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1

Ephedrine-Activated Physiological Sexual Arousal in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The present investigation was designed to provide the first empirical examination of the effects of ephedrine sulfate, an a- and b-adrenergic agonist, on subjective and physiological sexual arousal in women. The purpose was to help elucidate the effects of increased peripheral adrenergic activity on sexual response in women. Methods: Twenty sexually functional women partici- pated in 2 experimental conditions

Cindy M. Meston; Julia R. Heiman

1998-01-01

2

ORIGINAL RESEARCH--ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL RESEARCH--ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim. In the present study, we explored individual differences in women's cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol

Meston, Cindy

3

Physiological and subjective sexual arousal in self-identified asexual women.  

PubMed

Asexuality can be defined as a lifelong lack of sexual attraction. Empirical research on asexuality reveals significantly lower self-reported sexual desire and arousal and lower rates of sexual activity; however, the speculation that there may also be an impaired psychophysiological sexual arousal response has never been tested. The aim of this study was to compare genital (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) and subjective sexual arousal in asexual and non-asexual women. Thirty-eight women between the ages of 19 and 55 years (10 heterosexual, 10 bisexual, 11 homosexual, and 7 asexual) viewed neutral and erotic audiovisual stimuli while VPA and self-reported sexual arousal and affect were measured. There were no significant group differences in the increased VPA and self-reported sexual arousal response to the erotic film between the groups. Asexuals showed significantly less positive affect, sensuality-sexual attraction, and self-reported autonomic arousal to the erotic film compared to the other groups; however, there were no group differences in negative affect or anxiety. Genital-subjective sexual arousal concordance was significantly positive for the asexual women and non-significant for the other three groups, suggesting higher levels of interoceptive awareness among asexuals. Taken together, the findings suggest normal subjective and physiological sexual arousal capacity in asexual women and challenge the view that asexuality should be characterized as a sexual dysfunction. PMID:20857185

Brotto, Lori A; Yule, Morag A

2011-08-01

4

Differential patterns of arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women: Physiological and subjective components of sexual response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and subjective patterns of sexual arousal were compared for sexually functional and dysfunctional women. Previous studies revealed seemingly contradictory findings: Some found significant group differences on physiological but not on subjective responses to erotic stimuli, whereas others found the opposite. To reconcile this discrepancy, subjects were presented with edited versions of the three erotic videotapes used in previous studies.

Eileen M. Palace; Boris B. Gorzalka

1992-01-01

5

Sexual arousal: similarities and differences between men and women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual arousal encompasses activation of physiological systems that coordinate sexual function in both sexes and can be divided into central arousal, peripheral non-genital arousal, and genital arousal. Genital arousal leads to erection in men and to vaginal lubrication and clitoral\\/vulvar (vestibular bulb) congestion in women. Persisting biases in the understanding of the pathophysiology of sexual arousal are exemplified by the

Alessandra Graziottin

2004-01-01

6

Indirect Effects of Acute Alcohol Intoxication on Sexual Risk-taking: The Roles of Subjective and Physiological Sexual Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments supported the idea that alcohol fosters sexual risk-taking in men and women, in part, through its effects\\u000a on sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, increasing alcohol dosage (target blood alcohol levels of .00, .04, .08%) heightened men’s\\u000a and women’s risk-taking intentions. Alcohol’s effect was indirect via increased subjective sexual arousal; also, men exhibited\\u000a greater risk-taking than women. In Experiment

William H. George; Kelly Cue Davis; Jeanette Norris; Julia R. Heiman; Susan A. Stoner; Rebecca L. Schacht; Christian S. Hendershot; Kelly F. Kajumulo

2009-01-01

7

The habituation of sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of two levels of stimulus intensity (medium and high) and two levels of stimulus variability (varied stimuli and constant stimuli) on the habituation of subjective and physiological sexual arousal were investigated in a 2 × 2 factorial design. Forty male volunteers served as subjects. It was hypothesized that, as compared to constant stimuli, varied stimuli would produce higher

William T. O'Donohue; James H. Geer

1985-01-01

8

Female Sexual Arousal in Amphibians  

PubMed Central

Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S.

2010-01-01

9

Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?  

PubMed Central

Sexual arousal has many dimensions and has consequently been defined in various ways. In humans sexual arousal can be assessed based in part on verbal communication. In male non-human mammalian species it has been argued that arousal can only be definitively inferred if the subject exhibits a penile erection in a sexual context. In non-mammalian species that lack an intromittent organ, as is the case for most avian species, the question of how to assess sexual arousal has not been thoroughly addressed. Based on studies performed in male Japanese quail, we argue that several behavioral or physiological characteristics provide suitable measures of sexual arousal in birds and probably also in other tetrapods. These indices include the performance of appetitive sexual behavior in anticipation of copulation (although anticipation and arousal are not the synonyms), the activation of specific brain areas as identified by the detection of the expression of immediate early genes (fos, egr-1) or by 2-deoxygucose quantitative autoradiography, and above all the release of dopamine in the medial preoptic areas as measured by in vivo dialysis. Based on these criteria, it is possible to assess in birds sexual arousal in its broadest sense but meeting the more restrictive definition of arousal proposed for mammals (erection in an explicit sexual context) is and will probably remain impossible in birds until refinement of in vivo imaging techniques such fMRI allow us to match in different species, with and without an intromittent organ, the brain areas that are activated in the presence of specific stimuli. PMID:21073874

Ball, Gregory F.; Balthazart, Jacques

2012-01-01

10

Cortisol, Sexual Arousal, and Affect in Response to Sexual Stimuli  

PubMed Central

Introduction Theoretically, the physiological response to stress should inhibit the sexual response. This has been demonstrated experimentally in animal models, and correlationally in studies of human reproduction. It is reasonable to expect, then, that the stress response would be blunted during sexual arousal, and several researchers have found a pattern of decreasing cortisol during sexual arousal. Aim In the present study, we explored individual differences in women’s cortisol response to sexual arousal in a laboratory setting. We also examined how cortisol response in the laboratory related to a validated measure of sexual arousal functioning in real life. Main Outcome Measures Cortisol levels were measured in saliva via enzyme immunoassay. Subjective arousal was measured by a self-report questionnaire, and genital arousal was measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Methods Subjective and physiological responses to an erotic film were assessed in 30 women. Saliva samples were taken at baseline and following the film. Results The majority of women (N = 20) showed a decrease in cortisol; nine women showed an increase in response to an erotic film. The women who showed an increase in cortisol had lower scores on the Arousal, Desire, and Satisfaction domains of the Female Sexual Function Index. Genital arousal in the laboratory was not related to cortisol change. Conclusions Women who show an increase in cortisol in response to sexual stimuli in the laboratory have lower levels of functioning in certain areas of their sexual life compared with women who show a decrease in cortisol. Stress related to sexual performance may interfere with sexual arousal. PMID:18624961

Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Meston, Cindy M.

2008-01-01

11

A comparison of male and female patterns of sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structural patterns of sexual arousal are examined for eight male and eight female heterosexuals. Comparisons are made in terms of physiological and subjective arousal. The results indicate (1) that males and females differ in both the direction and magnitude of their arousal response to a variety of erotic stimuli and (2) that there is a stronger correspondence between subjective

Debra L. Steinman; John P. Wincze; Sakheim; David H. Barlow; Matig Mavissakalian

1981-01-01

12

The Effects of Yohimbine Plus L-arginine Glutamate on Sexual Arousal in Postmenopausal Women with Sexual Arousal Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of the nitric oxide-precursor L-arginine combined with the a2-blocker yohimbine on subjective and physiological sexual arousal in postmenopausal women with Female Sexual Arousal Disorder. Twenty-four women participated in three treatment sessions in which self-report and physiological (vaginal photoplethysmograph) sexual responses to erotic stimuli were measured following treatment with either L-arginine glutamate (6 g) plus yohimbine

Cindy M. Meston; Manuel Worcel

2002-01-01

13

Laboratory-Induced Hyperventilation Differentiates Female Sexual Arousal Disorder Subtypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective\\u000a and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing,

Lori A. Brotto; Carolin Klein; Boris B. Gorzalka

2009-01-01

14

Subjective sexual arousal to films of masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 male and 102 female undergraduate volunteers. Following the film, Ss responded to 3 measures of subjective sexual arousal and to 7 measures of affective responses. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Males

Donald L. Mosher; Paul R. Abramson

1977-01-01

15

Subjective Sexual Arousal to Films of Masturbation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A film of a male or female masturbating was viewed by 96 males and 102 females. Males reported the highest level of sexual arousal to the female film and the lowest level of arousal to the male film. Females were sexually aroused by both films. (Author)

Mosher, Donald L.; Abramson, Paul R.

1977-01-01

16

Depressed affect and male sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of elated and depressed affect on sexual arousal in 15 sexually functional males. Subjects received elation and depression mood inductions in a repeated-measures design. Immediately following each induction, subjects viewed a brief erotic film during which penile tumescence and subjective sexual arousal were recorded continuously. Following depression induction there was a trend toward diminished subjective sexual

Andrew W. Meisler; Michael P. Carey

1991-01-01

17

Smoking, physiological arousal, and emotional response  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological and psychological effects of smoking a cigarette are seemingly in contradiction to each other. When smokers smoke, their level of physiological arousal goes up, while they report themselves calmer and more relaxed. In contrast, when a heightened physiological arousal level is induced in naive Ss, they behave and report themselves as more emotional. To explore this situation, a

Paul D. Nesbitt

1973-01-01

18

Sexual arousal patterns of bisexual men revisited.  

PubMed

Men who identify themselves as bisexual report feeling sexually aroused by both men and women. However, past research has not demonstrated that such men exhibit substantial genital arousal to both male and female erotic stimuli, suggesting that they identify as bisexual for reasons other than their genital arousal pattern. The purpose of the present study was to examine arousal patterns among bisexual men who were recruited using stringent criteria involving sexual and romantic experience with both men and women in order to increase the likelihood of finding a bisexual arousal pattern. Bisexual men in the present study demonstrated bisexual patterns of both subjective and genital arousal. It remains unclear which pattern is most typical of contemporary bisexual men: the present results supporting a bisexual arousal pattern, or previous results not finding one. In either case, understanding men with bisexual arousal patterns could help illuminate the etiology and development of male sexual orientation. PMID:21763395

Rosenthal, A M; Sylva, D; Safron, A; Bailey, J M

2011-09-01

19

Decision making, conflict, and physiological arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the effects of difficult discrimination upon the physiological arousal of the organism, 4 groups of 15 female Ss were subjected to different degrees of discrimination difficulty in an avoidance learning situation. Those Ss who were subjected to relatively high degrees of difficult discrimination manifested higher levels of physiological arousal than did Ss who were not confronted

Harold J. Johnson

1963-01-01

20

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Acute Exercise Improves Physical Sexual Arousal in Women Taking Antidepressants of Behavioral Medicine 2012 Abstract Background Antidepressants can impair sexual arousal. Exercise increases. Purpose Test if exercise increases genital arousal in women taking antidepressants, including selective

Meston, Cindy

21

Measurement of Sexual Arousal in Postoperative Male-to-Female Transsexuals Using Vaginal Photoplethysmography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mens sexual arousal patterns are category-specific: Men typically display significantly greater physiological responses to sexual stimuli depicting members of their preferred gender category. Category-specific patterns of sexual arousal have not been consistently reported in natal women. We used vaginal photoplethysmography to examine patterns of sexual arousal in 11 male-to-female (MtF) transsexuals following sex reassignment surgery (SRS) and in 72 natal

Anne A. Lawrence; Elizabeth M. Latty; Meredith L. Chivers; J. Michael Bailey

2005-01-01

22

Laboratory-induced hyperventilation differentiates female sexual arousal disorder subtypes.  

PubMed

The effects of heightened sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity via laboratory-induced hyperventilation (LIH) on subjective and physiological sexual arousal were examined in a heterogeneous group of women with Sexual Arousal Disorder (SAD; n = 60), as well as across subtypes of SAD, in comparison to a control group of women without sexual difficulties (n = 42). Participants took part in 2 min of rapid breathing, a technique previously found to increase SNS activity, immediately prior to viewing erotic stimuli. Physiological arousal (i.e., vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured via the vaginal photoplethysmograph and subjective arousal was measured via self-report questionnaires. LIH differentiated women with SAD from those in the control group, with LIH increasing VPA in the latter, but having no significant effect in the heterogeneous SAD group. However, among subtypes of SAD, LIH differentiated women with genital (n = 16) and subjective (n = 16) subtypes of SAD from women with combined SAD (n = 28) and women without sexual difficulties. Specifically, women in the control group and those with combined SAD had a significant increase in VPA whereas women with genital or subjective SAD had a significant decrease in VPA following LIH. There was no significant effect of LIH on any self-report measure of sexual arousal following erotic stimuli. Implications of the results for the conceptualization, diagnosis, and treatment of SAD are discussed. PMID:18343989

Brotto, Lori A; Klein, Carolin; Gorzalka, Boris B

2009-08-01

23

Subjective Versus Objective Measurements of Deviant Sexual Arousal in Clinical Evaluations of Alleged Child Molesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychological assessments of sex offenders involve evaluating deviant sexual arousal. We evaluated 24 male alleged child molesters and 23 normal control subjects, comparing their self-report of sexual interest with their physiological responses during penile plethysmography. Results indicated that alleged child molesters reported more subjective arousal to children than did normals; subjective and objective measurements were significantly correlated for alleged child

Thomas W. Haywood; Linda S. Grossman; James L. Cavanaugh

1990-01-01

24

The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n=16) and dysfunctional (n=16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased

Cindy M. Meston

2006-01-01

25

Effects of Sexual Arousal on Commitment: The Moderating Role of the Arousing Source  

E-print Network

Being sexually aroused by one's partner is likely to increase one's commitment to the partner; whereas being aroused by an alternative mate might decrease it. These patterns are conceivably moderated by satisfaction from ...

Lee, Juwon

2013-05-31

26

Physiological arousal in females with fragile X or Turner syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Physiological arousal was,measured,in 12- to 22-year-old females,with either fragile X, Turner syndrome, or neither disorder to explore potential differences in the manifestation of arousal and anxiety in adolescents and young women. Physiological arousal was,measured,at

Cynthia S. Keysor; Daniel R. McLeod; Rudolf Hoehn-Saric

2002-01-01

27

The Inhibitory Effects of Nicotine on Physiological Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Women: Results from a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Extensive research suggests that long-term cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for the introduction of sexual dysfunction in men. However, results of limited data investigating this relationship in women are mixed. No studies have examined the acute effects of tobacco or nicotine on physiological sexual response in women. Controlled experimental studies examining acute effects of isolated nicotine intake

Christopher B. Harte; Cindy M. Meston

2008-01-01

28

The role of male sexual arousal in rape: Six models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines men's sexual arousal to rape cues and its possible role in sexual assault. The article presents six different models that have been described in the literature to account for men's sexual arousal to descriptions of rape. The models are divided into two broad categories, response control models and stimulus control models, and are further divided into models

Howard E. Barbaree; William L. Marshall

1991-01-01

29

Sexual Risk-Taking in Gay Men: The Relevance of Sexual Arousability, Mood, and Sensation Seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examined the relationship of three aspects of personality to sexual risk-taking in gay men: (1) sexual arousability, as propensity for sexual excitation, and propensity for inhibition of sexual arousal in the face of threat (measured by the Sexual Excitation, SES, and Sexual Inhibition, SIS1, SIS2, scales); (2) the relation between negative mood and sexuality; and (3) sensation seeking.

John Bancroft; Erick Janssen; David Strong; Lori Carnes; Zoran Vukadinovic; J. Scott Long

2003-01-01

30

Acute Effects of Nicotine on Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Chronic nicotine treatment has deleterious effects on vascular functioning and catecholamine modu- lation, which may compromise erectile functioning. Evidence that long-term cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for introducing impotence is robust. However, limited studies have focused on the acute effects of smoking on physiological sexual response, and none have investigated the deleterious effects of isolated nicotine on

Christopher B. Harte; Cindy M. Meston

2008-01-01

31

ORIGINAL PAPER Patterns of Sexual Arousal in Homosexual, Bisexual, and  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Patterns of Sexual Arousal in Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Men Jerome A videopresen- tationsof bisexual, heterosexual,male homosexual,andlesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosex- ual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show

32

Associations Among Physiological and Subjective Sexual Response, Sexual Desire, and Salivary Steroid Hormones in Healthy Premenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Few studies have examined how sexual arousal influences healthy premenopausal women's hormones, limiting our understanding of basic physiology and our ability to transfer knowledge from clinical and nonhuman populations. Aim. To examine how sexual arousal and steroid hormones (testosterone (T), cortisol (C), estradiol (E)) were linked, to see whether hormone levels influenced and\\/or changed in response to sexual arousal

Sari M. van Anders; Lori Brotto; Janine Farrell; Morag Yule

2009-01-01

33

Gender similarities and differences in sexual arousal, desire, and orgasmic pleasure in the laboratory.  

PubMed

Relatively little is known about gender differences in the orgasm experience. The objectives of this study were to compare men's and women's patterns of sexual arousal and desire before and after orgasm, and the predictors of their orgasmic pleasure. Using their typical technique, where masturbation enjoyment was similar to that experienced at home, 38 men and 38 women masturbated to orgasm in the laboratory. Physiological sexual arousal (genital temperature) and subjective sexual arousal and desire measurements were taken at baseline, after masturbation almost to orgasm, and immediately and 15 minutes after orgasm. In both genders, all measures increased significantly during masturbation, with a greater buildup leading to a more pleasurable orgasm. After orgasm, however, sexual arousal and desire decreased more quickly and consistently in men than in women, thereby replicating Masters and Johnson's (1966) observations. More men than women exhibited resolution of subjective sexual arousal and sexual satiation; their genital temperature also decreased more than women's but did not return to baseline. Women's orgasmic pleasure was related to a postorgasmic decrease in genital temperature but, unexpectedly, the maintenance of subjective sexual arousal and desire. Future studies should explore whether this pattern explains gender differences in the pursuit of additional orgasms. PMID:24588445

Paterson, Laurel Q P; Jin, Ellie Shuo; Amsel, Rhonda; Binik, Yitzchak M

2014-01-01

34

Sexy thoughts: effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women.  

PubMed

Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of HC use confounding hormone responses. Participants (79 women) provided a baseline saliva sample for radioimmunoassay. We created the Imagined Social Situation Exercise (ISSE) to test effects of imagining social interactions on hormones, and participants were assigned to the experimental (sexual) or one of three control (positive, neutral, stressful) conditions. Participants provided a second saliva sample 15 min post-activity. Results indicated that for women not using HCs, the sexual condition increased T compared to the stressful or positive conditions. In contrast, HC using women in the sexual condition had decreased T relative to the stressful condition and similar T to the positive condition. The effect was specific to T, as sexual thoughts did not change C. For participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline T predicted larger increases in sexual arousal but smaller increases in T, likely due to ceiling effects on T. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts change T but not C, baseline T levels and HC use may contribute to variation in the T response to sexual thoughts, and cognitive aspects of sexual arousal affect physiology. PMID:21185838

Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

2011-05-01

35

The assessment and treatment of deviant sexual arousal with adolescents who have offended sexually  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available data suggest that only a minority of adolescents who commit sexual crimes demonstrate deviant sexual arousal to younger children and\\/or sexual violence. However, deviant sexual arousal is a risk factor for repeated sexual offending, and it is frequently an important target in specialised treatment programmes. This paper provides a review of the various techniques that have been used

James Worling

2011-01-01

36

The assessment and treatment of deviant sexual arousal with adolescents who have offended sexually  

Microsoft Academic Search

The available data suggest that only a minority of adolescents who commit sexual crimes demonstrate deviant sexual arousal to younger children and\\/or sexual violence. However, deviant sexual arousal is a risk factor for repeated sexual offending, and it is frequently an important target in specialised treatment programmes. This paper provides a review of the various techniques that have been used

James Worling

2012-01-01

37

Volunteer bias in research employing vaginal measures of sexual arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Demographic, sexual, and personality characteristics of volunteers and nonvolunteers for a laboratory study of sexual arousal were compared. Subjects were 296 female students from an introductory psychology course who had volunteered for a study on sexuality and personality. After completing several questionnaires, subjects were presented with a written description of an experiment that involved viewing sexually explicit videotapes and measurement

Sharlene A. Wolchik; S. Lee Spencer; Iris S. Lisi

1983-01-01

38

ORIGINAL PAPER The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER The Effects of Impulsivity, Sexual Arousability, and Abstract Intellectual Ability personality traits, situational variables, and drug use on sexual risk behaviors, fewer studies have employed``heatofthemoment''canhavedire consequences. Risky sexual behaviors can result in unplanned pregnancies and lead to sexually transmitted

39

Arousal, working memory capacity, and sexual decision-making in men.  

PubMed

This study investigated whether working memory capacity (WMC) moderated the relationship between physiological arousal and sexual decision making. A total of 59 men viewed 20 consensual and 20 non-consensual images of heterosexual interaction while their physiological arousal levels were recorded using skin conductance response. Participants also completed an assessment of WMC and a date-rape analogue task for which they had to identify the point at which an average Australian male would cease all sexual advances in response to verbal and/or physical resistance from a female partner. Participants who were more physiologically aroused by and spent more time viewing the non-consensual sexual imagery nominated significantly later stopping points on the date-rape analogue task. Consistent with our predictions, the relationship between physiological arousal and nominated stopping point was strongest for participants with lower levels of WMC. For participants with high WMC, physiological arousal was unrelated to nominated stopping point. Thus, executive functioning ability (and WMC in particular) appears to play an important role in moderating men's decision making with regard to sexually aggressive behavior. PMID:24696385

Spokes, Tara; Hine, Donald W; Marks, Anthony D G; Quain, Peter; Lykins, Amy D

2014-08-01

40

The effects of state and trait self-focused attention on sexual arousal in sexually functional and dysfunctional women.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of state self-focused attention on sexual arousal and trait self-consciousness on sexual arousal and function in sexually functional (n=16) and dysfunctional (n=16) women. Self-focused attention was induced using a 50% reflectant television screen in one of two counterbalanced sessions during which self-report and physiological sexual responses to erotic films were measured. Self-focused attention significantly decreased vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) responses among sexually functional but not dysfunctional women, and substantially decreased correlations between self-report and VPA measures of sexual arousal. Self-focused attention did not significantly impact subjective sexual arousal in sexually functional or dysfunctional women. Trait private self-consciousness was positively related to sexual desire, orgasm, compatibility, contentment and sexual satisfaction. Public self-consciousness was correlated with sexual pain. The findings are discussed in terms of Masters and Johnson's [Masters, W. H. & Johnson, V. E. (1970). Human sexual inadequacy. Boston: Little, Brown) concepts of "spectatoring" and "sensate focus." PMID:15927143

Meston, Cindy M

2006-04-01

41

Physiological Arousal and Performance in Elite Archers: A Field Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance and heart rate of ten top-level female archers were assessed in a field study. The study was designed (a) to analyze the impact of physiological arousal on performance, (b) to investigate whether heart-rate deceleration during shooting, a marker of optimal functioning of attentional processes, is affected by arousal modification, and (c) to verify whether heart-rate deceleration appears under

Claudio Robazza; Laura Bortoli; Vincent Nougier

1998-01-01

42

Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: the effects of type of film and fantasy instructions.  

PubMed

The present study examined men and women's sexual and affective responses to erotic film clips that were combined with different fantasy instructions. Men (n = 29) and women (n = 28) were presented with two types of erotic films (explicit vs. romantic) and two fantasy instructions (fantasizing about one's real-life partner vs. fantasizing about someone else). Genital response, subjective sexual arousal, and affective responses were assessed. Sexually explicit stimuli resulted in larger genital responses; women reported higher subjective sexual arousal than men; and fantasizing about one's partner resulted, overall, in higher subjective sexual arousal and higher levels of positive affect. Moreover, in women, the instruction to fantasize about one's partner resulted in stronger subjective sexual arousal to the explicit film than the instruction to fantasize about someone else. Results suggested that physiological, subjective, and affective responses to erotic film stimuli are impacted not only by stimulus characteristics but also by the viewer's interpretation of the depicted relationship. PMID:23519591

Carvalho, Joana; Gomes, Ana Quinta; Laja, Pedro; Oliveira, Cátia; Vilarinho, Sandra; Janssen, Erick; Nobre, Pedro

2013-08-01

43

Assessing Women's Sexual Arousal in the Context of Sexual Assault History and Acute Alcohol Intoxication  

PubMed Central

Introduction Few studies have examined differences in women’s sexual arousal based on sexual assault history (SAH) or in-the-moment alcohol intoxication. Only one has examined combined effects. Findings regarding the relationship between SAH and arousal are contradictory. Aim We aimed to determine the relationship between SAH, alcohol intoxication, and sexual arousal. Main Outcome Measures Genital response was measured by vaginal pulse amplitude (VPA) using vaginal photoplethysmography while watching erotic films. Self-reported sexual arousal was assessed after watching erotic films. Methods Women were randomly assigned to an alcohol (target blood alcohol level = .10%) or control condition and categorized as having a SAH or not. After beverage administration, all women watched erotic films while genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude; VPA) was measured. Afterwards self-reported sexual arousal was measured. Results Women with a SAH had smaller increases in genital arousal in response to the films than women without a SAH. Intoxicated women had smaller increases in genital arousal than sober women. However, no differences for SAH or intoxication were found in self-reported arousal. Conclusion SAH and alcohol intoxication are associated with smaller increases in genital arousal compared to women without a SAH and sober women, suggesting that these co-occurring factors impact sexual arousal. PMID:20367775

Gilmore, Amanda K.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; George, William H.; Otto, Jacqueline M.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R.; Norris, Jeanette; Kajumulo, Kelly F.

2011-01-01

44

Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia: the application of laser Doppler imaging to sexual pain.  

PubMed

Introduction.? Women with provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) report lower sexual arousal than nonaffected women, however, laboratory studies of arousal have reported contradictory results about whether group differences exist in genital and subjective arousal. Aim.? To examine genital and subjective sexual arousal in women with and without PVD. Methods.? Eligible women with and without PVD (N?=?42) attended a laboratory session that included an interview, questionnaire completion, and genital imaging. A direct measure of superficial blood flow-laser Doppler imaging-was used to assess vulvar blood flow levels while participants watched three films, including an erotic film. Participants answered questions about their level of sexual arousal before, during, and after the erotic film. Main Outcome Measures.? Average vulvar blood flow levels during the baseline and erotic films, numerical ratings of subjective sexual arousal and anxiety, as well as questionnaire measures of arousal. Results.? There was a significant group difference in genital arousal, whereby the PVD group showed a lower genital response to the erotic film, as well as a significant interaction between baseline blood flow and group membership. Separate group regression analyses demonstrated that baseline blood flow explained a substantial amount of the variance in erotic film blood flow in the control group (70%), while only 27% was explained by this variable in the PVD group. There were no differences in subjective sexual arousal or anxiety between the groups. Across questionnaire measures, women with PVD reported lower sexual arousal than the control group. Conclusions.? The results suggest that women with PVD show lower genital responsiveness than nonaffected women to sexual stimuli in a laboratory setting and that their genital arousal is likely impacted by a number of biopsychosocial factors. Boyer SC, Pukall CF, and Chamberlain SM. Sexual arousal in women with provoked vestibulodynia: The application of laser Doppler imaging to sexual pain. J Sex Med **;**:**-**. PMID:22846436

Boyer, Stéphanie C; Pukall, Caroline F; Chamberlain, Susan M

2013-04-01

45

Sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal: evidence for domain specificity in men and women.  

PubMed

Men have been shown to estimate their likelihood of engaging in sexually coercive behaviors and also uncommon and unprotected sexual behaviors as higher when they are in an acute state of sexual arousal. The present research sought to test (1) whether sexual arousal effects could be replicated under more controlled laboratory settings, (2) whether women showed the same pattern of results, and (3) whether this effect was specific to sexual disinhibition or would generalize to non-sexual disinhibited behavior. In two experimental studies, male and female participants (Study 1: N = 84; Study 2: N = 86) were either sexually aroused by acoustically presented erotic narratives or listened to sexually non-arousing neutral narratives. Afterwards, they self-estimated their likelihood of engaging in a variety of behaviors that could be characterized as sexual or non-sexual disinhibited behavior. Results replicated the previously established effect of sexual disinhibition under sexual arousal for men and provided the first evidence for a similar effect in women. No arousal effects were observed for non-sexual behavior, rendering alternative explanations based on mere indifferent responding unlikely. The discussion focused on a plausible explanation for this effect. PMID:25091213

Imhoff, Roland; Schmidt, Alexander F

2014-08-01

46

Patterns of sexual arousal in homosexual, bisexual, and heterosexual men.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if self-identified bisexual, heterosexual, and homosexual men show differential genital and subjective arousal patterns to video presentations of bisexual, heterosexual, male homosexual, and lesbian sexual interactions. It was predicted that, relative to heterosexual and homosexual stimuli, bisexual men would show the highest levels of sexual arousal to bisexual erotic material, while this stimulus would induce relatively low levels of response in heterosexual and homosexual men. A sample of 59 men (19 homosexual, 13 bisexual, and 27 heterosexual) were presented with a series of 4-min sexual videos while their genital and subjective sexual responses were measured continuously. Bisexual men did not differ significantly in their responses to male homosexual stimuli (depicting men engaging in sex) from homosexual men, and they did not differ significantly in their responses to heterosexual (depicting two women, without same-sex contact, engaged in sex with a man) and lesbian (depicting women engaging in sex) stimuli from heterosexual men. However, bisexual men displayed significantly higher levels of both genital and subjective sexual arousal to a bisexual stimulus (depicting a man engaged in sex with both a man and a woman) than either homosexual or heterosexual men. The findings of this study indicate that bisexuality in men is associated with a unique and specific pattern of sexual arousal. PMID:21387117

Cerny, Jerome A; Janssen, Erick

2011-08-01

47

Physiological arousal and attention in veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychophysiological reactivity has been well documented in WWII, Korean Conflict, and Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, these individuals have demonstrated cognitive impairments within the domains of attention, concentration, new learning, and memory. However, there has been no research examining the impact of physiological arousal on attention in individuals with PTSD. This study documents the level of

J. Mark Davis; Henry E. Adams; Madeline Uddo; Jennifer J. Vasterling; Patricia B. Sutker

1996-01-01

48

Affective consequences of inadequately explained physiological arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reexamined S. Schachter and J. E. Singer's reported demonstration of cognitively influenced physiological determinants in the experience of emotion. In the present study with 85 male undergraduates, reports of affective state by placebo-injected and epinephrine-injected Ss, who were misinformed about possible somatic effects and exposed to a euphoric confederate, did not differ. (34 ref)

Gary D. Marshall; Philip G. Zimbardo

1979-01-01

49

Physiologic Measures of Sexual Function in Women: A Review  

PubMed Central

Objective To review and describe physiologic measures of assessing sexual function in women Design Literature review Setting Studies that utilize instruments designed to measure female sexual function Patients Women participating in studies of female sexual function Interventions Various instruments that measure physiologic features of female sexual function Main Outcome Measures Appraisal of the various instruments, including their advantages and disadvantages. Results Many unique physiologic methods of evaluating female sexual function have been developed over the last four decades. Each method has its benefits and limitations. Conclusions Many physiologic methods exist, but most are not well-validated. Additionally, there has been an inability to correlate most physiologic measures with subjective measures of sexual arousal. Furthermore, given the complex nature of the sexual response in women, physiologic measures should be considered in context of other data, including the history, physical exam, and validated questionnaires. Nonetheless, the existence of appropriate physiologic measures is vital to our understanding of female sexual function and dysfunction. PMID:19046582

Woodard, Terri L.; Diamond, Michael P.

2009-01-01

50

Resting physiological arousal is associated with the experience of music-induced chills.  

PubMed

In the study of emotion and autonomic nervous system functioning, resting physiological arousal is usually considered a negative characteristic. The present study examined the relationship between resting physiological arousal and positive emotional experience linked to psychophysiological arousal. We assessed resting physiological arousal using markers as high skin conductance level and low respiratory sinus arrhythmia, measured just before participants listened to their favorite music. Participants reported the sensation of chills (goose bumps, shivers) by pressing a mouse button while listening. The results indicated that individuals with resting physiological arousal frequently experience music-induced chills, which evoked unambiguous pleasurable feelings and an increase in skin conductance response. The current results, and the previously demonstrated relationship between resting physiological arousal and negative emotionality linked to psychophysiological arousal (e.g., anxiety, panic), suggest that resting physiological arousal may reflect sensitivity to psychophysiological arousal with both intense positive and negative emotions. PMID:24814935

Mori, Kazuma; Iwanaga, Makoto

2014-08-01

51

Male sexual arousal with repeated exposure to erotic stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four men were exposed to erotic material of matched content across five sessions, each separated by 24 hours or more. The stimulation within a session consisted of eight 12-minute episodes depicting heterosexual activities. Both penile circumference and subjective sexual arousal varied significantly across the segments within a session. However, neither response measure showed habituation across sessions. Participation in the study

Elise Julien; Ray Over

1984-01-01

52

Sex Differences in Patterns of Genital Sexual Arousal: Measurement Artifacts or True Phenomena?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sex differences in patterns of sexual arousal have been reported recently. Men’s genital arousal is typically more category-specific\\u000a than women’s, such that men experience their greatest genital arousal to stimuli depicting their preferred sex partners whereas\\u000a women experience significant genital arousal to stimuli depicting both their preferred and non-preferred sex partners. In\\u000a addition, men’s genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns

Kelly D. Suschinsky; Martin L. Lalumière; Meredith L. Chivers

2009-01-01

53

Dissociation of sexual arousal and sexual proclivity in the garden snail, Helix aspersa.  

PubMed

Sexual arousal (intensity of courtship) and sexual proclivity (tendency to court) in Helix aspersa can be reliably measured using externally observable correlates. Snails with sexual proclivity are significantly more likely to turn toward an anesthetized conspecific after contacting it than are sexually unreceptive snails. Sexual arousal can be inferred from the stage of a snail's genital eversion, which appears only during courtship. The higher the stage of the eversion, the shorter the time required to complete introductory courtship behavior and the higher the rate of successful copulation, the fewer the number of breaks and pauses during courtship, and the longer the time a snail will spend in contact with an anesthetized conspecific. Sexual proclivity has no effect on feeding or locomotory behavior; however, sexual arousal inhibits feeding and increases locomotor activity. Snails that were allowed daily contact with conspecifics required less time to complete introductory courtship behavior relative to snails that were isolated from conspecifics for 1 week. This suggests that daily contact increases sexual arousal. A greater percentage of isolated snails exhibited courtship behavior than did snails which had experienced daily conspecific contact. This suggests that isolation increases sexual proclivity. These differences indicate that sexual arousal is not merely due to an increase in sexual proclivity. PMID:2241758

Adamo, S A; Chase, R

1990-09-01

54

Ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the regulation of physiological arousal.  

PubMed

Neuroimaging studies show a correlation between activity of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and skin conductance measurements. However, little is known whether this brain region plays a causal role in regulating physiological arousal. To address this question, we employed Granger causality analysis (GCA) to establish causality between cerebral blood oxygenation level-dependent and skin conductance signals in 24 healthy adults performing a cognitive task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. The results showed that activity of the vmPFC not only negatively correlated with skin conductance level (SCL) but also Granger caused SCL, thus establishing the direction of influence. Importantly, across participants, the strength of Granger causality was negatively correlated to phasic skin conductance responses elicited by external events during the behavioral task. In contrast, activity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex positively correlated with SCL but did not show a causal relationship in GCA. These new findings indicate that the vmPFC plays a causal role in regulating physiological arousal. Increased vmPFC activity leads to a decrease in skin conductance. The findings may also advance our understanding of dysfunctions of the vmPFC in mood and anxiety disorders that involve altered control of physiological arousal. PMID:23620600

Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H; Ide, Jaime S; Luo, Xi; Farr, Olivia M; Li, Chiang-shan R

2014-07-01

55

How do men and women define sexual desire and sexual arousal?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to understand how men and women define sexual desire and sexual arousal and how they distinguish between the two. The authors conducted 32 semi-structured interviews with individuals in South East England, using a purposive sampling strategy to maximize the variation in experience of sexual function across the group. The authors identified three criteria that participants used to define and distinguish between desire and arousal: the sequence in which they occurred; whether the mind or the body (or both) were engaged; and the extent to which feelings of desire or arousal were responsive (in response to person or stimulus) and motivational (oriented toward a goal). Most participants attempted to distinguish between desire and arousal when prompted, but often with difficulty. Participants commonly felt that desire preceded arousal; some felt that desire was "mind" and arousal "body"; and many felt that both desire and arousal were responsive and motivational. However, the authors identified numerous times when these distinctions were reversed or the differences between terms were blurred. The results support recent proposals to merge the two diagnostic categories of female sexual arousal disorder and hyposexual desire disorder into a single diagnostic category. PMID:23819590

Mitchell, Kirstin R; Wellings, Kaye A; Graham, Cynthia

2014-01-01

56

Gender-specific genital and subjective sexual arousal to prepotent sexual features in heterosexual women and men.  

PubMed

Heterosexual women respond genitally to stimuli featuring both their preferred and nonpreferred genders, whereas men's genital responses are gender-specific, suggesting that gender cues are less relevant to women's sexual response. Instead, prepotent sexual features (exposed and sexually aroused genitals), ubiquitous in audiovisual sexual stimuli, may elicit automatic genital responses, thereby leading to a nonspecific sexual arousal pattern in women. To examine the role of stimulus potency in women's sexual response, we assessed heterosexual women's and men's genital and subjective sexual arousal to slideshows of prepotent stimuli (erect penises and aroused vulvas), non-prepotent stimuli (flaccid penises and female pubic triangles), and sexually neutral stimuli. Contrary to our hypotheses, both women and men demonstrated gender-specific genital and subjective sexual arousal, such that sexual arousal was greatest to prepotent male and female stimuli, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate gender-specific genital responding in heterosexual women. PMID:25058196

Spape, Jessica; Timmers, Amanda D; Yoon, Samuel; Ponseti, Jorge; Chivers, Meredith L

2014-10-01

57

Caffeine-induced physiological arousal accentuates global processing biases.  

PubMed

The effects of caffeine-induced arousal on global versus local object focus were investigated in non-habitual consumers using a double-blind, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Following an overnight fast, low caffeine consumers (N=36; M=42.5mg/day caffeine) completed 5 counterbalanced test sessions (normal consumption, 0mg, 100mg, 200mg, and 400mg) separated by at least 3 days. During each session, volunteers either consumed their normal amount of caffeine or were administered 1 of 4 treatment pills. One hour later they completed two tasks assessing visual attention, in counterbalanced order. Measures of mood, salivary caffeine and cortisol were taken at multiple time points. Dose-dependent elevation of caffeine in the saliva demonstrated the experimental manipulation was effective. Furthermore, analyses of the mood and arousal measures detected consistent changes on arousal subscales and caffeine administration elevated saliva cortisol. Analyses of the visual attention tasks revealed that caffeine-induced physiological arousal produced global processing biases, after as little as 100mg caffeine. These data suggest caffeine consumption may influence how individuals attend to and process information in their environment and could influence daily tasks such as face recognition, learning new environments and navigation, especially for those who normally consume little caffeine. PMID:21463650

Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Giles, Grace; Lieberman, Harris R; Taylor, Holly A

2011-07-01

58

Does menstrual cycle phase influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal?  

PubMed

Unlike men, heterosexual women's genital arousal is gender nonspecific, such that heterosexual women show relatively similar genital arousal to sexual stimuli depicting men and women but typically report greater subjective arousal to male stimuli. Based on the ovulatory-shift hypothesis-that women show a mid-cycle shift in preferences towards more masculine features during peak fertility-we predicted that heterosexual women's genital and subjective arousal would be gender specific (more arousal towards male stimuli) during peak fertility. Twenty-two naturally-cycling heterosexual women were assessed during the follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle to examine the role of menstrual cycle phase in gender specificity of genital and subjective sexual arousal. Menstrual cycle phase was confirmed with salivary hormone assays; phase at the time of first testing was counterbalanced. Women's genital and subjective sexual arousal patterns were gender nonspecific, irrespective of cycle phase. Cycle phase at first testing session did not influence genital or subjective arousal in the second testing session. Similar to previous research, women's genital and subjective sexual arousal varied with cues of sexual activity, but neither genital nor subjective sexual arousal varied by gender cues, with the exception of masturbation stimuli, where women showed higher genital arousal to the stimuli depicting male compared to female actors. These data suggest that menstrual cycle phase does not influence the gender specificity of heterosexual women's genital and subjective sexual arousal. PMID:24379080

Bossio, Jennifer A; Suschinsky, Kelly D; Puts, David A; Chivers, Meredith L

2014-07-01

59

Sexual Arousal to Erotic and Aggressive Stimuli in Sexually Coercive and Noncoercive Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual arousal to erotic stimuli depicting various levels of force were examined among college men. Study 1 used phallometric indices to measure penile circumferential change during combined audiotape and slide presentations varying in degree of force. The results indicated that the sexually coercive group exhibited more penile tumescence than controls to scenes involving verbal pressure and verbal threats. Analyses across

Bethany A. Lohr; Henry E. Adams; J. Mark Davis

1997-01-01

60

An Analysis of Four Sexual Offenders' Arousal in the Natural Environment Through the Use of a Portable Penile Plethysmograph  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report the development of a technology for measuring sexual arousal in the natural environment. Experiment 1 demonstrated that levels of sexual arousal obtained in the laboratory when a participant was wearing underwear and trousers were similar to arousal levels obtained without underwear and trousers. In Experiment 2, four sexual offenders' arousal was measured in the natural environment using a

Jerry A. Rea; Terry DeBriere; Kasey Butler; Kathryn J. Saunders

1998-01-01

61

Sexy thoughts: Effects of sexual cognitions on testosterone, cortisol, and arousal in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research suggests that sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) in women and shows inconsistent effects of sexual arousal on cortisol (C), but effects of cognitive aspects of arousal, rather than behaviors or sensory stimuli, are unclear. The present study examined whether sexual thoughts affect T or C and whether hormonal contraceptive (HC) use moderated this effect, given mixed findings of

Katherine L. Goldey; Sari M. van Anders

2011-01-01

62

Self-appraisals of arousal-oriented online sexual activities in university and community samples.  

PubMed

Arousal-oriented online sexual activities (OSAs) are any activities on the Internet that involve sexually explicit and/or sexually arousing stimuli. These can be solitary-arousal activities, requiring only one person be involved. They can also be partnered-arousal activities that involve at least two people interacting (Shaughnessy, Byers, & Walsh, 2011). Most researchers have focused on the negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs on users' sexual life and life in general. Yet, these activities can also have positive outcomes. In two separate studies, we examined men's and women's perceptions of the positive and negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience. Study 1 included heterosexual university students (N = 191); Study 2 consisted of heterosexual and sexual minority individuals from the community (N = 316). Participants completed a background questionnaire and measures of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA experience and outcomes of these experiences. Overall, solitary- and partnered-arousal OSA was common among study participants. In both studies, participants reported significantly greater positive than negative outcomes of their solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs, albeit the overall impact was small. We did not find significant gender differences or differences by sexual orientation in positive or negative outcomes of arousal-oriented OSAs. Our results suggest that, for most people, participating in solitary- and partnered-arousal OSAs has little impact on them. PMID:23740466

Shaughnessy, Krystelle; Byers, E Sandra; Clowater, Sarah L; Kalinowski, Alana

2014-08-01

63

The effects of target attractiveness on men's sexual arousal in response to erotic auditory stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images, held within seman- tic memory and pattern matched

Skyler T. Hawk; Ryan Tolman; Charles W. Mueller

2007-01-01

64

The Effects of Target Attractiveness on Men's Sexual Arousal in Response to Erotic Auditory Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research on sexual arousal resulting from auditory stimuli indicates that visual imagery acts as a mediator between stimulus input and resulting arousal. This leads to the question of whether imagery, and subsequent arousal, can be manipulated by providing differing information to hold in semantic memory. This research hypothesizes that attractive images, held within semantic memory and pattern matched with

Skyler T. Hawk; Ryan Tolman; Charles W. Mueller

2007-01-01

65

Sexual Touching and Difficulties with Sexual Arousal and Orgasm Among U.S. Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the non-genitally-focused sexual behavior of those experiencing sexual difficulties. The objective of this study was to review the theory supporting a link between sexual touching and difficulties with sexual arousal and orgasm, and to examine associations between these constructs among older adults in the United States. The data were from the 2005–2006 National Social Life Health and Aging Project, which surveyed 3,005 community-dwelling men and women ages 57–85 years. The 1,352 participants who had had sex in the past year reported on their frequency of sexual touching and whether there had been a period of several months or more in the past year when they were unable to climax, had trouble getting or maintaining an erection (men) or had trouble lubricating (women). Women also reported how of ten they felt sexually aroused during partner sex in the last 12 months. The odds of being unable to climax were greater by 2.4 times (95% CI 1.2–4.8) among men and 2.8 times (95% CI 1.4–5.5) among women who sometimes, rarely or never engaged in sexual touching, compared to those who always engaged in sexual touching, controlling for demographic factors and physical health. These results were attenuated but persisted after controlling for emotional relationship satisfaction and psychological factors. Similar results were obtained for erectile difficulties among men and subjective arousal difficulties among women, but not lubrication difficulties among women. Infrequent sexual touching is associated with arousal and orgasm difficulties among older adults in the United States. PMID:22160881

2013-01-01

66

Involuntary Attention and Physiological Arousal Evoked by Structural Features and Emotional Content in TV Commercials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how emotional content in televised messages intensifies physiological attentional responses. Explains that heart rate data indicating both shorter-term responses and longer-term arousal were collected from 10 female and 4 male advertising students. Finds that emotional content increases physiological arousal in viewers and that heart…

Lang, Annie

1990-01-01

67

Sexual Arousal Decreases the Functional Synchronization Between Cortical Areas in Young Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prefrontal cortex and its connections with other cortical areas participate in processing erotic stimuli and, hence, sexual arousal. Visual erotic stimuli elicit sexual arousal that is associated with changes in electroencephalographic activity (EEG). The EEG correlation analysis provides information on the functional synchronization among areas. This study analyzed the functional interaction among the prefrontal, parietal and temporal cortices during

Marisela Hernández-González; Claudia Amezcua; Araceli Sanz Martin; Koral Rivera Sánchez; Angel Miguel Guevara

2012-01-01

68

Persistent Sexual Arousal Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a case of persistent sexual arousal syndrome (PSAS) seen by the Gynecology Consult Service of the National Institutes of Health. This syndrome was first described in 2001 and is characterized by excessive and unrelenting sexual arousal in the absence of desire. PSAS has only recently come to the attention of the health care community, and its prevalence

Sheila Mahoney; Carlos Zarate Jr

2007-01-01

69

The Roles of Testosterone and Alpha-Amylase in Exercise-Induced Sexual Arousal in Women  

E-print Network

; Alpha-Amylase Introduction Dynamic, cardiovascular exercise has many well-documented health benefits. One of the lesser known benefits is the positive effect of acute exercise on female sexual arousalThe Roles of Testosterone and Alpha-Amylase in Exercise-Induced Sexual Arousal in Women Lisa Dawn

Meston, Cindy

70

Gender and Self-Reported Sexual Arousal in Response to Sexual Stimuli: A Meta-Analytic Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social constructionist theories and sociobiological perspectives have led to increased interest in gender differences in sexual behavior. This study involved a meta-analysis of gender differences in sexual arousal in response to sexual stimuli. Forty-six studies in which participants were presented with a sexual stimulus depicting males and females and in which participants responded using a self-report measure of arousal were

Sarah K. Murnen; Mary Stockton

1997-01-01

71

Effects of appraisal of sexual stimuli on sexual arousal in women with and without superficial dyspareunia.  

PubMed

This study examined the effects of appraisal of sexual stimuli on sexual arousal in women with superficial dyspareunia (n = 50) and sexually functional women (n = 25). To elicit different appraisals of an erotic film fragment, participants received an instruction prior to viewing it, with a focus on genital pain or on sexual enjoyment. A neutral instruction served as a control condition. Assignment to instruction condition was randomized. Genital arousal (vaginal pulse amplitude) and self-report ratings of affect and genital sensations were obtained in response to the erotic stimulus. As predicted, appraisal of the erotic stimulus affected genital responding, albeit marginally significant. Follow-up tests indicated that women who received the genital pain instruction responded with marginally significant lower genital arousal levels than women who received the sexual enjoyment instruction (d = 0.67). A significant instruction effect for negative affect was found, signifying that negative affect ratings were highest after the genital pain instruction and lowest after the sexual enjoyment instruction (d = 0.80). A marginally significant group by instruction interaction effect was observed for positive affect, indicating that women with dyspareunia reported significantly less positive affect than controls after the sexual enjoyment instruction (d = 1.48). Whereas women with dyspareunia reported overall marginally significant more negative affect than controls (d = 0.48), there were no differences in genital responsiveness between groups. These results provided preliminary evidence for the modulatory effects of appraisal of sexual stimuli on subsequent genital responding and affect in women with and without sexual complaints. PMID:18561015

Brauer, Marieke; ter Kuile, Moniek M; Laan, Ellen

2009-08-01

72

Sexual activity and risk taking in young heterosexual men: The relevance of sexual arousability, mood, and sensation seeking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research we explored three aspects of personality relevant to sexual activity and sexual risk taking in heterosexual men. Men with low inhibition of sexual arousal in the face of risk (low SIS2) reported more partners with whom they use no condoms and more lifetime “one night stands.” Men who experience increased sexual interest in states of depression (MSQ)

John Bancroft; Erick Janssen; Lori Carnes; David Goodrich; David Strong; J. Scott Long

2004-01-01

73

Sexual arousal decreases the functional synchronization between cortical areas in young men.  

PubMed

The prefrontal cortex and its connections with other cortical areas participate in processing erotic stimuli and hence sexual arousal. Visual erotic stimuli elicit sexual arousal that is associated with changes in electroencephalographic activity. The electroencephalographic correlation analysis provides information on the functional synchronization among areas. This study analyzed the functional interaction among the prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortices during sexual arousal in young men induced by observing erotic photographs. In 2 groups of heterosexual men-an erotic stimulation group and a neutral stimulation group-the authors recorded electroencephalograms at the F3, F4, T3, T4, P3, and P4 derivations under 2 conditions: baseline and visual stimulation. Heart rate was monitored as a measure of peripheral activation. Participants in the erotic stimulation group reported a moderate degree of sexual arousal and a decrease in heart rate. Decreased inter- and intrahemispheric correlations of the fast frequencies were obtained only in erotic stimulation. These data support differential hemisphere participation in modulating sexual arousal and show that decreased synchronization patterns between prefrontal and posterior cortices (parietal and temporal) favor sexual arousal in young men. The results of this study may contribute to a better understanding of the central nervous system's mechanisms that underlie sexual arousal. PMID:23356552

Hernández-González, Marisela; Amezcua Gutiérrez, Claudia; Martin, Araceli Sanz; Sánchez, Koral Rivera; Guevara, Miguel Angel

2013-01-01

74

Prenatally Elevated Physiological Arousal Interferes With Perceptual Learning in Bobwhite Quail (Colinus virginianus) Embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal studies suggest elevated arousal can negatively influence perceptual and cognitive processes during early development. The authors explored this issue during the prenatal period by pharmacologically elevating physiological arousal in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos during exposure to a maternal call, then assessing preference for the familiar call following hatching. Embryos receiving norepinephrine showed a prenatal elevation in heart rate

Rebecca G. Markham; Gabriella Toth; Robert Lickliter

2006-01-01

75

The Role of Physiological Arousal in Time Perception: Psychophysiological Evidence from an Emotion Regulation Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Time perception, crucial for adaptive behavior, has been shown to be altered by emotion. An arousal-dependent mechanism is proposed to account for such an effect. Yet, physiological measure of arousal related with emotional timing is still lacking. We addressed this question using skin conductance response (SCR) in an emotion regulation paradigm.…

Mella, N.; Conty, L.; Pouthas, V.

2011-01-01

76

Effects of fragrance on female sexual arousal and mood across the menstrual cycle  

E-print Network

" or neutral substance!, as they viewed erotic and sexually neutral films, and fantasized about sexual a positive effect of the male fragrance on genital arousal during erotic fantasy, but this finding, Vaginal photoplethysmography Olfactory stimuli are known to be important in the sexual behavior of most

77

Dissociation during sex and sexual arousal in women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.  

PubMed

Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience dissociative symptoms and sexual difficulties with greater frequency than women without a history of CSA. Current models of sexual dysfunction for sexual abuse survivors suggest that dissociation may mediate the relationship between CSA and sexual arousal difficulties. Dissociation, however, is often conceptualized as a single construct in studies of CSA and not as separate domains as in the dissociation literature. In the present study, women with (CSA, N = 37) and without (NSA, N = 22) a history of CSA recruited from the community were asked to indicate the frequency and intensity of their experience in two dissociation subgroups, derealization and depersonalization, during sex with a partner and in their daily life. Findings showed that, in the NSA group, more depersonalization during sex with a partner was associated with lower sexual arousal functioning. However, for both the NSA and CSA groups, more derealization during sex was associated with higher sexual arousal functioning. No measure of dissociation was significantly associated with sexual responses in the laboratory. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between different forms of dissociation (i.e., derealization and depersonalization) in the study of sexual arousal functioning. In addition, the findings challenge the notion that dissociation is a main predictor of sexual arousal problems in survivors of CSA and suggest that a more nuanced relationship may exist. PMID:24297658

Bird, Elizabeth R; Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

2014-07-01

78

Observational stance as a predictor of subjective and genital sexual arousal in men and women.  

PubMed

Observational stance refers to the perspective a person takes while viewing a sexual stimulus, either as a passive observer (observer stance) or an active participant (participant stance). The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between observational stance and sexual arousal (subjective and genital) across a range of sexual stimuli that do or do not correspond with a participant's sexual attraction (preferred or nonpreferred stimuli, respectively). Regression analyses revealed that, for men (n = 44), participant stance significantly predicted subjective and genital arousal. Women's (n = 47) observer and participant stance predicted subjective arousal but not genital arousal. Analysis of variance showed that participant stance was greatest under preferred sexual stimuli conditions for all groups of participants, while observer stance scores revealed a less consistent pattern of response. This was particularly true for opposite-sex-attracted women, whose ratings of observer stance were lowest for preferred stimuli. Observational stance does not appear to account for gender differences in specificity of sexual arousal; for men, however, participant stance uniquely predicted genital response after controlling for sexual attractions. Similarities in the relationships between men's and women's observational stance and sexual responses challenge previous claims of gender differences in how men and women view erotica. PMID:23514448

Bossio, Jennifer A; Spape, Jessica; Lykins, Amy D; Chivers, Meredith L

2014-01-01

79

Effects of Antidepressant Treatment on Sexual Arousal in Depressed Women: A Preliminary fMRI Study  

PubMed Central

Objective There was a recent study to explore the cerebral regions associated with sexual arousal in depressed women using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The purpose of this neuroimaging study was to investigate the effects of antidepressant treatment on sexual arousal in depressed women. Methods Seven depressed women with sexual arousal dysfunction (mean age: 41.7±13.8, mean scores of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17): 35.6±7.1 and 34.9±3.1, respectively) and nine healthy women (mean age: 40.3±11.6) underwent fMRI before and after antidepressant treatment. The fMRI paradigm contrasted a 1 minute rest period viewing non-erotic film with 4 minutes of sexual stimulation viewing an erotic video film. Data were analyzed by SPM 2. The relative number of pixels activated in each period was used as an index of activation. All depressed women were treated with mirtazapine (mean dosage: 37.5 mg/day) for 8 to 10 weeks. Results Levels of brain activity during sexual arousal in depressed women significantly increased with antidepressant treatment (p<0.05) in the regions of the hypothalamus (3.0% to 11.2%), septal area (8.6% to 27.8%) and parahippocampal gyrus (5.8% to 14.6%). Self-reported sexual arousal during visual sexual stimulation also significantly increased post-treatment, and severity of depressive symptoms improved, as measured by the BDI and HAMD-17 (p<0.05). Conclusion These results show that sexual arousal dysfunction of depressed women may improve after treatment of depression, and that this improvement is associated with increased activation of the hypothalamus, septal area, and parahippocampal gyrus during sexual arousal. PMID:23251203

Yang, Jong-Chul; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Gwang-Won; Eun, Sung-Jong; Lee, Moo-Suk; Han, Kyung-Lae; Chae, Jeong-Ho

2012-01-01

80

Enhancement of experienced sexual arousal in response to erotic stimuli through misattribution of unrelated residual excitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a pretest with 15 male undergraduates, 3 phases of recovery from a standard physical exercise were determined. In Phase 1, Ss experienced high levels of physiological excitation and recognized that their arousal was due to exercise. In Phase 2, Ss maintained substantial excitatory residues from the exercise but felt that their arousal had returned to base level. In Phase

Joanne R. Cantor; Dolf Zillmann; Jennings Bryant

1975-01-01

81

Physiological Concomitants of the Alcohol State: Arousal or Relaxation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment was designed to discriminate among two diametrically opposed states, arousal and relaxation, which have been attributed to alcohol ingestion. Male social drinker subjects were assigned to form two independent groups of ten subjects each. Baseline measure of heart rate, skin conductance level (SCL), pulse wave amplitude and ear lobe…

Zeiner, Arthur R.

82

Effects of Alcohol Intoxication and Instructional Set on Women’s Sexual Arousal Vary Based on Sexual Abuse History  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Abstract\\u000a   The influence of alcohol intoxication and arousal instructional set on psychophysiological measures of sexual responding was\\u000a examined in a non-clinical sample of sexually abused (SA) and non-sexually abused (NSA) women. Participants (n=42) were randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (target blood alcohol level = .08%) or non-alcoholic drinks and to receive\\u000a instructions to maximize or suppress their sexual response to

Rebecca L. Schacht; William H. George; Julia R. Heiman; Kelly Cue Davis; Jeanette Norris; Susan A. Stoner; Kelly F. Kajumulo

2007-01-01

83

All alone with sweaty palms--physiological arousal and ostracism.  

PubMed

Social exclusion, or ostracism, is universally perceived as a negative emotional experience and often leads to poor social outcomes for individuals and society. Although the experience of distress associated with being ostracized is innate, there has been very little investigation of the effects on the autonomic nervous system. This study provides objective evidence for the effects of ostracism on arousal (examined with skin conductance levels) while participants played an internet ball-tossing game (Cyberball). Forty-two healthy undergraduate students participated in both inclusion and ostracism conditions. When participants were included, there was a marked decrement in arousal over the course of the task, whereas there was no evidence of habituation when participants were ostracized. The implications of these results are discussed in terms of the potential of differential autonomic activity to predict the coping strategies that people engage in following ostracism. PMID:22130492

Kelly, Michelle; McDonald, Skye; Rushby, Jacqueline

2012-03-01

84

Oral contraceptive use and female genital arousal: Methodological considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) use on physiological sexual arousal as measured by a vaginal photoplethysmograph. Sixteen women aged 18–29 viewed audiovisual neutral and erotic stimuli before and an average of 6 weeks following the onset of OCP use. Although subjective measures of sexual arousal, including perceptions of genital arousal, significantly increased in response to erotic

Brooke N. Seal; Lori A. Brotto; Boris B. Gorzalka

2005-01-01

85

Ancient history of sexual arousal and alcohol For if a man drink wine to drunkenness,  

E-print Network

Laboratory experiments suggest that alcohol's association with sexual arousal and aggression is culturally is higher1 ·Alcohol use is strongly associated with murder and rape2,3 ·Alcohol marketing highlights sexual., & Linden, R. (1978). Alcohol and rape in Winnepeg, 1966­1975. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 39, 1887

Holcombe, Alex O.

86

Prenatally elevated physiological arousal interferes with perceptual learning in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos.  

PubMed

Neonatal studies suggest elevated arousal can negatively influence perceptual and cognitive processes during early development. The authors explored this issue during the prenatal period by pharmacologically elevating physiological arousal in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) embryos during exposure to a maternal call, then assessing preference for the familiar call following hatching. Embryos receiving norepinephrine showed a prenatal elevation in heart rate and failed to demonstrate a preference for the familiar call following hatching. Embryos not receiving norepinephrine showed no elevation in heart rate and demonstrated a preference for the familiar call. These results indicate elevated arousal can interfere with perceptual learning during the prenatal period and provide additional evidence for an optimal window of arousal necessary to foster species-typical perceptual functioning during early development. PMID:17201477

Markham, Rebecca G; Toth, Gabriella; Lickliter, Robert

2006-12-01

87

Physiological Arousal, Distress Tolerance, and Social Problem-Solving Deficits among Adolescent Self-Injurers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However,…

Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2008-01-01

88

Concordance between Measures of Anxiety and Physiological Arousal Following Treatment of Panic Disorder in Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the concordance (or synchrony/desynchrony) between adolescents' self-reports of anxiety and physiological measures of arousal (heart rate) both prior to and after treatment for panic disorder. Results indicated a decline in reported subjective units of distress (SUDS) for the treatment group only at the post-treatment…

Bacow, Terri Landon; May, Jill Ehrenreich; Choate-Summers, Molly; Pincus, Donna B.; Mattis, Sara G.

2010-01-01

89

Marital Quality and Physiological Arousal: How Do I Love Thee? Let My Heartbeat Count the Ways  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examines whether a two-dimensional indicator of marital quality advances empirical understanding of the association between marital quality and physiological arousal. Thirty-two married couples completed baseline and problem-solving interactions while both spouses' heart rates and skin conductance were continuously monitored. Each spouse's changes in physiology from the baseline to problem-solving task served as the independent variables. Dependent variables

Diana Menchaca; Crystal Dehle

2005-01-01

90

Arsonists and sexual arousal to fire setting: correlation unsupported.  

PubMed

The penile responses of 26 firesetters and 15 nonfiresetters to audiotaped narratives were compared. The categories of narratives were: neutral, heterosexual sexual activity, and firesetting motivated by sexual excitement, general (unspecified) excitement, insurance, revenge, heroism, or power. Responses to all of the categories were of small magnitude, although both the heterosexual activity and the sexual excitement firesetting categories elicited larger responses than the neutral category. There were no significant differences between the firesetters and nonfiresetters to any of the story categories. These data contain no support for the idea that sexual motivation is commonly involved in arson. PMID:2632589

Quinsey, V L; Chaplin, T C; Upfold, D

1989-09-01

91

A Mindfulness-Based Group Psychoeducational Intervention Targeting Sexual Arousal Disorder in Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Despite their widespread prevalence, there are no existing evidence-based psychological treatments for women with sexual desire and arousal disorder. Mindfulness, the practice of relaxed wakefulness, is an ancient eastern practice with roots in Buddhist meditation which has been found to be an effective component of psycho- logical treatments for numerous psychiatric and medical illnesses. In recent years, mindfulness has

Lori A. Brotto; Rosemary Basson; Mijal Luria

2008-01-01

92

An Integrative Theoretical Framework for Understanding Sexual Motivation, Arousal, and Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative theoretical framework and model for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior is presented, combining the principles of incentive motivation theory and the hierarchical control of behavior. It is intended to stimulate discussion. The framework can serve as a “route map” in understanding the links between different component processes and their interactions, as well as the relations between different

Frederick Toates

2009-01-01

93

Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 33, No. 1, February 2004, pp. 3142 ( C 2004) The Effects of Hysterectomy on Sexual Arousal in Women  

E-print Network

of Hysterectomy on Sexual Arousal in Women With a History of Benign Uterine Fibroids Cindy M. Meston, Ph.D.1 with a history of benign uterine fibroids who had (n = 15) or had not (n = 17) undergone hysterectomy supported. KEY WORDS: hysterectomy; uterine fibroids; sexual arousal; exercise; vaginal photoplethysmography

Meston, Cindy

94

Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens.  

PubMed

Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans. PMID:24432355

Davies, A C; Radford, A N; Nicol, C J

2014-01-17

95

Behavioural and physiological expression of arousal during decision-making in laying hens?  

PubMed Central

Human studies suggest that prior emotional responses are stored within the brain as associations called somatic markers and are recalled to inform rapid decision-making. Consequently, behavioural and physiological indicators of arousal are detectable in humans when making decisions, and influence decision outcomes. Here we provide the first evidence of anticipatory arousal around the time of decision-making in non-human animals. Chickens were subjected to five experimental conditions, which varied in the number (one versus two), type (mealworms or empty bowl) and choice (same or different) of T-maze goals. As indicators of arousal, heart-rate and head movements were measured when goals were visible but not accessible; latency to reach the goal indicated motivation. We found a greater increase in heart-rate from baseline to the goal-viewing period, more head movements and shorter latencies in all conditions including mealworms compared to those with empty bowls. More head movements when two mealworm bowls were available compared to just one, and prior to occasions when hens accessed an empty bowl rather than declining to move, showed that arousal preceded and influenced decision-making. Our results provide an important foundation for investigating arousal during animal decision-making and suggest that the somatic-marker hypothesis might not only apply to humans. PMID:24432355

Davies, A.C.; Radford, A.N.; Nicol, C.J.

2014-01-01

96

Reactions to bullying and peer victimization: Narratives, physiological arousal, and personality  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mediational model of bullying and victimization is proposed and tested. Ninety-nine 10- to 13-year-old children provided two oral narratives of their victimization experiences, as perpetrator and victim, with their physiological arousal being measured while they told the narratives. The children and one of their parents also completed a variety of questionnaires, including a Big 5 measure of personality and

Julie M. Bollmer; Monica J. Harris; Richard Milich

2006-01-01

97

Animal models of female sexual dysfunction: basic considerations on drugs, arousal, motivation and behavior.  

PubMed

Female sexual dysfunctions are a heterogeneous group of symptoms with unknown but probably varying etiology. Social factors may contribute both to the prevalence and to the origin of these dysfunctions. The present review focuses on female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual arousal disorder and orgasmic disorder. These disorders are generally the most common, according to epidemiological studies, and they can all be considered as disorders of motivation. An incentive motivational model of sexual behavior, applicable to humans as well as to non-human animals, is described and the dysfunctions placed into the context of this model. It is shown that endocrine alterations as well as observable alterations in neurotransmitter activity are unlikely causes of the disorders. A potential role of learning is stressed. Nevertheless, the role of some transmitters in female rodent sexual behavior is analyzed, and compared to data from women, whenever such data are available. The conclusion is that there is no direct coincidence between effects on rodent copulatory behavior and sexual behavior in women. Based on these and other considerations, it is suggested that sexual approach behaviors rather than copulatory reflexes in rodents might be of some relevance for human sexual behavior, and perhaps even for predicting the effects of interventions, perhaps even the effects of drugs. Female copulatory behaviors, including the proceptive behaviors, are less appropriate. The common sexual dysfunctions in women are not problems with the performance of copulatory acts, but with the desire for such acts, by feeling aroused by such acts and experiencing the pleasure expected to be caused by such acts. Finally, it is questioned whether female sexual dysfunctions are appropriate targets for pharmacological treatment. PMID:24125786

Ågmo, Anders

2014-06-01

98

Dynamics of male sexual arousal: distinct components of brain activation revealed by fMRI  

Microsoft Academic Search

The peripheral mechanisms of male sexual arousal are well known. Recently, neuroimaging techniques, such as PET or fMRI, allowed the investigation of the subjacent cerebral mechanisms. In ten healthy subjects, we have simultaneously recorded fMRI images of brain activation elicited by viewing erotic scenes, and the time course of penile tumescence by means of a custom-built MRI-compatible pneumatic cuff. We

Antonio Ferretti; Massimo Caulo; Cosimo Del Gratta; Rosalia Di Matteo; Arcangelo Merla; Francesco Montorsi; Vittorio Pizzella; Paolo Pompa; Patrizio Rigatti; Paolo Maria Rossini; Andrea Salonia; Armando Tartaro; Gian Luca Romani

2005-01-01

99

Physiological oxidative stress after arousal from hibernation in Arctic ground squirrel  

PubMed Central

Hibernation in Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), Spermophilus parryii, is characterized by a profound decrease in oxygen consumption and metabolic demand during torpor that is punctuated by periodic rewarming episodes, during which oxygen consumption increases dramatically. The extreme physiology of torpor or the surge in oxygen consumption during arousal may increase production of reactive oxygen species, making hibernation an injurious process for AGS. To determine if AGS tissues experience cellular stress during rewarming, we measured carbonyl proteins, lipid peroxide end products and percent oxidized glutathione in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver of torpid, hibernating (hAGS), late arousal (laAGS), and cold-adapted, euthermic AGS (eAGS). In BAT carbonyl proteins and lipid peroxide end products were higher in eAGS and laAGS than in hAGS. By contrast, in liver, no significant difference in carbonyl proteins was observed. In another group of animals, comparison of carbonyl proteins and percent oxidized glutathione in frontal cortex, liver, and BAT of eAGS and hAGS showed no evidence of oxidative stress associated with torpor. These results indicate that increased thermogenesis associated with arousal AGS results in tissue specific oxidative stress in BAT but not in liver. Moreover, torpor per se is largely devoid of oxidative stress, likely due to suppression of oxidative metabolism. PMID:19233307

Orr, Adrienne L.; Lohse, Lonita A.; Drew, Kelly L.; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

2009-01-01

100

When playing together feels different: effects of task types and social contexts on physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming contexts.  

PubMed

This study examines how task types (violent vs. nonviolent) and social contexts (solo vs. collaborative) affect physiological arousal in multiplayer online gaming. Our results show that social contexts modify the effects of violent game tasks on arousal. When compared with solo play, collaborative play led to a significant decrease in arousal in response to violent tasks, while leading to a slight increase for nonviolent tasks. The findings point to the importance of understanding how social contexts of game playing shape psychological experiences in multiplayer online games. PMID:19006459

Lim, Sohye; Lee, Jong-Eun Roselyn

2009-02-01

101

The effects of impulsivity, sexual arousability, and abstract intellectual ability on men's and women's go/no-go task performance.  

PubMed

While a number of studies have assessed the role of personality traits, situational variables, and drug use on sexual risk behaviors, fewer studies have employed experimental methods to examine cognitive processes that may underlie risky sexual decision making. This study used a go/no-go paradigm to examine how individual difference variables and sexual arousal influence discrimination learning and sexual and nonsexual decision making. A total of 28 men (M age = 20 years) and 25 women (M age = 19 years) completed self-report measures of impulsivity, abstract intellectual ability, and sexual excitation and inhibition and participated in a laboratory experiment. The experiment consisted of two go/no-go tasks with sexual stimuli and two tasks with neutral stimuli, preceded by either sexually arousing or sexually neutral stimulus presentations. Task performance was measured by totals of false alarms and misses. Individuals high in impulsivity and low in abstract intellectual ability committed more false alarms in conditions involving sexually arousing stimuli. Furthermore, higher sexual excitation scores were linked to more misses. These findings indicate that cognitive processes associated with decision making that occurs in the "heat of the moment" are influenced by a combination of situational and sexual and nonsexual individual difference variables. PMID:20862534

Macapagal, Kathryn R; Janssen, Erick; Fridberg, Daniel J; Finn, Peter R; Heiman, Julia R

2011-10-01

102

Effect of self-reported sexual arousal on responses to sex-related and non-sex-related disgust cues.  

PubMed

Prior to and during sexual intercourse, people are exposed to stimuli that in other contexts might act as disgust-eliciting cues. This study examined whether sexual arousal, in contrast to general arousal, could selectively reduce reported disgust for cues that pilot participants identified as sex or non-sex related. Male undergraduates were randomly assigned to one of four viewing groups. One group viewed erotic female images, a second clad female images, a third pleasantly arousing images (e.g., skydiving), and a fourth unpleasantly arousing images (e.g., an aimed gun). After the viewing phase, all participants were exposed to pairs of real disgust elicitors (sex versus non-sex related) drawn from various sensory modalities. Participants in the erotic images group, who rated being more sexually aroused than those in the other three groups, also reported being significantly less disgusted by sex-related elicitors. While the mechanism for this effect is not currently known, our findings suggest one plausible explanation for risky sexual behavior as well as having implications for the role of disgust in sexual dysfunction. PMID:19705272

Stevenson, Richard J; Case, Trevor I; Oaten, Megan J

2011-02-01

103

Skeletal muscle proteomics: carbohydrate metabolism oscillates with seasonal and torpor-arousal physiology of hibernation  

PubMed Central

The physiology of small mammalian hibernators shifts profoundly over a year, from summer homeothermy to winter heterothermy. Torpor-arousal cycles define high-amplitude tissue activity fluctuations in winter, particularly for skeletal muscle, which contributes to the energetically demanding rewarming process via shivering. To better understand the biochemistry underlying summer-winter and torpor-arousal transitions, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mas spectrometry to the soluble proteins from hindlimb muscle of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in two summer and six winter states. Two hundred sixteen protein spots differed by sampled state. Significantly, intrawinter protein adjustment was a minor component of the dataset despite large discrepancies in muscle activity level among winter states; rather, the bulk of differences (127/138 unequivocally identified proteins spots) occurred between summer and winter. We did not detect any proteomic signatures of skeletal muscle atrophy in this hibernator nor any differential seasonal regulation of protein metabolism. Instead, adjustments to metabolic substrate preferences dominated the detected proteomic differences. Pathways of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) were summer enriched, whereas the winter proteome was enriched for fatty acid ?-oxidation. Nevertheless, our data suggest that some reliance on carbohydrate reserves is maintained during winter. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), which reversibly prepares glucose subunits for either glycolysis or glycogenesis, showed apparent winter state-specific phosphorylation. PGM1 was phosphorylated during rewarming and dephosphorylated by interbout arousal, implying that glucose supplements lipid fuels during rewarming. This, along with winter elevation of TCA cycle enzymes, suggests that hindlimb muscles are primed for rapid energy production and that carbohydrates are an important fuel for shivering thermogenesis. PMID:21865542

Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Hunter, Lawrence E.; Martin, Sandra L.

2011-01-01

104

Skeletal muscle proteomics: carbohydrate metabolism oscillates with seasonal and torpor-arousal physiology of hibernation.  

PubMed

The physiology of small mammalian hibernators shifts profoundly over a year, from summer homeothermy to winter heterothermy. Torpor-arousal cycles define high-amplitude tissue activity fluctuations in winter, particularly for skeletal muscle, which contributes to the energetically demanding rewarming process via shivering. To better understand the biochemistry underlying summer-winter and torpor-arousal transitions, we applied two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mas spectrometry to the soluble proteins from hindlimb muscle of 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) in two summer and six winter states. Two hundred sixteen protein spots differed by sampled state. Significantly, intrawinter protein adjustment was a minor component of the dataset despite large discrepancies in muscle activity level among winter states; rather, the bulk of differences (127/138 unequivocally identified proteins spots) occurred between summer and winter. We did not detect any proteomic signatures of skeletal muscle atrophy in this hibernator nor any differential seasonal regulation of protein metabolism. Instead, adjustments to metabolic substrate preferences dominated the detected proteomic differences. Pathways of carbohydrate metabolism (glycolysis and gluconeogenesis) were summer enriched, whereas the winter proteome was enriched for fatty acid ?-oxidation. Nevertheless, our data suggest that some reliance on carbohydrate reserves is maintained during winter. Phosphoglucomutase (PGM1), which reversibly prepares glucose subunits for either glycolysis or glycogenesis, showed apparent winter state-specific phosphorylation. PGM1 was phosphorylated during rewarming and dephosphorylated by interbout arousal, implying that glucose supplements lipid fuels during rewarming. This, along with winter elevation of TCA cycle enzymes, suggests that hindlimb muscles are primed for rapid energy production and that carbohydrates are an important fuel for shivering thermogenesis. PMID:21865542

Hindle, Allyson G; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L Elaine; Hunter, Lawrence E; Martin, Sandra L

2011-11-01

105

Hypothalamus, sexual arousal and psychosexual identity in human males: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.  

PubMed

In a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study, a complex neural circuit was shown to be involved in human males during sexual arousal [A. Ferretti et al. (2005) Neuroimage, 26, 1086]. At group level, there was a specific correlation between penile erection and activations in anterior cingulate, insula, amygdala, hypothalamus and secondary somatosensory regions. However, it is well known that there are remarkable inter-individual differences in the psychological view and attitude to sex of human males. Therefore, a crucial issue is the relationship among cerebral responses, sexual arousal and psychosexual identity at individual level. To address this issue, 18 healthy male subjects were recruited. Their deep sexual identity (DSI) was assessed following the construct revalidation by M. Olivetti Belardinelli [(1994) Sci. Contrib. Gen. Psychol., 11, 131] of the Franck drawing completion test, a projective test providing, according to this revalidation, quantitative scores on 'accordance/non-accordance' between self-reported and psychological sexual identity. Cerebral activity was evaluated by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging during hard-core erotic movies and sport movies. Results showed a statistically significant positive correlation between the blood oxygen level-dependent signal in bilateral hypothalamus and the Franck drawing completion test score during erotic movies. The higher the blood oxygen level-dependent activation in bilateral hypothalamus, the higher the male DSI profile. These results suggest that, in male subjects, inter-individual differences in the DSI are strongly correlated with blood flow to the bilateral hypothalamus, a dimorphic brain region deeply implicated in instinctual drives including reproduction. PMID:18588532

Brunetti, M; Babiloni, C; Ferretti, A; Del Gratta, C; Merla, A; Olivetti Belardinelli, M; Romani, G L

2008-06-01

106

Classical conditioning of sexual arousal in women and men: effects of varying awareness and biological relevance of the conditioned stimulus.  

PubMed

Classical conditioning of sexual arousal has previously been demonstrated in human males but not in females. This study explored the role of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning in the activation of genital sexual arousal in both women and men, and assessed the effects of varying conditioned stimulus (CS) duration (subliminal/conscious) and relevance (sexually relevant/irrelevant). Twenty-seven female and 29 male participants received either subliminal or conscious presentations of a photograph of either a sexually relevant (abdomen of the opposite sex) or irrelevant (gun) CS+, which was followed by the unconditioned stimulus (US-erotic film clip). A CS-, a stimulus not paired with the US, was also included in the 11 conditioning trials. Ten participants were assigned to a control group that received unpaired presentations of the CS+, CS-, and the US. Both women and men showed more evidence of conditioning to the abdomen than to the gun when the CS was presented subliminally. When consciously perceived CSs were used, however, gender differences emerged. Men again showed the expected cue-to-consequence specificity but women showed the opposite effect, that is, conditioned arousal to the sexually irrelevant rather than to the relevant CS. The latter finding may be due to increased autonomic nervous system arousal associated with the irrelevant CS (gun). Skin conductance responses indicated more general arousal to the gun than to the male abdomen in women. This is the first study to compare the effects of a subliminal and conscious CS and to find classical conditioning of sexual arousal in women. PMID:14739689

Hoffmann, Heather; Janssen, Erick; Turner, Stefanie L

2004-02-01

107

Neural Correlates of Sexual Arousal in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men Adam Safron, Bennett Barch, J. Michael Bailey, Darren R. Gitelman, Todd B. Parrish, and Paul J. Reber  

E-print Network

Neural Correlates of Sexual Arousal in Homosexual and Heterosexual Men Adam Safron, Bennett Barch in the brains of homosexual (n 11) and heterosexual (n 11) men. Comparisons of activation to preferred sexual arousal, spanning multiple cortical and subcortical areas. Both homosexual and heterosexual men exhibited

Reber, Paul J.

108

Female-induced sexual arousal in male mice and rats: behavioral and testosterone response.  

PubMed

Exposure of a male mouse to a female mouse separated from it by a holed partition induced specific behavior and an increase in blood testosterone in the male. The male made more approaches to the partition and spent more time at it. The time spent by the male mouse over the first 10 min at the partition, behind which an estrus female was placed, was increased sixfold compared to the time spent by a male mouse exposed to the vacant neighboring compartment; and 1.5-fold compared to that spent by a male mouse exposed to a nonreceptive female or a male. Increased blood testosterone level was detected at 20 min of exposure to a receptive female in winter and at 40 min in summer. No variation in blood testosterone levels in the male mouse exposed to a nonreceptive female or a male was observed. Similar response to a receptive female placed in the neighboring compartment was shown in a male rat. The time spent by the male rat at the partition was 12 times higher when there was an estrus female behind it than in control. Blood testosterone in the male rat increased in response to a female rat and did not change in response to a male rat indicating female-induced motivation. It was concluded that the partition time might serve as a quantitative measure of sexual motivation in the males and that the model of female-induced sexual arousal used was suitable for studying both motivational and hormonal components of sexual arousal in male mice and rats. PMID:15555495

Amstislavskaya, Tamara G; Popova, Nina K

2004-12-01

109

Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal: A response to McAnulty and Adams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In replying to my review of the validity and ethics of penile circumference responses (PCRs) as measures of sexual arousal McAnulty and Adams misinterpreted the review as claiming penile volume responses (PVRs) were superior to PCRs in assessing rapists and child molesters. No such claim was made. The lack of validity of PCR assessment of individual rapists and child molesters

Nathaniel McConaghy

1992-01-01

110

Effects of Gonadal Sex Steroids on Sexual Behavior in the Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus,Upon Arousal from Hibernation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vespertilionid bats are thought to have a dissociated pattern of reproduction; mating occurs in autumn as well as during periodic arousals from hibernation when testes are regressed and ovaries are “in stasis.” Sex steroid levels in both sexes are basal at this time. This pattern would indicate that sex steroids per se may not be activating sexual behavior. Gonadectomy of

M. T. Mendonça; S. D. Chernetsky; K. E. Nester; G. L. Gardner

1996-01-01

111

Sexual Arousal and Self-Control: Results from a Preliminary Experimental Test of the Stability of Self-Control  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A central proposition of Gottfredson and Hirschi's (1990) General Theory of Crime is the relative stability of low self-control, however research on "self-control strength" suggests that it may vary across contexts. The current study examines these differing conceptions by randomly assigning participants to one of two sexual arousal conditions or…

Bouffard, Jeffrey; Kunzi, Tasha

2012-01-01

112

Mechanisms underlying sexual and affiliative behaviors of mice: relation to generalized CNS arousal  

PubMed Central

The field of social neuroscience has grown dramatically in recent years and certain social responses have become amenable to mechanistic investigations. Toward that end, there has been remarkable progress in determining mechanisms for a simple sexual behavior, lordosis behavior. This work has proven that specific hormone-dependent biochemical reactions in specific parts of the mammalian brain regulate a biologically important behavior. On one hand, this sex behavior depends on underlying mechanisms of CNS arousal. On the other hand, it serves as a prototypical social behavior. The same sex hormones and the genes that encode their receptors as are involved in lordosis, also affect social recognition. Here we review evidence for a micronet of genes promoting social recognition in mice and discuss their biological roles. PMID:18985112

Shelley, Deborah N.; Choleris, Elena; Kavaliers, Martin

2006-01-01

113

Effects of realism on extended violent and nonviolent video game play on aggressive thoughts, feelings, and physiological arousal.  

PubMed

Previous research has shown that playing violent video game exposure can increase aggressive thoughts, aggressive feelings, and physiological arousal. This study compared the effects that playing a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min has on such variables. For the purpose of this study, realism was defined as the probability of seeing an event in real life. Participants (N=74; 39 male, 35 female) played either a realistic violent, unrealistic violent, or nonviolent video game for 45 min. Aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings were measured four times (every 15 min), whereas arousal was measured continuously. The results showed that, though playing any violent game stimulated aggressive thoughts, playing a more realistic violent game stimulated significantly more aggressive feelings and arousal over the course of play. PMID:19280624

Barlett, Christopher P; Rodeheffer, Christopher

2009-01-01

114

Women, Alcohol, and Sexuality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption increases subjective sexual desire, arousal, and pleasure for many women, although it lowers physiological\\u000a arousal. Despite the general belief that alcohol disinhibits female sexual behaviors, alcohol leads to changes in sexual behavior\\u000a only for a minority of women. Expectancies about the effects of alcohol on sexual behavior may be important mediators of the\\u000a alcohol-sexual behavior linkage. There also

Linda J. Beckman; Kimberly T. Ackerman

115

The effect of type a personality on physiological arousal while playing computer games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the widespread use of computer games, there is a lack of systematic research in the area—particularly on their “addictiveness” potential. Anecdotal evidence suggests that computer game addiction may be due to arousal properties of computer games, although other factors may be important. This study examined the relationship between Type A personality and arousal in computer-game play. It was hypothesised

Mark D. Griffiths; Imogen Dancaster

1995-01-01

116

Neural correlates of sexual arousal in heterosexual and homosexual women and men.  

PubMed

Most men have a category-specific pattern of genital and subjective sexual arousal, responding much more strongly to erotic stimuli depicting their preferred sex than to erotic stimuli depicting their nonpreferred sex. In contrast, women tend to have a less specific arousal pattern. To better understand this sex difference, we used neuroimaging to explore its neural correlates. Heterosexual and homosexual women viewed erotic photographs of either men or women. Evoked neural activity was monitored via fMRI and compared with responses to the same stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men. Overall, a network of limbic (as well as the anterior cingulate) and visual processing regions showed significantly less category-specific activity in women than men. This was primarily driven by weaker overall activations to preferred-sex stimuli in women, though there was also some evidence of stronger limbic activations to nonpreferred-sex stimuli in women. Primary results were similar for heterosexual and homosexual participants. Women did show some evidence of category-specific responses in the visual processing regions, although even in these regions they exhibited less differential activity than men. In the anterior cingulate, a region with high concentrations of sex-hormone receptors, subjective and neural category specificity measures correlated positively for women but negatively for men, suggesting a possible sex difference in the role of the anterior cingulate. Overall, results suggest that men tend to show more differentiated neural responses than do women to erotic photographs of one sex compared to the other sex, though women may not be entirely indifferent to which sex is depicted. PMID:23958585

Sylva, David; Safron, Adam; Rosenthal, A M; Reber, Paul J; Parrish, Todd B; Bailey, J Michael

2013-09-01

117

Superior Perception of Phasic Physiological Arousal and the Detrimental Consequences of the Conviction to Be Aroused on Worrying and Metacognitions in GAD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although people suffering from generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often report arousal symptoms, psychophysiological studies show no evidence of autonomic hyperarousal. Hypersensitivity toward and catastrophic interpretation of phasic arousal cues may explain this discrepancy. The authors tested (a) whether GAD sufferers perceive nonspecific skin conductance fluctuations (NSCFs), an indicator of phasic autonomic arousal, better than controls do and (b) whether the

Tanja Andor; Alexander L. Gerlach; Fred Rist

2008-01-01

118

Arousal state feedback as a potential physiological generator of the ultradian REM/NREM sleep cycle  

PubMed Central

Human sleep episodes are characterized by an approximately 90-minute ultradian oscillation between rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep stages. The source of this oscillation is not known. Pacemaker mechanisms for this rhythm have been proposed, such as a reciprocal interaction network, but these fail to account for documented homeostatic regulation of both sleep stages. Here, two candidate mechanisms are investigated using a simple model that has stable states corresponding to Wake, REM sleep, and NREM sleep. Unlike other models of the ultradian rhythm, this model of sleep dynamics does not include an ultradian pacemaker, nor does it invoke a hypothetical homeostatic process that exists purely to drive ultradian rhythms. Instead, only two inputs are included: the homeostatic drive for Sleep and the circadian drive for Wake. These two inputs have been the basis for the most influential Sleep/Wake models, but have not previously been identified as possible ultradian rhythm generators. Using the model, realistic ultradian rhythms are generated by arousal state feedback to either the homeostatic or circadian drive. For the proposed ‘homeostatic mechanism’, homeostatic pressure increases in Wake and REM sleep, and decreases in NREM sleep. For the proposed ‘circadian mechanism’, the circadian drive is up-regulated in Wake and REM sleep, and is down-regulated in NREM sleep. The two mechanisms are complementary in the features they capture. The homeostatic mechanism reproduces experimentally observed rebounds in NREM sleep duration and intensity following total sleep deprivation, and rebounds in both NREM sleep intensity and REM sleep duration following selective REM sleep deprivation. The circadian mechanism does not reproduce sleep state rebounds, but more accurately reproduces the temporal patterns observed in a normal night of sleep. These findings have important implications in terms of sleep physiology and they provide a parsimonious explanation for the observed ultradian rhythm of REM/NREM sleep. PMID:23220346

Phillips, A. J. K.; Robinson, P. A.; Klerman, E. B.

2013-01-01

119

Turning On and Turning Off: A Focus Group Study of the Factors That Affect Women's Sexual Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to inform the development of a questionnaire to assess a woman's tendency to respond with sexual excitation\\/inhibition in different situations. Nine focus groups, involving 80 women (M age = 34.3 years; range, 18-84), were conducted. Women described a wide range of physical (genital and nongenital), cognitive\\/emotional, and behavioral cues to arousal. The relationship between

Cynthia A. Graham; Stephanie A. Sanders; Robin R. Milhausen; Kimberly R. McBride

2004-01-01

120

ORIGINAL RESEARCH—WOMEN'S SEXUAL HEALTH The Impact of Body Awareness on Sexual Arousal in Women with Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. The impact of self-awareness during sexual activity has been widely discussed. However, research has been largely focused on the effects of performance anxiety in male erectile functioning. It has been suggested that physical appearance concerns may have a similar influence on sexual function in women as does men's self-awareness about erectile function. However, the role that physical appearance or

Brooke N. Seal; Cindy M. Meston

121

Relationship of Cognitive and Emotional Components of Test Anxiety to Physiological Arousal and Academic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Worry was found to be more highly negatively related to examination grades than was Emotionality or pulse rate and worry was more highly negatively related to expectancy than was Emotionality. However, pulse rate was no more highly related to Emotionality than to Worry, suggesting that questionnaire and direct measures of autonomic arousal are…

Morris, Larry W.; Liebert, Robert M.

1970-01-01

122

Impact of Virtual Reality on Young Adults' Physiological Arousal and Aggressive Thoughts: Interaction versus Observation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared to college students who only watched a violent virtual reality game, those who played the game exhibited a higher heart rate after the game, reported more dizziness and nausea during the game, and exhibited more aggressive thoughts on a posttest questionnaire. Results suggest support for arousal and cognitive, but not psychoanalytic,…

Calvert, Sandra L.; Tan, Siu-Lan

1994-01-01

123

Neural mechanisms underlying sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels: a comparative study of the postoperative male-to-female transsexuals and premenopausal and menopausal women.  

PubMed

This study compared the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in connection with sexual hormone levels in postoperative male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals and normal premenopausal and menopausal women using 3.0 T functional MRI. A total of 30 volunteers including 10 premenopausal women, 10 menopausal women, and 10 postoperative MTF transsexuals who had undergone sex reassignment surgery participated in this study. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The free testosterone and estradiol levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were not in the normal range seen in normal premenopausal women, but were in range seen in menopausal women. The postoperative MTF transsexuals showed significantly higher activities in the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, amygdala, putamen, globus pallidus, thalamus, and head of caudate nucleus in response to erotic male nude pictures in contrast to female pictures (P<0.005). The predominant activation areas observed in the postoperative MTF transsexuals in contrast to the menopausal women when viewing male nude pictures included the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and putamen (P<0.005). Similar to the postoperative MTF transsexuals, the premenopausal women showed significantly higher activities than menopausal women in the insula, hippocampus, thalamus, and parahippocampal gyrus (P<0.005). This study revealed that the brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals are similar to those in premenopausal women, although the sexual hormone levels in the postoperative MTF transsexuals are in the average range of those in menopausal women. PMID:24800986

Kim, Gwang-Won; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

2014-06-18

124

The Aggression-Inhibiting and Aggression-Facilitating Influence of Heightened Sexual Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Eighty-six undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli upon aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would…

Baron, Robert A.; Bell, Paul A.

125

Sexual arousal and aggression by males: Effects of type of erotic stimuli and prior provocation  

Microsoft Academic Search

85 undergraduate males participated in an experiment designed to investigate the impact of various types of erotic stimuli on aggression. On the basis of previous research, it was hypothesized that exposure to mild erotic stimuli would tend to inhibit subsequent aggression, while exposure to more arousing stimuli of this type would facilitate such behavior. In order to examine this hypothesis,

Robert A. Baron; Paul A. Bell

1977-01-01

126

Physiological arousal in autism and fragile X syndrome: group comparisons and links with pragmatic language.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that pragmatic (i.e., social) language impairment is linked to arousal dysregulation in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and fragile X syndrome (FXS). Forty boys with ASD, 39 with FXS, and 27 with typical development (TD), aged 4-15 years, participated. Boys with FXS were hyperaroused compared to boys with TD but did not differ from boys with ASD. Dampened vagal tone predicted pragmatic impairment in ASD, and associations emerged between cardiac activity and receptive/expressive vocabulary across groups. Findings support autonomic dysfunction as a mechanism underlying pragmatic impairment in ASD and suggest that biophysiological profiles are shared in ASD and FXS, which has implications for understanding the role of fragile X mental retardation-1 (FMR1, the FXS gene) in the pathophysiology of ASD. PMID:24432860

Klusek, Jessica; Martin, Gary E; Losh, Molly

2013-11-01

127

Unprotected Anal Intercourse in HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Gay Men: The Relevance of Sexual Arousability, Mood, Sensation Seeking, and Erectile Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduction of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in gay men infected with HIV is important in preventing further spread of this infection. In previous studies, personality trait measures relevant to sexual arousability and the effects of anxiety have been shown to relate to UAI in both gay and heterosexual men. Are HIV+ gay men similar in these respects or are there

John Bancroft; Lori Carnes; Erick Janssen

2005-01-01

128

Incomplete Use of Condoms: The Importance of Sexual Arousal Cynthia A. Graham Richard A. Crosby  

E-print Network

with incomplete use of condoms. Keywords Condoms Á Sexual pleasure Á Erection Á STI risk Á Men Introduction from sexually transmitted infection, studies identifying the cor- relates of incomplete use. Crosby College of Public Health at the University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA R. R. Milhausen

129

Positron Emission Tomography and sexual arousal in a sadist and two controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Positron Emission Tomography (PT) scans of the brain were compared in a sexual sadist and two community controls. The participants heard either an erotic audiotape or a sexually neutral tape while penile circumference was monitored. Results showed reliable penile differences between erotic and neutral stimuli. PT results showed that the right hemisphere of the brain was more activated than the

E. S. Garnett; C. Nahmias; G. Wortzman; R. Langevin; R. Dickey

1988-01-01

130

EEG Hemispheric Asymmetry During Sexual Arousal: Psychophysiological Patterns in Responsive, Unresponsive, and Dysfunctional Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated patterns of EEG (electroencephalographic) hemispheric asymmetry and penile tumescence in sexually functional and dysfunctional men. Twelve normal men were selected as responsive (n = 6) or unresponsive (n = 6) to laboratory presentations of erotic stimuli, and were compared to an age-matched sample of sexually dysfunctional men (n = 6). Each subject was exposed to a counterbalanced

Alan S. Cohen; Raymond C. Rosen; Leonide Goldstein

1985-01-01

131

Predator Cat Odors Activate Sexual Arousal Pathways in Brains of Toxoplasma gondii Infected Rats  

PubMed Central

Cat odors induce rapid, innate and stereotyped defensive behaviors in rats at first exposure, a presumed response to the evolutionary pressures of predation. Bizarrely, rats infected with the brain parasite Toxoplasma gondii approach the cat odors they typically avoid. Since the protozoan Toxoplasma requires the cat to sexually reproduce, this change in host behavior is thought to be a remarkable example of a parasite manipulating a mammalian host for its own benefit. Toxoplasma does not influence host response to non-feline predator odor nor does it alter behavior on olfactory, social, fear or anxiety tests, arguing for specific manipulation in the processing of cat odor. We report that Toxoplasma infection alters neural activity in limbic brain areas necessary for innate defensive behavior in response to cat odor. Moreover, Toxoplasma increases activity in nearby limbic regions of sexual attraction when the rat is exposed to cat urine, compelling evidence that Toxoplasma overwhelms the innate fear response by causing, in its stead, a type of sexual attraction to the normally aversive cat odor. PMID:21858053

House, Patrick K.; Vyas, Ajai; Sapolsky, Robert

2011-01-01

132

Sexual activity, health and well-being – the beneficial roles of coitus and masturbation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial and well-being effects of human sexual arousal induced by coitus or masturbation are reviewed. Greater sexual satisfaction and some health rewards are given by coitally obtained orgasms even though those from masturbation may be more physiologically intense. The functionality of the circulatory, neural and muscular systems of the male and female genitalia are maintained by arousal and orgasm

Roy J. Levin

2007-01-01

133

The Polarizing Effect of Arousal on Negotiation  

E-print Network

In this research, we examined the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and the prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized given its negative effect on negotiations, ...

Brown, Ashley D.

134

Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature.  

PubMed

Research on exposure to television and movie violence suggests that playing violent video games will increase aggressive behavior. A metaanalytic review of the video-game research literature reveals that violent video games increase aggressive behavior in children and young adults. Experimental and nonexperimental studies with males and females in laboratory and field settings support this conclusion. Analyses also reveal that exposure to violent video games increases physiological arousal and aggression-related thoughts and feelings. Playing violent video games also decreases prosocial behavior. PMID:11554666

Anderson, C A; Bushman, B J

2001-09-01

135

Arousal Effect of Physiological Magnetic Stimulation on Elder Person's Spine for Prevention of Drowsiness During Car Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for the prevention of drowsiness of eldery people during car driving is presented, in which a distributed-pulse magnetic field generated from a magnetized fayalite crushed stone crammed pipe is applied to their spine position. The effect for arousal is evaluated by measuring the subject’s back head magneto-encephalogram fast Fourier transform frequency spectra using a pico-Tesla resolution magnetoimpedance

Kaneo Mohri; Tsuyoshi Uchiyama; Muneo Yamada; Tatsuya Watanabe; Yasuya Inden; Takeshi Kato; Satoshi Iwata

2011-01-01

136

Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Helping Behavior, Aggressive Thoughts, Angry Feelings, and Physiological Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Meta-analytic procedures were used to review the results from 85 studies on violent video game effects. Violent video games\\u000a increase aggressive behavior, aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, and arousal levels, and decrease helpful behaviors. The\\u000a effects occurred for both children and adults and for both males and females. The more violent the video game, the stronger\\u000a the effects. Violent video game

Brad Bushman

2004-01-01

137

Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women's physiological  

E-print Network

Evidence for a curvilinear relationship between sympathetic nervous system activation and women that women's physiological sexual arousal is facilitated by moderate sympathetic nervous system (SNS evidence that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation plays a facilitatory role in women

Meston, Cindy

138

Ambivalent Affect and Sexual Response: The Impact of Co-Occurring Positive and Negative Emotions on Subjective and Physiological Sexual Responses to Erotic Stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to clarify the role of positive, negative, and ambivalent (i.e., co-occurring positive and negative) affect\\u000a in predicting subjective sexual arousal, sexual desire, and genital response. A total of 26 women and 19 men observed three\\u000a erotic film excerpts and a film excerpt depicting a coercive sexual encounter. Genital responses were recorded throughout\\u000a the study, and participants rated

Zoë D. Peterson; Erick Janssen

2007-01-01

139

Arousal from sleep - The physiological and subjective effects of a 15 dB/A/ reduction in aircraft flyover noise  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present research was concerned with whether or not a 15 dB(A) reduction in overall noise level would lessen the sleep disturbing properties of jet aircraft flyover noise and, if less disturbing, whether this would be subjectively appreciated by the sleeping individual. The results indicate that a reduction of 15 dB (A) does result in less sleep disruption but only during sleep characterized by fast-wave electroencephalographic activity. During sleep characterized by slow-wave electroencephalographic activity, such a reduction in the sleep-disturbing properties of jet aircraft noise has little effect. Moreover, even when effective during fast-wave sleep, the decreased arousal produced by the lower noise levels is not subjectively appreciated by the individual in terms of his estimate of the quality of his night's sleep. Thus, reducing the overall noise level of jet aircraft flyovers by some 15 dB(A), is, at best, minimally beneficial to sleep.

Levere, T. E.; Davis, N.

1977-01-01

140

Physiological Arousal for Companion Dogs Working With Their Owners in Animal-Assisted Activities and Animal-Assisted Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the physiological reactions of companion dogs (Canis familiaris) used in animal-assisted activities and animal-assisted therapy by measur- ing salivary cortisol concentrations. The dog caregivers (owners) collected saliva samples (a) at 3 control days without therapeutic work, (b) directly before and after each therapeutic session during 3 consecutive months, and (c) again at 3 control days without therapeutic

Dorit Karla Haubenhofer; Sylvia Kirchengast

2006-01-01

141

Arousal disorders.  

PubMed

Arousal Disorders (AD) are motor behaviours arising from NREM sleep. They comprise a spectrum of manifestations of increasing complexity from confusional arousal to sleep terror to sleepwalking. AD usually appear in childhood with a low frequency of episodes and spontaneously disappear before adolescence. The advent of video-polysomnography disclosed the existence of other phenomena alongside AD, in particular nocturnal frontal lobe seizures, requiring a differential diagnosis from AD. History-taking is usually sufficient to establish a correct diagnosis of AD even though viewing the episodes is essential for the clinician to distinguish the different motor events. Videopolysomnographic recording in a sleep laboratory is not always necessary and homemade video-recordings are useful to capture events closest to real life episodes. PMID:22136894

Provini, Federica; Tinuper, Paolo; Bisulli, Francesca; Lugaresi, Elio

2011-12-01

142

Brain Activation in Response to Visually Evoked Sexual Arousal in Male-to-Female Transsexuals: 3.0 Tesla Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Objective This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to contrast the differential brain activation patterns in response to visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures in male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals who underwent a sex reassignment surgery. Materials and Methods A total of nine healthy MTF transsexuals after a sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0 Tesla MR Scanner. The brain activation patterns were induced by visual stimulation with both male and female erotic nude pictures. Results The sex hormone levels of the postoperative MTF transsexuals were in the normal range of healthy heterosexual females. The brain areas, which were activated by viewing male nude pictures when compared with viewing female nude pictures, included predominantly the cerebellum, hippocampus, putamen, anterior cingulate gyrus, head of caudate nucleus, amygdala, midbrain, thalamus, insula, and body of caudate nucleus. On the other hand, brain activation induced by viewing female nude pictures was predominantly observed in the hypothalamus and the septal area. Conclusion Our findings suggest that distinct brain activation patterns associated with visual sexual arousal in postoperative MTF transsexuals reflect their sexual orientation to males. PMID:22563262

Oh, Seok-Kyun; Kim, Gwang-Won; Yang, Jong-Chul; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Kang, Heoung-Keun

2012-01-01

143

Testosterone, Endurance, and Darwinian Fitness: Natural and Sexual Selection on the Physiological  

E-print Network

Testosterone, Endurance, and Darwinian Fitness: Natural and Sexual Selection on the Physiological had higher levels of plasma testosterone (T), endurance, activity, and home range size: testosterone; territorial behavior; ESS; alternative male strategies; endurance. The presence of aggressive

Frankino, Tony

144

Psychophysiological Consequences of Unexplained Arousal: A Posthypnotic Suggestion Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment compared the emotional, cognitive, and physiological responses of Ss experiencing induced physiological arousal with and without awareness of the source of their arousal. Nine highly hypnotizable Ss and 9 nonhypnotizable controls were used in a within-subjects design. Each S received posthypnotic suggestions for arousal (increases in heart and respiration rate) with and without amnesia for its source in

Philip G. Zimbardo; Stephen LaBerge; Lisa D. Butler

1993-01-01

145

Self-Awareness of the Male Sexual Response after Spinal Cord Injury  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare…

Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R.; Mendes, Aline K.

2009-01-01

146

Prenatal loud music and noise: differential impact on physiological arousal, hippocampal synaptogenesis and spatial behavior in one day-old chicks.  

PubMed

Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation. PMID:23861759

Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

2013-01-01

147

Prenatal Loud Music and Noise: Differential Impact on Physiological Arousal, Hippocampal Synaptogenesis and Spatial Behavior in One Day-Old Chicks  

PubMed Central

Prenatal auditory stimulation in chicks with species-specific sound and music at 65 dB facilitates spatial orientation and learning and is associated with significant morphological and biochemical changes in the hippocampus and brainstem auditory nuclei. Increased noradrenaline level due to physiological arousal is suggested as a possible mediator for the observed beneficial effects following patterned and rhythmic sound exposure. However, studies regarding the effects of prenatal high decibel sound (110 dB; music and noise) exposure on the plasma noradrenaline level, synaptic protein expression in the hippocampus and spatial behavior of neonatal chicks remained unexplored. Here, we report that high decibel music stimulation moderately increases plasma noradrenaline level and positively modulates spatial orientation, learning and memory of one day-old chicks. In contrast, noise at the same sound pressure level results in excessive increase of plasma noradrenaline level and impairs the spatial behavior. Further, to assess the changes at the molecular level, we have quantified the expression of functional synapse markers: synaptophysin and PSD-95 in the hippocampus. Compared to the controls, both proteins show significantly increased expressions in the music stimulated group but decrease in expressions in the noise group. We propose that the differential increase of plasma noradrenaline level and altered expression of synaptic proteins in the hippocampus are responsible for the observed behavioral consequences following prenatal 110 dB music and noise stimulation. PMID:23861759

Sanyal, Tania; Kumar, Vivek; Nag, Tapas Chandra; Jain, Suman; Sreenivas, Vishnu; Wadhwa, Shashi

2013-01-01

148

Functional Neuroanatomy of the Noradrenergic Locus Coeruleus: Its Roles in the Regulation of Arousal and Autonomic Function Part II: Physiological and Pharmacological Manipulations and Pathological Alterations of Locus Coeruleus Activity in Humans  

PubMed Central

The locus coeruleus (LC), the major noradrenergic nucleus of the brain, gives rise to fibres innervating most structures of the neuraxis. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped to unravel the neuronal circuitry controlling a number of physiological functions in which the LC plays a central role. Two such functions are the regulation of arousal and autonomic activity, which are inseparably linked largely via the involvement of the LC. Alterations in LC activity due to physiological or pharmacological manipulations or pathological processes can lead to distinct patterns of change in arousal and autonomic function. Physiological manipulations considered here include the presentation of noxious or anxiety-provoking stimuli and extremes in ambient temperature. The modification of LC-controlled functions by drug administration is discussed in detail, including drugs which directly modify the activity of LC neurones (e.g., via autoreceptors, storage, reuptake) or have an indirect effect through modulating excitatory or inhibitory inputs. The early vulnerability of the LC to the ageing process and to neurodegenerative disease (Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases) is of considerable clinical significance. In general, physiological manipulations and the administration of stimulant drugs, ?2-adrenoceptor antagonists and noradrenaline uptake inhibitors increase LC activity and thus cause heightened arousal and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. In contrast, the administration of sedative drugs, including ?2-adrenoceptor agonists, and pathological changes in LC function in neurodegenerative disorders and ageing reduce LC activity and result in sedation and activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. PMID:19506724

Samuels, E. R; Szabadi, E

2008-01-01

149

Healthy Sexuality  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or her sexuality. Let’s talk about how a woman’s body responds to sexual stimulation. During sexual arousal, blood flow increases to a woman’s genitals. Her vagina is lubricated by secretions from ...

150

Anatomy and Physiology of Female Sexual Function and Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sexual dysfunction is a significant age–related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women in the United States. The female sexual response cycle is initiated by neurotransmitter–mediated vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle relaxation resulting in increased pelvic blood flow, vaginal lubrication, and clitoral and labial engorgement. These mechanisms are mediated by a combination of neuromuscular

Jennifer R. Berman; Sapana P. Adhikari; Irwin Goldstein

2000-01-01

151

Arousal and consumer in-store behavior.  

PubMed

From a psychophysiological point of view, arousal is a fundamental feature of behavior. As reported in different empirical studies based on insights from theories of consumer behavior, store atmosphere should evoke phasic arousal reactions to attract consumers. Most of these empirical investigations used verbal scales to measure consumers' perceived phasic arousal at the point-of-sale (POS). However, the validity of verbal arousal measurement is questioned; self-reporting methods only allow a time-lagged measurement. Furthermore, the selection of inappropriate items to represent perceived arousal is criticized, and verbal reports require some form of cognitive evaluation of perceived arousal by the individual, who might (in a non-measurement condition) not even be aware of the arousal. By contrast, phasic electrodermal reaction (EDR) has proven to be the most appropriate and valid indicator for measuring arousal [W. Boucsein, Physiologische Grundlagen und Messmethoden der dermalen Aktivität. In: F. Rösler (Ed.), Enzyklopädie der Psychologie, Bereich Psychophysiologie, Band 1: Grundlagen and Methoden der Psychophysiologie, Kapitel, Vol. 7, Hogrefe, Göttingen, 2001, pp. 551-623] that could be relevant to behavior. EDR can be recorded simultaneously to the perception of stimuli. Furthermore, telemetric online device can be used, which enables physiological arousal measurement while participants can move freely through the store and perform the assigned task in the experiments. The present paper delivers insights on arousal theory and results from empirical studies using EDR to measure arousal at the POS. PMID:16216690

Groeppel-Klein, Andrea

2005-11-15

152

Arousability and Dreaming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study finds that dream valence and the frequency with which several types of dreams were experienced are related to arousability. Specifically, compared to 214 university students who were classified as low in arousability, 182 university students who were high in arousability reported more frequent dreams for all seven types of dreams measured. This relationship between arousability and dreaming was

Robert A. Hicks; Eileen Fortin; Glenn S. Brassington

2002-01-01

153

Processing Radio PSAs: Production Pacing, Arousing Content, and Age  

Microsoft Academic Search

This experiment uses the limited capacity model of mediated message processing (LC3MP) to investigate the effects of production pacing and arousing content in radio public service announcements (PSAs) on the emotional and cognitive responses of college-age and tween (9–12-year-olds) participants. The LC3MP predicts that both arousing content and production pacing should increase emotional arousal, physiological arousal, cognitive effort, and encoding

Annie Lang; Nancy Schwartz; Seungjo Lee; James Angelini

2007-01-01

154

Acute Effects of Nicotine on Physiological and Subjective Sexual Arousal in Nonsmoking Men: A Randomized, Double-Blind,  

E-print Network

, pathophysiological underpinnings of tobacco-induced--and particularly, nicotine- induced--erectile dysfunction between long-term cigarette smoking and erectile dysfunction (ED) is robust and indicates that cigarette functioning and catecholamine modu- lation, which may compromise erectile functioning. Evidence that long

Meston, Cindy

155

Self-awareness of the male sexual response after spinal cord injury.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of spinal cord injury on men's sexual motivation, through the sexual desire self-assessment, and the sexual arousal and orgasm physiological responses. This research consisted of a descriptive, nonprobabilistic and comparative study, designed to outline the target population characteristics to compare the studied variables. Forty spinal cord injured male patients and a control group composed of 50 able-bodied male individuals filled in a questionnaire that assessed sexual behaviour, functioning and satisfaction. Comparing the control group with the injured group in the postinjury period, there was no significant difference in the sexual desire; however, in relation to sexual arousal and the orgasm intensity, there was a significant difference. The same results were found when comparing the injured participants' preinjury and postinjury period reports. It was clear that the injury significantly reduced sexual arousal among quadriplegic participants and orgasm intensity among both quadriplegic and paraplegic men. The spinal cord injury had a significant impact on sexual arousal and orgasm physiological response, although the sexual desire perception was not significantly altered, indicating that spinal cord injury affects these men's sexual behaviour in terms of sexual performance and body sensitivity. PMID:19011580

Cardoso, Fernando Luiz; Savall, Ana Carolina R; Mendes, Aline K

2009-12-01

156

ORIGINAL RESEARCH--PHYSIOLOGY The Inhibitory Effects of Nicotine on Physiological Sexual  

E-print Network

as nonsmokers to report erectile dysfunction [12­19]. However, limited research has investigated this link that long-term cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for the introduction of sexual dysfunction indicates that cigarette smok- ing is an independent risk factor for introducing vasculogenic erectile

Meston, Cindy

157

Misattribution of arousal in negotiation : the role of the eye of the beholder  

E-print Network

This dissertation examines the impact of physiological arousal on negotiation outcomes. Conventional wisdom and extant prescriptive literature suggest that arousal should be minimized, given its assumed negative effect on ...

Brown, Ashley D. (Ashley Diane)

2013-01-01

158

Sexual Dysfunctions Cindy M. Meston and Andrea Bradford  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 FEMALE ORGASMIC DISORDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Definitions-5943/07/0427-0233$20.00 Key Words women's sexuality, orgasm, desire, arousal, sexual pain Abstract In this article, we. 1994) Contents INTRODUCTION. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 FEMALE SEXUAL DESIRE AND AROUSAL

Meston, Cindy

159

Arousal, Personality, and Assortative Mating in Marriage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A compound major individual difference variable having a putative physiological basis--arousal and the stimulation-seeking motive, which has not heretofore been intestigated in studies of assortative mating--was the focus of the present study. In addition, three choticism--were included for study. (Author)

Farley, Frank H.; Davis, Sandy A.

1977-01-01

160

Psychological factors predicting the distress to female persistent genital arousal symptoms.  

PubMed

Symptoms of persistent genital arousal are expected to negatively affect women's sexual and emotional well-being. However, not all women who experience persistent genital arousal complain about their genital condition. Against this background, this study aimed to evaluate psychological predictors of the distress associated with persistent genital arousal symptoms, as well as psychological moderators influencing the conditions under which persistent genital arousal causes distress. A total of 117 women reporting symptoms of persistent genital arousal answered to online questionnaires measuring personality traits, sexual beliefs, and dyadic adjustment. Women have also completed a checklist measuring the frequency/severity of persistent genital arousal symptoms and the distress/impairment caused by these symptoms. Results showed that neuroticism, (low) openness, sexual conservatism, and (low) dyadic adjustment significantly predicted distress associated with genital symptoms. Furthermore, sexual conservatism was found to moderate the relation between the symptoms' severity and the distress associated with those symptoms. Overall, sexual conservatism seems to be a key differentiator factor, influencing the psychological conditions under which women may report higher levels of distress caused by persistent genital arousal. Because such findings focus on the distress to genital arousal symptoms rather than on persistent genital arousal disorder as a clinical entity, the results under consideration may or may not characterize women formally assigned to the persistent genital arousal disorder label. PMID:24328817

Carvalho, Joana; Veríssimo, Ana; Nobre, Pedro J

2015-01-01

161

Sexual and affective responses to same- and opposite-sex stimuli in heterosexual and homosexual men: assessment and manipulation of visual attention.  

PubMed

Affective and cognitive factors play an important role in the activation and regulation of men's sexual arousal. Barlow (1986) argued that initial affective reactions determine the allocation of attention to sexual stimuli. We applied Barlow's model to our understanding of the role of sexual arousal in sexual orientation, where sexual arousal patterns have consistently been found to be congruent with self-reported orientation in men, but not in women. Visual attention of 28 heterosexual and 22 homosexual men to same- and opposite-sex erotic stimuli was assessed and experimentally-directed by means of a newly developed software application, while genital (penile rigidity) and affective responses (self-reported and physiological) were measured. In line with previous research, we found "category specificity" in men's sexual arousal, in that sexual responses were strongest to orientation-congruent stimuli. Also, both homosexual and heterosexual men experienced stronger sexual responses to conditions in which their attention was directed to sexual versus nonsexual content of orientation-congruent stimuli. Only homosexual men manifested higher sexual responses when their visual attention was directed towards the sexual content of orientation-incongruent stimuli. Heterosexual men experienced weaker positive and stronger negative affective responses to orientation-incongruent content, suggestive of potential avoidance or inhibitory mechanisms. PMID:24473940

Samson, Lelia; Janssen, Erick

2014-07-01

162

Relationship between Arousal Intensity and Heart Rate Response to Arousal  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The visual appearance of cortical arousals varies considerably, from barely meeting scoring criteria to very intense arousals. Arousal from sleep is associated with an increase in heart rate (HR). Our objective was to quantify the intensity of arousals in an objective manner using the time and frequency characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and to determine whether HR response to arousal correlates with arousal intensity so determined. Design: Post hoc analysis of 20 preexisting polysomnography (PSG) files. Setting: Research and Development Laboratory (YRT Limited). Participants: N/A. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Arousals were scored using the American Academy of Sleep Medicine criteria. The EEG signals' time and frequency characteristics were determined using wavelet analysis. An automatic algorithm was developed to scale arousal intensity based on the change in wavelet features and data from a training set obtained from 271 arousals visually scaled between zero and nine (most intense). There were 2,695 arousals in 20 PSGs that were scaled. HR response (?HR) was defined as the difference between the highest HR in the interval [arousal-onset to (arousal-end +8 sec)] and the highest HR between 2 and 12 sec preceding arousal onset. There was a strong correlation between arousal scale and ?HR within each subject (average r: 0.95 ± 0.04). The slope of the relationship varied among subjects (0.7-2.4 min-1/unit scale). Conclusions: Arousal intensity, quantified by wavelet transform, is strongly associated with arousal-related tachycardia, and the gain of the relationship varies among subjects. Quantifying arousal intensity in PSGs provides additional information that may be clinically relevant. Citation: Azarbarzin A; Ostrowski M; Hanly P; Younes M. Relationship between arousal intensity and heart rate response to arousal. SLEEP 2014;37(4):645-653. PMID:24899756

Azarbarzin, Ali; Ostrowski, Michele; Hanly, Patrick; Younes, Magdy

2014-01-01

163

How Women’s Nonconscious Association of Sex with Submission Relates to Their Subjective Sexual Arousability and Ability to Reach Orgasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common cultural stereotypes promote women’s submission to men, especially within intimate heterosexual relationships. Mirroring these stereotypes, women possess nonconscious associations between sex and submission (Sanchez, Kiefer & Ybarra, 2006). Moreover, women’s sex-submission associations predict greater reports of engagement in submissive sexual behavior (Sanchez et al., 2006). In the present research, we again found that women associate sex with submission at

Amy K. Kiefer; Diana T. Sanchez; Christina J. Kalinka; Oscar Ybarra

2006-01-01

164

Cortical arousal influences early visual perception Cortical arousal influences early but not late visual perception  

E-print Network

in clinical settings to increase physiological arousal (cold pressor stimulation [CPS]--immersing the foot-Rill3, David Chichka4, Samuel Potolicchio5, & Mark Mennemeier3 1Department of Psychology, George in iced water for 50 seconds): One group completed a contrast threshold task (n=17), while the other group

Chatterjee, Anjan

165

A prospective examination of the role of childhood sexual abuse and physiological asymmetry in the development of psychopathology  

PubMed Central

Objective Recent literature has emphasized the simultaneous assessment of multiple physiological stress response systems in an effort to identify biobehavioral risk factors of psychopathology in maltreated populations. The current study assessed whether an asymmetrical stress response, marked by activation in one system and a blunted response in another system, predicted higher levels of psychopathology over time. Methods Data were collected from an ongoing, prospective study of females with a substantiated history of childhood sexual abuse (n = 52) and a non-abused comparison group (n = 77). Childhood sexual abuse was determined at the initial study visit. Vagal tone and cortisol were measured 7 years later to assess physiological response to a laboratory stressor across these systems. Depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors were assessed 6 years after the completion of the laboratory stressor. Results Structural equation modeling indicated that a prior history of childhood sexual abuse predicted an asymmetrical physiological response to stress in late adolescence. In turn, this asymmetrical response predicted both higher levels of depression and antisocial behaviors in young adulthood. Conclusions Childhood sexual abuse may sensitize females to respond to moderate daily stressors in a manner that places them at higher risk for experiencing depressive symptom and antisocial behaviors over time. Practice implications The management of mild to moderate stress in the everyday lives of maltreated females may be a particularly useful point of intervention in order to protect against later psychopathology PMID:20850183

Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

2010-01-01

166

Growth hormone, prolactin, and sexuality.  

PubMed

GH and PRL, although not considered as 'classical' sexual hormones, could play a role in the endocrine control of sexual function both in men and women. Physiologically, PRL seems to be involved in the central control of sexual behavior and activity, by modulating mainly the effects of dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems on sexual function. Indeed, circulating PRL levels increase after orgasm and may potentially play a role in the acute regulation of further sexual arousal following orgasm both in men and women. On the other hand, either short-term or long-term PRL increase can modulate central nervous system areas involved in the control of sexual function and, peripherally, can directly influence mechanisms of penile erection in men, and presently only as an hypothesis, mechanisms related to the sexual response of genitalia in women. Furthermore, chronic hyperprolactinemia is classically associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction in both sexes. Successful treatment of chronic hyperprolactinemia generally restores normal sexual function both in men and women although this effect is not only related to relapse of gonadal function. Hypoprolactinemia is recently recognised as a possible risk factor of arteriogenic erectile dysfunction while a possible role on female sexual function is not known. The physiological role of GH on sexual function is not fully elucidated. GH is an important regulator of hypothalamuspituitary- gonadal axis and seems to participate in the regulation of the sexual response of genitalia in men, and potentially also in women. Sexual function in men and women with GH deficiency (GHD) and GH excess, particularly in acromegaly, is scantily studied and GH- or IGF-I-dependent effects are difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, a decrease of desire and arousability both in men and women, together with an impairment of erectile function in men, have been described both in patients with GHD and acromegaly, although it is not clear whether they are dependent directly on the hormone defect or excess or they are consequence of the hypogonadism or the different clinical complications or the physical disfigurement and psychological imbalance, which are associated with the diseases, and are potentially affecting sexual function. Data on beneficial effects of GH replacement therapy and specific surgical or pharmacological approach for acromegaly are far to be fully elucidated although restoring normal GH/IGF-I levels have been associated to improvement of sexual function. PMID:23014134

Galdiero, M; Pivonello, R; Grasso, L F S; Cozzolino, A; Colao, A

2012-09-01

167

Trazodone Increases the Respiratory Arousal Threshold in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and a Low Arousal Threshold  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: The effect of common sedatives on upper airway physiology and breathing during sleep in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has been minimally studied. Conceptually, certain sedatives may worsen OSA in some patients. However, sleep and breathing could improve with certain sedatives in patients with OSA with a low respiratory arousal threshold. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with OSA and a low arousal threshold. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of trazodone on upper airway dilator muscle activity, upper airway collapsibility, and breathing during sleep. Design: Patients were studied on 4 separate nights according to a within-subjects cross-over design. Setting: Sleep physiology laboratory. Patients: Seven patients with OSA and a low respiratory arousal threshold. Interventions: In-laboratory polysomnograms were obtained at baseline and after 100 mg of trazodone was administered, followed by detailed overnight physiology experiments under the same conditions. During physiology studies, continuous positive airway pressure was transiently lowered to measure arousal threshold (negative epiglottic pressure prior to arousal), dilator muscle activity (genioglossus and tensor palatini), and upper airway collapsibility (Pcrit). Measurements and Results: Trazodone increased the respiratory arousal threshold by 32 ± 6% (-11.5 ± 1.4 versus -15.3 ± 2.2 cmH2O, P < 0.01) but did not alter the apnea-hypopnea index (39 ± 12 versus 39 ± 11 events/h sleep, P = 0.94). Dilator muscle activity and Pcrit also did not systematically change with trazodone. Conclusions: Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold without major impairment in dilator muscle activity or upper airway collapsibility. However, the magnitude of change in arousal threshold was insufficient to overcome the compromised upper airway anatomy in these patients. Citation: Eckert DJ; Malhotra A; Wellman A; White DP. Trazodone increases the respiratory arousal threshold in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and a low arousal threshold. SLEEP 2014;37(4):811-819. PMID:24899767

Eckert, Danny J.; Malhotra, Atul; Wellman, Andrew; White, David P.

2014-01-01

168

Vol. 150, No. 1 The American Naturalist July 1997 COMPARISONS OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE IN SEXUAL  

E-print Network

IN SEXUAL AND ASEXUAL WHIPTAIL LIZARDS (GENUS CNEMIDOPHORUS): IMPLICATIONS FOR THE ROLE OF HETEROZYGOSITY of asexual and sexual species of the lizard genus Cnemi- dophorus. Asexual species of the genus are parthenogenetically reproducing hybrids of the sexual species and as a result have high levels of heterozygosity

Burk, Theodore E.

169

REPLICATIONS AND EXTENSIONS IN AROUSAL ASSESSMENT FOR SEX OFFENDERS WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DISABILITIES  

PubMed Central

Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual preferences, thus replicating and extending previous research. The results provide preliminary data for establishing a preference gradient by age. Implications for the use of repeated measures and preference gradients in arousal assessments are discussed. PMID:21709795

Reyes, Jorge R; Vollmer, Timothy R; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

170

Replications and Extensions in Arousal Assessment for Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in phallometric assessments that involved repeated measures of arousal when exposed to various stimuli. Arousal assessment outcomes were similar to those obtained by Reyes et al. (2006). Additional data-analysis methods provided further information about sexual…

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

171

Can Fear Arousal in Public Health Campaigns Contribute to the Decline of HIV Prevalence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most American health professionals who work in HIV\\/AIDS do not support the use of fear arousal in AIDS preventive education, believing it to be counterproductive. Meanwhile, many Africans, whether laypersons, health professionals, or politicians, seem to believe there is a legitimate role for fear arousal in changing sexual behavior. This African view is the one more supported by the empirical

Edward C. Green; Kim Witte

2006-01-01

172

Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder Misdiagnosed Due to Islamic Religious Bathing Rituals: A Report of 3 Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is not well known or adequately understood by physicians. PGAD is characterized by a persistent and highly unwanted state of genital arousal and orgasm-like feelings. “Ghusl” is an ablution in Islamic culture, which is an obligatory ritual wherein the body is washed thoroughly after exposure to “religious contaminants,” such as sexual intercourse, menstruation, and childbirth.

Ejder Akgun Yildirim; Munevver Hacioglu; Altan Essizoglu; Ilker Kucukparlak

2012-01-01

173

Persistent Genital Arousal Disorder Misdiagnosed Because of Islamic Religious Bathing Rituals: A Report of Three Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Persistent genital arousal disorder is not well known or adequately understood by physicians. The disorder is characterized by a persistent and highly unwanted state of genital arousal and orgasm-like feelings. Ghusl is an ablution in Islamic culture, which is an obligatory ritual wherein the body is washed thoroughly after exposure to religious contaminants such as sexual intercourse, menstruation, and childbirth.

Ejder Akgun Yildirim; Munevver Hacioglu; Altan Essizoglu; Ilker Kucukparlak

2012-01-01

174

CNS arousal mechanisms bearing on sex and other biologically regulated behaviors  

Microsoft Academic Search

It now seems possible to move beyond analyzing only the mechanisms for specific sexual behaviors to the analysis of ‘generalized arousal’ that underlies all motivated behaviors. Our science has advanced sufficiently to attack mechanisms linking specific motivations to these general arousal mechanisms that intrinsically activate all biologically-regulated behaviors including ingestive behaviors. Learning from the well-developed reproductive behavior paradigm, we know

Nino Devidze; Anna W. Lee; Jin Zhou; Donald W. Pfaff

2006-01-01

175

The Influence of Presession Factors in the Assessment of Deviant Arousal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three adult male sex offenders with developmental disabilities participated in an evaluation of presession factors that may influence levels of sexual arousal measured with a penile plethysmograph. We evaluated the effects of presession masturbation (1 participant) and arousal-suppression strategies (2 participants). Results showed that presession…

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Hall, Astrid

2011-01-01

176

Sexually mature and immature yearling male European ground squirrels: A comparison of behavioral and physiological parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Early puberty may increase lifetime reproductive success, but may also entail diverse costs. In male European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus), age at sexual maturity varies among individuals. We compared sexually active and inactive yearling males under standardized conditions in outdoor enclosures. Non-reproductive yearling males hibernated significantly longer than mature males and emerged when the mating period had already started. Testosterone

Anna Strauss; Elvira Mascher; Rupert Palme; Eva Millesi

2007-01-01

177

Stepping Up the Pressure: Arousal Can Be Associated with a Reduction in Male Aggression  

PubMed Central

The attentional myopia model of behavioral control (Mann & Ward, 2007) was tested in an experiment investigating the relationship between physiological arousal and aggression. Drawing on previous work linking arousal and narrowed attentional focus, the model predicts that arousal will lead to behavior that is relatively disinhibited in situations in which promoting pressures to aggress are highly salient. In situations in which inhibitory pressures are more salient, the model predicts behavior that is relatively restrained. In the experiment, 81 male undergraduates delivered noise-blasts against a provoking confederate while experiencing either high or low levels of physiological arousal and, at the same time, being exposed to cues that served either to promote or inhibit aggression. In addition to supporting the predictions of the model, this experiment provided some of the first evidence for enhanced control of aggression under conditions of heightened physiological arousal. Implications for interventions designed to reduce aggression are discussed. PMID:18561301

Ward, Andrew; Mann, Traci; Westling, Erika H.; Creswell, J. David; Ebert, Jeffrey P.; Wallaert, Matthew

2009-01-01

178

A Specific Role for the Thalamus in Mediating the Interaction of Attention and Arousal in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiological basis for the interaction of selective attention and arousal is not clearly understood. Here we present evi- dence in humans that specifically implicates the thalamus in this interaction. We used functional magnetic resonance imag- ing to measure brain activity during the performance of an attentional task under different levels of arousal. Activity evoked in the ventrolateral thalamus by

C. M. Portas; G. Rees; A. M. Howseman; O. Josephs; R. Turner; C. D. Frith

1998-01-01

179

Effects of accuracy feedback versus monetary contingency on arousal in high and low frequency gamblers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects on arousal of feedback regarding prediction accuracy without monetary gain or loss versus accuracy feedback combined with monetary contingency involved in most gambling. Physiological and subjective arousal was assessed in frequent (n = 35; 16 females) and infrequent gamblers (n = 35; 16 females) during participation in a laboratory gambling game. Both samples consisted of

Kevin J. Roby; Mark A. Lumley

1995-01-01

180

Toward a psychological theory of multidimensional activation (arousal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional physiologically defined activation or arousal continuum, which ranges from intense emotion and vigorous activity on one extreme to calmness and sleep on the other, is rejected in favor of a psychological model with two activation dimensions and a single continuum of energy expenditure. One activation dimension ranges from subjectively defined feelings of energy and vigor to the opposite

Robert E. Thayer

1978-01-01

181

Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.  

PubMed

Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use. PMID:23733155

Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

2014-04-01

182

Narratives of Desire in Mid-Age Women With and Without Arousal Difficulties  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is controversy about the nature of women's sexual desire. The aim was to explore narrative descriptions of sexual desire among mid-aged women in hopes of clarifying how women define and experience sexual desire, and how these might differ among women with and without female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Mid-aged women without (age: M = 45, n = 12) and with (age: M = 55, n = 10)

Lori A. Brotto; Julia R. Heiman; Deborah L. Tolman

2009-01-01

183

Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is suggested that emotional states may be considered a function of a state of physiological arousal and of a cognition appropriate to this state of arousal. From this follows these propositions: (a) Given a state of physiological arousal for which an individual has no immediate explanation, he will label this state and describe his feelings in terms of the

Stanley Schachter; Jerome Singer

1962-01-01

184

The motivation behind serial sexual homicide: is it sex, power, and control, or anger?  

PubMed

Controversy exists in the literature and society regarding what motivates serial sexual killers to commit their crimes. Hypotheses range from the seeking of sexual gratification to the achievement of power and control to the expression of anger. The authors provide theoretical, empirical, evolutionary, and physiological support for the argument that serial sexual murderers above all commit their crimes in pursuit of sadistic pleasure. The seeking of power and control over victims is believed to serve the two secondary purposes of heightening sexual arousal and ensuring victim presence for the crime. Anger is not considered a key component of these offenders' motivation due to its inhibitory physiological effect on sexual functioning. On the contrary, criminal investigations into serial sexual killings consistently reveal erotically charged crimes, with sexual motivation expressed either overtly or symbolically. Although anger may be correlated with serial sexual homicide offenders, as it is with criminal offenders in general, it is not causative. The authors further believe serial sexual murderers should be considered sex offenders. A significant proportion of them appear to have paraphilic disorders within the spectrum of sexual sadism. "sexual sadism, homicidal type" is proposed as a diagnostic subtype of sexual sadism applicable to many of these offenders, and a suggested modification of DSM criteria is presented. PMID:16882237

Myers, Wade C; Husted, David S; Safarik, Mark E; O'Toole, Mary Ellen

2006-07-01

185

Level of postassault sexual functioning in rape and incest victims  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a systematic study, 372 sexual assault survivors and 99 women with no history of sexual assault were interviewed with regard to their sexual histories to determine the incidence and types of sexual dysfunctions in these two samples. The women also completed the Sexual Arousability Inventory. Of the sexual assault survivors, 58.6% of the women were experiencing sexual dysfunctions, with

Judith V. Becker; Linda J. Skinner; Gene G. Abel; Joan Cichon

1986-01-01

186

Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

2008-01-01

187

Pornography and the sex offender: Patterns of previous exposure and arousal effects of pornographic stimuli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Showed 63 male sex and 66 male criminal code offenders a series of 26 slides depicting different sexual behaviors. Ss were also interviewed about their past exposure to pornography. No differences were found between the 2 groups on the measure of rated overall sexual arousal to the slides. Numerous differences were found between the 2 groups in their past exposure

Royer F. Cook; Robert H. Fosen; Asher Pacht

1971-01-01

188

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SEXUAL SELF-CONCEPT INVENTORY FOR EARLY ADOLESCENT GIRLS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sexual Self-Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed to assess sexual self-concept in an ethnically diverse sample of urban early adolescent girls. Three scales (Sexual Arousability, Sexual Agency, and Negative Sexual Affect) were shown to be distinct and reliable dimensions of girls' sexual self-concepts. Validity was established through comparisons with established instruments. Sexual Arousability and Sexual Agency were associated with positive

Lucia F. O'Sullivan; Heino F. L. Meyer-Bahlburg; Ian W. McKeague

2006-01-01

189

Sexual Behavior in Adults with Autism.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of the sexual behavior of 89 adults with autism living in group homes found that the majority of individuals were engaging in some form of sexual behavior. Masturbation was the most common sexual behavior; however, person-oriented sexual behaviors with obvious signs of arousal were also found. Information regarding group home sexuality…

Van Bourgondien, Mary E.; And Others

1997-01-01

190

Puberty and adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexuality emerges as a major developmental element of puberty and the adolescent years that follow. However, connecting the sexuality that emerges with puberty and elements of adult sexuality is difficult because much adolescent sexuality research addresses the transition to partnered sexual behaviors (primarily coitus) and consequences such as unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. This review proposes a framework of an expanded understanding of puberty and adolescent sexuality from the perspective of four hallmarks of adult sexuality: sexual desire; sexual arousal; sexual behaviors; and, sexual function. This approach thus addresses important gaps in understanding of the ontogeny of sex and the continuum of sexuality development from adolescence through the adult lifespan. PMID:23998672

Fortenberry, J Dennis

2013-07-01

191

ORIGINAL RESEARCH--ANATOMY/PHYSIOLOGY The Sensitivity of Continuous Laboratory Measures of  

E-print Network

; Female Sexual Dysfunction; Female Sexual Arousal Disorder; Female Sexual Function Index; Female Orgasmic with and without sexual arousal or orgasm dysfunction; and (ii) examine the diagnostic utility of measuring healthy women (n = 12), women with orgasm disorder (OD; n = 12), and 38 women who met the criteria

Meston, Cindy

192

Phenotypic variability of physiological traits in populations of sexual and asexual whiptail lizards (genus Cnemidophorus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major potential disadvantages to asexual reproduction is believed to be a reduction in phenotypic variability. This study represents an empirical test for such a reduction in the variance of physiological traits in parthenogenetic species of the lizard genus Cnemidophorus. Five performance traits (burst speed, endurance, maximal exertion, standard metabolic rate and evaporative water loss rate) were examined

Alistair J. Cullum

193

Sexual dimorphism in offspring glucose-sensitive hypothalamic gene expression and physiological responses to maternal high-fat diet feeding.  

PubMed

A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, we investigated offspring physiological and transcriptomic consequences of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding during pregnancy and/or lactation. We demonstrate that female offspring of high-fat/high-sugar diet-fed dams are particularly vulnerable to metabolic perturbation with body weight increases due to postnatal processes, whereas in utero effects of the diet ultimately lead to glucose homeostasis dysregulation. Furthermore, glucose- and maternal-diet sensitive gene expression modulation in the paraventricular hypothalamus is strikingly sexually dimorphic. In summary, we uncover female-specific, maternal diet-mediated in utero misprogramming of offspring glucose homeostasis and a striking sexual dimorphism in glucose- and maternal diet-sensitive paraventricular hypothalamus gene expression adjustment. Notably, female offspring metabolic vulnerability to maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet propagates a vicious cycle of obesity and type 2 diabetes in subsequent generations. PMID:24684305

Dearden, Laura; Balthasar, Nina

2014-06-01

194

Sexual Dimorphism in Offspring Glucose-Sensitive Hypothalamic Gene Expression and Physiological Responses to Maternal High-Fat Diet Feeding  

PubMed Central

A wealth of animal and human studies demonstrate that early life environment significantly influences adult metabolic balance, however the etiology for offspring metabolic misprogramming remains incompletely understood. Here, we determine the effect of maternal diet per se on offspring sex-specific outcomes in metabolic health and hypothalamic transcriptome regulation in mice. Furthermore, to define developmental periods of maternal diet misprogramming aspects of offspring metabolic balance, we investigated offspring physiological and transcriptomic consequences of maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet feeding during pregnancy and/or lactation. We demonstrate that female offspring of high-fat/high-sugar diet-fed dams are particularly vulnerable to metabolic perturbation with body weight increases due to postnatal processes, whereas in utero effects of the diet ultimately lead to glucose homeostasis dysregulation. Furthermore, glucose- and maternal-diet sensitive gene expression modulation in the paraventricular hypothalamus is strikingly sexually dimorphic. In summary, we uncover female-specific, maternal diet-mediated in utero misprogramming of offspring glucose homeostasis and a striking sexual dimorphism in glucose- and maternal diet-sensitive paraventricular hypothalamus gene expression adjustment. Notably, female offspring metabolic vulnerability to maternal high-fat/high-sugar diet propagates a vicious cycle of obesity and type 2 diabetes in subsequent generations. PMID:24684305

Dearden, Laura

2014-01-01

195

Mind over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress  

PubMed Central

Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well-understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally-negative information. Participants were randomly assigned to either a reappraisal condition in which they were instructed to think about their physiological arousal during a stressful task as functional and adaptive, or to one of two control conditions: attention reorientation and no instructions. Relative to controls, participants instructed to reappraise their arousal exhibited more adaptive cardiovascular stress responses – increased cardiac efficiency and lower vascular resistance – and decreased attentional bias. Thus, reappraising arousal shows physiological and cognitive benefits. Implications for health and potential clinical applications are discussed. PMID:21942377

Jamieson, Jeremy P.; Nock, Matthew K.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2012-01-01

196

Mind over matter: reappraising arousal improves cardiovascular and cognitive responses to stress.  

PubMed

Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally negative information. Participants were randomly assigned to either a reappraisal condition in which they were instructed to think about their physiological arousal during a stressful task as functional and adaptive, or to 1 of 2 control conditions: attention reorientation and no instructions. Relative to controls, participants instructed to reappraise their arousal exhibited more adaptive cardiovascular stress responses-increased cardiac efficiency and lower vascular resistance-and decreased attentional bias. Thus, reappraising arousal shows physiological and cognitive benefits. Implications for health and potential clinical applications are discussed. PMID:21942377

Jamieson, Jeremy P; Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

2012-08-01

197

Women's sexual responses to heterosexual and lesbian erotica: the role of stimulus intensity, affective reaction, and sexual history.  

PubMed

Past research has demonstrated that women do not show a "category-specific" genital response to erotic stimuli. That is, on average, heterosexual and lesbian women are indistinguishable in terms of their physiological genital responses to heterosexual versus lesbian erotica. In two studies with heterosexual women (n = 28 for Study 1; n = 30 for Study 2) and lesbians (n = 24 for Study 1; n = 25 for Study 2), results confirmed that, on average, women did not show category-specific genital responses or category-specific subjective sexual arousal. However, there was evidence of notable within-group variability; many women did respond to the stimuli in a category-specific manner. Heterosexual women were more likely than lesbian women to demonstrate category-specificity. Findings also revealed that category-specificity was associated with multiple factors, including affective responses to the erotic stimuli and sexual history. Results of this study highlight the complexity of women's sexual identities and sexual responses. PMID:19856092

Peterson, Zoë D; Janssen, Erick; Laan, Ellen

2010-08-01

198

At a Supra-Physiological Concentration, Human Sexual Hormones Act as Quorum-Sensing Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated quorum-sensing (QS) regulates virulence functions in plant and animal pathogens such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A chemolibrary of more than 3500 compounds was screened using two bacterial AHL-biosensors to identify QS-inhibitors (QSIs). The purity and structure of 15 QSIs selected through this screening were verified using HPLC MS/MS tools and their activity tested on the A. tumefaciens and P. aeruginosa bacterial models. The IC50 value of the identified QSIs ranged from 2.5 to 90 µg/ml, values that are in the same range as those reported for the previously identified QSI 4-nitropyridine-N-oxide (IC50 24 µg/ml). Under the tested culture conditions, most of the identified QSIs did not exhibit bacteriostatic or bactericidal activities. One third of the tested QSIs, including the plant compound hordenine and the human sexual hormone estrone, decreased the frequency of the QS-regulated horizontal transfer of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid in A. tumefaciens. Hordenine, estrone as well as its structural relatives estriol and estradiol, also decreased AHL accumulation and the expression of six QS-regulated genes (lasI, lasR, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, and rhlA) in cultures of the opportunist pathogen P. aeruginosa. Moreover, the ectopic expression of the AHL-receptors RhlR and LasR of P. aeruginosa in E. coli showed that their gene-regulatory activity was affected by the QSIs. Finally, modeling of the structural interactions between the human hormones and AHL-receptors LasR of P. aeruginosa and TraR of A. tumefaciens confirmed the competitive binding capability of the human sexual hormones. This work indicates potential interferences between bacterial and eukaryotic hormonal communications. PMID:24376718

Beury-Cirou, Amelie; Tannieres, Melanie; Minard, Corinne; Soulere, Laurent; Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Dodd, Robert H.; Queneau, Yves; Dessaux, Yves; Guillou, Catherine; Vandeputte, Olivier M.; Faure, Denis

2013-01-01

199

Comparing Indicators of Sexual Sadism as Predictors of Recidivism among Adult Male Sexual Offenders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: In this longitudinal study, the predictive validity of a psychiatric diagnosis of sexual sadism was compared with three behavioral indicators of sadism: index sexual offense violence, sexual intrusiveness, and phallometrically assessed sexual arousal to depictions of sexual or nonsexual violence. Method: Five hundred and eighty six…

Kingston, Drew A.; Seto, Michael C.; Firestone, Philip; Bradford, John M.

2010-01-01

200

Arousal and Anxiety Correlates of Gymnastic Performance  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Tests on a women's gymnastic team to explore correlation between arousal, anxiety, and performance, revealed limited relationships between performance and arousal/anxiety measures and indicated that gymnastic ability is the best correlate of gymnastic performance. (JD)

Basler, Marilyn L.; And Others

1976-01-01

201

Cardiovascular Arousal in Individuals with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Despite the hypothesized link between arousal and behavior in persons with autism, there is a lack of idiographic research that directly assesses arousal responses to novel stimuli or social situations in this population. The current study used heart rate as a measure of sympathetic activity to compare arousal responses to the presentation of…

Goodwin, Matthew S.; Groden, June; Velicer, Wayne F.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.; Baron, M. Grace; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Groden, Gerald

2006-01-01

202

Physiology and antennal lobe projections of olfactory receptor neurons from sexually isomorphic sensilla on male Heliothis virescens.  

PubMed

The neurophysiology and antennal lobe projections of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) within sexually isomorphic short trichoid sensilla of male Heliothis virescens (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera) were investigated using cut-sensillum recording and cobalt-lysine staining. A total of 202 sensilla were sorted into 14 possible sensillar categories based on odor responses and physiology of ORNs within. Seventy-two percent of the sensilla identified contained ORNs stimulated by conspecific odors. In addition, a large number of ORNs were specifically sensitive to ss-caryophyllene, a plant-derived volatile (N = 41). Axons originating from ORNs associated with individual sensilla were stained with cobalt lysine (N = 67) and traced to individual glomeruli in the antennal lobe. ORNs with responses to female sex pheromone components exhibited similar axonal projections as those previously described from ORNs in long sensilla trichodea in male H. virescens. Antennal lobe axonal arborizations of ORNs sensitive to hairpencil components were also located in glomeruli near the base of the antennal nerve, whilst those sensitive to plant odorants projected to more medial glomeruli. Comparisons with ORNs described from female H. virescens supports the notion that glomeruli at the base of the antennal nerve are associated with conspecific and interspecific odorants, whereas those located medially are associated with plant volatiles. PMID:17431638

Hillier, N K; Vickers, N J

2007-06-01

203

Sexual behavior of castrated sex offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data are reported on the sexual behavior of 39 released sex offenders who agreed voluntarily to surgical castration while imprisoned in West Germany. Findings indicated that frequency of coitus, masturbation, and sexual thoughts are seen as strongly reduced after castration. Sexual desire and sexual arousability are perceived by the subjects as having been considerably impaired by castration. In comparison with

Nikolaus Heim

1981-01-01

204

Sexual communication in romantic relationships: An investigation into the disclosure of sexual fantasies  

E-print Network

that more frequent sexual fantasy contributes to greater sexual desire, more orgasms during intercourse, greater arousability, fewer sexual problems, and even greater sexual satisfaction in general. Researchers have also argued that sexual fantasies may... activity and enhanced sexual experiences. In addition, studies have reported a positive association between orgasmic frequency during sex and frequency of sexual fantasy (Armdt, Foehl, & Good, 1985; Epstein & Smith, 1957; Lentz & Zeiss, 1983; Wilson, 1978...

Anderson, Michael Thomas

2011-12-31

205

Chemoreception and asphyxia-induced arousal  

PubMed Central

Arousal protects against the adverse and potentially fatal effects of asphyxia during sleep. Asphyxia stimulates the carotid bodies and central chemoreceptors but the sequence of events leading to arousal is uncertain. In this review, the theoretical mechanisms leading to arousal from sleep are briefly summarized and the issue of whether central respiratory chemoreceptors (CRCs) or other types of CO2-responsive CNS neurons contribute to asphyxia-induced arousal is discussed. We focus on the role of the retrotrapezoid nucleus, the raphe and the locus coeruleus and emphasize the anatomical and neurophysiological evidence which suggests that these putative central chemoreceptors could contribute to arousal independently of their effects on breathing. Finally, we describe recent attempts to test the contribution of specific brainstem pathways to asphyxia-induced arousal using optogenetic and other tools and the possible contribution of a group of hypoxia-sensitive brainstem neurons (the C1 cells) to breathing and arousal. PMID:23608705

Guyenet, Patrice G.; Abbott, Stephen B.G.

2013-01-01

206

Disorders of arousal in children.  

PubMed

Disorders of arousal from NREM sleep are common events in childhood. Although they are considered to be benign in most cases, recurrent events may be associated with other primary sleep disorders or psychiatric comorbidities. It is important to ensure that the child achieves adequate sleep and receives treatment for primary sleep disorders. If the events are particularly disruptive or frequent, both behavioral and pharmacologic treatments are available. PMID:18710138

Hopkins, Bobbi; Glaze, Daniel

2008-07-01

207

Rape Myth Acceptance and Rape Proclivity: Expected Dominance Versus Expected Arousal as Mediators in Acquaintance-Rape Situations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individuals who are high in rape myth acceptance (RMA) have been found to report a high proclivity to rape. In a series of three studies, the authors examined whether the relationship between RMA and self-reported rape proclivity was mediated by anticipated sexual arousal or anticipated enjoyment of sexually dominating the rape victim. Results of…

Chiroro, Patrick; Bohner, Gerd; Viki, G. Tendayi; Jarvis, Christopher I.

2004-01-01

208

Neural Substrates of Psychostimulant-Induced Arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive research has provided substantial insight into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the reinforcing, locomotor-activating and stereotypy-inducing actions of psychostimulants. The diverse behavioral effects of these drugs are superimposed on potent arousal-enhancing actions. Psychostimulant-induced arousal is a prominent contributing factor to the widespread use and abuse of these drugs. Moreover, enhanced arousal may be a critical component of the reinforcing and

Craig W Berridge

2006-01-01

209

Early-phase physiological response patterns to psychosexual stimuli: Comparison of male and female patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

The onset and sequential changes of psychosexual arousal for male and female were compared. During an erotic film presentation, genital hemodynamic and groin skin temperature measures of sexual arousal recorded moderate to large increases for both sexes. A sequential analysis revealed strikingly similar male—female response patterns for both the genital and groin measures of arousal. Thus, the commonly held view

Hillel J. Rubinsky; David A. Eckerman; Elizabeth W. Rubinsky; Chip R. Hoover

1987-01-01

210

Experiencing activation: energetic arousal and tense arousal are not mixtures of valence and activation.  

PubMed

R. E. Thayer (1989) proposed 2 types of activation: energetic arousal (awake-tired) and tense arousal (tense-calm). This view has been challenged by claims that energetic arousal and tense arousal are mixtures of valence and a single activation dimension. The authors present a direct test of this hypothesis by computing the correlation between the residuals of energetic arousal and tense arousal after removing the shared variance with valence. Whereas the valence activation hypothesis predicts a strong positive correlation between the 2 residuals, the authors found that it was not significantly different from 0. This finding reaffirms the view of energetic arousal and tense arousal as 2 distinct types of activation. PMID:12899373

Schimmack, Ulrich; Reisenzein, Rainer

2002-12-01

211

Narratives of desire in mid-age women with and without arousal difficulties.  

PubMed

There is controversy about the nature of women's sexual desire. The aim was to explore narrative descriptions of sexual desire among mid-aged women in hopes of clarifying how women define and experience sexual desire, and how these might differ among women with and without female sexual arousal disorder (FSAD). Mid-aged women without (age: M = 45, n = 12) and with (age: M = 55, n = 10) FSAD took part in in-depth interviews that invited them to share personal stories of sexual desire. Women also completed the Brief Index of Sexual Functioning and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Women in both groups described sexual desire in genital, non-genital physical, and in cognitive-emotional terms. Although women with FSAD had low ratings of sexual desire on the FSFI, they could recall recent experiences of desire that did not differ from the control group. Women identified a number of triggers of desire including touch, memories, and partner's responses--the latter of which acted as both a trigger and an inhibitor. Women in the control group were more likely to express conflation about the distinction between desire and arousal. Among the different "objects" of women's desire, most women acknowledged emotional connection as most important. PMID:19291528

Brotto, Lori A; Heiman, Julia R; Tolman, Deborah L

2009-01-01

212

The Role of Arousal in the Induction of Mood.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The role of autonomic arousal in feeling states has long been of interest to psychologists. To examine the necessity of arousal for an effective mood induction, 60 college students were instructed either to exercise vigorously (high arousal group), exercise lightly with a rest period (low arousal group), or complete a questionnaire (no arousal…

Reilly, Nora P.; Morris, William N.

213

Effects of alcohol on male sexual responding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixteen adult males participated in a repeated measures design in which they served as their own control to determine the effects of various amounts of alcohol on: (1) their sexual arousal elicited by erotic motion-pictures, as measured by a penile transducer, (2) the ability to voluntarily inhibit their arousal to those same films in accordance with instructions, and (3) the

H. B. Rubin; Donald E. Henson

1976-01-01

214

The Development of the Sexual Self-Concept Inventory for Early Adolescent Girls  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sexual Self-Concept Inventory (SSCI) was developed to assess sexual self-concept in an ethnically diverse sample of urban early adolescent girls. Three scales (Sexual Arousability, Sexual Agency, and Negative Sexual Affect) were shown to be distinct and reliable dimensions of girls' sexual self-concepts. Validity was established through…

O'Sullivan, Lucia F.; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F. L.; McKeague, Ian W.

2006-01-01

215

The assessment of anxiety by physiological behavioral measures  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is little research to support the contention that clearly defined patterns of physiological-behavioral responses associated with anxiety arousal can be distinguished from other arousal patterns. Intercorrelations among physiological measures of anxiety obtained under either resting states or under stress are generally low. No studies have been reported in which several measures of behavior were obtained simultaneously with a variety

Barclay Martin

1961-01-01

216

Arousal, Anxiety, Aggression, and Attitude Change  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This experiment investigated the effects of an aggressive habit and emtional arousal, measured by heart rate, blood pressure, and self-report, on two types of attitude change. Psychological arousal was positively related to degree of influence by the reflaxation communication. (DB)

Friedman, Philip H.; And Others

1970-01-01

217

Eszopiclone increases the respiratory arousal threshold and lowers the apnoea/hypopnoea index in obstructive sleep apnoea patients with a low arousal threshold  

PubMed Central

Recent insights into sleep apnoea pathogenesis reveal that a low respiratory arousal threshold (awaken easily) is important for many patients. As most patients experience stable breathing periods mediated by upper-airway dilator muscle activation via accumulation of respiratory stimuli, premature awakening may prevent respiratory stimuli build up as well as the resulting stabilization of sleep and breathing. The aim of the present physiological study was to determine the effects of a non-benzodiazepine sedative, eszopiclone, on the arousal threshold and the AHI (apnoea/hypopnoea index) in obstructive sleep apnoea patients. We hypothesized that eszopiclone would increase the arousal threshold and lower the AHI in patients with a low arousal threshold (0 to ?15 cmH2O). Following a baseline overnight polysomnogram with an epiglottic pressure catheter to quantify the arousal threshold, 17 obstructive sleep apnoea patients, without major hypoxaemia [nadir SaO2 (arterial blood oxygen saturation) >70%], returned on two additional nights and received 3 mg of eszopiclone or placebo immediately prior to each study. Compared with placebo, eszopiclone significantly increased the arousal threshold [?14.0 (?19.9 to ?10.9) compared with ?18.0 (?22.2 to ?15.1) cmH2O; P < 0.01], and sleep duration, improved sleep quality and lowered the AHI without respiratory event prolongation or worsening hypoxaemia. Among the eight patients identified as having a low arousal threshold, reductions in the AHI occurred invariably and were most pronounced (25 ± 6 compared with 14 ± 4 events/h of sleep; P < 0.01). In conclusion, eszopiclone increases the arousal threshold and lowers the AHI in obstructive sleep apnoea patients that do not have marked overnight hypoxaemia. The greatest reductions in the AHI occurred in those with a low arousal threshold. The results of this single night physiological study suggest that certain sedatives may be of therapeutic benefit for a definable subgroup of patients. However, additional treatment strategies are probably required to achieve elimination of apnoea. PMID:21269278

ECKERT, Danny J.; OWENS, Robert L.; KEHLMANN, Geoffrey B.; WELLMAN, Andrew; RAHANGDALE, Shilpa; YIM-YEH, Susie; WHITE, David P.; MALHOTRA, Atul

2012-01-01

218

Amygdala responses to Valence and its interaction by arousal revealed by MEG.  

PubMed

It is widely accepted that the amygdala plays a crucial role in the processing of emotions. The precise nature of its involvement is however unclear. We hypothesized that ambivalent findings from neuroimaging studies that report amygdala's activity in emotions, are due to distinct functional specificity of amygdala's sub-divisions and specifically to differential reactivity to arousal and valence. The goal of the present study is to characterize the amygdala response to affective stimuli by disentangling the contributions of arousal and valence. Our hypothesis was prompted by recent reports claiming anatomical sub-divisions of amygdala based on cytoarchitecture and the functional maps obtained from diverse behavioral, emotional, and physiological stimulation. We measured magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings from 12 healthy individuals passively exposed to affective stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) collection using a 2 (Valence levels)× 2 (Arousal levels) design. Source power was estimated using a beamformer technique with the activations referring to the amygdala sub-divisions defined through probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps. Right laterobasal amygdala activity was found to mediate negative valence (elicited by unpleasant stimuli) while left centromedial activity was characterized by an interaction of valence by arousal (arousing pleasant stimuli). We did not find a main effect for amygdala activations in any of its sub-divisions for arousal modulation. To the best of our knowledge, our findings from non-invasive MEG data indicate for the first time, a distinct functional specificity of amygdala anatomical sub-divisions in the emotional processing. PMID:23688672

Styliadis, Charalampos; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

2014-07-01

219

Remodeling mitochondrial membranes during arousal from hibernation.  

PubMed

During arousal from hibernation, body temperature (T(b)) increases by ?30°C and liver mitochondrial respiration increases threefold in as little as 2 h. We analyzed liver mitochondria purified from ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) to see whether membrane phospholipids were remodeled during spontaneous arousal. Cardiolipin content did not change among animals in torpor (T ? 5°C), the early phase of arousal (T ? 15°C), late arousal (T ? 30°C), interbout euthermia (T ? 37°C), and summer-active animals (T ? 37°C) that do not hibernate. Phosphatidylcholine content increased in late arousal relative to interbout euthermia, while phosphatidylethanolamine decreased. Phospholipid monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) did not change throughout arousal, but polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and MUFA/PUFA decreased and increased, respectively. In the fatty acid conjugates of phospholipids, neither unsaturation index nor n-3/n-6 differed. Few changes in individual fatty acids were noted, but palmitoleic acid (16:1, n-7) was higher in interbout euthermia and summer. Although 16:1 accounted for less than 1.5% of phospholipid fatty acids, it correlated strongly and positively with succinate-fueled state 3 mitochondrial respiration. No other phospholipid characteristic measured here correlated with mitochondrial respiration. These data show that mitochondrial membranes are remodeled rapidly during arousal, but the contribution to reversible suppression of mitochondrial respiration remains unclear. PMID:21743257

Armstrong, Christopher; Thomas, Raymond H; Price, Edwin R; Guglielmo, Christopher G; Staples, James F

2011-01-01

220

Neuropeptidergic Signaling Partitions Arousal Behaviors in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Animals modulate their arousal state to ensure that their sensory responsiveness and locomotor activity match environmental demands. Neuropeptides can regulate arousal, but studies of their roles in vertebrates have been constrained by the vast array of neuropeptides and their pleiotropic effects. To overcome these limitations, we systematically dissected the neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal in larval zebrafish. We quantified spontaneous locomotor activity and responsiveness to sensory stimuli after genetically induced expression of seven evolutionarily conserved neuropeptides, including adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1b (adcyap1b), cocaine-related and amphetamine-related transcript (cart), cholecystokinin (cck), calcitonin gene-related peptide (cgrp), galanin, hypocretin, and nociceptin. Our study reveals that arousal behaviors are dissociable: neuropeptide expression uncoupled spontaneous activity from sensory responsiveness, and uncovered modality-specific effects upon sensory responsiveness. Principal components analysis and phenotypic clustering revealed both shared and divergent features of neuropeptidergic functions: hypocretin and cgrp stimulated spontaneous locomotor activity, whereas galanin and nociceptin attenuated these behaviors. In contrast, cart and adcyap1b enhanced sensory responsiveness yet had minimal impacts on spontaneous activity, and cck expression induced the opposite effects. Furthermore, hypocretin and nociceptin induced modality-specific differences in responsiveness to changes in illumination. Our study provides the first systematic and high-throughput analysis of neuropeptidergic modulation of arousal, demonstrates that arousal can be partitioned into independent behavioral components, and reveals novel and conserved functions of neuropeptides in regulating arousal. PMID:24573274

Schoppik, David; Shi, Veronica J.; Zimmerman, Steven; Coleman, Haley A.; Greenwood, Joel; Soucy, Edward R.

2014-01-01

221

Chronic stress and sexual function in women  

PubMed Central

Introduction Chronic stress is known to have negative effects on reproduction, but little is known about how it affects the sexual response cycle. The present study examined the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and the mechanisms that mediate this relationship. Aim To test the relationship between chronic stress and sexual arousal and identify mechanisms that may explain this relationship. We predicted that women experiencing high levels of chronic stress would show lower levels of genital arousal & DHEAS and higher levels of cortisol and cognitive distraction compared to women with average levels of stress. Methods Women who were categorized as high in chronic stress (high stress group, n = 15) or average in chronic stress (average stress group; n = 15) provided saliva samples and watched an erotic film while having their genital and psychological arousal measured. Main Outcome Measures Main outcome measures were vaginal pulse amplitude, psychological arousal, salivary cortisol, salivary DHEAS, and heart rate and compared them between women with high and average levels of chronic stress. Results Women in the high stress group had lower levels of genital, but not psychological arousal, had higher levels of cortisol, and reported more distraction during the erotic film than women in the average stress group. The main predictor of decreased genital sexual arousal was participants’ distraction scores. Conclusions High levels of chronic stress were related to lower levels of genital sexual arousal. Both psychological (distraction) and hormonal (increased cortisol) factors were related to the lower levels of sexual arousal seen in women high in chronic stress, but distraction was the only significant predictor when controlling for other variables. PMID:23841462

Hamilton, Lisa Dawn; Meston, Cindy M.

2014-01-01

222

The Affect and Arousal Scales: Psychometric Properties of the Dutch Version and Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analyses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Affect and Arousal Scales (AFARS) were inspected in a combined clinical and population sample (N = 1,215). The validity of the tripartite structure and the relations between Negative Affect, Positive Affect, and Physiological Hyperarousal (PH) were investigated for boys and girls, younger (8-11…

De Bolle, Marleen; De Fruyt, Filip; Decuyper, Mieke

2010-01-01

223

Death-Related versus Fond Memories of a Deceased Attachment Figure: Examining Emotional Arousal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Grieving is infused by memories and emotions. In this study, bereaved participants recalled either death-related or fond memories of their loved ones. Their emotional arousal was examined via physiologic and voice analytic measures. Both death-related and fond memories generated an acoustic profile indicative of sadness (reflected by voice quality…

Rochman, Daniel

2013-01-01

224

Mind Over Matter: Reappraising Arousal Improves Cardiovascular and Cognitive Responses to Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers have theorized that changing the way we think about our bodily responses can improve our physiological and cognitive reactions to stressful events. However, the underlying processes through which mental states improve downstream outcomes are not well understood. To this end, we examined whether reappraising stress-induced arousal could improve cardiovascular outcomes and decrease attentional bias for emotionally negative information. Participants

Jeremy P. Jamieson; Matthew K. Nock; Wendy Berry Mendes

2012-01-01

225

Orexin A Activates Locus Coeruleus Cell Firing and Increases Arousal in the Rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization of orexin neuropeptides in the lateral hypothalamus has focused interest on their role in ingestion. The orexigenic neurones in the lateral hypothalamus, however, project widely in the brain, and thus the physiological role of orexins is likely to be complex. Here we describe an investigation of the action of orexin A in modulating the arousal state of rats

Jim J. Hagan; Ron A. Leslie; Sara Patel; Martyn L. Evans; Trevor A. Wattam; Steve Holmes; Christopher D. Benham; Stephen G. Taylor; Carol Routledge; Panida Hemmati; Richard P. Munton; Tracey E. Ashmeade; Ajit S. Shah; Jonathan P. Hatcher; Paula D. Hatcher; Declan N. C. Jones; Martin I. Smith; David C. Piper; A. Jackie Hunter; Rod A. Porter; Neil Upton

1999-01-01

226

Hot Temperatures, Hostile Affect, Hostile Cognition, and Arousal: Tests of a General Model of Affective Aggression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used a general model of affective aggression to generate predictions concerning hot temperatures. Results indicated that hot temperatures produced increases in hostile affect, hostile cognition, and physiological arousal. Concluded that hostile affect, hostile cognitions, and excitation transfer processes may all increase the likelihood of biased…

Anderson, Craig A.; And Others

1995-01-01

227

Epidural electrocorticography for monitoring of arousal in locked-in state  

PubMed Central

Electroencephalography (EEG) often fails to assess both the level (i.e., arousal) and the content (i.e., awareness) of pathologically altered consciousness in patients without motor responsiveness. This might be related to a decline of awareness, to episodes of low arousal and disturbed sleep patterns, and/or to distorting and attenuating effects of the skull and intermediate tissue on the recorded brain signals. Novel approaches are required to overcome these limitations. We introduced epidural electrocorticography (ECoG) for monitoring of cortical physiology in a late-stage amytrophic lateral sclerosis patient in completely locked-in state (CLIS). Despite long-term application for a period of six months, no implant-related complications occurred. Recordings from the left frontal cortex were sufficient to identify three arousal states. Spectral analysis of the intrinsic oscillatory activity enabled us to extract state-dependent dominant frequencies at <4, ~7 and ~20 Hz, representing sleep-like periods, and phases of low and elevated arousal, respectively. In the absence of other biomarkers, ECoG proved to be a reliable tool for monitoring circadian rhythmicity, i.e., avoiding interference with the patient when he was sleeping and exploiting time windows of responsiveness. Moreover, the effects of interventions addressing the patient’s arousal, e.g., amantadine medication, could be evaluated objectively on the basis of physiological markers, even in the absence of behavioral parameters. Epidural ECoG constitutes a feasible trade-off between surgical risk and quality of recorded brain signals to gain information on the patient’s present level of arousal. This approach enables us to optimize the timing of interactions and medical interventions, all of which should take place when the patient is in a phase of high arousal. Furthermore, avoiding low-responsiveness periods will facilitate measures to implement alternative communication pathways involving brain-computer interfaces (BCI). PMID:25374532

Martens, Suzanne; Bensch, Michael; Halder, Sebastian; Hill, Jeremy; Nijboer, Femke; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Schoelkopf, Bernhard; Birbaumer, Niels; Gharabaghi, Alireza

2014-01-01

228

The effect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game effects on physiological desensitization, defined as showing less physiological arousal to violence in the real world after exposure to video game violence in the virtual world. This experiment attempts to

Nicholas L. Carnagey; Craig A. Anderson; Brad J. Bushman

2007-01-01

229

The eVect of video game violence on physiological desensitization to real-life violence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past research shows that violent video game exposure increases aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiological arousal, aggressive behaviors, and decreases helpful behaviors. However, no research has experimentally examined violent video game eVects on physiologi- cal desensitization, deWned as showing less physiological arousal to violence in the real world after exposure to video game violence in the virtual world. This experiment attempts

Nicholas L. Carnagey; Craig A. Anderson; Brad J. Bushman

2006-01-01

230

Effects of voice on emotional arousal  

PubMed Central

Music is a powerful medium capable of eliciting a broad range of emotions. Although the relationship between language and music is well documented, relatively little is known about the effects of lyrics and the voice on the emotional processing of music and on listeners' preferences. In the present study, we investigated the effects of vocals in music on participants' perceived valence and arousal in songs. Participants (N = 50) made valence and arousal ratings for familiar songs that were presented with and without the voice. We observed robust effects of vocal content on perceived arousal. Furthermore, we found that the effect of the voice on enhancing arousal ratings is independent of familiarity of the song and differs across genders and age: females were more influenced by vocals than males; furthermore these gender effects were enhanced among older adults. Results highlight the effects of gender and aging in emotion perception and are discussed in terms of the social roles of music. PMID:24101908

Loui, Psyche; Bachorik, Justin P.; Li, H. Charles; Schlaug, Gottfried

2013-01-01

231

Neurophysical substrates of arousal and attention  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of arousal and attention could be of prominent importance for elucidating both fundamental and practical aspects\\u000a of the mind–brain puzzle. Defined as “general activation of mind” (Kahnemann in Attention and effort. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey,\\u000a 1973), or “general operation of consciousness” (Thacher and John in Functional neuroscience: foundations of cognitive processing.\\u000a Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1977), arousal can be considered as

Jordan Pop-Jordanov; Nada Pop-Jordanova

2009-01-01

232

Prevalence rates of sexual difficulties and associated distress in heterosexual men and women: results from an Internet survey in Flanders.  

PubMed

As most epidemiological surveys on sexual problems have not included assessment of associated distress, the principal aim of this study was to provide prevalence estimates of both DSM-IV-TR-defined (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000 ) and less commonly assessed sexual difficulties and dysfunction (e.g., lack of responsive sexual desire, lack of subjective arousal). A secondary aim was to obtain information about comorbidity between sexual desire and sexual arousal difficulties/dysfunction. This study comprised an online survey completed by 35,132 heterosexual Flemish men and women (aged 16 to 74 years). Results indicated that sexual dysfunctions were far less common than sexual difficulties, and some uncommonly assessed sexual problems (e.g., "lack of responsive desire" in women; "hyperactive sexual desire" in men) were quite prevalent. In women, there was a high comorbidity between "lack of spontaneous sexual desire" and "lack of responsive sexual desire"; between "lack of genital arousal" and "lack of subjective sexual arousal"; and between sexual desire and sexual arousal difficulties/dysfunctions. The implications of these findings for epidemiological research on sexual dysfunction and for the newly defined DSM-5 Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder (APA, 2013 ) are discussed. PMID:24164633

Hendrickx, Lies; Gijs, Luk; Enzlin, Paul

2014-01-01

233

A Prospective Examination of the Role of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Physiological Asymmetry in the Development of Psychopathology  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Recent literature has emphasized the simultaneous assessment of multiple physiological stress response systems in an effort to identify biobehavioral risk factors of psychopathology in maltreated populations. The current study assessed whether an asymmetrical stress response, marked by activation in one system and a blunted response in…

Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

2010-01-01

234

The experience of arousal: A new basis for studying arousal effects in sport  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sports psychologists have for some time put forward the inverted?U?hypothesis as a useful working model of the relationship between arousal and performance. Although some emphasis in the sports psychology literature has been placed on the limitations of the hypothesis, generally the notion of an optimal level of arousal has been well received. A few authors have been less tolerant of

J. H. Kerr

1985-01-01

235

Memory modulation in the classroom: selective enhancement of college examination performance by arousal induced after lecture.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies examining moderate physiological or emotional arousal induced after learning indicate that it enhances memory consolidation. Yet, no studies have yet examined this effect in an applied context. As such, arousal was induced after a college lecture and its selective effects were examined on later exam performance. Participants were divided into two groups who either watched a neutral video clip (n=66) or an arousing video clip (n=70) after lecture in a psychology course. The final examination occurred two weeks after the experimental manipulation. Only performance on the group of final exam items that covered material from the manipulated lecture were significantly different between groups. Other metrics, such as the midterm examination and the total final examination score, did not differ between groups. The results indicate that post-lecture arousal selectively increased the later retrieval of lecture material, despite the availability of the material for study before and after the manipulation. The results reinforce the role of post-learning arousal on memory consolidation processes, expanding the literature to include a real-world learning context. PMID:22521412

Nielson, Kristy A; Arentsen, Timothy J

2012-07-01

236

The Rewarding Aspects of Music Listening Are Related to Degree of Emotional Arousal  

PubMed Central

Background Listening to music is amongst the most rewarding experiences for humans. Music has no functional resemblance to other rewarding stimuli, and has no demonstrated biological value, yet individuals continue listening to music for pleasure. It has been suggested that the pleasurable aspects of music listening are related to a change in emotional arousal, although this link has not been directly investigated. In this study, using methods of high temporal sensitivity we investigated whether there is a systematic relationship between dynamic increases in pleasure states and physiological indicators of emotional arousal, including changes in heart rate, respiration, electrodermal activity, body temperature, and blood volume pulse. Methodology Twenty-six participants listened to self-selected intensely pleasurable music and “neutral” music that was individually selected for them based on low pleasure ratings they provided on other participants' music. The “chills” phenomenon was used to index intensely pleasurable responses to music. During music listening, continuous real-time recordings of subjective pleasure states and simultaneous recordings of sympathetic nervous system activity, an objective measure of emotional arousal, were obtained. Principal Findings Results revealed a strong positive correlation between ratings of pleasure and emotional arousal. Importantly, a dissociation was revealed as individuals who did not experience pleasure also showed no significant increases in emotional arousal. Conclusions/Significance These results have broader implications by demonstrating that strongly felt emotions could be rewarding in themselves in the absence of a physically tangible reward or a specific functional goal. PMID:19834599

Salimpoor, Valorie N.; Benovoy, Mitchel; Longo, Gregory; Cooperstock, Jeremy R.; Zatorre, Robert J.

2009-01-01

237

Hypothalamic regulation of sleep and arousal.  

PubMed

Normal waking is associated with neuronal activity in several chemically defined ascending arousal systems. These include monoaminergic neurons in the brainstem and posterior hypothalamus, cholinergic neurons in the brainstem and basal forebrain, and hypocretin (orexin) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. Collectively, these systems impart tonic activation to their neuronal targets in the diencephalon and neocortex that is reflected in the low-voltage fast-frequency electroencephalogram patterns of wakefulness. Neuronal discharge in these arousal systems declines rapidly at sleep onset. Transitions from waking to sleep, therefore, involve coordinated inhibition of multiple arousal systems. An important source of sleep-related inhibition of arousal arises from neurons located in the preoptic hypothalamus. These preoptic neurons are strongly activated during sleep, exhibiting sleep/waking state-dependent discharge patterns that are the reciprocal of that observed in the arousal systems. The majority of preoptic sleep regulatory neurons synthesize the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Anatomical and functional evidence supports the hypothesis that GABAergic neurons in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPN) and ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) exert inhibitory control over the monoaminergic systems and the hypocretin system during sleep. Recent findings indicate that MnPN and VLPO neurons integrate homeostatic aspects of sleep regulation and are important targets for endogenous sleep factors, such as adenosine and growth hormone releasing hormone. PMID:18591488

Szymusiak, Ronald; McGinty, Dennis

2008-01-01

238

Psychological defense mechanisms and electroencephalographic arousal.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychological defense as measured by the Kragh tachistoscopic Defense Mechanisms Test (DMT), and general arousal properties of the individual as measured with electroencephalogram (EEG). The DMT assesses defense by presenting neutral and threatening pictures with very short exposure times. EEG characteristics were measured in the 8-12 Hz EEG frequency band during DMT testing. Twenty-one male subjects participated in the study. All were US Air Force personnel on active duty. Personnel with high defense mechanisms, defined in this connection as slow perception of the threat, tended to have higher cortical arousal after Stimulus exposure than the subjects with low defense mechanisms. The differences occurred mainly with new stimulus material without any threatening content. The differences in arousal response to novel stimuli may contribute to an understanding of the relationships between the Kragh DMT test and performance in life-threatening situations. PMID:8931391

Eriksen, H R; Olff, M; Mann, C; Sterman, M B; Ursin, H

1996-12-01

239

[The management of perpetrators of sexual violence].  

PubMed

Sexual violence and crimes arouse rejection and hatred in our society. Perpetrators of sexual violence must comply with psychiatric treatment, without necessarily having requested it. Caregivers find it extremely difficult to engage themselves in the management of these patients. This context has favoured the setting up of specific consultations, signalling a potential new area of care. PMID:25095586

Arena, Gabrielle

2014-01-01

240

Effects of empathy and conflict resolution strategies on psychophysiological arousal and satisfaction in romantic relationships.  

PubMed

The present research builds upon the extant literature as it assesses psychophysiological factors in relation to empathy, conflict resolution, and romantic relationship satisfaction. In this study, we examined physiological reactivity of individuals in the context of emotionally laden interactions with their romantic partners. Participants (N = 31) completed self-report measures and attended in-person data collection sessions with their romantic partners. Participants were guided through discussions of problems and strengths of their relationships in vivo with their partners while we measured participants' skin conductance level (SCL) and interbeat interval (IBI) of the heart. We hypothesized that participants' level of empathy towards their partners would be reflected by physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) and relationship satisfaction, such that higher levels of empathy would be linked to changes in physiological arousal and higher relationship satisfaction. Further, we hypothesized that differences would be found in physiological arousal (as measured by SCL and IBI) based on the type of conflict resolution strategy used by participants. Finally, we hypothesized that differences would be found in empathy towards partner and relationship satisfaction based on the type of conflict resolution strategies used by participants. Results partially supported hypotheses and were discussed in light of existing knowledge based on empirical and theoretical sources. PMID:24213481

Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M; Oliveira-Silva, Patrícia; Simon-Dack, Stephanie; Lefdahl-Davis, Erin; Adams, David; McConnell, John; Howell, Desiree; Hess, Ryan; Davis, Andrew; Gonçalves, Oscar F

2014-03-01

241

Neural Correlates of Processing Negative and Sexually Arousing Pictures  

PubMed Central

Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M.

2012-01-01

242

Neural correlates of processing negative and sexually arousing pictures.  

PubMed

Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M

2012-01-01

243

Facets of anger, childhood sexual victimization, and gender as predictors of suicide attempts by psychiatric patients after hospital discharge.  

PubMed

Models of suicidal behavior that assess the interplay of multiple risk factors are needed to better identify at-risk individuals during periods of elevated risk, including following psychiatric hospitalization. This study investigated contributions of facets of anger, gender, and sexual victimization to risk for suicide attempts after hospital discharge. Psychiatric patients (N = 748; ages 18-40; 44% female) recruited from 3 inpatient facilities were assessed during hospitalization and every 10 weeks during the year following discharge as part of the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. Multiple logistic regression models with facets of anger (disposition toward physiological arousal, hostile cognitions, and angry behavior) from the Novaco Anger Scale (Novaco, 1994), gender, and childhood sexual victimization history were used to predict suicide attempts in the year following hospital discharge. Facets of anger differentially predicted suicide attempts as a function of gender and sexual victimization history, over and above the variance accounted for by symptoms of depression, anxiety, and recent suicide attempts. In men, greater disposition toward angry behavior predicted an overall greater likelihood of a suicide attempt in the year following hospital discharge, particularly among men with childhood sexual victimization. In women with a history of childhood sexual victimization, physiological arousal predicted suicide attempts. Results indicate that facets of anger are relevant predictors of suicide attempts following hospital discharge for psychiatric patients with a history of childhood sexual victimization. Further, results suggest that incorporating gender and victimization history into models of risk for suicide can help clarify relationships between anger and self-directed violence. PMID:23834063

Sadeh, Naomi; McNiel, Dale E

2013-08-01

244

Is homophobia associated with homosexual arousal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the role of homosexual arousal in exclusively heterosexual men who ad-mitted negative affect toward homosexual individuals. Participants consisted of a group of homo-phobic men (n = 35) and a group of nonhomophobic men (n = 29); they were assigned to groups on the basis of their scores on the Index of Homophobia (W. W. Hudson & W.

Henry E. Adams; Lester W. Wright; Bethany A. Lohr

1996-01-01

245

The Effects of Arousal on Cognitive Complexity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous work has demonstrated the importance of Osgood's three semantic dimensions (Evaluation, Potency, Activity) in people's conceptions of various domains. To test the effects of arousal on how individuals use these dimensions, three studies were conducted. In each study, six stimuli from a particular domain were presented in pairs. Subjects…

Paulhus, Delroy L.; Lim, David T. K.

246

Centrifugal Arousal in the Olfactory Bulb  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrical activity of the olfactory bulb was recorded in awake, unrestrained cats with electrodes permanently implanted. It was found that any kind of sensory stimulation producing alertness or arousal brought about the appearance of bursts of rhythmic activity, the magnitude of which was related to the degree of alertness of the cat.

A. Lavin; C. Alcocer-Cuaron; R. Hernandez-Peon

1959-01-01

247

Sexual affordances, perceptual-motor invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics: sexually deviant and non-deviant patterns in male subjects.  

PubMed

Sexual arousal and gaze behavior dynamics are used to characterize deviant sexual interests in male subjects. Pedophile patients and non-deviant subjects are immersed with virtual characters depicting relevant sexual features. Gaze behavior dynamics as indexed from correlation dimensions (D2) appears to be fractal in nature and significantly different from colored noise (surrogate data tests and recurrence plot analyses were performed). This perceptual-motor fractal dynamics parallels sexual arousal and differs from pedophiles to non-deviant subjects when critical sexual information is processed. Results are interpreted in terms of sexual affordance, perceptual invariance extraction and intentional nonlinear dynamics. PMID:20887690

Renaud, Patrice; Goyette, Mathieu; Chartier, Sylvain; Zhornitski, Simon; Trottier, Dominique; Rouleau, Joanne-L; Proulx, Jean; Fedoroff, Paul; Bradford, John-P; Dassylva, Benoit; Bouchard, Stephane

2010-10-01

248

Arousal and Merriment as Decision Drivers Among Young Consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arousal among young consumers plays a key role in buying decisions. Shopping arousal is largely driven by store attractions, interpersonal influences, self-reference criteria, and comparative gains. Arousal-led retail sales strategies for affordable fashion and entertainment products drive buying decisions of young consumers. Managers of retailing firms need to consider promoting shopping arousal with the advent of one-to-one marketing, media-targeted direct

Rajagopal

2009-01-01

249

Sexual responsiveness of college students to rape depictions: Inhibitory and disinhibitory effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conducted 2 experiments with a total of 436 undergraduates to identify the specific dimensions in portrayals of sexual violence that inhibit or disinhibit the sexual responsiveness of male and female college students. Exp I replicated earlier findings that normals are less sexually aroused by portrayals of sexual assault than by depictions of mutually consenting sex. In Exp II, it was

Neil M. Malamuth; Maggie Heim; Seymour Feshbach

1980-01-01

250

Pain Sensitivity and Individual Differences in Self-Reported Sexual Behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between sexual behavior and pain sensitivity was assessed in 27 heterosexual men and 20 heterosexual women. Sexual behavior measures included sexual motivation and ratings of subjective sexual arousal to and enjoyment of an auditory stimulus. Pain sensitivity measures were pain threshold and pain tolerance in a cold pressor task. Participants were tested after exposure to a neutral or

Brian E. King; Gerianne M. Alexander

2000-01-01

251

Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2  

E-print Network

Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2 Gordon F. Buchanana,b,1 and George B neurons are stimulated by CO2, and sero- tonin activates thalamocortical networks, we hypothesized any arousal response to inhalation of 10% CO2 (with 21% O2 in balance N2) but had normal arousal

252

Building Shopping Arousal through Direct Marketing in Retail Environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article attempts to analyze behavioral drivers which influence consumers’ leisure shopping behavior and measure customer value through empirical investigation in Mexico. The study reveals that outsourced salespeople significantly stimulate customer interest toward buying products and trigger shopping arousal. Product attractiveness and pre-purchase arousal generated by the sales promoters influences consumer buying decisions. The study reveals that pre-purchase arousal is

Rajagopal

2010-01-01

253

The Carotid Body and Arousal in the Fetus and Neonate  

PubMed Central

Arousal from sleep is a major defense mechanism in infants against hypoxia and/or hypercapnia. Arousal failure may be an important contributor to SIDS. Areas of the brainstem that have been found to be abnormal in a majority of SIDS infants are involved in the arousal process. Arousal is sleep state dependent, being depressed during AS in most mammals, but depressed during QS in human infants. Repeated exposure to hypoxia causes a progressive blunting of arousal that may involve medullary raphe GABAergic mechanisms. Whereas CB chemoreceptors contribute heavily to arousal in response to hypoxia, serotonergic central chemoreceptors have been implicated in the arousal response to CO2. Pulmonary or chest wall mechanoreceptors also contribute to arousal in proportion to the ventilatory response and decreases in their input may contribute to depressed arousal during AS. Little is known about specific arousal pathways beyond the NTS. Whether CB chemoreceptor stimulation directly stimulates arousal centers or whether this is done indirectly through respiratory networks remains unknown. This review will focus on arousal in response to hypoxia and CO2 in the fetus and newborn and will outline what we know (and don’t know) about the involvement of the carotid body in this process. PMID:22684039

2012-01-01

254

Don't Look Down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target size more than did those who

Jeanine K. Stefanucci; Justin Storbeck

2009-01-01

255

Don't Look down: Emotional Arousal Elevates Height Perception  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a series of experiments, it was found that emotional arousal can influence height perception. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either arousing or nonarousing images before estimating the height of a 2-story balcony and the size of a target on the ground below the balcony. People who viewed arousing images overestimated height and target…

Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; Storbeck, Justin

2009-01-01

256

Nocturnal paroxysmal arousals with motor behaviors during sleep: frontal lobe epilepsy or parasomnia?  

PubMed

Nocturnal paroxysmal arousals with motor behaviors have been described in a few individuals, and their possible epileptic origin as nocturnal frontal lobe seizures has been suggested. However, the clinical and polysomnographic differentiation from parasomnias and physiologic movements during sleep have not been clarified yet. In this study, we evaluated a group of patients with nocturnal motor behaviors and tried to characterize paroxysmal arousals. Thirty-four participants (mean [+/-SD] age 22.7 [+/-12.9] years) noting nocturnal motor agitation or behaviors and 12 healthy controls (mean age 24.1 [+/-3.1] years) underwent nocturnal polysomnography with video-tape recording and motor behaviors analysis. Arousals with motor attacks were classified as minimal, minor, or major depending on semiology, complexity, and duration of behaviors. All patients showed several minimal (e.g., scratching or rubbing the nose and the head) and minor (e.g., pelvic thrusting or swinging with dystonic component) attacks, and 53% also had major episodes (e.g., sudden elevation of the head and trunk from the bed with complex behaviors) occurring mainly in non-rapid eye movement sleep. In all the patients, motor attacks were characterized by stereotypy, sudden onset, short duration, and repetitiveness. In 80%, epileptiform abnormalities were found. All control subjects showed motor events, but they were fewer, slower, nonstereotyped, and semiologically different from the patients'. No significant difference in conventional sleep parameters between the two groups were found. Paroxysmal arousals with motor behaviors probably represent a particular form of nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy rather than an unusual parasomnia. The semiologic characteristics of these type of arousals are difficult to recognize and differentiate from physiologic movements or parasomnias without video-polygraphic analysis. PMID:9458058

Zucconi, M; Oldani, A; Ferini-Strambi, L; Bizzozero, D; Smirne, S

1997-11-01

257

The effect of the amount of blood in a violent video game on aggression, hostility, and arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study utilized the General Aggression Model, with an emphasis on aggression-related priming, to explore the different effects on hostility, physiological arousal, and state aggression in those who played a violent video game (Mortal Kombat: Deadly Alliance) with differing levels of blood (maximum, medium, low, and off). Simple effects analyses showed that those in the maximum blood and medium

Christopher P. Barlett; Richard J. Harris; Callie Bruey

2008-01-01

258

Physiological integration of parents and ramets of Agave deserti: Carbon relations during vegetative and sexually reproductive growth  

SciTech Connect

Agave deserti is a semelparous perennial occurring in the northwestern Sonoran Desert that flowers after 50-55 years, but propagates primarily vegetatively by ramets. Shading ramets in the field to light compensation for two years did not decrease their relative growth rate compared with unshaded ramets. However, parents experienced a 30% decrease in total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) level, indicating that carbohydrates were translocated from parents to ramets. Parents were also shaded in the field for two years and about 10% of the growth of the shaded parents was attributed to TNC received from their attached, unshaded ramets indicating bidirectional translocation of carbohydrates between parents and ramets. The amount of carbon imported by a ramet from its parent, measured using {sup 14}CO{sub 2} techniques, was related to its photosynthetically active radiation environment, shaded ramets received 2.1 times more carbon than unshaded ramets, and was inversely related to the mass of the ramet, small ramets received up to 4.5 times more carbon than large ramets. The physiological integration of parents and ramets allows ramets to draw upon the reserves of the parent, thereby facilitating ramet growth and establishment in a resource-limited environment. Rosettes of Agave deserti must attain a minimum size (> 1,000 g dry mass) to initiate flowering, unless they are connected to a large flowering parent. Ramets that flower precociously can not complete formation of their inflorescence unless partially supported by carbon supplied by their attached parent. TNC reserves of the parent provided 70% of the carbon required to produce its own inflorescence, typically 4 m tall and 1.5 kg in dry mass, and CO{sub 2} uptake by the leaves and the inflorescence provided the remaining 30%.

Tissue, D.T.

1989-01-01

259

Physiopathogenetic Interrelationship between Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy and NREM Arousal Parasomnias  

PubMed Central

Aims. To build up a coherent shared pathophysiology of NFLE and AP and discuss the underlying functional network. Methods. Reviewing relevant published data we point out common features in semiology of events, relations to macro- and microstructural dynamism of NREM sleep, to cholinergic arousal mechanism and genetic aspects. Results. We propose that pathological arousals accompanied by confused behavior with autonomic signs and/or hypermotor automatisms are expressions of the frontal cholinergic arousal function of different degree, during the condition of depressed cognition by frontodorsal functional loss in NREM sleep. This may happen either if the frontal cortical Ach receptors are mutated in ADNFLE (and probably also in genetically not proved nonlesional cases as well), or without epileptic disorder, in AP, assuming gain in receptor functions in both conditions. This hypothesis incorporates the previous “liberation theory” of Tassinari and the “state dissociation hypothesis” of Bassetti and Terzaghi). We propose that NFLE and IGE represent epileptic disorders of the two antagonistic twin systems in the frontal lobe. NFLE is the epileptic facilitation of the ergotropic frontal arousal system whereas absence epilepsy is the epileptic facilitation of burst-firing working mode of the spindle and delta producing frontal thalamocortical throphotropic sleep system. Significance. The proposed physiopathogenesis conceptualize epilepsies in physiologically meaningful networks. PMID:22953061

Halasz, Peter; Kelemen, Anna; Szucs, Anna

2012-01-01

260

Nocturnal epileptic seizures versus the arousal parasomnias  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a Zusammenfassung\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Fragestellung\\u000a   Es werden Studien bewertet, die klinische Bilder nächtlicher Frontallappenepilepsie und Arousal-Parasomnien vergleichen. Differential-diagnostische\\u000a Kriterien und deren Interrater-Reliabilität werden bestimmt. Es wird untersucht, ob bei den Erkrankungen der gleiche Arousalmechanismus\\u000a zugrunde liegt.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patienten und Methoden\\u000a   Patienten mit Frontallappen epilepsie wurden videopolysomnographisch untersucht und ihre Anfälle wurden typisiert: Paroxysmale\\u000a Arousal (PA), nächtliche paroxysmale Dystonie (NPD) und epileptische nächtliche Wanderungen (ENW).

Pasquale Montagna; Federica Provini; Francesca Bisulli; Paolo Tinuper

2008-01-01

261

Noradrenergic Modulation of Wakefulness/Arousal  

PubMed Central

The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic systems supplies norepinephrine throughout the central nervous system. State-dependent neuronal discharge activity of locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons has long-suggested a role of this system in the induction of an alert waking state. Work over the past two decades provides unambiguous evidence that the locus coeruleus, and likely other noradrenergic nuclei, exert potent wake-promoting actions via an activation of noradrenergic ?- and ?1-receptors located within multiple subcortical structures, including the general regions of the medial septal area, the medial preoptic area and, most recently, the lateral hypothalamus. Conversely, global blockade of ?- and ?1-receptors or suppression of norepinephrine release results in profound sedation. The wake-promoting action of central noradrenergic neurotransmission has clinical implications for treatment of sleep/arousal disorders, such as insomnia and narcolepsy, and clinical conditions associated with excessive arousal, such as post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:22296742

Berridge, Craig W.; Schmeichel, Brooke E.; Espana, Rodrigo A.

2011-01-01

262

Survivorship: sexual dysfunction (female), version 1.2013.  

PubMed

Cancer treatment, especially hormonal therapy and therapy directed toward the pelvis, can contribute to sexual problems, as can depression and anxiety, which are common in cancer survivors. Thus, sexual dysfunction is common in survivors and can cause increased distress and have a significant negative impact on quality of life. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for female sexual problems, including those related to sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain. PMID:24586080

Denlinger, Crystal S; Carlson, Robert W; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Davis, Elizabeth; Edge, Stephen B; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; McCabe, Mary S; McVary, Kevin T; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; O'Connor, Tracey; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole; Freedman-Cass, Deborah

2014-02-01

263

The sexually sadistic serial killer.  

PubMed

This article explores characteristics and crime scene behavior of 20 sexually sadistic serial murderers. The pairing of character pathology with paraphilic arousal to the control and degradation of others is examined as it manifests itself in their murders. Commonalities across murders and across murderers are highlighted, i.e., the execution of murders that are well-planned, the use of preselected locations, captivity, a variety of painful sexual acts, sexual bondage, intentional torture, and death by means of strangulation and stabbing. PMID:8914287

Warren, J I; Hazelwood, R R; Dietz, P E

1996-11-01

264

The timing of changes in girls' sexual cognitions and behaviors in early adolescence: a prospective, cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: This small, prospective cohort study of 162 12- to 15-year-old girls examines timing of changes in sexual cognitions and behaviors (breast fondling, genital contact, and sexual intercourse) over a 1-year period. Methods: Girls from community sites in New York City provided information about sexual experiences and related cognitions (arousability, sexual agency, abstinence attitudes, perceived parental and peer approval, and

Lucia F. O'Sullivan; Jeanne Brooks-Gunn

2005-01-01

265

Validation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) in Women with Female Orgasmic Disorder and in Women with Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Department of Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, USA The Female Sexual Functioning Index (FSFI; Rosen et al., 2000) is a self-report measure of sexual functioning that has been validated on a clinically diagnosed sample of women with female sexual arousal disorder. The present investigation extended the validation of the FSFI to include women with a primary clinical

CINDY M. MESTON

2003-01-01

266

Sex attracts: investigating individual differences in attentional bias to sexual stimuli.  

PubMed

We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

2014-01-01

267

Sex Attracts: Investigating Individual Differences in Attentional Bias to Sexual Stimuli  

PubMed Central

We investigated the impact of sexual stimuli and the influence of sexual motivation on the performance in a dot-probe task and a line-orientation task in a large sample of males and females. All pictures (neutral, erotic) were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, disgust, and sexual arousal. Additionally, questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation were employed. The ratings of the sexual stimuli point to a successful picture selection because sexual arousal did not differ between the sexes. The stimuli were equally arousing for men and women. Higher scores in the employed questionnaires measuring sexual interest/desire/motivation led to higher sexual arousal ratings of the sex pictures. Attentional bias towards sex pictures was observed in both experimental tasks. The attentional biases measured by the dot-probe and the line-orientation task were moderately intercorrelated suggesting attentional bias as a possible marker for a sex-attention trait. Finally, only the sexual sensation seeking score correlated with the attentional biases of the two tasks. Future research is needed to increase the predictive power of these indirect measures of sexual interest. PMID:25238545

Kagerer, Sabine; Wehrum, Sina; Klucken, Tim; Walter, Bertram; Vaitl, Dieter; Stark, Rudolf

2014-01-01

268

Impact of rheumatoid arthritis on sexual function  

PubMed Central

Sexuality is a complex aspect of the human being’s life and is more than just the sexual act. Normal sexual functioning consists of sexual activity with transition through the phases from arousal to relaxation with no problems, and with a feeling of pleasure, fulfillment and satisfaction. Rheumatic diseases may affect all aspects of life including sexual functioning. The reasons for disturbing sexual functioning are multifactorial and comprise disease-related factors as well as therapy. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by progressive joint destruction resulting from chronic synovial inflammation. It leads to various degrees of disability, and ultimately has a profound impact on the social, economic, psychological, and sexual aspects of the patient’s life. This is a systemic review about the impact of RA on sexual functioning. PMID:24829873

Tristano, Antonio G

2014-01-01

269

The relationship of sexual abuse and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual adult female STD patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some effects of sexual abuse, for example, heightened sexual activity, are also risk factors for infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, Social Cognitive theory suggests that the reduced self-esteem and increased sexual arousal that can result from abuse might alter self-efficacy for performing a behavior and expected outcomes of the behavior, making adoption of preventive behavior more difficult.

Nancy J. Thompson; Jennifer Sharpe Potter; Catherine A. Sanderson; Edward W. Maibach

1997-01-01

270

ORIGINAL PAPER Short-and Long-term Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extract on Sexual  

E-print Network

contentment beyondplacebo.Sex therapyalone significantly enhanced orgasm function compared with pla- cebo's sexual functioning. Keywords Ginkgo biloba Á Female sexual dysfunction Á Sex therapy Á Vaginal.e., decreased sexual desire and arousal, decreased lubrica- tion, delayed orgasm, vaginal anesthesia

Meston, Cindy

271

Correlates of Placebo Response in the Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Preliminary Report  

E-print Network

for female sexual dysfunction. Methods. We analyzed data from 16 women with sexual arousal and orgasmic]. With the exception of specific techniques targeting primary female orgasmic disorder, there is little empirical. Main Outcome Measure. Female Sexual Function Index. Results. Consistent with findings from other

Meston, Cindy

272

Sexual Fantasies of College Students With Coercive Experiences and Coercive Attitudes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Men sexually aroused by the portrayal of force in stories or pictures also self-report a high likelihood to rape if they could get away with it and have hostile and aggressive feelings toward women. The present study assessed males' and females' written sexual fantasies and the fantasies' relationship to past sexually coercive experiences and coercive attitudes. One hundred students answered

STEVEN R. GOLD; CHERI L. CLEGG

1990-01-01

273

Non-Erotic Thoughts, Attentional Focus, and Sexual Problems in a Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Barlow’s model of sexual dysfunction, anxiety in sexual situations leads to attentional focus on sexual performance\\u000a at the expense of erotic cues, which compromises sexual arousal. This negative experience will enhance anxiety in future sexual\\u000a situations, and non-erotic thoughts (NETs) relevant to performance will receive attentional priority. Previous research with\\u000a student samples (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006; Purdon &

Andrea L. Nelson; Christine Purdon

2011-01-01

274

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... assault fact sheet Sexual assault fact sheet ePublications Sexual assault fact sheet Print this fact sheet Sexual assault ... assaulted? More information on sexual assault What is sexual assault? Sexual assault and abuse is any type of ...

275

Kidney proteome changes provide evidence for a dynamic metabolism and regional redistribution of plasma proteins during torpor-arousal cycles of hibernation  

PubMed Central

Hibernating ground squirrels maintain homeostasis despite extreme physiological challenges. In winter, these circannual hibernators fast for months while cycling between prolonged periods of low blood flow and body temperature, known as torpor, and short interbout arousals (IBA), where more typical mammalian parameters are rapidly restored. Here we examined the kidney proteome for changes that support the dramatically different physiological demands of the hibernator's year. We identified proteins in 150 two-dimensional gel spots that altered by at least 1.5-fold using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. These data successfully classified individuals by physiological state and revealed three dynamic patterns of relative protein abundance that dominated the hibernating kidney: 1) a large group of proteins generally involved with capturing and storing energy were most abundant in summer; 2) a select subset of these also increased during each arousal from torpor; and 3) 14 spots increased in torpor and early arousal were enriched for plasma proteins that enter cells via the endocytic pathway. Immunohistochemistry identified ?2-macroglobulin and albumin in kidney blood vessels during late torpor and early arousal; both exhibited regional heterogeneity consistent with highly localized control of blood flow in the glomeruli. Furthermore, albumin, but not ?2-macroglobulin, was detected in the proximal tubules during torpor and early arousal but not in IBA or summer animals. Taken together, our findings indicate that normal glomerular filtration barriers remain intact throughout torpor-arousal cycles but endocytosis, and hence renal function, is compromised at low body temperature during torpor and then recovers with rewarming during arousal. PMID:22643061

Jani, Alkesh; Orlicky, David J.; Karimpour-Fard, Anis; Epperson, L. Elaine; Russell, Rae L.; Hunter, Lawrence E.

2012-01-01

276

Physiological correlates of mental workload  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A literature review was conducted to assess the basis of and techniques for physiological assessment of mental workload. The study findings reviewed had shortcomings involving one or more of the following basic problems: (1) physiologic arousal can be easily driven by nonworkload factors, confounding any proposed metric; (2) the profound absence of underlying physiologic models has promulgated a multiplicity of seemingly arbitrary signal processing techniques; (3) the unspecified multidimensional nature of physiological "state" has given rise to a broad spectrum of competing noncommensurate metrics; and (4) the lack of an adequate definition of workload compels physiologic correlations to suffer either from the vagueness of implicit workload measures or from the variance of explicit subjective assessments. Using specific studies as examples, two basic signal processing/data reduction techniques in current use, time and ensemble averaging are discussed.

Zacharias, G. L.

1980-01-01

277

Infant Smiling during Social Interaction: Arousal Modulation or Activation Indicator?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a study of infant smiling, 20 mother-infant dyads were videotaped in normal face-to-face interaction when the infants were 9 and 14 weeks of age. Videotapes were used to determine which of two classes of smiling behavior models, either arousal modulation or activation indicator, was most supported by empirical data. Arousal modulation models…

Ewy, Richard

278

Imagery-induced arousal in individuals with panic disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigators have debated whether imagery can effectively induce arousal in persons suffering from anxiety disorders. Past research suggests that imaginal exposure to feared stimuli can successfully induce arousal among simple and social phobics. However, owing to the greater complexity of precipitating stimuli associated with panic attacks (PAs), persons with disorder (PD) have been thought to be relatively unresponsive to imaginal

Patti Lou Watkins; George A. Clum; Janet W. Borden; Susan Broyles; John Hayes

1990-01-01

279

Emotional Arousal Does Not Enhance Association-Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Emotionally arousing information is remembered better than neutral information. This enhancement effect has been shown for memory for items. In contrast, studies of association-memory have found both impairments and enhancements of association-memory by arousal. We aimed to resolve these conflicting results by using a cued-recall paradigm combined…

Madan, Christopher R.; Caplan, Jeremy B.; Lau, Christine S. M.; Fujiwara, Esther

2012-01-01

280

Cheating as a function of the labeling of natural arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypothesized that it is not emotional arousal per se which influences one to inhibit or avoid cheating, but one's interpretation of the meaning and significance of that arousal. 105 naive undergraduates were told that this was a study of a vitamin supplement's effects on vision, and given 1 of 2 lists of side effects associated with the placebo pill. While

Richard A. Dienstbier; Pamela O. Munter

1971-01-01

281

Running head: NEGATIVE AROUSAL, SALIENCY AND SHORT-TERM MEMORY 1 Negative Arousal Amplifies the Effects of Saliency in Short-Term Memory  

E-print Network

Running head: NEGATIVE AROUSAL, SALIENCY AND SHORT-TERM MEMORY 1 Negative Arousal Amplifies the Effects of Saliency in Short-Term Memory Matthew R. Sutherland and Mara Mather University of Southern: Emotional Arousal, Salience, Short-Term Memory #12;Running head: NEGATIVE AROUSAL, SALIENCY AND SHORT-TERM

Mather, Mara

282

Sexsomnia: Abnormal sexual behavior during sleep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review attempts to assemble the characteristics of a distinct variant of sleepwalking called sexsomnia\\/sleepsex from the seemingly scarce literature into a coherent theoretical framework. Common features of sexsomnia include sexual arousal with autonomic activation (e.g. nocturnal erection, vaginal lubrication, nocturnal emission, dream orgasms). Somnambulistic sexual behavior and its clinical implications, the role of precipitating factors, diagnostic, treatment, and medico-legal

Monica L. Andersen; Dalva Poyares; Rosana S. C. Alves; Robert Skomro; Sergio Tufik

2007-01-01

283

Affective Arousal as Information: How Affective Arousal Influences Judgments, Learning, and Memory  

PubMed Central

The affect-as-information framework posits that affect is embodied information about value and importance. The valence dimension of affect provides evaluative information about stimulus objects, which plays a role in judgment and decisionmaking. Affect can also provide evaluative information about one's own cognitions and response inclinations, information that guides thinking and reasoning. In particular, positive affect often promotes, and negative affect inhibits, accessible responses or dominant modes of thinking. Affect thus moderates many of the textbook phenomena in cognitive psychology. In the current review, we suggest additionally that the arousal dimension of affect amplifies reactions, leading to intensified evaluations, increased reliance on particular styles of learning, and enhanced long-term memory for events. We conclude that whereas valenced affective cues serve as information about value, the arousal dimension provides information about urgency or importance. PMID:25067943

Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

2014-01-01

284

Comparison of ketanserin, buspirone and propranolol on arousal, pupil size and autonomic function in healthy volunteers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  The human pupil may be a suitable physiological test system for the assessment of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), but\\u000a pupillometric assessment could be confounded by medication for comorbid hypertension and mood disorders.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  We examined the profile of the 5HT-2\\/?1\\/H1 antagonist ketanserin, the 5HT1a agonist buspirone and the beta adrenoceptor antagonist\\u000a propranolol on pupillary and other measures of arousal.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and

Vassilis Koudas; Alexandra Nikolaou; Eugenia Hourdaki; Stella G. Giakoumaki; Panos Roussos; Panos Bitsios

2009-01-01

285

Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 2, April 2006, pp. 163177 (C 2006) DOI: 10.1007/s10508-005-9015-1  

E-print Network

Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 35, No. 2, April 2006, pp. 163­177 (C 2006) DOI: 10.1007/s10508-005-9015-1 Effects of Depressive Symptoms and Experimentally Adopted Schemas on Sexual Arousal and Affect in Sexually examined the effects of depressive mood symptoms and experimentally adopted sexual schemas on women

286

Anticipated violence, arousal, and enjoyment of movies: viewers' reactions to violent previews based on arousal-seeking tendency.  

PubMed

The authors investigated the effects of violent portrayals in movie previews on viewers' arousal and anticipated enjoyment of movies based on their arousal-seeking tendencies. A total of 159 college students watched 6 movie previews, each in a violent or nonviolent version, and reported their expectations of enjoying watching the movies. The results show that high arousal seekers reported a higher level of anticipated enjoyment after watching the violent previews than the nonviolent previews. In contrast, low arousal seekers did not expect much difference in their enjoyment between the two versions. In line with the theory of optimal stimulation level, the results indicate that viewers' anticipated enjoyment of movies after watching violent images in previews is moderated by individuals' arousal-seeking tendencies. PMID:18605178

Xie, Guang-Xin; Lee, Moon J

2008-06-01

287

Biological aspects of sexual desire in women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The physiology of sexual desire in women is poorly understood. There is evidence that androgens stimulate sexual desire and prolactin may be inhibitory. Oestrogens probably do not have a direct effect of female sexual desire but may indirectly increase it in oestrogen-deficient women by promoting the feelings of femininity. Little is known about the central neurotransmitters that influence sexual desire

Alan J. Riley; Elizabeth J. Riley; Paul Brown

1986-01-01

288

Timing of Puberty and Sexuality in Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relations among timing of puberty, timing of first experience of sexual arousal, strength of sex drive, and sexual attitudes and behaviors in 277 men (M age, 22.4 years) and women (M age, 21.8 years). Kinsey had suggested that earlier maturers have a stronger sex drive and, therefore, engage in a higher frequency of sexual behaviors (including same-sex

Jennifer M. Ostovich; John Sabini

2005-01-01

289

A balancing act: Physical balance, through arousal, influences size perception  

PubMed Central

Previous research demonstrates that manipulating vision influences balance. Here, we question whether manipulating balance can influence vision and how it may influence vision, specifically the perception of width. In Experiment 1, participants estimated the width of beams while balanced and unbalanced. When unbalanced, participants judged the widths to be smaller. One possible explanation is that unbalanced participants did not view the stimulus as long as when balanced because they were focused on remaining balanced. In Experiment 2, we tested this notion by limiting viewing time. Experiment 2 replicated the findings of Experiment 1 but viewing time had no effect on width judgments. In Experiment 3, participants’ level of arousal was manipulated because the balancing task likely produced arousal. While jogging, participants judged the beams to be smaller. In Experiment 4, participants completed another arousing task (counting backward by 7s) that did not involve movement. Again, participants judged the beams to be smaller when aroused. Experiment 5a raised participants’ level of arousal before estimating the board widths (to control for potential dual-task effects) and found that heightened arousal still influenced perceived width of the boards. Collectively, heightened levels of arousal, caused by multiple manipulations (including balance), influenced perceived width. PMID:20952786

Geuss, Michael N.; Stefanucci, Jeanine K.; de Benedictis-Kessner, Justin; Stevens, Nicholas R.

2012-01-01

290

sexual Assault sexual Assault  

E-print Network

sexual Assault sexual Assault if You Are a Victim of a sexual Assault 1. Get to a safe place. 2. Call out for help. 3. DiAl 6111 or ask someone to ring for you and state "sEXUAl AssAUlT" giving exact. if You Witness a sexual Assault 1. Everyone is asked to assist in making the campus a safe place by being

Hickman, Mark

291

Arousal-biased competition in perception and memory  

PubMed Central

Our everyday surroundings besiege us with information. The battle is for a share of our limited attention and memory, with the brain selecting the winners and discarding the losers. Previous research shows that both bottom-up and top-down factors bias competition in favor of high priority stimuli. We propose that arousal during an event increases this bias both in perception and in long-term memory of the event. Arousal-biased competition theory provides specific predictions about when arousal will enhance and when it will impair memory for events, accounting for some puzzling contradictions in the emotional memory literature. PMID:21660127

Mather, Mara; Sutherland, Matthew R.

2010-01-01

292

Alcohol, Sexual Arousal, and Sexually Aggressive Decision-Making: Preventative Strategies and Forensic Psychology Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational choice theory outlines that human behavior is based on the perceived costs and benefits that will result from any given behavior. Before engaging in any behavior (criminal or not) the individual rationally weighs the costs and benefits associated with the outcome of the behavior. If the perceived benefits of the behavior outweigh the costs then the individual “rationally” chooses

Charlotte A. Dudley

2005-01-01

293

Sexual Satisfaction and Sexual Health Among University Students in the United States  

PubMed Central

Despite the World Health Organization's definition of sexual health as a state of well-being, virtually no public health research has examined sexual well-being outcomes, including sexual satisfaction. Emerging evidence suggests that sexual well-being indicators are associated with more classic measures of healthy sexual behaviors. We surveyed 2168 university students in the United States and asked them to rate their physiological and psychological satisfaction with their current sexual lives. Many respondents reported that they were either satisfied (approximately half) or very satisfied (approximately one third). In multivariate analyses, significant (P < .05) correlates of both physiological and psychological satisfaction included sexual guilt, sexual self-comfort, self-esteem (especially among men), relationship status, and sexual frequency. To enhance sexual well-being, public health practitioners should work to improve sexual self-comfort, alleviate sexual guilt, and promote longer term relationships. PMID:21778509

Mullinax, Margo; Trussell, James; Davidson, J. Kenneth; Moore, Nelwyn B.

2011-01-01

294

Personal Mastery is Associated with Reduced Sympathetic Arousal in Stressed Alzheimer Caregivers  

PubMed Central

Objectives Spousal caregivers of Alzheimer’s Disease patients are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease, possibly via sympathetic response to stressors and subsequent catecholamine surge. Personal mastery (i.e., belief that one can manage life’s obstacles) may decrease psychological and physiological response to stressors. This study examines the relationship between mastery and sympathetic arousal in elderly caregivers, as measured by norepinephrine reactivity to an acute psychological stressor. Design Following assessment for mastery and objective caregiving stressors, caregivers underwent an experimental speech task designed to induce sympathetic arousal. Setting Data was collected by a research nurse in each caregiver’s home. Participants Sixty-nine elderly spousal Alzheimer caregivers (mean age = 72.8 years) who were not taking ?-blocking medication. Intervention Participants delivered a brief speech in response to vignettes depicting stressful situations. Measurements Mastery was assessed using Pearlin’s Personal Mastery scale and Alzheimer patient functioning was assessed using the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, Problem Behaviors Scale, and Activities of Daily Living Scale. Plasma norepinephrine assays were conducted using pre- and post-speech blood draws. Results Multiple regression analyses revealed that mastery was significantly and negatively associated with norepinephrine reactivity (B = ?9.86, t(61) = ?2.03, p = .046) independent of factors theoretically and empirically linked to norepinephrine reactivity. Conclusions Caregivers with higher mastery had less norepinephrine reactivity to the stressor task. Mastery may exert a protective influence that mitigates the physiological effects of acute stress, and may be an important target for psychosocial interventions in order to reduce sympathetic arousal and cardiovascular stress among dementia caregivers. PMID:18378556

Roepke, Susan K.; Mausbach, Brent T.; Aschbacher, Kirstin; Ziegler, Michael G.; Dimsdale, Joel E.; Mills, Paul J.; Kanel, Roland von; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Patterson, Thomas L.; Grant, Igor

2009-01-01

295

Frequent arousals from winter torpor in Rafinesque's big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii).  

PubMed

Extensive use of torpor is a common winter survival strategy among bats; however, data comparing various torpor behaviors among species are scarce. Winter torpor behaviors are likely to vary among species with different physiologies and species inhabiting different regional climates. Understanding these differences may be important in identifying differing susceptibilities of species to white-nose syndrome (WNS) in North America. We fitted 24 Rafinesque's big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) with temperature-sensitive radio-transmitters, and monitored 128 PIT-tagged big-eared bats, during the winter months of 2010 to 2012. We tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats use torpor less often than values reported for other North American cave-hibernators. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that Rafinesque's big-eared bats arouse on winter nights more suitable for nocturnal foraging. Radio-tagged bats used short (2.4 d ± 0.3 (SE)), shallow (13.9°C ± 0.6) torpor bouts and switched roosts every 4.1 d ± 0.6. Probability of arousal from torpor increased linearly with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), and 83% (n=86) of arousals occurred within 1 hr of sunset. Activity of PIT-tagged bats at an artificial maternity/hibernaculum roost between November and March was positively correlated with ambient temperature at sunset (P<0.0001), with males more active at the roost than females. These data show Rafinesque's big-eared bat is a shallow hibernator and is relatively active during winter. We hypothesize that winter activity patterns provide Corynorhinus species with an ecological and physiological defense against the fungus causing WNS, and that these bats may be better suited to withstand fungal infection than other cave-hibernating bat species in eastern North America. PMID:23185427

Johnson, Joseph S; Lacki, Michael J; Thomas, Steven C; Grider, John F

2012-01-01

296

Cardiovascular effects of acute positive emotional arousal.  

PubMed

Since there are several popular beliefs about putative health benefits of amusement which are empirically substantiated poorly about putative health benefits of amusement, the immediate cardiovascular effects of amusement were studied in detail. Cardiovascular activity was studied while participants were viewing humorous films, relative to a control condition involving no amusement. High-resolution measures of heart rate, heart rate variability, continuous blood pressure, and respiration were recorded, and the phase synchronization among the variables was analyzed, which provides information on the coordinated behavior of response systems. Viewing humorous films had cardiovascular effects indicating heightened sympathetic arousal, if they elicited intense amusement. No effects were observed for variables indicating parasympathetic input to the heart. The observed effects associated with amusement were not driven by changes in the respiration. The suppression of positive affect expressions did not produce any additional activation. The transient cardiovascular effects of amusement do not correspond to beneficial correlates of a habitual positive affect disposition reported in the literature, demonstrating that it would be erroneous to argue from the long-term effects of a positive affect disposition to the effects of a single amusing event. PMID:24129902

Lackner, Helmut K; Weiss, Elisabeth M; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Papousek, Ilona

2014-03-01

297

"Girl, You Better Go Get You a Condom": Popular Culture and Teen Sexuality as Resources for Critical Multicultural Curriculum  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teens encounter a barrage of messages about sexuality in popular culture--messages that shape their identities and schooling experiences in profound ways. Meanwhile, teen sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) increasingly arouse public panic. To date, however, schools do little to help teens make sense of their…

Ashcraft, Catherine

2006-01-01

298

Attentional interference effects of emotional pictures: threat, negativity, or arousal?  

PubMed

Attentional interference arising from emotional pictures was examined. Participants had to ignore emotional pictures while solving math problems (Study 1, N = 126) or detecting the location of a line (Study 2, N = 60). Data analyses tested predictions of 3 theories. Evolutionary threat theory predicts interference by snake pictures. Categorical negativity theory predicts interference by negative pictures regardless of their intensity. According to arousal theory, arousal level predicts interference effects. The results supported arousal theory, with the most arousing pictures (strong unpleasant pictures, oppositesex models) producing the strongest interference. The findings are interpreted in the context of process models of emotions that postulate an initial relevance check before further processing of valence and other appraisal dimensions. PMID:15755219

Schimmack, Ulrich; Derryberry, Douglas

2005-03-01

299

Melatonin Production Accompanies Arousal from Daily Torpor in Siberian Hamsters  

E-print Network

were highest during early arousal when thermogenesis is maximal, and they decreased as body tem that increased Mel production may reflect enhanced sympa- thetic activation associated with intense thermogenesis

Zucker, Irving

300

Energetical bases of extraversion: effort, arousal, EEG, and performance.  

PubMed

This study investigates an extension of H.J. Eysenck's [Eysenck, H.J., 1967. The Biological Basis of Personality. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL] arousal theory of extraversion, incorporating an effort system as a control system for different aspects of arousal. Extraverts were expected to have lower levels of reticocortical arousal than introverts, to invest more effort, and to have lower task performance in a monotonous vigilance task. In a 40-min vigilance task, participants had to react to the shorter of two 1 kHz tones presented binaurally at an event rate of 200 per 10 min. Spontaneous EEG, event-related potential, and performance data of 40 extremely introverted and 41 extremely extraverted students were available for statistical analysis. A tendency for lower arousal levels of extraverts (alpha 2 band), the expected higher effort investment (P300) and a lower performance (hits) of extraverts were found. PMID:16426692

Beauducel, André; Brocke, Burkhard; Leue, Anja

2006-11-01

301

Valence, arousal, and task effects in emotional prosody processing  

PubMed Central

Previous research suggests that emotional prosody processing is a highly rapid and complex process. In particular, it has been shown that different basic emotions can be differentiated in an early event-related brain potential (ERP) component, the P200. Often, the P200 is followed by later long lasting ERPs such as the late positive complex. The current experiment set out to explore in how far emotionality and arousal can modulate these previously reported ERP components. In addition, we also investigated the influence of task demands (implicit vs. explicit evaluation of stimuli). Participants listened to pseudo-sentences (sentences with no lexical content) spoken in six different emotions or in a neutral tone of voice while they either rated the arousal level of the speaker or their own arousal level. Results confirm that different emotional intonations can first be differentiated in the P200 component, reflecting a first emotional encoding of the stimulus possibly including a valence tagging process. A marginal significant arousal effect was also found in this time-window with high arousing stimuli eliciting a stronger P200 than low arousing stimuli. The P200 component was followed by a long lasting positive ERP between 400 and 750 ms. In this late time-window, both emotion and arousal effects were found. No effects of task were observed in either time-window. Taken together, results suggest that emotion relevant details are robustly decoded during early processing and late processing stages while arousal information is only reliably taken into consideration at a later stage of processing. PMID:23801973

Paulmann, Silke; Bleichner, Martin; Kotz, Sonja A.

2013-01-01

302

Sexual victimization, alcohol intoxication, sexual-emotional responding, and sexual risk in heavy episodic drinking women.  

PubMed

This study used an experimental paradigm to investigate the roles of sexual victimization history and alcohol intoxication in young women's sexual-emotional responding and sexual risk taking. A nonclinical community sample of 436 young women, with both an instance of heavy episodic drinking and some HIV/STI risk exposure in the past year, completed childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA) measures. A majority of them reported CSA and/or ASA, including rape and attempted rape. After random assignment to a high alcohol dose (.10 %) or control condition, participants read and projected themselves into an eroticized scenario of a sexual encounter involving a new partner. As the story protagonist, each participant rated her positive mood and her sexual arousal, sensation, and desire, and then indicated her likelihood of engaging in unprotected sex. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that ASA and alcohol were directly associated with heightened risk taking, and alcohol's effects were partially mediated by positive mood and sexual desire. ASA was associated with attenuated sexual-emotional responding and resulted in diminished risk taking via this suppression. These are the first findings indicating that, compared to non-victimized counterparts, sexually victimized women respond differently in alcohol-involved sexual encounters in terms of sexual-emotional responding and risk-taking intentions. Implications include assessing victimization history and drinking among women seeking treatment for either concern, particularly women at risk for HIV, and alerting them to ways their histories and behavior may combine to exacerbate their sexual risks. PMID:23857517

George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Masters, N Tatiana; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Gilmore, Amanda K; Nguyen, Hong V; Kajumulo, Kelly F; Otto, Jacqueline M; Andrasik, Michele P

2014-05-01

303

Arousal and Stress Effects on Consolidation and Reconsolidation of Recognition Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the effects of the arousal level of the rat and exposure to a behavioral stressor on consolidation and reconsolidation of a nonaversive learning paradigm, the object recognition task. Learning was tested under two arousal conditions: no previous habituation to the experimental context (high novelty stress\\/arousal level) or extensive prior habituation (reduced novelty stress\\/arousal level). Results indicated that

Mouna Maroun; Irit Akirav

2008-01-01

304

Masturbation and premarital sexual intercourse among college women: Making choices for sexual fulfillment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the potential value of masturbation as an alternative to high-risk sexual practices, there is a need to investigate factors surrounding this method of physiological sexual fulfillment. Therefore, this study examined the differences, if any, between women who have engaged in masturbation only (MO), both masturbation and sexual intercourse (MSI), and sexual intercourse only (SIO). An anonymous questionnaire was administered

J. Kenneth Davidson Sr; Nelwyn B. Moore

1994-01-01

305

Physiological and behavioral signatures of reflective exploratory choice.  

PubMed

Physiological arousal, a marker of emotional response, has been demonstrated to accompany human decision making under uncertainty. Anticipatory emotions have been portrayed as basic and rapid evaluations of chosen actions. Instead, could these arousal signals stem from a "cognitive" assessment of value that utilizes the full environment structure, as opposed to merely signaling a coarse, reflexive assessment of the possible consequences of choices? Combining an exploration-exploitation task, computational modeling, and skin conductance measurements, we find that physiological arousal manifests a reflective assessment of the benefit of the chosen action, mirroring observed behavior. Consistent with the level of computational sophistication evident in these signals, a follow-up experiment demonstrates that anticipatory arousal is modulated by current environment volatility, in accordance with the predictions of our computational account. Finally, we examine the cognitive costs of the exploratory choice behavior these arousal signals accompany by manipulating concurrent cognitive demand. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the arousal that accompanies choice under uncertainty arises from a more reflective and "cognitive" assessment of the chosen action's consequences than has been revealed previously. PMID:24664860

Otto, A Ross; Knox, W Bradley; Markman, Arthur B; Love, Bradley C

2014-12-01

306

Arousal and Affective Responses to Writing Styles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Measured the physiological and affective responses to three factors of newswriting style: narrative vs. traditional; direct quotations vs. paraphrased statements; and active vs. passive verbs and adjectives. (Mass suicides in Guyana were used as stimulus news stories.) Narrative style, direct quotations, and active verbs and adjectives produced…

Donohew, Lewis

1981-01-01

307

Doing it ... wild? On the role of the cerebral cortex in human sexual activity  

PubMed Central

Background We like to think about sexual activity as something fixed, basic and primal. However, this does not seem to fully capture reality. Even when we relish sex, we may be capable of mentalizing, talking, voluntarily postponing orgasm, and much more. This might indicate that the central control mechanisms of sexual activity are quite flexible and susceptible to learning mechanisms, and that cortical brain areas play a critical part. Objective This study aimed to identify those cortical areas and mechanisms most consistently implicated in sexual activity. Design A comprehensive review of the human functional neuroimaging literature on sexual activity, i.e. genital stimulation and orgasm, is made. Results Genital stimulation recruits the classical somatosensory matrix, but also areas far beyond that. The posterior insula may be particularly important for processing input from the engorged penis and coordinating penile responses. Extrastriate visual cortex tracks sexual arousal and responds to genital stimulation even when subjects have their eyes closed. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is also tightly coupled to sexual arousal, but low activity in this area predicts high sexual arousal. Conclusion This review has indicated cortical sites where activity is moderated by tactile genital inflow and high sexual arousal. Behavioral implications are discussed and where possible the relevance for learning mechanisms is indicated. Overall, it is clear that the cerebral cortex has something to say about sexual activity. PMID:24693348

Georgiadis, Janniko R.

2012-01-01

308

A unifying computational framework for stability and flexibility of arousal  

PubMed Central

Arousal and consciousness flexibly adjust to salient cues, but remain stable despite noise and disturbance. Diverse, highly interconnected neural networks govern the underlying transitions of behavioral state; these networks are robust but very complex. Frameworks from systems engineering provide powerful tools for understanding functional logic behind component complexity. From a general systems viewpoint, a minimum of three communicating control modules may enable flexibility and stability to coexist. Comparators would subtract current arousal from desired arousal, producing an error signal. Regulators would compute control signals from this error. Generators would convert control signals into arousal, which is fed back to comparators, to make the system noise-proof through self-correction. Can specific neurons correspond to these control elements? To explore this, here we consider the brain-wide orexin/hypocretin network, which is experimentally established to be vital for flexible and stable arousal. We discuss whether orexin neurons may act as comparators, and their target neurons as regulators and generators. Experiments are proposed for testing such predictions, based on computational simulations showing that comparators, regulators, and generators have distinct temporal signatures of activity. If some regulators integrate orexin-communicated errors, robust arousal control may be achieved via integral feedback (a basic engineering strategy for tracking a set-point despite noise). An integral feedback view also suggests functional roles for specific molecular aspects, such as differing life-spans of orexin peptides. The proposed framework offers a unifying logic for molecular, cellular, and network details of arousal systems, and provides insight into behavioral state transitions, complex behavior, and bases for disease. PMID:25368557

Kosse, Christin; Burdakov, Denis

2014-01-01

309

Tachykinin-expressing neurons control male-specific aggressive arousal in Drosophila.  

PubMed

Males of most species are more aggressive than females, but the neural mechanisms underlying this dimorphism are not clear. Here, we identify a neuron and a gene that control the higher level of aggression characteristic of Drosophila melanogaster males. Males, but not females, contain a small cluster of FruM(+) neurons that express the neuropeptide tachykinin (Tk). Activation and silencing of these neurons increased and decreased, respectively, intermale aggression without affecting male-female courtship behavior. Mutations in both Tk and a candidate receptor, Takr86C, suppressed the effect of neuronal activation, whereas overexpression of Tk potentiated it. Tk neuron activation overcame reduced aggressiveness caused by eliminating a variety of sensory or contextual cues, suggesting that it promotes aggressive arousal or motivation. Tachykinin/Substance P has been implicated in aggression in mammals, including humans. Thus, the higher aggressiveness of Drosophila males reflects the sexually dimorphic expression of a neuropeptide that controls agonistic behaviors across phylogeny. PMID:24439378

Asahina, Kenta; Watanabe, Kiichi; Duistermars, Brian J; Hoopfer, Eric; González, Carlos Roberto; Eyjólfsdóttir, Eyrún Arna; Perona, Pietro; Anderson, David J

2014-01-16

310

Archives of Sexual Behavior, Vol. 32, No. 3, June 2003, pp. 243251 ( C 2003) Selecting Films for Sex Research: Gender Differences  

E-print Network

for Sex Research: Gender Differences in Erotic Film Preference Erick Janssen, Ph.D.,1,2,4 Deanna Carpenter; accepted December 3, 2002 The aim of this study was to explore gender differences in sexual responsiveness arousing than did the women. Gender differences in arousal were negligible for female- selected clips

311

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

... for Patients Share This Page: Sexual Assault Resources Sexual Assault Sexual assault is a significant problem affecting American ... National Network at 1-800-656-HOPE (4673). Sexual Assault Examinations It is important to know that a ...

312

The sound of arousal in music is context-dependent  

PubMed Central

Humans, and many non-human animals, produce and respond to harsh, unpredictable, nonlinear sounds when alarmed, possibly because these are produced when acoustic production systems (vocal cords and syrinxes) are overblown in stressful, dangerous situations. Humans can simulate nonlinearities in music and soundtracks through the use of technological manipulations. Recent work found that film soundtracks from different genres differentially contain such sounds. We designed two experiments to determine specifically how simulated nonlinearities in soundtracks influence perceptions of arousal and valence. Subjects were presented with emotionally neutral musical exemplars that had neither noise nor abrupt frequency transitions, or versions of these musical exemplars that had noise or abrupt frequency upshifts or downshifts experimentally added. In a second experiment, these acoustic exemplars were paired with benign videos. Judgements of both arousal and valence were altered by the addition of these simulated nonlinearities in the first, music-only, experiment. In the second, multi-modal, experiment, valence (but not arousal) decreased with the addition of noise or frequency downshifts. Thus, the presence of a video image suppressed the ability of simulated nonlinearities to modify arousal. This is the first study examining how nonlinear simulations in music affect emotional judgements. These results demonstrate that the perception of potentially fearful or arousing sounds is influenced by the perceptual context and that the addition of a visual modality can antagonistically suppress the response to an acoustic stimulus. PMID:22696288

Blumstein, Daniel T.; Bryant, Gregory A.; Kaye, Peter

2012-01-01

313

Central serotonin neurons are required for arousal to CO2  

PubMed Central

There is a long-standing controversy about the role of serotonin in sleep/wake control, with competing theories that it either promotes sleep or causes arousal. Here, we show that there is a marked increase in wakefulness when all serotonin neurons are genetically deleted in mice hemizygous for ePet1-Cre and homozygous for floxed Lmx1b (Lmx1bf/f/p). However, this only occurs at cool ambient temperatures and can be explained by a thermoregulatory defect that leads to an increase in motor activity to generate heat. Because some serotonin neurons are stimulated by CO2, and serotonin activates thalamocortical networks, we hypothesized that serotonin neurons cause arousal in response to hypercapnia. We found that Lmx1bf/f/p mice completely lacked any arousal response to inhalation of 10% CO2 (with 21% O2 in balance N2) but had normal arousal responses to hypoxia, sound, and air puff. We propose that serotonin neurons mediate the potentially life-saving arousal response to hypercapnia. Impairment of this response may contribute to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, sudden infant death syndrome, and sleep apnea. PMID:20805497

Buchanan, Gordon F.; Richerson, George B.

2010-01-01

314

Make love not war? Sex, sexual meanings, and violence in a sample of university students  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some previous studies show that sexual arousal heightens aggression, some show no relationship, and others show that sex inhibits aggression. It is suggested that the contradictions can be explained by the failure of these studies to consider the subjective meaning of sexual acts. To empirically test this notion, questionnaires were given to 190 students in three New England colleges. It

Roger W. Libby; Murray A. Straus

1980-01-01

315

On making nursing undergraduate human reproductive physiology content meaningful and relevant: discussion of human pleasure in its biological context.  

PubMed

The traditional presentation of the Reproductive Physiology component in an Anatomy and Physiology course to nursing undergraduates focuses on the broad aspects of hormonal regulation of reproduction and gonadal anatomy, with the role of the higher centres of the brain omitted. An introductory discussion is proposed which could precede the lectures on the reproductive organs. The discussion gives an overview of the biological significance of human pleasure, the involvement of the neurotransmitter dopamine, and the role of pleasure in the survival of the individual and even species. Pleasure stimuli (positive and negative) and the biological significance of naturally-induced pleasurable experiences are briefly discussed in the context of reproduction and the preservation of genetic material with an aim to foster relevancy between subject material and human behaviour in any type of society. The tenderness of this aspect of the human existence is well-understood because of its invariable association with soul-revealing human expressions such as love, infatuation, sexual flirtations, all of which are underpinned by arousal, desire and/or pleasure. Assuming that increased knowledge correlates with increased confidence, the proposed approach may provide the nurse with an adequate knowledge base to overcome well-known barriers in communicating with their patients about matters of sexual health and intimacy. PMID:21377251

McClusky, Leon Mendel

2012-01-01

316

On pleasure and thrill: the interplay between arousal and valence during visual word recognition.  

PubMed

We investigated the interplay between arousal and valence in the early processing of affective words. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants read words organized in an orthogonal design with the factors valence (positive, negative, neutral) and arousal (low, medium, high) in a lexical decision task. We observed faster reaction times for words of positive valence and for those of high arousal. Data from ERPs showed increased early posterior negativity (EPN) suggesting improved visual processing of these conditions. Valence effects appeared for medium and low arousal and were absent for high arousal. Arousal effects were obtained for neutral and negative words but were absent for positive words. These results suggest independent contributions of arousal and valence at early attentional stages of processing. Arousal effects preceded valence effects in the ERP data suggesting that arousal serves as an early alert system preparing a subsequent evaluation in terms of valence. PMID:24815948

Recio, Guillermo; Conrad, Markus; Hansen, Laura B; Jacobs, Arthur M

2014-07-01

317

Sexual Desire Disorders  

PubMed Central

Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder (SAD) are an under-diagnosed group of disorders that affect men and women. Despite their prevalence, these two disorders are often not addressed by healthcare providers and patients due their private and awkward nature. As physicians, we need to move beyond our own unease in order to adequately address our patients’ sexual problems and implement appropriate treatment. Using the Sexual Response Cycle as the model of the physiological changes of humans during sexual stimulation and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition this article will review the current literature on the desire disorders focusing on prevalence, etiology, and treatment. PMID:19727285

Montgomery, Keith A.

2008-01-01

318

The effectiveness of empathy- versus fear-arousing antismoking PSAs.  

PubMed

Building on a previous study (Shen, 2010), this paper investigates the effectiveness of fear- versus empathy-arousing antismoking PSAs and examines the roles of message-induced fear and state empathy in persuasion. Twelve professionally produced antismoking PSAs were used as stimuli messages in a 3 (message type: empathy, fear vs. control) × 4 (messages) mixed design study. The 260 participants were randomly assigned to each message type and watched four PSAs presented in a random sequence. Results from multilevel modeling analyses showed that empathy-arousing messages are potentially more effective than fear-arousing ones. Both fear and state empathy were found to have a positive direct effect on persuasion. However, fear also had a negative indirect impact on persuasion by activating psychological reactance, while state empathy also had a positive indirect effect by inhibiting psychological reactance. Implications for persuasion, health communication campaigns, and future research were discussed. PMID:21409669

Shen, Lijiang

2011-01-01

319

Differential impact of beliefs on valence and arousal  

PubMed Central

Many cognitive accounts of emotional processing assume that emotions have representational content that can be influenced by beliefs and desires. It is generally thought that emotions also have non-cognitive, affective components, including valence and arousal. To clarify the impact of cognition on these affective components we asked participants to rate sentences along cognitive and affective dimensions. For the former case, participants rated the believability of the material. For the latter case, they provided valence and arousal ratings. Across two experiments, we show that valence and arousal are differently influenced by beliefs, suggesting that these two largely independent affective components of emotion differ in their cognitive penetrability. While both components depended upon overall comprehension of sentence meaning, only valence was influenced by the consistency of the sentences with participants’ beliefs (i.e., whether it was believable or unbelievable). We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding cognition-emotion relationships. PMID:22783982

Nicolle, Antoinette; Goel, Vinod

2012-01-01

320

Arousal and the attentional network in panic disorder.  

PubMed

Although a great deal of information about the neurobiology of panic disorder is now available, there is a need for an updated etiological model integrating recent findings on the neurobiology of the arousal system and its relationship with higher cortical functions in panic disorder. The current mini-review presents psychophysiological, molecular biological/genetic and functional neuroimaging evidence for dysfunction in major arousal systems of the brain. Such dysfunction may influence the development of panic disorder by precipitating autonomic bodily symptoms and at the same time increasing vigilance to these sensations by modulating cortical attentional networks. A multilevel model of arousal, attention and anxiety-including the norepinephrine, orexin, neuropeptide S and caffeine-related adenosine systems-may be useful in integrating a range of data available on the pathogenesis of panic disorder. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25311787

Geiger, Maximilian J; Neufang, Susanne; Stein, Dan J; Domschke, Katharina

2014-11-01

321

Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism  

PubMed Central

It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

2013-01-01

322

Sexuality after breast cancer: a review.  

PubMed

It is widely recognised that women's sexuality can be particularly complex after breast cancer, with sexual changes often becoming the most problematic aspect of a woman's life. The impact of such changes can last for many years after successful treatment, and can be associated with serious physical and emotional side-effects. The objective of this paper is to review research on breast cancer and sexuality from the years 1998 to 2010. Research has documented a range of physical changes to a woman's sexuality following breast cancer, including disturbances to sexual functioning, as well as disruptions to sexual arousal, lubrication, orgasm, sexual desire, and sexual pleasure, resulting from chemotherapy, chemically induced menopause, tamoxifen, and breast cancer surgery. Women's intrapsychic experience of changes to sexuality includes a fear of loss of fertility, negative body image, feelings of sexual unattractiveness, loss of femininity, depression and anxiety, as well as alterations to a sense of sexual self. The discursive construction of femininity and sexuality shapes the way women construct and experience their illness and their body - leading many women to try to appear 'normal' to others post-breast surgery. Finally, the quality of a woman's partnered relationship consistently predicts sexual health post-breast cancer - reinforcing the importance of recognising the intersubjective nature of issues surrounding breast cancer and sexuality. It is concluded that analyses of sexuality in the context of breast cancer cannot conceptualise the physical body separately from women's intrapsychic negotiation, her social and relational context, and the discursive constructions of sexuality and femininity: a material-discursive-intrapsychic interaction. PMID:20439140

Gilbert, Emilee; Emilee, Gilbert; Ussher, J M; Perz, J

2010-08-01

323

Subcellular distribution of key enzymes of lipid metabolism during the euthermia-hibernation-arousal cycle  

PubMed Central

Mammalian hibernation is a natural, fully reversible hypometabolic state characterized by a drastic reduction of body temperature and metabolic activity, which ensures survival to many species under adverse environmental conditions. During hibernation, many hibernators rely for energy supply almost exclusively on lipid reserves; the shift from carbohydrate to lipid metabolism implies profound rearrangement of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of energetic substrates. However, the structural counterpart of such adaptation is not known. In this study we investigated, by using immunoelectron microscopy, the fine intracellular distribution of two key enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, namely, the fatty acid synthase (FAS) and the long-chain fatty acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL), in hepatocytes of euthermic, hibernating and arousing hazel dormice. Our results show that the two enzymes are differentially distributed in cellular compartments (cytoplasm, mitochondria and cell nuclei) of hepatocytes during euthermia. Quantitative redistribution of both enzymes among cellular compartments takes place during hibernation and arousal, in accordance with the physiological changes. Interestingly, this redistribution follows different seasonal patterns in cytoplasm, mitochondria and nuclei. In conclusion, our data represent the first quantitative morphological evidence of lipid enzyme distribution in a true hibernator throughout the year cycle, thus providing a structural framework to biochemical changes associated with the hypometabolism of hibernation. PMID:19538638

Suozzi, Anna; Malatesta, Manuela; Zancanaro, Carlo

2009-01-01

324

How to Handle Anxiety: The Effects of Reappraisal, Acceptance, and Suppression Strategies on Anxious Arousal  

PubMed Central

It has been suggested that reappraisal strategies are more effective than suppression strategies for regulating emotions. Recently, proponents of the acceptance-based behavior therapy movement have further emphasized the importance of acceptance-based emotion regulation techniques. In order to directly compare these different emotion regulation strategies, 202 volunteers were asked to give an impromptu speech in front of a video camera. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups. The Reappraisal group was instructed to regulate their anxious arousal by reappraising the situation; the Suppression group was asked to suppress their anxious behaviors; and the Acceptance group was instructed to accept their anxiety. As expected, the Suppression group showed a greater increase in heart rate from baseline than the Reappraisal and Acceptance groups. Moreover, the Suppression group reported more anxiety than the Reappraisal group. However, the Acceptance and Suppression groups did not differ in their subjective anxiety response. These results suggest that both reappraising and accepting anxiety is more effective for moderating the physiological arousal than suppressing anxiety. However, reappraising is more effective for moderating the subjective feeling of anxiety than attempts to suppress or accept it. PMID:19281966

Hofmann, Stefan G.; Heering, Sanna; Sawyer, Alice T.; Asnaani, Anu

2009-01-01

325

Sexual Functioning among Married Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to assess sexual functioning among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in Iran. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to ascertain factors re- lated to sexual functioning in 300 PCOS patients attending to the private practice centers in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran, from May to October 2012. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) was used to measure sexual functioning. Moreover, the socio-demo-graphic details and clinical information of PCOS including obesity, hirsutism, acne, mestrual cycle disturbances, infertility and endocrine profile were recorded for each patient. Results Overall the prevalence of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) was 16.6%. In particular patients indicated poorer sexual functioning for the desire (48.3%) and the arousal (44.7%) subscales. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested patients with lower educational level (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.46-5.92) and irregular menstrual status (OR: 4.61; 95% CI: 1.93-11) were more likely to report sexual dysfunction. Conclusion The findings suggest that desire and arousal were the most prevalent sexual disorders reported in this patient population. In addition, findings suggested that women with limited or no formal education and a history of menstrual irregularities were the most likely to report female sexual dysfunction. Further investigations are needed to examine female sexual functioning among women with PCOS, to educate their health care providers, and to develop therapeutic interventions. PMID:25379156

Bazarganipour, Fatemeh; Ziaei, Saeideh; Montazeri, Ali; Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat

2014-01-01

326

Cognitive behavioral therapy for sexual dysfunctions in women.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunctions in women are classified into disorders of desire, arousal, orgasm, and pain (including dyspareunia and vaginismus). As the cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) procedures differ among these sexual disorders, the treatments for each disorder are reviewed separately. The efficacy of CBT differs depending on the specific sexual dysfunction to be treated. It is concluded that only a few CBT treatments for women's sexual dysfunction have yet been empirically investigated in a methodologically sound way and little is known about which of the treatment components are most effective. PMID:20599135

ter Kuile, Moniek M; Both, Stephanie; van Lankveld, Jacques J D M

2010-09-01

327

Evolution and human sexuality.  

PubMed

The aim of this review is to put core features of human sexuality in an evolutionary light. Toward that end, I address five topics concerning the evolution of human sexuality. First, I address theoretical foundations, including recent critiques and developments. While much traces back to Darwin and his view of sexual selection, more recent work helps refine the theoretical bases to sex differences and life history allocations to mating effort. Second, I consider central models attempting to specify the phylogenetic details regarding how hominin sexuality might have changed, with most of those models honing in on transitions from a possible chimpanzee-like ancestor to the slightly polygynous and long-term bonded sociosexual partnerships observed among most recently studied hunter-gatherers. Third, I address recent genetic and physiological data contributing to a refined understanding of human sexuality. As examples, the availability of rapidly increasing genomic information aids comparative approaches to discern signals of selection in sexuality-related phenotypes, and neuroendocrine studies of human responses to sexual stimuli provide insight into homologous and derived mechanisms. Fourth, I consider some of the most recent, large, and rigorous studies of human sexuality. These provide insights into sexual behavior across other national samples and on the Internet. Fifth, I discuss the relevance of a life course perspective to understanding the evolution of human sexuality. Most research on the evolution of human sexuality focuses on young adults. Yet humans are sexual beings from gestation to death, albeit in different ways across the life course, and in ways that can be theoretically couched within life history theory. PMID:24151100

Gray, Peter B

2013-12-01

328

Physiological changes in response to apnea impact the timing of motor representations: a preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Background Reduced physiological arousal in response to breath-holding affects internal clock processes, leading swimmers to underestimate the time spent under apnea. We investigated whether reduced physiological arousal during static apnea was likely to affect the temporal organization of motor imagery (MI). Methods Fourteen inter-regional to national breath-holding athletes mentally and physically performed two 15 m swimming tasks of identical durations. They performed the two sequences in a counterbalanced order, the first while breathing normally using a scuba, the second under apnea. We assessed MI duration immediately after completion of the corresponding task. Athletes performed MI with and without holding breath. Results MI durations (26.1 s?±?8.22) were significantly shorter than actual durations (29.7 s?±?7.6) without holding breath. Apnea increased MI durations by 10% (± 5%). Heart rate decrease in response to breath-holding correlated with MI durations increase (p?physiological arousal state congruent with that of the corresponding motor task. Conclusions Physiological arousal affected the durations of MI through its effects on internal clock processes and by impacting the congruency in physiological body states between overt and covert motor performance. Present findings have potential implications with regards to the possibility of preventing underestimation of durations spent under a state of reduced physiological arousal. PMID:24773625

2014-01-01

329

The effect of visual sexual content on the event-related potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study we investigated the effect of emotional valence and arousal value of non-erotic visual stimuli on event-related potentials. We also directly compared the effects of erotic and non-erotic stimuli of comparable valence and arousal levels. Sixteen sexually functional heterosexual males rated 150 computer screen pictures, selected from the International Affective Picture System, representing five stimulus types differing

Fren T. Y. Smulders

2008-01-01

330

The association between bullying behaviour, arousal levels and behaviour problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into bullying behaviour has identified two main categories of bullying behaviour, direct bullying and relational bullying, within which different profiles are evident, namely ‘pure’ bullies, ‘pure’ victims, bully\\/victims and neutral children. The current study examined the relationship between direct and relational bullying profiles, arousal levels, and behaviour problems. 242 (males: 121, females: 121) Secondary school pupils (mean age 13.5

Sarah Woods; Eleanor White

2005-01-01

331

Arousal and reward: a dichotomy in orexin function  

E-print Network

function, such that orexin neurons in the lateral hypotha- lamus regulate reward processing for both food associated with rewards such as food or drugs, and that exogenous stimulation of LH orexin neurons reinstates, arousal and reward [12­15]. Intraventricular administration of orexin A mildly sti- mulates food intake

Aston-Jones, Gary

332

Weighted Vests, Stereotyped Behaviors and Arousal in Children with Autism  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The homeostatic theory of stereotyped behaviors assumes that these behaviors modulate arousal. Weighted vests are used to decrease stereotyped behaviors in persons with autism because the input they provide is thought to serve the same homeostatic function. This small-n, randomized and blinded study measured the effects of wearing a weighted vest…

Hodgetts, Sandra; Magill-Evans, Joyce; Misiaszek, John E.

2011-01-01

333

Disconnection of the Ascending Arousal System in Traumatic Coma  

PubMed Central

Traumatic coma is associated with disruption of axonal pathways throughout the brain but the specific pathways involved in humans are incompletely understood. In this study, we used high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) to map the connectivity of axonal pathways that mediate the 2 critical components of consciousness – arousal and awareness – in the postmortem brain of a 62-year-old woman with acute traumatic coma and in 2 control brains. HARDI tractography guided tissue sampling in the neuropathological analysis. HARDI tractography demonstrated complete disruption of white matter pathways connecting brainstem arousal nuclei to the basal forebrain and thalamic intralaminar and reticular nuclei. In contrast, hemispheric arousal pathways connecting the thalamus and basal forebrain to the cerebral cortex were only partially disrupted, as were the cortical “awareness pathways.” Neuropathologic examination, which utilized ?-amyloid precursor protein and fractin immunomarkers, revealed axonal injury in the white matter of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres that corresponded to sites of HARDI tract disruption. Axonal injury was also present within the grey matter of the hypothalamus, thalamus, basal forebrain, and cerebral cortex. We propose that traumatic coma may be a subcortical disconnection syndrome related to the disconnection of specific brainstem arousal nuclei from the thalamus and basal forebrain. PMID:23656993

Edlow, Brian L.; Haynes, Robin L.; Takahashi, Emi; Klein, Joshua P.; Cummings, Peter; Benner, Thomas; Greer, David M.; Greenberg, Steven M.; Wu, Ona; Kinney, Hannah C.; Folkerth, Rebecca D.

2013-01-01

334

Emotional Arousal of Beginning Physics Teachers during Extended Experimental Investigations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Teachers often have difficulty implementing inquiry-based activities, leading to the arousal of negative emotions. In this multicase study of beginning physics teachers in Australia, we were interested in the extent to which their expectations were realized and how their classroom experiences while implementing extended experimental investigations…

Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant; Henderson, Senka; Roth, Wolff-Michael

2013-01-01

335

Imagery Arousal as a Function of Exposure to Artistic Stimuli.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine to what extent music and art can arouse imagery experiences in an audience. Because of the relationship found between imagery and the arts in past research, it was hypothesized that artistic stimuli would have a greater influence on imagery than other kinds of stimuli (art-information or non-artistic).…

Bilotta, Joseph

336

Gastric myoelectrical activity as an index of emotional arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autonomic nervous system parameters such as electrodermal activity, heart rate, and facial EMG have been utilized extensively as measures of emotional arousal. One measure that has rarely been employed in this setting is gastric myoelectrical activity, despite the fact that “gut feelings” have an obvious and even profound role in everyday emotional life. It has been shown that the gastrointestinal

E. P. M. Vianna; D. Tranel

2006-01-01

337

Heart rate and GSR concomitants of vigilance and arousal  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an experiment with 16 male undergraduates, Ss receiving high shock were considerably more autonomically aroused than low shock Ss, as indicated both by an index of GSR, and by heart rate uncorrected for base level. When corrected, heart rate did not differentiate between Ss receiving high and low level shock. In a within Ss comparison, however, UCS temporal uncertainty

Kenneth S. Bowers

1971-01-01

338

Sex Differences in Children's Reports of Emotion-Arousing Situations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Elementary school boys and girls are highly similar with regards to the events they describe as emotionally arousing fear, sadness, anger, happiness, and pride. One hundred and sixty (160) White, Black, Chicano, and Asian-American boys and girls from kindergarten, second, third, fourth, and sixth grades freely described the situation that most…

Feshbach, Norma Deitch; Hoffman, Michael Arthur

339

Optimal Levels of Emotional Arousal in Experiential Therapy of Depression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To determine the relationship between length of time spent expressing highly aroused emotion and therapeutic outcome. Method: Thirty-eight clients (14 male, 24 female) between the ages of 22 and 60 years (M = 39.5, SD = 9.71), treated for depression with experiential therapy, were rated on working alliance and expressed emotional…

Carryer, Jonathan R.; Greenberg, Leslie S.

2010-01-01

340

Relationship of experimentally aroused achievement motivation to academic achievement anxiety  

Microsoft Academic Search

180 Ss, balanced for sex, were administered the Achievement Anxiety Test (AAT) under experimental conditions producing either minimal or high arousal of achievement motivation. Regression of scholastic aptitude and AAT scores on grade-point average (GPA) showed both AAT scales accounting for the same variance in GPA. Analyses of variance of AAT scores showed no sex differences, but highly significant main

E. Wayne Herron

1964-01-01

341

The Effectiveness of Empathy Versus Fear-Arousing Antismoking PSAs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Building on a previous study (Shen, 2010), this paper investigates the effectiveness of fear- versus empathy-arousing antismoking PSAs and examines the roles of message-induced fear and state empathy in persuasion. Twelve professionally produced antismoking PSAs were used as stimuli messages in a 3 (message type: empathy, fear vs. control) × 4 (messages) mixed design study. The 260 participants were randomly

Lijiang Shen

2011-01-01

342

When does cortical arousal enhance performance in visual perception tasks?  

E-print Network

Department of Psychology, George Washington University Abstract Intro: Cold pressor stimulation (CPSWhen does cortical arousal enhance performance in visual perception tasks? 1. Adam J. Woods 1 and 2. John Philbeck2 + Author Affiliations 1. 1Department of Psychology, George Washington University 2. 2

Chatterjee, Anjan

343

Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

2010-01-01

344

Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu  

E-print Network

Free Extreme Values Gerard Ben Arous and Dan Virgil Voiculescu New York University and University at Berkeley Berkeley, CA 94720-3840 E-mail:dvv@math.berkeley.edu Abstract: Free probability analogues- sification of freely max-stable laws and their domains of attraction, using "free extremal convolutions

Ben Arous, Gérard

345

The subtlety of White racism, arousal, and helping behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tested 2 hypotheses: (a) White bystanders are more likely to discriminate against Black victims in situations in which failure to intervene could be attributable to factors other than the victim's race. (b) There is a causal relationship between arousal induced by witnessing an emergency and bystander responsiveness, as proposed by I. M. Piliavin et al . A total of 260

Samuel L. Gaertner; John F. Dovidio

1977-01-01

346

The arousal and satiation of perceptual curiosity in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Curiosity appears to be aroused by environments presenting numerous and complex stimuli to a greater degree than to environments more simply structured. Satiation of exploratory activity is related to previous exposure, massing of trials and to the lapse of time within a trial, but is unaffected by such variables as brightness of objects, figure-ground brightness contrast or 10 minutes confinement

D. E. Berlyne

1955-01-01

347

Truth Biases and Aroused Suspicion in Relational Deception  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively stable perceptions of truthfulness tend to develop in relationships, although situations may arise causing partners to become suspicious of one another. The truth bias that grows as relationships develop was conceptualized as a cognitive heuristic for judging a partner's veracity. This study of relational partners investigates the influence of the truth bias and aroused suspicion on judgments of truthfulness.

JAMES B. STIFF; HYUN J. KIM; CLOSEPET N. RAMESH

1992-01-01

348

White-nose syndrome-affected little brown myotis (Myotis lucifugus) increase grooming and other active behaviors during arousals from hibernation.  

PubMed

White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious disease of hibernating bats linked to the death of an estimated 5.7 million or more bats in the northeastern United States and Canada. White-nose syndrome is caused by the cold-loving fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), which invades the skin of the muzzles, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. Previous work has shown that WNS-affected bats arouse to euthermic or near euthermic temperatures during hibernation significantly more frequently than normal and that these too-frequent arousals are tied to severity of infection and death date. We quantified the behavior of bats during these arousal bouts to understand better the causes and consequences of these arousals. We hypothesized that WNS-affected bats would display increased levels of activity (especially grooming) during their arousal bouts from hibernation compared to WNS-unaffected bats. Behavior of both affected and unaffected hibernating bats in captivity was monitored from December 2010 to March 2011 using temperature-sensitive dataloggers attached to the backs of bats and infrared motion-sensitive cameras. The WNS-affected bats exhibited significantly higher rates of grooming, relative to unaffected bats, at the expense of time that would otherwise be spent inactive. Increased self-grooming may be related to the presence of the fungus. Elevated activity levels in affected bats likely increase energetic stress, whereas the loss of rest (inactive periods when aroused from torpor) may jeopardize the ability of a bat to reestablish homeostasis in a number of physiologic systems. PMID:24502712

Brownlee-Bouboulis, Sarah A; Reeder, DeeAnn M

2013-10-01

349

The hypocretins/orexins: integrators of multiple physiological functions.  

PubMed

The hypocretins (Hcrts), also known as orexins, are two peptides derived from a single precursor produced in the posterior lateral hypothalamus. Over the past decade, the orexin system has been associated with numerous physiological functions, including sleep/arousal, energy homeostasis, endocrine, visceral functions and pathological states, such as narcolepsy and drug abuse. Here, we review the discovery of Hcrt/orexins and their receptors and propose a hypothesis as to how the orexin system orchestrates these multifaceted physiological functions. PMID:24102345

Li, Jingcheng; Hu, Zhian; de Lecea, Luis

2014-01-01

350

What is sexual satisfaction? Thematic analysis of lay people's definitions.  

PubMed

Sexual satisfaction is an important indicator of sexual health and is strongly associated with relationship satisfaction. However, research exploring lay definitions of sexual satisfaction has been scarce. We present thematic analysis of written responses of 449 women and 311 men to the question "How would you define sexual satisfaction?" The participants were heterosexual individuals with a mean age of 36.05 years (SD = 8.34) involved in a committed exclusive relationship. In this exploratory study, two main themes were identified: personal sexual well-being and dyadic processes. The first theme focuses on the positive aspects of individual sexual experience, such as pleasure, positive feelings, arousal, sexual openness, and orgasm. The second theme emphasizes relational dimensions, such as mutuality, romance, expression of feelings, creativity, acting out desires, and frequency of sexual activity. Our results highlight that mutual pleasure is a crucial component of sexual satisfaction and that sexual satisfaction derives from positive sexual experiences and not from the absence of conflict or dysfunction. The findings support definitions and models of sexual satisfaction that focus on positive sexual outcomes and the use of measures that incorporate items linked to personal and dyadic sexual rewards for both men and women. PMID:24070214

Pascoal, Patrícia Monteiro; Narciso, Isabel de Santa Bárbara; Pereira, Nuno Monteiro

2014-01-01

351

Usefulness of Differentiating Arousal Responses Within Communication Theories: Orienting Response or Defensive Arousal Within Nonverbal Theories of Expectancy Violation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

States that arousal has become a central variable within much of communication research from deception to emotional communication. Describes a two-part study that explored the application of the "orienting response" to these interpersonal communication theories explaining violations of expectancies. Concludes that the orientation response did…

Le Poire, Beth A.; Burgoon, Judee K.

1996-01-01

352

The sexually sadistic criminal and his offenses.  

PubMed

This is an uncontrolled, descriptive study of 30 sexually sadistic criminals. All were men, and all intentionally tortured their victims in order to arouse themselves. Their crimes often involved careful planning, the selection of strangers as victims, approaching the victim under a pretext, participation of a partner, beating victims, restraining victims and holding them captive, sexual bondage, anal rape, forced fellatio, vaginal rape, foreign object penetration, telling victims to speak particular words in a degrading manner, murder or serial killings (most often by strangulation), concealing victims' corpses, recording offenses, and keeping personal items belonging to victims. PMID:2372577

Dietz, P E; Hazelwood, R R; Warren, J

1990-01-01

353

An automatic ambulatory device for detection of AASM defined arousals from sleep: the WP100  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives and background: Arousals from sleep are associated with increased sympathetic activation and therefore with peripheral vasoconstriction. Sleep fragmentation in the form of multiple arousals is associated with daytime somnolence and cognitive impairment; however, manual scoring of arousal is time consuming and problematic due to relatively high inter-scorer variability. We have recently shown that automated analysis of in-lab recorded peripheral

Giora Pillar; Amir Bar; Michal Betito; Robert P. Schnall; Itsik Dvir; Jacob Sheffy; Peretz Lavie

2003-01-01

354

Sexual Problems  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or constant. Sexual disorders can affect men and women and are classified into four categories: desire disorders, ... the time. Sexual disorders affect both men and women and are classified into 4 main categories: sexual ...

355

Sexual Assault  

MedlinePLUS

Sexual assault is any sexual activity to which you haven't freely given your consent. This includes completed ... trust, a friend, an acquaintance, or a stranger. Sexual assault can affect your health in many ways. It ...

356

Perception of self and others in male sex offenders against children: Schema content and its relation to criminal sexual behaviour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty-four civilly committed male sex offenders against children (SOs) chose from a list of traits to describe self, mother, father, best friend, past lover, victim and therapist. Cluster analysis (INDCLAS) uncovered five patterns (i.e. schemas) in Sos’ social perception data: “sexual lover” (past lover described as sexual, arousing, etc. as well as anxious, lonely and worried), “benevolent parent” (mother and

Warren A. Reich; Uri Amit; Harold I. Siegel

2009-01-01

357

An unusual case of sexual assault on an infant: an intraperitoneal candle in a 20-month-old girl  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent publication of cases of sexual abuse and child prostitution networks may have the harmful effect of arousing latent desires or causing sexual delinquents to act out their impulses. The authors report a recent case in which a wax candle was introduced into the vagina of a 20-month-old baby. The forensic description is given and provisional conclusions are drawn.

S Gromb; H. J Lazarini

1998-01-01

358

Cognitive consequences of individual differences in arousal asymmetry.  

PubMed

Prior research has demonstrated that semantic organization in the right hemisphere (RH) is more diffuse and specialized for distant semantic associates than is semantic organization in the left hemisphere (LH). The present research explored individual differences in this regard. If the RH is more specialized for distant semantic associates, then individuals with a more active RH should display greater activation of distant semantic associations. Two experiments were conducted to examine this issue. In both studies a line bisection task was used to assess arousal asymmetry. In Experiment 1, greater RH activation was associated with the ability to generate remote associates to three word stimuli. In Experiment 2, relatively greater RH activation was associated with enhanced priming of distant semantic associates. Taken together, these experiments demonstrate that arousal asymmetry is an individual difference variable that is related to variability in semantic organization and retrieval. PMID:23867738

Holtgraves, Thomas

2013-10-01

359

Outsourcing Salespeople in Building Arousal towards Retail Buying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strategy of outsourcing salespeople (sales promoters) to prospect the customers through inter-personal communication and develop pre-purchase arousal for products and services is being increasingly employed by the manufacturing and marketing firms. Sales promoters are deployed at strategic locations such as in front of malls, large self-service stores, departmental stores and traffic islands in the city. This paper attempts to analyze

Rajagopal

2007-01-01

360

Saccadic velocity as an arousal index in naturalistic tasks.  

PubMed

Experimental evidence indicates that saccadic metrics vary with task difficulty and time-on-task in naturalistic scenarios. We explore historical and recent findings on the correlation of saccadic velocity with task parameters in clinical, military, and everyday situations, and its potential role in ergonomics. We moreover discuss the hypothesis that changes in saccadic velocity indicate variations in sympathetic nervous system activation; that is, variations in arousal. PMID:23541685

Di Stasi, Leandro L; Catena, Andrés; Cañas, José J; Macknik, Stephen L; Martinez-Conde, Susana

2013-06-01

361

Distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interaction on human recognition memory.  

PubMed

The two dimensions of emotion, mood valence and arousal, have independent effects on recognition memory. At present, however, it is not clear how those effects are reflected in the human brain. Previous research in this area has generally dealt with memory for emotionally valenced or arousing stimuli, but the manner in which interacting mood and arousal states modulate responses in memory substrates remains poorly understood. We investigated memory for emotionally neutral items while independently manipulating mood valence and arousal state by means of music exposure. Four emotional conditions were created: positive mood/high arousal, positive mood/low arousal, negative mood/high arousal, and negative mood/low arousal. We observed distinct effects of mood valence and arousal in parietal substrates of recognition memory. Positive mood increased activity in ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and orbitofrontal cortex, whereas arousal condition modulated activity in dorsal PPC and the posterior cingulate. An interaction between valence and arousal was observed in left ventral PPC, notably in a parietal area distinct from the those identified for the main effects, with a stronger effect of mood on recognition memory responses here under conditions of relative high versus low arousal. We interpreted the PPC activations in terms of the attention-to-memory hypothesis: Increased arousal may lead to increased top-down control of memory, and hence dorsal PPC activation, whereas positive mood valence may result in increased activity in ventral PPC regions associated with bottom-up attention to memory. These findings indicate that distinct parietal sites mediate the influences of mood, arousal, and their interplay during recognition memory. PMID:24604603

Greene, Ciara M; Flannery, Oliver; Soto, David

2014-12-01

362

Subregional organization of preoptic area/anterior hypothalamic projections to arousal-related monoaminergic cell groups.  

PubMed

Pathways mediating the generation and/or maintenance of sleep reside within the preoptic/anterior hypothalamus (POAH). Reproduction, water balance, thermoregulation, and neuroendocrine functions are also associated with POAH, but it is not fully understood whether sleep is consolidated with these behavioral and physiological functions, or whether sleep-related circuitry is segregated from other POAH regions. Recent studies indicate that sleep mechanisms may be localized to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and that this region sends inhibitory projections to waking/arousal-related neurons in the histaminergic tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC), and the serotonergic dorsal raphe (DR). The present study is a quantitative investigation of preoptic area efferents to these monoaminergic groups. The results demonstrate that biotinylated dextran injections in the VLPO region reveal a robust innervation of TM that was as much as five times greater than innervation derived from other POAH subregions. The innervation of TM originated almost exclusively from injection sites in the region of galanin neurons. VLPO projections to the LC were moderately dense and were greater than in other POAH regions except for equivalent input from the medial preoptic area. Projections to the dorsal raphe were equivalent to LC innervation and were generally two to three times greater from VLPO than from other POAH regions, except for projections from the lateral preoptic region, which were similar in magnitude. The rostral and caudal levels projected more to the TM, whereas the midrostral region of VLPO strongly innervated the LC core. These findings, with recent studies demonstrating medial and lateral extensions of the sleep-related VLPO neuronal group, indicate that descending arousal state control may be mediated by this specific galaninergic/gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cell group. PMID:11135241

Steininger, T L; Gong, H; McGinty, D; Szymusiak, R

2001-01-22

363

Sexual dysfunction in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome and its affected domains  

PubMed Central

Background: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is presented with characteristic complications such as chronic an ovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism which can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. Objective: Herein we evaluated the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in infertile PCOS patients. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 130 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS who were referred due to infertility were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire. Results: The frequency of sexual dysfunction was verified 57.7% in PCOS patients with the domains of desire and arousal being commonly affected in 99.2% and 98.5%of cases respectively. BMI had a significant effect on sexual desire and arousal (p=0.02) while the effect of hirsutism was significant on all domains (p<0.001 for total FSFI score) except for dyspareunia. Conclusion: PCOS patients markedly suffer from sexual dysfunction as comorbidity. It seems appropriate to screen all PCOS patients for sexual function with a simple short questionnaire such as FSFI. Targeted interventions could be considered to help improve their quality of life along with other treatments.

Eftekhar, Tahereh; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Zabandan, Neda; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

2014-01-01

364

Performing under pressure: the effects of physiological arousal, cognitive anxiety, and gaze control in biathlon.  

PubMed

The authors provide evidence that choking under pressure is associated with changes in visual attention. Ten elite biathlon shooters were tested under separate low-pressure (LP) and high-pressure (HP) conditions after exercising on a cycle ergometer at individually prescribed power output (PO) levels of 55%, 70%, 85%, and 100% of their maximum oxygen uptake. The authors determined difference scores by subtracting each athlete's score in the LP condition from his or her score in the HP condition for heart rate (d-HR), rate of perceived exertion (d-RPE), cognitive anxiety (d-CA), and cognitive worry (d-CW), and final fixation on the target or quiet eye gaze (d-QE). Using regression analysis, the authors determined predictors of accuracy for each HP PO level. At PO 55%, the authors found 3 predictors (d-HR, d-RPE, d-QE) that accounted for .62 of the adjusted R2 variance. Accuracy was higher when d-QE was lower and d-RPE and d-HR were higher than the values found in the LP condition. At PO 100%, however, an increase in d-QE and d-RPE accounted for .58 of the adjusted R2 variance. Accuracy was dependent on an increase in external focus (positive d-QE) independently of heart rate. At the highest PO level, directing visual attention externally to critical task information appeared to insulate the athletes from choking under HP. PMID:17827115

Vickers, Joan N; Williams, A Mark

2007-09-01

365

Optimal Arousal Identification and Classification for Affective Computing Using Physiological Signals: Virtual Reality Stroop Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

A closed-loop system that offers real-time assessment and manipulation of a user's affective and cognitive states is very useful in developing adaptive environments which respond in a rational and strategic fashion to real-time changes in user affect, cognition, and motivation. The goal is to progress the user from suboptimal cognitive and affective states toward an optimal state that enhances user

Dongrui Wu; Christopher G. Courtney; Brent J. Lance; Shrikanth S. Narayanan; Michael E. Dawson; Kelvin S. Oie; Thomas D. Parsons

2010-01-01

366

Sexual dimorphism in the complexity of cardiac pacemaker activity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Journal article titled "Sexual Dimorphism in the Complexity of Cardiac Pacemaker Activity" from The American Journal of PhysiologyÃÂHeart and Circulatory Physiology, by Terry B. J. Kuo, and Cheryl C. H. Yang.

Terry B. Kuo (Tzu Chi Buddhist General Hospital Department of Neurology); Cheryl C.H. Yang (Tzu Chi University Department of Physiology)

2007-10-03

367

Internet Sexualities  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable\\u000a on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates\\u000a a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services\\u000a and applications (e.g., websites, online

Nicola Döring

2010-01-01

368

Interaction between physiological and cognitive determinants of emotions: experimental studies on Schachter's theory of emotions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the interaction between physiological arousal and situation-derived cognitions in the determination of feeling states that is proposed in Schachter's theory of emotions. The degree of bodily arousal was varied by disguised oral administration of a placebo or the sympathicomimetic agent ephedrine. The situational circumstances were varied by instructions offering cues for (a) no emotions ('neutral' control), or the feeling states called (b) 'anger', (c) 'happiness', and (d) anxiety'. The subjects were 72 male students. The dependent variables were blood pressure, heart rate, a list of bodily symptoms, and an adjective check list. The results within the 'anger' and 'happiness' condition were in accordance with Schachter's theory: depending on the type of situation, ephedrine-induced arousal either decreased or increased positive descriptions of mood. The emotional effects of the 'anxiety' condition, however, were independent of the drug-induced arousal level. Contrary to Schachter's theory, anxiety reactions occured also in a state of low physiological arousal and did not increase with increasing arousal. PMID:623859

Erdmann, G; Janke, W

1978-01-01

369

Physiological Networks: towards systems physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate new dimensions to the field of systems physiology.

Bartsch, Ronny P.; Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W.; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

2012-02-01

370

A 25Year Follow-Up of Cognitive\\/Behavioral Therapy with 7,275 Sexual Offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcome data are presented, grouped into 5-year cohorts, for 7,275 sexual offenders entering a cognitive\\/behavioral treatment program. Assessment variables included treatment completion, self-admission of covert and\\/or overt deviant behaviors, the presence of deviant sexual arousal, or being recharged for any sexual crime (regardless of plea or conviction). It proved possible to follow 62% for the cohort at 5 years after

Barry M. Maletzky; Cynthia Steinhauser

2002-01-01

371

[Contraception and sexuality].  

PubMed

Earlier age at menarche, a longer reproductive life, and fewer desired births have been factors in the increasing importance of contraception in the life of women and couples. This work assesses the optimal contraceptive methods for different physiological phases of affective and sexual life and for various sexual problems. Contraception should prevent pregnancy, not promote sexually transmitted diseases and disorders of the genital tract, and preserve future fertility. The 1st gynecological consultation, even for very young girls, has 3 main objectives: detecting anomalies of the genital tract, ensuring that no physiological problems will arise in the 1st intercourse, and providing contraception if it will be needed in the relatively near future. The physician should speak directly to the young patient instead of to her mother. Hormonal contraception is preferred for adolescents with regular sexual activity, but for the majority who have episodic and irregular sexual relations other methods may be preferable. Condoms provide some protection against sexually transmitted diseases but require cooperation from the male partner. Vaginal sponges which can be left in place for 24 hours are easier to use than other vaginal methods. The "morning after" pill is available in case of unprotected coitus. The unplanned and unstable sexuality of adolescents is increasingly followed by a period of regular and continuous premarital sexual relations requiring reliable and continuous contraception. The pill remains the best choice for its efficacy, tolerance, and safety. Various formulations are available in case of contraindications to the classic combined pill. IUDs should be formally contraindicated because of the possibility of extrauterine pregnancy or salpingitis. Mechanical methods can be used for short periods but should not replace a more effective method on a permanent basis. The IUD may be a good choice for women who have completed their families. Oral contraceptives may be continued for premenopausal women without other cardiovascular risk factors. High dose progestins derived from 17 hydroxyprogesterone are recommended in case of luteal insufficiency. Premenopausal women whose sexual relations have become less frequent may prefer IUDs, local methods, or tubal ligation. Sexual difficulties of couples should be considered in selecting a method. Frigid women do not tolerate contraception well because fear of pregnancy is their excuse for avoiding sex. IUDs may be more satisfactory than pills in such cases because they do not require daily action. Pills may be the best choice in cases of premature ejaculation or impotence. PMID:12342527

Kahn-nathan, J

1987-01-01

372

Physiological Genomics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five journals with free (or recently extended) online trial periods were recently announced; online content includes full text, figures, and tables. The American Physiological Society has announced free, online access to Physiological Genomics through December 31, 2001; full text and abstracts are available from 1999. The journal is published in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

1969-12-31

373

Rowing Physiology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

Spinks, W. L.

374

Crop Physiology  

SciTech Connect

In this chapter, we review the physiology of switchgrass from seed dormancy till the effects of water and nutrients stress on grown plants. These characteristics are presented and discussed mainly at the canopy and whole-plant level with emphasis on the agro-physiology of the species in view of the possible contribution of crop physiology to agricultural development. Switchgrass is noted for the variable degrees of seed dormancy regulated by endogenous and exogenous factors that determine the successful seedling establishment. Plant growth rates are determined by temperature while the reproductive phase is controlled mainly by photoperiod. There is also evidence that some physiological attributes, such as photosynthesis, transpiration, and water use efficiency differ between tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid ecotypes. But despite these differences, in general switchgrass combines important attributes of efficient use of nutrients and water with high yields thanks to its ability to acquire resources from extended soil volumes, especially at deep layers. Moreover at canopy level, resources capture and conservation are determined by morpho-physiological characteristics (C{sub 4} photosynthetic pathway, stomatal control of transpiration, high leaf area index, low light extinction coefficient) that enhance radiation use efficiency and reduce carbon losses. However, specific information on switchgrass physiology is still missing, in particular deeper understanding of physiological principles controlling the water and nutrients acquisition mechanisms and allocation under suboptimal growing conditions. The physiology of tillering and root respiration are also factors that need further investigation.

Zegada-Lizarazu, Walter [University of Bologna; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Nair, S. Surendran [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Monti, Andrea [University of Bologna

2013-01-01

375

Internet Sexualities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term “internet sexuality” (or OSA, online sexual activities) refers to sexual-related content and activities observable on the internet (cf. Adams, Oye, & Parker, 2003; Cooper, McLoughlin, & Campbell, 2000; Leiblum & Döring, 2002). It designates a variety of sexual phenomena (e.g., pornography, sex education, sexual contacts) related to a wide spectrum of online services and applications (e.g., websites, online chat rooms, peer-to-peer networks). If an even broader range of computer networks - such as the Usenet or bulletin board systems - is included in this extensional definition, one speaks of “online sexuality” or “cybersexuality.”

Döring, Nicola

376

Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.  

PubMed

Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence. PMID:24715543

Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

2014-11-01

377

A Scale for Assessing the Severity of Arousal Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background: Arousal disorders may have serious health consequences. Objective: To develop a scale assessing the severity of arousal disorders (Paris Arousal Disorders Severity Scale, PADSS). Setting: University hospital. Design: Controlled study. Participants: Consecutive patients (older than 15 y), with sleepwalking (SW) and/or sleep terrors (ST), subjects with previous SW/ST, normal controls and patients with rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. Intervention: The self-rated scale listed 17 parasomniac behaviors (PADSS-A), assessed their frequency from never to twice or more per night (PADSS-B) and evaluated the consequences (PADSS-C: disturbed sleep, injuries, fatigue, and psychological consequences). The clinimetric properties and face validity of the scale were tested. Results: Half of the 73 patients with SW/ST (more men than women) had injured themselves or others, whereas 15% had concomitant sexsomnia and 23% had amnestic eating behaviors. The total PADSS score (range: 0-50) was 19.4 ± 6.3 (range: 8-36) in this group, 11.7 ± 5.9 in 26 subjects with previous SW/ST, 8.8 ± 3.2 in 26 patients with RBD, and 2.0 ± 3.5 in 53 normal controls (P < 0.05). The PADSS demonstrated high sensitivity (83.6%), specificity (87.8%), internal consistency, and test-retest reliability (0.79). The best cutoff for the total score was at 13/14. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two components: wandering and violence/handling. The complexity of behaviors emerging from N3 sleep (scored on videopolysomnography) positively correlated with scores for the PADSS-total, PADSS-A, PADSS-C, and the “violence/handling” factor. Conclusion: This scale had reasonable psychometric properties and could be used for screening and stratifying patients and for evaluating the effects of treatments. Citation: Arnulf I; Zhang B; Uguccioni G; Flamand M; Noël de Fontréaux A; Leu-Semenescu S; Brion A. A scale for assessing the severity of arousal disorders. SLEEP 2014;37(1):127-136. PMID:24470702

Arnulf, Isabelle; Zhang, Bin; Uguccioni, Ginevra; Flamand, Mathilde; Noel de Fontreaux, Alix; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Brion, Agnes

2014-01-01

378

Significance of Including a Surrogate Arousal for Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome Diagnosis by Respiratory Polygraphy  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Respiratory polygraphy is an accepted alternative to polysomnography (PSG) for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) diagnosis, although it underestimates the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) because respiratory polygraphy cannot identify arousals. Objectives: We performed a multicentric, randomized, blinded crossover study to determine the agreement between home respiratory polygraphy (HRP) and PSG, and between simultaneous respiratory polygraphy (respiratory polygraphy with PSG) (SimultRP) and PSG by means of 2 AHI scoring protocols with or without hyperventilation following flow reduction considered as a surrogate arousal. Methods: We included suspected SAHS patients from 8 hospitals. They were assigned to home and hospital protocols at random. We determined the agreement between respiratory polygraphy AHI and PSG AHI scorings using Bland and Altman plots and diagnostic agreement using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The agreement in therapeutic decisions (continuous positive airway pressure treatment or not) between HRP and PSG scorings was done with likelihood ratios and post-test probability calculations. Results: Of 366 randomized patients, 342 completed the protocol. AHI from HRP scorings (with and without surrogate arousal) had similar agreement with PSG. AHI from SimultRP with surrogate arousal scoring had better agreement with PSG than AHI from SimultRP without surrogate arousal. HRP with surrogate arousal scoring had slightly worse ROC curves than HRP without surrogate arousal, and the opposite was true for SimultRP scorings. HRP with surrogate arousal showed slightly better agreement with PSG in therapeutic decisions than for HRP without surrogate arousal. Conclusion: Incorporating a surrogate arousal measure into HRP did not substantially increase its agreement with PSG when compared with the usual procedure (HRP without surrogate arousal). Citation: Masa JF; Corral J; Gomez de Terreros J; Duran-Cantolla J; Cabello M; Hernández-Blasco L; Monasterio C; Alonso A; Chiner E; Aizpuru F; Zamorano J; Cano R; Monterrat JM. Significance of including a surrogate arousal for sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome diagnosis by respiratory polygraphy. SLEEP 2013;36(2):249–257. PMID:23372273

Masa, Juan F.; Corral, Jaime; Gomez de Terreros, Javier; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Cabello, Marta; Hernández-Blasco, Luis; Monasterio, Carmen; Alonso, Alberto; Chiner, Eusebi; Aizpuru, Felipe; Zamorano, Jose; Cano, Ricardo; Montserrat, Jose M.; Garcia-Ledesma, Estefania; Pereira, Ricardo; Cancelo, Laura; Martinez, Angeles; Sacristan, Lirios; Salord, Neus; Carrera, Miguel; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Embid, Cristina

2013-01-01

379

Circadian clock resetting by behavioral arousal: neural correlates in the midbrain raphe nuclei and locus coeruleus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some procedures for stimulating arousal in the usual daily rest period (e.g., gentle handling, novel wheel-induced running) can phase shift circadian rhythms in Syrian hamsters, while other arousal procedures are ineffective (inescapable stress, caffeine, modafinil). The dorsal and median raphe nuclei (DRN, MnR) have been implicated in clock resetting by arousal and, in rats and mice, exhibit strong regionally specific

I. C. Webb; D. F. Patton; G. J. Landry; R. E. Mistlberger

2010-01-01

380

Individual Differences and Arousal: Implications for the Study of Mood and Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inconsistent findings in the study of mood-related effects on memory are discussed in terms of the effects of arousal on cognitive processes. Manipulations used in studies of mood and memory typically affect arousal as well as affective valence. Although mood-related effects on memory are often interpreted in terms of valence, a consideration of arousal-mediated effects rarely occurs. In the motivation

William Revelle; Debra A. Loftus

1990-01-01

381

Challenging stereotypes: sexual functioning of single adults with high functioning autism spectrum disorder.  

PubMed

This study examined the sexual functioning of single adults (61 men, 68 women) with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome living in the community with and without prior relationship experience. Participants completed an on-line questionnaire assessing autism symptoms, psychological functioning, and various aspects of sexual functioning. In general participants reported positive sexual functioning. Participants without prior relationship experience were significantly younger and more likely to be male and identify as heterosexual. They reported significantly higher sexual anxiety, lower sexual arousability, lower dyadic desire, and fewer positive sexual cognitions. The men reported better sexual function than did the women in a number of areas. These results counter negative societal perceptions about the sexuality of high functioning individuals on the autism spectrum. PMID:23526036

Byers, E Sandra; Nichols, Shana; Voyer, Susan D

2013-11-01

382

When Are Sexual Difficulties Distressing for Women? The Selective Protective Value of Intimate Relationships  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent studies have shown that sexual functioning and sexually related personal distress are weakly related in women, with only a minority of sexual difficulties resulting in significant levels of distress. However, there has been little systematic research to date on which factors moderate the relationship between sexual functioning and sexual distress. Aim To assess the degree to which relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderate the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in college-age women. Methods Two hundred women (mean age = 20.25) completed surveys assessing sexual functioning, relational intimacy, attachment anxiety, and sexual distress. Main Outcome Measures Participants completed the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Dimensions of Relationship Quality Scale, and the Revised Experiences in Close Relationships Measure of Adult Romantic Attachment. Results Relational intimacy and attachment anxiety moderated the association between multiple aspects of sexual functioning and sexual distress. For lubrication and sexual pain, functioning was more strongly associated with distress in low-intimacy vs. high-intimacy relationships, but only for women with high levels of attachment anxiety. Results regarding desire were mixed and neither intimacy nor attachment anxiety interacted with subjective arousal or orgasm in predicting distress. Conclusion Both relational intimacy and attachment anxiety are important moderators of the association between sexual functioning and subjective sexual distress in women. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:20701676

Stephenson, Kyle R.; Meston, Cindy M.

2010-01-01

383

[Human orgasm from the physiological perspective--part II].  

PubMed

In contrast to the male orgasm, female orgasm is characterized by high variability and diversity, not only in the general population, but also during the life. Women experience sexual pleasure on many levels: physical, emotional, spiritual and intellectual. Sexual functioning of women and men is determined by many factors. A strong correlation between the state of subjective arousal and genital response (erection) is typical for men. In the case of women important role played: emotions, cognitive interpretation of the situation, age, self-esteem and previous sexual experiences. Among women experience orgasm during intercourse or masturbation is not a goal in itself. Modern approach to the phenomenon of orgasm and sexual education of women, make absence of orgasm as a failure. It becomes a source of low self-esteem, less self-confidence or sense of lack of attractiveness. PMID:23009012

Ga?ecki, Piotr; Depko, Andrzej; Jedrzejewska, Sylwia; Talarowska, Monika

2012-08-01

384

Sexuality in the puerperium: a review.  

PubMed

Pregnancy and the puerperium herald dramatic and complex physiological, psychological, interpersonal, and sexual changes in a woman and in the marital process. Pregnancy tends to have an increasingly negative effect on sexual desire, expression, and satisfaction as term approaches. Clinical variables discussed include anatomic and physiological changes, puerperal sexual response patterns, marital adjustment, body image, dyspareunia related to episiotomy, lactation, and traditional taboos and cautions regarding coitus for the new mother. Most research respondents reported gradual return to prepregnancy levels of sexual desire, enjoyment, and coital frequency, with a minority in most cited studies indicating sexual interest and coitus levels below prepregnancy levels up to 1 year after delivery. The most frequently listed reasons for poor postpartum sexual adjustment include episiotomy discomfort, fatigue, vaginal bleeding or discharge, dyspareunia, insufficient lubrication, fears of awakening the infant or not hearing him/her, fear of injury, and decreased sense of attractiveness. Postpartum counseling should be offered prior to hospital discharge. PMID:3592963

Reamy, K J; White, S E

1987-04-01

385

Breast Cancer, Aromatase Inhibitor Therapy, and Sexual Functioning: A Pilot Study of the Effects of Vaginal Testosterone Therapy  

PubMed Central

Introduction Women with breast cancer have better cancer-related outcomes with the use of aromatase inhibitors (AIs), but the physiological suppression of estradiol can negatively affect sexual functioning because of unpleasant urogenital and vaginal symptoms. Local health care practitioners have observed that the benefits of vaginal testosterone in allaying these unpleasant symptoms in women with breast cancer are similar to the benefits of vaginal estrogen in women without breast cancer. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of using a daily vaginal testosterone cream on the reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AI therapy. Methods Thirteen postmenopausal women with breast cancer on AI therapy and experiencing symptoms of sexual dysfunction were recruited from an oncology practice. The women were prescribed a 300 ?g testosterone vaginal cream daily for 4 weeks. During the first study visit, a vaginal swab was obtained to rule out the presence of Candida species or Gardnerella vaginalis in participants. Women with positive vaginal swabs were treated prior to starting the vaginal testosterone therapy. Main Outcome Measure ?The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) survey, measuring female sexual health quality of life, was administered during the first study visit and at the final study visit, after completing testosterone therapy. Results Twelve patients completed 4 weeks of daily vaginal testosterone therapy. When compared with baseline FSFI scores, there was a statistically significant improvement for individual domain scores of desire (P = 0.000), arousal (P = 0.002), lubrication (P = 0.018), orgasm (P = 0.005), satisfaction (P = 0.001), and pain (P = 0.000). Total domain scores reflecting sexual health quality of life also improved when compared with baseline (P = 0.000). Conclusions The use of a compounded testosterone vaginal cream applied daily for 4 weeks improves reported sexual health quality of life in women with breast cancer taking AIs. Dahir M and Travers-Gustafson D. Breast cancer, aromatase inhibitor therapy, and sexual functioning: A pilot study of the effects of vaginal testosterone therapy. Sex Med 2014;2:8–15. PMID:25356296

Dahir, Melissa; Travers-Gustafson, Dianne

2014-01-01

386

Sexual Health  

MedlinePLUS

... them do, even if interest in sex and sexual activity declines to some extent with increasing age. This ... and a quarter report no pleasure from their sexual activity. About one out of 10 older women have ...

387

Sexual Abuse  

MedlinePLUS

... form of non-consensual physical contact. It includes rape, molestation, or any sexual conduct with a person ... more? "Speaking the unspeakable: An interview about elder sexual assault with Holly Ramsey-Klawsnik, Ph.D" in nexus , ...

388

Developmental Physiology  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Web portal offered through the University of North Texas aims to "promote a sense of identity and connectivity among interested scientists and students active in the burgeoning field of developmental physiology." Users will find a wide array of useful features and services, including developmental physiology news, career and funding information, regularly updated links to related publications, a searchable database of developmental physiology researchers worldwide, op-ed pieces, hundreds of related links, and more. A helpful intra-site search engine has been recently added.

389

Enhanced auditory arousal increases intake of less palatable and healthier foods.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to test a prediction of the arousal hypothesis that increased arousal will increase intake of less palatable and healthy foods. In both experiments, arousal was manipulated by adjusting the volume of a movie (soft, loud volume) while participants consumed foods. In Experiment 1, participants ate fresh (palatable) or stale (less palatable) popcorn during a 9-minute movie played at a soft or loud volume. Experiment 2 used the same procedures with healthier foods (carrot sticks and apple slices). Partial support for the arousal hypothesis in Experiment 1 showed that participants consumed more stale but not fresh popcorn in the loud (high arousal) versus soft (low arousal) volume group. These findings suggest that low but not high palatable foods are susceptible to manipulations of arousal. Consistent with this interpretation, Experiment 2 showed that high but not low environmental arousal increased intake of the fruits and vegetables, which are typically rated as lower in palatability compared to high fat foods. These results show that high arousal in an eating-typical environment increases intake of less palatable foods, and healthy foods (i.e., fruits and vegetables). Increasing the availability of healthier foods in a loud food environment can have a positive impact on increasing intake of fruits and vegetables in that environment. PMID:24762340

Privitera, Gregory J; Diaz, Melissa; Haas, Meagan C

2014-05-01

390

Sexuality Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores the state of sexuality education in the United States. After concerted efforts in the 1960s to stop sex education, interest in sexuality education resurged in the 1980s, largely as a result of AIDS fears. There is now a broad-based consensus on the necessity of sexuality education, but there are still few effective programs. (SLD)

Haffner, Debra W.

1998-01-01

391

Sexual conflict  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual conflict occurs when the genetic interests of males and females diverge. Recent evidence supporting the view that male and female genomes are in conflict has now revolutionized the way in which we interpret interactions between the sexes, and suggests that sexual conflict is a potent force in male–female coevolution. Here, we consider the nature of sexual conflict and what

Tracey Chapman; Göran Arnqvist; Jenny Bangham; Locke Rowe

2003-01-01

392

Sexuality Education: A Curriculum for Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document is the third volume of a six-volume report on sexuality education. This volume contains 132 teaching activities selected from programs evaluated as among the most effective being taught in the United States. The curriculum consists of 11 units: (1) Introduction to Sexuality; (2) Communication Skills; (3) Anatomy and Physiology; (4)…

Wilson, Pamela; Kirby, Douglas

393

Effects of methamphetamine on sexual performance and compulsive sex behavior in male rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Methamphetamine (Meth) is a highly addictive psychostimulant associated with enhanced sexual desire, arousal, and sexual pleasure.\\u000a Moreover, Meth abuse is frequently linked with the practice of sexual risk behavior and increased prevalence of human immunodeficiency\\u000a virus. Currently, there is a lack of studies investigating the effects of Meth on maladaptive sexual behavior under controlled\\u000a experimental settings in animal studies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective  The

Karla S. Frohmader; Katherine L. Bateman; Michael N. Lehman; Lique M. Coolen

2010-01-01

394

Sexuality after gynaecological cancer: a review of the material, intrapsychic, and discursive aspects of treatment on women's sexual-wellbeing.  

PubMed

Research in the area of gynaecological cancer has increasingly examined changes to women's sexuality, with the impact of treatment on sexual wellbeing considered particularly important. The objective of this paper is to review research on gynaecological cancer and sexuality from the years 1990 to 2011. Research has documented a range of post-treatment anatomical and physical changes to women's sexual wellbeing, including changes to sexual desire, pleasure, orgasm, vaginal lubrication, genital sensitivity, arousal, and frequency of sex. Women's intrapsychic experiences of changes to sexuality include anxiety, depression, distress, and negative perceptions of sexual identity and body image. Socially constructed discourses surrounding gender and sexuality also shape women's experiences of their sexual wellbeing post-gynaecological cancer and treatment, with many women feeling a loss of womanhood and femininity with the removal of, or changes to, their reproductive organs. Finally, women's relationship context, pattern of couple communication, and partner support are associated with women's ability to cope with changes to sexuality post-gynaecological cancer. Given that sexuality is an important part of quality of life, it is important that health professionals actively communicate information to women and their partner about the effects of treatment on sexual wellbeing, in order to legitimate and normalise sexuality in this context. It is concluded that research in the area of gynaecological cancer and sexuality needs to acknowledge not only the physical/anatomical/material effects of cancer treatments, but also women's intrapsychic experiences of changes to sexuality, her relationship context, and the role of gendered discourses in shaping women's experiences of sexuality post-gynaecological cancer and treatment. PMID:21764229

Gilbert, Emilee; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

2011-09-01

395

Sexual arousal to nonsexual violence and sadomasochistic themes among rapists and non-sex-offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measured the penile tumescence of 20 heterosexual rapists (mean age 28.6 yrs), 10 non-sex-offenders (mean age 25.8 yrs) from the same psychiatric institution, and 10 males (mean age 24.6 yrs) with low SES recruited from the local community as they listened to audiotaped narrations. Story categories of the tapes were as follows: female victim and\\/or partner (neutral situation, consenting sex,

Vernon L. Quinsey; Terry C. Chaplin; Douglas Upfold

1984-01-01

396

Sexual arousal to nonsexual violence and sadomasochistic themes among rapists and non-sex-offenders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty heterosexual rapists, 10 non-sex-offender patients from the same maximum security psychiatric institution, and 10 men with low socioeconomic status recruited from the local community were presented with audiotaped narrations while their penile tumescence was measured. The story categories were as follows: female victim\\/partner (neutral situation, consenting sex, rape, nonsexual violence, con- senting bondage and spanking, masochistic bondage and spanking,

Vernon L. Quinsey; Terry C. Chaplin; Douglas Upfold

1984-01-01

397

Erotica and aggression: The influence of sexual arousal, positive affect, and negative affect on aggressive behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

95 male college students who had never taken a psychology course were first either angered or not angered by a confederate of the experimenter and were then ostensibly given an opportunity to aggress against the confederate by means of electric shock. Prior to aggressing, Ss were shown 1 of 4 sets of stimuli chosen to effect a factorial variation in

Leonard A. White

1979-01-01

398

Embryology and anatomy of the vulva: the female orgasm and women's sexual health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual health is vital to overall well-being. Orgasm is a normal psycho-physiological function of human beings and every woman has the right to feel sexual pleasure. The anatomy of the vulva and of the female erectile organs (trigger of orgasm) is described in human anatomy textbooks. Female sexual physiology was first described in Dickinson's textbook in 1949 and subsequently by

Vincenzo Puppo

2011-01-01

399

Endocrine response to masturbation-induced orgasm in healthy men following a 3-week sexual abstinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This current study examined the effect of a 3-week period of sexual abstinence on the neuroendocrine response to masturbation-induced\\u000a orgasm. Hormonal and cardiovascular parameters were examined in ten healthy adult men during sexual arousal and masturbation-induced\\u000a orgasm. Blood was drawn continuously and cardiovascular parameters were constantly monitored. This procedure was conducted\\u000a for each participant twice, both before and after a

Michael S. Exton; Tillmann H. C. Krüger; Norbert Bursch; Philip Haake; Wolfram Knapp; Manfred Schedlowski; Uwe Hartmann

2001-01-01

400

[Sexual orientations].  

PubMed

In this paper we study the concept of sexual orientation and its components by comparing the common orientations of hetero-, homo-, and bisexuality with alternative concepts suitable for describing persons with psychosexual and somatosexual divergencies (e.g., transgender or intersex developments). An assessment of these divergencies as well as their prevalence and societal influences are presented. Empirical findings on the relationship between sexual orientation and mental health are examined against the background of the sexual minority stress model, looking especially at the risks and the opportunities associated with belonging to a sexual minority. The paper also focuses on the normative power of a monosexual model. Finally, sexual orientation is conceptualized as an umbrella term encompassing both conscious and unconscious elements, including the aspects of sexual behavior, sexual identity, fantasies, and attraction. PMID:23361208

Schweizer, K; Brunner, F

2013-02-01

401

Histamine inhibits the melanin-concentrating hormone system: implications for sleep and arousal.  

PubMed

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH)-producing neurons are known to regulate a wide variety of physiological functions such as feeding, metabolism, anxiety and depression, and reward. Recent studies have revealed that MCH neurons receive projections from several wake-promoting brain regions and are integral to the regulation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Here, we provide evidence in both rats and mice that MCH neurons express histamine-3 receptors (H3R), but not histamine-1 (H1R) or histamine-2 (H2R) receptors. Electrophysiological recordings in brain slices from a novel line of transgenic mice that specifically express the reporter ZsGreen in MCH neurons show that histamine strongly inhibits MCH neurons, an effect which is TTX insensitive, and blocked by the intracellular presence of GDP-?-S. A specific H3R agonist, ?-methylhistamine, mimicks the inhibitory effects of histamine, and a specific neutral H3R antagonist, VUF 5681, blocks this effect. Tertiapin Q (TPQ), a G protein-dependent inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channel inhibitor, abolishes histaminergic inhibition of MCH neurons. These results indicate that histamine directly inhibits MCH neurons through H3R by activating GIRK channels and suggest that that inhibition of the MCH system by wake-active histaminergic neurons may be responsible for silencing MCH neurons during wakefulness and thus may be directly involved in the regulation of sleep and arousal. PMID:24639485

Parks, Gregory S; Olivas, Nicholas D; Ikrar, Taruna; Sanathara, Nayna M; Wang, Lien; Wang, Zhiwei; Civelli, Olivier; Xu, Xiangmin

2014-05-15

402

Education for sexuality.  

PubMed

Sex education provides a means to reduce the growing incidence of sexual abuse and of sexually transmitted diseases. Knowledge, which differs from permission, may protect. Sex education needs to provide factual information about anatomy and physiology and sexual development and responses. Further, it must guide young people towards healthy attitudes that develop concern and respect for others. This should enable them to make sound decisions about sexual behavior based on both knowledge and understanding of their own sexual identity and interpersonal relationships. The recent research shows that teenagers exposed to sex education are no more likely to engage in sexual intercourse than are other adolescents, and those who become sexually active are more likely to use a contraceptive method at 1st intercourse and are slightly less likely to experience premarital pregnancies. The nonuse of contraceptives is related to ignorance, lack of awareness of the consequences of sexual activity, and inaccessibility of suitable services. Consequently, young people need help to learn about the risks of pregnancy, how to avoid unwanted pregnancy, and where to go for counseling and services before they become sexually active. The provision of contraceptives must be made to meet the needs of adolescents. Formal sex education should be given in schools only with parental knowledge and cooperation. Youth leaders can influence young people positively by teaching about health and hygiene and promoting responsible attitudes toward sex and religion. Doctors and nurses have a unique opportunity to provide counseling throughout their patients' lives. The Department of Health (Capetown, South Africa) has appointed 445 nurses who oversee the youth program. They give sex education at schools, teaching colleges, youth camps, and at clinics. They also provide individual and group counseling for never pregnant, pregnant, and parent adolescents and their parents and partners at 8 youth health centers and existing family planning clinics. The Family Planning Association provides sex education at schools and teaching colleges and for parent teachers association groups and youth groups as well as church leaders and business executives. It is essential to promote honest communication with regard to sexuality and reproductive health care. PMID:3380143

Sapire, K E

1988-03-01

403

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE  

E-print Network

SEXUAL ASSAULT AND SEXUAL HARASSMENT QUICK REFERENCE Sexual Assault Definition ­ any form of sexual contact without both parties' voluntary consent. Contrary to what most people think, sexual assault. ­ Zvulony & Company ­ The Law of Sexual Assault in Canada. Sexual Harassment Definition ­ is comment

Thompson, Michael

404

Increased fronto-temporal activation during pain observation in sexual sadism: Preliminary findings  

PubMed Central

Context Sexual sadism is a psychiatric disorder in which sexual pleasure is derived from inflicting pain, suffering, and/or humiliation on others. While the psychological and forensic aspects of sexual sadism have been well-characterized, little is known about the neurocognitive circuitry associated with the disorder. Sexual sadists show increased peripheral sexual arousal when observing other individuals in pain. The neural mechanisms underlying this unusual response are not well understood. We predicted that sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, would show increased responses in brain regions associated with sexual arousal (amygdala, hypothalamus, ventral striatum) and affective pain processing (anterior cingulate, anterior insula) during pain observation. Objective To study the neural correlates of pain observation in sexual sadists and non-sadists. Design Case-control, cross-sectional study. Sexual sadists and non-sadists viewed 50 social scenes, 25 which depicted a person in pain (e.g., one person stabbing another person’s hand with scissors) and 25 thematically matched no-pain pictures (e.g., one person stabbing a table with scissors with another person’s hand nearby). Pain severity ratings (0 = none, 4 = severe) were acquired following each picture presentation. Setting Sand Ridge Secure Treatment Center, Mauston, Wisconsin. Participants 15 violent sexual offenders; eight sexual sadists and seven age, IQ, and education-matched non-sadists (defined by the Severe Sexual Sadism Scale). Main Outcome Measures Hemodynamic response revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and pain severity ratings. Results Sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, showed greater amygdala activation when viewing pain pictures. They also rated pain pictures higher on pain severity than non-sadists. Sexual sadists, but not non-sadists, showed a positive correlation between pain severity ratings and activity in the anterior insula. Conclusions These results provide neurobehavioral evidence of unusually heightened sensitivity to the pain of others in sexual sadists. PMID:22393220

Harenski, Carla L.; Thornton, David M.; Harenski, Keith A.; Decety, Jean; Kiehl, Kent A.

2014-01-01

405

Arousal Level in Repressors and Sensitizers as a Function of Response Context  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Repressors and sensitizers were given "noncontextual" and "contextual" tasks, with galvanic skin response as a measure of arousal. Results from the noncontextual task showed that repressors had lower arousal levels than sensitizers during perception and verbal report, but higher during free association. Findings were reversed, however, in the…

Stein, Steven H.

1971-01-01

406

The perception of erotic arousal in men and women by same- and opposite-sex peers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent empirical evidence suggests that males and females differ very little in their response to erotica. Yet public opinion suggests that there are indeed differences: perceived differences. The present study explored two possibilities why these perceived differences continue to exist. One basis for such differences would be that both males and females see males as being more aroused (or arousable)

Russell Veitch; William Griffitt

1980-01-01

407

Altered Magnitude Estimation in Neglect Following Left-Hemisphere Damage Improves with Pharmacologic Treatment for Arousal  

E-print Network

with Pharmacologic Treatment for Arousal AUTHORS (ALL): Woods, Adam J.1 ; Garcia-Rill, Edgar2 ; Meythaler, Jay1, Arousal. INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. 2. Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Arkansas

Chatterjee, Anjan

408

The Relationship of Stress Arousal and Stress Prone Personality Traits to Menstrual Distress.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The various relationships of stress arousal and stress-prone personality traits to menstrual distress were investigated in order to quantify psychophysiological arousal differences between high and low menstrual distress symptom reporters and examine differences in stress-prone personality traits between high and low menstrual distress symptom…

Marini, David C.

409

Time-of-Day Effects in Arousal: Disrupted Diurnal Cortisol Profiles in Children with ADHD  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Fluctuations in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms related to regulatory deficits in arousal states are themselves characterized by circadian rhythms. Although cortisol is an important circadian arousal-related marker, studies focusing on across-the-day cortisol variations in ADHD are scarce. There is no study…

Imeraj, Lindita; Antrop, Inge; Roeyers, Herbert; Swanson, James; Deschepper, Ellen; Bal, Sarah; Deboutte, Dirk

2012-01-01

410

Predicting Smoking Intentions and Behaviors from Attitudes, Normative Beliefs, and Emotional Arousal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Smokers and nonsmokers were exposed to anti-smoking communications to compare the relationship of emotional arousal, attitudes, and subjective normative beliefs. Findings revealed that smoking-related intentions were more strongly associated with attitudes toward smoking than with subjective normative beliefs or emotional arousal. (RC)

Beck, Kenneth H.; Davis, Clive M.

1980-01-01

411

Meditation and somatic arousal reduction: A review of the experimental evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reviews the research literature on the conceptual and methodological issues associated with the effects of meditation. A summary of the research in which the somatic arousal of meditating Ss was compared to the somatic arousal of resting Ss did not reveal any consistent differences between meditating and resting Ss on measures of heart rate, electrodermal activity, respiration rate, systolic blood

David S. Holmes

1984-01-01

412

Effects of heightened sensory feedback to presence and arousal in virtual driving simulators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Driving simulation and training is one of the most typical applications of virtual reality (VR). This paper compares a VR based driving simulator to a desktop based one in terms of the level of user-felt presence and induced arousal. In particular, as the right level of arousal is important in learning and training, we focus on whether there is any

Myonghee Lee; Gerard J. Kim

2009-01-01

413

Low-Arousal Speech Noise Improves Performance in N-Back Task: An ERP Study  

PubMed Central

The relationship between noise and human performance is a crucial topic in ergonomic research. However, the brain dynamics of the emotional arousal effects of background noises are still unclear. The current study employed meaningless speech noises in the n-back working memory task to explore the changes of event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by the noises with low arousal level vs. high arousal level. We found that the memory performance in low arousal condition were improved compared with the silent and the high arousal conditions; participants responded more quickly and had larger P2 and P3 amplitudes in low arousal condition while the performance and ERP components showed no significant difference between high arousal and silent conditions. These findings suggested that the emotional arousal dimension of background noises had a significant influence on human working memory performance, and that this effect was independent of the acoustic characteristics of noises (e.g., intensity) and the meaning of speech materials. The current findings improve our understanding of background noise effects on human performance and lay the ground for the investigation of patients with attention deficits. PMID:24204607

Zhang, Dandan; Jin, Yi; Luo, Yuejia

2013-01-01

414

Effects of Viewer-Induced Arousal on Depth Perception in Male and Female Athletes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research findings showed that increasing the arousal levels to specific extents improve the performance and beyond that decreases the performance levels. The purpose of present study was to determine the effect of viewers on increasing arousal and its impact on the athletes’ depth perception. Participants of this study include 58 athletes from Iranian University students (23 female and 35

Mehdi Shahbazi; Amir Vazini Taher; Navid Hadadi

2011-01-01

415

Arousing Primary Vulnerable Emotions in the Context of Unresolved Anger: "Speaking about" versus "Speaking to"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Arousing and processing primary vulnerable emotions is a core change mechanism across a wide range of psychotherapies and clinical populations. This study examined the utility of 2 emotion-focused interventions--relational reframes and empty-chair enactments--in terms of arousing primary sadness associated with loss and longing among individuals…

Diamond, Gary M.; Rochman, Daniel; Amir, Ofer

2010-01-01

416

Assessment of Deviant Arousal in Adult Male Sex Offenders with Developmental Disabilities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ten individuals, residing in a treatment facility specializing in the rehabilitation of sex offenders with developmental disabilities, participated in an arousal assessment involving the use of the penile plethysmograph. The arousal assessments involved measuring change in penile circumference to various categories of stimuli both appropriate…

Reyes, Jorge R.; Vollmer, Timothy R.; Sloman, Kimberly N.; Hall, Astrid; Reed, Robert; Jansen, Greg; Carr, Sam; Jackson, Kevin; Stoutimore, Michael

2006-01-01

417

Arousal seeking and the maintenance of mutual gaze in same and mixed sex dyads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty male and thirty female undergraduates were randomly paired in either same or mixed sex dyads and were asked to maintain silent mutual gaze for as long as possible over two or three trials. The results indicated that high arousal seekers were better able to do this than low arousal seekers, and that this difference was especially strong in same

Francis T. McAndrew; Jane E. Warner

1986-01-01

418

The relationship among emotional productivity, emotional arousal and outcome in experiential therapy of depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study involved an intensive analysis of the productivity and degree of arousal of in-session emotional expression of four better outcome clients and four poorer outcome clients in brief experiential treatments of depression. The relationship between the productivity and arousal of expressed emotion and outcome was explored in these cases. No significant differences between better and poorer outcome groups were

L. S. Greenberg; L. Auszra; I. R. Herrmann

2007-01-01

419

Exploring the Relationship between Exercise-Induced Arousal and Cognition Using Fractionated Response Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to identify the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance for the central…

Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Barella, Lisa A.

2009-01-01

420

Regulatory Physiology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

1999-01-01

421

Sexual behaviour  

PubMed Central

Sexual health is not merely the absence of disease, but the ability to have informed, consensual, safe, respectful, and pleasurable sexual relationships. The majority of the population are sexually active, most with someone of the opposite sex. The frequency and range of sexual practices that people engage in declines with age, but for many, sexual activity continues well into later life. Different aspects of sexual health affect people at different times throughout their lives. As people in the UK tend to first have sex around the age of 16, but do not start living with a partner until much later, the avoidance of sexually transmitted infections and unplanned pregnancy is necessary for many for a number of years. As people get older, their sexual health needs change and they become more concerned with the impact of their general health on their ability to have sex. Some people experience non-volitional sex (sex against their will); although this occurs typically in late teenage it may affect women and men at any age and so requires consideration throughout life. As many people find it difficult to talk about sex and sexual health matters, health professionals should make sexual health enquiry a component of their holistic healthcare. PMID:24966786

Mercer, Catherine H.

2014-01-01

422

Steroid regulation of sexual behavior  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigation into the hormonal control of sexual behavior has a rich and extensive history. For many researchers currently active in the field, the physiological psychologist Frank A. Beach is recognized as the modern father of the study of hormones and behavior. His publication of the seminal book Hormones and Behavior—A Survey of Interrelationships Between Endocrine Secretions and Patterns of Overt

Margaret M. McCarthy; Eugene D. Albrecht

1996-01-01

423

Recent advances in therapy for sexual offenders.  

PubMed

This report focuses on recent policy, and academic and clinical developments in the therapeutic management of sex offenders, including the need for more robust assessment and risk management protocols. Information is provided on current thinking about psychological and pharmacological interventions. Meta-analytic studies clearly indicate that cognitive behavioural and relapse prevention programmes are the most effective intervention, but there is a small amount of literature suggesting that pharmacological treatments may have some utility. With advances in our understanding of the neural substrates of deviant sexual arousal we may be able to develop and trial novel neuropharmacological agents that target dysfunctional neurochemical circuits in this field. PMID:20948736

Dolan, Mairead

2009-01-01

424

Dynamic modulation of amygdala-hippocampal connectivity by emotional arousal.  

PubMed

Positive and negative emotional events are better remembered than neutral events. Studies in animals suggest that this phenomenon depends on the influence of the amygdala upon the hippocampus. In humans, however, it is largely unknown how these two brain structures functionally interact and whether these interactions are similar between positive and negative information. Using dynamic causal modeling of fMRI data in 586 healthy subjects, we show that the strength of the connection from the amygdala to the hippocampus was rapidly and robustly increased during the encoding of both positive and negative pictures in relation to neutral pictures. We also observed an increase in connection strength from the hippocampus to the amygdala, albeit at a smaller scale. These findings indicate that, during encoding, emotionally arousing information leads to a robust increase in effective connectivity from the amygdala to the hippocampus, regardless of its valence. PMID:25319690

Fastenrath, Matthias; Coynel, David; Spalek, Klara; Milnik, Annette; Gschwind, Leo; Roozendaal, Benno; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; de Quervain, Dominique J F

2014-10-15

425

Dopamine in Drosophila: setting arousal thresholds in a miniature brain  

PubMed Central

In mammals, the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) modulates a variety of behaviours, although DA function is mostly associated with motor control and reward. In insects such as the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, DA also modulates a wide array of behaviours, ranging from sleep and locomotion to courtship and learning. How can a single molecule play so many different roles? Adaptive changes within the DA system, anatomical specificity of action and effects on a variety of behaviours highlight the remarkable versatility of this neurotransmitter. Recent genetic and pharmacological manipulations of DA signalling in Drosophila have launched a surfeit of stories—each arguing for modulation of some aspect of the fly's waking (and sleeping) life. Although these stories often seem distinct and unrelated, there are some unifying themes underlying DA function and arousal states in this insect model. One of the central roles played by DA may involve perceptual suppression, a necessary component of both sleep and selective attention. PMID:21208962

Van Swinderen, Bruno; Andretic, Rozi

2011-01-01

426

Emotionally arousing stimuli compete for attention with left hemispace.  

PubMed

Rapid interaction of the emotional and attentional networks is critical for adaptive behavior. Here, we examined the effects of emotional stimulation on hemifield attention allocation using event-related potential and behavioral measures. Participants performed a visual-discrimination task on nonemotional targets presented randomly in the left or right hemifield. A brief task-irrelevant emotional (pleasant or unpleasant; 150-ms duration) or neutral picture was presented centrally 350 ms before the next target (150-ms duration). Unpleasant stimuli interfered with the left visual field attention capacity, slowing behavioral responses to attended left field stimuli. In keeping with the behavioral data, event-related potential responses to nonemotional attended left field stimuli were reduced over the right parietal regions when preceded by an unpleasant event. The results provide electrophysiological and behavioral evidence that unpleasant, emotionally arousing stimuli interfere with the right hemisphere-dependent attention capacity. PMID:18007189

Hartikainen, Kaisa M; Ogawa, Keith H; Soltani, Maryam; Knight, Robert T

2007-12-01

427

Reading the Freudian theory of sexual drives from a functional neuroimaging perspective  

PubMed Central

One of the essential tasks of neuropsychoanalysis is to investigate the neural correlates of sexual drives. Here, we consider the four defining characteristics of sexual drives as delineated by Freud: their pressure, aim, object, and source. We systematically examine the relations between these characteristics and the four-component neurophenomenological model that we have proposed based on functional neuroimaging studies, which comprises a cognitive, a motivational, an emotional and an autonomic/neuroendocrine component. Functional neuroimaging studies of sexual arousal (SA) have thrown a new light on the four fundamental characteristics of sexual drives by identifying their potential neural correlates. While these studies are essentially consistent with the Freudian model of drives, the main difference emerging between the functional neuroimaging perspective on sexual drives and the Freudian theory relates to the source of drives. From a functional neuroimaging perspective, sources of sexual drives, conceived by psychoanalysis as processes of excitation occurring in a peripheral organ, do not seem, at least in adult subjects, to be an essential part of the determinants of SA. It is rather the central processing of visual or genital stimuli that gives to these stimuli their sexually arousing and sexually pleasurable character. Finally, based on functional neuroimaging results, some possible improvements to the psychoanalytic theory of sexual drives are suggested. PMID:24672467

Stoleru, Serge

2014-01-01

428

Emotional Processing in High-Functioning Autism--Physiological Reactivity and Affective Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined physiological response and affective report in 10 adult individuals with autism and 10 typically developing controls. An emotion induction paradigm using stimuli from the International Affective Picture System was applied. Blood pressure, heart and self-ratings of experienced valence (pleasure), arousal and dominance (control)…

Bolte, Sven; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Poustka, Fritz

2008-01-01

429

Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields  

SciTech Connect

White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

1983-01-01

430

Sexual harassment.  

PubMed

We review the current state of sexual harassment theory, research, treatment, and prevention. Definitional problems and implications are discussed. An examination of the epidemiology of sexual harassment is presented, highlighting correlates that include characteristics of the organizational environment, the perpetrator, and the recipient of unwanted sexual behavior. Normative responses to sexual harassment and consequences are discussed. Descriptions of the most prevalent models of sexual harassment are offered and the empirical evidence for them is briefly reviewed. From there, the effect of model development and evaluation on the prevention and treatment of sexual harassment is considered. We comment on the steps that would need to be taken to develop viable prevention and treatment programs. Suggestions for fruitful avenues of research and theory development are offered. PMID:11351834

Sbraga, T P; O'Donohue, W

2000-01-01

431

Adolescents define sexual orientation and suggest ways to measure it  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers disagree on how to assess adolescent sexual orientation. The relative importance of various dimensions (e.g. attraction, relationships, behavior, self-labeling) is unknown, which calls into question the validity of studies assessing adolescent sexual orientation. To address this issue, 50 male and female adolescents of varied sexual orientations participated in focus groups and interviews. Two types of sexual attraction—one a physiologic

Mark S Friedman; Anthony J Silvestre; Melanie A Gold; Nina Markovic; Ritch C Savin-Williams; James Huggins; Randal L Sell

2004-01-01

432

Transgender Transitioning and Change of Self-Reported Sexual Orientation  

PubMed Central

Objective Sexual orientation is usually considered to be determined in early life and stable in the course of adulthood. In contrast, some transgender individuals report a change in sexual orientation. A common reason for this phenomenon is not known. Methods We included 115 transsexual persons (70 male-to-female “MtF” and 45 female-to-male “FtM”) patients from our endocrine outpatient clinic, who completed a questionnaire, retrospectively evaluating the history of their gender transition phase. The questionnaire focused on sexual orientation and recalled time points of changes in sexual orientation in the context of transition. Participants were further asked to provide a personal concept for a potential change in sexual orientation. Results In total, 32.9% (n?=? 23) MtF reported a change in sexual orientation in contrast to 22.2% (n?=? 10) FtM transsexual persons (p?=? 0.132). Out of these patients, 39.1% (MtF) and 60% (FtM) reported a change in sexual orientation before having undergone any sex reassignment surgery. FtM that had initially been sexually oriented towards males (?=?androphilic), were significantly more likely to report on a change in sexual orientation than gynephilic, analloerotic or bisexual FtM (p ?=? 0.012). Similarly, gynephilic MtF reported a change in sexual orientation more frequently than androphilic, analloerotic or bisexual MtF transsexual persons (p ?=? 0.05). Conclusion In line with earlier reports, we reveal that a change in self-reported sexual orientation is frequent and does not solely occur in the context of particular transition events. Transsexual persons that are attracted by individuals of the opposite biological sex are more likely to change sexual orientation. Qualitative reports suggest that the individual's biography, autogynephilic and autoandrophilic sexual arousal, confusion before and after transitioning, social and self-acceptance, as well as concept of sexual orientation itself may explain this phenomenon. PMID:25299675

Hohne, Nina; Stalla, Gunter K.; Sievers, Caroline

2014-01-01

433

Cues Resulting in Desire for Sexual Activity in Women  

PubMed Central

Introduction A number of questionnaires have been created to assess levels of sexual desire in women, but to our knowledge, there are currently no validated measures for assessing cues that result in sexual desire. A questionnaire of this nature could be useful for both clinicians and researchers, because it considers the contextual nature of sexual desire and it draws attention to individual differences in factors that can contribute to sexual desire. Aim The aim of the present study was to create a multidimensional assessment tool of cues for sexual desire in women that is validated in women with and without hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Methods Factor analyses conducted on both an initial sample (N = 874) and a community sample (N = 138) resulted in the Cues for Sexual Desire Scale (CSDS) which included four factors: (i) Emotional Bonding Cues; (ii) Erotic/ Explicit Cues; (iii) Visual/Proximity Cues; and (iv) Implicit/Romantic Cues. Main Outcome Measures Scale construction of cues associated with sexual desire and differences between women with and without sexual dysfunction. Results The CSDS demonstrated good reliability and validity and was able to detect significant differences between women with and without HSDD. Results from regression analyses indicated that both marital status and level of sexual functioning predicted scores on the CSDS. The CSDS provided predictive validity for the Female Sexual Function Index desire and arousal domain scores, and increased cues were related to a higher reported frequency of sexual activity in women. Conclusions The findings from the present study provide valuable information regarding both internal and external triggers that can result in sexual desire for women. We believe that the CSDS could be beneficial in therapeutic settings to help identify cues that do and do not facilitate sexual desire in women with clinically diagnosed desire difficulties. PMID:16942529

McCall, Katie; Meston, Cindy

2010-01-01

434

Adolescent sexuality.  

PubMed

The consequences of adolescent sexual behavior are an enormous burden both for the adolescent and society. The problem is not that teens are sexually active but rather that they have little preparation and guidance in developing responsible sexual behavior. Developmentally, adolescents reach physical maturity before they are cognitively able to appreciate the consequences of their behavior. A teenager's primary source of information regarding sexuality is his or her peer group, all of whom are experiencing and reinforcing the same behaviors. The family, the major socializer of other behaviors, is not as powerful a force in shaping responsible sexual behavior because of parental discomfort with sex education and sexual discussions. This is the result of a social milieu in which sex is frequently portrayed but rarely linked with responsible behavior or accurate, nonjudgmental information. The pediatric practitioner is in an ideal position to intervene in these dynamics. In the office, the practitioner can provide accurate sexual information to both parents and adolescents, support parental-child communication on sexual issues, and provide appropriate services or referral. In the community, the practitioner can advocate for school-based sex education as well as act as an information resource. Finally, the practitioner can advocate for the health care needs for adolescents on a national level, supporting legislation that provides adolescents with information and access to services necessary to make responsible sexual decisions. PMID:3059299

Grant, L M; Demetriou, E

1988-12-01

435

An affective circumplex model of neural systems subserving valence, arousal, and cognitive overlay during the appraisal of emotional faces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing evidence supports the existence of distinct neural systems that subserve two dimensions of affect—arousal and valence. Ten adult participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during which they were presented a range of standardized faces and then asked, during the scan, to rate the emotional expressions of the faces along the dimensions of arousal and valence. Lower ratings of arousal

Andrew J. Gerber; Jonathan Posner; Daniel Gorman; Tiziano Colibazzi; Shan Yu; Zhishun Wang; Alayar Kangarlu; Hongtu Zhu; James Russell; Bradley S. Peterson

2008-01-01

436

Behaviour Research and Therapy ] (  

E-print Network

-sexual cognitive distractions reduce both physiological and subjective arousal to erotic stimuli (e.g., Adams in a non-clinical sample of women. Physiological sexual responses to an erotic stimulus were assessed using to sexually arousing stimuli (Barlow, 1986). ARTICLE IN PRESS www.elsevier.com/locate/brat 0005-7967/$ - see

Meston, Cindy

437

Vascular alterations and sexual function in systemic sclerosis.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction is common in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Male erectile dysfunction (MED) has been reported in around 80% of subjects and more than half of female patients fulfill criteria for diagnosis as female sexual arousal Disorder (FSAD). While some evidence supports a role for cavernosal fibrosis, abundant data suggest that MED is yet another clinical feature of SSc related to vasculopathy. The contribution of vasculopathy to the more complex issues of female sexual dysfunction is less clear. Inhibitors of Type V phosphodiesterase are effective in men with MED secondary to SSc. Limited study in women suggests inconsistent effects on behavior (frequency) but not on measures related to perfusion. Sexual activity is an important component of quality of life and an important domain for the caregiver to address; it is not clear that it warrants primary consideration as a consistent measure of scleroderma-related vasculopathy. PMID:20981305

Impens, Ann Julie; Seibold, James R

2010-01-01

438

Externalizing and interpreting autonomic arousal in people diagnosed with autism  

E-print Network

This research explores how externalization of physiological states helps to provide an awareness of hidden stressors through a home-based study, a lab-based study, and a school-based study in order to facilitate social ...

Lee, Jackie Chia-Hsun

2011-01-01

439

Sexuality and pregnancy: a review.  

PubMed

Marital success and failure may be related to sexual satisfaction, including orgasmic capability. Pregnancy represents a life crisis to the pregnant woman and her husband. Complex psychosocial and physiological demands may produce insecurities, anxieties, and somatic complaints. The expectant mother may seek to fulfill increasing nurturant needs through increased physical contact such as cuddling or being held. A pregnant woman's interest in sexual activity may be affected by her changing physical appearance and the hormonal milieu of pregnancy. Although there are marked individual variations and methodological biases and differences among empirical studies, pregnancy appears to be usually accompanied by a decrease in sexual desire, coital frequency, and orgasm. Sexual behavior in pregnancy has been traditionally restricted and is currently poorly defined. Sexual proscriptions may precipitate sexual frustration and marital estrangement. Abortion is only rarely caused by coitus. The relationship of coitus and orgasm to prematurity and distress of the fetus and newborn has not been clearly established. Coitus can indirectly result in maternal, fetal, and neonatal morbidity and mortality through the spread of sexually transmitted diseases. Deaths from air embolism in pregnancy associated with cunnilingus and vaginal insufflation have been reported. PMID:7181650

White, S E; Reamy, K

1982-10-01

440

Sexual Selections: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following selection of papers arose out of a half-year seminar course, The Anthropology of Sex, held at McMaster University in the winter of 1990. The course was originally conceived as a vehicle for scrutinizing the physical anthropological significance of current understandings of human sexuality and reproduction. As such, I imagined we would discuss human sexuality from the point of

Ann Herring

1991-01-01

441

Research Focus Dynamic feedback between phenotype and physiology  

E-print Network

- iological processes drive sexually selected displays. However, a recent study by Safran and colleagues. Physiology of sexually selected traits Animals use elaborate displays in mate attraction and territorial, and experimental androgen elevations can enhance melanin-based plumage signals used in mate attraction and social

Safran, Rebecca

442

Direct and indirect measures of sexual maturity preferences differentiate subtypes of child sexual abusers.  

PubMed

To aid risk assessment, management, and treatment planning it is essential to assess child sexual abusers' deviant sexual interests (DSI) and preferences (DSP) for sex with children. However, measurement of DSI/DSP is fraught with psychometric problems. In consequence, research interest has shifted to latency-based indirect measures as a measurement approach to complement self-report and physiological assessment. Utilizing the Explicit and Implicit Sexual Interest Profile (EISIP)-a multimethod approach consisting of self-report, viewing time, and Implicit Association Test (IAT) DSI/DSP measures-we replicated phallometric DSI/DSP differences between child sexual abuser subgroups in a sample of intrafamilial, extrafamilial, and child pornography offenders. DSI/DSP was associated with recidivism risk, offense-behavioral measures of pedophilic interest, and sexual fantasizing. It also negatively correlated with antisociality. Distinguishing between child sexual abuser subtypes and being related to recidivism risk, the EISIP is a useful tool for sexual offender assessments. PMID:23524323

Schmidt, Alexander F; Gykiere, Kim; Vanhoeck, Kris; Mann, Ruth E; Banse, Rainer

2014-04-01

443

Sexual dysfunction and the patient with burns.  

PubMed

Sexual dysfunction in patients with burns has received only limited attention in the literature on burn care. We present five patients with burns whose sexual dysfunction responded to an eclectic treatment approach. A more extensive discussion on the relationship between post-traumatic stress disorder, other psychopathology, and sexual dysfunction in patients with burn injuries is presented. Neuroendocrinological, psychopathologic, psychodynamic, and physiological mechanisms that may be at play in patients with burns are proposed. The possible impact of post-traumatic stress disorder on sexuality is discussed. The illustrated cases suggest that sexual side effects of psychotropics, although fairly common, should not get in the way of proper use of antidepressants and antianxiety medications during the initial phase of treatment. Psychotropic and other commonly used medications in patients with burns, and the possible mechanisms of actions on sexuality, are reviewed. PMID:9063786

de Rios, M D; Novac, A; Achauer, B H

1997-01-01

444

Attitudes and reactions to nuclear weapons: responses to fear arousal  

SciTech Connect

This study employed a pre-posttest design to investigate how degree of commitment to a preventive nuclear war strategy, and various demographic characteristics influence nuclear-war-related factors. Two hundred sixteen college students were assigned to one of four groups. Subjects in the first two groups completed the pretest, and waited three weeks before receiving the posttest. The posttest asked subjects in the first group to imagine and write about what might happen to them in the event of a major nuclear war, and re-administered the pretest research questions. Individuals in the second group responded to a fantasy on earthquakes, followed by the posttest. Subjects in the third group responded only to the nuclear was fantasy and theposttest, while those individuals in the fourth group were administered the posttest only. Subjects committed to a strategy considered their chance of death by nuclear war more likely after the nuclear-war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. Subjects uncommitted viewed their chance of death by nuclear was as less likely after the nuclear war fantasy than after the earthquake fantasy. This supports previous research indicating that cognitive strategies may be employed to reduce fear arousal. Women reported greater (a) chance of death by nuclear war, (b) nuclear anxiety, (c) nuclear concern, and (d) fear of the future than men. Subjects committed to a strategy expressed greater nuclear concern, greater nuclear anxiety, and employed less nuclear denial than those who were uncommitted.

Herman, K.L.

1987-01-01

445

Recurrent nightmares and disorders of arousal in temporal lobe epilepsy.  

PubMed

Sleep is known to be severely altered in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Furthermore, sleep deprivation is one of the key factors contributing to cognitive deficits and drug resistance in TLE. In the past, "non-ictal" parasomnias, as well as parasomnia-like nocturnal episodes ultimately diagnosed as seizures, have been documented in epileptic patients. However, recurrence of possibly "ictal" parasomnias in TLE has not been adequately appreciated. Through questionnaires and diaries distributed to TLE patients and their families in a tertiary center for epilepsy, 20 out of 168 patients seen in the last 2 years have been identified as, probands and extensively recorded during sleep. Patients presented with confusional arousals were 16, 14 with nightmares, and 2 with sleep walking episodes. Episodes (25) corresponding to clinical or subclinical seizures have been video-polygraphically recorded in 10/20 patients. Therapy optimization, pharmacological or surgical, resolved the episodes in 17/20 patients. A better seizure control with improved quality of life can be achieved by increasing and extending the practice of nocturnal recording in TLE patients. PMID:15245763

Silvestri, Rosalia; Bromfield, Edward

2004-06-30

446

Selection of film clips and development of a video for the investigation of sexual decision making among men who have sex with men.  

PubMed

Experimental research on sexual decision making is limited, despite the public health importance of such work. We describe formative work conducted in advance of an experimental study designed to evaluate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on risky sexual decision making among men who have sex with men. In Study 1, we describe the procedures for selecting and validating erotic film clips (to be used for the experimental manipulation of arousal). In Study 2, we describe the tailoring of two interactive role-play videos to be used to measure risk perception and communication skills in an analog risky sex situation. Together, these studies illustrate a method for creating experimental stimuli to investigate sexual decision making in a laboratory setting. Research using this approach will support experimental research that affords a stronger basis for drawing causal inferences regarding sexual decision making. PMID:19760530

Woolf-King, Sarah E; Maisto, Stephen; Carey, Michael; Vanable, Peter

2010-11-01

447

Selection of Film Clips and Development of a Video for the Investigation of Sexual Decision Making among Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

Experimental research on sexual decision making is limited, despite the public health importance of such work. We describe formative work conducted in advance of an experimental study designed to evaluate the effects of alcohol intoxication and sexual arousal on risky sexual decision making among men who have sex with men. In Study 1, we describe the procedures for selecting and validating erotic film clips (to be used for the experimental manipulation of arousal). In Study 2, we describe the tailoring of two interactive role-play videos to be used to measure risk perception and communication skills in an analog risky sex situation. Together, these studies illustrate a method for creating experimental stimuli to investigate sexual decision making in a laboratory setting. Research using this approach will support experimental research that affords a stronger basis for drawing causal inferences regarding sexual decision making. PMID:19760530

Woolf-King, Sarah E.; Maisto, Stephen; Carey, Michael; Vanable, Peter

2013-01-01

448

Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adolescent Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Revictimization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An 18-year longitudinal study of 520 New Zealand women found that those reporting childhood sexual abuse, particularly severe abuse involving intercourse, had significantly higher rates of early onset consensual sexual activity, teenage pregnancy, multiple sexual partners, unprotected intercourse, sexually transmitted disease, and sexual assault…

Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Lynskey, Michael T.

1997-01-01

449

Human Physiology Department of Neurobiology, Physiology,  

E-print Network

Human Physiology Minor Department of Neurobiology, Physiology, and Behavior College of Biological Sciences (530) 752 - 0410 Human Physiology Minor Requirements: Total and Development in Human Performance EXB 116 Nutrition for Physically Active Persons EXB 117 Exercise and Aging

Wainwright, Peter C.

450

[Aviation physiology].  

PubMed

Aviation physiology should be known at least in parts by the physicians advising air travellers. Du