispanic, Chinese, or Japanese. At baseline and at each of the 10 follow-up visits, sexual function was assessed by self-administered questionnaires, and blood was drawn to assay serum levels of T, estradiol, FSH, SHBG, and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported frequency of masturbation, sexual desire, sexual arousal, orgasm, and pain during intercourse. Results: Masturbation, sexual desire, and arousal were positively associated with T. Masturbation, arousal, and orgasm were negatively associated with FSH. Associations were modest. Estradiol was not related to any measured sexual function domain. Pain with intercourse was not associated with any hormone. Conclusions: Reproductive hormones were associated with sexual function in midlife women. T was positively associated, supporting the role of androgens in female sexual function. FSH was negatively associated, supporting the role of menopausal status in female sexual function. The modest associations in this large study suggest that the relationships are subtle and may be of limited clinical significance. PMID:25412335

  17. [Human orgasm from the physiological perspective--part II].

    PubMed

    Gałecki, Piotr; Depko, Andrzej; Jedrzejewska, Sylwia; Talarowska, Monika

    2012-08-01

    In contrast to the male orgasm, female orgasm is characterized by high variability and diversity, not only in the general population, but also during the life. Women experience sexual pleasure on many levels: physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectual. Sexual functioning of women and men is determined by many factors. A strong correlation between the state of subjective arousal and genital response (erection) is typical for men. In the case of women important role played: emotions, cognitive interpretation of the situation, age, self-esteem and previous sexual experiences. Among women experience orgasm during intercourse or masturbation is not a goal in itself. Modern approach to the phenomenon of orgasm and sexual education of women, make absence of orgasm as a failure. It becomes a source of low self-esteem, less self-confidence or sense of lack of attractiveness. PMID:23009012

  18. Sexuality Education: A Curriculum for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Pamela; Kirby, Douglas

    This document is the third volume of a six-volume report on sexuality education. This volume contains 132 teaching activities selected from programs evaluated as among the most effective being taught in the United States. The curriculum consists of 11 units: (1) Introduction to Sexuality; (2) Communication Skills; (3) Anatomy and Physiology; (4)…

  19. Biobehavioral profiles of arousal and social motivation in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Swain, Deanna M.; Newsom, Cassandra; Wang, Lily; Song, Yanna; Edgerton, Dale

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are impaired in social communication and interaction with peers, which may reflect diminished social motivation. Many children with ASD show enhanced stress when playing with other children. This study investigated social and stress profiles of children with ASD during play. Methods We utilized a peer interaction paradigm in a natural playground setting with 66 un-medicated, pre-pubertal, children 8 to 12 years (38 with ASD, 28 with typical development (TD)). Salivary cortisol was collected before and after a 20-minute playground interaction that was divided into periods of free and solicited play facilitated by a confederate child. Statistical analyses included Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, mixed effects models and Spearman correlations to assess the between-group differences in social and stress functioning, identify stress responders, and explore associations between variables, respectively. Results There were no differences between the groups during unsolicited free play; however, during solicited play by the confederate, significant differences emerged such that children with ASD engaged in fewer verbal interactions and more self-play than the TD group. Regarding physiological arousal, children with ASD as a group showed relatively higher cortisol in response to social play; however, there was a broad range of responses. Moreover, those with the highest cortisol levels engaged in less social communication. Conclusions The social interaction of children with ASD can be facilitated by peer solicitation; however, it may be accompanied by increased stress. The children with ASD that have the highest level of cortisol show less social motivation; yet, it is unclear if it reflects an underlying state of heightened arousal or enhanced reactivity to social engagement, or both. PMID:24329926

  20. Women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder compared to normal females: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Arnow, B A; Millheiser, L; Garrett, A; Lake Polan, M; Glover, G H; Hill, K R; Lightbody, A; Watson, C; Banner, L; Smart, T; Buchanan, T; Desmond, J E

    2009-01-23

    Lack of sexual interest is the most common sexual complaint among women. However, factors affecting sexual desire in women have rarely been studied. While the role of the brain in integrating the sensory, attentional, motivational, and motor aspects of sexual response is commonly acknowledged as important, little is known about specific patterns of brain activation and sexual interest or response, particularly among women. We compared 20 females with no history of sexual dysfunction (NHSD) to 16 women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study that included assessment of subjective sexual arousal, peripheral sexual response using a vaginal photoplethysmograph (VPP), as well as brain activation across three time points. Video stimuli included erotic, sports, and relaxing segments. Subjective arousal to erotic stimuli was significantly greater in NHSD participants compared with HSDD. In the erotic-sports contrast, NHSD women showed significantly greater activation in the bilateral entorhinal cortex than HSDD women. In the same contrast, HSDD females demonstrated higher activation than NHSD females in the medial frontal gyrus (Brodmann area (BA) 10), right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) and bilateral putamen. There were no between group differences in VPP-correlated brain activation and peripheral sexual response was not significantly associated with either subjective sexual response or brain activation patterns. Findings were consistent across the three experimental sessions. The results suggest differences between women with NHSD and HSDD in encoding arousing stimuli, retrieval of past erotic experiences, or both. The findings of greater activation in BA 10 and BA 47 among women with HSDD suggest that this group allocated significantly more attention to monitoring and/or evaluating their responses than NHSD participants, which may interfere with normal sexual response. PMID:18976696