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Sample records for pichia stipitis cbs

  1. Detoxification of corn stover prehydrolyzate by trialkylamine extraction to improve the ethanol production with Pichia stipitis CBS 5776.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junjun; Yong, Qiang; Xu, Yong; Yu, Shiyuan

    2011-01-01

    In order to realize the separated ethanol fermentation of glucose and xylose, prehydrolysis of corn stover with sulfuric acid at moderate temperature was applied, while inhibitors were produced inevitably. A complex extraction was adopted to detoxify the prehydrolyzate before fermentation to ethanol with Pichia stipitis CBS 5776. The best proportion of mixed extractant was 30% trialkylamine-50% n-octanol -20% kerosene. Detoxification results indicated that 73.3% of acetic acid, 45.7% of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 100% of furfural could be removed. Compared with the undetoxified prehydrolyzate, the fermentability of the detoxified prehydrolyzate was significantly improved. After 48 h fermentation of the detoxified prehydrolyzate containing 7.80 g/l of glucose and 52.8 g/l of xylose, the sugar utilization ratio was 93.2%; the ethanol concentration reached its peak value of 21.8 g/l, which was corresponding to 82.3% of the theoretical value. PMID:20952191

  2. Utilization of xylan by yeasts and its conversion to ethanol by Pichia stipitis strains. [Cryptococcus; Pichia stipitis; Candida shehatae

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, H.; Biely, P.; Latta, R.K.; Barbosa, M.F.S.; Schneider, H.

    1986-08-01

    Yeasts able to grow on D-xylose were screened for the ability to hydrolyze xylan. Xylanase activity was found to be rare; a total of only 19 of more than 250 strains yielded a positive test result. The activity was localized largely in the genus Cryptococcus and in Pichia stipitis and its anamorph Candida shehatae. The ability to hydrolyze xylan was generally uncoupled from that to hydrolyze cellulose; only three of the xylan-positive strains also yielded a positive test for cellulolytic activity. Of the 19 xylanolytic strains. 2. P. stipitis CBS 5773 and CBS 5775, converted xylan into ethanol, with about 60% of a theoretical yield computed on the basis of the amount of D-xylose present originally that could be released by acid hydrolysis.

  3. Ethanol reassimilation and ethanol tolerance in Pitchia stipitis CBS 6054 as studied by [sup 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Skoog, K.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. ); Degn, H.; Jacobsen, H.S.; Jacobsen, J.P. )

    1992-08-01

    Ethanol reassimilation in Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 was studied by using continuous cultures, and the oxidation of [1-[sup 13]C] ethanol was monitored by in vivo and in vitro [sup 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Acetate was formed when ethanol was reassimilated. The ATP/ADP ratio and the carbon dioxide production decreased, whereas the malate dehydrogenase activity increased, in ethanol-reassimilating cells. The results are discussed in terms of the low ethanol tolerance in P. stipitis compared with that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. Evaluation of Engineered Pichia stipitis Strains for Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the fermentation capabilities of five strains of Pichia stipitis that had been engineered for xylose fermentation to ethanol by USDA, ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research. The strains tested were P. stipitis WT-1-11, WT-1-2, 14-2-6, 22-1-1, and 22-1-12. Strains w...

  5. Pichia stipitis genomics, transcriptomics, and gene clusters

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Thomas W; Van Vleet, Jennifer R Headman

    2009-01-01

    Genome sequencing and subsequent global gene expression studies have advanced our understanding of the lignocellulose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis. These studies have provided an insight into its central carbon metabolism, and analysis of its genome has revealed numerous functional gene clusters and tandem repeats. Specialized physiological traits are often the result of several gene products acting together. When coinheritance is necessary for the overall physiological function, recombination and selection favor colocation of these genes in a cluster. These are particularly evident in strongly conserved and idiomatic traits. In some cases, the functional clusters consist of multiple gene families. Phylogenetic analyses of the members in each family show that once formed, functional clusters undergo duplication and differentiation. Genome-wide expression analysis reveals that regulatory patterns of clusters are similar after they have duplicated and that the expression profiles evolve along with functional differentiation of the clusters. Orthologous gene families appear to arise through tandem gene duplication, followed by differentiation in the regulatory and coding regions of the gene. Genome-wide expression analysis combined with cross-species comparisons of functional gene clusters should reveal many more aspects of eukaryotic physiology. PMID:19659741

  6. Genetic transformation of xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, N.W.Y.; Petros, D.; Deng, X.X.

    1991-12-31

    A plasmid-mediated transformation system has been developed for the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis. We found that plasmid vectors containing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2 p replicon and the kanamycin resistance gene (KmR) could be introduced into the Pichia cells and maintained as extrachromosomal elements. Pichia transformants containing such vectors will be resistant to the antibiotic geneticin that can be inactivated by the protein product of KmR. Plasmids identical to those used for transformation can be recovered from the Pichia transformants. Protocols for transformation of P. stipitis by the CaCl{sub 2}-polyethylene glycol-protoplast process or by direct electroporation of intact Pichia cells have both been developed.

  7. Effect of oxygenation on xylose fermentation by Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Skoog, K.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of oxygen limitation on xylose fermentation by Pichia stipitis (CBS 6054) was investigated in continuous culture. The maximum specific ethanol productivity (0.20 g of ethanol g dry weight{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1}) and ethanol yield (0.48 g/g) was reached at an oxygen transfer rate below 1 mmol/liter per h. In the studied range of oxygenation, the xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) activities were constant as well as the ratio between the NADPH and NADH activities of xylose reductase. No xylitol production was found. The pyruvate decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.1) activity increased and the malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) activity decreased with decreasing oxygenation. With decreasing oxygenation, the intracellular intermediary metabolites sedoheptulose 7-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-diphosphate, and malate accumulated slightly while pyruvate decreased. The ratio of the xylose uptake rate under aerobic conditions, in contrast to that under anaerobic assay conditions, increased with increasing oxygenation in the culture. The results are discussed in relation to the energy level in the cell, the redox balance, and the mitochondrial function.

  8. Enhancing ethanol production from cellulosic sugars using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were performed on the effect of CaCO3 and CaCl2 supplementation to fermentation medium for ethanol production from xylose, glucose, or their mixtures using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Both of these chemicals were found to improve maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity....

  9. Repression of xylose-specific enzymes by ethanol in Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and elimination of diauxic lag with xylose-grown populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol by native pentose-fermenting yeasts such as Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 (CBS 5773) and Pachysolen tannophilus NRRL Y-2460, the switch from glucose to xylose uptake results in a diauxic lag unless process strategies ...

  10. The switch from xylose to glucose stalled by repression of xylose-utilizing enzymes during exposure of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis to high ethanol concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 (CBS 5773), the switch from glucose to xylose uptake results in a diauxic lag unless process strategies to prevent this are applied. When cells were grown on glucose, the length of th...

  11. Repression of xylose-specific enzymes by ethanol in Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis and utility of repitching xylose-grown populations to eliminate diauxic lag

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol by native pentose-fermenting yeasts such as Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 (CBS 5773) and Pachysolen tannophilus NRRL Y-2460, the switch from glucose to xylose uptake results in a diauxic lag unless process strategies ...

  12. Alcoholic fermentation of d-xylose by yeasts. [Brettanomyces naardenensis; Candida shehatae; Candida tenuis; Pachysolen tannaphilus, Pichia segobiensis; Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Toivola, A.; Yarrow, D.; van den Bosch, E.; van Dijken, J.P.; Scheffers, W.A.

    1984-06-01

    Type strains of 200 species of yeasts able to ferment glucose and grow on xylose were screened for fermentation of D-xylose. In most of the strains tested, ethanol production was negligible. Nineteen were found to produce between 0.1 and 1.0 g of ethanol per liter. Strains of the following species produce more than 1 g of ethanol per liter in the fermentation test with 2% xylose: Brettanomyces naardenensis, Candida shehatae, Candida tenuis, Pachysolen tannophilus, Pichia segobiensis, and Pichia stipitis. Subsequent screening of these yeasts for their capacity to ferment D-cellobiose revealed that only Candida tenuis CBS 4435 was a good fermenter of both xylose and cellobiose under the test conditions used.

  13. The Effect of Initial Cell Concentration on Xylose Fermentation by Pichia stipitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbogbo, Frank K.; Coward-Kelly, Guillermo; Torry-Smith, Mads; Wenger, Kevin; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Xylose was fermented using Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 at different initial cell concentrations. A high initial cell concentration increased the rate of xylose utilization, ethanol formation, and the ethanol yield. The highest ethanol concentration of 41.0 g/L and a yield of 0.38 g/g was obtained using an initial cell concentration of 6.5 g/L. Even though more xylitol was produced when the initial cell concentrations were high, cell density had no effect on the final ethanol yield. A two-parameter mathematical model was used to predict the cell population dynamics at the different initial cell concentrations. The model parameters, a and b correlate with the initial cell concentrations used with an R 2 of 0.99.

  14. Culture Nutrition and Physiology Impact the Inhibitor Tolerance of the Yeast Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Robust microorganisms are needed to consume both hexose and pentose sugars and to withstand, survive, and function in the presence of stress factors common to fermentations of lignocellulose hydrolysates, including the inhibitors furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and ethanol. Pichia stipitis...

  15. High-efficiency transformation of Pichia stipitis based on its URA3 gene and a homologous autonomous replication sequence, ARS2.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, V W; Marks, J A; Davis, B P; Jeffries, T W

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the first high-efficiency transformation system for the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis. The system includes integrating and autonomously replicating plasmids based on the gene for orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase (URA3) and an autonomous replicating sequence (ARS) element (ARS2) isolated from P. stipitis CBS 6054. Ura- auxotrophs were obtained by selecting for resistance to 5-fluoroorotic acid and were identified as ura3 mutants by transformation with P. stipitis URA3. P. stipitis URA3 was cloned by its homology to Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3, with which it is 69% identical in the coding region. P. stipitis ARS elements were cloned functionally through plasmid rescue. These sequences confer autonomous replication when cloned into vectors bearing the P. stipitis URA3 gene. P. stipitis ARS2 has features similar to those of the consensus ARS of S. cerevisiae and other ARS elements. Circular plasmids bearing the P. stipitis URA3 gene with various amounts of flanking sequences produced 600 to 8,600 Ura+ transformants per micrograms of DNA by electroporation. Most transformants obtained with circular vectors arose without integration of vector sequences. One vector yielded 5,200 to 12,500 Ura+ transformants per micrograms of DNA after it was linearized at various restriction enzyme sites within the P. stipitis URA3 insert. Transformants arising from linearized vectors produced stable integrants, and integration events were site specific for the genomic ura3 in 20% of the transformants examined. Plasmids bearing the P. stipitis URA3 gene and ARS2 element produced more than 30,000 transformants per micrograms of plasmid DNA. Autonomously replicating plasmids were stable for at least 50 generations in selection medium and were present at an average of 10 copies per nucleus. Images PMID:7811063

  16. Genomic sequence of the xylose fermenting, insect-inhabitingyeast, Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Thomas W.; Grigoriev, Igor; Grimwood, Jane; Laplaza,Jose M.; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Schmutz, Jeremy; Lindquist, Erika; Dehal, Paramvir; Shapiro, Harris; Jin, Yong-Su; Passoth, Volkmar; Richardson, Paul M.

    2007-06-25

    Xylose is a major constituent of angiosperm lignocellulose,so its fermentation is important for bioconversion to fuels andchemicals. Pichia stipitis is the best-studied native xylose fermentingyeast. Genes from P. stipitis have been used to engineer xylosemetabolism in Saccharomycescerevisiae, and the regulation of the P.stipitis genome offers insights into the mechanisms of xylose metabolismin yeasts. We have sequenced, assembled and finished the genome ofP.stipitis. As such, it is one of only a handful of completely finishedeukaryotic organisms undergoing analysis and manual curation. Thesequence has revealed aspects of genome organization, numerous genes forbiocoversion, preliminary insights into regulation of central metabolicpathways, numerous examples of co-localized genes with related functions,and evidence of how P. stipitis manages to achieve redox balance whilegrowing on xylose under microaerobic conditions.

  17. Characterization of xylose uptake in the yeasts Pichia heedii and Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Does, A.L.; Bisson, L.F. )

    1989-01-01

    The efficient conversion of renewable biomass to ethanol is an area of active research. Pentoses make up nearly one-third of the reducing sugars derived from the hydrolysis of lignocellulose, with xylose as the major component. The kinetics of xylose uptake were investigated in the efficient xylose fermenter Pichia stipitis and in the more readily genetically manipulated, strictly respiratory yeast Pichia heedii. Both yeasts demonstrated more than one xylose uptake system, differing in substrate affinity. The K{sub m} of high-affinity xylose uptake in both organisms was similar to that of the efficient high-affinity glucose uptake system of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In P. heedii, low-affinity xylose uptake was enhanced with growth on 2% but not 0.05% xylose and high-affinity uptake was reduced. In contrast to glucose uptake, xylose uptake in P. heedii was inhibited by dinitrophenol. Dinitrophenol inhibited both glucose and xylose uptake by P. stipitis. Glucose uptake was not inhibited by a 100-fold molar excess of xylose in P. heedii. It is suggested that xylose uptake in P. heedii is via a carrier system(s) distinct from those for glucose uptake.

  18. Transcriptional control of ADH genes in the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, J.Y.; Jeffries, T.W. |

    1999-06-01

    The authors studied the expression of the genes encoding group 1 alcohol dehydrogenases (PsADH1 and PsADH2) in the xylose-fermenting yeast Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. The cells expressed PsADH1 approximately 10 times higher under oxygen-limited conditions than under fully aerobic conditions when cultivated on xylose. Transcripts of PsADH2 were not detectable under either aeration condition. The authors used a PsADH1::lacZ fusion to monitor PsADH1 expression and found that expression increased as oxygen decreased. The level of PsADH1 transcript was expressed about 10-fold in cells grown in the presence of heme under oxygen-limited conditions. Concomitantly with the induction of PsADH1, PsCYC1 expression was regressed. These results indicate that oxygen availability regulates PsADH1 expression and that regulation may be mediated by heme. The regulation of PsADH2 expression was also examined in other genetic backgrounds. Disruption of PsADH1 dramatically increased PsADH2 expression on nonfermentable carbon sources under fully aerobic conditions, indicating that the expression of PsADH2 is subject to feedback regulation under these conditions.

  19. Diminished respirative growth and enhanced assimilative sugar uptake result in higher specific fermentation rates by the mutant Pichia stipitis FPL-061

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenath, H.K.; Jeffries, T.W. |

    1997-12-31

    A mutant strain of Pichia stipitis, FPL-061, was obtained by selecting for growth on L-xylose in the presence of respiratory inhibitors. The specific fermentation rate of FPL-061, was higher than that of the parent, Pichia stipitis CBS 6054, because of its lower cell yield and growth rate and higher specific substrate uptake rate. With a mixture of glucose and xylose, the mutant strain FPL-061 produced 29.4 g ethanol/L with a yield of 0.42 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. By comparison, CBS 6054 produced 25.7 g ethanol/L with a yield of 0.35 g/g. The fermentation was most efficient at an aeration rate of 9.2 mmoles O{sub 2} L{sup -1} h{sup -1}. At high aeration rates (22 mmoles O{sub 2} L{sup -1} h{sup -1}), the mutant cell yield was less than that of the parent. At low aeration rates, (1.1 to 2.5 O{sub 2} L{sup -1} h{sup -1}), cell yields were similar, the ethanol formation rates were low, and xylitol accumulation was observed in both the strains. Both strains respired the ethanol once sugar was exhausted. We infer from the results that the mutant, P. stipitis FPL-061, diverts a larger fraction of its metabolic energy from cell growth into ethanol production. 21 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Enhancing ethanol production from cellulosic sugars using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis.

    PubMed

    Okonkwo, C C; Azam, M M; Ezeji, T C; Qureshi, N

    2016-07-01

    Studies were performed on the effect of CaCO3 and CaCl2 supplementation to fermentation medium for ethanol production from xylose, glucose, or their mixtures using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis. Both of these chemicals were found to improve maximum ethanol concentration and ethanol productivity. Use of xylose alone resulted in the production of 20.68 ± 0.44 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.17 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1), while xylose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 24.68 ± 0.75 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.21 ± 0.01 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of xylose plus glucose in combination with 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 47.37 ± 0.55 g L(-1) ethanol (aerobic culture), thus resulting in an ethanol productivity of 0.39 ± 0.00 g L(-1) h(-1). These values are 229 % of that achieved in xylose medium. Supplementation of xylose and glucose medium with 0.40 g L(-1) CaCl2 resulted in the production of 44.84 ± 0.28 g L(-1) ethanol with a productivity of 0.37 ± 0.02 g L(-1) h(-1). Use of glucose plus 3 g L(-1) CaCO3 resulted in the production of 57.39 ± 1.41 g L(-1) ethanol under micro-aerophilic conditions. These results indicate that supplementation of cellulosic sugars in the fermentation medium with CaCO3 and CaCl2 would improve economics of ethanol production from agricultural residues. PMID:26966011

  1. Evaluation of a kinetic model for computer simulation of growth and fermentation by Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis fed D-xylose

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheffersomyces (formly Pichia) stipitis is a potential biocatalyst for converting lignocelluloses to ethanol because the yeast natively ferments xylose. An unstructured kinetic model based upon a system of linear differential equations has been formulated that describes growth and ethanol productio...

  2. Ethanol fermentation of a mixture of pentoses and hexoess by Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Bong-Hwan; Ryu, Yeon-Woo; Seo, Jin-Ho

    1995-12-01

    Hydrolysis of cellulosic materials generates a mixture of hexoses (mannose, glucose, and galactose) and pentoses (xylose and arabinose). The research was carried out to study the pattern of carbon utilization by P. stipitis CBS5776 for ethanol production from cellulose hydrolyzates. The yeast utilized glucose and mannose first, and then galactose and xylose as carbon sources. Arabinose was not used at all, P. stipitis produced ethanol with a yield coefficient 0.33 g ethanol/g sugar in a mixture of sugars. The pattern for carbon utilization was also investigated in a continuous culture.

  3. Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions of Pichia stipitis and Pichia pastoris and in silico evaluation of their potentials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Pichia stipitis and Pichia pastoris have long been investigated due to their native abilities to metabolize every sugar from lignocellulose and to modulate methanol consumption, respectively. The latter has been driving the production of several recombinant proteins. As a result, significant advances in their biochemical knowledge, as well as in genetic engineering and fermentation methods have been generated. The release of their genome sequences has allowed systems level research. Results In this work, genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) of P. stipitis (iSS884) and P. pastoris (iLC915) were reconstructed. iSS884 includes 1332 reactions, 922 metabolites, and 4 compartments. iLC915 contains 1423 reactions, 899 metabolites, and 7 compartments. Compared with the previous GEMs of P. pastoris, PpaMBEL1254 and iPP668, iLC915 contains more genes and metabolic functions, as well as improved predictive capabilities. Simulations of physiological responses for the growth of both yeasts on selected carbon sources using iSS884 and iLC915 closely reproduced the experimental data. Additionally, the iSS884 model was used to predict ethanol production from xylose at different oxygen uptake rates. Simulations with iLC915 closely reproduced the effect of oxygen uptake rate on physiological states of P. pastoris expressing a recombinant protein. The potential of P. stipitis for the conversion of xylose and glucose into ethanol using reactors in series, and of P. pastoris to produce recombinant proteins using mixtures of methanol and glycerol or sorbitol are also discussed. Conclusions In conclusion the first GEM of P. stipitis (iSS884) was reconstructed and validated. The expanded version of the P. pastoris GEM, iLC915, is more complete and has improved capabilities over the existing models. Both GEMs are useful frameworks to explore the versatility of these yeasts and to capitalize on their biotechnological potentials. PMID:22472172

  4. Isolation of xylose reductase gene of Pichia stipitis and its expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Takuma, Shinya; Nakashima, Noriyuki; Tantirungkij, Manee

    1991-12-31

    A NADPH/NADH-dependent xylose reductase gene was isolated from the xylose-assimilating yeast, Pichia stipitis. DNA sequence analysis showed that the gene consists of 951 bp. The gene introduced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was transcribed to mRNA, and a considerable amount of enzyme activity was observed constitutively, whereas transcription and translation in P steps were inducible. S. cerevisiae carrying the xylose reductase gene could not, however, grow on xylose medium, and could not produce ethanol from xylose. Since xylose uptake and accumulation of xylitol by S. cerevisiae were observed, the conversion of xylitol to xylulose seemed to be limited.

  5. Metabolic-Flux Profiling of the Yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis

    PubMed Central

    Fiaux, Jocelyne; Çakar, Z. Petek; Sonderegger, Marco; Wüthrich, Kurt; Szyperski, Thomas; Sauer, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The so far largely uncharacterized central carbon metabolism of the yeast Pichia stipitis was explored in batch and glucose-limited chemostat cultures using metabolic-flux ratio analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance. The concomitantly characterized network of active metabolic pathways was compared to those identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which led to the following conclusions. (i) There is a remarkably low use of the non-oxidative pentose phosphate (PP) pathway for glucose catabolism in S. cerevisiae when compared to P. stipitis batch cultures. (ii) Metabolism of P. stipitis batch cultures is fully respirative, which contrasts with the predominantly respiro-fermentative metabolic state of S. cerevisiae. (iii) Glucose catabolism in chemostat cultures of both yeasts is primarily oxidative. (iv) In both yeasts there is significant in vivo malic enzyme activity during growth on glucose. (v) The amino acid biosynthesis pathways are identical in both yeasts. The present investigation thus demonstrates the power of metabolic-flux ratio analysis for comparative profiling of central carbon metabolism in lower eukaryotes. Although not used for glucose catabolism in batch culture, we demonstrate that the PP pathway in S. cerevisiae has a generally high catabolic capacity by overexpressing the Escherichia coli transhydrogenase UdhA in phosphoglucose isomerase-deficient S. cerevisiae. PMID:12582134

  6. Random UV-C mutagenesis of Scheffersomyces (formerly Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 to improve anaerobic growth on lignocellulosic sugars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeast strains for anaerobic conversion of lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol were produced from Scheffersomyces (formerly Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124 using UV-C mutagenesis. Random UV-C mutagenesis potentially produces large numbers of mutations broadly and uniformly over the whole genome to genera...

  7. High solid loading hydrolyzate-tolerant strains of Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis exhibiting reduced diauxic lag and higher ethanol productivity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolyzates to ethanol by native pentose-fermenting yeasts such as Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis NRRL Y-7124, the switch from glucose to xylose uptake results in a diauxic lag unless process strategies to prevent this are applied. Further investigation...

  8. Continuous fermentation of D-xylose by immobilized Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, M.J.; Dominguez, C.H.; Sanroman, A.; Lema, J.M.

    1991-12-31

    The main purpose of this work was to compare the performance of two different kinds of reactors (CSTR and CPFR) in order to enhance the ethanol productivity in the fermentation of D-xylose by Pichia steps immobilized in {kappa}-carrageenan. Immobilization was carried out in a 4% aqueous suspension of {kappa}-carrageenan, which was mixed with the inoculum. The bioparticles were treated with Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as hardening agent. The fermenters operated during a long period of time (about 30 d). Best results were obtained in the packed-bed reactor (CPFR), which allowed operation at high final ethanol concentrations, this fact having been explained because of the observed strong product inhibition. The overall productivity reached values higher than 3.8 g/(L{circ}h). This supposed an interesting improvement with relation to the productivities found in the literature, which as an average did not exceed 1 g/(L{circ}h). However, the specific productivities of yeast in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) were always greater because the bioparticles were kept in close contact with the broth, whereas in the CPFR, there were at least two problems: (a) the possibility that the produced gas could prevent the intimate contact between the substrate and the particles and (b) the possible existence of preferential paths.

  9. Ethanol production from rice hull using Pichia stipitis and optimization of acid pretreatment and detoxification processes.

    PubMed

    Germec, Mustafa; Kartal, Fatma Kubra; Bilgic, Merve; Ilgin, Merve; Ilhan, Eda; Güldali, Hazal; Isci, Aslı; Turhan, Irfan

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to produce ethanol from rice hull hydrolysates (RHHs) using Pichia stipitis strains and to optimize dilute acid hydrolysis and detoxification processes by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were found as 127.14°C, solid:liquid ratio of 1:10.44 (w/v), acid ratio of 2.52% (w/v), and hydrolysis time of 22.01 min. At these conditions, the fermentable sugar concentration was 21.87 g/L. Additionally, the nondetoxified RHH at optimized conditions contained 865.2 mg/L phenolics, 24.06 g/L fermentable sugar, no hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), 1.62 g/L acetate, 0.36 g/L lactate, 1.89 g/L glucose, and 13.49 g/L fructose + xylose. Furthermore, RHH was detoxified with various methods and the best procedures were found to be neutralization with CaO or charcoal treatment in terms of the reduction of inhibitory compounds as compared to nondetoxified RHH. After detoxification procedures, the content of hydrolysates consisted of 557.2 and 203.1 mg/L phenolics, 19.7 and 21.60 g/L fermentable sugar, no HMF, 0.98 and 1.39 g/L acetate, 0 and 0.04 g/L lactate, 1.13 and 1.03 g/L glucose, and 8.46 and 12.09 g/L fructose + xylose, respectively. Moreover, the base-line mediums (control), and nondetoxified and detoxified hydrolysates were used to produce ethanol by using P. stipitis strains. The highest yields except that of base-line mediums were achieved using neutralization (35.69 and 38.33% by P. stipitis ATCC 58784 and ATCC 58785, respectively) and charcoal (37.55% by P. stipitis ATCC 58785) detoxification methods. Results showed that the rice hull can be utilized as a good feedstock for ethanol production using P. stipitis. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:872-882, 2016. PMID:27071671

  10. Ethanol production from acid hydrolysates based on the construction and demolition wood waste using Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Shin, Soo-Jeong; Bae, Yangwon; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2011-03-01

    The feasibility of ethanol production from the construction and demolition (C&D) wood waste acid hydrolysates was investigated. The chemical compositions of the classified C&D wood waste were analyzed. Concentrated sulfuric acid hydrolysis was used to obtain the saccharide hydrolysates and the inhibitors in the hydrolysates were also analyzed. The C&D wood waste composed of lumber, plywood, particleboard, and medium density fiberboard (MDF) had polysaccharide (cellulose, xylan, and glucomannan) fractions of 60.7-67.9%. The sugar composition (glucose, xylose, and mannose) of the C&D wood wastes varied according to the type of wood. The additives used in the wood processing did not appear to be released into the saccharide solution under acid hydrolysis. Although some fermentation inhibitors were detected in the hydrolysates, they did not affect the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis. The hexose sugar-based ethanol yield and ethanol yield efficiency were 0.42-0.46 g ethanol/g substrate and 84.7-90.7%, respectively. Therefore, the C&D wood wastes dumped in landfill sites could be used as a raw material feedstock for the production of bioethanol. PMID:21251816

  11. Induction of Xylose Reductase and Xylitol Dehydrogenase Activities in Pachysolen tannophilus and Pichia stipitis on Mixed Sugars

    PubMed Central

    Bicho, Paul A.; Runnals, P. Lynn; Cunningham, J. Douglas; Lee, Hung

    1988-01-01

    The induction of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase activities on mixed sugars was investigated in the yeasts Pachysolen tannophilus and Pichia stipitis. Enzyme activities induced on d-xylose served as the controls. In both yeasts, d-glucose, d-mannose, and 2-deoxyglucose inhibited enzyme induction by d-xylose to various degrees. Cellobiose, l-arabinose, and d-galactose were not inhibitory. In liquid batch culture, P. tannophilus utilized d-glucose and d-mannose rapidly and preferentially over d-xylose, while d-galactose consumption was poor and lagged behind that of the pentose sugar. In P. stipitis, all three hexoses were used preferentially over d-xylose. The results showed that the repressibility of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase may limit the potential of yeast fermentation of pentose sugars in hydrolysates of lignocellulosic substrates. PMID:16347538

  12. [Effect of phenolic ketones on ethanol fermentation and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinlong; Cheng, Yichao; Zhu, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Junjun; Chen, Tingting; Xu, Yong; Yong, Qiang; Yu, Shiyuan

    2016-02-01

    Lignin degradation products are toxic to microorganisms, which is one of the bottlenecks for fuel ethanol production. We studied the effects of phenolic ketones (4-hydroxyacetophenone, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-acetophenone and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy-acetophenone) derived from lignin degradation on ethanol fermentation of xylose and cellular lipid composition of Pichia stipitis NLP31. Ethanol and the cellular fatty acid of yeast were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results indicate that phenolic ketones negatively affected ethanol fermentation of yeast and the lower molecular weight phenolic ketone compound was more toxic. When the concentration of 4-hydroxyacetophenone was 1.5 g/L, at fermentation of 24 h, the xylose utilization ratio, ethanol yield and ethanol concentration decreased by 42.47%, 5.30% and 9.76 g/L, respectively, compared to the control. When phenolic ketones were in the medium, the ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA) of yeast cells was improved. When 1.5 g/L of three aforementioned phenolic ketones was added to the fermentation medium, the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast cells increased to 3.03, 3.06 and 3.61, respectively, compared to 2.58 of the control, which increased cell membrane fluidity and instability. Therefore, phenolic ketones can reduce the yeast growth, increase the UFA/SFA ratio of yeast and lower ethanol productivity. Effectively reduce or remove the content of lignin degradation products is the key to improve lignocellulose biorefinery. PMID:27382768

  13. Evaluation of the tolerance of acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde on the growth of Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Muñiz, B; Rasgado-Mellado, J; Solis-Pacheco, J; Nolasco-Hipólito, C; Domínguez-González, J M; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2014-10-01

    The use of lignocellulosic residues for ethanol production is limited by toxic compounds in fermenting yeasts present in diluted acid hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde. The respiratory deficient phenotype gives the cell the ability to resist several toxic compounds. So the aim of this work was to evaluate the tolerance to toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde in Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient strains. The respiratory deficient phenotype was induced by exposure to chemical agents such as acriflavine, acrylamide and rhodamine; 23 strains were obtained. The selection criterion was based on increasing specific ethanol yield (g ethanol g(-1) biomass) with acetic acid and furaldehyde tolerance. The screening showed that P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124 ACL 2-1RD (lacking cytochrome c), obtained using acrylamide, presented the highest specific ethanol production rate (1.82 g g(-1 )h(-1)). Meanwhile, the ACF8-3RD strain showed the highest acetic acid tolerance (7.80 g L(-1)) and the RHO2-3RD strain was able to tolerate up to 1.5 g L(-1) 2-furaldehyde with a growth and ethanol production inhibition of 23 and 22 %, respectively. The use of respiratory deficient yeast phenotype is a strategy for ethanol production improvement in a medium with toxic compounds such as hydrolysed sugarcane bagasse amongst others. PMID:24700134

  14. Fermentation Kinetics for Xylitol Production by a Pichia stipitis d-Xylulokinase Mutant Previously Grown in Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Rita C. L. B.; Lu, Chenfeng; Lin, Bernice; Jeffries, Thomas W.

    Spent sulfite pulping liquor (SSL) contains lignin, which is present as lignosulfonate, and hemicelluloses that are present as hydrolyzed carbohydrates. To reduce the biological oxygen demand of SSL associated with dissolved sugars, we studied the capacity of Pichia stipitis FPL-YS30 (xyl3Δ) to convert these sugars into useful products. FPL-YS30 produces a negligible amount of ethanol while converting xylose into xylitol. This work describes the xylose fermentation kinetics of yeast strain P.stipitis FPL-YS30. Yeast was grown in rich medium supplemented with different carbon sources: glucose, xylose, or ammonia-base SSL. The SSL and glucose-acclimatized cells showed similar maximum specific growth rates (0.146 h-1). The highest xylose consumption at the beginning of the fermentation process occurred using cells precultivated in xylose, which showed relatively high specific activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.49). However, the maximum specific rates of xylose consumption (0.19 gxylose/gcel h) and xylitol production (0.059 gxylitol/gcel h) were obtained with cells acclimatized in glucose, in which the ratio between xylose reductase (EC 1.1.1.21) and xylitol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.9) was kept at higher level (0.82). In this case, xylitol production (31.6 g/l) was 19 and 8% higher than in SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. Maximum glycerol (6.26 g/l) and arabitol (0.206 g/l) production were obtained using SSL and xylose-acclimatized cells, respectively. The medium composition used for the yeast precultivation directly reflected their xylose fermentation performance. The SSL could be used as a carbon source for cell production. However, the inoculum condition to obtain a high cell concentration in SSL needs to be optimized.

  15. Detoxification of rice straw and olive tree pruning hemicellulosic hydrolysates employing Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its effect on the ethanol production by Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Bruno Guedes; Puentes, Juan Gabriel; Mateo, Soledad; Sánchez, Sebastian; Moya, Alberto J; Roberto, Inês Conceição

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) to metabolize a variety of aromatic compounds found in rice straw (RSHH) and olive tree pruning (OTHH) hemicellulosic hydrolysates, obtained by acid hydrolysis at different sugar and toxic compound concentrations. Initially, the hydrolysates were inoculated with S. cerevisiae (10 g L(-1)) and incubated at 30 °C under agitation at 200 rpm for 6 h. The results showed that this yeast was able to utilize phenolic and furan compounds in both hemicellulose hydrolysates. Next, the treated hydrolysates were inoculated with Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124 to evaluate the effect of biotransformation of aromatic compounds on ethanol production, and better fermentation results were obtained in this case compared to untreated ones. The untreated hemicellulose hydrolysates were not able to be fermented when they were incubated with Pichia stipitis. However, in RSHH treated hydrolysates, ethanol (Y(P/S)) and biomass (Y(X/S)) yields and volumetric ethanol productivity (Q(P)) were 0.17 g g(-1), 0.15 g g(-1) and 0.09 g L(-1) h(-1), respectively. The OTHH-treated hydrolysates showed less favorable results compared to RSHH, but the fermentation process was favored with regard to untreated hydrolysate. These results showed that the fermentation by P. stipitis in untreated hydrolysates was strongly inhibited by toxic compounds present in the media and that treatment with S. cerevisiae promoted a significant reduction in their toxicities. PMID:23992561

  16. Bioethanol fermentation of concentrated rice straw hydrolysate using co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis.

    PubMed

    Yadav, K Srilekha; Naseeruddin, Shaik; Prashanthi, G Sai; Sateesh, Lanka; Rao, L Venkateswar

    2011-06-01

    Rice straw is one of the abundant lignocellulosic feed stocks in the world and has been selected for producing ethanol at an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses). Biphasic acid hydrolysis was carried out with sulphuric acid using rice straw. After acid hydrolysis, the sugars, furans and phenolics were estimated. The initial concentration of sugar was found to be 16.8 g L(-1). However to increase the ethanol yield, the initial sugar concentration of the hydrolysate was concentrated to 31 g L(-1) by vacuum distillation. The concentration of sugars, phenols and furans was checked and later detoxified by over liming to use for ethanol fermentation. Ethanol concentration was found to be 12 g L(-1), with a yield, volumetric ethanol productivity and fermentation efficiency of 0.33 g L(-1)h(-1), 0.4 g g(-1) and 95%, respectively by co-culture of OVB 11 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and Pichia stipitis NCIM 3498. PMID:21470850

  17. Fermentation of Acid-pretreated Corn Stover to Ethanol Without Detoxification Using Pichia stipitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agbogbo, Frank K.; Haagensen, Frank D.; Milam, David; Wenger, Kevin S.

    In this work, the effect of adaptation on P. stipitis fermentation using acidpretreated corn stover hydrolyzates without detoxification was examined. Two different types of adaptation were employed, liquid hydrolyzate and solid state agar adaptation. Fermentation of 12.5% total solids undetoxified acid-pretreated corn stover was performed in shake flasks at different rotation speeds. At low rotation speed (100 rpm), both liquid hydrolyzate and solid agar adaptation highly improved the sugar consumption rate as well as ethanol production rate compared to the wild-type strains. The fermentation rate was higher for solid agar-adapted strains compared to liquid hydrolyzate-adapted strains. At a higher rotation speed (150 rpm), there was a faster sugar consumption and ethanol production for both the liquid-adapted and the wild-type strains. However, improvements in the fermentation rate between the liquid-adapted and wild strains were less pronounced at the high rotation speed.

  18. Ethanol production from xylose with the yeast Pichia stipitis and simultaneous product recovery by gas stripping using a gas-lift loop fermentor with attached side-arm (GLSA)

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, J.M.; Cao, N.; Gong, C.S.; Tsao, G.T.

    2000-02-05

    The bioconversion of xylose into ethanol with the yeast Pichia stipitis CBS 5773 is inhibited when 20 g/L of ethanol are present in the fermentation broth. In order to avoid this limitation, the fermentation was carried out with simultaneous recovery of product by CO{sub 2} stripping. The fermentation was also improved by attaching a side-arm to the main body of a classical gas-lift loop fermentor. This side-arm increases the liquid circulation, mass transfer, and gas distribution, reducing the amount of oxygen in the inlet gas necessary to perform the fermentation of xylose under microaerobic conditions (K{sub L}a{approx_equal} 16 h{sup {minus}1}). The continuous stripping of ethanol from the fermentation broth in this new bioreactor system allowed the consumption of higher xylose concentrations than using Erlenmeyer shaker flasks, improved significantly the process productivity and provided a clean ethanol solution by using an ice-cooled condenser system. Finally, a fed-batch fermentation was carried out with a K{sub L}a = 15.8 h{sup {minus}1}. Starting with 248.2 g of xylose, 237.6 g of xylose was consumed to produce 88.1 g of ethanol which represents 72.6% of the theoretical yield.

  19. Reconstruction and visualization of carbohydrate, N-glycosylation pathways in Pichia pastoris CBS7435 using computational and system biology approaches.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Akriti; Somvanshi, Pallavi; Mishra, Bhartendu Nath

    2013-06-01

    Pichia pastoris is an efficient expression system for production of recombinant proteins. To understand its physiology for building novel applications it is important to understand and reconstruct its metabolic network. The metabolic reconstruction approach connects genotype with phenotype. Here, we have attempted to reconstruct carbohydrate metabolism pathways responsible for high biomass density and N-glycosylation pathways involved in the post translational modification of proteins of P. pastoris CBS7435. Both these metabolic pathways play a crucial role in heterologous protein production. We report novel, missing and unannotated enzymes involved in the target metabolic pathways. A strong possibility of cellulose and xylose metabolic processes in P. pastoris CBS7435 suggests its use in the area of biofuels. The reconstructed metabolic networks can be used for increased yields and improved product quality, for designing appropriate growth medium, for production of recombinant therapeutics and for making biofuels. PMID:24432138

  20. Harnessing Candida tenuis and Pichia stipitis in whole-cell bioreductions of o-chloroacetophenone: stereoselectivity, cell activity, in situ substrate supply and product removal.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Christoph; Krahulec, Stefan; Nidetzky, Bernd; Kratzer, Regina

    2013-06-01

    Generally, recombinant and native microorganisms can be employed as whole-cell catalysts. The application of native hosts, however, shortens the process development time by avoiding multiple steps of strain construction. Herein, we studied the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of o-chloroacetophenone by isolated xylose reductases and their native hosts Candida tenuis and Pichia stipitis. The natural hosts were benchmarked against Escherichia coli strains co-expressing xylose reductase and a dehydrogenase for co-enzyme recycling. Xylose-grown cells of C. tenuis and P. stipitis displayed specific o-chloroacetophenone reductase activities of 366 and 90 U gCDW (-1) , respectively, in the cell-free extracts. Fresh biomass was employed in batch reductions of 100 mM o-chloroacetophenone using glucose as co-substrate. Reaction stops at a product concentration of about 15 mM, which suggests sensitivity of the catalyst towards the formed product. In situ substrate supply and product removal by the addition of 40% hexane increased catalyst stability. Optimisation of the aqueous phase led to a (S)-1-(2-chlorophenyl)ethanol concentration of 71 mM (ee > 99.9%) obtained with 44 gCDW L(-1) of C. tenuis. The final difference in productivities between native C. tenuis and recombinant E. coli was < 1.7-fold. The optically pure product is a required key intermediate in the synthesis of a new class of chemotherapeutic substances (polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors). PMID:23589466

  1. Biovalorization potential of peels of Ananas cosmosus (L.) Merr. for ethanol production by Pichia stipitis NCIM 3498 & Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC 1077.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Latika; Johri, Sonia

    2015-12-01

    Bioethanol, is a potential alternate source of energy, renewable and safe. Ethanol production from value added food and feedstock has also not shown growth as estimated. Of late, the second generation processes of production of ethanol, such as from lignocellulosic biomass out of agricultural/domestic waste has been gaining considerable momentum. Here, we explored a new approach for optimizing the conditions of physiochemical pretreatment as well as fermentation process using peels of Ananas cosmosus as substrate and immobilized yeast Pachysolen tannophilus MTCC.1077 and Pichia stipitis NCIM 3498. We have also studied the influence of process variables such as incubation temperature, inoculum concentration and different nutrients on ethanol production. Pulverized peels of A. cosmosus recorded 25 ± 0.31% cellulose, 28 ± 0.18% hemicellulose and 8 ± 0.07% of lignin on dry solid (DS) basis. Peels of A. cosmosus delignified with 1% H2SO4 yielded 18.89% glucose, 38.81% xylose and 29.31% fructose under thermochemical pretreatment using autoclave (121 degrees C, 20 min.), with a hydrolytic efficiency of 75.52 ± 0.45%. FTIR spectroscopy results not only indicated the penetration of H2SO4 in the amorphous region of the biomass and degradation of hemicelluloses but also showed the structural differences before and after pretreatment. The enzymes required for hydrolysis were prepared from culture supernatants of Trichoderma reesei NCIM 1052 using wheat bran as carbon source under submerged fermentation conditions on rotatory shaker incubator (at 28 degrees C for 10 days). Enzyme activity (U/ml) of crude cellulase produced by T. reesei NCIM 1052 was 311.1 μmole/ml/min. Delignified A. cosmosus peel yielded 51.71 ± 0.44 g/l glucose when enzymatically hydrolysed by crude cellulase at the substrate enzyme ratio of 1:5. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of peels of A. cosmosus by crude cellulase and separately entrapped Pichia stipitis NCIM 3498 (now known

  2. Curation of the genome annotation of Pichia pastoris (Komagataella phaffii) CBS7435 from gene level to protein function.

    PubMed

    Valli, Minoska; Tatto, Nadine E; Peymann, Armin; Gruber, Clemens; Landes, Nils; Ekker, Heinz; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Mattanovich, Diethard; Gasser, Brigitte; Graf, Alexandra B

    2016-09-01

    As manually curated and non-automated BLAST analysis of the published Pichia pastoris genome sequences revealed many differences between the gene annotations of the strains GS115 and CBS7435, RNA-Seq analysis, supported by proteomics, was performed to improve the genome annotation. Detailed analysis of sequence alignment and protein domain predictions were made to extend the functional genome annotation to all P. pastoris sequences. This allowed the identification of 492 new ORFs, 4916 hypothetical UTRs and the correction of 341 incorrect ORF predictions, which were mainly due to the presence of upstream ATG or erroneous intron predictions. Moreover, 175 previously erroneously annotated ORFs need to be removed from the annotation. In total, we have annotated 5325 ORFs. Regarding the functionality of those genes, we improved all gene and protein descriptions. Thereby, the percentage of ORFs with functional annotation was increased from 48% to 73%. Furthermore, we defined functional groups, covering 25 biological cellular processes of interest, by grouping all genes that are part of the defined process. All data are presented in the newly launched genome browser and database available at www.pichiagenome.org In summary, we present a wide spectrum of curation of the P. pastoris genome annotation from gene level to protein function. PMID:27388471

  3. Effect of ozonolysis parameters on the inhibitory compound generation and on the production of ethanol by Pichia stipitis and acetone-butanol-ethanol by Clostridium from ozonated and water washed sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Travaini, Rodolfo; Barrado, Enrique; Bolado-Rodríguez, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was ozone pretreated and detoxified by water washing, applying a L9(3)(4) orthogonal array (OA) design of experiments to study the effect of pretreatment parameters (moisture content, ozone concentration, ozone/oxygen flow and particle size) on the generation of inhibitory compounds and on the composition of hydrolysates of ozonated-washed samples. Ozone concentration resulted the highest influence process parameter on delignification and sugar release after washing; while, for inhibitory compound formation, moisture content also had an important role. Ozone expended in pretreatment related directly with sugar release and inhibitory compound formation. Washing detoxification was effective, providing non-inhibitory hydrolysates. Maximum glucose and xylose release yields obtained were 84% and 67%, respectively, for ozonated-washed SCB. Sugar concentration resulted in the decisive factor for biofuels yields. Ethanol production achieved an 88% yield by Pichia stipitis, whereas Clostridium acetobutylicum produced 0.072gBUTANOL/gSUGAR and 0.188gABE/gSUGAR, and, Clostridium beijerinckii 0.165gBUTANOL/gSUGAR and 0.257gABE/gSUGAR. PMID:27428302

  4. Determination of kinetic parameters of fermentation processes by a continuous unsteady-state method: Application to the alcoholic fermentation of D-xylose by Pichia stipitis

    SciTech Connect

    Dominguez, H.; Nunez, M.J.; Lema, J.M. ); Chamy, R. )

    1993-05-01

    A quick technique for determination of kinetic parameters of fermentation processes is proposed and applied to the transformation of D-xylose into ethanol by Pichi stipitis. The commonly used method to evaluate these parameters is based on achieving several steady states. In the proposed procedure, [mu][sub m] and K[sub S] can be determined from only one steady state, by provoking a disturbance over it, after allowing the system to return to the original conditions. The main difference between the steady and unsteady state methods is the required fermentation time; while the former method lasted 350 h, the latter required a period 25 times lower. Kinetic and stoichiometric parameters were determined with both methods under anoxic and limited oxygen concentration conditions. Results from the two methods were compared, giving only 2% and 4.5% differences in the values of K[sub S] and [mu][sub m], respectively, under anoxic conditions; 12.5% for K[sub S] and a little over 4% for [mu][sub m] were the deviations under the latter ones.

  5. GRE2 from Scheffersomyces stipitis as an aldehyde reductase contributes tolerance to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is one of the most promising yeasts for industrial bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. S. stipitis is able to in situ detoxify aldehyde inhibitors [such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)] to less toxic corresponding alcohols. However, the...

  6. GRE2 from Scheffersomyces stipitis as an aldehyde reductase contributes tolerance to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Ma, Menggen; Liu, Z Lewis; Xiang, Quanju; Li, Xi; Liu, Na; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis is one of the most promising yeasts for industrial bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. S. stipitis is able to in situ detoxify aldehyde inhibitors (such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF)) to less toxic corresponding alcohols. However, the reduction enzymes involved in this reaction remain largely unknown. In this study, we reported that an uncharacterized open reading frame PICST_72153 (putative GRE2) from S. stipitis was highly induced in response to furfural and HMF stresses. Overexpression of this gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improved yeast tolerance to furfural and HMF. GRE2 was identified as an aldehyde reductase which can reduce furfural to FM with either NADH or NADPH as the co-factor and reduce HMF to FDM with NADPH as the co-factor. This enzyme can also reduce multiple aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that it is a member of the subclass "intermediate" of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Although GRE2 from S. stipitis is similar to GRE2 from S. cerevisiae in a three-dimensional structure, some differences were predicted. GRE2 from S. stipitis forms loops at D133-E137 and T143-N145 locations with two α-helices at E154-K157 and E252-A254 locations, different GRE2 from S. cerevisiae with an α-helix at D133-E137 and a β-sheet at T143-N145 locations, and two loops at E154-K157 and E252-A254 locations. This research provided guidelines for the study of other SDR enzymes from S. stipitis and other yeasts on tolerant mechanisms to aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27003269

  7. A constraint-based model of Scheffersomyces stipitis for improved ethanol production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As one of the best xylose utilization microorganisms, Scheffersomyces stipitis exhibits great potential for the efficient lignocellulosic biomass fermentation. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of its unique physiological and metabolic characteristics is required to further improve its performance on cellulosic ethanol production. Results A constraint-based genome-scale metabolic model for S. stipitis CBS 6054 was developed on the basis of its genomic, transcriptomic and literature information. The model iTL885 consists of 885 genes, 870 metabolites, and 1240 reactions. During the reconstruction process, 36 putative sugar transporters were reannotated and the metabolisms of 7 sugars were illuminated. Essentiality study was conducted to predict essential genes on different growth media. Key factors affecting cell growth and ethanol formation were investigated by the use of constraint-based analysis. Furthermore, the uptake systems and metabolic routes of xylose were elucidated, and the optimization strategies for the overproduction of ethanol were proposed from both genetic and environmental perspectives. Conclusions Systems biology modelling has proven to be a powerful tool for targeting metabolic changes. Thus, this systematic investigation of the metabolism of S. stipitis could be used as a starting point for future experiment designs aimed at identifying the metabolic bottlenecks of this important yeast. PMID:22998943

  8. The CBS Programs, Reflectively Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Lawrence E.

    1978-01-01

    This critique of the television special "Is Anyone Out There Learning?" emphasizes three points: (1) CBS presented its own biases disguised as research; (2) television cannot teach literacy; and (3) CBS made education the scapegoat for our social crisis. All articles in this journal issue concern this television program. (SJL)

  9. NOCBS -- Use of CBS mail on satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, P. M.

    Since the introduction of version 5 of VMS and the Coloured Books software (CBS), it has been possible to send CBS mail from within VMS mail by using an address of the form "CBS%nodename::username". This only works on cluster nodes that have CBS installed. The usual situation at Starlink sites that have VAXclusters is that CBS is installed on only one machine in the cluster.

  10. "The Strange Birth of 'CBS Reports'" Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baughman, James L.

    Aired by the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) during the 1960s, "CBS Reports" proved to be one of that network's most honored efforts at television news coverage. CBS chairman, William S. Paley, based his decision to air the show on the presence of a sponsor and in response to the prospect of an open-ended Federal Communications Commission (FCC)…

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, P. S.; Lang, J.; Wawrousek, K.; Yu, J. P.; Maness, P. C.; Chen, J.

    2012-06-01

    Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS, a purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacterium, can grow photosynthetically using CO and N{sub 2} as the sole carbon and nitrogen nutrients, respectively. R. gelatinosus CBS is of particular interest due to its ability to metabolize CO and yield H{sub 2}. We present the 5-Mb draft genome sequence of R. gelatinosus CBS with the goal of providing genetic insight into the metabolic properties of this bacterium.

  12. Pichia guilliermondii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Boretsky, Yuriy R.

    Pichia guilliermondii (asporogenous strains of this species are designated as Candida guilliermondii ) is the model organism of a group so named “ flavinogenic yeasts ” capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Besides, some strains of this species efficiently convert xylose to xylitol, an anti-caries sweetener. However, there are also pathogenic C. guilliermondii strains. This species has been used for studying enzymology of riboflavin synthesis due to overproduction of participating enzymes and intermediates under iron-limiting conditions as well as for identification of genes of negative and positive action involved in such a regulation. Besides, P. guilliermondii was used for identification and studying the properties of the systems for active transport of riboflavin in the cell (riboflavin permease) and out of the cell (riboflavin “ excretase ” ). The genetic line of P. guilliermondii with high fertility has been selected and the methods of classic genetics (hybridization and analysis of meiotic segregation) have been developed. More recently, tools for molecular genetic studies of P. guilliermondii have been developed which include collection of host strains, vectors with recessive and dominant markers, several transformation protocols including that for gene knock out. Recently, the genome of this yeast species was sequenced and become publicly available ( http://www.broad.mit.edu )

  13. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Slininger, Patricia J.; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A.; Thompson, Stephanie R.; Dien, Bruce S.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-04-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment. Repetitive culturing in two types of concentrated hydrolyzates was applied along with ethanol challenged xylose-fed continuous culture to force targeted evolution of the native pentose fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis strain NRRL Y-7124 maintained in the ARSmore » Culture Collection, Peoria, IL. Isolates collected from various enriched populations were screened and ranked based on relative xylose uptake rate and ethanol yield. Ranking on hydrolyzates with and without nutritional supplementation was used to identify those isolates with best performance across diverse conditions. Robust S. stipitis strains adapted to perform very well in enzyme hydrolyzates of high solids loading ammonia fiber expansion-pretreated corn stover (18% weight per volume solids) and dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated switchgrass (20% w/v solids) were obtained. Improved features include reduced initial lag phase preceding growth, significantly enhanced fermentation rates, improved ethanol tolerance and yield, reduced diauxic lag during glucose-xylose transition, and ability to accumulate >40 g/L ethanol in <167 h when fermenting hydrolyzate at low initial cell density of 0.5 absorbance units and pH 5 to 6.« less

  14. Genome Sequence of the Trichosporon asahii Environmental Strain CBS 8904

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai Tao; Zhu, He; Zhou, Guang Peng; Wang, Meng; Wang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report of the genome sequence of Trichosporon asahii environmental strain CBS 8904, which was isolated from maize cobs. Comparison of the genome sequence with that of clinical strain CBS 2479 revealed that they have >99% chromosomal and mitochondrial sequence identity, yet CBS 8904 has 368 specific genes. Analysis of clusters of orthologous groups predicted that 3,307 genes belong to 23 functional categories and 703 genes were predicted to have a general function. PMID:23193141

  15. Evolved strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis achieving high ethanol productivity on acid- and base-pretreated biomass hydrolyzate at high solids loading

    SciTech Connect

    Slininger, Patricia J.; Shea-Andersh, Maureen A.; Thompson, Stephanie R.; Dien, Bruce S.; Kurtzman, Cletus P.; Balan, Venkatesh; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Dale, Bruce E; Cotta, Michael A

    2015-04-09

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant, renewable feedstock useful for the production of fuel-grade ethanol via the processing steps of pretreatment, enzyme hydrolysis, and microbial fermentation. Traditional industrial yeasts do not ferment xylose and are not able to grow, survive, or ferment in concentrated hydrolyzates that contain enough sugar to support economical ethanol recovery since they are laden with toxic byproducts generated during pretreatment. Repetitive culturing in two types of concentrated hydrolyzates was applied along with ethanol challenged xylose-fed continuous culture to force targeted evolution of the native pentose fermenting yeast Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis strain NRRL Y-7124 maintained in the ARS Culture Collection, Peoria, IL. Isolates collected from various enriched populations were screened and ranked based on relative xylose uptake rate and ethanol yield. Ranking on hydrolyzates with and without nutritional supplementation was used to identify those isolates with best performance across diverse conditions. Robust S. stipitis strains adapted to perform very well in enzyme hydrolyzates of high solids loading ammonia fiber expansion-pretreated corn stover (18% weight per volume solids) and dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated switchgrass (20% w/v solids) were obtained. Improved features include reduced initial lag phase preceding growth, significantly enhanced fermentation rates, improved ethanol tolerance and yield, reduced diauxic lag during glucose-xylose transition, and ability to accumulate >40 g/L ethanol in <167 h when fermenting hydrolyzate at low initial cell density of 0.5 absorbance units and pH 5 to 6.

  16. Asteroseismology of the DBV star CBS 114

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-Hui

    2016-08-01

    Asteroseismology is a unique and powerful tool to investigate the internal structure of stars. CBS 114 is the sixth known pulsating DBV star. It was observed by Handler, Metcalfe, & Wood at the South African Astronomical Observatory over three weeks in 2001. Then, it was observed by Metcalfe et al. for seven nights (2004 Feb. 19–25) on the 1.8 m telescope at the Bohyunsan Optical Astronomy Observatory and seven nights (2004 Feb. 21–27) on the 2.1 m telescope at the McDonald Observatory. Totally two triplets, four doublets, and five singlets were identified. The frequency splitting values are very different, from 5.2 μHz to 11.9 μHz, which may reflect differential rotations. We evolve grids of white dwarf models by MESA. Cores, added with He/C envelopes, of those white dwarf models are inserted into WDEC to evolve grids of DBV star models. With those DBV star models, we calculate eigenperiods. Those calculated periods are used to fit observed periods. A best-fitting model is selected. The parameters are T eff = 25000 K, M * = 0.740 M ⊙ and log(M He/M *) = —4.5. With the relatively large stellar mass, the effective temperature is close to the previous spectroscopic result. In addition, kinetic energy distributions are calculated for the best-fitting model. We find that the observed modes with large frequency splitting values are fitted by the calculated modes with a large amount of kinetic energy distributed in the C/O core. After preliminary analysis, we suggest that the C/O core may rotate at least two times faster than the helium layer for CBS 114.

  17. Co-expression of Endoxylanase and Endoglucanase in Scheffersomyces stipitis and Its Application in Ethanol Production.

    PubMed

    Puseenam, Aekkachai; Tanapongpipat, Sutipa; Roongsawang, Niran

    2015-12-01

    Scheffersomyces stipitis strain BCC15191 is considered as a biotechnologically valuable yeast for its ability to ferment glucose and xylose, the main sugar components in plant biomass, to ethanol. However, the wild strain lacks of endogenous cellulases and hemicellulases that limited biomass utilization. In order to improve biomass degrading ability of S. stipitis BCC15191, new integrative plasmids harboring constitutive TEF1 promoter and codon-optimized zeocin or hygromycin antibiotic resistance genes were developed. Aspergillus niger endoxylanase and Aspergillus aculeatus endoglucanase activities were demonstrated in transformant cells expressing codon-optimized genes. S. stipitis co-expressing endoxylanase and endoglucanase was able to grow in medium containing xylan and β-glucan as carbon sources and directly produced ethanol with yields of 2.7 g/L. It could also use pretreated corncob as a carbon source for ethanol production. These results suggested that recombinant S. stipilis is possible for consolidated bioprocessing of biomass. PMID:26378014

  18. Cloning and expression of Candida guilliermondii xylose reductase gene (xyl1) in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Handumrongkul, C; Ma, D P; Silva, J L

    1998-04-01

    A xylose reductase gene (xyl1) of Candida guilliermondii ATCC 20118 was cloned and characterized. The open reading frame of xyl1 contained 954 nucleotides encoding a protein of 317 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 36 kDa. The derived amino acid sequence of C. guilliermondii xylose reductase was 70.4% homologous to that of Pichia stipitis. The gene was placed under the control of an alcohol oxidase promoter (AOX1) and integrated into the genome of a methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. Methanol induced the expression of the 36-kDa xylose reductase in both intracellular and secreted expression systems. The expressed enzyme preferentially utilized NADPH as a cofactor and was functional both in vitro and in vivo. The different cofactor specificity between P. pastoris and C. guilliermondii xylose reductases might be due to the difference in the numbers of histidine residues and their locations between the two proteins. The recombinant was able to ferment xylose, and the maximum xylitol accumulation (7.8 g/l) was observed when the organism was grown under aerobic conditions. PMID:9615481

  19. Evaluation of CBS 600 carburized steel as a gear material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1979-01-01

    Gear endurance tests were conducted with one lot of consumable-electrode vacuum-melted (CVM) AISI 9310 gears and one lot of air-melt CBS 600 gears. The gears were 8 pitch with a pitch diameter of 8.89 centimeters (3.5 in.). Bench-type rolling-element fatigue tests were also conducted with one lot of CVM AISI 9310, three lots of CVM CBS 600, and one of air-melt CBS 600 material. The rolling-element bars were 0.952 centimeter (0.375 in.) in diameter. The CBS 600 material exhibited pitting fatigue lives in both rolling-element specimens and gears at least equivalent to that of CVM AISI 9310. Tooth fracture failure occurred with the CBS 600 gears after overrunning a fatigue spall, but it did not occur with the CVM AISI 9310 gears. Tooth fracture in the CBS 600 was attributed to excessive carbon content in the case, excessive case depth, and a higher than normal core hardness.

  20. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. and Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov., two sexual yeast species associated with insects and rotten wood.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Liu, Si-Tong; Li, Ying; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-09-01

    Seven yeast strains were isolated from the gut of insect larvae and decayed wood, which were collected from three localities near Nanyang, Henan Province, China. These strains were identified as two novel species through comparison of sequences in the D1/D2 domains of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and other taxonomic characteristics. Pichia dushanensis sp. nov. was closely related to species in the Pichia clade and produced one to four spheroid ascospores in a deliquescent ascus. The D1/D2 sequence of P. dushanensis sp. nov. differed from its closest relative, Issatchenkia (Pichia) sp. NRRL Y-12824, by 3.6% sequence divergence (16 substitutions and 4 gaps). The species also differed from its four closest known species, Candida rugopelliculosa, Pichia occidentalis, Pichia exigua and Candida phayaonensis, by 4.1-4.4% sequence divergence (22-24 substitutions and 0-2 gaps) in the D1/D2 sequences. Hyphopichia paragotoi sp. nov. belonged to the Hyphopichia clade, and its nearest phylogenetic neighbours were Candida gotoi, Candida pseudorhagii, Candida rhagii and Hyphopichia heimii with 3.2-4.2% sequence divergence (16-21 substitutions and 1 gap) in the D1/D2 sequences. In comparison with previously established species, H. paragotoi sp. nov. formed one hat-shaped ascospore in a persistent ascus. The type strain of P. dushanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14658(T) ( = CICC 33049(T) = CBS 13912(T)), and the type strain of H. paragotoi sp. nov. is NYNU 14666(T) ( = CICC 33048(T) = CBS 13913(T)). PMID:25999593

  1. Characterization of a S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM)-accumulating strain of Scheffersomyces stipitis.

    PubMed

    Križanović, Stela; Butorac, Ana; Mrvčić, Jasna; Krpan, Maja; Cindrić, Mario; Bačun-Družina, Višnja; Stanzer, Damir

    2015-06-01

    S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) is an important molecule in the cellular metabolism of mammals. In this study, we examined several of the physiological characteristics of a SAM-accumulating strain of the yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis (M12), including SAM production, ergosterol content, and ethanol tolerance. S. stipitis M12 accumulated up to 52.48 mg SAM/g dry cell weight. Proteome analyses showed that the disruption of C-24 methylation in ergosterol biosynthesis, a step mediated by C-24 sterol methyltransferase (Erg6p), results in greater SAM accumulation by S. stipitis M12 compared to the wild-type strain. A comparative proteome-wide analysis identified 25 proteins that were differentially expressed by S. stipitis M12. These proteins are involved in ribosome biogenesis, translation, the stress response, ubiquitin-dependent catabolic processes, the cell cycle, ethanol tolerance, posttranslational modification, peroxisomal membrane stability, epigenetic regulation, the actin cytoskeleton and cell morphology, iron and copper homeostasis, cell signaling, and energy metabolism. PMID:26496619

  2. Evaluation of UV-C mutagenized Scheffersomyces stipitis strains for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated fermentation capabilities of five strains of Scheffersomyces stipitis (WT-2-1, WT-1-11, 14-2-6, 22-1-1, and 22-1-12) that had been produced by UV-C mutagenesis and selection for improved xylose fermentation to ethanol using an integrated automated robotic work cell. They were incubated ...

  3. Scheffersomyces stipitis: a comparative systems biology study with the Crabtree positive yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Scheffersomyces stipitis is a Crabtree negative yeast, commonly known for its capacity to ferment pentose sugars. Differently from Crabtree positive yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the onset of fermentation in S. stipitis is not dependent on the sugar concentration, but is regulated by a decrease in oxygen levels. Even though S. stipitis has been extensively studied due to its potential application in pentoses fermentation, a limited amount of information is available about its metabolism during aerobic growth on glucose. Here, we provide a systems biology based comparison between the two yeasts, uncovering the metabolism of S. stipitis during aerobic growth on glucose under batch and chemostat cultivations. Results Starting from the analysis of physiological data, we confirmed through 13C-based flux analysis the fully respiratory metabolism of S. stipitis when growing both under glucose limited or glucose excess conditions. The patterns observed showed similarity to the fully respiratory metabolism observed for S. cerevisiae under chemostat cultivations however, intracellular metabolome analysis uncovered the presence of several differences in metabolite patterns. To describe gene expression levels under the two conditions, we performed RNA sequencing and the results were used to quantify transcript abundances of genes from the central carbon metabolism and compared with those obtained with S. cerevisiae. Interestingly, genes involved in central pathways showed different patterns of expression, suggesting different regulatory networks between the two yeasts. Efforts were focused on identifying shared and unique families of transcription factors between the two yeasts through in silico transcription factors analysis, suggesting a different regulation of glycolytic and glucoenogenic pathways. Conclusions The work presented addresses the impact of high-throughput methods in describing and comparing the physiology of Crabtree positive and Crabtree

  4. User's manual for CBS3DS, version 1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1995-10-01

    CBS3DS is a computer code written in FORTRAN 77 to compute the backscattering radar cross section of cavity backed apertures in infinite ground plane and slots in thick infinite ground plane. CBS3DS implements the hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM) and Method of Moments (MoM) techniques. This code uses the tetrahedral elements, with vector edge basis functions for FEM in the volume of the cavity/slot and the triangular elements with the basis functions for MoM at the apertures. By virtue of FEM, this code can handle any arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional cavities filled with inhomogeneous lossy materials; due to MoM, the apertures can be of any arbitrary shape. The User's Manual is written to make the user acquainted with the operation of the code. The user is assumed to be familiar with the FORTRAN 77 language and the operating environment of the computer the code is intended to run.

  5. Direct weak localization signature with ultracold atoms: the CBS revival

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josse, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Ultracold atomic systems in presence of disorder have attracted a lot of interest over the past decade, in particular to study the physics of Anderson localization (AL) in a renewed perspective. Landmark experiments have been demonstrated, in 1D and 3D geometries. However many challenges remain and new ideas have emerged, as for instance the search for original signatures of Anderson localization in momentum space. Here I will describe our progresses along that line where a weak localization effect has been directly observed, i.e. the Coherent Backscattering (CBS) phenomenon. In particular I will report on the recent observation of suppression and revival of CBS when a controlled dephasing kick is applied to the system. This observation demonstrates a novel and general method, introduced by T. Micklitz and coworkers, to study probe phase coherence in disordered systems by manipulating time reversal symmetry.

  6. User's manual for CBS3DS, version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1995-01-01

    CBS3DS is a computer code written in FORTRAN 77 to compute the backscattering radar cross section of cavity backed apertures in infinite ground plane and slots in thick infinite ground plane. CBS3DS implements the hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM) and Method of Moments (MoM) techniques. This code uses the tetrahedral elements, with vector edge basis functions for FEM in the volume of the cavity/slot and the triangular elements with the basis functions for MoM at the apertures. By virtue of FEM, this code can handle any arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional cavities filled with inhomogeneous lossy materials; due to MoM, the apertures can be of any arbitrary shape. The User's Manual is written to make the user acquainted with the operation of the code. The user is assumed to be familiar with the FORTRAN 77 language and the operating environment of the computer the code is intended to run.

  7. An efficient extrapolation to the (T)/CBS limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S.; Barnes, Ericka C.

    2014-05-01

    We extrapolate to the perturbative triples (T)/complete basis set (CBS) limit using double ζ basis sets without polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-2ζ or "Wes1T-2Z") and triple ζ basis sets with a single level of polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-3ζ or "Wes1T-3Z"). These basis sets were optimized for 102 species representing the first two rows of the Periodic Table. The species include the entire set of neutral atoms, positive and negative atomic ions, as well as several homonuclear diatomic molecules, hydrides, rare gas dimers, polar molecules, such as oxides and fluorides, and a few transition states. The extrapolated Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples energies agree with (T)/CBS benchmarks to within ±0.65 mEh, while the rms deviations of comparable model chemistries W1, CBS-APNO, and CBS-QB3 for the same test set are ±0.23 mEh, ±2.37 mEh, and ±5.80 mEh, respectively. The Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples calculation time for the largest hydrocarbon in the G2/97 test set, C6H5Me+, is reduced by a factor of 25 when compared to W1. The cost-effectiveness of the Wes1T-(2,3)Z extrapolation validates the usefulness of the Wes1T-2Z and Wes1T-3Z basis sets which are now available for a more efficient extrapolation of the (T) component of any composite model chemistry.

  8. An efficient extrapolation to the (T)/CBS limit

    SciTech Connect

    Ranasinghe, Duminda S.; Barnes, Ericka C.

    2014-05-14

    We extrapolate to the perturbative triples (T)/complete basis set (CBS) limit using double ζ basis sets without polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-2ζ or “Wes1T-2Z”) and triple ζ basis sets with a single level of polarization functions (Wesleyan-1-Triples-3ζ or “Wes1T-3Z”). These basis sets were optimized for 102 species representing the first two rows of the Periodic Table. The species include the entire set of neutral atoms, positive and negative atomic ions, as well as several homonuclear diatomic molecules, hydrides, rare gas dimers, polar molecules, such as oxides and fluorides, and a few transition states. The extrapolated Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples energies agree with (T)/CBS benchmarks to within ±0.65 mE{sub h}, while the rms deviations of comparable model chemistries W1, CBS-APNO, and CBS-QB3 for the same test set are ±0.23 mE{sub h}, ±2.37 mE{sub h}, and ±5.80 mE{sub h}, respectively. The Wes1T-(2,3)Z triples calculation time for the largest hydrocarbon in the G2/97 test set, C{sub 6}H{sub 5}Me{sup +}, is reduced by a factor of 25 when compared to W1. The cost-effectiveness of the Wes1T-(2,3)Z extrapolation validates the usefulness of the Wes1T-2Z and Wes1T-3Z basis sets which are now available for a more efficient extrapolation of the (T) component of any composite model chemistry.

  9. The CBS domain: a protein module with an emerging prominent role in regulation.

    PubMed

    Baykov, Alexander A; Tuominen, Heidi K; Lahti, Reijo

    2011-11-18

    Regulatory CBS (cystathionine β-synthase) domains exist as two or four tandem copies in thousands of cytosolic and membrane-associated proteins from all kingdoms of life. Mutations in the CBS domains of human enzymes and membrane channels are associated with an array of hereditary diseases. Four CBS domains encoded within a single polypeptide or two identical polypeptides (each having a pair of CBS domains at the subunit interface) form a highly conserved disk-like structure. CBS domains act as autoinhibitory regulatory units in some proteins and activate or further inhibit protein function upon binding to adenosine nucleotides (AMP, ADP, ATP, S-adenosyl methionine, NAD, diadenosine polyphosphates). As a result of the differential effects of the nucleotides, CBS domain-containing proteins can sense cell energy levels. Significant conformational changes are induced in CBS domains by bound ligands, highlighting the structural basis for their effects. PMID:21958115

  10. Bioethanol production from mixed sugars by Scheffersomyces stipitis free and immobilized cells, and co-cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    De Bari, Isabella; De Canio, Paola; Cuna, Daniela; Liuzzi, Federico; Capece, Angela; Romano, Patrizia

    2013-09-25

    Bioethanol can be produced from several biomasses including lignocellulosic materials. Besides 6-carbon sugars that represent the prevalent carbohydrates, some of these feedstocks contain significant amounts of 5-carbon sugars. One common limit of the major part of the xylose-fermenting yeasts is the diauxic shift between the uptake of glucose and xylose during the fermentation of mixed syrups. Thus, optimized fermentation strategies are required. In this paper the ability of Scheffersomyces stipitis strain NRRLY-11544 to ferment mixed syrups with a total sugar concentration in the range 40-80 g/L was investigated by using mono cultures, co-cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Bakers Yeast Type II and single cultures immobilized in silica-hydrogel films. The experimental design for the fermentations with immobilized cells included the process analysis in function of two parameters: the fraction of the gel in the broth and the concentration of the cells loaded in the gel. Furthermore, for each total sugars level, the fermentative course of S. stipitis was analyzed at several glucose-to xylose ratios. The results indicated that the use of S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae in free co-cultures ensured faster processes than single cultures of S. stipitis either free or immobilized. However, the rapid production of ethanol by S. cerevisiae inhibited S. stipitis and caused a stuck of the process. Immobilization of S. stipitis in silica-hydrogel increased the relative consumption rate of xylose-to-glucose by 2-6 times depending on the composition of the fermentation medium. Furthermore the films performances appeared stable over three weeks of continuous operations. However, on the whole, the final process yields obtained with the immobilized cells were not meaningfully different from that of the free cells. This was probably due to concurrent fermentations operated by the cells released in the broth. Optimization of the carrier characteristics could improve the

  11. Occurrence and diversity of Pichia spp. in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Chi, Zhenming; Wang, Xianghong; Wang, Lin; Sheng, Jun; Gong, Fang

    2008-08-01

    A total of 328 yeast strains from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, the guts of marine fish and marine algae were obtained. The results of routine identification and molecular methods show that five yeast strains obtained in this study belonged to Pichia spp., including Pichia guilliermondii 1uv-small, Pichia ohmeri YF04d, Pichia fermentans YF12b, Pichia burtonii YF11A and Pichia anomala YF07b. Further studies revealed that Pichia anomala YF07b could produce killer toxin against pathogenic yeasts in crabs while Pichia guilliermondii 1uv-small could produce high activity of extracellular inulinase. It is advisable to test if Pichia ohmeri YF04d obtained in this study is related to central-venous-catheter-associated infection.

  12. Superoxide dismutase during glucose repression of Hansenula polymorpha CBS 4732.

    PubMed

    Hristozova, Tsonka; Rasheva, Tanya; Nedeva, Trayana; Kujumdzieva, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Hansenula polymorpha CBS 4732 was studied during cultivation on methanol and different glucose concentrations. Activities of Cu/Zn and Mn superoxide dismutase, catalase and methanol oxidase were investigated. During cultivation on methanol, increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and an induced methanol oxidase were achieved. Transfer of a methanol grown culture to medium with a high glucose concentration caused growth inhibition, low consumption of carbon, nitrogen and phosphate substrates, methanol oxidase inactivation as well as decrease of catalase activity (21.8 +/- 0.61 deltaE240 x min(-1) x mg protein(-1)). At the same time, a high value for superoxide dismutase enzyme was found (42.9 +/- 0.98 U x mg protein(-1), 25% of which was represented by Mn superoxide dismutase and 75% - by the Cu/Zn type). During derepression methanol oxidase was negligible (0.005 +/- 0.0001 U x mg protein(-1)), catalase tended to be the same as in the repressed culture, while superoxide dismutase activity increased considerably (63.67 +/- 1.72 U x mg protein(-1), 69% belonging to the Cu/Zn containing enzyme). Apparently, the cycle of growth inhibition and reactivation of Hansenula polymorpha CBS 4732 cells is strongly connected with the activity of the enzyme superoxide dismutase. PMID:12064733

  13. Betaine supplementation is less effective than methionine restriction in correcting phenotypes of CBS deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sapna; Wang, Liqun; Kruger, Warren D

    2016-01-01

    Cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) deficiency is a recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by elevated serum total homocysteine (tHcy). Betaine supplementation, which can lower tHcy by stimulating homocysteine remethylation to methionine, is often given to CBS deficient patients in combination with other treatments such as methionine restriction and supplemental B-vitamins. However, the effectiveness of betaine supplementation by itself in the treatment of CBS deficiency has not been well explored. Here, we have examined the effect of a betaine supplemented diet on the Tg-I278T Cbs (-/-) mouse model of CBS deficiency and compared its effectiveness to our previously published data using a methionine restricted diet. Tg-I278T Cbs (-/-) mice on betaine, from the time of weaning until for 240 days of age, had a 40 % decrease in mean tHcy level and a 137 % increase in serum methionine levels. Betaine-treated Tg-I278T Cbs (-/-) mice also exhibited increased levels of betaine-dependent homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), increased levels of the lipogenic enzyme stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase (SCD-1), and increased lipid droplet accumulation in the liver. Betaine supplementation largely reversed the hair loss phenotype in Tg-I278T Cbs (-/-) animals, but was far less effective than methionine restriction in reversing the weight-loss, fat-loss, and osteoporosis phenotypes. Surprisingly, betaine supplementation had several negative effects in control Tg-I278T Cbs (+/-) mice including decreased weight gain, lean mass, and bone mineral density. Our findings indicate that while betaine supplementation does have some beneficial effects, it is not as effective as methionine restriction for reversing the phenotypes associated with severe CBS deficiency in mice. PMID:26231230

  14. The Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S): A psychometric evaluation of the Swedish version.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, A; Lundqvist, C

    2016-01-01

    The present study validated a Swedish version of the 47-item Coaching Behavior Scale for Sport (CBS-S). Sample 1 consisted of 506 team sport athletes [262 men and 244 women; mean age: 22.20, standard deviation (SD) = 3.90] distributed across 41 coaches at the two highest national levels of various sports. Athletes completed the CBS-S and established questionnaires of coaching behaviors (LSS), self-confidence (CSAI-2R), and coach-athlete relationship (CART-Q). An additional sample of 39 basketball players (21 men and 18 women; mean age = 17.40, SD = 2.39) completed the CBS-S twice, approximately 4 weeks apart. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an acceptable model fit for the seven-factor version of the CBS-S, although two items of the negative personal rapport subscale displayed insufficient factor loadings. Correlations between the subscales of the CBS-S and established instruments were in accordance with theoretical expectations, supporting the concurrent validity. Cronbach's alpha (> 0.82) for all dimensions provided support for the reliability of the CBS-S, and test-retest correlations indicated moderate stability over time. Cultural differences in the assessment of coaching behaviors and the usability of the CBS-S by coaches for self-reflection and development are discussed. PMID:25440429

  15. Impact of culture nutrition on inhibitor tolerance and the conversion of high xylose concentrations to ethanol by Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient fermentation processes to produce ethanol from low-cost lignocellulosic biomass are sought to support the expansion of the biofuels industry. Stress-tolerant microorganisms are needed that are able to consume both hexose and pentose sugars and withstand, survive, and function in the prese...

  16. Impact of culture nutrition on tolerance of furan inhibitors and the conversion of high xylose concentrations to ethanol by Pichia stipitis NRRL Y-7124

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient fermentation processes to produce ethanol from both the hexose and pentose sugars available in low-cost lignocellulosic biomass are sought to support the expansion of the biofuels industry. Such an expansion is expected to strengthen our nation by lessening dependence on foreign sources o...

  17. Cystathionine Beta-Synthase (CBS) Contributes to Advanced Ovarian Cancer Progression and Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Giri, Karuna; Lanza, Ian R.; Nair, K. Sreekumar; Jennings, Nicholas B.; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Basal, Eati; Weaver, Amy L.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Cliby, William; Sood, Anil K.; Bhattacharya, Resham; Mukherjee, Priyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Background Epithelial ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer deaths. Most patients respond initially to platinum-based chemotherapy after surgical debulking, however relapse is very common and ultimately platinum resistance emerges. Understanding the mechanism of tumor growth, metastasis and drug resistant relapse will profoundly impact the therapeutic management of ovarian cancer. Methods/Principal Findings Using patient tissue microarray (TMA), in vitro and in vivo studies we report a role of of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS), a sulfur metabolism enzyme in ovarian carcinoma. We report here that the expression of cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS), a sulfur metabolism enzyme, is common in primary serous ovarian carcinoma. The in vitro effects of CBS silencing can be reversed by exogenous supplementation with the GSH and H2S producing chemical Na2S. Silencing CBS in a cisplatin resistant orthotopic model in vivo by nanoliposomal delivery of CBS siRNA inhibits tumor growth, reduces nodule formation and sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin. The effects were further corroborated by immunohistochemistry that demonstrates a reduction of H&E, Ki-67 and CD31 positive cells in si-RNA treated as compared to scrambled-RNA treated animals. Furthermore, CBS also regulates bioenergetics of ovarian cancer cells by regulating mitochondrial ROS production, oxygen consumption and ATP generation. This study reports an important role of CBS in promoting ovarian tumor growth and maintaining drug resistant phenotype by controlling cellular redox behavior and regulating mitochondrial bioenergetics. Conclusion The present investigation highlights CBS as a potential therapeutic target in relapsed and platinum resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:24236104

  18. Serotonin and Dopamine Protect from Hypothermia/Rewarming Damage through the CBS/ H2S Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Bouma, Hjalmar R.; Van der Graaf, Adrianus C.; Strijkstra, Arjen M.; Schmidt, Martina; Henning, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptotic cell death. Herein we show for the first time that serotonin and dopamine increase H2S production by the endogenous enzyme cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and apoptosis. Treatment with both compounds doubled CBS expression through mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and increased H2S production in cultured rat smooth muscle cells. In addition, serotonin and dopamine treatment significantly reduced ROS formation. The beneficial effect of both compounds was minimized by inhibition of their re-uptake and by pharmacological inhibition of CBS or its down-regulation by siRNA. Exogenous administration of H2S and activation of CBS by Prydoxal 5′-phosphate also protected cells from hypothermic damage. Finally, serotonin and dopamine pretreatment of rat lung, kidney, liver and heart prior to 24 h of hypothermia at 3°C followed by 30 min of rewarming at 37°C upregulated the expression of CBS, strongly reduced caspase activity and maintained the physiological pH compared to untreated tissues. Thus, dopamine and serotonin protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced damage by increasing H2S production mediated through CBS. Our data identify a novel molecular link between biogenic amines and the H2S pathway, which may profoundly affect our understanding of the biological effects of monoamine neurotransmitters. PMID:21829469

  19. A thermophilic endo-1,4-β-glucanase from Talaromyces emersonii CBS394.64 with broad substrate specificity and great application potentials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kun; Luo, Huiying; Bai, Yingguo; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Xue, Xianli; Yao, Bin

    2014-08-01

    Thermophilic cellulases are of significant interest to the efficient conversion of plant cell wall polysaccharides into simple sugars. In this study, a thermophilic and thermostable endo-1,4-β-glucanase, TeEgl5A, was identified in the thermophilic fungus Talaromyces emersonii CBS394.64 and functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified recombinant TeEgl5A exhibits optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 90 °C. It is highly stable at 70 °C and over a broad pH range of 1.0-10.0, and shows strong resistance to most metal ions, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and proteases. TeEgl5A has broad substrate specificity and exhibits high activity on substrates containing β-1,4-glycosidic bonds and β-1,3-glycosidic bonds (barley β-glucan, laminarin, lichenan, CMC-Na, carob bean gum, and birchwood xylan). Under simulated mashing conditions, addition of 60 U TeEgl5A reduced more viscosity (10.0 vs.7.6 %) than 80 U of Ultraflo XL from Novozymes. These properties make TeEgl5A a good candidate for extensive application in the detergent, textile, feed, and food industries. PMID:24668246

  20. Biochemical characterization of an acidophilic β-mannanase from Gloeophyllum trabeum CBS900.73 with significant transglycosylation activity and feed digesting ability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caihong; Zhang, Jiankang; Wang, Yuan; Niu, Canfang; Ma, Rui; Wang, Yaru; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Yao, Bin

    2016-04-15

    Acidophilic β-mannanases have been attracting much attention due to their excellent activity under extreme acidic conditions and significant industrial applications. In this study, a β-mannanase gene of glycoside hydrolase family 5, man5A, was cloned from Gloeophyllum trabeum CBS900.73, and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. Purified recombinant Man5A was acidophilic with a pH optimum of 2.5 and exhibited great pH adaptability and stability (>80% activity over pH 2.0-6.0 and pH 2.0-10.0, respectively). It had a high specific activity (1356 U/mg) against locust bean gum, was able to degrade galactomannan and glucomannan in a classical four-site binding mode, and catalyzed the transglycosylation of mannotetrose to mannooligosaccharides with higher degree of polymerization. Besides, it had great resistance to pepsin and trypsin and digested corn-soybean meal based diet in a comparable way with a commercial β-mannanase under the simulated gastrointestinal conditions of pigs. This acidophilic β-mannanase represents a valuable candidate for wide use in various industries, especially in the feed. PMID:26616977

  1. Hemicellulosic ethanol production by immobilized cells of Scheffersomyces stipitis: Effect of cell concentration and stirring

    PubMed Central

    Milessi, Thais S S; Antunes, Felipe A F; Chandel, Anuj K; da Silva, Silvio S

    2015-01-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulosic hydrolysate into ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. For the efficient fermentative conversion of hemicellulosic hydrolysates into ethanol, the use of immobilized cells system could provide the enhanced ethanol productivities with significant time savings. Here, we investigated the effect of 2 important factors (e.g., cell concentration and stirring) on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using the yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis immobilized in calcium alginate matrix. A 22 full factorial design of experiment was performed considering the process variables- immobilized cell concentration (3.0, 6.5 and 10.0 g/L) and stirring (100, 200 and 300 rpm). Statistical analysis showed that stirring has the major influence on ethanol production. Maximum ethanol production (8.90 g/l) with ethanol yield (Yp/s) of 0.33 g/g and ethanol productivity (Qp) of 0.185 g/l/h was obtained under the optimized process conditions (10.0 g/L of cells and 100 rpm). PMID:25488725

  2. Deletion of hxk1 gene results in derepression of xylose utilization in Scheffersomyces stipitis.

    PubMed

    Dashtban, Mehdi; Wen, Xin; Bajwa, Paramjit K; Ho, Chi-Yip; Lee, Hung

    2015-06-01

    A major problem in fermenting xylose in lignocellulosic substrates is the presence of glucose and mannose which inhibit xylose utilization. Previous studies showed that catabolite repression in some yeasts is associated with hexokinases and that deletion of one of these gene(s) could result in derepressed mutant strain(s). In this study, the hxk1 encoding hexokinase 1 in Scheffersomyces stipitis was disrupted. The ∆hxk1 SS6 strain retained the ability to utilize the main hexoses and pentoses commonly found in lignocellulosic hydrolysates as efficiently as the wild-type (WT) strain. SS6 also fermented the dominant sugars to ethanol; however, on xylose, the ∆hxk1 strain produced more xylitol and less ethanol than the WT. On mixed sugars, as expected the WT utilized glucose ahead of xylose and xylose utilization did not commence until all the glucose was consumed. In contrast, the ∆hxk1 mutant showed derepression in that it started to utilize xylose even when considerable glucose (about 1.72%, w/v) remained in the medium. Similarly, mannose did not repress xylose utilization by the ∆hxk1 mutant and xylose and mannose were simultaneously utilized. The results are of interest in efforts to engineer yeast strains capable of efficiently utilizing glucose and xylose simultaneously for lignocellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:25845305

  3. Alcohol dehydrogenases from Scheffersomyces stipitis involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Menggen; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhao, Xianxian

    2013-09-01

    Aldehyde inhibitors such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are generated from biomass pretreatment. Scheffersomyces stipitis is able to reduce furfural and HMF to less toxic furanmethanol and furan-2,5-dimethanol; however, the enzymes involved in the reductive reaction still remain unknown. In this study, transcription responses of two known and five putative alcohol dehydrogenase genes from S. stipitis were analyzed under furfural and HMF stress conditions. All the seven alcohol dehydrogenase genes were also cloned and overexpressed for their activity analyses. Our results indicate that transcriptions of SsADH4 and SsADH6 were highly induced under furfural and HMF stress conditions, and the proteins encoded by them exhibited NADH- and/or NADPH-dependent activities for furfural and HMF reduction, respectively. For furfural reduction, NADH-dependent activity was also observed in SsAdh1p and NAD(P)H-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. For HMF reduction, NADPH-dependent activities were also observed in SsAdh5p and SsAdh7p. SsAdh4p displayed the highest NADPH-dependent specific activity and catalytic efficiency for reduction of both furfural and HMF among the seven alcohol dehydrogenases. Enzyme activities of all SsADH proteins were more stable under acidic condition. For most SsADH proteins, the optimum temperature for enzyme activities was 30 °C and more than 50 % enzyme activities remained at 60 °C. Reduction activities of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, benzaldehyde, and phenylacetaldehyde were also observed in some SsADH proteins. Our results indicate that multiple alcohol dehydrogenases in S. stipitis are involved in the detoxification of aldehyde inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass conversion. PMID:23912116

  4. Endogenous CBS-H2S Pathway Contributes to the Development of CCI-Induced Neuropathic Pain.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yulong; Li, Aiyuan; Qiu, Bihui; Chen, Feng; Chen, Liang; Liu, Daming; Chen, Shuxian; Zhou, Wei; Zhou, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Studies showed a complex relationship between hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and neuropathic pain. In this study, the relationship between endogenous CBS-H2S pathway in L4-6 spinal cord and neuropathic pain was explored. A total of 163 adult Kunming mice were used in this study. CBS expression and H2S formation in L4-6 spinal cord were detected in the development of neuropathic pain firstly. Then, effect of AOAA, an CBS inhibitor, on treatment of neuropathic pain by chronic construction injury surgery (CCI) was detected. Pain thresholds and activation of NF-κB(p65), ERK1/2 and CREB were measured as biomarks of neuropathic pain. Results showed that CCI surgery significantly upregulated protein expression of CBS and H2S formation. Correlation analysis showed pain thresholds had negative relationships with protein expression of CBS and H2S formation. Treatment with AOAA, a CBS inhibitor, inhibited CCI-induced upregulation of CBS expression and H2S formation (P < 0.05). Further, AOAA significantly decreased activation of NF-κB(p65), ERK1/2 and CREB pathway, and reversed CCI-induced allodynia (P < 0.05). This indicated that CBS-H2S pathway promoted the development of neuropathic pain. CBS-H2S pathway could be a promising target for treatment of neuropathic pain. PMID:26961888

  5. Bioethanol production by recycled Scheffersomyces stipitis in sequential batch fermentations with high cell density using xylose and glucose mixture.

    PubMed

    Santos, Samantha Christine; de Sousa, Amanda Silva; Dionísio, Suzane Rodrigues; Tramontina, Robson; Ruller, Roberto; Squina, Fabio Márcio; Vaz Rossell, Carlos Eduardo; da Costa, Aline Carvalho; Ienczak, Jaciane Lutz

    2016-11-01

    Here, it is shown three-step investigative procedures aiming to improve pentose-rich fermentations performance, involving a simple system for elevated mass production by Scheffersomyces stipitis (I), cellular recycle batch fermentations (CRBFs) at high cell density using two temperature strategies (fixed at 30°C; decreasing from 30 to 26°C) (II), and a short-term adaptation action seeking to acclimatize the microorganism in xylose rich-media (III). Cellular propagation provided 0.52gdrycellweightgRS(-1), resulting in an expressive value of 45.9gdrycellweightL(-1). The yeast robustness in CRBF was proven by effective ethanol production, reaching high xylose consumption (81%) and EtOH productivity (1.53gL(-1)h(-1)). Regarding the short-term adaptation, S. stipitis strengthened its robustness, as shown by a 6-fold increase in xylose reductase (XR) activity. The short fermentation time (20h for each batch) and the fermentation kinetics for ethanol production from xylose are quite promising. PMID:27498013

  6. Identification and Comparative Analysis of CBS Domain-Containing Proteins in Soybean (Glycine max) and the Primary Function of GmCBS21 in Enhanced Tolerance to Low Nitrogen Stress.

    PubMed

    Hao, Qingnan; Shang, Weijuan; Zhang, Chanjuan; Chen, Haifeng; Chen, Limiao; Yuan, Songli; Chen, Shuilian; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Xinan

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important macronutrient required for plant growth, and is a limiting factor for crop productivity. Improving the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is therefore crucial. At present, the NUE mechanism is unclear and information on the genes associated with NUE in soybeans is lacking. cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) domain-containing proteins (CDCPs) may be implicated in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. We identified and classified a CBS domain-containing protein superfamily in soybean. A candidate gene for NUE, GmCBS21, was identified. GmCBS21 gene characteristics, the temporal expression pattern of the GmCBS21 gene, and the phenotype of GmCBS21 overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana under low nitrogen stress were analyzed. The phenotypes suggested that the transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings performed better under the nitrogen-deficient condition. GmCBS21-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibit higher low nitrogen stress tolerance than WT plants, and this suggests its role in low nitrogen stress tolerance in plants. We conclude that GmCBS21 may serve as an excellent candidate for breeding crops with enhanced NUE and better yield. PMID:27128900

  7. Identification and Comparative Analysis of CBS Domain-Containing Proteins in Soybean (Glycine max) and the Primary Function of GmCBS21 in Enhanced Tolerance to Low Nitrogen Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Qingnan; Shang, Weijuan; Zhang, Chanjuan; Chen, Haifeng; Chen, Limiao; Yuan, Songli; Chen, Shuilian; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Zhou, Xinan

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important macronutrient required for plant growth, and is a limiting factor for crop productivity. Improving the nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is therefore crucial. At present, the NUE mechanism is unclear and information on the genes associated with NUE in soybeans is lacking. cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) domain-containing proteins (CDCPs) may be implicated in abiotic stress tolerance in plants. We identified and classified a CBS domain–containing protein superfamily in soybean. A candidate gene for NUE, GmCBS21, was identified. GmCBS21 gene characteristics, the temporal expression pattern of the GmCBS21 gene, and the phenotype of GmCBS21 overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana under low nitrogen stress were analyzed. The phenotypes suggested that the transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings performed better under the nitrogen-deficient condition. GmCBS21-overexpressing transgenic plants exhibit higher low nitrogen stress tolerance than WT plants, and this suggests its role in low nitrogen stress tolerance in plants. We conclude that GmCBS21 may serve as an excellent candidate for breeding crops with enhanced NUE and better yield. PMID:27128900

  8. Genome-Scale NAD(H/+) Availability Patterns as a Differentiating Feature between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Scheffersomyces stipitis in Relation to Fermentative Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, Alejandro; Aroca, German; Conejeros, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Scheffersomyces stipitis is a yeast able to ferment pentoses to ethanol, unlike Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it does not present the so-called overflow phenomenon. Metabolic features characterizing the presence or not of this phenomenon have not been fully elucidated. This work proposes that genome-scale metabolic response to variations in NAD(H/+) availability characterizes fermentative behavior in both yeasts. Thus, differentiating features in S. stipitis and S. cerevisiae were determined analyzing growth sensitivity response to changes in available reducing capacity in relation to ethanol production capacity and overall metabolic flux span. Using genome-scale constraint-based metabolic models, phenotypic phase planes and shadow price analyses, an excess of available reducing capacity for growth was found in S. cerevisiae at every metabolic phenotype where growth is limited by oxygen uptake, while in S. stipitis this was observed only for a subset of those phenotypes. Moreover, by using flux variability analysis, an increased metabolic flux span was found in S. cerevisiae at growth limited by oxygen uptake, while in S. stipitis flux span was invariant. Therefore, each yeast can be characterized by a significantly different metabolic response and flux span when growth is limited by oxygen uptake, both features suggesting a higher metabolic flexibility in S. cerevisiae. By applying an optimization-based approach on the genome-scale models, three single reaction deletions were found to generate in S. stipitis the reducing capacity availability pattern found in S. cerevisiae, two of them correspond to reactions involved in the overflow phenomenon. These results show a close relationship between the growth sensitivity response given by the metabolic network and fermentative behavior. PMID:24489927

  9. Cloning of Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 genes specifying dehalogenation of 4-chlorobenzoate

    SciTech Connect

    Savard, P.; Peloquin, L.; Sylvestre, M.

    1986-10-01

    Halogenated benzoates have been used as models for the study of the biodegradation of herbicides and PCBs. The degradation of 4-chlorobenzoate (4-CBA) by Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 is thought to proceed first by the dehalogenation of 4-CBA to 4-hydroxybenzoate (4-HBA), which is then metabolized following the protocatechuate branch of the ..beta..-ketoadipate pathway. The cloning of the 4-CBA dehalogenation system was carried out by constructing a gene bank of Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 in Pseudomonas putida. Hybrid plasmid pPSA843 contains a 9.5-kilobase-pair fragment derived from the chromosome of Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3. This plasmid confers on P. putida the ability to dehalogenate 4-CBA and grow on 4-CBA as the only source of carbon. However, pPSA843 did not complement mutants of P. putida unable to grow on 4-HBA (POB/sup -/), showing that the genes involved in the metabolism of 4-HBA were not cloned. Subcloning of Pseudomonas sp. strain CBS3 genes revealed that most of the insert is required for the dehalogenation of 4-CBA, suggesting that more than one gene product is involved in this dehalogenation.

  10. A convenient enantioselective CBS-reduction of arylketones in flow-microreactor systems.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Sonia; De Renzo, Maddalena; Carlucci, Claudia; Degennaro, Leonardo; Luisi, Renzo

    2016-05-01

    A convenient, versatile, and green CBS-asymmetric reduction of aryl and heteroaryl ketones has been developed by using the microreactor technology. The study demonstrates that it is possible to handle borane solution safely within microreactors and that the reaction performs well using 2-MeTHF as a greener solvent. PMID:27086654

  11. Draft Genome Sequence of the Animal and Human Pathogen Malassezia pachydermatis Strain CBS 1879

    PubMed Central

    Triana, Sergio; González, Andrés; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A. B.; de Cock, Hans; Restrepo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes infections in humans and animals. Here, we report the genome sequence of Malassezia pachydermatis strain CBS 1879, which will facilitate the study of mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of the only non-lipid-dependent Malasezzia species. PMID:26472839

  12. Draft Genome of Debaryomyces fabryi CBS 789T, Isolated from a Human Interdigital Mycotic Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The yeast genus Debaryomyces comprises species isolated from various natural habitats, man-made environments, and clinical materials. Here, the draft genome of D. fabryi CBS 789T, isolated from a human interdigital mycotic lesion, is presented. PMID:26847909

  13. Draft Genome of Debaryomyces fabryi CBS 789T, Isolated from a Human Interdigital Mycotic Lesion.

    PubMed

    Tafer, Hakim; Sterflinger, Katja; Lopandic, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    The yeast genus Debaryomyces comprises species isolated from various natural habitats, man-made environments, and clinical materials. Here, the draft genome of D. fabryi CBS 789(T), isolated from a human interdigital mycotic lesion, is presented. PMID:26847909

  14. Hansenula polymorpha (Pichia angusta): Biology and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunze, Gotthard; Kang, Hyun Ah; Gellissen, Gerd

    Hansenula polymorpha (Pichia angusta) belongs to a limited number of methylotrophic yeast species. It is able to assimilate nitrate and can grow on a range of carbon sources. Furthermore, H. polymorpha is a thermo-tolerant microorganism with some strains growing at temperatures up to 50° C and more. These unusual characteristics render H. polymorpha attractive as a model organism to study the development and functions of peroxisomes and the biochemistry of nitrate assimilation. H. polymorpha provides an established platform for heterologous gene expression and is distinguished by an impressive track record as producer of recom-binant proteins that include commercially available pharmaceuticals like hepatitis B vaccine, insulin and the IFN α-2a

  15. CCSD(T)/CBS fragment-based calculations of lattice energy of molecular crystals.

    PubMed

    Červinka, Ctirad; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, Květoslav

    2016-02-14

    A comparative study of the lattice energy calculations for a data set of 25 molecular crystals is performed using an additive scheme based on the individual energies of up to four-body interactions calculated using the coupled clusters with iterative treatment of single and double excitations and perturbative triples correction (CCSD(T)) with an estimated complete basis set (CBS) description. The CCSD(T)/CBS values on lattice energies are used to estimate sublimation enthalpies which are compared with critically assessed and thermodynamically consistent experimental values. The average absolute percentage deviation of calculated sublimation enthalpies from experimental values amounts to 13% (corresponding to 4.8 kJ mol(-1) on absolute scale) with unbiased distribution of positive to negative deviations. As pair interaction energies present a dominant contribution to the lattice energy and CCSD(T)/CBS calculations still remain computationally costly, benchmark calculations of pair interaction energies defined by crystal parameters involving 17 levels of theory, including recently developed methods with local and explicit treatment of electronic correlation, such as LCC and LCC-F12, are also presented. Locally and explicitly correlated methods are found to be computationally effective and reliable methods enabling the application of fragment-based methods for larger systems. PMID:26874495

  16. CCSD(T)/CBS fragment-based calculations of lattice energy of molecular crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Červinka, Ctirad; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, Květoslav

    2016-02-01

    A comparative study of the lattice energy calculations for a data set of 25 molecular crystals is performed using an additive scheme based on the individual energies of up to four-body interactions calculated using the coupled clusters with iterative treatment of single and double excitations and perturbative triples correction (CCSD(T)) with an estimated complete basis set (CBS) description. The CCSD(T)/CBS values on lattice energies are used to estimate sublimation enthalpies which are compared with critically assessed and thermodynamically consistent experimental values. The average absolute percentage deviation of calculated sublimation enthalpies from experimental values amounts to 13% (corresponding to 4.8 kJ mol-1 on absolute scale) with unbiased distribution of positive to negative deviations. As pair interaction energies present a dominant contribution to the lattice energy and CCSD(T)/CBS calculations still remain computationally costly, benchmark calculations of pair interaction energies defined by crystal parameters involving 17 levels of theory, including recently developed methods with local and explicit treatment of electronic correlation, such as LCC and LCC-F12, are also presented. Locally and explicitly correlated methods are found to be computationally effective and reliable methods enabling the application of fragment-based methods for larger systems.

  17. CO-CBS-H2 S Axis: From Vascular Mediator to Cancer Regulator.

    PubMed

    Suematsu, Makoto; Nakamura, Takashi; Tokumoto, Yasuhito; Yamamoto, Takehiro; Kajimura, Mayumi; Kabe, Yasuaki

    2016-04-01

    CO is a gaseous mediator generated by HO. Our previous studies revealed that CO generated from inducible HO-1 or from constitutive HO-2 modulates function of different heme proteins or enzymes through binding to their prosthetic ferrous heme to alter their structures, regulating biological function of cells and organs. Such CO-directed target macromolecules include sGC and CBS. In the liver, CO serves as a sinusoidal dilator through its action on sGC in hepatic stellate cells, while the same gas accounts for vasoconstrictor that inhibits H2 S generated by CO-sensitive CBS in astrocytes. Since molecular O2 is a substrate for HO, the latter mechanism contributes to hypoxic vasodilation in neurovascular units. We have recently uncovered that stress-inducible CO in and around cancer cells suppresses CBS to result in decreased methylation of PFKFB3, the enzyme regulating PFK-1, leading to a shift of glucose biotransformation from glycolysis toward pentose phosphate pathway; such a metabolic remodeling causes chemoresistance through increasing NADPH and reduced glutathione under stress conditions for cancer cells. This article reviews the intriguing networks of CO-sensitive metabolic regulatory mechanisms in microcirculation and cancer. PMID:26537442

  18. Isolation and properties of genetically defined strains of the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha CBS4732.

    PubMed

    Lahtchev, Kantcho L; Semenova, Vika D; Tolstorukov, Ilia I; van der Klei, Ida; Veenhuis, Marten

    2002-02-01

    Genetically defined strains of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha were constructed from a clone of H. polymorpha CBS4732 with very low mating and sporulation abilities. Mating, spore viability, and the percentage of four-spore-containing asci were increased to a level at which tetrad analysis was possible. Auxotrophic mutations in 30 genes were isolated and used to construct strains with multiple markers for mapping studies, transformation with plasmid DNA, and mutant screening. Various other types of mutants were isolated and characterized, among them mutants that displayed an altered morphology, methanol-utilization deficient mutants and strains impaired in the biosynthesis of alcohol oxidase and catalase. Also, the mutability of H. polymorpha CBS4732 vs H. polymorpha NCYC495 was compared. The data revealed clear differences in frequencies of appearance and mutational spectra of some mutants isolated. Many of the mutants isolated had good mating abilities, and diploids resulting from their crossing displayed high sporulation frequencies and high spore viability. Most of the markers used revealed normal Mendelian segregation during meiosis. The frequency of tetratype spore formation was lower than in Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggesting a lower frequency of recombination during the second meiotic division. The properties of genetically defined strains of H. polymorpha CBS4732 as well as their advantages for genetics and molecular studies are discussed. PMID:11807564

  19. In vivo unnatural amino acid expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Travis; Schultz, Peter G

    2014-02-11

    The invention provides orthogonal translation systems for the production of polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris. Methods for producing polypeptides comprising unnatural amino acids in methyltrophic yeast such as Pichia pastoris are also provided.

  20. centrosomin's beautiful sister (cbs) encodes a GRIP-domain protein that marks Golgi inheritance and functions in the centrosome cycle in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Eisman, Robert C; Stewart, Natasha; Miller, David; Kaufman, Thomas C

    2006-08-15

    The mechanism of inheritance of the Golgi complex is an important problem in cell biology. In this study, we examine the localization and function of a Golgi protein encoded by centrosomin's beautiful sister (cbs) during cleavage in Drosophila melanogaster. Cbs contains a GRIP domain that is 57% identical to vertebrate Golgin-97. Cbs undergoes a dramatic relocalization during mitosis from the cytoplasm to an association with chromosomes from late prometaphase to early telophase, by a transport mechanism that requires the GRIP domain and Arl1, the product of the Arf72A locus. Additionally, Cbs remains independent of the endoplasmic reticulum throughout cleavage. The use of RNAi, Arf72A mutant analysis and ectopic expression of the GRIP domain, shows that cycling of Cbs during mitosis is required for the centrosome cycle. The effects on the centrosome cycle depend on Cbs concentration and Cbs transport from the cytoplasm to DNA. When Cbs levels are reduced centrosomes fail to mature, and when Cbs transport is impeded by ectopic expression of the GRIP domain, centrosomes undergo hypertrophy. We propose that, Cbs is a trans-Golgi protein that links Golgi inheritance to the cell cycle and the Drosophila Golgi is more vertebrate-like than previously recognized. PMID:16882688

  1. The association between the 844ins68 polymorphism in the CBS gene and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Figuera-Villanueva, Luis Eduardo; Ramos-Silva, Adriana; Salas-González, Efraín; Puebla-Pérez, Ana María; Peralta-Leal, Valeria; García-Ortiz, José Elías; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid Patricia; Zúñiga-González, Guillermo Moisés

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) gene plays an important role in homocysteine metabolism because it catalyzes the first step of the transsulfuration pathway, during which homocysteine is converted to cystathionine. Polymorphisms of CBS have been associated with cancer. Material and methods We examined the role of the 844ins68 polymorphism by comparing the genotypes of 371 healthy Mexican women with the genotypes of 323 Mexican women with breast cancer (BC). Results The observed genotype frequencies for controls and BC patients were 1% and 2% for Ins/Ins, 13% and 26% for W/Ins, and 86% and 72% for W/W, respectively. We found that the odds ratio (OR) was 2.2, with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of 1.5–3.3, p = 0.0001. The association was also evident when comparing the distribution of the W/Ins-Ins/Ins genotypes in patients in the following categories: 1) menopause and high γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels (OR of 2.17, 95% CI: 1.17–4.26, p = 0.02), 2) chemotherapy response and high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (OR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.08–4.4, p = 0.027), 3) chemotherapy response and high GGT levels (OR 2.46, 95% CI: 1.2–4.8, p = 0.007), and 4) body mass index (BMI) and III–IV tumor stage (OR 3.2, 95% CI: 1.2–8.3, p = 0.013). Conclusions We conclude that the genotypes W/Ins-Ins/Ins of the 844ins68 polymorphism in the CBS gene contribute significantly to BC susceptibility in the analyzed sample from the Mexican population. PMID:25624861

  2. Two new asterriquinols from Aspergillus sp. CBS-P-2 with anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    An, Xiao; Feng, Bao-Min; Chen, Gang; Chen, Shao-Fei; Wang, Hai-Feng; Pei, Yue-Hu

    2016-08-01

    Two new bisindolylbenzenoid alkaloids asterriquinol E (1) and asterriquinol F (2), together with four known compounds (3-6) were isolated from the fermentation products of the fungus Aspergillus sp. CBS-P-2. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D, and 2D NMR (HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) methods. The stereochemical structure of 2 was confirmed via the CD data of the in situ formed [Rh2(OCOCF3)4] complex method. All of the isolated compounds were tested for inhibitory activity against LPS (lipopolysaccharide)-induced nitric oxide production in microglia. PMID:26988164

  3. Effect of oxygenation and temperature on glucose-xylose fermentation in Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS712 strain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus features specific traits that render it attractive for industrial applications. These include production of ethanol which, together with thermotolerance and the ability to grow with a high specific growth rate on a wide range of substrates, could make it an alternative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an ethanol producer. However, its ability to co-ferment C5 and C6 sugars under oxygen-limited conditions is far from being fully characterized. Results In the present study, K. marxianus CBS712 strain was cultivated in defined medium with glucose and xylose as carbon source. Ethanol fermentation and sugar consumption of CBS712 were investigated under different oxygen supplies (1.75%, 11.00% and 20.95% of O2) and different temperatures (30°C and 41°C). By decreasing oxygen supply, independently from the temperature, both biomass production as well as sugar utilization rate were progressively reduced. In all the tested conditions xylose consumption followed glucose exhaustion. Therefore, xylose metabolism was mainly affected by oxygen depletion. Loss in cell viability cannot explain the decrease in sugar consumption rates, as demonstrated by single cell analyses, while cofactor imbalance is commonly considered as the main cause of impairment of the xylose reductase (KmXR) - xylitol dehydrogenase (KmXDH) pathway. Remarkably, when these enzyme activities were assayed in vitro, a significant decrease was observed together with oxygen depletion, not ascribed to reduced transcription of the corresponding genes. Conclusions In the present study both oxygen supply and temperature were shown to be key parameters affecting the fermentation capability of sugars in the K. marxianus CBS712 strain. In particular, a direct correlation was observed between the decreased efficiency to consume xylose with the reduced specific activity of the two main enzymes (KmXR and KmXDH) involved in its catabolism. These data suggest that, in addition to

  4. Polymorphisms in MTHFR, MS and CBS Genes and Homocysteine Levels in a Pakistani Population

    PubMed Central

    Yakub, Mohsin; Moti, Naushad; Parveen, Siddiqa; Chaudhry, Bushra; Azam, Iqbal; Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Hyperhomocysteinemia (>15 µmol/L) is highly prevalent in South Asian populations including Pakistan. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of this condition, we studied 6 polymorphisms in genes of 3 enzymes - methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR; C677T; A1298C), methionine synthase (MS; A2756G), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS; T833C/844ins68, G919A) involved in homocysteine metabolism and investigated their interactions with nutritional and environmental factors in a Pakistani population. Methodology/Principal Findings In a cross-sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males and 517 females; age 18–60 years) were recruited from a low-income urban population in Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for plasma/serum homocysteine; folate, vitamin B12, pyridoxal phosphate and blood lead. DNA was isolated and genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP (restriction-fragment-length- polymorphism) based assays. The average changes in homocysteine levels for MTHFR 677CT and TT genotypes were positive [β(SE β), 2.01(0.63) and 16.19(1.8) µmol/L, respectively]. Contrary to MTHFR C677T polymorphism, the average changes in plasma homocysteine levels for MS 2756AG and GG variants were negative [β(SE β), −0.56(0.58) and −0.83(0.99) µmol/L, respectively]. The average change occurring for CBS 844ins68 heterozygous genotype (ancestral/insertion) was −1.88(0.81) µmol/L. The combined effect of MTHFR C677T, MS A2756G and CBS 844ins68 genotypes for plasma homocysteine levels was additive (p value <0.001). Odds of having hyperhomocysteinemia with MTHFR 677TT genotype was 10-fold compared to MTHFR 677CC genotype [OR (95%CI); 10.17(3.6–28.67)]. Protective effect towards hyperhomocysteinemia was observed with heterozygous (ancestral/insertion) genotype of CBS 844ins68 compared to homozygous ancestral type [OR (95% CI); 0.58 (0.34–0.99)]. Individuals with MTHFR 677CT or TT genotypes were at a greater risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in

  5. Electrochemical oxidation stability of anions for modern battery electrolytes: a CBS and DFT study.

    PubMed

    Jónsson, Erlendur; Johansson, Patrik

    2015-02-01

    The electrochemical stability vs. oxidation is a crucial property of anions in order to be suitable as components in lithium-ion batteries. Here the applicability of a number of computational approaches and methods to assess this property, employing a wide selection of DFT functionals, has been studied using the CCSD(T)/CBS method as the reference. In all, the vertical anion oxidation potential, ΔEv, is a fair way to calculate the stability vs. oxidation, however, a functional of at least hybrid quality is recommended. In addition, the chemical hardness, η, is identified as a novel approach to calculate the stability vs. oxidation. PMID:25557392

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of the β-N-acetylglucosaminidase CbsA from Thermotoga neapolitana.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Bo-Young; Jiao, Li; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Cha, Jaeho; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2012-01-01

    The β-N-acetylglucosaminidase CbsA was cloned from the thermophilic Gram-negative bacterium Thermotoga neapolitana. Although CbsA contains a family 3 glycoside hydrolase-type (GH3-type) catalytic domain, it can be distinguished from other GH3-type β-N-acetylglucosaminidases by its high activity towards chitobiose. The homodimeric CbsA contains a unique domain at the C-terminus for which the three-dimensional structure is not yet known. In this study, CbsA was overexpressed and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified CbsA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 2.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belonged to space group R32. To obtain initial phases, the crystallization of selenomethionyl-substituted protein and the production of heavy-atom derivative crystals are in progress. PMID:22232172

  7. Galactose utilization sheds new light on sugar metabolism in the sequenced strain Dekkera bruxellensis CBS 2499.

    PubMed

    Moktaduzzaman, Md; Galafassi, Silvia; Capusoni, Claudia; Vigentini, Ileana; Ling, Zhihao; Piškur, Jure; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-03-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae are considered two phylogenetically distant relatives, but they share several industrial relevant traits such as the ability to produce ethanol under aerobic conditions (Crabtree effect), high tolerance towards ethanol and acids, and ability to grow without oxygen. Beside a huge adaptability, D. bruxellensis exhibits a broader spectrum in utilization of carbon and nitrogen sources in comparison to S. cerevisiae. With the aim to better characterize its carbon source metabolism and regulation, the usage of galactose and the role that glucose plays on sugar metabolism were investigated in D. bruxellensis CBS 2499. The results indicate that in this yeast galactose is a non-fermentable carbon source, in contrast to S. cerevisiae that can ferment it. In particular, its metabolism is affected by the nitrogen source. Interestingly, D. bruxellensis CBS 2499 exhibits the 'short-term Crabtree effect', and the expression of genes involved in galactose utilization and in respiratory metabolism is repressed by glucose, similarly to what occurs in S. cerevisiae. PMID:25673757

  8. 21 CFR 573.750 - Pichia pastoris dried yeast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Pichia pastoris dried yeast. 573.750 Section 573.750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.750...

  9. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of merohedrally twinned crystals of MJ0729, a CBS-domain protein from Methanococcus jannaschii

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Millán, Pablo; Kortazar, Danel; Lucas, María; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Astigarraga, Egoitz; Fernández, José Andrés; Albert, Armando; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2008-07-01

    Trigonal crystals of MJ0729 showing different degrees of merohedral twinning that may vary from perfect hemihedral twinning to perfect tetartohedral twinning were obtained upon slight variation of the pH. CBS domains are small protein motifs, usually associated in tandem, that are implicated in binding to adenosyl groups. Several genetic diseases in humans have been associated with mutations in CBS sequences, which has made them very promising targets for rational drug design. Trigonal crystals of the CBS-domain protein MJ0729 from Methanococcus jannaschii were grown by the vapour-diffusion method at acidic pH. Preliminary analysis of nine X-ray diffraction data sets using Yeates statistics and Britton plots showed that slight variation in the pH as well as in the buffer used in the crystallization experiments led to crystals with different degrees of merohedral twinning that may vary from perfect hemihedral twinning to perfect tetartohedral twinning.

  10. Endurance and failure characteristics of modified Vasco X-2, CBS 600 and AISI 9310 spur gears. [aircraft construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Gear endurance tests and rolling-element fatigue tests were conducted to compare the performance of spur gears made from AISI 9310, CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 and to compare the pitting fatigue lives of these three materials. Gears manufactured from CBS 600 exhibited lives longer than those manufactured from AISI 9310. However, rolling-element fatigue tests resulted in statistically equivalent lives. Modified Vasco X-2 exhibited statistically equivalent lives to AISI 9310. CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 gears exhibited the potential of tooth fracture occurring at a tooth surface fatigue pit. Case carburization of all gear surfaces for the modified Vasco X-2 gears results in fracture at the tips of the gears.

  11. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of merohedrally twinned crystals of MJ0729, a CBS-domain protein from Methanococcus jannaschii

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Millán, Pablo; Kortazar, Danel; Lucas, María; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Astigarraga, Egoitz; Fernández, José Andrés; Sabas, Olatz; Albert, Armando; Mato, Jose M.; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    CBS domains are small protein motifs, usually associated in tandem, that are implicated in binding to adenosyl groups. Several genetic diseases in humans have been associated with mutations in CBS sequences, which has made them very promising targets for rational drug design. Trigonal crystals of the CBS-domain protein MJ0729 from Methanococcus jannaschii were grown by the vapour-diffusion method at acidic pH. Preliminary analysis of nine X-ray diffraction data sets using Yeates statistics and Britton plots showed that slight variation in the pH as well as in the buffer used in the crystallization experiments led to crystals with different degrees of merohedral twinning that may vary from perfect hemihedral twinning to perfect tetartohedral twinning. PMID:18607087

  12. Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domains confer multiple forms of Mg2+-dependent cooperativity to family II pyrophosphatases.

    PubMed

    Salminen, Anu; Anashkin, Viktor A; Lahti, Matti; Tuominen, Heidi K; Lahti, Reijo; Baykov, Alexander A

    2014-08-15

    Regulated family II pyrophosphatases (CBS-PPases) contain a nucleotide-binding insert comprising a pair of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domains, termed a Bateman module. By binding with high affinity to the CBS domains, AMP and ADP usually inhibit the enzyme, whereas ATP activates it. Here, we demonstrate that AMP, ADP, and ATP bind in a positively cooperative manner to CBS-PPases from four bacteria: Desulfitobacterium hafniense, Clostridium novyi, Clostridium perfringens, and Eggerthella lenta. Enzyme interaction with substrate as characterized by the Michaelis constant (Km) also exhibited positive catalytic cooperativity that decreased in magnitude upon nucleotide binding. The degree of both types of cooperativity increased with increasing concentration of the cofactor Mg(2+) except for the C. novyi PPase where Mg(2+) produced the opposite effect on kinetic cooperativity. Further exceptions from these general rules were ADP binding to C. novyi PPase and AMP binding to E. lenta PPase, neither of which had any effect on activity. A genetically engineered deletion variant of D. hafniense PPase lacking the regulatory insert was fully active but differed from the wild-type enzyme in that it was insensitive to nucleotides and bound substrate non-cooperatively and with a smaller Km value. These results indicate that the regulatory insert acts as an internal inhibitor and confers dual positive cooperativity to CBS domain-containing PPases, making them highly sensitive regulators of the PPi level in response to the changes in cell energy status that control adenine nucleotide distribution. These regulatory features may be common among other CBS domain-containing proteins. PMID:24986864

  13. Funding 3D-CBS:. Changing the Role of PET for Cancer Screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, Dario B.

    2010-04-01

    The role of Positron Emission Technology (PET) should be changed with use of the 30-CBS (Three Dimensional Complete Body screening) for maximizing the capture of signals that will detect minimum abnormal metabolism (or other biological processes), achievable by capturing simultaneously and accurately as many signals as possible from the tumor markers from all organs of the body in order to identify the smallest anomaly, at the lowest cost per signal captured and requiring the minimum radiation to the patient. This paper provides scientific arguments for setting new parameters for industry to establish the correct relation between the goal of obtaining substantial reduction in cancer deaths and the implementation of innovations and technology that will provide the expected results through early cancer detection.

  14. Geosmin and Related Volatiles in Bioreactor-Cultured Streptomyces citreus CBS 109.60

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, F. C.; Berger, R. G.

    1996-01-01

    Streptomyces citreus CBS 109.60 produced geosmin and a complex pattern of other volatile compounds during cultivation in a 2.5-liter laboratory bioreactor. Volatiles were isolated from disrupted cells, from the culture medium, and from the waste air of the bioreactor by adsorption on Lewatit OC 1064MD. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out using capillary gas chromatography and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. S. citreus produced 56 volatile compounds, which were mainly terpenoids but also included aliphatic ketones, alcohols, esters, pyrazines, furan(on)es, and aromatic types during the growth phase. The major components were geosmin and a germacradienol. A biosynthetic pathway for geosmin including eudesmanolides is proposed. PMID:16535293

  15. Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: Sharing ultra-high-field MR images of the brain.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Christine Lucas; Schäfer, Andreas; Trampel, Robert; Villringer, Arno; Turner, Robert; Bazin, Pierre-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging at ultra high field opens the door to quantitative brain imaging at sub-millimeter isotropic resolutions. However, novel image processing tools to analyze these new rich datasets are lacking. In this article, we introduce the Open Science CBS Neuroimaging Repository: a unique repository of high-resolution and quantitative images acquired at 7 T. The motivation for this project is to increase interest for high-resolution and quantitative imaging and stimulate the development of image processing tools developed specifically for high-field data. Our growing repository currently includes datasets from MP2RAGE and multi-echo FLASH sequences from 28 and 20 healthy subjects respectively. These datasets represent the current state-of-the-art in in-vivo relaxometry at 7 T, and are now fully available to the entire neuroimaging community. PMID:26318051

  16. Expression analysis for genes involved in arachidonic acid biosynthesis in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68

    PubMed Central

    Samadlouie, Hamid-Reza; Hamidi-Esfahani, Zohreh; Alavi, Seyed-Mehdi; Varastegani, Boshra

    2014-01-01

    The time courses for production of fungal biomass, lipid, phenolic and arachidonic acid (ARA) as well as expression of the genes involved in biosynthesis of ARA and lipid were examined in Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68. A significant increase in the arachidonic acid content in lipids that coincided with reduced levels of lipid was obtained. Reduced gene expression occurred presumably due to the steady reduction of carbon and nitrogen resources. However, these energy resources were inefficiently compensated by the breakdown of the accumulated lipids that in turn, induced up-regulated expression of the candidate genes. The results further indicated that the expression of the GLELO encoding gene is a rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of ARA in the early growth phase. PMID:25242926

  17. Surface fatigue life and failure characteristics of EX-53, CBS 1000M, and AISI 9310 gear materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests and rolling-element surface fatigue tests are conducted to investigate EX-53 and CBS 1000M steels for use as advanced application gear materials, to determine their endurance characteristics, and to compare the results with the standard AISI 9310 gear material. The gear pitch diameter is 8.89 cm (3.50 in). Gear test conditions are an oil inlet temperature of 320 K (116 F), an oil outlet temperature of 350 K (170 F), a maximum Hertz stress of 1.71 GPa (248 ksi), and a speed of 10,000 rpm. Bench-type rolling-element fatigue tests are conducted at ambient temperature with a bar specimen speed of 12,500 rpm and a maximum Hertz stress of 4.83 GPa (700 ksi). The EX-53 test gears have a surface fatigue life of twice that of the AISI 9310 spur gears. The CBS 1000M test gears have a surface fatigue life of more than twice that of the AISI 9310 spur gears. However, the CBS 1000M gears experience a 30-percent tooth fracture failure which limits its use as a gear material. The rolling-contact fatigue lines of RC bar specimens of EX-53 and ASISI 9310 are approximately equal. However, the CBS 1000M RC specimens have a surface fatigue life of about 50 percent that of the AISI 9310.

  18. An assessment of selected properties of the fluorescent tracer, Tinopal CBS-X related to conservative behavior, and suggested improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licha, Tobias; Niedbala, Anne; Bozau, Elke; Geyer, Tobias

    2013-03-01

    SummaryA conservative or well known reactive behavior of water tracers is a prerequisite in the quantitative evaluation of their tracer breakthrough curves. The fluorescent dye, Tinopal CBS-X, is one of the few licensed fluorescent dyes for water tracing with safe use. Its main advantage is its blue fluorescence, which is barely visible to the human eye and thus can be used when coloring water must be avoided. However, scientists have described the recovery of this dye as poor to very poor in field tracer experiments. Hence, this study focuses on examining the interaction of the main water chemistry with Tinopal CBS-X by determining the solubility products of the dye with most common cations. The findings of this investigation reveal that the tracer forms precipitates of very low aqueous solubility with di- and trivalent cations (pKsp 6.4-16.8). As a consequence, Tinopal CBS-X is not a conservative tracer and respective tracer breakthrough curves will exhibit strong tailings at least in part, as result of precipitations formed. The addition of a chemical modifier, EDTA, is suggested to enhance the solubility of Tinopal CBS-X in order to overcome its non-conservative behavior. Equations for estimating the amount of EDTA necessary are provided. In the light of these results, earlier reported tracer breakthrough curves are revisited and re-interpreted.

  19. Dynamic model-based analysis of furfural and HMF detoxification by pure and mixed batch cultures of S. cerevisiae and S. stipitis.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Timothy J; Henson, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Inhibitory compounds that result from biomass hydrolysis are an obstacle to the efficient production of second-generation biofuels. Fermentative microorganisms can reduce compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), but detoxification is accompanied by reduced growth rates and ethanol yields. In this study, we assess the effects of these furan aldehydes on pure and mixed yeast cultures consisting of a respiratory deficient mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and wild-type Scheffersomyces stipitis using dynamic flux balance analysis. Uptake kinetics and stoichiometric equations for the intracellular reduction reactions associated with each inhibitor were added to genome-scale metabolic reconstructions of the two yeasts. Further modification of the S. cerevisiae metabolic network was necessary to satisfactorily predict the amount of acetate synthesized during HMF reduction. Inhibitory terms that captured the adverse effects of the furan aldehydes and their corresponding alcohols on cell growth and ethanol production were added to attain qualitative agreement with batch experiments conducted for model development and validation. When the two yeasts were co-cultured in the presence of the furan aldehydes, inoculums that reduced the synthesis of highly toxic acetate produced by S. cerevisiae yielded the highest ethanol productivities. The model described here can be used to generate optimal fermentation strategies for the simultaneous detoxification and fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates by S. cerevisiae and/or S. stipitis. PMID:23983023

  20. Nitrotyrosinylation, Remodeling and Endothelial-Myocyte Uncoupling in iNOS, Cystathionine Beta Synthase (CBS) Knockouts and iNOS/CBS Double Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Soumi; Kumar, Munish; Sen, Utpal; Mishra, Paras K.; Tyagi, Neetu; Metreveli, Naira; Lominadze, David; Rodriguez, Walter; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2009-01-01

    Increased levels of homocysteine (Hcy), recognized as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), were associated with cardiovascular diseases. There was controversy regarding the detrimental versus cardio protective role of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in ischemic heart disease. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the Hcy generated nitrotyrosine by inducing the endothelial nitric oxide synthase, causing endothelial-myocyte (E–M) coupling. To differentiate the role of iNOS versus constitutive nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and nNOS) in Hcy-mediated nitrotyrosine generation and matrix remodeling in cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular (LV) tissue was analyzed from cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) heterozygote knockout, iNOS homozygote knockout, CBS−/+/iNOS−/− double knockout, and wild-type (WT) mice. The levels of nitrotyrosine, MMP-2 and -9 (zymographic analysis), and fibrosis (by trichrome stain) were measured. The endothelial-myocyte function was determined in cardiac rings. In CBS−/+ mice, homocysteine was elevated and in iNOS−/− mice, nitric oxide was significantly reduced. The nitrotyrosine and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) levels were elevated in double knockout and CBS−/+ as compared to WT mice. Although MMP-2 levels were similar in CBS−/+, iNOS−/−, and CBS−/+/iNOS−/−, the levels were three- to fourfold higher than WT. The levels of collagen were similar in CBS−/+ and iNOS−/−, but they were threefold higher than WT. Interesting, the levels of collagen increased sixfold in double knockouts, compared to WT, suggesting synergism between high Hcy and lack of iNOS. Left ventricular hypertrophy was exaggerated in the iNOS−/− and double knockout, and mildly increased in the CBS−/+, compared to WT mice. The endothelial-dependent relaxation was attenuated to the same extent in the CBS−/+ and iNOS−/−, compared to WT, but it was robustly blunted in double knockouts. The results concluded that homocysteine

  1. Characterization of wheat germin (oxalate oxidase) expressed by Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Heng-Yen; Whittaker, Mei M.; Bouveret, Romaric; Berna, Anne; Bernier, Francois; Whittaker, James W. . E-mail: jim@ebs.ogi.edu

    2007-05-18

    High-level secretory expression of wheat (Triticum aestivum) germin/oxalate oxidase was achieved in Pichia pastoris fermentation cultures as an {alpha}-mating factor signal peptide fusion, based on the native wheat cDNA coding sequence. The oxalate oxidase activity of the recombinant enzyme is substantially increased (7-fold) by treatment with sodium periodate, followed by ascorbate reduction. Using these methods, approximately 1 g (4 x 10{sup 4} U) of purified, activated enzyme was obtained following eight days of induction of a high density Pichia fermentation culture, demonstrating suitability for large-scale production of oxalate oxidase for biotechnological applications. Characterization of the recombinant protein shows that it is glycosylated, with N-linked glycan attached at Asn47. For potential biomedical applications, a nonglycosylated (S49A) variant was also prepared which retains essentially full enzyme activity, but exhibits altered protein-protein interactions.

  2. Applications of recombinant Pichia pastoris in the healthcare industry

    PubMed Central

    Weinacker, Daniel; Rabert, Claudia; Zepeda, Andrea B.; Figueroa, Carolina A.; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farías, Jorge G.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the establishment and development of the biotech industry has improved exponentially, allowing the commercial production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Nowadays, new recombinant protein production is considered a multibillion-dollar market, in which about 25% of commercial pharmaceuticals are biopharmaceuticals. But to achieve a competitive production process is not an easy task. Any production process has to be highly productive, efficient and economic. Despite that the perfect host is still not discovered, several research groups have chosen Pichia pastoris as expression system for the production of their protein because of its many features. The attempt of this review is to embrace several research lines that have adopted Pichia pastoris as their expression system to produce a protein on an industrial scale in the health care industry. PMID:24688491

  3. Applications of recombinant Pichia pastoris in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    Weinacker, Daniel; Rabert, Claudia; Zepeda, Andrea B; Figueroa, Carolina A; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farías, Jorge G

    2013-12-01

    Since the 1970s, the establishment and development of the biotech industry has improved exponentially, allowing the commercial production of biopharmaceutical proteins. Nowadays, new recombinant protein production is considered a multibillion-dollar market, in which about 25% of commercial pharmaceuticals are biopharmaceuticals. But to achieve a competitive production process is not an easy task. Any production process has to be highly productive, efficient and economic. Despite that the perfect host is still not discovered, several research groups have chosen Pichia pastoris as expression system for the production of their protein because of its many features. The attempt of this review is to embrace several research lines that have adopted Pichia pastoris as their expression system to produce a protein on an industrial scale in the health care industry. PMID:24688491

  4. Development of yeasts for xylose fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, T.W.; Yang, V.; Marks, J.; Amartey, S.; Kenealy, W.R.; Cho, J.Y.; Dahn, K.; Davis, B.P.

    1993-12-31

    Xylose is an abundant sugar in hardwoods and agricultural residues. Its use is essential for any economical conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol. Only a few yeasts ferment xylose effectively. Our results show that the best strains are Candida shehatae ATCC 2984 and Pichia stipitis CBS 6054. Wild type strains of C. shehatae ATCC 22984 will produce 56 g/L of ethanol from xylose within 48 h in a fed batch fermentation. We have obtained improved mutants of P.stipitis by selecting for growth on L-xylose and L-arabinose. Mutant strains produce up to 55% more ethanol than the parent and exhibit higher specific fermentation rates. We have also developed an effective transformation system that enables the introduction and expression of heterologous DNA on integrating and autonomous vectors. The transformation system for P. stipitis is based on its URA3 gene as a selectable marker and an autonomous replication sequence (ARS) which we isolated from the parent. We are using integrating and ARS vectors to metabolically engineer P. stipitis by altering the regulation and expression of key enzymes. As model systems we are examining the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) that are present in limiting amounts or induced only under non-growth conditions.

  5. Improving the expression of mini-proinsulin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    País-Chanfrau, José M; García, Yuneski; Licor, Lisandra; Besada, Vladimir; Castellanos-Serra, Lila; Cabello, Cecilia I; Hernández, Lester; Mansur, Manuel; Plana, Liuba; Hidalgo, Abdel; Támbara, Yanet; del C Abrahantes-Pérez, María; del Toro, Yoandris; Valdés, Jorge; Martínez, Eduardo

    2004-08-01

    Increased expression of recombinant mini-proinsulin in Pichia pastoris in 2.5 l bioreactors was achieved by increasing the cultivation pH from 5.1 to 6.3, by decreasing the temperature from 28 to 22 degrees C, and by periodical addition of ammonium sulfate and EDTA to the culture broth. Using this procedure, mini-proinsulin reached nearly 0.3 g l(-1) in the culture supernatant after 160 h of growth. PMID:15483385

  6. Cloning and Expression of Yak Active Chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fan; Jiang, Wei Hua; Yang, Yuan Xiao; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Ming Feng

    2016-09-01

    Rennet, a complex of enzymes found in the stomachs of ruminants, is an important component for cheese production. In our study, we described that yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could serve as a novel source for rennet production. Yaks total RNA was extracted from the abomasum of an unweaned yak. The yak preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes from total RNA were isolated using gene specific primers based on cattle chymosin gene sequence respectively and analyzed their expression pattern byreal time-polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that the chymosin gene expression level of the sucking yaks was 11.45 times higher than one of adult yaks and yak chymosin belongs to Bovidae family in phylogenetic analysis. To express each, the preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes were ligated into the expression vector pPICZαA, respectively, and were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results showed that all the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the preprochymosin, prochymosin or chymosin genes could produce the active form of recombinant chymosin into the culture supernatant. Heterologous expressed prochymosin (14.55 Soxhlet unit/mL) had the highest enzyme activity of the three expressed chymosin enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could provide an alternative source of rennet production. PMID:27004812

  7. Cloning and Expression of Yak Active Chymosin in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fan; Jiang, Wei Hua; Yang, Yuan Xiao; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rennet, a complex of enzymes found in the stomachs of ruminants, is an important component for cheese production. In our study, we described that yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could serve as a novel source for rennet production. Yaks total RNA was extracted from the abomasum of an unweaned yak. The yak preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes from total RNA were isolated using gene specific primers based on cattle chymosin gene sequence respectively and analyzed their expression pattern byreal time-polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that the chymosin gene expression level of the sucking yaks was 11.45 times higher than one of adult yaks and yak chymosin belongs to Bovidae family in phylogenetic analysis. To express each, the preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes were ligated into the expression vector pPICZαA, respectively, and were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results showed that all the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the preprochymosin, prochymosin or chymosin genes could produce the active form of recombinant chymosin into the culture supernatant. Heterologous expressed prochymosin (14.55 Soxhlet unit/mL) had the highest enzyme activity of the three expressed chymosin enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could provide an alternative source of rennet production. PMID:27004812

  8. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  9. Transcriptional Regulation of Aerobic Metabolism in Pichia pastoris Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Biao; Li, Baizhi; Chen, Dai; Zong, Jie; Sun, Fei; Qu, Huixin; Liang, Chongyang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the classical fermentation process in Pichia pastoris based on transcriptomics. We utilized methanol in pichia yeast cell as the focus of our study, based on two key steps: limiting carbon source replacement (from glycerol to methonal) and fermentative production of exogenous proteins. In the former, the core differential genes in co-expression net point to initiation of aerobic metabolism and generation of peroxisome. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) results showed that yeast gradually adapted methanol induction to increased cell volume, and decreased density, via large number of peroxisomes. In the fermentative production of exogenous proteins, the Gene Ontology (GO) mapping results show that PAS_chr2-1_0582 played a vital role in regulating aerobic metabolic drift. In order to confirm the above results, we disrupted PAS_chr2-1_0582 by homologous recombination. Alcohol consumption was equivalent to one fifth of the normal control, and fewer peroxisomes were observed in Δ0582 strain following methanol induction. In this study we determined the important core genes and GO terms regulating aerobic metabolic drift in Pichia, as well as developing new perspectives for the continued development within this field. PMID:27537181

  10. Phylogeny of the ascomycetous yeasts and the renaming of Pichia anomala to Wickerhamomyces anomalus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pichia anomala was reclassified as Wickerhamomyces anomalus following multigene phylogenetic analysis. In this review, the phylogeny of the ascomycetous yeasts is discussed, with emphasis on the genus Pichia. The genus, as defined from phenotype, had nearly 100 assigned species, but the number of ...

  11. Ethanol production using whole plant biomass of Jerusalem artichoke by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement sugar crop containing cellulose and hemicellulose in the stalk and a high content of inulin in the tuber. However, the lignocellulosic component in Jerusalem artichoke stalk reduces the fermentability of the whole plant for efficient bioethanol production. In this study, Jerusalem artichoke stalk was pretreated sequentially with dilute acid and alkali, and then hydrolyzed enzymatically. During enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately 88 % of the glucan and xylan were converted to glucose and xylose, respectively. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of both pretreated stalk and tuber by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555 were effectively performed, yielding 29.1 and 70.2 g/L ethanol, respectively. In fed-batch fermentation, ethanol productivity was 0.255 g ethanol per gram of dry Jerusalem artichoke biomass, or 0.361 g ethanol per gram of glucose, with a 0.924 g/L/h ethanol productivity. These results show that combining the tuber and the stalk hydrolysate is a useful strategy for whole biomass utilization in effective bioethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:23322254

  12. Chaetochromones A and B, two new polyketides from the fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68).

    PubMed

    Lu, Keyang; Zhang, Yisheng; Li, Li; Wang, Xuewei; Ding, Gang

    2013-01-01

    Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2), two novel polyketides, were isolated from the crude extract of fungus Chaetomium indicum (CBS.860.68) together with three known analogues PI-3(3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The structures of these compounds were determined by HRESI-MS and NMR experiments. Chaetochromones A (1) and B (2) are a member of the polyketides family, which might originate from a similar biogenetic pathway as the known compounds PI-3 (3), PI-4 (4) and SB236050 (5). The biological activities of these secondary metabolites were evaluated against eight plant pathogens, including Alternaria alternata, Ilyonectria radicicola, Trichoderma viride pers, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium verticillioide, Irpex lacteus (Fr.), Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke and Coriolus versicolor (L.) Quél. Compound 1 displayed moderate inhibitory rate (>60%) against the brown rot fungus Poria placenta (Fr.) Cooke, which causes significant wood decay. In addition, the cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines A549, MDA-MB-231, PANC-1 were also tested, without any inhibitory activities being detected. PMID:24013408

  13. Development of AN Innovative Three-Dimensional Complete Body Screening Device - 3D-CBS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosetto, D. B.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes an innovative technological approach that increases the efficiency with which a large number of particles (photons) can be detected and analyzed. The three-dimensional complete body screening (3D-CBS) combines the functional imaging capability of the Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with those of the anatomical imaging capability of Computed Tomography (CT). The novel techniques provide better images in a shorter time with less radiation to the patient. A primary means of accomplishing this is the use of a larger solid angle, but this requires a new electronic technique capable of handling the increased data rate. This technique, combined with an improved and simplified detector assembly, enables executing complex real-time algorithms and allows more efficiently use of economical crystals. These are the principal features of this invention. A good synergy of advanced techniques in particle detection, together with technological progress in industry (latest FPGA technology) and simple, but cost-effective ideas provide a revolutionary invention. This technology enables over 400 times PET efficiency improvement at once compared to two to three times improvements achieved every five years during the past decades. Details of the electronics are provided, including an IBM PC board with a parallel-processing architecture implemented in FPGA, enabling the execution of a programmable complex real-time algorithm for best detection of photons.

  14. PSP-CBS with Dopamine Deficiency in a Female with a FMR1 Premutation.

    PubMed

    Paucar, Martin; Beniaminov, Stanislav; Paslawski, Wojciech; Svenningsson, Per

    2016-10-01

    Premutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene cause fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Female FMR1 premutation carriers rarely develop motor features. Dual pathology is an emerging phenomenon among FMR1 premutation carriers. Here, we describe a family affected by FMR1-related disorders in which the female index case has developed a rapidly progressive and disabling syndrome of atypical parkinsonism. This syndrome consists of early onset postural instability, echolalia, dystonia, and varying types of apraxia like early onset orobuccal apraxia and oculomotor apraxia. She has also developed supranuclear gaze palsy, increased latency of saccade initiation, and slow saccades. These features are compatible with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) of a corticobasal syndrome (CBS) variant. Imaging displays a marked reduction of presynaptic dopaminergic uptake and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed reduced dopamine metabolism; however, the patient is unresponsive to levodopa. Midbrain atrophy ("hummingbird sign") and mild cerebellar atrophy were found on brain MRI. Her father was affected by a typical FXTAS presentation but also displayed dopamine deficiency along with the hummingbird sign. The mechanisms by which FMR1 premutations predispose to atypical parkinsonism and dopamine deficiency await further elucidation. PMID:27230899

  15. Development of a fed-batch process for a recombinant Pichia pastoris Δoch1 strain expressing a plant peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Gmeiner, Christoph; Saadati, Amirhossein; Maresch, Daniel; Krasteva, Stanimira; Frank, Manuela; Altmann, Friedrich; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is a prominent host for recombinant protein production, amongst other things due to its capability of glycosylation. However, N-linked glycans on recombinant proteins get hypermannosylated, causing problems in subsequent unit operations and medical applications. Hypermannosylation is triggered by an α-1,6-mannosyltransferase called OCH1. In a recent study, we knocked out OCH1 in a recombinant P. pastoris CBS7435 Mut(S) strain (Δoch1) expressing the biopharmaceutically relevant enzyme horseradish peroxidase. We characterized the strain in the controlled environment of a bioreactor in dynamic batch cultivations and identified the strain to be physiologically impaired. We faced cell cluster formation, cell lysis and uncontrollable foam formation.In the present study, we investigated the effects of the 3 process parameters temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen concentration on 1) cell physiology, 2) cell morphology, 3) cell lysis, 4) productivity and 5) product purity of the recombinant Δoch1 strain in a multivariate manner. Cultivation at 30°C resulted in low specific methanol uptake during adaptation and the risk of methanol accumulation during cultivation. Cell cluster formation was a function of the C-source rather than process parameters and went along with cell lysis. In terms of productivity and product purity a temperature of 20°C was highly beneficial. In summary, we determined cultivation conditions for a recombinant P. pastoris Δoch1 strain allowing high productivity and product purity. PMID:25567661

  16. Cognitive impairment in ALS patients and validation of the Spanish version of the ALS-CBS test.

    PubMed

    Turon-Sans, Janina; Gascon-Bayarri, Jordi; Reñé, Ramon; Rico, Imma; Gámez, Cristina; Paipa, Andres; Povedano, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to develop and validate the Spanish version of the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioural Screen (ALS-CBS) and investigate behavioural/cognitive impairment in our ALS patients. We enrolled 50 patients with definite or probable ALS, evaluated by the Motor Neuron Disease Unit (using El Escorial criteria) and Dementia Unit, and assessed with the Spanish ALS-CBS. The patients' cognitive/behavioural status was classified according to current criteria. Patients were classified into each diagnostic category: ALS-no impairment, 36%; ALS-mild cognitive impairment, 34%; ALS-mild behavioural impairment, 6%; ALS-mild cognitive/behavioural impairment, 12%; ALS-frontotemporal dementia, 12%. Cognitive impairment was more common in bulbar (90.9%) than spinal (48.7%) forms (p < 0.012). The Spanish ALS-CBS was validated. Performance to differentiate normal vs. impaired individuals was: 1) cognition (cut-off 15; AUC, 84.7%): sensitivity 86.2%, specificity 62%, positive predictive value 75.8%, negative predictive value 76.5%; 2) behaviour (cut-off 36; AUC, 83.3%): sensitivity 93.3%, specificity 74.3%, positive predictive value 61%, negative predictive value 96.3%. Performance to differentiate between patients with and without dementia: 1) cognition (cut-off 8; AUC, 87.3%): sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 75%, positive predictive value 31.3%, negative predictive value 97.1%; 2) behaviour (cut-off 35; AUC, 80.9%): sensitivity 83.3%, specificity 69%, positive predictive value 25%, negative predictive value 96.7%. In conclusion, cognitive impairment is common in ALS patients, particularly in bulbar forms. The Spanish version of the ALS-CBS is useful for screening cognitive/behavioural impairment in this population. PMID:26726932

  17. A missense mutation in the cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS) gene associated with pyridoxine (B{sub 6}) responsive homocystinuria

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, V.E.; Fringer, J.M.; Mandell, R.

    1994-09-01

    CBS deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by homocystinuria and multisystem clinical disease. B{sub 6} responsive patients usually have a milder clinical phenotype than B{sub 6} nonresponsive patients. In our ongoing studies of the molecular defects in CBS deficiency, we reported a T-833 to C transition causing a substitution of threonine for isoleucine at position 278 (I278T). By PCR amplification and sequencing of exon 8 from genomic DNA we have now identified 2 index patients who are homozygous and 5 who are heterozygous for this mutation in a group of 32 patients with CBS deficiency. The mutation was detected in 7 of 10 unrelated families with in vivo B{sub 6} responsiveness, including one with a partial response, and in 0 of 22 B{sub 6} nonresponsive patients. The mutations on the other allele in the compound heterozygotes are still under investigation. We have now observed the I278T mutation in 9 of 20 independent alleles of varied ethnic backgrounds in the subgroup of B{sub 6} responsive patients. These findings, together with the previous report of this mutation in one allele of a B{sub 6} responsive patient, suggest that the I278T mutation is associated with B{sub 6} responsiveness in CBS deficiency. In compound heterozygotes, the degree of B{sub 6} responsiveness may also depend upon the nature of the other mutant allele and/or the interaction between the polypeptide subunits produced by the two mutant allelic genes.

  18. The asteroseismological potential of the pulsating DB white dwarf stars CBS 114 and PG 1456+103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handler, G.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Wood, M. A.

    2002-09-01

    We have acquired 65 h of single-site time-resolved CCD photometry of the pulsating DB white dwarf star (DBV) CBS 114 and 62 h of two-site high-speed CCD photometry of another DBV, PG 1456+103. The pulsation spectrum of PG 1456+103 is complicated and variable on time-scales of approximately 1 week and could only partly be deciphered with our measurements. The modes of CBS 114 are more stable in time and we were able to arrive at a frequency solution somewhat affected by aliasing, but still satisfactory, involving seven independent modes and two combination frequencies. These frequencies also explain the discovery data of the star, taken 13 yr earlier. We find a mean period spacing of 37.1 +/- 0.7 s significant at the 98 per cent level between the independent modes of CBS 114 and argue that they are caused by non-radial g-mode pulsations of spherical degree l= 1. We performed a global search for asteroseismological models of CBS 114 using a genetic algorithm, and we examined the susceptibility of the results to the uncertainties of the observational frequency determinations and mode identifications (we could not provide m values). The families of possible solutions are identified correctly even without knowledge of m. Our best-fitting model suggests Teff= 21 000 K, M*= 0.730 Msolar and log(MHe/M*) =-6.66, XO= 0.61. The latter value of the central oxygen mass fraction implies a rate for the 12C(α,γ)16O nuclear reaction near S300= 180 keV b, consistent with laboratory measurements.

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS pair of the human metal transporter CNNM4

    PubMed Central

    Gómez García, Inmaculada; Oyenarte, Iker; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-pair regulatory domain of the human ancient domain protein 4 (ACDP4), also known as CNNM4. ACDP proteins represent the least-studied members of the eight different types of magnesium transporters that have been identified in mammals to date. In humans the ACDP family includes four members: CNNM1–4. CNNM1 acts as a cytosolic copper chaperone and has been associated with urofacial syndrome, whereas CNNM2 and CNNM4 have been identified as magnesium transporters. Interestingly, mutations in the CNNM4 gene have clinical consequences that are limited to retinal function and biomineralization and are considered to be the cause of Jalili syndrome, which consists of autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta. The truncated protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 3.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Matthews volume calculations suggested the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, which were likely to correspond to a CBS module of the CBS pair of CNNM4. PMID:21393841

  20. Structural basis for substrate activation and regulation by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains in cystathionine [beta]-synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Koutmos, Markos; Kabil, Omer; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2011-08-17

    The catalytic potential for H{sub 2}S biogenesis and homocysteine clearance converge at the active site of cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS), a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme. CBS catalyzes {beta}-replacement reactions of either serine or cysteine by homocysteine to give cystathionine and water or H{sub 2}S, respectively. In this study, high-resolution structures of the full-length enzyme from Drosophila in which a carbanion (1.70 {angstrom}) and an aminoacrylate intermediate (1.55 {angstrom}) have been captured are reported. Electrostatic stabilization of the zwitterionic carbanion intermediate is afforded by the close positioning of an active site lysine residue that is initially used for Schiff base formation in the internal aldimine and later as a general base. Additional stabilizing interactions between active site residues and the catalytic intermediates are observed. Furthermore, the structure of the regulatory 'energy-sensing' CBS domains, named after this protein, suggests a mechanism for allosteric activation by S-adenosylmethionine.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-domain pair of cyclin M2 (CNNM2)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-García, Inmaculada; Stuiver, Marchel; Ereño, June; Oyenarte, Iker; Corral-Rodríguez, María Angeles; Müller, Dominik; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-domain pair of the murine CNNM2 magnesium transporter (formerly known as ancient domain protein 2; ACDP2), which consists of a pair of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) motifs and has 100% sequence identity to its human homologue. CNNM proteins represent the least-studied members of the eight different types of magnesium transporters identified to date in mammals. In humans, the CNNM family is encoded by four genes: CNNM1–4. CNNM1 acts as a cytosolic copper chaperone, whereas CNNM2 and CNNM4 have been associated with magnesium handling. Interestingly, mutations in the CNNM2 gene cause familial dominant hypomagnesaemia (MIM:607803), a rare human disorder characterized by renal and intestinal magnesium (Mg2+) wasting, which may lead to symptoms of Mg2+ depletion such as tetany, seizures and cardiac arrhythmias. This manuscript describes the preliminary crystallographic analysis of two different crystal habits of a truncated form of the protein containing its regulatory CBS-domain pair, which has been reported to host the pathological mutation T568I in humans. The crystals belonged to space groups P21212 and I222 (or I212121) and diffracted X-­rays to 2.0 and 3.6 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:23027747

  2. A novel transgenic mouse model of CBS-deficient homocystinuria does not incur hepatic steatosis or fibrosis and exhibits a hypercoagulative phenotype that is ameliorated by betaine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Kenneth N.; Sikora, Jakub; Kožich, Viktor; Jiang, Hua; Greiner, Lori S.; Kraus, Eva; Krijt, Jakub; Overdier, Katherine H.; Collard, Renata; Brodsky, Gary L.; Meltesen, Lynne; Crnic, Linda S.; Allen, Robert H.; Stabler, Sally P.; Elleder, Milan; Rozen, Rima; Patterson, David; Kraus, Jan P.

    2010-01-01

    Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) catalyzes the condensation of homocysteine (Hcy) and serine to cystathionine, which is then hydrolyzed to cysteine by cystathionine gamma-lyase. Inactivation of CBS results in CBS-deficient homocystinuria more commonly referred to as classical homocystinuria, which, if untreated, results in mental retardation, thromboembolic complications, and a range of connective tissue disorders. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathology of this disease are poorly understood. We report here the generation of a new mouse model of classical homocystinuria in which the mouse cbs gene is inactivated and that exhibits low-level expression of the human CBS transgene under the control of the human CBS promoter. This mouse model, designated “human only” (HO), exhibits severe elevations in both plasma and tissue levels of Hcy, methionine, S-adenosylmethionine, and S-adenosylhomocysteine and a concomitant decrease in plasma and hepatic levels of cysteine. HO mice exhibit mild hepatopathy but, in contrast to previous models of classical homocystinuria, do not incur hepatic steatosis, fibrosis, or neonatal death with approximately 90% of HO mice living for at least 6 months. Tail bleeding determinations indicate that HO mice are in a hypercoagulative state that is significantly ameliorated by betaine treatment in a manner that recapitulates the disease as it occurs in humans. Our findings indicate that this mouse model will be a valuable tool in the study of pathogenesis in classical homocystinuria and the rational design of novel treatments. PMID:20638879

  3. Effect of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), an allosteric activator of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) on colorectal cancer cell proliferation and bioenergetics in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Módis, Katalin; Coletta, Ciro; Asimakopoulou, Antonia; Szczesny, Bartosz; Chao, Celia; Papapetropoulos, Andreas; Hellmich, Mark R.; Szabo, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    Recent data show that colon cancer cells selectively overexpress cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), which produces hydrogen sulfide (H2S), to maintain cellular bioenergetics, support tumor growth and stimulate angiogenesis and vasorelaxation in the tumor microenvironment. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of the allosteric CBS activator S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) on the proliferation and bioenergetics of the CBS-expressing colon cancer cell line HCT116. The non-transformed, non-tumorigenic colon epithelial cell line NCM356 was used as control. For assessment of cell proliferation, the xCELLigence system was used. Bioenergetic function was measured by Extracellular Flux Analysis. Experiments using human recombinant CBS or HCT116 homogenates complemented the cell-based studies. SAM markedly enhanced CBS-mediated H2S production in vitro, especially when a combination of cysteine and homocysteine was used as substrates. Addition of SAM (0.1 – 3 mM) to HCT116 cells induced a concentration-dependent increase H2S production. SAM exerted time-and concentration-dependent modulatory effects on cell proliferation. At 0.1–1 mM SAM increased HCT116 proliferation between 0–12 h, while the highest SAM concentration (3 mM) inhibited proliferation. Over a longer time period (12–24 h), only the lowest concentration of SAM used (0.1 mM) stimulated cell proliferation; higher SAM concentrations produced a concentration-dependent inhibition. The short-term stimulatory effects of SAM were attenuated by the CBS inhibitor aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) or by stable silencing of CBS. In contrast, the inhibitory effects of SAM on cell proliferation was unaffected by CBS inhibition or CBS silencing. In contrast to HCT116 cells, the lower rate of proliferation of the low-CBS expressor NCM356 cells was unaffected by SAM. Short-term (1h) exposure of HCT116 cells to SAM induced a concentration-dependent increase in oxygen consumption and bioenergetic function at

  4. Expression and purification of mammalian calreticulin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Andrin, C; Corbett, E F; Johnson, S; Dabrowska, M; Campbell, I D; Eggleton, P; Opas, M; Michalak, M

    2000-11-01

    Calreticulin is a 46-kDa Ca(2+)-binding chaperone of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. The protein binds Ca(2+) with high capacity, affects intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, and functions as a lectin-like chaperone. In this study, we describe expression and purification procedures for the isolation of recombinant rabbit calreticulin. The calreticulin was expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified to homogeneity by DEAE-Sepharose and Resource Q FPLC chromatography. The protein was not retained in the endoplasmic reticulum of Pichia pastoris but instead it was secreted into the external media. The purification procedures reported here for recombinant calreticulin yield homogeneous preparations of the protein by SDS-PAGE and mass spectroscopy analysis. Purified calreticulin was identified by its NH(2)-terminal amino acid sequences, by its Ca(2+) binding, and by its reactivity with anti-calreticulin antibodies. The protein contained one disulfide bond between (88)Cys and (120)Cys. CD spectral analysis and Ca(2+)-binding properties of the recombinant protein indicated that it was correctly folded. PMID:11049745

  5. Identification of Pseudozyma graminicola CBS 10092 as a producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Shuhei; Kitagawa, Masaru; Sogabe, Atsushi; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-01-01

    A basidiomycetous yeast, Pseudozyma graminicola CBS 10092, was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids in the cultured medium when grown on soybean oil as the sole carbon source. Based on thin layer chromatography, the extracellular glycolipids gave spots corresponding to those of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are highly functional and promising biosurfactants. From the structural characterization by 1H and 13C NMR, the main product was identified as 4-O-[(4'-mono-O-acetyl-2', 3'-di-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, which is a highly hydrophilic derivative of MELs known as MEL-C. According to high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, the main product, MEL-C, comprised approximately 85% of all the MELs, and the total amount reached approximately 10 g/L for 7 days. The fatty acids of the present MEL-C consisted of mainly C6, C8 and C14 acids, considerably different from those of MEL-C produced by other Pseudozyma strains such as P. antarctica and P. shanxiensis. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface-tension at CMC of the MEL-C were 4.0 x 10(-6) M and 24.2 mN/m, respectively, while those of MEL-A, the most intensively studied MEL, were 2.7 x 10(-6) M and 28.4 mN/m, respectively. This implied that the MEL-C has higher hydrophilicity than conventional MELs hitherto reported. In addition, on a water-penetration scan, the MEL-C efficiently formed the lamella phase (Lalpha) at a wide range of concentrations, indicating its excellent self-assembling properties. From these results, the newly identified MELs produced by P. graminicola are likely to have great potential for use in oil-in-water type emulsifiers and/or washing detergents, and would thus facilitate a broad range of applications for the promising yeast biosurfactants. PMID:18198469

  6. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma siamensis CBS 9960 and their interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Konishi, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai

    2008-05-01

    The search for a novel producer of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), was undertaken on the basis of the analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences of yeast strains of the genus Pseudozyma. In the course of the investigation, Pseudozyma siamensis CBS 9960, which is closely related to Pseudozyma shanxiensis, a known MEL-C producer but with a different morphology, was found to accumulate a large amount of glycolipids. On thin layer chromatography, the extracellular glycolipids showed nearly the same spots as those of the MELs produced by P. shanxiensis. However, the result of high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that the present strain has a much higher glycolipid production yield than P. shanxiensis. From the structural characterization by (1)H and (13)C NMR, the major glycolipid (more than 84% of the total) was identified as a mixture of 4-O-[(2',4'-di-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol and 4-O-[(4'-O-acetyl-3'-O-alka(e)noyl-2'-O-butanoyl)-beta-D-mannopyranosyl]-D-erythritol, both of which are types of MEL-C. The present MEL-C possessed a short-chain acid (C(2) or C(4)) at the C-2' position and a long-chain acid (C(16)) at the C-3' position of the mannose moiety, and thus, the hydrophobic part was considerably different from that of conventional MELs, which mainly possess two medium-chain acids (C(10)) at the C-2' and C-3' positions. Under optimal growth conditions with safflower oil in a shake culture, the total amount of MELs reached approximately 19 g/l after 9 d at 25 degrees C. We further investigated the interfacial properties of the present MEL-C, considering its unique hydrophobic structure. The observed critical micelle concentration (CMC) and the surface tension at the CMC of the MEL were 4.5 x 10(-6) M and 30.7 mN/m, respectively. In addition, on a water penetration scan, the MEL efficiently formed the liquid crystal phases such as hexagonal (H) and lamella (L(a)) at a wide range of

  7. Production of volatile phenols by Pichia manshurica and Pichia membranifaciens isolated from spoiled wines and cellar environment in Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Saez, Julieta S; Lopes, Christian A; Kirs, Verónica E; Sangorrín, Marcela

    2011-05-01

    In order to detect spoilage yeast species in wines showing off-odors, different yeast isolation protocols were evaluated. Independently of the isolation method, only Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia manshurica were detected. The spoilage capacity of P. manshurica regional isolates was evaluated in red wine and the production of volatile phenols was evidenced. To evaluate the possible source of contamination, yeasts from both grapes and cellar surfaces were obtained. Hanseniaspora uvarum and Zygoascus hellenicus were detected in both sound and damaged grapes from sunny areas. The most frequent species in cellar surfaces was Candida boidinii, Pichia membranifaciens and P. manshurica were detected in filters. The intra-specific genetic characterization of the P. manshurica isolates by mtDNA-RFLP demonstrated that the same strain was detected in both wine and filter. Most P. membranifaciens isolates produced 4-EP (maximum level of 1.895 mg/L) and particularly high levels of 4-EG (maximum level of 10.260 mg/L) were produced by P. manshurica isolates in synthetic wine-like medium. In this work the capacity of P. manshurica and P. membranifaciens species to produce volatile phenols was shown for the first time. PMID:21356458

  8. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita; Schaap, Peter; van de Vondervoort, Peter; Culley, David E.; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy; Braus, Gerhard; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; ATkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noel; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens B.; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases and protein transporters.

  9. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  10. Determination of Tinopal CBS-X in rice papers and rice noodles using HPLC with fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kyung Yuk; Lee, Chae A; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2014-01-01

    To date there have been no reports of methods to determine Tinopal CBS-X. We developed a rapid and simple method to determine the Tinopal CBS-X content in rice noodles and rice papers using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detection. Heating the rice noodles and rice papers to 80°C after adding 75% methanol solution induced the release of Tinopal CBS-X from processed rice products. Tinopal CBS-X was separated using an isocratic mobile phase comprising 50% acetonitrile/water containing 0.4% tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate at pH 8.0. The samples suspected to be positive by HPLC analysis were then confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. This study also investigated the Tinopal CBS-X content of three rice noodle products and two rice papers. The limits of quantification for rice papers and rice noodles were 1.58 and 1.51 µg kg(-1), respectively, and their correlation curves showed good linearity with r(2) ≥ 0.9997 and ≥ 0.9998, respectively. Moreover, rice papers had recoveries of 70.3-83.3% with precision ranging from 5.0% to 7.9%, whereas rice noodles had slightly lower recoveries of 63.4-78.7% and precisions of 8.5-11.5%. Only one rice noodle product contained Tinopal CBS-X, at around 2.1 mg kg(-1), whereas it was not detected in four other samples. Consequently, Tinopal CBS-X from rice noodles and rice papers can be successfully detected using the developed pre-treatment and ion-pairing HPLC system coupled with fluorescence detection. PMID:25035935

  11. Expression of Eukaryotic Membrane Proteins in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Lucie; Kugler, Valérie; Wagner, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    A key point when it comes to heterologous expression of eukaryotic membrane proteins (EMPs) is the choice of the best-suited expression platform. The yeast Pichia pastoris has proven to be a very versatile system showing promising results in a growing number of cases. Indeed, its particular methylotrophic characteristics combined to the very simple handling of a eukaryotic microorganism that possesses the majority of mammalian-like machineries make it a very competitive expression system for various complex proteins, in amounts compatible with functional and structural studies. This chapter describes a set of robust methodologies routinely used for the successful expression of a variety of EMPs, going from yeast transformation with the recombinant plasmid to the analysis of the quality and quantity of the proteins produced. PMID:27485335

  12. Methanol inducible genes obtained from pichia and methods of use

    SciTech Connect

    Stroman, D.W.; Brust, P.F.; Ellis, S.B.; Gingeras, T.R.; Harpold, M.M.; Tschopp, J.F.

    1989-02-28

    A method is described for isolating the p76 gene from a methanol assimilating yeast, the method comprising: (a) digesting total DNA with at least one restriction enzyme to give digested DNA; (b) size fractionating the digested DNA by agarose electrophoresis; (c) denaturating and binding the size fractionated DNA from step (b) to nitrocellulose filter to give bound DNA; (d) hybridizing the bound DNA with labeled p76 gene from Pichia pastoris; (e) identifying the unique size fragment of bound DNA which cross-hybridizes with the labeled p76 gene from P. pastoris; (f) size fractionating additional DNA which has been digested in accordance with step (a) to recover for cloning the unique size fragment of DNA identified in step (e).

  13. Protein secretion in Pichia pastoris and advances in protein production.

    PubMed

    Damasceno, Leonardo M; Huang, Chung-Jr; Batt, Carl A

    2012-01-01

    Yeast expression systems have been successfully used for over 20 years for the production of recombinant proteins. With the growing interest in recombinant protein expression for various uses, yeast expression systems, such as the popular Pichia pastoris, are becoming increasingly important. Although P. pastoris has been successfully used in the production of many secreted and intracellular recombinant proteins, there is still room for improvement of this expression system. In particular, secretion of recombinant proteins is still one of the main reasons for using P. pastoris. Therefore, endoplasmic reticulum protein folding, correct glycosylation, vesicular transport to the plasma membrane, gene dosage, secretion signal sequences, and secretome studies are important considerations for improved recombinant protein production. PMID:22057543

  14. Production and Analysis of Perdeuterated Lipids from Pichia pastoris Cells

    PubMed Central

    de Ghellinck, Alexis; Schaller, Hubert; Laux, Valérie; Haertlein, Michael; Sferrazza, Michele; Maréchal, Eric; Wacklin, Hanna; Jouhet, Juliette; Fragneto, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Probing molecules using perdeuteration (i.e deuteration in which all hydrogen atoms are replaced by deuterium) is extremely useful in a wide range of biophysical techniques. In the case of lipids, the synthesis of the biologically relevant unsaturated perdeuterated lipids is challenging and not usually pursued. In this work, perdeuterated phospholipids and sterols from the yeast Pichia pastoris grown in deuterated medium are extracted and analyzed as derivatives by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry respectively. When yeast cells are grown in a deuterated environment, the phospholipid homeostasis is maintained but the fatty acid unsaturation level is modified while the ergosterol synthesis is not affected by the deuterated culture medium. Our results confirm that the production of well defined natural unsaturated perdeuterated lipids is possible and gives also new insights about the process of desaturase enzymes. PMID:24747350

  15. Cellobiose hydrolysis using Pichia etchellsii cells immobilized in calcium alginate

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, D.; Ghose, T.K.

    1984-01-01

    The rate of cellulose degradation, limited by inhibition by cellobiose, can be increased by hydrolysis of cellobiose to glucose using immobilized ..beta..-glucosidase. Production of ..beta..-glucosidase in four yeasts was studied and a maximum activity of 1.22 IU/mg cells was obtained in cells of Pichia etchellsii when grown on 3% cellobiose as the sole carbon source. Immobilization of ..beta..-glucosidase containing cells of Pichia etchellsii on various solid supports was conducted and immobilization by entrapment in calcium alginate gel beads was found to be the most simple and efficient method. The immobilized preparation was found to be limited by pore diffusion but exhibited no film-diffusion resistance during packed bed reactor operation. Good plug flow characteristics were observed in the packed bed column indicated by a low dispersion number of 0.1348. A model for reaction with pore diffusion for a noncompetitive type of inhibited system was developed and applied to the cellobiose hydrolysis system. The rate of reaction with diffusional limitations was determined by using the model and effectiveness factors were calculated for different particle sizes. An effectiveness factor of 0.49 was obtained for a particle diameter of 2.5 mm. The modified rate expression using the effectiveness factor represented batch and packed bed reactor operation satisfactorily. The productivity in the packed bed column was found to fall rapidly with increase in conversion rate indicating that the operating conditions of the column would have to be a compromise between high conversion rates and reasonable productivity. A half-life of over seven days was obtained at the operating temperature of 45/sup 0/C in continuous operation of the packed bed reactor. However, the half-life in the column was found to be greatly affected by temperature, increasing to over seve

  16. [Overexpression of Penicillium expansum lipase gene in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Cai; Lin, Lin; Shi, Qiao-Qin; Wu, Song-Gang

    2003-03-01

    The alkaline lipase gene of Penicillium expansum (PEL) was coloned into the yeast integrative plasmid pPIC3.5K, which was then transformed into His4 mutant yeast GS115. Recombinant Pichia strains were obtained by minimal olive oil-methanol plates screening and confirmed by PCR. The expression producus of PEL gene was analysis by SDS-PAGE and olive oil plate, the result indicated that PEL gene was functionally overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and up to 95% of the secreted protein. Recombinant lipase had a molecular mass of 28kD, showing a range similar to that of PEL, could hydrolyze olive oil and formed clear halos in the olive oil plates. Four different strategies (different media, pH, glycerol and methanol concentration) were applied to optimize the cultivation conditions, the activity of lipase was up to 260 u/mL under the optimal cultivation conditions. It is pointed out that the absence of the expensive biotin and yeast nitrogen base in the medium increased the lipase production. The possible reason of this result is absence of yeast nitrogen base increased the medium pH during cultivation, and PEL shows a higher stability at this condition. The lipase activity of the supernatant from the culture grown at pH 7 was higher than the one from the culture in the same medium at pH 6.0 is due to the pH stability of PEL too. The results also showed that the methanol and glycerol concentration had a marked effect on the production of lipase. PMID:15966328

  17. Past, present and future research directions with Pichia anomala.

    PubMed

    Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda; Schnürer, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The first International Pichia anomala Symposium provided a survey of past, recent and ongoing research on this yeast. The research community working with this yeast has focussed on several areas. Based on molecular data, a revision of the taxonomy is required: the name P. anomala is no longer applicable, as the genus Pichia is polyphyletic. The current debate centres on whether the yeast should be designated as Wickerhamomyces anomalus or if the previous name, Hansenula anomala, should be re-instated. The anti-microbial activities of this yeast received considerable attention during the symposium. H. anomala has been extensively studied as a biopreservation agent in many different post-harvest systems. Several mechanisms account for its anti-microbial activities, including the production of killer proteins and toxic volatile metabolites. Anti-idiotypic antibodies generating an "internal image" of a killer protein have been found to possess therapeutic activity against a broad range of microorganisms. A great diversity of H. anomala strains was reported at the symposium. Strains have been isolated from several food and feed systems and even from the intestine and reproductive organs of a malaria vector (Anopheles stephensi). Feed and food supplemented with certain H. anomala strains show an improved quality due, for example, to the addition of advantageous proteins and phytase activity. However, a number of apparent opportunistic pathogenic strains have also been isolated. Strain differentiation, especially the recognition of potentially pathogenic isolates, is an important challenge for the future commercialisation of this yeast. Future industrial and agricultural application of this yeast also raises questions of the economics of large-scale production, its survival during storage (formulation) and of safety regulations, all of which require further investigation. PMID:20924674

  18. Expression of Recombinant Proteins in the Methylotrophic Yeast Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Maria; Taupp, Marcus; Hallam, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Protein expression in the microbial eukaryotic host Pichia pastoris offers the possibility to generate high amounts of recombinant protein in a fast and easy to use expression system. As a single-celled microorganism P. pastoris is easy to manipulate and grows rapidly on inexpensive media at high cell densities. Being a eukaryote, P. pastoris is able to perform many of the post-translational modifications performed by higher eukaryotic cells and the obtained recombinant proteins undergo protein folding, proteolytic processing, disulfide bond formation and glycosylation [1]. As a methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris is capable of metabolizing methanol as its sole carbon source. The strong promoter for alcohol oxidase, AOX1, is tightly regulated and induced by methanol and it is used for the expression of the gene of interest. Accordingly, the expression of the foreign protein can be induced by adding methanol to the growth medium [2; 3]. Another important advantage is the secretion of the recombinant protein into the growth medium, using a signal sequence to target the foreign protein to the secretory pathway of P. pastoris. With only low levels of endogenous protein secreted to the media by the yeast itself and no added proteins to the media, a heterologous protein builds the majority of the total protein in the medium and facilitates following protein purification steps [3; 4]. The vector used here (pPICZαA) contains the AOX1 promoter for tightly regulated, methanol-induced expression of the gene of interest; the α-factor secretion signal for secretion of the recombinant protein, a Zeocin resistance gene for selection in both E. coli and Pichia and a C-terminal peptide containing the c-myc epitope and a polyhistidine (6xHis) tag for detection and purification of a recombinant protein. We also show western blot analysis of the recombinant protein using the specific Anti-myc-HRP antibody recognizing the c-myc epitope on the parent vector. PMID:20186119

  19. Glycoengineered Pichia produced anti-HER2 is comparable to trastuzumab in preclinical study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ningyan; Liu, Liming; Dumitru, Calin Dan; Cummings, Nga Rewa Houston; Cukan, Michael; Jiang, Youwei; Li, Yuan; Li, Fang; Mitchell, Teresa; Mallem, Muralidhar R; Ou, Yangsi; Patel, Rohan N; Vo, Kim; Wang, Hui; Burnina, Irina; Choi, Byung-Kwon; Huber, Hans; Stadheim, Terrance A

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian cell culture systems are used predominantly for the production of therapeutic monoclonal antibody (mAb) products. A number of alternative platforms, such as Pichia engineered with a humanized N-linked glycosylation pathway, have recently been developed for the production of mAbs. The glycosylation profiles of mAbs produced in glycoengineered Pichia are similar to those of mAbs produced in mammalian systems. This report presents for the first time the comprehensive characterization of an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) mAb produced in glycoengineered Pichia, and a study comparing the anti-HER2 from Pichia, which had an amino acid sequence identical to trastuzumab, with trastuzumab. The comparative study covered a full spectrum of preclinical evaluation, including bioanalytical characterization, in vitro biological functions, in vivo anti-tumor efficacy and pharmacokinetics in both mice and non-human primates. Cell signaling and proliferation assays showed that anti-HER2 from Pichia had antagonist activities comparable to trastuzumab. However, Pichia-produced material showed a 5-fold increase in binding affinity to FcγIIIA and significantly enhanced antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, presumably due to the lack of fucose on N-glycans. In a breast cancer xenograft mouse model, anti-HER2 was comparable to trastuzumab in tumor growth inhibition. Furthermore, comparable pharmacokinetic profiles were observed for anti-HER2 and trastuzumab in both mice and cynomolgus monkeys. We conclude that glycoengineered Pichia provides an alternative production platform for therapeutic mAbs and may be of particular interest for production of antibodies for which ADCC is part of the clinical mechanism of action. PMID:21487242

  20. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-domain protein MJ1004 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii

    PubMed Central

    Oyenarte, Iker; Lucas, María; Gómez García, Inmaculada; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    The purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the archaeal CBS-domain protein MJ1004 from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii are described. The native protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 54.4, b = 53.8, c = 82.6 Å, β = 106.1°. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 2.7 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Matthews-volume calculations suggested the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit that are likely to correspond to a dimeric species, which is also observed in solution. PMID:21393835

  1. Sorption of a fluorescent whitening agent (Tinopal CBS) onto modified cellulose fibers in the presence of surfactants and salt.

    PubMed

    Iamazaki, Eduardo T; Atvars, Teresa D Z

    2007-12-18

    The combined effect of salt (10 mmol L(-1)) and surfactants on the sorption of the fluorescent brightener 4,4'-distyrylbiphenyl sodium sulfonate (Tinopal CBS) onto modified cellulose fibers was studied. Sorption efficiencies with both cationic and anionic surfactants were evaluated. Emission spectroscopy was used for quantitative analysis since Tinopal has an intense fluorescence. The sorption efficiency of the brightener is greater for solutions containing a cationic surfactant (DTAC) below the critical micelle concentration (cmc), while for an anionic surfactant (SDS) above its cmc the efficiency is greater. The profile of the sorption isotherms were interpreted in terms of the evolution of surfactant aggregation at the fiber/solution interface. Salt influences the efficiency of the Tinopal sorption on the modified cellulose fibers either because it decreases the cmc of the surfactants or because the ions screen the surface charges of the fiber which decreases the electrostatic interaction among the charged headgroup of the surfactant and the charged fiber surface. PMID:18020381

  2. Nitrile bioconversion by Microbacterium imperiale CBS 498-74 resting cells in batch and ultrafiltration membrane bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, M; Cantarella, L; Gallifuoco, A; Spera, A

    2006-03-01

    The biohydration of acrylonitrile, propionitrile and benzonitrile catalysed by the NHase activity contained in resting cells of Microbacterium imperiale CBS 498-74 was operated at 5, 10 and 20 degrees C in laboratory-scale batch and membrane bioreactors. The bioreactions were conducted in buffered medium (50 mM Na(2)HPO(4)/NaH(2)PO(4), pH 7.0) in the presence of distilled water or tap-water, to simulate a possible end-pipe biotreatment process. The integral bioreactor performances were studied with a cell loading (dry cell weight; DCW) varying from 0.1 mg(DCW) per reactor to 16 mg(DCW) per reactor, in order to realize near 100% bioconversion of acrylonitrile, propionitrile and benzonitrile without consistent loss of NHase activity. PMID:15739103

  3. Over-Expression of Rice CBS Domain Containing Protein, OsCBSX3, Confers Rice Resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae Inoculation.

    PubMed

    Mou, Shaoliang; Shi, Lanping; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yanyan; Shen, Lei; Guan, Deyi; He, Shuilin

    2015-01-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domain containing proteins (CDCPs) constitute a big family in plants and some members in this family have been implicated in a variety of biological processes, but the precise functions and the underlying mechanism of the majority of this family in plant immunity remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a CBS domain containing protein gene, OsCBSX3, is functionally characterized in rice resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae). By quantitative real-time PCR, transcripts of OsCBSX3 are up-regulated significantly by inoculation of M. oryzae and the exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). OsCBSX3 is exclusively localized to the plasma membrane by transient expression of OsCBSX3 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) through approach of Agrobacterium infiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The plants of homozygous T3 transgenic rice lines of over-expressing OsCBSX3 exhibit significant enhanced resistance to M. oryzae inoculation, manifested by decreased disease symptoms, and inhibition of pathogen growth detected in DNA. Consistently, the over-expression of OsCBSX3 enhances the transcript levels of immunity associated marker genes including PR1a, PR1b, PR5, AOS2, PAL, NH1, and OsWRKY13 in plants inoculated with M. oryzae. These results suggest that OsCBSX3 acts as a positive regulator in resistance of rice to M. oryzae regulated by SA and JA-mediated signaling pathways synergistically. PMID:26184180

  4. Over-Expression of Rice CBS Domain Containing Protein, OsCBSX3, Confers Rice Resistance to Magnaporthe oryzae Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Shaoliang; Shi, Lanping; Lin, Wei; Liu, Yanyan; Shen, Lei; Guan, Deyi; He, Shuilin

    2015-01-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domain containing proteins (CDCPs) constitute a big family in plants and some members in this family have been implicated in a variety of biological processes, but the precise functions and the underlying mechanism of the majority of this family in plant immunity remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a CBS domain containing protein gene, OsCBSX3, is functionally characterized in rice resistance against Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae). By quantitative real-time PCR, transcripts of OsCBSX3 are up-regulated significantly by inoculation of M. oryzae and the exogenously applied salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). OsCBSX3 is exclusively localized to the plasma membrane by transient expression of OsCBSX3 fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) through approach of Agrobacterium infiltration in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The plants of homozygous T3 transgenic rice lines of over-expressing OsCBSX3 exhibit significant enhanced resistance to M. oryzae inoculation, manifested by decreased disease symptoms, and inhibition of pathogen growth detected in DNA. Consistently, the over-expression of OsCBSX3 enhances the transcript levels of immunity associated marker genes including PR1a, PR1b, PR5, AOS2, PAL, NH1, and OsWRKY13 in plants inoculated with M. oryzae. These results suggest that OsCBSX3 acts as a positive regulator in resistance of rice to M. oryzae regulated by SA and JA-mediated signaling pathways synergistically. PMID:26184180

  5. Glycosylation characterization of recombinant human erythropoietin produced in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bing; Burnina, Irina; Stadheim, Terrance A; Li, Huijuan

    2013-12-01

    Glycosylation plays a critical role in the in vivo efficacy of both endogenous and recombinant erythropoietin (EPO). Using mass spectrometry, we characterized the N-/O-linked glycosylation of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) produced in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris and compared with the glycosylation of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-derived rhEPO. While the three predicted N-linked glycosylation sites (Asn24, Asn38 and Asn83) showed complete site occupancy, Pichia- and CHO-derived rhEPO showed distinct differences in the glycan structures with the former containing sialylated bi-antennary glycoforms and the latter containing a mixture of sialylated bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary structures. Additionally, the N-linked glycans from Pichia-produced rhEPO were similar across all three sites. A low level of O-linked mannosylation was detected on Pichia-produced rhEPO at position Ser126, which is also the O-linked glycosylation site for endogenous human EPO and CHO-derived rhEPO. In summary, the mass spectrometric analyses revealed that rhEPO derived from glycoengineered Pichia has a highly uniform bi-antennary N-linked glycan composition and preserves the orthogonal O-linked glycosylation site present on endogenous human EPO and CHO-derived rhEPO. PMID:24338886

  6. Expression and Purification of C-Peptide Containing Insulin Using Pichia pastoris Expression System

    PubMed Central

    Baeshen, Mohammed N.; Bouback, Thamer A. F.; Alzubaidi, Mubarak A.; Alabbas, Omar T. O.; Alshahrani, Sultan M.; Aljohani, Ahmed A. M.; Munshi, Rayan A. A.; Al-Hejin, Ahmed; Redwan, Elrashdy M.; Ramadan, Hassan A. I.; Saini, Kulvinder S.; Baeshen, Nabih A.

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the incidence of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) among people from developed and developing countries has created a large global market for insulin. Moreover, exploration of new methods for insulin delivery including oral or inhalation route which require very high doses would further increase the demand of cost-effective recombinant insulin. Various bacterial and yeast strains have been optimized to overproduce important biopharmaceuticals. One of the approaches we have taken is the production of recombinant human insulin along with C-peptide in yeast Pichia pastoris. We procured a cDNA clone of insulin from Origene Inc., USA. Insulin cDNA was PCR amplified and cloned into yeast vector pPICZ-α. Cloned insulin cDNA was confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. pPICZ-α-insulin clone was transformed into Pichia pastoris SuperMan5 strain. Several Zeocin resistant clones were obtained and integration of insulin cDNA in Pichia genome was confirmed by PCR using insulin specific primers. Expression of insulin in Pichia clones was confirmed by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis. In vivo efficacy studies in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice confirmed the activity of recombinant insulin. In conclusion, a biologically active human proinsulin along with C-peptide was expressed at high level using Pichia pastoris expression system. PMID:27579308

  7. Expression and Purification of C-Peptide Containing Insulin Using Pichia pastoris Expression System.

    PubMed

    Baeshen, Mohammed N; Bouback, Thamer A F; Alzubaidi, Mubarak A; Bora, Roop S; Alotaibi, Mohammed A T; Alabbas, Omar T O; Alshahrani, Sultan M; Aljohani, Ahmed A M; Munshi, Rayan A A; Al-Hejin, Ahmed; Ahmed, Mohamed M M; Redwan, Elrashdy M; Ramadan, Hassan A I; Saini, Kulvinder S; Baeshen, Nabih A

    2016-01-01

    Increase in the incidence of Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) among people from developed and developing countries has created a large global market for insulin. Moreover, exploration of new methods for insulin delivery including oral or inhalation route which require very high doses would further increase the demand of cost-effective recombinant insulin. Various bacterial and yeast strains have been optimized to overproduce important biopharmaceuticals. One of the approaches we have taken is the production of recombinant human insulin along with C-peptide in yeast Pichia pastoris. We procured a cDNA clone of insulin from Origene Inc., USA. Insulin cDNA was PCR amplified and cloned into yeast vector pPICZ-α. Cloned insulin cDNA was confirmed by restriction analysis and DNA sequencing. pPICZ-α-insulin clone was transformed into Pichia pastoris SuperMan 5 strain. Several Zeocin resistant clones were obtained and integration of insulin cDNA in Pichia genome was confirmed by PCR using insulin specific primers. Expression of insulin in Pichia clones was confirmed by ELISA, SDS-PAGE, and Western blot analysis. In vivo efficacy studies in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice confirmed the activity of recombinant insulin. In conclusion, a biologically active human proinsulin along with C-peptide was expressed at high level using Pichia pastoris expression system. PMID:27579308

  8. Electrochemical studies of a truncated laccase produced in Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Gelo-Pujic, M.; Kim, H.H.; Butlin, N.G.; Palmore, G.T.R.

    1999-12-01

    The cDNA that encodes an isoform is laccase from Trametes versicolor (LCCI), as well as a truncated version (LCCIa), was subcloned and expressed by using the yeast Pichia pastoris as the heterologous host. The amino acid sequence of LCCIa is identical to that of LCCI except that the final 11 amino acids at the C terminus of LCCI are replaced with a single cysteine residue. This modification was introduced for the purpose of improving the kinetics of electron transfer between an electrode and the copper-containing active site of laccase. The two laccases (LCCI and LCCIa) are compared in terms of their relative activity with two substrates that have different redox potentials. Results from electrochemical studies on solutions containing LCCI and LCCIa indicate that the redox potential of the active site of LCCIa is shifted to more negative values (411 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode voltage) than that found in other fungal laccases. In addition, replacing the 11 codons at the C terminus of the laccase gene with a single cysteine codon influences the rate of heterogeneous electron transfer between and electrode and the copper-containing active site. These results demonstrate for the first time that the rate of electron transfer between an oxidoreductase and an electrode can be enhanced by changes to the primary structure of a protein via site-directed mutagenesis.

  9. Crystal Structure of Alcohol Oxidase from Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Valerius, Oliver; Feussner, Ivo; Ficner, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    FAD-dependent alcohol oxidases (AOX) are key enzymes of methylotrophic organisms that can utilize lower primary alcohols as sole source of carbon and energy. Here we report the crystal structure analysis of the methanol oxidase AOX1 from Pichia pastoris. The crystallographic phase problem was solved by means of Molecular Replacement in combination with initial structure rebuilding using Rosetta model completion and relaxation against an averaged electron density map. The subunit arrangement of the homo-octameric AOX1 differs from that of octameric vanillyl alcohol oxidase and other dimeric or tetrameric alcohol oxidases, due to the insertion of two large protruding loop regions and an additional C-terminal extension in AOX1. In comparison to other alcohol oxidases, the active site cavity of AOX1 is significantly reduced in size, which could explain the observed preference for methanol as substrate. All AOX1 subunits of the structure reported here harbor a modified flavin adenine dinucleotide, which contains an arabityl chain instead of a ribityl chain attached to the isoalloxazine ring. PMID:26905908

  10. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  11. Hygromycin-resistance vectors for gene expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junjie; Nie, Lei; Chen, Biao; Liu, Yingmiao; Kong, Yimeng; Wang, Haibin; Diao, Liuyang

    2014-04-01

    Pichia pastoris is a common host organism for heterologous protein expression and metabolic engineering. Zeocin-, G418-, nourseothricin- and blasticidin-resistance genes are the only dominant selectable markers currently available for selecting P. pastoris transformants. We describe here new P. pastoris expression vectors that confer a hygromycin resistance base on the Klebsiella pneumoniae hph gene. To demonstrate the application of the vectors for intracellular and secreted protein expression, green fluorescent protein (GFP) and human serum albumin (HSA) were cloned into the vectors and transformed into P. pastoris cells. The resulting strains expressed GFP and HSA constitutively or inducibly. The hygromycin resistance marker was also suitable for post-transformational vector amplication (PTVA) for obtaining strains with high plasmid copy numbers. A strain with multiple copies of the HSA expression cassette after PTVA had increased HSA expression compared with a strain with a single copy of the plasmid. To demonstrate compatibility of the new vectors with other vectors bearing antibiotic-resistance genes, P. pastoris was transformed with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes GSH1, GSH2 or SAM2 on plasmids containing genes for resistance to Zeocin, G418 or hygromycin. The resulting strain produced glutathione and S-adenosyl-L-methionine at levels approximately twice those of the parent strain. The new hygromycin-resistance vectors allow greater flexibility and potential applications in recombinant protein production and other research using P. pastoris. PMID:24822243

  12. Constitutive expression of Botrytis aclada laccase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kittl, Roman; Gonaus, Christoph; Pillei, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The heterologous expression of laccases is important for their large-scale production and genetic engineering--a prerequisite for industrial application. Pichia pastoris is the preferred expression host for fungal laccases. The recently cloned laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada (BaLac) has been efficiently expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the inducible alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. In this study, we compare these results to the constitutive expression in the same organism using the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. The results show that the amounts of BaLac produced with the GAP system (517 mgL(-1)) and the AOX1 system (495 mgL(-1)) are comparable. The constitutive expression is, however, faster, and the specific activity of BaLac in the culture supernatant is higher (41.3 Umg(-1) GAP, 14.2 Umg(-1) AOX1). In microtiter plates, the constitutive expression provides a clear advantage due to easy manipulation (simple medium, no methanol feeding) and fast enzyme production (high-throughput screening assays can already be performed after 48 h). PMID:22705842

  13. Constitutive expression of Botrytis aclada laccase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Kittl, Roman; Gonaus, Christoph; Pillei, Christian; Haltrich, Dietmar; Ludwig, Roland

    2012-01-01

    The heterologous expression of laccases is important for their large-scale production and genetic engineering—a prerequisite for industrial application. Pichia pastoris is the preferred expression host for fungal laccases. The recently cloned laccase from the ascomycete Botrytis aclada (BaLac) has been efficiently expressed in P. pastoris under the control of the inducible alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. In this study, we compare these results to the constitutive expression in the same organism using the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. The results show that the amounts of BaLac produced with the GAP system (517 mgL-1) and the AOX1 system (495 mgL-1) are comparable. The constitutive expression is, however, faster, and the specific activity of BaLac in the culture supernatant is higher (41.3 Umg-1 GAP, 14.2 Umg-1 AOX1). In microtiter plates, the constitutive expression provides a clear advantage due to easy manipulation (simple medium, no methanol feeding) and fast enzyme production (high-throughput screening assays can already be performed after 48 h). PMID:22705842

  14. Overexpression of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Marx, Hans; Mattanovich, Diethard; Sauer, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Background High cell density cultures of Pichia pastoris grown on methanol tend to develop yellow colored supernatants, attributed to the release of free flavins. The potential of P. pastoris for flavin overproduction is therefore given, but not pronounced when the yeast is grown on glucose. The aim of this study is to characterize the relative regulatory impact of each riboflavin synthesis gene. Deeper insight into pathway control and the potential of deregulation is established by overexpression of the single genes as well as a combined deregulation of up to all six riboflavin synthesis genes. Results Overexpression of the first gene of the riboflavin biosynthetic pathway (RIB1) is already sufficient to obtain yellow colonies and the accumulation of riboflavin in the supernatant of shake flask cultures growing on glucose. Sequential deregulation of all the genes, by exchange of their native promoter with the strong and constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter (PGAP) increases the riboflavin accumulation significantly. Conclusion The regulation of the pathway is distributed over more than one gene. High cell density cultivations of a P. pastoris strain overexpressing all six RIB genes allow the accumulation of 175 mg/L riboflavin in the supernatant. The basis for rational engineering of riboflavin production in P. pastoris has thus been established. PMID:18664246

  15. [Variability in the flavinogenic activity of Pichia guilliermondi yeasts].

    PubMed

    Shavlovskiĭ, G M; Ksheminskaia, G P; Gumetskiĭ, R Ia

    1975-01-01

    The natural and induced variability of the flavinogenic activity was studied in the strain of Pichia guilliermondii ATCC 9058. The flavinogenic activity of the collection strain showed normal distribution; the amount of riboflavin(RF) accumulated in the medium differed several times in the extreme variants. In the clones with the maximum and minimum accumulation of RF, the distribution of the variants was asymmetric, due to the appearance of the cells with an average flavinogenic activity. The clones have acquired almost the same flavinogenic activity after being transferred eight times on a fresh medium. The asymmetric distribution of the variants according to their flavinogenic activity was found also in the case of the clones obtained from the UV-irradiated cells. The mutants have been isolated, which synthesized 3-30 times more RF than the parent strain in the presence of iron doses optimal for the growth. Five mutants that were most active in producing RF differed in the sensitivity of their flavinogenesis to high concentrations of iron, yeast autolysate, and carbon sources. PMID:1160648

  16. Molecular optimization of rabies virus glycoprotein expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Ben Azoun, Safa; Belhaj, Aicha Eya; Göngrich, Rebecca; Gasser, Brigitte; Kallel, Héla

    2016-05-01

    In this work, different approaches were investigated to enhance the expression rabies virus glycoprotein (RABV-G) in the yeast Pichia pastoris; this membrane protein is responsible for the synthesis of rabies neutralizing antibodies. First, the impact of synonymous codon usage bias was examined and an optimized RABV-G gene was synthesized. Nevertheless, data showed that the secretion of the optimized RABV-G gene was not tremendously increased as compared with the non-optimized one. In addition, similar levels of RABV-G were obtained when α-factor mating factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae or the acid phosphatase PHO1 was used as a secretion signal. Therefore, sequence optimization and secretion signal were not the major bottlenecks for high-level expression of RABV-G in P. pastoris. Unfolded protein response (UPR) was induced in clones containing high copy number of RABV-G expression cassette indicating that folding was the limiting step for RABV-G secretion. To circumvent this limitation, co-overexpression of five factors involved in oxidative protein folding was investigated. Among these factors only PDI1, ERO1 and GPX1 proved their benefit to enhance the expression. The highest expression level of RABV-G reached 1230 ng ml(-1) . Competitive neutralizing assay confirmed that the recombinant protein was produced in the correct conformational form in this host. PMID:26880068

  17. Cloning and expression of buffalo active chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Juan Andres; Ageitos, Jose Manuel; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomas G

    2008-11-26

    To date, only recombinant chymosin has been obtained in its active form from supernatants of filamentous fungi, which are not as good candidates as yeasts for large-scale fermentations. Since Bos taurus chymosin was cloned and expressed, the world demand for this protease has increased to such an extent that the cheesemaking industry has been looking for novel sources of chymosin. In this sense because buffalo chymosin has properties that are more stable than those of B. taurus chymosin, it may occupy a space of its own in the chymosin market. The main objective of the present work was the production of active recombinant buffalo chymosin in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris . This yeast has demonstrated its usefulness as an excellent large-scale fermentation tool for the secretion of recombinant foreign proteins. RNA was extracted from the abomasum of a suckling calf water buffalo ( Bubalus arnee bubalis ). Preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin DNA sequences were isolated and expressed into P. pastoris. Only the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the prochymosin sequence gene were able to secrete the active form of the chymosin to the culture supernatant. This paper describes for the first time the production of active recombinant chymosin in P. pastoris without the need of a previous in vitro activation. The new recombinant yeast strain could represent a novel and excellent source of rennet for the cheesemaking industry. PMID:18975968

  18. Crystal Structure of Alcohol Oxidase from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Koch, Christian; Neumann, Piotr; Valerius, Oliver; Feussner, Ivo; Ficner, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    FAD-dependent alcohol oxidases (AOX) are key enzymes of methylotrophic organisms that can utilize lower primary alcohols as sole source of carbon and energy. Here we report the crystal structure analysis of the methanol oxidase AOX1 from Pichia pastoris. The crystallographic phase problem was solved by means of Molecular Replacement in combination with initial structure rebuilding using Rosetta model completion and relaxation against an averaged electron density map. The subunit arrangement of the homo-octameric AOX1 differs from that of octameric vanillyl alcohol oxidase and other dimeric or tetrameric alcohol oxidases, due to the insertion of two large protruding loop regions and an additional C-terminal extension in AOX1. In comparison to other alcohol oxidases, the active site cavity of AOX1 is significantly reduced in size, which could explain the observed preference for methanol as substrate. All AOX1 subunits of the structure reported here harbor a modified flavin adenine dinucleotide, which contains an arabityl chain instead of a ribityl chain attached to the isoalloxazine ring. PMID:26905908

  19. Biotechnological advances towards an enhanced peroxidase production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Krainer, Florian W; Gerstmann, Michaela A; Darnhofer, Barbara; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Glieder, Anton

    2016-09-10

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) is a high-demand enzyme for applications in diagnostics, bioremediation, biocatalysis and medicine. Current HRP preparations are isolated from horseradish roots as mixtures of biochemically diverse isoenzymes. Thus, there is a strong need for a recombinant production process enabling a steady supply with enzyme preparations of consistent high quality. However, most current recombinant production systems are limited at titers in the low mg/L range. In this study, we used the well-known yeast Pichia pastoris as host for recombinant HRP production. To enhance recombinant enzyme titers we systematically evaluated engineering approaches on the secretion process, coproduction of helper proteins, and compared expression from the strong methanol-inducible PAOX1 promoter, the strong constitutive PGAP promoter, and a novel bidirectional promoter PHTX1. Ultimately, coproduction of HRP and active Hac1 under PHTX1 control yielded a recombinant HRP titer of 132mg/L after 56h of cultivation in a methanol-independent and easy-to-do bioreactor cultivation process. With regard to the many versatile applications for HRP, the establishment of a microbial host system suitable for efficient recombinant HRP production was highly overdue. The novel HRP production platform in P. pastoris presented in this study sets a new benchmark for this medically relevant enzyme. PMID:27432633

  20. Deciphering the Hybridisation History Leading to the Lager Lineage Based on the Mosaic Genomes of Saccharomyces bayanus Strains NBRC1948 and CBS380T

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huu-Vang; Legras, Jean-Luc; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Gaillardin, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast species described as one of the two parents of the hybrid brewing yeast S. pastorianus. Strains CBS380T and NBRC1948 have been retained successively as pure-line representatives of S. bayanus. In the present study, sequence analyses confirmed and upgraded our previous finding: S. bayanus type strain CBS380T harbours a mosaic genome. The genome of strain NBRC1948 was also revealed to be mosaic. Both genomes were characterized by amplification and sequencing of different markers, including genes involved in maltotriose utilization or genes detected by array-CGH mapping. Sequence comparisons with public Saccharomyces spp. nucleotide sequences revealed that the CBS380T and NBRC1948 genomes are composed of: a predominant non-cerevisiae genetic background belonging to S. uvarum, a second unidentified species provisionally named S. lagerae, and several introgressed S. cerevisiae fragments. The largest cerevisiae-introgressed DNA common to both genomes totals 70kb in length and is distributed in three contigs, cA, cB and cC. These vary in terms of length and presence of MAL31 or MTY1 (maltotriose-transporter gene). In NBRC1948, two additional cerevisiae-contigs, cD and cE, totaling 12kb in length, as well as several smaller cerevisiae fragments were identified. All of these contigs were partially detected in the genomes of S. pastorianus lager strains CBS1503 (S. monacensis) and CBS1513 (S. carlsbergensis) explaining the noticeable common ability of S. bayanus and S. pastorianus to metabolize maltotriose. NBRC1948 was shown to be inter-fertile with S. uvarum CBS7001. The cross involving these two strains produced F1 segregants resembling the strains CBS380T or NRRLY-1551. This demonstrates that these S. bayanus strains were the offspring of a cross between S. uvarum and a strain similar to NBRC1948. Phylogenies established with selected cerevisiae and non-cerevisiae genes allowed us to decipher the complex hybridisation events linking S

  1. Deciphering the hybridisation history leading to the Lager lineage based on the mosaic genomes of Saccharomyces bayanus strains NBRC1948 and CBS380.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu-Vang; Legras, Jean-Luc; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Gaillardin, Claude

    2011-01-01

    Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast species described as one of the two parents of the hybrid brewing yeast S. pastorianus. Strains CBS380(T) and NBRC1948 have been retained successively as pure-line representatives of S. bayanus. In the present study, sequence analyses confirmed and upgraded our previous finding: S. bayanus type strain CBS380(T) harbours a mosaic genome. The genome of strain NBRC1948 was also revealed to be mosaic. Both genomes were characterized by amplification and sequencing of different markers, including genes involved in maltotriose utilization or genes detected by array-CGH mapping. Sequence comparisons with public Saccharomyces spp. nucleotide sequences revealed that the CBS380(T) and NBRC1948 genomes are composed of: a predominant non-cerevisiae genetic background belonging to S. uvarum, a second unidentified species provisionally named S. lagerae, and several introgressed S. cerevisiae fragments. The largest cerevisiae-introgressed DNA common to both genomes totals 70kb in length and is distributed in three contigs, cA, cB and cC. These vary in terms of length and presence of MAL31 or MTY1 (maltotriose-transporter gene). In NBRC1948, two additional cerevisiae-contigs, cD and cE, totaling 12kb in length, as well as several smaller cerevisiae fragments were identified. All of these contigs were partially detected in the genomes of S. pastorianus lager strains CBS1503 (S. monacensis) and CBS1513 (S. carlsbergensis) explaining the noticeable common ability of S. bayanus and S. pastorianus to metabolize maltotriose. NBRC1948 was shown to be inter-fertile with S. uvarum CBS7001. The cross involving these two strains produced F1 segregants resembling the strains CBS380(T) or NRRLY-1551. This demonstrates that these S. bayanus strains were the offspring of a cross between S. uvarum and a strain similar to NBRC1948. Phylogenies established with selected cerevisiae and non-cerevisiae genes allowed us to decipher the complex hybridisation events

  2. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Figueroa, Blanca; Valdiviezo-Godina, Norberto; Siqueiros-Cendón, Tania; Sinagawa-García, Sugey; Arévalo-Gallegos, Sigifredo; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf) in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin) demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa) ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly. PMID:27294912

  3. High-Level Expression of Recombinant Bovine Lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris with Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Figueroa, Blanca; Valdiviezo-Godina, Norberto; Siqueiros-Cendón, Tania; Sinagawa-García, Sugey; Arévalo-Gallegos, Sigifredo; Rascón-Cruz, Quintín

    2016-01-01

    In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein considered an important nutraceutical protein because of its several properties, was expressed in Pichia pastoris KM71-H under AOX1 promoter control, using pJ902 as the recombinant plasmid. Dot blotting analysis revealed the expression of recombinant bovine lactoferrin (rbLf) in Pichia pastoris. After Bach fermentation and purification by molecular exclusion, we obtained an expression yield of 3.5 g/L of rbLf. rbLf and predominantly pepsin-digested rbLf (rbLfcin) demonstrated antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E. coli) BL21DE3, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) FRI137, and, in a smaller percentage, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Ps. Aeruginosa) ATCC 27833. The successful expression and characterization of functional rbLf expressed in Pichia pastoris opens a prospect for the development of natural antimicrobial agents produced recombinantly. PMID:27294912

  4. Single Amino Acid Substitutions in HXT2.4 from Scheffersomyces stipitis Lead to Improved Cellobiose Fermentation by Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Suk-Jin; Kim, Heejin; Lin, Yuping; Jang, Myoung-Uoon; Galazka, Jonathan M.; Kim, Tae-Jip; Cate, Jamie H. D.

    2013-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cannot utilize cellobiose, but this yeast can be engineered to ferment cellobiose by introducing both cellodextrin transporter (cdt-1) and intracellular β-glucosidase (gh1-1) genes from Neurospora crassa. Here, we report that an engineered S. cerevisiae strain expressing the putative hexose transporter gene HXT2.4 from Scheffersomyces stipitis and gh1-1 can also ferment cellobiose. This result suggests that HXT2.4p may function as a cellobiose transporter when HXT2.4 is overexpressed in S. cerevisiae. However, cellobiose fermentation by the engineered strain expressing HXT2.4 and gh1-1 was much slower and less efficient than that by an engineered strain that initially expressed cdt-1 and gh1-1. The rate of cellobiose fermentation by the HXT2.4-expressing strain increased drastically after serial subcultures on cellobiose. Sequencing and retransformation of the isolated plasmids from a single colony of the fast cellobiose-fermenting culture led to the identification of a mutation (A291D) in HXT2.4 that is responsible for improved cellobiose fermentation by the evolved S. cerevisiae strain. Substitutions for alanine (A291) of negatively charged amino acids (A291E and A291D) or positively charged amino acids (A291K and A291R) significantly improved cellobiose fermentation. The mutant HXT2.4(A291D) exhibited 1.5-fold higher Km and 4-fold higher Vmax values than those from wild-type HXT2.4, whereas the expression levels were the same. These results suggest that the kinetic properties of wild-type HXT2.4 expressed in S. cerevisiae are suboptimal, and mutations of A291 into bulky charged amino acids might transform HXT2.4p into an efficient transporter, enabling rapid cellobiose fermentation by engineered S. cerevisiae strains. PMID:23263959

  5. Catabolite inactivation in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, W.D.; Duff, S.J.B. ); Beveridge, T.J. )

    1990-08-01

    Inactivation of the alcohol oxidase enzyme system of Pichia pastoris, during the whole-cell bioconversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde, was due to catabolite inactivation. Electron microscopy showed that methanol-grown cells contained peroxisomes but were devoid of these microbodies after the bioconversion. Acetaldehyde in the presence of O{sub 2} was the effector of catabolite inactivation. The process was initiated by the appearance of free acetaldehyde, and was characterized by an increase in the level of cyclic AMP, that coincided with a rapid 55% drop in alcohol oxidase activity. Further enzyme inactivation, believed to be due to proteolytic degradation, then proceeded at a constant but slower rate and was complete 21 h after acetaldehyde appearance. The rate of catabolite inactivation was dependent on acetaldehyde concentration up to 0.14 mM. It was temperature dependent and occurred within 24 h at 37{degree}C and by 6 days at 15{degree}C but not at 3{degree}C. Alcohol oxidase activity was psychrotolerant, with only a 17% decrease in initial specific activity over a temperature drop from 37 to 3{degree}C. In contrast, protease activity was inhibited at temperatures below 15{degree}C. When the bioconversion was run at 3{degree}C, catabolite inactivation was prevented. In the presence of 3 M Tris hydrochloride buffer, 123 g of acetaldehyde per liter was produced at 3{degree}C, compared with 58 g/liter at 30{degree}C. By using 0.5 M Tris in a cyclic-batch procedure, 140.6 g of acetaldehyde was produced.

  6. Cellobiose hydrolysis using Pichia etchellsii cells immobilized in calcium alginate

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, D.; Ghose, T.K.

    1984-04-01

    Cellulose degradation rates can be increased by the hydrolysis of cellobiose using immobilized beta-glucosidase. Production of beta-glucosidase in four yeasts was studied and a maximum activity of 1.22 IU/mg cells was obtained in cells of Pichia etchellsii grown on 3% cellobiose. The immobilization of beta-glucosidase containing cells on various solid supports was studied and entrapment in calcium alginate gel beads was found to be the best method. After ten sequential batch uses of the preparation, 96.5% of the initial activity was retained. The pH and temperature optima for free and immobilized cells were pH 6.5 (0.05M Maleate buffer) and 50/sup 0/C however, the enzyme has a better thermal stability at 45/sup 0/C. Beads stored at 4/sup 0/C for six months retain 80% of their activity. Kinetic studies performed on free and immobilized cells show that glucose is a noncompetitive product inhibitor. The immobilized preparation was limited by pore diffusion but exhibited no film-diffusion resistance during packed bed reactor operation. Good plug flow characteristics were observed. A model for reaction with pore diffusion for a noncompetitive type of inhibited system was developed and applied to this system. The reation rate with diffusional limitations was determined by using the model and effectiveness factors were calculated for different particle sizes. The modified rate expression using the effectiveness factor represented batch and packed bed reactor operation satisfactorily. The productivity in the packed bed column fell rapidly with an increase in conversion rate indicating that the operating conditions of the column would have to balance high conversion rates with acceptable productivity. The half-life in the column was affected by temperature, increasing to over seventeen days at 40/sup 0/C and decreasing to less than two days at 50/sup 0/C.

  7. Expression and characterization of camel chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nan; Wang, Kevin Yueju; Li, GangQiang; Guo, WenFang; Liu, DeHu

    2015-07-01

    Chymosin efficiently coagulates milk and so is widely used in commercial cheese production. Traditional chymosin production requires the slaughter of a large numbers of unweaned calves. In the present study, a full-length camel prochymosin gene was synthesized and cloned into the pPIC9K vector, which was then inserted into the yeast strain, Pichia pastoris GS115. Expression of the chymosin gene in yeast was under the control of an AOX1 inducible promoter. The yeast system produced approximately 37mg/L of recombinant enzyme under lab conditions. SDS-PAGE of the raw supernatant revealed two molecular bands, which were approximately 42kDa and 45kDa in size. The 45kDa band disappeared after treatment of the supernatant with N-glycosidase F (PNGase F), indicating that the recombinant protein was partially glycosylated. When subjected to a low pH, recombinant prochymosin was converted into mature and active chymosin. The active chymosin was capable of specifically hydrolyzing κ-casein. A pH of 5.04, and temperature range of 45-50°C, was optimum for milk clotting activity. Maximum milk clotting activity was detected with the inclusion of 20-40mM CaCl2. The recombinant enzyme was highly active and stable over a wide pH range (from 2.5 to 6.5) at 20°C for 8h. Thermostability of the recombinant enzyme was also analyzed. Pilot-scale production (300mg/L) was attained using a 5L fermenter. We demonstrated that expression of the camel chymosin gene in P. pastoris could represent an excellent system for producing active camel chymosin for potential use in the commercial production of cheese. PMID:25837439

  8. Immobilization of Pichia pastoris cells containing alcohol oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Maleknia, S; Ahmadi, H; Norouzian, D

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives The attempts were made to describe the development of a whole cell immobilization of P. pastoris by entrapping the cells in polyacrylamide gel beads. The alcohol oxidase activity of the whole cell Pichia pastoris was evaluated in comparison with yeast biomass production. Materials and Methods Methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris was obtained from Collection of Standard Microorganisms, Department of Bacterial Vaccines, Pasteur Institute of Iran (CSMPI). Stock culture was maintained on YPD agar plates. Alcohol oxidase was strongly induced by addition of 0.5% methanol as the carbon source. The cells were harvested by centrifugation then permeabilized. Finally the cells were immobilized in polyacrylamide gel beads. The activity of alcohol oxidase was determined by method of Tane et al. Results At the end of the logarithmic phase of cell culture, the alcohol oxidase activity of the whole cell P. Pastoris reached the highest level. In comparison, the alcohol oxidase activity was measured in an immobilized P. pastoris when entrapped in polyacrylamide gel beads. The alcohol oxidase activity of cells was induced by addition of 0.5% methanol as the carbon source. The cells were permeabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and immobilized. CTAB was also found to increase the gel permeability. Alcohol oxidase activity of immobilized cells was then quantitated by ABTS/POD spectrophotometric method at OD 420. There was a 14% increase in alcohol oxidase activity in immobilized cells as compared with free cells. By addition of 2-butanol as a substrate, the relative activity of alcohol oxidase was significantly higher as compared with other substrates added to the reaction media. Conclusion Immobilization of cells could eliminate lengthy and expensive procedures of enzyme separation and purification, protect and stabilize enzyme activity, and perform easy separation of the enzyme from the reaction media. PMID:22530090

  9. Toxicological evaluation of lactase derived from recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiying; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Yifei; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure) did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system. PMID:25184300

  10. Toxicological Evaluation of Lactase Derived from Recombinant Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yifei; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhang, Wei; Xu, Wentao

    2014-01-01

    A recombinant lactase was expressed in Pichia pastoris, resulting in enzymatic activity of 3600 U/mL in a 5 L fermenter. The lactase product was subjected to a series of toxicological tests to determine its safety for use as an enzyme preparation in the dairy industry. This recombinant lactase had the highest activity of all recombinant strains reported thus far. Acute oral toxicity, mutagenicity, genotoxic, and subchronic toxicity tests performed in rats and mice showed no death in any groups. The lethal dose 50% (LD50) based on the acute oral toxicity study is greater than 30 mL/kg body weight, which is in accordance with the 1500 L milk consumption of a 50 kg human daily. The lactase showed no mutagenic activity in the Ames test or a mouse sperm abnormality test at levels of up to 5 mg/plate and 1250 mg/kg body weight, respectively. It also showed no genetic toxicology in a bone marrow cell micronucleus test at levels of up to 1250 mg/kg body weight. A 90-day subchronic repeated toxicity study via the diet with lactase levels up to 1646 mg/kg (1000-fold greater than the mean human exposure) did not show any treatment-related significant toxicological effects on body weight, food consumption, organ weights, hematological and clinical chemistry, or histopathology compared to the control groups. This toxicological evaluation system is comprehensive and can be used in the safety evaluation of other enzyme preparations. The lactase showed no acute, mutagenic, genetic, or subchronic toxicity under our evaluation system. PMID:25184300

  11. Calcitriol prevents peripheral RSC96 Schwann neural cells from high glucose & methylglyoxal-induced injury through restoration of CBS/H2S expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhuang, Xiao-dong; Meng, Fu-hui; Chen, Li; Dong, Xiao-bian; Liu, Guo-Hui; Li, Jian-hua; Dong, Qi; Xu, Ji-de; Yang, Chun-tao

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis has suggested that vitamin D deficiency is involved in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) and the levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are also decreased in type 2 diabetes. The injection of vitamin D induces cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) expression and H2S generation. However, it remains unclear whether the supplementation of vitamin D prevents DPN through improvement of CBS/H2S expression. In the present study, RSC96 cells, a rat Schwann cell line, were exposed to high glucose and methylglyoxal (HG&MG) to simulate diabetic peripheral nerve injury in vivo. Before the exposure to HG&MG, the cells were preconditioned with calcitriol (CCT), an active form of vitamin D, and then CCT-mediated neuroprotection was investigated in respect of cellular viability, superoxide anion (O2(-)) generation, inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)/NO expression, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), as well as CBS expression and activity. It was found that both high glucose and MGO decreased cell viability and co-treatment with the two induced a more serious injury in RSC96 cells. Therefore, the exposure to HG&MG was used in the present study. The exposure to HG&MG markedly induced iNOS expression, NO and O2(-) generation, as well as MMP loss. In addition, the exposure to HG&MG depressed CBS expression and activity in RSC96 cells. However, the preconditioning with CCT significantly antagonized HG&MG-induced cell injury including the decreased viability, iNOS overexpression, NO and O2(-) accumulation, as well as MMP loss. CCT also partially restored the decreased CBS expression and activity triggered by HG&MG, while the inhibition of CBS with hydroxylamine attenuated CCT-mediated neuroprotection. Moreover, the exogenous donation of H2S produced similar cellular protective effects to CCT. The data indicate that the supplementation of vitamin D prevents HG&MG-induced peripheral nerve injury involving the restoration of endogenous H2S system, which may provide a

  12. Cold exposure affects carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, and induces Hog1p phosphorylation in Dekkera bruxellensis strain CBS 2499.

    PubMed

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambelli, Paolo; Simonetti, Paolo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-05-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a yeast known to affect the quality of wine and beer. This species, due to its high ethanol and acid tolerance, has been reported also to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries producing fuel ethanol. In order to understand how this species responds when exposed to low temperatures, some mechanisms like synthesis and accumulation of intracellular metabolites, changes in lipid composition and activation of the HOG-MAPK pathway were investigated in the genome sequenced strain CBS 2499. We show that cold stress caused intracellular accumulation of glycogen, but did not induce accumulation of trehalose and glycerol. The cellular fatty acid composition changed after the temperature downshift, and a significant increase of palmitoleic acid was observed. RT-PCR analysis revealed that OLE1 encoding for Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was up-regulated, whereas TPS1 and INO1 didn't show changes in their expression. In D. bruxellensis Hog1p was activated by phosphorylation, as described in S. cerevisiae, highlighting a conserved role of the HOG-MAP kinase signaling pathway in cold stress response. PMID:25697274

  13. Stabilized MLPG-VF-based method with CBS scheme for laminar flow at high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enjilela, Vali; Salimi, Davood; Tavasoli, Ali; Lotfi, Mohsen

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, the meshless local Petrov-Galerkin vorticity-stream function (MLPG-VF) method is extended to solve two-dimensional laminar fluid flow and heat transfer equations for high Reynolds and Rayleigh numbers. The characteristic-based split (CBS) scheme which uses unity test function is employed for discretization, and the moving least square (MLS) method is used for interpolation of the field variables. Four test cases are considered to evaluate the present algorithm, namely lid-driven cavity flow with Reynolds numbers up to and including 104, flow over a backward-facing step at Reynolds number of 800, natural convection in a square cavity for Rayleigh numbers up to and including 108, and natural convection in a concentric square outer cylinder and circular inner cylinder annulus for Rayleigh numbers up to and including 107. In each case, the result obtained using the proposed algorithm is either compared with the results from the literatures or with those obtained using conventional numerical techniques. The present algorithm shows stable results at lower or equal computational cost compared to the other upwinding schemes usually employed in the MLPG method. Close agreements between the compared results as well as higher accuracy of the proposed method show the ability of this stabilized algorithm.

  14. A high-throughput protein expression system in Pichia pastoris using a newly developed episomal vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe here the construction of a Gateway-compatible vector, pBGP1-DEST, for rapid and convenient preparation of expression plasmids for production of secretory proteins in Pichia pastoris. pBGP1-DEST directs the synthesis of a fusion protein consisting of the N-terminal signal and pro-sequence...

  15. Surface display and bioactivity of Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase on Pichia pastoris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To construct the Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) cell surface display system of Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase (BmAChE), the gene for the anchor protein (AGa1) was obtained from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was fused with the modified Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase gene (bmace) and transformed int...

  16. Efficacy of Pichia anomala WLR-076 to control aflatoxin on corn in Texas, 2005

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The experiments were conducted at three Texas Agricultural Experiment Stations on yellow corn hybrids to test the biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala WRL-076. There were five replicates per treatment arranged in a randomized complete block design. The treatments were: (1) P. anomala WLR-076 applied ...

  17. Differential gene expression during the pathogenic interaction between Pichia fermentans and peach fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biofilm-forming strain of Pichia fermentans was found to be a very strong antagonist against brown rot and grey mold in artificially wounded apple fruit when co-inoculated with either Monilinia fructicola or Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The same strain of yeast; however, was an aggressive path...

  18. Biotechnological Strains of Komagataella (Pichia) pastoris are Komagataella phaffii as Determined from Multigene Sequence Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pichia pastoris was reassigned earlier to the genus Komagataella following phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences. Since that time, two additional species of Komagataella have been described, K. pseudopastoris and K. phaffii. Because these three species are unlikely to be resolved from the standa...

  19. Expression of Cellobiose Dehydrogenase from Neurospora crassa in Pichia pastoris and its purification and characterization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A gene encoding cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) from Neurospora crassa strain FGSC 2489 has been cloned and expressed in the heterologous host Pichia pastoris, under the control of the AOX1 methanol inducible promoter. Recombinant CDH without the native signal sequence and fused with a his6-tag (rNC-...

  20. Genome Sequence of Pichia kudriavzevii M12, a Potential Producer of Bioethanol and Phytase

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Han Ming; Ling, How Lie; Rashid, Noor Aini Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of Pichia kudriavzevii M12 is presented here. The genome reveals the presence of genes encoding enzymes involved in xylose utilization and the pentose phosphate pathway for bioethanol production. Strain M12 is also a potential producer of phytases, enzymes useful in food processing and agriculture. PMID:23027839

  1. Functional expression of a blood tolerant laccase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Basidiomycete high-redox potential laccases (HRPLs) working in human physiological fluids (pH 7.4, 150 mM NaCl) arise great interest in the engineering of 3D-nanobiodevices for biomedical uses. In two previous reports, we described the directed evolution of a HRPL from basidiomycete PM1 strain CECT 2971: i) to be expressed in an active, soluble and stable form in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and ii) to be active in human blood. In spite of the fact that S. cerevisiae is suited for the directed evolution of HRPLs, the secretion levels obtained in this host are not high enough for further research and exploitation. Thus, the search for an alternative host to over-express the evolved laccases is mandatory. Results A blood-active laccase (ChU-B mutant) fused to the native/evolved α-factor prepro-leader was cloned under the control of two different promoters (PAOX1 and PGAP) and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The most active construct, which contained the PAOX1 and the evolved prepro-leader, was fermented in a 42-L fed-batch bioreactor yielding production levels of 43 mg/L. The recombinant laccase was purified to homogeneity and thoroughly characterized. As happened in S. cerevisiae, the laccase produced by P. pastoris presented an extra N-terminal extension (ETEAEF) generated by an alternative processing of the α-factor pro-leader at the Golgi compartment. The laccase mutant secreted by P. pastoris showed the same improved properties acquired after several cycles of directed evolution in S. cerevisiae for blood-tolerance: a characteristic pH-activity profile shifted to the neutral-basic range and a greatly increased resistance against inhibition by halides. Slight biochemical differences between both expression systems were found in glycosylation, thermostability and turnover numbers. Conclusions The tandem-yeast system based on S. cerevisiae to perform directed evolution and P. pastoris to over-express the evolved laccases constitutes a promising approach for

  2. Urothelium muscarinic activation phosphorylates CBS(Ser227) via cGMP/PKG pathway causing human bladder relaxation through H2S production.

    PubMed

    d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Mitidieri, Emma; Fusco, Ferdinando; Russo, Annapina; Pagliara, Valentina; Tramontano, Teresa; Donnarumma, Erminia; Mirone, Vincenzo; Cirino, Giuseppe; Russo, Giulia; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    The urothelium modulates detrusor activity through releasing factors whose nature has not been clearly defined. Here we have investigated the involvement of H2S as possible mediator released downstream following muscarinic (M) activation, by using human bladder and urothelial T24 cell line. Carbachol stimulation enhances H2S production and in turn cGMP in human urothelium or in T24 cells. This effect is reversed by cysthationine-β-synthase (CBS) inhibition. The blockade of M1 and M3 receptors reverses the increase in H2S production in human urothelium. In T24 cells, the blockade of M1 receptor significantly reduces carbachol-induced H2S production. In the functional studies, the urothelium removal from human bladder strips leads to an increase in carbachol-induced contraction that is mimicked by CBS inhibition. Instead, the CSE blockade does not significantly affect carbachol-induced contraction. The increase in H2S production and in turn of cGMP is driven by CBS-cGMP/PKG-dependent phosphorylation at Ser(227) following carbachol stimulation. The finding of the presence of this crosstalk between the cGMP/PKG and H2S pathway downstream to the M1/M3 receptor in the human urothelium further implies a key role for H2S in bladder physiopathology. Thus, the modulation of the H2S pathway can represent a feasible therapeutic target to develop drugs for bladder disorders. PMID:27509878

  3. Sex-specific association of sequence variants in CBS and MTRR with risk for promoter hypermethylation in the lung epithelium of smokers.

    PubMed

    Flores, Kristina G; Stidley, Christine A; Mackey, Amanda J; Picchi, Maria A; Stabler, Sally P; Siegfried, Jill M; Byers, Tim; Berwick, Marianne; Belinsky, Steven A; Leng, Shuguang

    2012-08-01

    Gene promoter hypermethylation is now regarded as a promising biomarker for the risk and progression of lung cancer. The one-carbon metabolism pathway is postulated to affect deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) methylation because it is responsible for the generation of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the methyl donor for cellular methylation reactions. This study investigated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six one-carbon metabolism-related genes with promoter hypermethylation in sputum DNA from non-Hispanic white smokers in the Lovelace Smokers Cohort (LSC) (n = 907). Logistic regression was used to assess the association of SNPs with hypermethylation using a high/low methylation cutoff. SNPs in the cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferase reductase (MTRR) genes were significantly associated with high methylation in males [CBS rs2850146 (-8283G > C), OR = 4.9; 95% CI: 1.98, 12.2, P = 0.0006] and low methylation in females [MTRR rs3776467 (7068A > G), OR = 0.57, 95% CI: 0.42, 0.77, P = 0.0003]. The variant allele of rs2850146 was associated with reduced gene expression and increased plasma homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. Three plasma metabolites, Hcy, methionine and dimethylglycine, were associated with increased risk for gene methylation. These studies suggest that SNPs in CBS and MTRR have sex-specific associations with aberrant methylation in the lung epithelium of smokers that could be mediated by the affected one-carbon metabolism and transsulfuration in the cells. PMID:22665368

  4. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of the New Ganoderma tsugae var. jannieae CBS-120304 Medicinal Higher Basidiomycete Mushroom.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Sharvit, Lital E; Trabelcy, Beny; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the chemical composition and anticancer and antioxidant activity of the new medicinal mushroom Ganoderma tsugae var. jannieae CBS-120304 were evaluated. The chemical composition assay includes amounts of total carbohydrates and proteins, amino acids, fatty acids, micro- and macroelements, and vitamins. The investigated medicinal mushroom seemed to be a rich source of nutritional components. Mycelium accumulated more than 2-fold more total protein compared with the fruiting body and reached 37% and 16% of dry weight, respectively. Carbohydrate content in the fruiting body seemed to be conspicuously higher than in the mycelium (50% of dry weight) and reached 80% of dry weight. Quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that, in general, palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid were the major fatty acids. Toxic elements, such as silver, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury, were found only in trace amounts in mycelium and were not detected in the fruiting body. Furthermore, the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay was used to evaluate antioxidant activity. The highest radical scavenging activity was 9.0 mg/mL (65.9%) by ethanol extract. In addition, mycelial extracts were tested to inhibit MCF7 breast cancer cells. Ganoderma tsugae var. jannieae ethyl acetate extract (GTEAE) extract showed high potential by inhibiting reporter activity by more than 70%. Results demonstrated that GTEAE had a strong effect on inhibitory protein κΒα level in the higher concentration used (200 gg/mL), which could be compared with the effect of parthenolide. Furthermore, GTEAE demonstrated strong inhibition of IκΒα phosphorylation. PMID:26559860

  5. Study on Environmental Causes and SNPs of MTHFR, MS and CBS Genes Related to Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Huang, Peng; Lin, Ning; Sun, Xiaoru; Yu, Rongbin; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qin, Yuming; Wang, Lijuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are among the most common birth defects in China. Environmental causes and folate metabolism changes may alter susceptibility to CHD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relevant risk-factors of children with CHD and their mothers. Methods 138 children with CHD and 207 normal children for controls were recruited. Their mothers were also enlisted in this study and interviewed following a questionnaire about their pregnant history and early pregnancy situation. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), methionine synthase (MS) and cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) of mothers and children were genotyped. Results There were significant differences in the gender of children, occupation of mothers, family history with CHD, history of abortion, history of adverse pregnancy, early pregnancy health, fetus during pregnancy, pesticide exposure and drug exposure in CHD group and control group ( P < 0.05). Logistic regression analyses showed that after adjustment for above factors, MTHFR rs1801131 were significantly associated with their offspring CHD risk in mothers. Compared with the mothers whose MTHFR were rs1801131 AA and AC genotypes, the mothers who got a mutation of MTHFR rs1801131 CC genotypes had a 267% increase in risk of given birth of a CHD children (OR=3.67,95%CI=1.12-12.05). Meanwhile, MTHFR rs1801131 were significantly associated with CHD susceptibility in children (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.00-2.44 in additive model). Conclusions Besides mothers’ social and fertility characteristics, our results suggested that the genetic variants in folate metabolism pathway might be one of the most related risk-factors of CHD. MTHFR rs1801131 were identified as loci in Chinese population that were involved in CHD. PMID:26035828

  6. [Optimization on the production of analgesic peptide from Buthus martensii Karsch in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-ling; He, Hui-xia; Zhu, Hui-xin; Cheng, Ke-di; Zhu, Ping

    2009-01-01

    The technology of liquid fermentation for producing the recombinant analgesic peptide BmK AngM1 from Buthus martensii Karsch in Pichia pastoris was studied by single-factor and orthogonal test. The results showed that the optimal culture conditions were as follows: 1.2% methanol, 0.6% casamino acids, initial pH 6.0, and three times of basal inoculation volume. Under the above culture conditions, the expression level of recombinant BmK AngM1 in Pichia pastoris was above 500 mg x L(-1), which was more than three times of the control. The study has laid a foundation for the large-scale preparation of BmK AngM1 to meet the needs of theoretical research of BmK AngM1 and development of new medicines. PMID:19350829

  7. Cloning and functional expression of a mungbean defensin VrD1 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Jr; Chen, Gan-Hong; Hsu, Hui-Ching; Li, Shin-Shing; Chen, Ching-San

    2004-04-21

    It was shown previously that a bacterially expressed mungbean defensin VrCRP exhibited both antifungal and insecticidal activities. To isolate this protein in a large quantity for its characterization, the defensin cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant defensin (rVrD1) was purified. The recombinant VrD1 was shown to inhibit the growth of fungi such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pyricularia oryza, Rhizoctonia solani, and Trichophyton rubrum and development of bruchid larva. The protein also inhibits in vitro protein synthesis. These biological activities are similar to that of the bacterially expressed defensin. Functional expression of VrD1 in Pichia pastoris provides a highly feasible system to study the structure-function relationship of VrD1 using the mutagenesis approach. PMID:15080630

  8. Isolation and characterization of Pichia heedii mutants defective in xylose uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Does, A.L.; Bisson, L.F. )

    1990-11-01

    To investigate the role of xylose uptake in xylose metabolism in yeasts, we isolated a series of mutated strains of the yeast Pichia heedii which are defective in xylose utilization. Four of these demonstrated defects in xylose uptake. Overlaps between the functional or regulatory mechanisms for glucose and xylose uptake may exist in this yeast since some of the mutants defective in xylose uptake were also defective in glucose transport. None of the mutants were defective in xylose reductase or xylitol dehydrogenase activities.

  9. Biological production of acetaldehyde from ethanol using non-growing Pichia pastoris whole cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Heien-Kun; Foutch, G.L.; Fish, W.W.

    1991-12-31

    Acetaldehyde has been produced biologically using whole-cell Pichia Pass in a semibatch fermentor. Ethanol and air were fed continuously, and the product, acetaldehyde, was removed by the air stream. Operation of the reactor exceeded 100 h, maintaining high alcohol oxidase activity. Low cell-mass concentration (9.9 g/L) minimized product inhibition. Ethanol concentration in the broth, oxygen concentration in the air, and pH were evaluated for their effects on the fermentation process.

  10. Expression of endoglucanases in Pichia pastoris under control of the GAP promoter

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant-derived biomass is a potential alternative to fossil feedstocks for a greener economy. Enzymatic saccharification of biomass has been studied extensively and endoglucanases have been found to be a prerequisite for quick initial liquefaction of biomass under industrial conditions. Pichia pastoris, widely used for heterologous protein expression, can be utilized for fungal endoglucanase production. The recently marketed PichiaPink™ expression system allows for rapid clone selection, and employs the methanol inducible AOX1 promoter to ensure high protein expression levels. However, methanol is toxic and poses a fire hazard, issues which become more significant at an industrial scale. It is possible to eliminate these risks and still maintain high productivity by switching to the constitutive GAP promoter. Results In the present study, a plasmid carrying the constitutive GAP promoter was created for PichiaPink™. We then studied expression of two endoglucanases, AfCel12A from Aspergillus fumigatus and TaCel5A from Thermoascus aurantiacus, regulated by either the AOX1 promoter or the GAP promoter. Initial experiments in tubes and small bioreactors showed that the levels of AfCel12A obtained with the constitutive promoter were similar or higher, compared to the AOX1 promoter, whereas the levels of TaCel5A were somewhat lower. After optimization of cultivation conditions using a 15-l bioreactor, the recombinant P. pastoris strains utilizing the GAP promoter produced ca. 3–5 g/l of total secreted protein, with CMCase activity equivalent to 1200 nkat/ml AfCel12A and 170 nkat/ml TaCel5A. Conclusions We present a strategy for constitutive recombinant protein expression in the novel PichiaPink™ system. Both AfCel12A and TaCel5A were successfully expressed constitutively in P. pastoris under the GAP promoter. Reasonable protein levels were reached after optimizing cultivation conditions. PMID:24742273

  11. Pichia pastoris expressed EtMic2 protein as a potential vaccine against chicken coccidiosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Peipei; Sun, Hui; Liu, Qing; Wang, Longjiang; Wang, Tiantian; Shi, Wenyan; Li, Hongmei; Xiao, Yihong; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Fangkun; Zhao, Xiaomin

    2014-09-15

    Chicken coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species leads to tremendous economic losses to the avian industry worldwide. Identification of parasite life cycle specific antigens is a critical step in recombinant protein vaccine development against Eimeria infections. In the present study, we amplified and cloned the microneme-2 (EtMIC2) gene from Eimeria tenella wild type strain SD-01, and expressed the EtMic2 protein using Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli expression systems, respectively. The EtMic2 proteins expressed by P. pastoris and E. coli were used as vaccines to immunize chickens and their protective efficacies were compared and evaluated. The results indicated that both P. pastoris and E. coli expressed EtMic2 proteins exhibited good immunogenicity in stimulating host immune responses and the Pichia expressed EtMic2 provided better protection than the E. coli expressed EtMic2 did by significantly increasing growth rate, inducing high specific antibody response, reducing the oocyst output and cecal lesions. Particularly, the Pichia expressed EtMic2 protein exhibited much better ability in inducing cell mediated immune response than the E. coli expressed EtMic2. PMID:25047705

  12. Biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles using Pichia fermentans JA2 and their antimicrobial property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Ritika; Reddy, Arpita; Abraham, Jayanthi

    2015-01-01

    The development of eco-friendly alternative to chemical synthesis of metal nanoparticles is of great challenge among researchers. The present study aimed to investigate the biological synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial study and synergistic effect of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles against clinical pathogens using Pichia fermentans JA2. The extracellular biosynthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles was investigated using Pichia fermentans JA2 isolated from spoiled fruit pulp bought in Vellore local market. The crystalline and stable metallic nanoparticles were characterized evolving several analytical techniques including UV-visible spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction pattern analysis and FE-scanning electron microscope with EDX-analysis. The biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles were tested for their antimicrobial property against medically important Gram positive, Gram negative and fungal pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also evaluated for their increased antimicrobial activities with various commercially available antibiotics against clinical pathogens. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles inhibited most of the Gram negative clinical pathogens, whereas zinc oxide nanoparticles were able to inhibit only Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The combined effect of standard antibiotic disc and biosynthesized metallic nanoparticles enhanced the inhibitory effect against clinical pathogens. The biological synthesis of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles is a novel and cost-effective approach over harmful chemical synthesis techniques. The metallic nanoparticles synthesized using Pichia fermentans JA2 possess potent inhibitory effect that offers valuable contribution to pharmaceutical associations.

  13. [A flavinogenic mutant of the yeast Pichia guilliermondii with impaired iron transport].

    PubMed

    Shavlovskiĭ, G M; Fedorovich, D V; Zviagil'skais, R A

    1976-01-01

    A mutant of the yeast Pichia guilliermondii was produced by means of UV; the mutant was capable of riboflavin overproduction in the presence of high concentrations of iron in the medium. The content of total and non-hemin iron and cytochrome c, and the activity of catalase, were lower in the cells of the mutant than in the parent cells, while the activity of riboflavin synthetase was higher. The content of iron in the cells increased when the mutant was cultivated on media with citric acid, siderochromes of Klebsiella aerogenes, Neurospora crassa, Rhodotorula glutinis, cultural broth of Pichia ohmeri, and autolysate of brewer's yeast, whereas the flavinogenous activity of the cells decreased. Rotenone inhibited respiration of the intact cells of the mutant producing elevated amounts of riboflavin; therefore, flavinogenesis was not regulated by non-hemin iron on the first segment of the respiratory chain. Overproduction of riboflavin in the mutant of Pichia guilliermondii was proved to be a recessive property. PMID:933879

  14. A Rapid Method for Determining the Concentration of Recombinant Protein Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, L. W.; Zhao, Y.; Niu, L. P.; Jiang, R.; Song, Y.; Feng, H.; feng, K.; Qi, C.

    2011-02-01

    Pichia secretive expression system is one of powerful eukaryotic expression systems in genetic engineering, which is especially suitable for industrial utilization. Because of the low concentration of the target protein in initial experiment, the methods and conditions for expression of the target protein should be optimized according to the protein yield repetitively. It is necessary to set up a rapid, simple and convenient analysis method for protein expression levels instead of the generally used method such as ultrafiltration, purification, dialysis, lyophilization and so on. In this paper, acetone precipitation method was chosen to concentrate the recombinant protein firstly after comparing with four different protein precipitation methods systematically, and then the protein was analyzed by SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The recombinant protein was determined with the feature of protein band by the Automated Image Capture and 1-D Analysis Software directly. With this method, the optimized expression conditions of basic fibroblast growth factor secreted from pichia were obtained, which is as the same as using traditional methods. Hence, a convenient tool to determine the optimized conditions for the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia was established.

  15. A functional Kv1.2-hERG chimaeric channel expressed in Pichia pastoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, Mandeep S.; Cockcroft, Christopher J.; Munsey, Tim; Smith, Kathrine J.; Powell, Andrew J.; Carter, Paul; Wrighton, David C.; Rong, Hong-Lin; Yusaf, Shahnaz P.; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2014-02-01

    Members of the six-transmembrane segment family of ion channels share a common structural design. However, there are sequence differences between the members that confer distinct biophysical properties on individual channels. Currently, we do not have 3D structures for all members of the family to help explain the molecular basis for the differences in their biophysical properties and pharmacology. This is due to low-level expression of many members in native or heterologous systems. One exception is rat Kv1.2 which has been overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and crystallised. Here, we tested chimaeras of rat Kv1.2 with the hERG channel for function in Xenopus oocytes and for overexpression in Pichia. Chimaera containing the S1-S6 transmembrane region of HERG showed functional and pharmacological properties similar to hERG and could be overexpressed and purified from Pichia. Our results demonstrate that rat Kv1.2 could serve as a surrogate to express difficult-to-overexpress members of the six-transmembrane segment channel family.

  16. A functional Kv1.2-hERG chimaeric channel expressed in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Dhillon, Mandeep S.; Cockcroft, Christopher J.; Munsey, Tim; Smith, Kathrine J.; Powell, Andrew J.; Carter, Paul; Wrighton, David C.; Rong, Hong-lin; Yusaf, Shahnaz P.; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2014-01-01

    Members of the six-transmembrane segment family of ion channels share a common structural design. However, there are sequence differences between the members that confer distinct biophysical properties on individual channels. Currently, we do not have 3D structures for all members of the family to help explain the molecular basis for the differences in their biophysical properties and pharmacology. This is due to low-level expression of many members in native or heterologous systems. One exception is rat Kv1.2 which has been overexpressed in Pichia pastoris and crystallised. Here, we tested chimaeras of rat Kv1.2 with the hERG channel for function in Xenopus oocytes and for overexpression in Pichia. Chimaera containing the S1–S6 transmembrane region of HERG showed functional and pharmacological properties similar to hERG and could be overexpressed and purified from Pichia. Our results demonstrate that rat Kv1.2 could serve as a surrogate to express difficult-to-overexpress members of the six-transmembrane segment channel family. PMID:24569544

  17. Breaking the bottleneck: Use of molecular tailoring approach for the estimation of binding energies at MP2/CBS limit for large water clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurmeet; Nandi, Apurba; Gadre, Shridhar R.

    2016-03-01

    A pragmatic method based on the molecular tailoring approach (MTA) for estimating the complete basis set (CBS) limit at Møller-Plesset second order perturbation (MP2) theory accurately for large molecular clusters with limited computational resources is developed. It is applied to water clusters, (H2O)n (n = 7, 8, 10, 16, 17, and 25) optimized employing aug-cc-pVDZ (aVDZ) basis-set. Binding energies (BEs) of these clusters are estimated at the MP2/aug-cc-pVNZ (aVNZ) [N = T, Q, and 5 (whenever possible)] levels of theory employing grafted MTA (GMTA) methodology and are found to lie within 0.2 kcal/mol of the corresponding full calculation MP2 BE, wherever available. The results are extrapolated to CBS limit using a three point formula. The GMTA-MP2 calculations are feasible on off-the-shelf hardware and show around 50%-65% saving of computational time. The methodology has a potential for application to molecular clusters containing ˜100 atoms.

  18. Removal of gating in voltage-dependent ClC-2 chloride channel by point mutations affecting the pore and C-terminus CBS-2 domain

    PubMed Central

    Yusef, Yamil R; Zúñiga, Leandro; Catalán, Marcelo; Niemeyer, María Isabel; Cid, L Pablo; Sepúlveda, Francisco V

    2006-01-01

    Functional and structural studies demonstrate that Cl− channels of the ClC family have a dimeric double-barrelled structure, with each monomer contributing an identical pore. Studies with ClC-0, the prototype ClC channel, show the presence of independent mechanisms gating the individual pores or both pores simultaneously. A single-point mutation in the CBS-2 domain of ClC-0 has been shown to abolish slow gating. We have taken advantage of the high conservation of CBS domains in ClC channels to test for the presence of a slow gate in ClC-2 by reproducing this mutation (H811A). ClC-2-H811A showed faster opening kinetics and opened at more positive potentials than ClC-2. There was no difference in [Cl−]i dependence. Additional neutralization of a putative pore gate glutamate side chain (E207V) abolished all gating. Resolving slow and fast gating relaxations, however, revealed that the H811A mutation affected both fast and slow gating processes in ClC-2. This suggests that slow and fast gating in ClC-2 are coupled, perhaps with slow gating contributing to the operation of the pore E207 as a protopore gate. PMID:16469788

  19. Removal of gating in voltage-dependent ClC-2 chloride channel by point mutations affecting the pore and C-terminus CBS-2 domain.

    PubMed

    Yusef, Yamil R; Zúñiga, Leandro; Catalán, Marcelo; Niemeyer, María Isabel; Cid, L Pablo; Sepúlveda, Francisco V

    2006-04-01

    Functional and structural studies demonstrate that Cl(-) channels of the ClC family have a dimeric double-barrelled structure, with each monomer contributing an identical pore. Studies with ClC-0, the prototype ClC channel, show the presence of independent mechanisms gating the individual pores or both pores simultaneously. A single-point mutation in the CBS-2 domain of ClC-0 has been shown to abolish slow gating. We have taken advantage of the high conservation of CBS domains in ClC channels to test for the presence of a slow gate in ClC-2 by reproducing this mutation (H811A). ClC-2-H811A showed faster opening kinetics and opened at more positive potentials than ClC-2. There was no difference in [Cl(-)](i) dependence. Additional neutralization of a putative pore gate glutamate side chain (E207V) abolished all gating. Resolving slow and fast gating relaxations, however, revealed that the H811A mutation affected both fast and slow gating processes in ClC-2. This suggests that slow and fast gating in ClC-2 are coupled, perhaps with slow gating contributing to the operation of the pore E207 as a protopore gate. PMID:16469788

  20. Theoretical Calculation of Jet Fuel Thermochemistry. 1; Tetrahydrodicylopentadiene (JP10) Thermochemistry Using the CBS-QB3 and G3(MP2)//B3LYP Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    High-level ab initio calculations have been performed on the exo and endo isomers of gas-phase tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (THDCPD), a principal component of the jet fuel JP10, using the Gaussian Gx and Gx(MPx) composite methods, as well as the CBS-QB3 method, and using a variety of isodesmic and homodesmotic reaction schemes. The impetus for this work is to help resolve large discrepancies existing between literature measurements of the formation enthalpy Delta (sub f)H deg (298) for exo-THDCPD. We find that use of the isodesmic bond separation reaction C10H16 + 14CH4 yields 12C2H6 yields results for the exo isomer (JP10) in between the two experimentally accepted values, for the composite methods G3(MP2), G3(MP2)//B3LYP, and CBS-QB3. Application of this same isodesmic bond separation scheme to gas-phase adamantane yields a value for Delta (sub f)H deg (298) within 5 kJ/mol of experiment. Isodesmic bond separation calculations for the endo isomer give a heat of formation in excellent agreement with the experimental measurement. Combining our calculated values for the gas-phase heat of formation with recent measurements of the heat of vaporization yields recommended values for Delta (sub f)H deg (298)liq of -126.4 and -114.7 kJ/mol for the exo and endo isomers, respectively.

  1. High-level extracellular production and characterization of Candida antarctica lipase B in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Eom, Gyeong Tae; Lee, Seung Hwan; Song, Bong Keun; Chung, Keun-Wo; Kim, Young-Wun; Song, Jae Kwang

    2013-08-01

    The gene encoding lipase B from Candida antarctica (CalB) was expressed in Pichia pastoris after it was synthesized by the recursive PCR and cloned into the Pichia expression plasmid, pPICZαA. The CalB was successfully secreted in the recombinant P. pastoris strain X-33 with an apparent molecular weight of 34 kDa. For 140 h flask culture, the dry cell weight and the extracellular lipase activity reached at 5.4 g/l and 57.9 U/l toward p-nitrophenyl palmitate, respectively. When we performed the fed-batch fermentation using a methanol feeding strategy for 110 h, the dry cell weight and the extracellular lipase activity were increased to 135.7 g/l and 11,900 U/l; the CalB protein concentration was 1.18 g/l of culture supernatant. The characteristics of CalB recovered from the P. pastoris culture were compared with the commercial form of CalB produced in Aspergillus oryzae. The kinetic constants and specific activity, the effects of activity and stability on temperature and pH, the glycosylation extent, the degree of immobilization on macroporous resin and the yield of esterification reaction between oleic acid and n-butanol were almost identical to each other. Therefore, we successfully proved that the Pichia-based expression system for CalB in this study was industrially promising compared with one of the most efficient production systems. PMID:23571105

  2. Low-pressure airlift fermenter for single cell protein production: II. Continuous culture of Pichia yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.Y.; Srinivasan, S.; Leavitt, R.I.; Coty, V.F.; Kondis, E.F.

    1987-03-01

    Experiments using Pichia yeast grown on n-paraffins have been conducted in laboratory 10-l airlift fermenters and in a 640-l module of commercial scale. Results confirmed the design concept with low-pressure air. However, in the absence of mass transport constraints, the build up of toxic factors in the fermenter appeared to a major variable limiting cell productivity. Foaming in the large fermenter also presented a serious problem, which must be solved before low-pressure airlift fermenters become practical. 14 references.

  3. Large-scale production in Pichia pastoris of the recombinant vaccine Gavac against cattle tick.

    PubMed

    Canales, M; Enríquez, A; Ramos, E; Cabrera, D; Dandie, H; Soto, A; Falcón, V; Rodríguez, M; de la Fuente, J

    1997-03-01

    A gene coding for the Bm86 tick protein was recently cloned, expressed in Pichia pastoris and shown to induce an inmunological response in cattle against ticks. Moreover, the Gavac vaccine (Heber Biotec S.A., Havana, Cuba), which contains this recombinant protein, has proved to control the Boophilus microplus populations under field conditions. This paper reviews the development and large-scale production of this vaccine, the efficacy of the resulting product and the strategy followed in designing its production plant. The production plant fulfills biosafety requirements and GMP. PMID:9141213

  4. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant Boophilus microplus Bm86 antigen expressed by transformed Pichia pastoris cells.

    PubMed

    Montesino, R; Cremata, J; Rodríguez, M; Besada, V; Falcón, V; de la Fuente, J

    1996-02-01

    In the present paper we report the biochemical characteristics of the recombinant tick (Boophilus microplus) gut antigen Bm86 that previously has been cloned, expressed and recovered at high levels in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The results demonstrate that rBm86 had a modification at position 92 (Thr replaced by Ile) and aggregated, forming particles ranging between 17 and 40 nm. The rBm86 was N-glycosylated, having at least two non-glycosylated sequons (Asn-329 and Asn-363) and a ratio of only 0.4/65 (free Cys/total Cys)/mol of protein. PMID:8867893

  5. Response Surface Optimization of Bioethanol Production from Sugarcane Molasses by Pichia veronae Strain HSC-22

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Hamed I.; Nassar, Hussein N.; Madian, Hekmat R.; Abu Amr, Salem S.; El-Gendy, Nour Sh.

    2015-01-01

    Pichia veronae strain HSC-22 (accession number KP012558) showed a good tolerance to relatively high temperature, ethanol and sugar concentrations. Response surface optimization based on central composite design of experiments predicted the optimal values of the influencing parameters that affect the production of bioethanol from sugarcane molasses to be as follows: initial pH 5, 25% (w : v) initial molasses concentration, 35°C, 116 rpm, and 60 h. Under these optimum operating conditions the maximum bioethanol production on a batch fermenter scale was recorded as 32.32 g/L with 44% bioethanol yield. PMID:26779347

  6. Simplified high-throughput screening of AOX1-expressed laccase enzyme in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kenzom, T; Srivastava, P; Mishra, S

    2015-11-15

    The heterologous protein expression in Pichia pastoris under the control of alcohol oxidase (AOX1)promoter comprises two steps, the growth and induction phases, which are time-consuming and technically demanding. Here, we describe an alternate method where expression is carried out directly in the methanol-containing medium. Using this method, we were successful in screening high-activity laccase clones from a library of laccase mutants generated by random mutagenesis. This simplified method not only saves time but also is highly efficient and can be used for screening a large number of clones. PMID:26299646

  7. The hybrid four-CBS-domain KINβγ subunit functions as the canonical γ subunit of the plant energy sensor SnRK1.

    PubMed

    Ramon, Matthew; Ruelens, Philip; Li, Yi; Sheen, Jen; Geuten, Koen; Rolland, Filip

    2013-07-01

    The AMPK/SNF1/SnRK1 protein kinases are a family of ancient and highly conserved eukaryotic energy sensors that function as heterotrimeric complexes. These typically comprise catalytic α subunits and regulatory β and γ subunits, the latter function as the energy-sensing modules of animal AMPK through adenosine nucleotide binding. The ability to monitor accurately and adapt to changing environmental conditions and energy supply is essential for optimal plant growth and survival, but mechanistic insight in the plant SnRK1 function is still limited. In addition to a family of γ-like proteins, plants also encode a hybrid βγ protein that combines the Four-Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS)-domain (FCD) structure in γ subunits with a glycogen-binding domain (GBD), typically found in β subunits. We used integrated functional analyses by ectopic SnRK1 complex reconstitution, yeast mutant complementation, in-depth phylogenetic reconstruction, and a seedling starvation assay to show that only the hybrid KINβγ protein that recruited the GBD around the emergence of the green chloroplast-containing plants, acts as the canonical γ subunit required for heterotrimeric complex formation. Mutagenesis and truncation analysis further show that complex interaction in plant cells and γ subunit function in yeast depend on both a highly conserved FCD and a pre-CBS domain, but not the GBD. In addition to novel insight into canonical AMPK/SNF/SnRK1 γ subunit function, regulation and evolution, we provide a new classification of plant FCD genes as a convenient and reliable tool to predict regulatory partners for the SnRK1 energy sensor and novel FCD gene functions. PMID:23551663

  8. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the plasmid-encoded genes for the two-component 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS.

    PubMed

    Haak, B; Fetzner, S; Lingens, F

    1995-02-01

    The two-component nonheme iron dioxygenase system 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS catalyzes the double hydroxylation of 2-halobenzoates with concomitant release of halogenide and carbon dioxide, yielding catechol. The gene cluster encoding this enzyme, cbdABC, was localized on a 70-kbp conjugative plasmid designated pBAH1. The nucleotide sequences of cbdABC and flanking regions were determined. In the deduced amino acid sequence of the large subunit of the terminal oxygenase component (CbdA), a conserved motif proposed to bind the Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster was identified. In the NADH:acceptor reductase component (CbdC), a putative binding site for a chloroplast-type [2Fe-2S] center and possible flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NAD-binding domains were identified. The cbdABC sequences show significant homology to benABC, which encode benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (52% identity at the deduced amino acid level), and to xylXYZ, which encode toluate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (51% amino acid identity). Recombinant pkT231 harboring cbdABC and flanking regions complemented a plasmid-free mutant of wild-type P. cepacia 2CBS for growth on 2-chlorobenzoate, and it also allowed recombinant P. putida KT2440 to metabolize 2-chlorobenzoate. Functional NADH:acceptor reductase and oxygenase components of 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase were enriched from recombinant Pseudomonas clones. PMID:7530709

  9. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and expression of the plasmid-encoded genes for the two-component 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS.

    PubMed Central

    Haak, B; Fetzner, S; Lingens, F

    1995-01-01

    The two-component nonheme iron dioxygenase system 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas cepacia 2CBS catalyzes the double hydroxylation of 2-halobenzoates with concomitant release of halogenide and carbon dioxide, yielding catechol. The gene cluster encoding this enzyme, cbdABC, was localized on a 70-kbp conjugative plasmid designated pBAH1. The nucleotide sequences of cbdABC and flanking regions were determined. In the deduced amino acid sequence of the large subunit of the terminal oxygenase component (CbdA), a conserved motif proposed to bind the Rieske-type [2Fe-2S] cluster was identified. In the NADH:acceptor reductase component (CbdC), a putative binding site for a chloroplast-type [2Fe-2S] center and possible flavin adenine dinucleotide- and NAD-binding domains were identified. The cbdABC sequences show significant homology to benABC, which encode benzoate 1,2-dioxygenase from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (52% identity at the deduced amino acid level), and to xylXYZ, which encode toluate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (51% amino acid identity). Recombinant pkT231 harboring cbdABC and flanking regions complemented a plasmid-free mutant of wild-type P. cepacia 2CBS for growth on 2-chlorobenzoate, and it also allowed recombinant P. putida KT2440 to metabolize 2-chlorobenzoate. Functional NADH:acceptor reductase and oxygenase components of 2-halobenzoate 1,2-dioxygenase were enriched from recombinant Pseudomonas clones. PMID:7530709

  10. In situ microscopy for online monitoring of cell concentration in Pichia pastoris cultivations.

    PubMed

    Marquard, D; Enders, A; Roth, G; Rinas, U; Scheper, T; Lindner, P

    2016-09-20

    In situ Microscopy (ISM) is an optical non-invasive technique to monitor cells in bioprocesses in real-time. Pichia pastoris is one of the most promising protein expression systems. This yeast combines fast growth on simple media and important eukaryotic features such as glycosylation. In this work, the ISM technology was applied to Pichia pastoris cultivations for online monitoring of the cell concentration during cultivation. Different ISM settings were tested. The acquired images were analyzed with two image processing algorithms. In seven cultivations the cell concentration was monitored by the applied algorithms and offline samples were taken to determine optical density (OD) and dry cell mass (DCM). Cell concentrations up to 74g/L dry cell mass could be analyzed via the ISM. Depending on the algorithm and the ISM settings, an accuracy between 0.3 % and 12 % was achieved. The overall results show that for a robust measurement a combination of the two described algorithms is required. PMID:27485811

  11. In vivo synthesis of mammalian-like, hybrid-type N-glycans in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Vervecken, Wouter; Kaigorodov, Vladimir; Callewaert, Nico; Geysens, Steven; De Vusser, Kristof; Contreras, Roland

    2004-05-01

    The Pichia pastoris N-glycosylation pathway is only partially homologous to the pathway in human cells. In the Golgi apparatus, human cells synthesize complex oligosaccharides, whereas Pichia cells form mannose structures that can contain up to 40 mannose residues. This hypermannosylation of secreted glycoproteins hampers the downstream processing of heterologously expressed glycoproteins and leads to the production of protein-based therapeutic agents that are rapidly cleared from the blood because of the presence of terminal mannose residues. Here, we describe engineering of the P. pastoris N-glycosylation pathway to produce nonhyperglycosylated hybrid glycans. This was accomplished by inactivation of OCH1 and overexpression of an alpha-1,2-mannosidase retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I and beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase retained in the Golgi apparatus. The engineered strain synthesized a nonsialylated hybrid-type N-linked oligosaccharide structure on its glycoproteins. The procedures which we developed allow glycan engineering of any P. pastoris expression strain and can yield up to 90% homogeneous protein-linked oligosaccharides. PMID:15128513

  12. High-level expression of human tumour suppressor P53 in the methylotrophic yeast: Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Abdelmoula-Souissi, Salma; Rekik, Leila; Gargouri, Ali; Mokdad-Gargouri, Raja

    2007-08-01

    The human tumour suppressor P53 is a key protein involved in tumour suppression. P53 acts as a "guardian of genome" by regulating many target genes involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis. We report the P53 expression by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris using the methanol inducible AOX1 promoter. We have produced the rP53 in intracellular form as well as secreted using the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor prepro-leader sequence in two genetic contexts of Pichia, Mut(s) and Mut(+). The intracellular P53 was successfully produced by Mut(s) (KM71) as well as Mut(+) (X33) strains, however, the secreted form was mainly observed in the Mut(s) strain, despite a higher number of p53 copies integrated in the Mut(+) strain. Interestingly, in Mut(s) phenotype, the medium pH influences markedly the rP53 production since it was higher at pH 7 than 6. PMID:17482479

  13. Heterologous, Expression, and Characterization of Thermostable Glucoamylase Derived from Aspergillus flavus NSH9 in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Kazi Muhammad Rezaul; Hossain, Md. Anowar; Sing, Ngieng Ngui; Mohd Sinang, Fazia; Hussain, Mohd Hasnain Md.; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2016-01-01

    A novel thermostable glucoamylase cDNA without starch binding domain (SBD) of Aspergillus flavus NSH9 was successfully identified, isolated, and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The complete open reading frame of glucoamylase from Aspergillus flavus NSH9 was identified by employing PCR that encodes 493 amino acids lacking in the SBD. The first 17 amino acids were presumed to be a signal peptide. The cDNA was cloned into Pichia pastoris and the highest expression of recombinant glucoamylase (rGA) was observed after 8 days of incubation period with 1% methanol. The molecular weight of the purified rGA was about 78 kDa and exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and temperature of 70°C. The enzyme was stable at higher temperature with 50% of residual activity observed after 20 min at 90°C and 100°C. Low concentration of metal (Mg++, Fe++, Zn++, Cu++, and Pb++) had positive effect on rGA activity. This rGA has the potential for use and application in the saccharification steps, due to its thermostability, in the starch processing industries. PMID:27504454

  14. Biomarkers to evaluate the effects of temperature and methanol on recombinant Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda, Andrea B.; Figueroa, Carolina A.; Abdalla, Dulcineia S.P.; Maranhão, Andrea Q.; Ulloa, Patricio H.; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farías, Jorge G.

    2014-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production. In order to evaluate the effects of temperature (10 and 30 °C) and methanol (1 and 3% (v/v)) on genetically-modified Pichia pastoris, different biomarkers were evaluated: Heat stress (HSF-1 and Hsp70), oxidative stress (OGG1 and TBARS) and antioxidant (GLR). Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol-10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol-30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol-10°C. The expression level of HIF-1α, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. Ours results show that at 3% methanol −30 °C there is an increase of mitochondrial OGG1 (mtOGG1), Glutathione Reductase (GLR) and TBARS. In addition, there was a cytosolic expression of HSF-1 and HSP-70, which indicates a deprotection against nucleolar fragmentation (apoptosis). On the other hand, at 3% methanol −10 °C and 1% and at methanol −10 °C conditions there was nuclear expression of OGG1, lower levels of TBARS and lower expression of GLR, cytosolic expression of HSF-1 and nuclear expression HSP-70. In conclusion, our results suggest that 3% methanol-30 °C is a condition that induces a strong oxidative stress and risk factors of apoptosis in modified-genetically P. pastoris. PMID:25242930

  15. Heterologous, Expression, and Characterization of Thermostable Glucoamylase Derived from Aspergillus flavus NSH9 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Karim, Kazi Muhammad Rezaul; Husaini, Ahmad; Hossain, Md Anowar; Sing, Ngieng Ngui; Mohd Sinang, Fazia; Hussain, Mohd Hasnain Md; Roslan, Hairul Azman

    2016-01-01

    A novel thermostable glucoamylase cDNA without starch binding domain (SBD) of Aspergillus flavus NSH9 was successfully identified, isolated, and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The complete open reading frame of glucoamylase from Aspergillus flavus NSH9 was identified by employing PCR that encodes 493 amino acids lacking in the SBD. The first 17 amino acids were presumed to be a signal peptide. The cDNA was cloned into Pichia pastoris and the highest expression of recombinant glucoamylase (rGA) was observed after 8 days of incubation period with 1% methanol. The molecular weight of the purified rGA was about 78 kDa and exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and temperature of 70°C. The enzyme was stable at higher temperature with 50% of residual activity observed after 20 min at 90°C and 100°C. Low concentration of metal (Mg(++), Fe(++), Zn(++), Cu(++), and Pb(++)) had positive effect on rGA activity. This rGA has the potential for use and application in the saccharification steps, due to its thermostability, in the starch processing industries. PMID:27504454

  16. A multi-bioreactor system for optimal production of malaria vaccines with Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Jens; Pohlmann, Kristof; Tatge, Frithjof; Lang, Roman; Faber, Bart; Luttmann, Reiner

    2011-04-01

    The successful development of optimal multistage production processes for recombinant products with Pichia pastoris needs to meet three pre-conditions. These pre-conditions are (i) strategies for performing fully automated and observable processes, (ii) characterization of the host cell-specific reaction parameters in order to make an adapted process layout for feeding and aeration strategies, and (iii) knowledge of optimal operation parameter conditions for maximizing the expression productivity of target protein amount and/or quality. In this report, an approach of a fully automated multi-bioreactor plant is described that meets all these requirements. The expression and secretion of a potential malaria vaccine with Pichia pastoris was chosen as an example to demonstrate the quality of the bioreactor system. Methods for the simultaneous identification of reaction kinetics were developed for strain characterization. Process optimization was carried out by applying a sequential/parallel Design of Experiments. In the view of Process Analytical Technology (PAT)-applications and in order to develop fully automated and globally observable production processes, methods for quasi on-line monitoring of recombinant protein secretion titers and the immunological quality of the products are also discussed in detail. PMID:21472987

  17. Codon optimization, expression, purification, and functional characterization of recombinant human IL-25 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yushan; Wu, Chengsheng; Wang, Jinyu; Mo, Wei; Yu, Min

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin (IL)-25 (also known as IL-17E) is a distinct member of the IL-17 cytokine family which induces IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 expression and promotes pathogenic T helper (Th)-2 cell responses in various organs. IL-25 has been shown to have crucial role between innate and adaptive immunity and also a key component of the protection of gastrointestinal helminthes. In this study, to produce bioactive recombinant human IL-25 (rhIL-25), the cDNA of mature IL-25 was performed codon optimization based on methylotropic yeast Pichia pastoris codon bias and cloned into the expression vector pPICZαA. The recombinant vector was transformed into P. pichia strain X-33 and selected by zeocin resistance. Benchtop fermentation and simple purification strategy were established to purify the rhIL-25 with about 17 kDa molecular mass. Functional analysis showed that purified rhIL-25 specifically bond to receptor IL-17BR and induce G-CSF production in vitro. Further annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay indicated that rhIL-25 induced apoptosis in two breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and HBL-100. This study provides a new strategy for the large-scale production of bioactive IL-25 for biological and therapeutic applications. PMID:24100683

  18. Overexpression and biochemical characterization of a thermostable phytase from Bacillus subtilis US417 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hmida-Sayari, Aïda; Elgharbi, Fatma; Farhat, Ameny; Rekik, Hatem; Blondeau, Karine; Bejar, Samir

    2014-09-01

    The overexpression of the native gene encoding the thermostable Bacillus subtilis US417 phytase using Pichia pastoris system is described. The phytase gene, in which the sequence encoding the signal peptide was replaced by that of the α-factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, was placed under the control of the methanol-inducible promoter of the alcohol oxidase 1 gene and expressed in Pichia pastoris. Small-scale expression experiments and activity assays were used to screen positive colonies. A recombinant strain was selected and produces 43 and 227 U/mL of phytase activity in shake flasks and in high-cell-density fermentation, respectively. The purified phytase was glycosylated protein and varied in size (50-65 kDa). It has a molecular mass of 43 kDa when it was deglycosylated. The purified r-PHY maintains 100% of its activity after 10 min incubation at 75 °C and pH 7.5. This thermostable phytase, which is also active over broad pH ranges, may be useful as feed additives, since it can resist the temperature used in the feed-pelleting process. PMID:24859267

  19. Biomarkers to evaluate the effects of temperature and methanol on recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Andrea B; Figueroa, Carolina A; Abdalla, Dulcineia S P; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Ulloa, Patricio H; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farías, Jorge G

    2014-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is methylotrophic yeast used as an efficient expression system for heterologous protein production. In order to evaluate the effects of temperature (10 and 30 °C) and methanol (1 and 3% (v/v)) on genetically-modified Pichia pastoris, different biomarkers were evaluated: Heat stress (HSF-1 and Hsp70), oxidative stress (OGG1 and TBARS) and antioxidant (GLR). Three yeast cultures were performed: 3X = 3% methanol-10 °C, 4X = 3% methanol-30 °C, and 5X = 1% methanol-10°C. The expression level of HIF-1α, HSF-1, HSP-70 and HSP-90 biomarkers were measured by Western blot and in situ detection was performed by immunocytochemistry. Ours results show that at 3% methanol -30 °C there is an increase of mitochondrial OGG1 (mtOGG1), Glutathione Reductase (GLR) and TBARS. In addition, there was a cytosolic expression of HSF-1 and HSP-70, which indicates a deprotection against nucleolar fragmentation (apoptosis). On the other hand, at 3% methanol -10 °C and 1% and at methanol -10 °C conditions there was nuclear expression of OGG1, lower levels of TBARS and lower expression of GLR, cytosolic expression of HSF-1 and nuclear expression HSP-70. In conclusion, our results suggest that 3% methanol-30 °C is a condition that induces a strong oxidative stress and risk factors of apoptosis in modified-genetically P. pastoris. PMID:25242930

  20. Enzymatic Synthesis of Structured Lipids using a Novel Cold-Active Lipase from Pichia lynferdii NRRL Y-7723

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Structured lipids (SL) were synthesized by the acidolysis of borage oil with caprylic acid using lipases. Six commercial lipases from different sources and a novel lipase from Pichia lynferdii NRRL Y-7723 were screened for their acidolysis activities and Lipozyme RM IM and NRRL Y-7723 lipase were s...

  1. Liquid formulations sustaining the viability of a superior yeast strain Pichia anomala WRL-076 for mycotoxin control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pichia anomala WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against A. flavus. The yeast could effectively inhibit aflatoxin production and growth of A. flavus. An important requirement for the use of biocontrol agents is the production of large quantities of the micro...

  2. Codon modification for the DNA sequence of a single-chain Fv antibody against clenbuterol and expression in Pichia pastoris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve expression efficiency of the recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against clenbuterol (CBL) obtained from mouse in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) GS115, the DNA sequence encoding for CBL-scFv was designed and synthesized based on the codon bias of P. p...

  3. Nutrient limitation leads to penetrative growth into agar and affects aroma formation in Pichia fabianii, P. kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    van Rijswijck, Irma M H; Dijksterhuis, Jan; Wolkers-Rooijackers, Judith C M; Abee, Tjakko; Smid, Eddy J

    2015-01-01

    Among fermentative yeast species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is most frequently used as a model organism, although other yeast species may have special features that make them interesting candidates to apply in food-fermentation processes. In this study, we used three yeast species isolated from fermented masau (Ziziphus mauritiana) fruit, S. cerevisiae 131, Pichia fabianii 65 and Pichia kudriavzevii 129, and determined the impact of nitrogen and/or glucose limitation on surface growth mode and the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All three species displayed significant changes in growth mode in all nutrient-limited conditions, signified by the formation of metafilaments or pseudohyphae. The timing of the transition was found to be species-specific. Transition in growth mode is suggested to be linked to the production of certain fusel alcohols, such as phenylethyl alcohol, which serve as quorum-sensing molecules. Interestingly, we did not observe concomitant increased production of phenylethyl alcohol and filamentous growth. Notably, a broader range of esters was found only for the Pichia spp. grown on nitrogen-limited agar for 21 days compared to nutrient-rich agar, and when grown on glucose- and glucose- plus nitrogen-limited agar. Our data suggest that for the Pichia spp., the formation of esters may play an important role in the switch in growth mode upon nitrogen limitation. Further biological or ecological implications of ester formation are discussed. PMID:25308873

  4. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala for aflatoxin reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pichia anomala WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of mycotoxin in the food chain...

  5. Identification of genes involved in the pathogenic interaction between an antagonistic strain of Pichia fermentans and peach fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A biofilm-forming strain of Pichia fermentans was very effective in reducing brown rot and grey rot in artificially wounded apple fruit when co-inoculated with either Monilinia fructicola or Botrytis cinerea, respectively. The same strain, however, was an aggressive pathogen when inoculated on peach...

  6. Fluorescent viability stains to probe the metabolic status of aflatoxigenic fungus in dual culture of Aspergillus flavus and Pichia anomala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic activity of aflatoxigenic fungus, Aspergillus flavus co-cultured with a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala was examined using several vital stains. Both the FUN-1 stain and the combined use of DiBAC4(5) with CDFA-AM stains demonstrated that P. anomala inactivated the ATP generating syst...

  7. Lipid, Oxidative and Inflammatory Profile and Alterations in the Enzymes Paraoxonase and Butyrylcholinesterase in Plasma of Patients with Homocystinuria Due CBS Deficiency: The Vitamin B12 and Folic Acid Importance.

    PubMed

    Vanzin, Camila Simioni; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Donida, Bruna; Hammerschimidt, Tatiane Grazieli; Ribas, Graziela S; Kolling, Janaína; Scherer, Emilene B; Vilarinho, Laura; Nogueira, Célia; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Wajner, Moacir; Wyse, Angela T S; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2015-08-01

    Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is the main cause of homocystinuria. Homocysteine (Hcy), methionine, and other metabolites of Hcy accumulate in the body of affected patients. Despite the fact that thromboembolism represents the major cause of morbidity in CBS-deficient patients, the mechanisms of cardiovascular alterations found in homocystinuria remain unclear. In this work, we evaluated the lipid and inflammatory profile, oxidative protein damage, and the activities of the enzymes paraoxonase (PON1) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in plasma of CBS-deficient patients at diagnosis and during the treatment (protein-restricted diet supplemented with pyridoxine, folic acid, betaine, and vitamin B12). We also investigated the effect of folic acid and vitamin B12 on these parameters. We found a significant decrease in HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA-1) levels, as well as in PON1 activity in both untreated and treated CBS-deficient patients when compared to controls. BuChE activity and IL-6 levels were significantly increased in not treated patients. Furthermore, significant positive correlations between PON1 activity and sulphydryl groups and between IL-6 levels and carbonyl content were verified. Moreover, vitamin B12 was positively correlated with PON1 and ApoA-1 levels, while folic acid was inversely correlated with total Hcy concentration, demonstrating the importance of this treatment. Our results also demonstrated that CBS-deficient patients presented important alterations in biochemical parameters, possibly caused by the metabolites of Hcy, as well as by oxidative stress, and that the adequate adherence to the treatment is essential to revert or prevent these alterations. PMID:25805165

  8. Bioremediation of Parboiled Rice Effluent Supplemented with Biodiesel-Derived Glycerol Using Pichia pastoris X-33

    PubMed Central

    Gil de los Santos, Diego; Gil Turnes, Carlos; Rochedo Conceição, Fabricio

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Pichia pastoris X-33 as a bioremediator to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and phosphorus (P-PO4   3−), after culture in parboiled rice effluent supplemented with p.a. glycerol or a glycerol by-product of the biodiesel industry. The greatest reduction in the COD (55%), TKN (45%), and P-PO4   3− (52%) of the effluent was observed in cultures of P. pastoris X-33 supplemented with 15 g ·L−1 of biodiesel-derived glycerol. Furthermore, the overall biomass yield was 2.1 g ·L−1. These data suggest that biodiesel-derived glycerol is an efficient carbon source for the bioremediation of parboiled rice effluent and biomass production. PMID:22919327

  9. Expression and purification of soluble porcine cystatin 11 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Fan, Kuohai; Jiang, Junbing; Wang, Zhirui; Fan, Ruicheng; Yin, Wei; Sun, Yaogui; Li, Hongquan

    2014-11-01

    Cystatin 11 (CST11) belongs to the cystatin type 2 family of cysteine protease inhibitors and exhibits antimicrobial activity in vitro. In this study, we describe the expression and purification of recombinant porcine CST11 in the Pichia pastoris system. We then assess its antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus subtilis by liquid growth inhibition assay. Kinetic studies indicate that the recombinant porcine CST11 has high potency against E. coli and S. aureus. Scanning electronic microscope analysis showed that CST11 might be targeting the bacterial membrane and, thus, could potentially be developed as a therapeutic agent for inhibiting microbe infection without the risk of antibiotic resistance. PMID:25161037

  10. Automated pipeline for rapid production and screening of HIV-specific monoclonal antibodies using pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Shah, Kartik A; Clark, John J; Goods, Brittany A; Politano, Timothy J; Mozdzierz, Nicholas J; Zimnisky, Ross M; Leeson, Rachel L; Love, J Christopher; Love, Kerry R

    2015-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that bind and neutralize human pathogens have great therapeutic potential. Advances in automated screening and liquid handling have resulted in the ability to discover antigen-specific antibodies either directly from human blood or from various combinatorial libraries (phage, bacteria, or yeast). There remain, however, bottlenecks in the cloning, expression and evaluation of such lead antibodies identified in primary screens that hinder high-throughput screening. As such, "hit-to-lead identification" remains both expensive and time-consuming. By combining the advantages of overlap extension PCR (OE-PCR) and a genetically stable yet easily manipulatable microbial expression host Pichia pastoris, we have developed an automated pipeline for the rapid production and screening of full-length antigen-specific mAbs. Here, we demonstrate the speed, feasibility and cost-effectiveness of our approach by generating several broadly neutralizing antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). PMID:26032261

  11. Metabolomics sampling of Pichia pastoris revisited: rapid filtration prevents metabolite loss during quenching.

    PubMed

    Russmayer, Hannes; Troyer, Christina; Neubauer, Stefan; Steiger, Matthias G; Gasser, Brigitte; Hann, Stephan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Sauer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2015-09-01

    Metabolomics can be defined as the quantitative assessment of a large number of metabolites of a biological system. A prerequisite for the accurate determination of intracellular metabolite concentrations is a reliable and reproducible sample preparation method, which needs to be optimized for each organism individually. Here, we compare the performance of rapid filtration and centrifugation after quenching of Pichia pastoris cells in cold methanol. During incubation in the quenching solution, metabolites are lost from the cells with a half-life of 70-180 min. Metabolites with lower molecular weights showed lower half-lifes compared to metabolites with higher molecular weight. Rapid filtration within 2 min after quenching leads to only minor losses below 2%, and is thus the preferred method for cell separation. PMID:26091839

  12. Methods for efficient high-throughput screening of protein expression in recombinant Pichia pastoris strains.

    PubMed

    Camattari, Andrea; Weinhandl, Katrin; Gudiminchi, Rama K

    2014-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is becoming one of the favorite industrial workhorses for protein expression. Due to the widespread use of integration vectors, which generates significant clonal variability, screening methods allowing assaying hundreds of individual clones are of particular importance. Here we describe methods to detect and analyze protein expression, developed in a 96-well format for high-throughput screening of recombinant P. pastoris strains. The chapter covers essentially three common scenarios: (1) an enzymatic assay for proteins expressed in the cell cytoplasm, requiring cell lysis; (2) a whole-cell assay for a fungal cytochrome P450; and (3) a nonenzymatic assay for detection and quantification of tagged protein secreted into the supernatant. PMID:24744029

  13. Mutant strains of Pichia pastoris with enhanced secretion of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Sasha; Weaver, Jun; de Sa Campos, Katherine; Bulahan, Rhobe; Nguyen, Jackson; Grove, Heather; Huang, Amy; Low, Lauren; Tran, Namphuong; Gomez, Seth; Yau, Jennifer; Ilustrisimo, Thomas; Kawilarang, Jessica; Lau, Jonathan; Tranphung, Maivi; Chen, Irene; Tran, Christina; Fox, Marcia; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2013-11-01

    Although Pichia pastoris is a popular protein expression system, it exhibits limitations in its ability to secrete heterologous proteins. Therefore, a REMI (restriction enzyme mediated insertion) strategy was utilized to select mutant beta-g alactosidase s upersecretion (bgs) strains that secreted increased levels of a β-galactosidase reporter. Many of the twelve BGS genes may have functions in intracellular signaling or vesicle transport. Several of these strains also appeared to contain a more permeable cell wall. Preliminary characterization of four bgs mutants showed that they differed in the ability to enhance the export of other reporter proteins. bgs13, which has a disruption in a gene homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein kinase C (PKC1), gave enhanced secretion of most recombinant proteins that were tested, raising the possibility that it has the universal super-secreter phenotype needed in an industrial production strain of P. pastoris. PMID:23881328

  14. Recent advances in the expression of foreign genes in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Cregg, J M; Vedvick, T S; Raschke, W C

    1993-08-01

    The Pichia pastoris heterologous gene expression system has been utilized to produce attractive levels of a variety of intracellular and extracellular proteins of interest. Recent advances in our understanding and application of the system have improved its utility even further. These advances include: (1) methods for the construction of P. pastoris strains with multiple copies of AOX1-promoter-driven expression cassettes; (2) mixed-feed culture strategies for high foreign protein volumetric productivity rates; (3) methods to reduce proteolysis of some products in high cell-density culture media; (4) tested procedures for purification of secreted products; and (5) detailed information on the structures of N-linked oligosaccharides on P. pastoris secreted proteins. In this review, these advances along with basic features of the P. pastoris system are described and discussed. PMID:7763913

  15. Cloning and characterization of the Pichia pastoris MET2 gene as a selectable marker.

    PubMed

    Thor, Der; Xiong, See; Orazem, Claire C; Kwan, An-Chun; Cregg, James M; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2005-07-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of a new biosynthetic gene, MET2, from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The predicted product of PpMET2 is significantly similar to its Saccharomyces cerevisiae counterpart, ScMET2, which encodes homoserine-O-transacetylase. The ScMET2 was able to complement the P. pastoris met2 strain; however, the converse was not true. Expression vectors based on PpMET2 for the intracellular and secreted production of foreign proteins and corresponding auxotrophic strains were constructed and tested for use in heterologous expression. The expression vectors and corresponding strains provide greater flexibility when using P. pastoris for recombinant protein expression. PMID:15996626

  16. Secretion of human interleukin-2 fused with green fluorescent protein in recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Cha, Hyung Joon; Dalal, Nimish N; Bentley, William E

    2005-07-01

    Methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is convenient for the expression of eukaryotic foreign proteins owing to its potential for posttranslational modifications, protein folding, and facile culturing. In this work, human interleukin (hIL)-2 was successfully produced as a secreted fusion form in recombinant P. pastoris. By employing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a monitoring fusion partner, clear identification of fusion protein expression and quantification of intracellular hIL-2 were possible even though there was no correlation between culture supernatant fluorescence and secreted hIL-2 owing to high media interference. Importantly, by the addition of casamino acids in basal medium, we were able to enhance threefold amount of secreted hIL-2, which was present both as a fusion and as a clipped fragment. PMID:16014994

  17. Process technology for production and recovery of heterologous proteins with Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Jahic, Mehmedalija; Veide, Andres; Charoenrat, Theppanya; Teeri, Tuula; Enfors, Sven-Olof

    2006-01-01

    Developments in process techniques for production and recovery of heterologous proteins with Pichia pastoris are presented. Limitations for the standard techniques are described, and alternative techniques that solve the limitations problems are reviewed together with the methods that resulted in higher productivity of the P. pastoris processes. The main limitations are proteolysis of the secreted products and cell death in the high cell density bioreactor cultures. As a consequence, both low productivity and lower quality of the feedstock for downstream processing are achieved in processes hampered with these problems. Methods for exploring proteolysis and cell death are also presented. Solving the problems makes the conditions for downstream processing superior for the P. pastoris expression systems compared to other systems, which either need complex media or rely on intracellular production. These improved conditions allow for interfacing of cultivation with downstream processing in an integrated fashion. PMID:17137292

  18. Modeling of mini-proinsulin production in Pichia pastoris using the AOX promoter.

    PubMed

    País, José M; Varas, Laura; Valdés, Jorge; Cabello, Cecilia; Rodríguez, Lester; Mansur, Manuel

    2003-02-01

    An unstructured model based on mass balance equations for a recombinant methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris MutS (Methanol Utilization Slow) strain expressing the mini-proinsulin (MPI), was successfully established in quasi-steady state fed-batch fermentations with varying total quantity of biomass in a 7 l fermenter. The model describes the relationships between the total biomass and induction time, both in the batch and fed-batch phases. In addition, good correlations were obtained when the total quantity of MPI was correlated with the total biomass, demonstrating that the product of interest is associated with growth in the methanol phase. The parameters of the fermentation model obtained are similar to those reported by other researchers. PMID:12882580

  19. [Expression Of DNA-Encoded Antidote to Organophosphorus Toxins in the Methylotrophic Yeast Pichia Pastoris].

    PubMed

    Terekhov, S S; Bobik, T V; Mokrushina, Yu A; Stepanova, A V; Aleksandrova, N M; Smirnov, I V; Belogurov, A A; Ponomarenko, N A; Gabibov, A G

    2016-01-01

    A platform for the cloning and expression of active human butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) in the yeast Pichia pastoris is first presented. Genetic constructs for BuChE gene expression, separately and in conjunction with a proline-rich peptide called proline-rich attachment domain (PRAD), are based on the vector pPICZαA. It is shown that the highest level of production is achieved in the expression of a BuChE gene without PRAD pPICZαA. It is found that one can obtain up to 125 mg of active enzyme from 1 L of culture medium at an optimal pH environment (pH 7.6), an optical seed culture density of 3 o.u., and an optimum methanol addition mode of (0.5% methanol in the first day and 0.2% thereafter from the second day). PMID:27266247

  20. Killer toxin from a novel killer yeast Pichia kudriavzevii RY55 with idiosyncratic antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Bijender Kumar; Raina, Sandeepu; Singh, Satbir

    2013-08-01

    The killer phenomenon of yeast may have technological implications in many areas like beverage fermentation, food technology, biological control in agriculture, and in medicine. In the present study the killer phenomenon in Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii RY55) is being reported for the first time. The P. kudriavzevii RY55 toxin exhibited excellent antibacterial activity against several pathogens of human health significance such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Pseudomonas alcaligenes. Killer toxin was purified to homogeneity by using ammonium sulphate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography and characterized for few properties. P. kudriavzevii RY55 killer toxin may be of vast significance in the development of novel antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agents, new bio-based safer candidates for food preservation and biocontrol, and starter cultures for fermentation industries. PMID:22961241

  1. [Expression of snake venom thrombin-like enzyme calobin in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shengling; Wang, Peng; Tao, Haoxia; Zhan, Dewen; Wang, Yanchun; Wang, Lingchun; Liu, Chunjie; Zhang, Zhaoshan

    2009-04-01

    Thrombin-like enzymes (TLEs) are studied widely because of their therapeutic potential in myocardial infarction and thrombotic diseases. We synthesized the DNA fragment encoding thrombin-like enzyme calobin from Agkistrodon caliginosus (Korean Viper) venom by fusion PCR and expressed it in Pichia pastoris. After induction by 0.5% methanol for 48 h, the expression level of recombinant calobin reached 3.5 g/L in medium. The recombinant calobin was purified by Q-Sepharose Fast Flow ion-exchange chromatography and Sephacryl-S-100 gel filtration chromatography. Purified sample had a molecular weight of 32 kD shown in SDS-PAGE. It hydrolyzed fibrinogen and formed a light white hydrolysis circle in fibrinogen plate. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that recombinant calobin cleaved Aalpha-chain of fibrinogen specifically, and produced an appropriately 40 kD new band. However, we failed to find its fibrin-clot formation activity. PMID:19637626

  2. Characterization and high expression of recombinant Ustilago maydis xylanase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Han, Hongjuan; You, Shuang; Zhu, Bo; Fu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Baihui; Qiu, Jin; Yu, Chengye; Chen, Lei; Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong

    2015-03-01

    A recombinant xylanase gene (rxynUMB) from Ustilago maydis 521 was expressed in Pichia pastoris, and the enzyme was purified and characterized. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that rxynUMB belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 11. The Trp84, Trp95, Glu93, and Glu189 residues are proposed to be present at the active site. The apparent molecular mass of the recombinant xylananse was approximately 24 kDa, and the optimum pH and temperature were 4.3 and 50 °C, respectively. Xylanase activity was enhanced by 166 and 115% with Fe(2+) and Mn(2+), respectively. The biochemical properties of this recombinant xylanase suggest that it may be a useful candidate for a variety of commercial applications. PMID:25381595

  3. [Synthesis of diisooctyl adipate catalyzed by lipase-displaying Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Jin, Zi; Lin, Ying; Zheng, Suiping; Han, Shuangyan

    2013-07-01

    An enzyme-displaying yeast as a whole-cell biocatalyst is an alternative to immobilized enzyme, due to its low-cost preparation and simple recycle course. Here, lipase-displaying Pichia pastoris whole-cell was used as a biocatalyst to synthesize diisooctyl adipate in the non-aqueous system. The maximum productivity of diisooctyl adipate was obtained as 85.0% in a 10 mL reaction system. The yield could be reached as high as 97.8% when the reaction system was scaled up to 200 mL. The purity obtained is 98.2% after vacuum distillation. Thus, the lipase-displaying P. pastoris whole-cell biocatalyst was promising in commercial application for diisooctyl adipate synthesis in non-aqueous phase. PMID:24195369

  4. Identification of an ARS element and development of a high efficiency transformation system for Pichia guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Boretsky, Y; Voronovsky, A; Liuta-Tehlivets, O; Hasslacher, M; Kohlwein, S D; Shavlovsky, G M

    1999-10-01

    An Autonomously Replicating Sequence element adjacent to the RIB1 gene encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II of the yeast Pichia guilliermondii was identified by transformation experiments. Detailed sequence analysis unveiled two potential ARS elements located 5' and 3' of the RIB1 open reading frame. The chromosomal fragment containing the ARS-like sequence 3' to the RIB1 structural gene, called PgARS, conferred high transformation frequencies of 10(4)-10(5) transformants/microg of DNA to a pUC19-derived plasmid in P. guilliermondii. The PgARS element also conferred autonomous replication to hybrid plasmids in this host. Based on this element a series of Escherichia coli shuttle vectors for efficient transformation of the flavinogenic yeast P. guilliermondii was developed. PMID:10541859

  5. PUTATIVE FERROXIDASES IN THE FLAVINOGENIC YEAST PICHIA GUILLIERMONDII ARE REGULATED BY IRON ACQUISITION.

    PubMed

    Fedorovych, D; Boretsky, Y; Bobak, Ya; Prokopiv, T; Sybirny, A

    2015-01-01

    Using similarity search we identified Candida (Pichia) guilliermondii genes involved in iron acquisition. This yeast possesses at least four genes potentially coding for ferri-reductases, four genes encoding iron permeases and two genes codingforferroxidases. Identified C.(P.) guilliermondii genes encoding ferroxidases possess different patterns of expression under iron repletion conditions whereas their expression is activated under iron deficiency conditions or in mutant strains defective in regulation of iron acquisition. C.(P.) guilliermondii has no homologue of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcriptional regulator of iron metabolism, Aft1p and possess an iron regulatory network similar to that of Candida albicans. Since most of C.(P.) guilliermondii known strains are not pathogenic, in contrast to that of C. albicans, we propose C.(P.) guilliermondii as safe and useful model for studying iron-dependent regulation of metabolism in yeasts belonging to CUG clade. PMID:26638492

  6. Pichia kudriavzevii as a representative yeast of North Patagonian winemaking terroir.

    PubMed

    Del Mónaco, Silvana M; Rodríguez, María E; Lopes, Christian A

    2016-08-01

    Terroir concept includes specific soil, topography, climate, landscape characteristics and biodiversity features. In reference to the last aspect, recent studies investigating the microbial biogeography (lately called 'microbial terroir') have revealed that different wine-growing regions maintain different microbial communities. The aim of the present work was to identify potential autochthonous fermentative yeasts isolated from native plants in North Patagonia, Schinus johnstonii, Ephedra ochreata and Lycium chilense, that could be associated to the specific vitivinicultural terroir of this region. Different Pichia kudriavzevii isolates were recovered from these plants and physiologically and genetically compared to regional wine isolates and foreign reference strains of the same species. All isolates were subjected to molecular characterization including mtDNA-RFLP, RAPD-PCR and sequence analysis. Both wine and native P. kudriavzevii isolates from Patagonia showed similar features, different from those showed by foreign strains, suggesting that this species could be part of a specific regional terroir from North Patagonia. PMID:27124468

  7. Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri fungemia in a pediatric patient admitted in a public hospital.

    PubMed

    De Barros, Jadson Duque; Do Nascimento, Suerda Maria Nogueira; De Araújo, Fernanda Janaína Silva; Braz, Regina De Fátima Dos Santos; Andrade, Vania Sousa; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun; Illnait-Zaragozi, Maria Teresa; Gouveia, Maria Narriman Guimarães; Fernandes, Maria Conceição; Monteiro, Maria Goretti Lins; De Oliveira, Maria Tereza Barreto

    2009-11-01

    Kodamaea (Pichia) ohmeri is a yeast species that has not been reported to be a frequent cause of human infections. The current report describes a case of fungemia caused by K. ohmeri in a 3-year-old female patient hospitalized in the public hospital Maria Alice Fernandes, Natal, RN, Brazil. The patient had previously received antimicrobial therapy due to a peritoneal infection and nosocomial pneumonia, and had a central venous catheter implanted. Kodamaea ohmeri was isolated from blood and the tip of the catheter, 48 h after its implantation. The yeast was identified by standard microbiological methods and sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domains and the ITS 1 + 2 spacer regions of the ribosomal DNA. On CHROMagar Candida medium, the isolate showed a color change from pink to blue. The yeast was susceptible to amphotericin B, and liposomal AmB was used successfully to clear the infection. PMID:19888811

  8. Knockout of an endogenous mannosyltransferase increases the homogeneity of glycoproteins produced in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Krainer, Florian W.; Gmeiner, Christoph; Neutsch, Lukas; Windwarder, Markus; Pletzenauer, Robert; Herwig, Christoph; Altmann, Friedrich; Glieder, Anton; Spadiut, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The yeast Pichia pastoris is a common host for the recombinant production of biopharmaceuticals, capable of performing posttranslational modifications like glycosylation of secreted proteins. However, the activity of the OCH1 encoded α-1,6-mannosyltransferase triggers hypermannosylation of secreted proteins at great heterogeneity, considerably hampering downstream processing and reproducibility. Horseradish peroxidases are versatile enzymes with applications in diagnostics, bioremediation and cancer treatment. Despite the importance of these enzymes, they are still isolated from plant at low yields with different biochemical properties. Here we show the production of homogeneous glycoprotein species of recombinant horseradish peroxidase by using a P. pastoris platform strain in which OCH1 was deleted. This och1 knockout strain showed a growth impaired phenotype and considerable rearrangements of cell wall components, but nevertheless secreted more homogeneously glycosylated protein carrying mainly Man8 instead of Man10 N-glycans as a dominant core glycan structure at a volumetric productivity of 70% of the wildtype strain. PMID:24252857

  9. Recombinants proteins for industrial uses: utilization of Pichia pastoris expression system

    PubMed Central

    Rabert, Claudia; Weinacker, Daniel; Pessoa, Adalberto; Farías, Jorge G.

    2013-01-01

    The innovation in industrial process with impact in the efficient production is the major challenge for actual industry. A high numerous of enzymes are utilized in at different level of process; the search for new alternatives with better characteristic has become a field of study of great interest, the recombinant protein achievement in a different host system is an alternative widely assessed for production of this. The microorganism Pichia pastoris has been used like a successful expression system in diverse areas, improved the yield and extraction-recovery of the product expressed. The reported of diverse authors in the production of enzymes with different application in industry is varied, in this review the different industry areas and the characteristic of the enzymes produced are detailed. PMID:24294221

  10. Protein Production with a Pichia pastoris OCH1 Knockout Strain in Fed-Batch Mode.

    PubMed

    Gmeiner, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host organism for recombinant protein production in biotechnology and pharmaceutical industry. However, if the target product describes a glycoprotein, an α-1,6-mannosyltransferase located in the Golgi apparatus of P. pastoris, called OCH1, triggers hypermannosylation of the recombinant protein which significantly impedes following unit operations and hampers biopharmaceutical product applications. A knockout of the och1 gene allows the production of less-glycosylated proteins-however, morphology and physiology of P. pastoris also change, complicating the upstream process. Here, we describe a controlled and efficient bioprocess based on the specific substrate uptake rate (q s) for a recombinant P. pastoris OCH1 knockout strain expressing a peroxidase as model protein. PMID:26082217

  11. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris for the production of dammarenediol-II.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Bin; Liu, Min; Tao, Xin-Yi; Zhang, Zhong-Xi; Wang, Feng-Qing; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2015-12-20

    Dammarenediol-II is the nucleus of dammarane-type ginsenosides, which are a group of active triterpenoids exhibiting various pharmacological activities. Based on the native triterpene synthetic pathway, a dammarenediol-II synthetic pathway was established in Pichia pastoris by introducing a dammarenediol-II synthase gene (PgDDS) from Panax ginseng, which is responsible for the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to dammarenediol-II in this study. To enhance productivity, a strategy of "increasing supply and reducing competitive consumption of 2,3-oxidosqualene" was used. To increase the supply of 2,3-oxidosqualene, we augmented expression of the ERG1 gene, which is responsible for 2,3-oxidosqualene synthesis. This significantly improved the yield of dammarenediol-II over 6.7-fold, from 0.030mg/g dry cell weight (DCW) to 0.203mg/g DCW. Subsequently, to reduce competition for 2,3-oxidosqualene from ergosterol biosynthesis without affecting the normal growth of P. pastoris, we targeted the ERG7gene, which is responsible for conversion of 2,3-oxidosqualene to lanosterol. This gene was downregulated by replacing its native promoter with a thiamine-repressible promoter, using a marker-recycling and gene-targeting Cre- lox71/66 system developed for P. pastoris herein. The yield of dammarenediol-II was further increased more than 3.6-fold, to 0.736mg/g DCW. Furthermore, the direct addition of 0.5g/L squalene into the culture medium further enhanced the yield of dammarenediol-II to 1.073mg/g DCW, which was 37.5-fold higher than the yield from the strain with the PgDDS gene introduction only. The P. pastoris strains engineered in this study constitute a good platform for further production of ginsenosides in Pichia species. PMID:26467715

  12. Cloning and expression of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB in Pichia Pink.

    PubMed

    Babavalian, H; Latifi, A M; Shokrgozar, M A; Bonakdar, S; Tebyanian, H; Shakeri, F

    2016-01-01

    The PDGF-BB plays a key role in several pathogenesis diseases and it is believed to be an important mediator for wound healing. The recombinant human PDGF-BB is safe and effective to stimulate the healing of chronic, full thickness and lower extremity diabetic neurotrophic ulcers. In the present study, we attempted to produce a PDGF-BB growth factor and also, evaluate its functionality in cell proliferation in yeast host Pichia pink. Pichia pink yeast was used as a host for evaluation of the rhPDGF-BB expression. The coding sequence of PDGF-BB protein was synthesized after optimization and packed into the pGEM. Recombinant proteins were produced and purified. The construct of pPinkα-HC-pdgf was confirmed by sequence, the PDGF-BB protein was expressed and purified with using a nickel affinity chromatography column and then characterized by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The biological activity of PDGF-BB was estimated with using human fibroblast cell line. The measurement of protein concentration was determined by Bradford and human PDGF-BB ELISA kit. Purified rhPDGF-BB showed similar biological activity (as the standard PDGF-BB) and suggested that the recombinant protein has a successful protein expression (as well as considerable biological activity in P. pink host). The exact amount of recombinant PDGF-BB concentrations were measured by specific ELISA test which it was about 30 μg/ml. Our study suggested that efficiency of biological activity of PDGF-BB protein may be related to its conformational similarity with standard type and also, it practically may be important in wound healing and tissue regeneration. PMID:27545214

  13. The high-capacity specific fructose facilitator ZrFfz1 is essential for the fructophilic behavior of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii CBS 732T.

    PubMed

    Leandro, Maria José; Cabral, Sara; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C; Sychrová, Hana

    2014-11-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a fructophilic yeast that consumes fructose preferably to glucose. This behavior seems to be related to sugar uptake. In this study, we constructed Z. rouxii single-, double-, and triple-deletion mutants in the UL4 strain background (a ura3 strain derived from CBS 732(T)) by deleting the genes encoding the specific fructose facilitator Z. rouxii Ffz1 (ZrFfz1), the fructose/glucose facilitator ZrFfz2, and/or the fructose symporter ZrFsy1. We analyzed the effects on the growth phenotype, on kinetic parameters of fructose and glucose uptake, and on sugar consumption profiles. No growth phenotype was observed on fructose or glucose upon deletion of FFZ genes. Deletion of ZrFFZ1 drastically reduced fructose transport capacity, increased glucose transport capacity, and eliminated the fructophilic character, while deletion of ZrFFZ2 had almost no effect. The strain in which both FFZ genes were deleted presented even higher consumption of glucose than strain Zrffz1Δ, probably due to a reduced repressing effect of fructose. This study confirms the molecular basis of the Z. rouxii fructophilic character, demonstrating that ZrFfz1 is essential for Z. rouxii fructophilic behavior. The gene is a good candidate to improve the fructose fermentation performance of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. PMID:25172765

  14. The High-Capacity Specific Fructose Facilitator ZrFfz1 Is Essential for the Fructophilic Behavior of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii CBS 732T

    PubMed Central

    Cabral, Sara; Prista, Catarina; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.; Sychrová, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a fructophilic yeast that consumes fructose preferably to glucose. This behavior seems to be related to sugar uptake. In this study, we constructed Z. rouxii single-, double-, and triple-deletion mutants in the UL4 strain background (a ura3 strain derived from CBS 732T) by deleting the genes encoding the specific fructose facilitator Z. rouxii Ffz1 (ZrFfz1), the fructose/glucose facilitator ZrFfz2, and/or the fructose symporter ZrFsy1. We analyzed the effects on the growth phenotype, on kinetic parameters of fructose and glucose uptake, and on sugar consumption profiles. No growth phenotype was observed on fructose or glucose upon deletion of FFZ genes. Deletion of ZrFFZ1 drastically reduced fructose transport capacity, increased glucose transport capacity, and eliminated the fructophilic character, while deletion of ZrFFZ2 had almost no effect. The strain in which both FFZ genes were deleted presented even higher consumption of glucose than strain Zrffz1Δ, probably due to a reduced repressing effect of fructose. This study confirms the molecular basis of the Z. rouxii fructophilic character, demonstrating that ZrFfz1 is essential for Z. rouxii fructophilic behavior. The gene is a good candidate to improve the fructose fermentation performance of industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. PMID:25172765

  15. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    PubMed Central

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. PMID:26803480

  16. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    PubMed

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. PMID:26803480

  17. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 negatively regulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by associating with the CBS domain in the γ subunit.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Iwashita, Misaki; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Ono, Hiraku; Nagata, Kengo; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Fujishiro, Midori; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Kamata, Hideaki; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Katagiri, Hideki; Honda, Hiroaki; Kiyonari, Hiroshi; Uchida, Takafumi; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2015-10-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role in metabolic regulation. In this study, first, it was revealed that Pin1 associates with any isoform of γ, but not with either the α or the β subunit, of AMPK. The association between Pin1 and the AMPK γ1 subunit is mediated by the WW domain of Pin1 and the Thr(211)-Pro-containing motif located in the CBS domain of the γ1 subunit. Importantly, overexpression of Pin1 suppressed AMPK phosphorylation in response to either 2-deoxyglucose or biguanide stimulation, whereas Pin1 knockdown by siRNAs or treatment with Pin1 inhibitors enhanced it. The experiments using recombinant Pin1, AMPK, LKB1, and PP2C proteins revealed that the protective effect of AMP against PP2C-induced AMPKα subunit dephosphorylation was markedly suppressed by the addition of Pin1. In good agreement with the in vitro data, the level of AMPK phosphorylation as well as the expressions of mitochondria-related genes, such as PGC-1α, which are known to be positively regulated by AMPK, were markedly higher with reduced triglyceride accumulation in the muscles of Pin1 KO mice as compared with controls. These findings suggest that Pin1 plays an important role in the pathogenic mechanisms underlying impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, functioning as a negative regulator of AMPK. PMID:26276391

  18. Expression of functional single-chain variable domain fragment antibody (scFv) against mycotoxin zearalenone in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Sung-Wook; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2008-10-01

    A synthetic gene coding for single-chain variable domain fragment antibody against mycotoxin zearalenone (scFv-ZEN) has been designed, constructed and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The native scFv-ZEN sequence was optimized to Pichia preference codon usage. The expression level of codon-optimized scFv-ZEN was slightly higher than that of native scFv-ZEN, and its maximum yield reached 328 mg total protein/l in flask culture. The binding activities of two selected clones to ZEN using surface plasmon resonance analysis were comparable or better than that of monoclonal antibody. Our results demonstrate the potential of soluble scFv-ZEN for developing a rapid and affordable immunoassay for detection of ZEN in food and feedstuff. PMID:18575809

  19. Development of cereal-based functional food using cereal-mix substrate fermented with probiotic strain - Pichia kudriavzevii OG32.

    PubMed

    Ogunremi, Omotade R; Agrawal, Renu; Sanni, Abiodun I

    2015-11-01

    Probiotic strains contribute to the functionality of foods during fermentation. In this present work, cereal-mix was fermented with probiotic Pichia kudriavzevii OG32. Selected fermentation parameters and functional properties of the product were determined. The growth of Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 was supported by the cereal-mix containing 1% salt and 0.2% red chili powder to counts of between 7.46 and 8.22 Log10 cfu/mL within 24 h. Pichia kudriavzevii OG32 increased the viscosity of cereal-mix with the highest inoculum size (1.84x105cfu/ml) giving the highest viscosity of 1793.6 mPa.S. An inoculum size of 1.98 × 10(4) cfu/mL gave the most acceptable product based on the sensory evaluation by the panelist. Forty volatile compounds were identified in the fermented product, while acids (32.21%) and esters (32.37%) accounted for the largest proportions. The cereal-based fermented product scavenged DPPH from 200 μmol/L methanolic solution by 55.71%. Probiotic yeast improved the sensory and some functional properties of cereal-based substrate during fermentation. This is one of the first reports on the volatile composition of cereal-based functional food produced with probiotic yeast. PMID:26788290

  20. A simple Pichia pastoris fermentation and downstream processing strategy for making recombinant pandemic Swine Origin Influenza a virus Hemagglutinin protein.

    PubMed

    Athmaram, T N; Singh, Anil Kumar; Saraswat, Shweta; Srivastava, Saurabh; Misra, Princi; Kameswara Rao, M; Gopalan, N; Rao, P V L

    2013-02-01

    The present Influenza vaccine manufacturing process has posed a clear impediment to initiation of rapid mass vaccination against spreading pandemic influenza. New vaccine strategies are therefore needed that can accelerate the vaccine production. Pichia offers several advantages for rapid and economical bulk production of recombinant proteins and, hence, can be attractive alternative for producing an effective influenza HA based subunit vaccine. The recombinant Pichia harboring the transgene was subjected to fed-batch fermentation at 10 L scale. A simple fermentation and downstream processing strategy is developed for high-yield secretory expression of the recombinant Hemagglutinin protein of pandemic Swine Origin Influenza A virus using Pichia pastoris via fed-batch fermentation. Expression and purification were optimized and the expressed recombinant Hemagglutinin protein was verified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot and MALDI-TOF analysis. In this paper, we describe a fed-batch fermentation protocol for the secreted production of Swine Influenza A Hemagglutinin protein in the P. pastoris GS115 strain. We have shown that there is a clear relationship between product yield and specific growth rate. The fed-batch fermentation and downstream processing methods optimized in the present study have immense practical application for high-level production of the recombinant H1N1 HA protein in a cost effective way using P. pastoris. PMID:23247902

  1. Binding studies using Pichia pastoris expressed human aryl hydrocarbon receptor and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator proteins.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yujuan; Xie, Jinghang; Huang, Xin; Dong, Jin; Park, Miki S; Chan, William K

    2016-06-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a transcription factor which activates gene transcription by binding to its corresponding enhancer as the heterodimer, which is consisted of AHR and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). Human AHR can be rather difficult to study, when compared among the AHR of other species, since it is relatively unstable and less sensitive to some ligands in vitro. Overexpression of human AHR has been limited to the baculovirus expression, which is costly and tedious due to the need of repetitive baculovirus production. Here we explored whether we could generate abundant amounts of human AHR and ARNT in a better overexpression system for functional study. We observed that human AHR and ARNT can be expressed in Pichia pastoris with yields that are comparable to the baculovirus system only if their cDNAs are optimized for Pichia expression. Fusion with a c-myc tag at their C-termini seems to increase the expression yield. These Pichia expressed proteins can effectively heterodimerize and form the ternary AHR/ARNT/enhancer complex in the presence of β-naphthoflavone or kynurenine. Limited proteolysis using thermolysin can be used to study the heterodimerization of these human AHR and ARNT proteins. PMID:26923060

  2. High-level ab initio calculations for the four low-lying families of minima of (H2O)(20): 1. Estimates of MP2/CBS binding energies and comparison with empirical potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Fanourgakis, Georgios S.; Apra, Edoardo; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2004-08-08

    We report estimates of complete basis set (CBS) limits at the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation level of theory (MP2) for the binding energies of the lowest lying isomers within each of the four major families of minima of (H2O)20. These were obtained by performing MP2 calculations with the family of correlation-consistent basis sets up to quadruple zeta quality, augmented with additional diffuse functions (aug-cc-pVnZ, n=D, T, Q). The MP2/CBS estimates are: -200.1 kcal/mol (dodecahedron, 30 hydrogen bonds), -212.6 kcal/mol (fused cubes, 36 hydrogen bonds), -215.0 (face-sharing pentagonal prisms, 35 hydrogen bonds) and –217.9 kcal/mol (edge-sharing pentagonal prisms, 34 hydrogen bonds). The energetic ordering of the various (H2O)20 isomers does not follow monotonically the number of hydrogen bonds as in the case of smaller clusters such as the different isomers of the water hexamer. The dodecahedron lies ca. 18 kcal/mol higher in energy than the most stable edge-sharing pentagonal prism isomer. The TIP4P, ASP-W4, TTM2-R, AMOEBA and TTM2-F empirical potentials also predict the energetic stabilization of the edge-sharing pentagonal prisms with respect to the dodecahedron, albeit they universally underestimate the cluster binding energies with respect to the MP2/CBS result. Among them, the TTM2-F potential was found to predict the absolute cluster binding energies to within < 1% from the corresponding MP2/CBS values, whereas the error for the rest of the potentials considered in this study ranges from 3-5%.

  3. Crystal structure of a hypothetical protein, TTHA0829 from Thermus thermophilus HB8, composed of cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and aspartate-kinase chorismate-mutase tyrA (ACT) domains.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Makoto; Shibata, Naoki; Ishido-Nakai, Emi; Kanagawa, Mayumi; Iio, Yota; Komori, Hirofumi; Ueda, Yasufumi; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Higuchi, Yoshiki

    2016-05-01

    TTHA0829 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 has a molecular mass of 22,754 Da and is composed of 210 amino acid residues. The expression of TTHA0829 is remarkably elevated in the latter half of logarithmic growth phase. TTHA0829 can form either a tetrameric or dimeric structure, and main-chain folding provides an N-terminal cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) domain and a C-terminal aspartate-kinase chorismate-mutase tyrA (ACT) domain. Both CBS and ACT are regulatory domains to which a small ligand molecule can bind. The CBS domain is found in proteins from organisms belonging to all kingdoms and is observed frequently as two or four tandem copies. This domain is considered as a small intracellular module with a regulatory function and is typically found adjacent to the active (or functional) site of several enzymes and integral membrane proteins. The ACT domain comprises four β-strands and two α-helices in a βαββαβ motif typical of intracellular small molecule binding domains that help control metabolism, solute transport and signal transduction. We discuss the possible role of TTHA0829 based on its structure and expression pattern. The results imply that TTHA0829 acts as a cell-stress sensor or a metabolite acceptor. PMID:26936147

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of a High Lipid-Producing Strain of Mucor circinelloides WJ11 and Comparative Genome Analysis with a Low Lipid-Producing Strain CBS 277.49

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xin; Zhao, Lina; Chen, Haiqin; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei; Song, Yuanda; Ratledge, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The genome of a high lipid-producing fungus Mucor circinelloides WJ11 (36% w/w lipid, cell dry weight, CDW) was sequenced and compared with that of the low lipid-producing strain, CBS 277.49 (15% w/w lipid, CDW), which had been sequenced by Joint Genome Institute. The WJ11 genome assembly size was 35.4 Mb with a G+C content of 39.7%. The general features of WJ11 and CBS 277.49 indicated that they have close similarity at the level of gene order and gene identity. Whole genome alignments with MAUVE revealed the presence of numerous blocks of homologous regions and MUMmer analysis showed that the genomes of these two strains were mostly co-linear. The central carbon and lipid metabolism pathways of these two strains were reconstructed and the numbers of genes encoding the enzymes related to lipid accumulation were compared. Many unique genes coding for proteins involved in cell growth, carbohydrate metabolism and lipid metabolism were identified for each strain. In conclusion, our study on the genome sequence of WJ11 and the comparative genomic analysis between WJ11 and CBS 277.49 elucidated the general features of the genome and the potential mechanism of high lipid accumulation in strain WJ11 at the genomic level. The different numbers of genes and unique genes involved in lipid accumulation may play a role in the high oleaginicity of strain WJ11. PMID:26352831

  5. Characterization, optimization, and scale-up of cellulases production by trichoderma reesei cbs 836.91 in solid-state fermentation using agro-industrial products.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Gastón E; Guitart, María E; Cavalitto, Sebastián F; Albertó, Edgardo O; Fernández-Lahore, Marcelo; Blasco, Martín

    2015-11-01

    The application of cellulases in saccharification processes is restricted by its production cost. Consequently, new fungal strains able to elaborate higher cellulases titers and with special activity profiles are required to make the process economical. The aim of this investigation was to find a promising wild-type Trichoderma strain for cellulases production. The Trichoderma reesei strain 938 (CBS 836.91) was selected among twenty strains on the basis of cellulase-agar-plate screening. Evaluation of the selected strain on six solid substrates indicated the highest activities to be obtained from wheat bran. Statistical analyses of the experimental design indicated a significant effect of pH and moisture on the generation of endoglucanase (EGA) and filter-paper (FPA) activity. Furthermore, a central-composite design-based optimization revealed that pH values between 6.4 and 6.6 and moisture from 74 to 94% were optimal for cellulases production. Under these conditions, 8-10 IU gds(-1) of FPA and 15.6-17.8 IU gds(-1) of EGA were obtained. In addition, cultivation in a rotating-drum reactor under optimal conditions gave 8.2 IU gds(-1) FPA and 13.5 IU gds(-1) EGA. Biochemical characterization of T. reesei 938 cellulases indicated a substantially higher resistance to 4 mM Fe(+2) and a slightly greater tolerance to alkaline pH in comparison to Celluclast(®). These results suggest that T. reesei 938 could be a promising candidate for improved cellulases production through direct-evolution strategies. PMID:26256022

  6. Purification and properties of 4-hydroxybenzoate 1-hydroxylase (decarboxylating), a novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent monooxygenase from Candida parapsilosis CBS604.

    PubMed Central

    Eppink, M H; Boeren, S A; Vervoort, J; van Berkel, W J

    1997-01-01

    A novel flavoprotein monooxygenase, 4-hydroxybenzoate 1-hydroxylase (decarboxylating), from Candida parapsilosis CBS604 was purified to apparent homogeneity. The enzyme is induced when the yeast is grown on either 4-hydroxybenzoate, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoate, or 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate as the sole carbon source. The purified monooxygenase is a monomer of about 50 kDa containing flavin adenine dinucleotide as weakly bound cofactor. 4-Hydroxybenzoate 1-hydroxylase from C. parapsilosis catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of a wide range of 4-hydroxybenzoate derivatives with the stoichiometric consumption of NAD(P)H and oxygen. Optimal catalysis is reached at pH 8, with NADH being the preferred electron donor. By using (18)O2, it was confirmed that the oxygen atom inserted into the product 1,4-dihydroxybenzene is derived from molecular oxygen. 19F nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the enzyme catalyzes the conversion of fluorinated 4-hydroxybenzoates to the corresponding hydroquinones. The activity of the enzyme is strongly inhibited by 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzoate, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dinitrobenzoate, and 4-hydroxyisophthalate, which are competitors with the aromatic substrate. The same type of inhibition is exhibited by chloride ions. Molecular orbital calculations show that upon deprotonation of the 4-hydroxy group, nucleophilic reactivity is located in all substrates at the C-1 position. This, and the fact that the enzyme is highly active with tetrafluoro-4-hydroxybenzoate and 4-hydroxy-3-nitrobenzoate, suggests that the phenolate forms of the substrates play an important role in catalysis. Based on the substrate specificity, a mechanism is proposed for the flavin-mediated oxidative decarboxylation of 4-hydroxybenzoate. PMID:9352916

  7. Comparative performance of S-adenosyl-L-methionine biosynthesis and degradation in Pichia pastoris using different promoters and novel consumption inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoqing; Chu, Ju; Zhang, Siliang; Zhuang, Yingping

    2014-02-01

    The yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for recombinant protein expression, and has recently been engineered for whole-cell biocatalysis. The inducible P(AOX) and constitutive P(GAP) promoters are commonly employed. In this study, the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) biosynthesis and degradation efficiency of two P. pastoris strains were compared, and novel inhibitors that suppress SAM degradation were characterized. The strains exhibited clear physiological differences. P(GAP)-Pichia showed higher transcription and activity of SAM synthetase, and the rapid cell growth led to higher levels of spermidine synthesis from SAM. In contrast, P(AOX)-Pichia synthesized higher levels of glutathione from SAM, and this strain responded to hydrogen peroxide formation during methanol utilization. Aristeromycin proved an efficient inhibitor of SAM degradation in P(AOX)-Pichia; 0.02 mg/L led to a 36.36% reduction in the ratio of glutathionine:SAM, and SAM accumulation was enhanced by 7.74% to 11.83 g/L. Ethanol was an even more efficient inhibitor of SAM consumption in P(GAP)-Pichia; 8 g/L resulted in a 73.68% decrease in the ratio of SPD:SAM, and SAM production was elevated by 54.55% to 0.17 g/L/h. PMID:24411450

  8. Cloning, sequence analysis, expression of Cyathus bulleri laccase in Pichia pastoris and characterization of recombinant laccase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laccases are blue multi-copper oxidases and catalyze the oxidation of phenolic and non-phenolic compounds. There is considerable interest in using these enzymes for dye degradation as well as for synthesis of aromatic compounds. Laccases are produced at relatively low levels and, sometimes, as isozymes in the native fungi. The investigation of properties of individual enzymes therefore becomes difficult. The goal of this study was to over-produce a previously reported laccase from Cyathus bulleri using the well-established expression system of Pichia pastoris and examine and compare the properties of the recombinant enzyme with that of the native laccase. Results In this study, complete cDNA encoding laccase (Lac) from white rot fungus Cyathus bulleri was amplified by RACE-PCR, cloned and expressed in the culture supernatant of Pichia pastoris under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX)1 promoter. The coding region consisted of 1,542 bp and encodes a protein of 513 amino acids with a signal peptide of 16 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of the matured protein displayed high homology with laccases from Trametes versicolor and Coprinus cinereus. The sequence analysis indicated the presence of Glu 460 and Ser 113 and LEL tripeptide at the position known to influence redox potential of laccases placing this enzyme as a high redox enzyme. Addition of copper sulfate to the production medium enhanced the level of laccase by about 12-fold to a final activity of 7200 U L-1. The recombinant laccase (rLac) was purified by ~4-fold to a specific activity of ~85 U mg-1 protein. A detailed study of thermostability, chloride and solvent tolerance of the rLac indicated improvement in the first two properties when compared to the native laccase (nLac). Altered glycosylation pattern, identified by peptide mass finger printing, was proposed to contribute to altered properties of the rLac. Conclusion Laccase of C. bulleri was successfully produced extra

  9. [High-level production of neutral endoglucanase 1 in Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shao-Jun; Song, Mei-Jing; Yang, Hong-Jun; Xing, Zeng-Tao; Zhou, Rui; Cao, Jie

    2006-01-01

    The gene (eg1) encoding for novel endoglucanase 1 was cloned previously from Chinese straw mushroom Volvariella volvacea. EG1 has high thermal stability and optimal pH at neutral and shows great potential in textile and paper industry applications. To improve the expression level of EG1 in Pichia pastoris, the increasing copy number of clone, and its high cell density fermentation in 3.2L fermenter for its high-level expression were investigated in this work. By electro-transformation of pPICZalphaB-egl into GS115EG11 integrated with single copy of eg1 gene, A resistant transformant with 3.8 times higher level expression than GS115EG11 was screened from YPDSZ plate containing 2000 microg/mL of Zeocin. The effect of initial cell density, pH and methanol on its expression and biomass accumulation was evaluated in shaking culture. Optimal EG1 production was observed when initial cell density OD600 was 5.0. EG1 production and biomass accumulation did not seem to vary when cells were induced at different pH values. Both of EG1 and cell density were found to increase with higher methanol concentrations, reaching 62.48 IU/mL and 31.7 (OD600) respectively after 120 h induction with 2.0% (V/V) methanol compared to 30.24 IU/mL and 17.79 (OD60) with 0.25% methanol induction. EG1 expression was further increased by 6.4 times higher than shaking culture after 95.5 hours induction with methanol in fed-batch fermentation, so totally 34 times higher than that for GS115EG11 was achieved by screening of high Zeocin resistant clone and high cell density fermentation. The production of EG1 with 543.36IU/mL CMC activity and 8.80mg/mL protein expression was obtained in Pichia pastoris. PMID:16572843

  10. Expression and characterization of HPV-16 L1 capsid protein in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Bazan, Silvia Boschi; de Alencar Muniz Chaves, Agtha; Aires, Karina Araújo; Cianciarullo, Aurora Marques; Garcea, Robert L.; Ho, Paulo Lee

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are responsible for the most common human sexually transmitted viral infections. Infection with high-risk HPVs, particularly HPV16, is associated with the development of cervical cancer. The papillomavirus L1 major capsid protein, the basis of the currently marketed vaccines, self-assembles into virus-like particles (VLPs). Here, we describe the expression, purification and characterization of recombinant HPV16 L1 produced by a methylotrophic yeast. A codon-optimized HPV16 L1 gene was cloned into a non-integrative expression vector under the regulation of a methanol-inducible promoter and used to transform competent Pichia pastoris cells. Purification of L1 protein from yeast extracts was performed using heparin–sepharose chromatography, followed by a disassembly/reassembly step. VLPs could be assembled from the purified L1 protein, as demonstrated by electron microscopy. The display of conformational epitopes on the VLPs surface was confirmed by hemagglutination and hemagglutination inhibition assays and by immuno-electron microscopy. This study has implications for the development of an alternative platform for the production of a papillomavirus vaccine that could be provided by public health programs, especially in resource-poor areas, where there is a great demand for low-cost vaccines. PMID:19756360

  11. Production of glucaric acid from myo-inositol in engineered Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Gong, Xu; Wang, Cui; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Kang, Zhen

    2016-09-01

    A potential myo-inositol oxygenase (ppMIOX) was identified as a functional enzyme and a glucaric acid synthetic pathway was firstly constructed in Pichia pastoris. Coexpression of the native ppMIOX and the urinate dehydrogenase (Udh) from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 led to obvious accumulation of glucaric acid (90.46±0.04mg/L) from myo-inositol whereas no glucaric acid was detected from glucose. In comparison, coexpression of the heterologous mouse MIOX (mMIOX) and Udh resulted in higher titers of glucaric acid from glucose and myo-inositol, 107.19±11.91mg/L and 785.4±1.41mg/L, respectively. By applying a fusion expression strategy with flexible peptides, the mMIOX specific activity and the glucaric acid concentration were significantly increased. Using glucose and myo-inositol as carbon substrates, the production of glucaric acid was substantially enhanced to 6.61±0.30g/L in fed-batch cultures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest reported value to date. PMID:27444324

  12. Centromeres of the Yeast Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris) Have a Simple Inverted-Repeat Structure.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Aisling Y; Hanson, Sara J; Byrne, Kevin P; Wolfe, Kenneth H

    2016-01-01

    Centromere organization has evolved dramatically in one clade of fungi, the Saccharomycotina. These yeasts have lost the ability to make normal eukaryotic heterochromatin with histone H3K9 methylation, which is a major component of pericentromeric regions in other eukaryotes. Following this loss, several different types of centromere emerged, including two types of sequence-defined ("point") centromeres, and the epigenetically defined "small regional" centromeres of Candida albicans Here we report that centromeres of the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (formerly called Pichia pastoris) are structurally defined. Each of its four centromeres consists of a 2-kb inverted repeat (IR) flanking a 1-kb central core (mid) region. The four centromeres are unrelated in sequence. CenH3 (Cse4) binds strongly to the cores, with a decreasing gradient along the IRs. This mode of organization resembles Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromeres but is much more compact and lacks the extensive flanking heterochromatic otr repeats. Different isolates of K. phaffii show polymorphism for the orientation of the mid regions, due to recombination in the IRs. CEN4 is located within a 138-kb region that changes orientation during mating-type switching, but switching does not induce recombination of centromeric IRs. Our results demonstrate that evolutionary transitions in centromere organization have occurred in multiple yeast clades. PMID:27497317

  13. Candida utilis and Cyberlindnera (Pichia) jadinii: yeast relatives with expanding applications.

    PubMed

    Buerth, Christoph; Tielker, Denis; Ernst, Joachim F

    2016-08-01

    The yeast Candida utilis is used as a food additive and as a host for heterologous gene expression to produce various metabolites and proteins. Reliable protocols for intracellular production of recombinant proteins are available for C. utilis and have now been expanded to secrete proteins into the growth medium or to achieve surface display by linkage to a cell wall protein. A recombinant C. utilis strain was recently shown to induce oral tolerance in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis suggesting future applications in autoimmune therapy. Whole genome sequencing of C. utilis and its presumed parent Cyberlindnera (Pichia) jadinii demonstrated different ploidy but high sequence identity, consistent with identical recombinant technologies for both yeasts. C. jadinii was recently described as an antagonist to the important human fungal pathogen Candida albicans suggesting its use as a probiotic agent. The review summarizes the status of recombinant protein production in C. utilis, as well as current and future biotechnological and medical applications of C. utilis and C. jadinii. PMID:27357226

  14. Highly efficient expression and characterization of a β-mannanase from Bacillus subtilis in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Ren-Kuan; Chen, Ping; Ng, Tzi Bun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Juan; Yan, Fen; Ye, Xiu-Yun

    2015-01-01

    A β-mannanase gene (Man5) from Bacillus subtilis BS5 was cloned by PCR and integrated into the genome of Pichia pastoris GS115 via pPIC9 vector. The recombinant Man5 with a molecular mass of 43 kDa was successfully expressed and secreted into the culture medium. After methanol induction in a shake flask for 96 H, the recombinant Man5 protein reached 375 µg/mL in concentration, with an enzyme activity of 892 U/mL. The recombinant Man5 was purified 3.35-fold with 60% yield by using HiTrap DEAE FF and HiTrap Phenyl FF columns. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 7,978 U/mg. The optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant Man5 were 50 °C and 6.0, respectively. Studies of substrate specificity showed that the optimum substrate for the Man5 was konjac flour, suggesting that it has great potential as an effective additive in the food industry. PMID:24863613

  15. Recombinant protein production facility for fungal biomass-degrading enzymes using the yeast Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Haon, Mireille; Grisel, Sacha; Navarro, David; Gruet, Antoine; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bignon, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the predominant source of lignocellulolytic enzymes used in industry for the transformation of plant biomass into high-value molecules and biofuels. The rapidity with which new fungal genomic and post-genomic data are being produced is vastly outpacing functional studies. This underscores the critical need for developing platforms dedicated to the recombinant expression of enzymes lacking confident functional annotation, a prerequisite to their functional and structural study. In the last decade, the yeast Pichia pastoris has become increasingly popular as a host for the production of fungal biomass-degrading enzymes, and particularly carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). This study aimed at setting-up a platform to easily and quickly screen the extracellular expression of biomass-degrading enzymes in P. pastoris. We first used three fungal glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that we previously expressed using the protocol devised by Invitrogen to try different modifications of the original protocol. Considering the gain in time and convenience provided by the new protocol, we used it as basis to set-up the facility and produce a suite of fungal CAZymes (GHs, carbohydrate esterases and auxiliary activity enzyme families) out of which more than 70% were successfully expressed. The platform tasks range from gene cloning to automated protein purifications and activity tests, and is open to the CAZyme users’ community. PMID:26441929

  16. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: expression and characterization of Bm86-CG in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Andreotti, Renato; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2011-01-01

    The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is responsible for great economic losses. It is mainly controlled chemically, with limitations regarding development of resistance to the chemicals. Vaccines may help control this parasite, thereby reducing tick pesticide use. In this light, we performed subcloning of the gene of the protein Bm86-GC, the homologue protein that currently forms the basis of vaccines (Gavac(TM) and TickGard(PLUS)) that have been developed against cattle ticks. The subcloning was done in the pPIC9 expression vector, for transformation in the yeast Pichia pastoris. This protein was characterized by expression of the recombinant Mut+ strain, which expressed greater quantities of protein. The expressed protein (rBm86-CG) was recognized in the Western-blot assay using anti-Gavac, anti-TickGard, anti-larval extract and anti-rBm86-CG polyclonal sera. The serum produced in cattle vaccinated with the antigen CG rBm86 presented high antibody titers and recognized the native protein. The rBm86-GC has potential relevance as an immunogen for vaccine formulation against cattle ticks. PMID:21722483

  17. Adjuvant and immunostimulating properties of the recombinant Bm86 protein expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    García-García, J C; Soto, A; Nigro, F; Mazza, M; Joglar, M; Hechevarría, M; Lamberti, J; de la Fuente, J

    1998-01-01

    The cattle tick Boophilus microplus has remained a latent problem to the cattle industry. The recombinant vaccine GAVAC against the cattle tick has proved its efficacy and, conveniently, combined with the use of chemicals could be the solution to this problem. As this vaccine is based in the recombinant concealed antigen Bm86, it has to be given periodically to the animal to maintain an adequate level of antibodies. Some other commercially available vaccines for cattle also have to be given periodically, which creates the possibility of combining vaccines for cattle. In an attempt to evaluate the possible interactions of the Bm86 with other vaccine antigens, a potent stimulatory effect was demonstrated of the recombinant Bm86 on the humoral immune response to the recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen in mice, and to the inactivated Infectious Bovine Rhinothraqueitis virus in cattle. These results make the Bm86 antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris a good candidate for combining vaccines for cattle because of its dual role, immunogen and adjuvant. PMID:9682358

  18. Engineering Pichia pastoris for improved NADH regeneration: A novel chassis strain for whole-cell catalysis.

    PubMed

    Geier, Martina; Brandner, Christoph; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Hall, Mélanie; Hartner, Franz S; Glieder, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Many synthetically useful reactions are catalyzed by cofactor-dependent enzymes. As cofactors represent a major cost factor, methods for efficient cofactor regeneration are required especially for large-scale synthetic applications. In order to generate a novel and efficient host chassis for bioreductions, we engineered the methanol utilization pathway of Pichia pastoris for improved NADH regeneration. By deleting the genes coding for dihydroxyacetone synthase isoform 1 and 2 (DAS1 and DAS2), NADH regeneration via methanol oxidation (dissimilation) was increased significantly. The resulting Δdas1 Δdas2 strain performed better in butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) based whole-cell conversions. While the BDH1 catalyzed acetoin reduction stopped after 2 h reaching ~50% substrate conversion when performed in the wild type strain, full conversion after 6 h was obtained by employing the knock-out strain. These results suggest that the P. pastoris Δdas1 Δdas2 strain is capable of supplying the actual biocatalyst with the cofactor over a longer reaction period without the over-expression of an additional cofactor regeneration system. Thus, focusing the intrinsic carbon flux of this methylotrophic yeast on methanol oxidation to CO2 represents an efficient and easy-to-use strategy for NADH-dependent whole-cell conversions. At the same time methanol serves as co-solvent, inductor for catalyst and cofactor regeneration pathway expression and source of energy. PMID:26664594

  19. Codon optimization and expression of irisin in Pichia pastoris GS115.

    PubMed

    Duan, Huikun; Wang, Haisong; Ma, Baicheng; Jiang, Pingzhe; Tu, Peipei; Ni, Zaizhong; Li, Xiaodan; Li, Miao; Ma, Xiaofeng; Wang, Bin; Wu, Ri; Li, Minggang

    2015-08-01

    Irisin is a novel hormone which is related to many metabolic diseases. In order to illuminate the function and therapeutic effect of irisin, gaining active irisin is necessary. In this work, a codon-optimized irisin gene was designed according to Pichia pastoris synonymous codon usage bias and cloned into the pPIC9K expression vector. Sequencing result indicating that the sequence of irisin was consistent with the modified irisin and the irisin was in frame with α-factor secretion signal ATG. The plasmid pPIC9K-irisin was transformed into GS115 P. pastoris cells through electroporation. The positive transformants were screened on MD medium and analyzed by PCR. Five recombinant GS115/pPIC9K-irisin strains were obtained, but only one strain expressed irisin successfully. SDS-PAGE and Western blot were used to assess the expression level and purity of irisin. The irisin was also simply purified and the effect of pH value, methanol concentration and induction time on the production of irisin was investigated. The results showed that the best conditions of irisin expression were as follows: pH 6.0, 2.0% methanol and induction for 96 h. This work laid the basis for further investigation into the therapeutic and pharmacological effects of irisin, as well as development of irisin-based therapy. PMID:25931394

  20. Microbiological Characteristics of Wild Yeast Strain Pichia anomala Y197-13 for Brewing Makgeolli

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye Ryun; Kim, Jae-Ho; Bai, Dong-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Makgeolli is a traditional cloudy-white Korean rice wine with an alcohol content of 6~7%. The present study investigated the morphological characteristics, carbon-utilizing ability, fatty acid composition, alcohol resistance, glucose tolerance, and flocculence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Y98-5 and Pichia anomala Y197-13, non-S. cerevisiae isolated from Nuruk, which is used in brewing Makgeolli. Similar morphological characteristics were observed for both isolated wild yeast strains; and the carbon source assimilation of Y197-13 differed from that of other P. anomala strains. Strain Y197-13 was negative for D-trehalose, mannitol, arbutin, I-erythritol, and succinic acid. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Y197-13 included C18:2n6c (33.94%), C18:1n9c (26.97%) and C16:0 (20.57%). Strain Y197-13 was Crabtree-negative, with 60% cell viability at 12% (v/v) ethanol. The flocculation level of strain Y197-13 was 8.38%, resulting in its classification as a non-flocculent yeast. PMID:24198668

  1. Discovery of a rhamnose utilization pathway and rhamnose-inducible promoters in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yuwei; Zhang, Xue; Yan, Chengliang; Zhang, Yuhong; Xu, Xinxin; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The rhamnose utilization pathway in Pichia pastoris has not been clarified although this strain can grow well on rhamnose as a sole carbon source. In this study, four genes, PAS_chr4_0338, PAS_chr4_0339, PAS_chr4_0340, and PAS_chr4_0341, were, for the first time, predicted to be involved in rhamnose metabolism along with the previously identified gene PAS_chr1_4-0075. Moreover, expression of these genes, especially PAS_chr4_0341 and PAS_chr1_4-0075 designated as LRA4 and LRA3, was confirmed to significantly increase and clearly decrease in the presences of rhamnose and glucose, respectively. LRA4 encoding a putative L-2-keto-3-deoxyrhamnonate aldolase, was further confirmed via gene disruption and gene complementation to participate in rhamnose metabolism. Using β-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein as reporters, the promoters of LRA4 and LRA3 performed well in driving efficient production of heterologous proteins. By using food grade rhamnose instead of the toxic compound methanol as the inducer, the two promoters would be excellent candidates for driving the production of food-grade and therapeutically important recombinant proteins. PMID:27256707

  2. Codon optimisation improves the expression of Trichoderma viride sp. endochitinase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ping; Yan, Yuan; Gu, Qing; Wang, Xiangyang

    2013-01-01

    The mature cDNA of endochitinase from Trichoderma viride sp. was optimised based on the codon bias of Pichia pastoris GS115 and synthesised by successive PCR; the sequence was then transformed into P. pastoris GS115 via electroporation. The transformant with the fastest growth rate on YPD plates containing 4 mg/mL G418 was screened and identified. This transformant produced 23.09 U/mL of the recombinant endochitinase, a 35% increase compared to the original strain bearing the wild-type endochitinase cDNA. The recombinant endochitinase was sequentially purified by ammonia sulphate precipitation, DE-52 anion-exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-100 size-exclusion chromatography. Thin-layer chromatography indicated that the purified endochitinase could hydrolyse chito-oligomers or colloidal chitin to generate diacetyl-chitobiose (GlcNAc)2 as the main product. This study demonstrates (1) a means for high expression of Trichoderma viride sp. endochitinase in P. pastoris using codon optimisation and (2) the preparation of chito-oligomers using endochitinase. PMID:24154717

  3. Cloning and expression of Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase I in Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Godbole, S.; Decker, S.R.; Nieves, R.A.; Adney, W.S.; Vinzant, T.B.; Baker, J.O.; Thomas, S.R.; Himmel, M.E.

    1999-10-01

    Pichia pastoris was transformed with the Trichoderma reesei cbh1 gene, and the recombinant enzyme was purified and analyzed kinetically and by circular dichroism. The P. pastoris rCBH I was recognized by MoAb raised to T. reesei CBH I but was found in multiple molecular weight species on SDS-PAGE gels. Carbohydrate content determination and SDS-PAGE western analysis indicated that the recombinant protein was hyperglycosylated, although a species very similar in molecular weight to the T. reesei enzyme could be isolated chromatographically. The P. pastoris rCBH I also demonstrated activity toward soluble and insoluble substrates (i.e., pNPL and Sigmacell), although at a level significantly lower than the wild-type enzyme. More seriously, the yeast-expressed enzyme showed non-wild-type secondary structure by circular dichroism. The authors conclude that P. pastoris may not serve as an adequate host for the site-directed mutagenesis of T. reesei CBH I.

  4. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase production in Pichia pastoris enables chemical synthesis of cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Lange, Kerstin; Schmid, Andreas; Julsing, Mattijs K

    2015-10-10

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is of increasing interest as a pharmaceutical and bioactive compound. Chemical synthesis of THC uses a laborious procedure and does not satisfy the market demand. The implementation of biocatalysts for specific synthesis steps might be beneficial for making natural product availability independent from the plant. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase (THCAS) from C. sativa L. catalyzes the cyclization of cannabigerolic acid (CBGA) to Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), which is non-enzymatically decarboxylated to THC. We report the preparation of THCAS in amounts sufficient for the biocatalytic production of THC(A). Active THCAS was most efficiently obtained from Pichia pastoris. THCAS was produced on a 2L bioreactor scale and the enzyme was isolated by single-step chromatography with a specific activity of 73Ug(-1)total protein. An organic/aqueous two-liquid phase setup for continuous substrate delivery facilitated in situ product removal. In addition, THCAS activity in aqueous environments lasted for only 20min whereas the presence of hexane stabilized the activity over 3h. In conclusion, production of THCAS in P. pastoris Mut(S) KM71 KE1, subsequent isolation, and its application in a two-liquid phase setup enables the synthesis of THCA on a mg scale. PMID:26197418

  5. Expression and Purification of Recombinant Human Apolipoprotein A-II in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Su, Manman; Qi, Yitian; Wang, Mingxing; Chang, Weiqin; Peng, Shuang; Wang, Dingding

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Apolipoprotein A-II (ApoA-II) is the second most abundant protein constituent of high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The physiologic role of ApoA-II is poorly defined. ApoA-II may inhibit lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase and cholesteryl-ester-transfer protein activities, but may increase the hepatic lipase activity. ApoA-II may also inhibit the hepatic cholesteryl uptake from HDL probably through the scavenger receptor class B type I depending pathway. Interpretation of data from transgenic and knockout mice of genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism has been often complicated as clinical implications because of species difference. So it is important to obtain human ApoA-II for further studies about its functions. In our studies, Pichia pastoris expression system was first used to express a high-level secreted recombinant human ApoA-II (rhApoA-II). We have cloned the cDNA encoding human ApoA-II and achieved its high-level secreting expression with a yield of 65 mg/L of yeast culture and the purification process was effective and easy to handle. The purified rhApoA-II can be used to further study its biological activities. PMID:24116940

  6. Optimization of erythropoietin production with controlled glycosylation-PEGylated erythropoietin produced in glycoengineered Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Nett, Juergen H; Gomathinayagam, Sujatha; Hamilton, Stephen R; Gong, Bing; Davidson, Robert C; Du, Min; Hopkins, Daniel; Mitchell, Teresa; Mallem, Muralidhar R; Nylen, Adam; Shaikh, Seemab S; Sharkey, Nathan; Barnard, Gavin C; Copeland, Victoria; Liu, Liming; Evers, Raymond; Li, Yan; Gray, Peter M; Lingham, Russell B; Visco, Denise; Forrest, Gail; DeMartino, Julie; Linden, Thomas; Potgieter, Thomas I; Wildt, Stefan; Stadheim, Terrance A; d'Anjou, Marc; Li, Huijuan; Sethuraman, Natarajan

    2012-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is a methylotropic yeast that has gained great importance as an organism for protein expression in recent years. Here, we report the expression of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in glycoengineered P. pastoris. We show that glycosylation fidelity is maintained in fermentation volumes spanning six orders of magnitude and that the protein can be purified to high homogeneity. In order to increase the half-life of rhEPO, the purified protein was coupled to polyethylene glycol (PEG) and then compared to the currently marketed erythropoiesis stimulating agent, Aranesp(®) (darbepoetin). In in vitro cell proliferation assays the PEGylated protein was slightly, and the non-PEGylated protein was significantly more active than comparator. Pharmacodynamics as well as pharmacokinetic activity of PEGylated rhEPO in animals was comparable to that of Aranesp(®). Taken together, our results show that glycoengineered P. pastoris is a suitable production host for rhEPO, yielding an active biologic that is comparable to those produced in current mammalian host systems. PMID:22100268

  7. Improving the Secretory Expression of an -Galactosidase from Aspergillus niger in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xianliang; Fang, Bo; Han, Dongfei; Yang, Wenxia; Qi, Feifei; Chen, Hui; Li, Shengying

    2016-01-01

    α-Galactosidases are broadly used in feed, food, chemical, pulp, and pharmaceutical industries. However, there lacks a satisfactory microbial cell factory that is able to produce α-galactosidases efficiently and cost-effectively to date, which prevents these important enzymes from greater application. In this study, the secretory expression of an Aspergillus niger α-galactosidase (AGA) in Pichia pastoris was systematically investigated. Through codon optimization, signal peptide replacement, comparative selection of host strain, and saturation mutagenesis of the P1' residue of Kex2 protease cleavage site for efficient signal peptide removal, a mutant P. pastoris KM71H (Muts) strain of AGA-I with the specific P1' site substitution (Glu to Ile) demonstrated remarkable extracellular α-galactosidase activity of 1299 U/ml upon a 72 h methanol induction in 2.0 L fermenter. The engineered yeast strain AGA-I demonstrated approximately 12-fold higher extracellular activity compared to the initial P. pastoris strain. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the highest yield and productivity of a secreted α-galactosidase in P. pastoris, thus holding great potential for industrial application. PMID:27548309

  8. Characterization of the enterovirus 71 P1 polyprotein expressed in Pichia pastor as a candidate vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xue; Ying, Xiao-ling; Zhou, Shi-li; Han, Tao; Huang, Hao; Jin, Qi; Yang, Fan; Sun, Qi-ying; Sun, Xian-xun

    2014-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) plays an important role in hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which recently caused the death of hundreds of children in the Asia-Pacific region. However, there are no specific treatments available for EV71 infections; thus, a safe and effective vaccine is needed urgently. In this study, we developed an effective and economical method for producing EV71 polyprotein (P1 protein) in Pichia pastoris. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential of P1 protein as a candidate vaccine against EV71 virus. The data revealed that P1 protein induced persistent high cross-neutralization antibodies for different EV71 subtypes, and elicited significant splenocyte proliferation. The high levels of interleukin-10(IL-10) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) showed that P1 protein induced Th1 and Th2 immune responses. Interestingly, vaccinating female mice with the P1 protein conferred cross-protection against different EV71 subtypes to their neonatal offspring.Compared with heat-inactivated EV71, the P1 protein elicited improved humoral and cellular immune responses and showed good cross-protection with different EV71 subtypes. Therefore, the EV71-P1 protein produced by P. pastoris is a promising candidate vaccine against EV71. PMID:25424925

  9. Efficient removal of zinc by multi-stress-tolerant yeast Pichia kudriavzevii A16.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Yu, Jinzhi; Wang, Dongfeng; Li, Laihao; Yang, Xianqing; Ma, Haixia; Xu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal bioaccumulation by growing microorganisms is a potential technique for treating the heavy metal pollution in food materials, e.g. fishery processing wastes. In this study, a multi-stress-tolerant yeast with high Zn tolerance and efficient Zn removal ability was screened and renamed as Pichia kudriavzevii A16 after identification. High salinity and low pH obviously increased the Zn bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii A16, contributing to the increasing Zn removal rate of P. kudriavzevii A16 at 0.5 mmol/L Zn from 67.69% to 77.03% and 96.09%, respectively. P. kudriavzevii A16 displayed high specificity of Zn removal at high concentrations of Cu, while high concentrations of Cd significantly inhibited the Zn removal by restraining the yeast growth. P. kudriavzevii A16 possessed more powerful Zn removal ability than Saccharomyces cerevisiae CICC1211 under various environmental stresses. The multi-stress-tolerant P. kudriavzevii A16 can be developed into a potential Zn removal agent using in complex food environments. PMID:26845218

  10. Recombinant protein production facility for fungal biomass-degrading enzymes using the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Haon, Mireille; Grisel, Sacha; Navarro, David; Gruet, Antoine; Berrin, Jean-Guy; Bignon, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are the predominant source of lignocellulolytic enzymes used in industry for the transformation of plant biomass into high-value molecules and biofuels. The rapidity with which new fungal genomic and post-genomic data are being produced is vastly outpacing functional studies. This underscores the critical need for developing platforms dedicated to the recombinant expression of enzymes lacking confident functional annotation, a prerequisite to their functional and structural study. In the last decade, the yeast Pichia pastoris has become increasingly popular as a host for the production of fungal biomass-degrading enzymes, and particularly carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). This study aimed at setting-up a platform to easily and quickly screen the extracellular expression of biomass-degrading enzymes in P. pastoris. We first used three fungal glycoside hydrolases (GHs) that we previously expressed using the protocol devised by Invitrogen to try different modifications of the original protocol. Considering the gain in time and convenience provided by the new protocol, we used it as basis to set-up the facility and produce a suite of fungal CAZymes (GHs, carbohydrate esterases and auxiliary activity enzyme families) out of which more than 70% were successfully expressed. The platform tasks range from gene cloning to automated protein purifications and activity tests, and is open to the CAZyme users' community. PMID:26441929

  11. Expression and Control of Codon-Optimized Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Maity, Nitu; Thawani, Ankita; Sharma, Anshul; Gautam, Ashwani; Mishra, Saroj; Sahai, Vikram

    2016-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) has therapeutic applications due to its proven efficacy in different forms of neutropenia and chemotherapy-induced leucopenia. The original 564-bp nucleotide sequence from NCBI was codon optimized and assembled by overlapping PCR method comprising of 16 oligos of 50-nt length with 15 base overhang. The synthetic gene (CO-GCSF) was cloned under glucose utilizing glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) and methanol-utilizing alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoters and expressed in Pichia pastoris SMD1168 strain. Constitutive expression under GAP resulted in cellular toxicity while AOX1 promoter controlled expression was stable. Variation in the levels of expression was observed among the transformant colonies with transformant #2 secreting up to ∼4 mg/L of GCSF. The molecular mass of the expressed GCSF in P. pastoris was ∼19.0 kDa. Quatitation of the expressed protein was carried out by a highly reproducible gel densitometric method. Effect of several operational and nutritional conditions was studied on GCSF production and the results suggest a general approach for increasing the yield of GCSF several folds (2- to 5-fold) over the standard conditions employed currently. Cultivation of the single-copy integrant in the chemically defined medium in a 5-L fermenter resulted in a volumetric productivity of ∼0.7 mg/L/h at the end of the induction phase, which was about 4-fold higher than attained in the shake flask. PMID:26410223

  12. Comparison of two codon optimization strategies enhancing recombinant Sus scrofa lysozyme production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhu, D; Cai, G; Wu, D; Lu, J

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme has played an important role in animal feed additive industry, food additive industry and biological engineering. For improving expression efficiency of recombinant lysozyme from Sus scrofa, two genes respectively designed by the most used codon optimization strategies, "one amino acid one codon" and "codon randomization", were synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris X—33. At shaking flask level, Sus scrofa lysozyme (SSL) under two conditions had a highest activity of 153.33±10.41 and 538.33±15.18 U/mL after a 5 days induction of 1% methanol, with secreted protein concentration 80.03±1.94 and 239.60±4.16 mg/L, respectively. Compared with the original SSL gene, the expression of optimized SSL gene by the second strategy showed a 2.6 fold higher level, while the first method had no obvious improvement in production. In total secreted protein, the proportions of recombinant SSL encoded by the original gene, first method optimized gene and the second—strategy optimized one were 75.06±0.25%, 74.56±0.14% and 79.00±0.14%, respectively, with the same molecular weight about 18 kDa, optimum acidity pH 6.0 and optimum temperature 35degC. PMID:26025401

  13. Directed gene copy number amplification in Pichia pastoris by vector integration into the ribosomal DNA locus.

    PubMed

    Marx, Hans; Mecklenbräuker, Astrid; Gasser, Brigitte; Sauer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2009-12-01

    The yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host organism for heterologous protein production. One of the basic steps for strain improvement is to ensure a sufficient level of transcription of the heterologous gene, based on promoter strength and gene copy number. To date, high-copy-number integrants of P. pastoris are achievable only by screening of random events or by cloning of gene concatemers. Methods for rapid and reliable multicopy integration of the expression cassette are therefore desirable. Here we present such a method based on vector integration into the rDNA locus and post-transformational vector amplification by repeated selection on increased antibiotic concentrations. Data are presented for two exemplary products: human serum albumin, which is secreted into the supernatant, and human superoxide dismutase, which is accumulated in the cytoplasm of the cells. The striking picture evolving is that intracellular protein production is tightly correlated with gene copy number, while use of the secretory pathway introduces a high clonal variability and the correlation with gene copy number is valid only for low gene copy numbers. PMID:19799640

  14. Functional expression, purification, and characterization of human Flt3 ligand in the Pichia pastoris system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Li; Chen, Song-Sen; Yang, Ke-Gong; Su, Lin; Deng, Yan-Chun; Liu, Chang-Zheng

    2005-08-01

    Flt3 ligand (FL) is a potent hematopoietic cytokine that affects the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells both in vivo and in vitro. Pichia pastoris transformants secreting high-level rhFL were obtained using 'yeastern blotting' method and the expression level in liquid was about 30 mg/L. rhFL was purified to about 95% purity with overnight dialysis, filtration and an anion-exchange step. Further purification steps employing Sephacryl S-200 and reverse-phase HPLC raised the purity to over 99%. The purified rhFL possessed correct N-terminal amino acid sequence and positive Western blotting bands. SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry analysis showed molecular weight of rhFL was about 21 and 34 kDa, suggesting that rhFL was glycosylated. The result of capillary electrophoresis showed that its pI is 3.12-4.72. Endo H deglycosylation analysis indicated that there was O-glycosylation besides N-glycosylation in rhFL secreted from P. pastoris. Bioactivity assay showed that the purified rhFL had dose-dependent expansion activity on bone marrow nucleated cells. PMID:15914030

  15. Functional expression of soluble forms of human CD38 in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Fryxell, K B; O'Donoghue, K; Graeff, R M; Lee, H C; Branton, W D

    1995-06-01

    Cyclic adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose (cADPR), a metabolite of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), mobilizes calcium from intracellular stores in many cells. The synthesis of cADPR from NAD+ and its subsequent hydrolysis to ADPR is catalyzed by an ADP-ribosyl cyclase and a cADPR hydrolase, respectively. The ADP-ribosyl cyclase cloned from the ovotestis of the marine invertebrate Aplysia californica has amino acid sequence homology to the human lymphocyte surface antigen CD38. CD38 has been shown to catalyze both the formation and the hydrolysis of cADPR. In this study, we produced soluble, enzymatically active CD38 using recombinant expression techniques in bacteria and yeast. We engineered a gene coding for a soluble form of CD38 by excision of the region of the gene coding for the N-terminal amino acids representing the putative membrane spanning sequence and short putative intracellular sequence. For expression in bacteria (Escherichia coli), this construct was cloned into the pFlag-1 plasmid which allows induced, periplasmic expression and relatively simple purification of the soluble CD38. For expression in yeast (Pichia pastoris) the CD38 sequence was further modified to eliminate four putative N-linked glycosylation sites and the resulting construct was expressed as a secreted protein. Both systems produce soluble enzymes of approximately 30 kDa and both recombinant enzymes display similar cyclase and hydrolase activities. PMID:7663169

  16. Expression, characterization, and purification of recombinant porcine lactoferrin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sue-Hong; Yang, Tien-Shuh; Lin, Shiang-Ming; Tsai, Ming-Shiun; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Mao, Simon J T

    2002-06-01

    Recombinant porcine lactoferrin (rPLF) was synthesized in Pichia pastoris using a constitutive promoter from the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene. Strains expressing rPLF with its own signal sequence or with that from the yeast alpha-mating factor (alpha-MF) were able to produce and secrete rPLF, but levels were consistently higher using alpha-MF constructs. In contrast, P. pastoris strains that expressed rPLF without a signal sequence produced the protein in an insoluble intracellular form. Increasing the initial pH of shake-flask culture medium from 6.0 to 7.0 or adding ferric ions to the medium (to 100 microM) resulted in significant improvements in expression of rPLF from P. pastoris. Expression levels (approximately 12 mg/L) were much higher than those observed from Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (1-2 mg/L). P. pastoris-secreted rPLF was isolated and purified via a one-step simple procedure using a heparin column. The molecular size (78 kDa), isoelectric point (8.8-9.0), N-terminal amino acid sequence, and iron-binding capability of rPLF were each similar to that of native milk PLF. PMID:12071697

  17. Enhancement of protein secretion in Pichia pastoris by overexpression of protein disulfide isomerase.

    PubMed

    Inan, Mehmet; Aryasomayajula, Dinesh; Sinha, Jayanta; Meagher, Michael M

    2006-03-01

    A potential vaccine candidate, Necator americanus secretory protein (Na-ASP1), against hookworm infections, has been expressed in Pichia pastoris. Na-ASP1, a 45 kDa protein containing 20 cysteines, was directed outside the cell by fusing the protein to the preprosequence of the alpha-mating factor of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most of the protein produced by single copy clones was secreted outside the cell. However, increasing gene copy number of Na-ASP1 protein in P. pastoris saturated secretory capacity and therefore, decreased the amount of secreted protein in clones harboring multiple copies of Na-ASP1 gene. Overexpression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident, homologous chaperone protein, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) was able to increase the secretion of (Na-ASP1) protein in high copy clones. The effect of PDI levels on secretion of Na-ASP1 protein was examined in clones with varying copy number of PDI gene. Increase in secreted Na-ASP1 secretion is correlated well with the PDI copy number. Increasing levels of PDI also increased overall Na-ASP1 protein production in all the clones. Nevertheless, there was still accumulation of intracellular Na-ASP1 protein in P. pastoris clones over-expressing Na-ASP1 and PDI proteins. PMID:16255058

  18. Characterization of Bovine Interferon α1: Expression in Yeast Pichia pastoris, Biological Activities, and Physicochemical Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Jianwei; Cao, Chong; Bao, Jun; Liu, Hongtao; Peng, Tongquan

    2015-01-01

    A bovine interferon α (BoIFNα) gene that included signal sequence was amplified from bovine liver genomic DNA. The gene was named BoIFN-α1 according to the position at which the encoded gene of the bovine IFN was located in the bovine genome. The sequence included a 23-amino-acid signal peptide and a 166-amino-acid mature peptide. The structural characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of the BoIFN-α1 gene were analyzed. A recombinant mature BoIFN-α1 (rBoIFN-α1) was expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Physicochemical characteristics and antiviral activity were determined in vitro. Recombinant BoIFN-α1 was found to be highly sensitive to trypsin and stable at pH 2.0 or 65°C. It also exhibited antiviral activity, which was neutralized by a rabbit anti-rBoIFNα polyclonal antibody. This study revealed that rBoIFN-α1 has the typical characteristics of IFNα and can be used for both research and industrial application. PMID:25343404

  19. Coexpression of cellulases in Pichia pastoris as a self-processing protein fusion.

    PubMed

    de Amorim Araújo, Juliana; Ferreira, Túlio César; Rubini, Marciano Régis; Duran, Ana Gilhema Gomez; De Marco, Janice Lisboa; de Moraes, Lidia Maria Pepe; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2015-12-01

    The term cellulase refers to any component of the enzymatic complex produced by some fungi, bacteria and protozoans which act serially or synergistically to catalyze the cleavage of cellulosic materials. Cellulases have been widely used in many industrial applications ranging from food industry to the production of second generation ethanol. In an effort to develop new strategies to minimize the costs of enzyme production we describe the development of a Pichia pastoris strain able to coproduce two different cellulases. For that purpose the eglII (endoglucanase II) and cbhII (cellobiohydrolase II) genes from Trichoderma reesei were fused in-frame separated by the self-processing 2A peptide sequence from the foot-and-mouth disease virus. The protein fusion construct was placed under the control of the strong inducible AOX1 promoter. Analysis of culture supernatants from methanol-induced yeast transformants showed that the protein fusion was effectively processed. Enzymatic assay showed that the processed enzymes were fully functional with the same catalytic properties of the individual enzymes produced separately. Furthermore, when combined both enzymes acted synergistically on filter paper to produce cellobiose as the main end-product. Based on these results we propose that P. pastoris should be considered as an alternative platform for the production of cellulases at competitive costs. PMID:26698316

  20. Characteristics and Applicability of Phytase of the Yeast Pichia anomala in Synthesizing Haloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, Tulasi

    2015-07-01

    The phytase of the yeast Pichia anomala is a histidine acid phosphatase based on signature sequences and catalytic amino acids identified by site-directed mutagenesis. Among modulators, N-bromosuccinimide and butanedione inhibit phytase, while Ca(2+) and Ni(2+) stimulate slightly. Vanadate exhibits competitive inhibition of phytase, making it bifunctional to act as haloperoxidase. Molecular docking supports vanadate to share its binding site with phytate. The T 1/2, activation energy (E a ), temperature quotient (Q 10), activation energy of thermal inactivation (Ed), and enthalpy (ΔH d (0) ) of the enzyme are 4.0 min (80 °C), 27.72 kJ mol(-1), 2.1, 410.62 kJ mol(-1), and ∼407.8 kJ mol(-1) (65-80 °C), respectively. The free energy of the process (ΔG d (o) ) increases from 49.56 to 71.58 kJ mol(-1) with rise in temperature, while entropy of inactivation (ΔS d (0) ) remains constant at ∼1.36 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). The supplementation of whole wheat dough with rPPHY resulted in 72.5 % reduction in phytic acid content of bread. These characteristics confirm that the phytase has adequate thermostability for its applicability as a food and feed additive. PMID:25957272

  1. High-level production of Fc-fused kringle domain in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Gu Min; Lee, Yong Jae; Kim, Yong Sung; Jeong, Ki Jun

    2014-06-01

    Recently, as a new non-immunoglobulin-based protein scaffold, a human kringle domain was successfully engineered toward biologically functional agonists and antagonists. In this study, the fed-batch cultivation conditions were optimized for enhanced production of an Fc-fused kringle domain (KD548-Fc) in Pichia pastoris. Fed-batch cultivations were performed in 5-l laboratory-scale bioreactors, and in order to find the optimal conditions for high-level production of KD548-Fc, several parameters including the initial carbon source (glycerol) concentration, temperature, and pH were investigated. When cells were cultivated at pH 4.0 and 25 °C with 9.5 % glycerol in the initial medium, the highest production yield (635 mg/l) was achieved with high productivity (7.2 mg/l/h). Furthermore, functional KD548-Fc was successfully purified from the culture broth using a simple purification procedure with high purity and recovery yield. PMID:24682857

  2. A dynamic fed batch strategy for a Pichia pastoris mixed feed system to increase process understanding.

    PubMed

    Zalai, Dénes; Dietzsch, Christian; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2012-01-01

    Mixed substrate feeding strategies are frequently investigated to enhance the productivity of recombinant Pichia pastoris processes. For this purpose, numerous fed batch experiments or time-consuming continuous cultivations are required to optimize control parameters such as the substrate mixing ratio and the applied methanol concentration. In this study, we decoupled the feeding of methanol and glycerol in a mixed substrate fed batch environment to gain process understanding for a recombinant P. pastoris Muts strain producing the model enzyme horseradish peroxidase. Specific substrate uptake rates (qs) were controlled separately, and a stepwise increased qGly-control scheme was applied to investigate the effect of various substrate fluxes on the culture. The qs-controlled strategy allowed a parallel characterization of the metabolism and the recombinant protein expression in a fed batch environment. A critical-specific glycerol uptake rate was determined, where a decline of the specific productivity occurred, and a time-dependent acceleration of protein expression was characterized with the dynamic fed batch approach. Based on the observations on recombinant protein expression, propositions for an optimal feeding design to target maximal productivities were stated. Thus, the dynamic fed batch strategy was found to be a valuable tool for both process understanding and optimization of product formation for P. pastoris in a mixed substrate environment. PMID:22505140

  3. Simple and efficient expression of Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sygmund, Christoph; Gutmann, Alexander; Krondorfer, Iris; Kujawa, Magdalena; Glieder, Anton; Pscheidt, Beate; Haltrich, Dietmar; Peterbauer, Clemens; Kittl, Roman

    2012-05-01

    Pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH) is a fungal flavin-dependent sugar oxidoreductase that is highly interesting for applications in organic synthesis or electrochemistry. The low expression levels of the filamentous fungus Agaricus meleagris as well as the demand for engineered PDH make heterologous expression necessary. Recently, Aspergillus species were described to efficiently secrete recombinant PDH. Here, we evaluate recombinant protein production with expression hosts more suitable for genetic engineering. Expression in Escherichia coli resulted in no soluble or active PDH. Heterologous expression in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris was investigated using two different signal sequences as well as a codon-optimized sequence. A 96-well plate activity screening for transformants of all constructs was established and the best expressing clone was used for large-scale production in 50-L scale, which gave a volumetric yield of 223 mg L(-1) PDH or 1,330 U L(-1) d(-1) in space-time yield. Purification yielded 13.4 g of pure enzyme representing 95.8% of the initial activity. The hyperglycosylated recombinant enzyme had a 20% lower specific activity than the native enzyme; however, the kinetic properties were essentially identical. This study demonstrates the successful expression of PDH in the eukaryotic host organism P. pastoris paving the way for protein engineering. Additionally, the feasibility of large-scale production of the enzyme with this expression system together with a simplified purification scheme for easy high-yield purification is shown. PMID:22080342

  4. Production of glycosylated thermostable Providencia rettgeri penicillin G amidase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sevo, Milica; Degrassi, Giuliano; Skoko, Natasa; Venturi, Vittorio; Ljubijankić, Goran

    2002-01-01

    Penicillin G amidase from Providencia rettgeri is a heterodimer of 92 kDa. We have previously expressed the Pr. rettgeri pac gene coding for this enzyme in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and now we report the expression and characterization in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant catalytically active enzyme (rPAC(Pr)) was secreted from shake flask-grown P. pastoris cells into the medium at a level of approximately 0.18 U ml(-1). This yield of rPAC(Pr) was higher, by two orders of magnitude, than that obtained using a single-copy expression plasmid in S. cerevisiae. In addition, the secreted recombinant enzyme was entirely N-glycosylated. The recombinant PAC(Pr) was further characterized in terms of specific activity, kinetic parameters and thermostability. Except the significantly higher thermostability of the glycosylated rPAC(Pr) produced in P. pastoris, the other parameters were very similar to those of the corresponding non-glycosylated enzymes produced in bacteria or in S. cerevisiae. The higher thermostability of this recombinant enzyme has a clear industrial advantage. PMID:12702330

  5. Efficacy of Pichia caribbica in controlling blue mold rot and patulin degradation in apples.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Zhang, Hongyin; Yang, Qiya; Ren, Rong

    2013-03-15

    The efficacy of Pichia caribbica in controlling postharvest blue mold and natural decay development of apples and degrading the patulin produced by Penicillium expansum was investigated. The decay incidence of the blue mold of apples treated by P. caribbica was significantly reduced compared with the control samples, and the higher the concentration of P. caribbica, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. P. caribbica significantly controlled the natural decay development of apples following storage at 20°C for 35days or 4°C for 45 days followed by 20°C for 15 days. Germination of spores and growth of P. expansum were markedly inhibited by P. caribbica in in vitro testing. Rapid colonization of apple wounds by the yeast was observed in fruit stored at 20°C or 4°C. After incubation with P. caribbica at 20°C for 15 days, patulin production by P. expansum in apples was significantly reduced compared with the control. In vitro testing indicated that P. caribbica can degrade patulin directly. PMID:23416552

  6. Camelid-derived heavy-chain nanobody against Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin E in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Baghban, Roghayyeh; Gargari, Seyed Latif Mousavi; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Nazarian, Shahram; Bakherad, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) result in severe and often fatal disease, botulism. Common remedial measures such as equine antitoxin and human botulism immunoglobulin in turn are problematic and time-consuming. Therefore, diagnosis and therapy of BoNTs are vital. The variable domain of heavy-chain antibodies (VHH) has unique features, such as the ability to identify and bind specifically to target epitopes and ease of production in bacteria and yeast. The Pichia pastoris is suitable for expression of recombinant antibody fragments. Disulfide bond formation and correct folds of protein with a high yield are some of the advantages of this eukaryotic host. In this study, we have expressed and purified the camelid VHH against BoNT/E in P. pastoris. The final yield of P. pastoris-expressed antibody was estimated to be 16 mg/l, which is higher than that expressed by Escherichia coli. The nanobody expressed in P. pastoris neutralized 4LD50 of the BoNT/E upon i.p. injection in 25% of mice. The nanobody expressed in E. coli extended the mice's survival to 1.5-fold compared to the control. This experiment indicated that the quality of expressed protein in the yeast is superior to that of the bacterial expression. Favorable protein folding by P. pastoris seems to play a role in its better toxin-binding property. PMID:24673401

  7. Expression in Pichia pastoris and characterization of echistatin, an RGD-containing short disintegrin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Ho; Shiu, Jia-Hau; Chang, Yao-Tsung; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Huang, Chun-Hau; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Chuang, Woei-Jer

    2012-12-15

    Echistatin (Ech) is a potent inhibitor of integrins and was isolated from snake Echis carinatus. To facilitate the study on the molecular determinants of integrin-ligand interactions, we expressed recombinant Ech and its mutants in the Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) expression system and purified them to homogeneity with the yields of 2-7 mg/L. Ech produced in P. pastoris inhibited platelet aggregation with the IC(50) value of 210.5 nM. The sequential assignment and structure analysis of recombinant Ech were obtained by 2D and 3D (15)N-edited NMR spectra. These data suggests that Ech produced in P. pastoris retained its function and native fold. The results presented here provide the evidences that four disulfide-bonded peptide inhibitor of integrin, Ech, can be expressed in P. pastoris with correct fold and high yield. Platelet aggregation analysis of Ech mutants showed that the length of C-terminus and the K45 residue of Ech are important for interacting with integrin αIIbβ3. We also found that recombinant Ech can inhibit the migration of human A375 melanoma cell. These findings may serve as the basis for understanding the activities of Ech. PMID:22982571

  8. Co-overexpression of PpPDI enhances secretion of ancrod in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shou-Tao; Fang, Hui-Min; Zhao, Li; Tian, Qing-Nan; Qin, Yun-Fei; Lu, Ping; Chen, San-Jun; Bao, Zhen-Xia; Liang, Feng

    2011-08-01

    Ancrod, a serine protease purified from the venom of Agkistrodon rhodostoma, is highly specific for fibrinogen. It causes anticoagulation by defibrinogenation and has been used as a therapeutic anticoagulant for the treatment of moderate to severe forms of peripheral arterial circulatory disorders in a variety of countries. The DNA of ancrod was amplified by recursive PCR with a yeast bias codon and cloned into the pGEM-T Easy vector. In order to achieve a high level secretion and a full activity expression of ancrod in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris), the P. pastoris protein disulfide bond isomerase (PpPDI) was co-overexpressed in the strain. The secretion characteristics of ancrod with and without PpPDI were examined. With co-overexpression of PpPDI, the production of recombinant ancrod (rAncrod) was increased to 315 mg/L in the culture medium, which is twofold higher than the control strain carrying only the ancrod gene. Through purified by Ni²⁺ affinity chromatography and phenyl Sepharose column, the purity of rAncrod was found to be as high as 95.2%. The fibrinogenolytic and zymographic activities of the rAncrod were determined and found to be similar to that of the native protein. This improved expression system can facilitate further studies and the industrial production of ancrod. PMID:21340538

  9. Pichia pastoris as a host for secretion of toxic saporin chimeras.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Alessio; Bursomanno, Sara; Lopardo, Teresa; Traini, Roberta; Colombatti, Marco; Ippoliti, Rodolfo; Flavell, David J; Flavell, Sopsamorn U; Ceriotti, Aldo; Fabbrini, Maria Serena

    2010-01-01

    Most of the targeting moieties, such as antibody fragments or growth factor domains, used to construct targeted toxins for anticancer therapy derive from secretory proteins. These normally fold in the oxidative environment of the endoplasmic reticulum, and hence their folding in bacterial cells can be quite inefficient. For instance, only low amounts of properly folded antimetastatic chimera constituted by the amino-terminal fragment of human urokinase (ATF) fused to the plant ribosome-inactivating protein saporin could be recovered. ATF-saporin was instead secreted efficiently when expressed in eukaryotic cells protected from autointoxication with neutralizing anti-saporin antibodies. Pichia pastoris is a microbial eukaryotic host where these domains can fold into a transport-competent conformation and reach the extracellular medium. We show here that despite some host toxicity codon-usage optimization greatly increased the expression levels of active saporin but not those of an active-site mutant SAP-KQ in GS115 (his4) strain. The lack of any toxicity associated with expression of the latter confirmed that toxicity is due to saporin catalytic activity. Nevertheless, GS115 (his4) cells in flask culture secreted 3.5 mg/L of a histidine-tagged ATF-saporin chimera showing an IC(50) of 6 x 10(-11) M against U937 cells, thus demonstrating the suitability of this expression platform for secretion of toxic saporin-based chimeras. PMID:19786581

  10. Preparation and PEGylation of exendin-4 peptide secreted from yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Cai, Zhong-Hua; Li, Lei; Kou, Chuang; Gao, Yun-Feng

    2009-06-01

    Exendin-4, a peptide analogue of glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), has been developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes. Herein, the secretive exendin-4 peptide, expressed by methanol induction in Pichia pastoris, was purified to near homogeneity by Ni-NTA agarose chromatography. 103.6 mg of protein was obtained from 1 L of the supernatant and its purity was 96.1%. Subsequently, the PEGylated exendin-4 was prepared. The bioactivity of exendin-4 was determined by examining the glucose-lowering and insulin-releasing ability in plasma. Then, a safety evaluation was performed by histological examination of the main organs (liver, kidney and pancreas). PEGylated exendin-4 displayed glucose-lowering and insulin-stimulating action in vivo without obvious damage to the above organs. The results suggest that the P. pastoris expression could be used to produce large quantities of exendin-4, and PEGylation is a useful tool to maintain and enhance bioactivity of the peptide. PMID:19462477

  11. mazF as a counter-selectable marker for unmarked genetic modification of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yang, Junjie; Jiang, Weihong; Yang, Sheng

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a novel method for unmarked genetic modification of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, in which the Escherichia coli toxin gene mazF was used as a counter-selectable marker. mazF was placed under the tightly controlled AOX1 promoter, and the induced expression of MazF in P. pastoris halted cell growth. A modular plasmid was constructed in which mazF and a Zeocin resistance gene acted as counter-selectable and active-selectable markers, respectively, and the MazF-ZeoR cassette was flanked by two direct repeats for marker recycling. Linearized delivery vectors constructed from the modular plasmid were integrated into the P. pastoris genome via homologous recombination, introducing genetic modifications. Upon counter-selection with methanol medium, which induces the AOX1 promoter, the markers were recycled efficiently via homologous recombination between the direct repeats. We used this method successfully to knock-out the ARG1 and MET2 genes, knock-in a green fluorescent protein expression cassette, and perform site-directed mutagenesis on the ARG1 gene, all without introducing unwanted selection markers. The novel method allows repeated use of the selectable marker gene for multiple modifications and will be a useful tool for P. pastoris studies. PMID:19416369

  12. Molecular cloning and expression in Pichia pastoris of a hypoallergenic antigen 5.

    PubMed

    Vinzón, Sabrina E; Pirpignani, María L; Nowicki, Cristina; Biscoglio de Jiménez Bonino, Mirtha

    2010-09-01

    Stings by insects from the Hymenoptera order can cause life-threatening allergic reactions and impair life quality. Immunotherapy with venom extracts is the most extensively employed treatment to reduce morbidity and mortality, but purified and safer allergy vaccines are needed. Antigen 5 is an important allergen of vespid venoms. We previously reported that Antigen 5 from Polybia scutellaris (Poly s 5) is likely to be a hypoallergenic variant. On the basis of such findings, this work deals with the recombinant expression and purification of Poly s 5 in Pichia pastoris. In order to overcome non-native glycosylation of the recombinant protein, it was necessary to delete a glycosylation site. On the other hand, different strategies were attempted to obtain a satisfactory yield of the protein; moreover, the influence of the methanol concentration in the expression medium was investigated and found to be crucial. Mass spectrometry, N-terminal sequencing, and IgG-binding inhibition assays were performed. Results allowed us to confirm the immunological equivalence between the recombinant and the natural proteins. In conclusion, a novel protocol for the recombinant expression of Poly s 5 in P. pastoris was designed thus bringing about a high yield of the protein useful for clinical and scientific purposes. PMID:20371379

  13. Bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase-based expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hobl, Birgit; Hock, Björn; Schneck, Sandra; Fischer, Reinhard; Mack, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    A novel Pichia pastoris expression vector (pEZT7) for the production of recombinant proteins employing prokaryotic bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) (EC 2.7.7.6) and the corresponding promoter pT7 was constructed. The gene for T7 RNAP was stably introduced into the P. pastoris chromosome 2 under control of the (endogenous) constitutive P. pastoris glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter (pGAP). The gene product T7 RNAP was engineered to contain a nuclear localization signal, which directed recombinant T7 RNAP to the P. pastoris nucleus. To promote translation of uncapped T7 RNAP derived transcripts, the internal ribosomal entry site from hepatitis C virus (HCV-IRES) was inserted directly upstream of the multiple cloning site of pEZT7. A P. pastoris autonomous replicating sequence (PARS1) was integrated into pEZT7 enabling propagation and recovery of plasmids from P. pastoris. Rapid amplification of 5' complementary DNA ends (5' RACE) experiments employing the test plasmid pEZT7-EGFP revealed that transcripts indeed initiated at pT7. HCV-IRES mediated translation of the latter mRNAs, however, was not observed. Surprisingly, HCV-IRES and the reverse complement of PARS1 (PARS1rc) were both found to display significant promoter activity as shown by 5' RACE. PMID:24056257

  14. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast. PMID:26753521

  15. Biochemical characterization of Aspergillus oryzae native tannase and the recombinant enzyme expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Toshiyuki; Shiono, Yoshihito; Koseki, Takuya

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the biochemical properties of the recombinant tannase from Aspegillus oryzae were compared with those of the native enzyme. Extracellular native tannase was purified from a commercial enzyme source. Recombinant tannase highly expressed in Pichia pastoris was prepared as an active extracellular protein. Purified native and recombinant tannases produced smeared bands with apparent molecular masses of 45-80 kDa and 45-75 kDa, respectively, by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. After N-deglycosylation, the native enzyme yielded molecular masses of 33 kDa and 30 kDa, whereas the recombinant enzyme yielded molecular masses of 34 kDa and 30 kDa. Purified native and recombinant tannases had an optimum pH of 4.0-5.0 and 5.0, respectively, and were stable up to 40°C. After N-deglycosylation, both enzymes exhibited reduced thermostability. Catalytic efficiencies of both purified enzymes were greater with natural substrates, such as (-)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallates, than those with synthetic substrates, such as methyl, ethyl, and propyl gallates. However, there were no activities against the methyl esters of ferulic, p-coumaric, caffeic, and sinapic acids, which indicate feruloyl esterase activity, or the ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, which indicate paraben hydrolase activity. PMID:24856589

  16. rhEPO (recombinant human eosinophil peroxidase): expression in Pichia pastoris and biochemical characterization

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Chiara; Gambacurta, Alessandra; Sanctis, Giampiero DE; Spagnolo, Domenico; Sakarikou, Christina; Petrella, Giovanni; Coletta, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    A Pichia pastoris expression system has for the first time been successfully developed to produce rhEPO (recombinant human eosinophil peroxidase). The full-length rhEPO coding sequence was cloned into the pPIC9 vector in frame with the yeast α-Factor secretion signal under the transcriptional control of the AOX (acyl-CoA oxidase) promoter, and transformed into P. pastoris strain GS115. Evidence for the production of rhEPO by P. pastoris as a glycosylated dimer precursor of approx. 80 kDa was determined by SDS/PAGE and gel filtration chromatography. Recombinant hEPO undergoes proteolytic processing, similar to that in the native host, to generate two chains of approx. 50 and 20 kDa. A preliminary biochemical characterization of purified rhEPO demonstrated that the spectral and kinetic properties of the recombinant wild-type EPO are comparable with those of the native enzyme and are accompanied by oxidizing activity towards several physiological anionic substrates such as SCN−, Br− and Cl−. On the basis of the estimated Km and kcat values it is evident that the pseudohalide SCN− is the most specific substrate for rhEPO, consistent with the catalytic properties of other mammalian EPOs purified from blood. PMID:16396635

  17. Heterologous expression and kinetic characterisation of Neurospora crassa β-xylosidase in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kirikyali, N; Connerton, I F

    2014-04-10

    To degrade plant hemicelluloses fungi employ β-xylosidases to hydrolyse xylooligosaccharides, released by endo-xylanases, into xylose. We have expressed the β-xylosidase from Neurospora crassa in Pichia pastoris under the control of alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. The recombinant enzyme is optimally active at 50 °C and pH 5.0 with Km and Vmax values of 8.9 mM and 1052 μmol min⁻¹ mg⁻¹ respectively against 4-nitrophenyl β-xylopyranoside. Xylose is a non-competitive inhibitor with a K(i) of 1.72 mM. The enzyme is characterised to be an exo-cutting enzyme releasing xylose from the non-reducing ends of β-1,4 linked xylooligosaccharides (X₂, X₃ and X₄) but also capable of transxylosilation. Catalytic conversion of X₂, X₃ and X4 decreases (V(max) and k(cat)) with increasing chain length. PMID:24629269

  18. Heterologous expression of Pycnoporus cinnabarinus cellobiose dehydrogenase in Pichia pastoris and involvement in saccharification processes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) is an extracellular hemoflavoenzyme produced by lignocellulose-degrading fungi including Pycnoporus cinnabarinus. We investigated the cellulolytic system of P. cinnabarinus, focusing on the involvement of CDH in the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass. Results First, P. cinnabarinus growth conditions were optimized for CDH production. Following growth under cellulolytic conditions, the main components secreted were cellulases, xylanases and CDH. To investigate the contribution of P. cinnabarinus secretome in saccharification processes, the Trichoderma reesei enzymatic cocktail was supplemented with the P. cinnabarinus secretome. A significant enhancement of the degradation of wheat straw was observed with (i) the production of a large amount of gluconic acid, (ii) increased hemicellulose degradation, and (iii) increased overall degradation of the lignocellulosic material. P. cinnabarinus CDH was heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris to obtain large amounts of pure enzyme. In a bioreactor, the recombinant CDH (rCDH) expression level reached 7800 U/L. rCDH exhibited values of biochemical parameters similar to those of the natural enzyme, and was able to bind cellulose despite the absence of a carbohydrate-binding module (CBM). Following supplementation of purified rCDH to T. reesei enzymatic cocktail, formation of gluconic acid and increased hemicellulose degradation were observed, thus confirming the previous results observed with P. cinnabarinus secretome. Conclusions We demonstrate that CDH offers an attractive tool for saccharification process enhancement due to gluconic acid production from raw lignocellulosic material. PMID:22204630

  19. Surface Display and Bioactivity of Bombyx mori Acetylcholinesterase on Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    He, Yong-Sheng; Beier, Ross C.; Sun, Yuan-Ming; Xu, Zhen-Lin; Wu, Wei-Jian; Shen, Yu-Dong; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Lai, Li-Na; Wang, Hong; Yang, Jin-Yi

    2013-01-01

    A Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) cell surface display system of Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase (BmAChE) was constructed and its bioactivity was studied. The modified Bombyx mori acetylcholinesterase gene (bmace) was fused with the anchor protein (AGα1) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and transformed into P. pastoris strain GS115. The recombinant strain harboring the fusion gene bmace-AGα1 was induced to display BmAChE on the P. pastoris cell surface. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry assays revealed that the BmAChE was successfully displayed on the cell surface of P. pastoris GS115. The enzyme activity of the displayed BmAChE was detected by the Ellman method at 787.7 U/g (wet cell weight). In addition, bioactivity of the displayed BmAChE was verified by inhibition tests conducted with eserine, and with carbamate and organophosphorus pesticides. The displayed BmAChE had an IC50 of 4.17×10−8 M and was highly sensitive to eserine and five carbamate pesticides, as well as seven organophosphorus pesticides. Results suggest that the displayed BmAChE had good bioactivity. PMID:23940577

  20. Lignocellulose degrading extremozymes produced by Pichia pastoris: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Ergün, Burcu Gündüz; Çalık, Pınar

    2016-01-01

    In this review article, extremophilic lignocellulosic enzymes with special interest on xylanases, β-mannanases, laccases and finally cellulases, namely, endoglucanases, exoglucanases and β-glucosidases produced by Pichia pastoris are reviewed for the first time. Recombinant lignocellulosic extremozymes are discussed from the perspectives of their potential application areas; characteristics of recombinant and native enzymes; the effects of P. pastoris expression system on recombinant extremozymes; and their expression levels and applied strategies to increase the enzyme expression yield. Further, effects of enzyme domains on activity and stability, protein engineering via molecular dynamics simulation and computational prediction, and site-directed mutagenesis and amino acid modifications done are also focused. Superior enzyme characteristics and improved stability due to the proper post-translational modifications and better protein folding performed by P. pastoris make this host favourable for extremozyme production. Especially, glycosylation contributes to the structure, function and stability of enzymes, as generally glycosylated enzymes produced by P. pastoris exhibit better thermostability than non-glycosylated enzymes. However, there has been limited study on enzyme engineering to improve catalytic efficiency and stability of lignocellulosic enzymes. Thus, in the future, studies should focus on protein engineering to improve stability and catalytic efficiency via computational modelling, mutations, domain replacements and fusion enzyme technology. Also metagenomic data need to be used more extensively to produce novel enzymes with extreme characteristics and stability. PMID:26497303

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets. PMID:25049952

  2. Construction of a novel Pichia pastoris strain for production of xanthophylls.

    PubMed

    Araya-Garay, José Miguel; Ageitos, José M; Vallejo, Juan A; Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Sánchez-Pérez, Angeles; Villa, Tomás G

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used the yeast carotenogenic producer Pichia pastoris Pp-EBIL strain, which has been metabolically engineered, by heterologously expressing β-carotene-pathway enzymes to produce β-carotene, as a vessel for recombinant astaxanthin expression. For this purpose, we designed new P. pastoris recombinant-strains harboring astaxanthin-encoding genes from carotenogenic microorganism, and thus capable of producing xanthophyllic compounds. We designed and constructed a plasmid (pGAPZA-WZ) containing both the β-carotene ketolase (crtW) and β-carotene hydroxylase (crtZ) genes from Agrobacterium aurantiacum, under the control of the GAP promoter and containing an AOX-1 terminator. The plasmid was then integrated into the P. pastoris Pp-EBIL strain genomic DNA, producing clone Pp-EBILWZ. The recombinant P. pastoris (Pp-EBILWZ) cells exhibited a strong reddish carotenoid coloration and were confirmed, by HPLC, to produce not only the previous described carotenoids lycopene and β-carotene, but also de novo synthesized astaxanthin. PMID:22534340

  3. Constitutive expression of barley α-amylase in Pichia pastoris by high-density cell culture.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z W; Yin, H X; Yi, X P; Zhang, A L; Luo, J X; Zhang, T Y; Fu, C Y; Zhang, Z H; Shen, J C; Chen, L P

    2012-05-01

    α-amy gene amplified from barley genome was cloned into MCS of pGAP9K to generate pGAP9K-α-amy which was then transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Transformants with multi-copies and high expression for the foreign gene were selected on G418 containing plate and expression analysis. The fermentation was carried out in a 50 l bioreactor with 20 l working volume, using a high-density cell culture method by continuously feeding with 50% glycerol-0.8% PTM4 to the growing culture for 54 h at 30°C. Under the control of GAP promoter (pGAP), α-amy gene was constitutively expressed. At the end of the fermentation, the α-AMY expression reached 125 mg/l, while the biomass growth was 186 as measured by absorption of 600 nm. The secreted α-AMY was purified to 97.5% by SP-Sepharose FF ion-exchange chromatography and affinity purification. The recombinant α-AMY showed activity on hydrolysis of starch. PMID:22201022

  4. Expression and characterization of a recombinant endoglucanase from western corn rootworm, in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Valencia Jiménez, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Siegfried, Blair D

    2014-01-01

    The endoglucanase cDNA, Dvv-ENGase I, from western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte was expressed using the GS115 methylotrophic strain of Pichia pastoris. The Dvv-ENGase I gene was cloned into the integrative plasmid pPICZαA under the control of AOX1, which is a methanol-inducible promoter. Positive clones were selected for their ability to produce the recombinant endoglucanase upon continuous methanol induction. The secreted recombinant insect endoglucanase Dvv-ENGase I has an apparent molecular mass of 29 kDa. The recombinant endo-1,4-β-glucanase (ENGase) was able to digest the substrates: hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and Whatman No. 1 filter paper. A higher accumulation of reducing sugar was evident when the P. pastoris expression medium contained HEC (1%) instead of CMC (1%). An enzymatic activity band was detected after performing electrophoretic separation under nondenaturing conditions. The biological activity of the recombinant Dvv-ENGase I was influenced by the presence of protease inhibitors in the culture medium. PMID:25434035

  5. High level expression of kringle 5 fragment of plasminogen in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yufei; Zheng, Quan; Gao, Jin; Gu, Jun

    2005-02-01

    Angiogensis can be blocked by inhibitors such as endostatin and angiostatin. The kringle 5 fragment of plasminogen also has a potent inhibitory effect on endothelial cell proliferation and leads to the inhibition of angiogenesis. It has promise in anti-angiogenic therapy due to its small size and potent inhibitory effect. Preparation of kringle 5 has been achieved through the proteolysis of native plasminogen and recombinant DNA technology. Bacterially expressed recombinant kringle 5 is mainly insoluble and expressed at low level. The refolding yield is also low. To produce recombinant human kringle 5 in a large quantity, we have genetically modified a strain of Pichia pastoris. On methanol induction, this strain expressed and secreted biologically active, recombinant kringle 5. The expression level of the engineered strain in culture reached more than 300 mgl(-1). Purification was easily achieved by precipitation, hydrophobic and DEAE ion exchange chromatography. The recovery of recombinant kringle 5 was about 50% after purification. Yeast-expressed kringle 5 has a higher activity in anti-endothelial proliferation than bacterially expressed kringle 5. PMID:15717125

  6. Isolation and characterization of a Pichia anomala strain: a promising candidate for bioethanol production

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Nengguo; Gao, Yumei; Liu, Yuejin

    2011-01-01

    A yeast strain designated as Y-1 was isolated and characterized from wine yeast (“Jiuqu”). Based on the morphological and biochemical results, along with the rDNA internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), Y-1 was identified to be a Pichia anomala strain. Y-1 is an ethanol-tolerant strain, enduring ethanol concentrations of up to 14 %. Y-1 growth medium conditions were optimized, results showing good growth in medium with pH ranges from 3.5–6.5, temperature ranges from 25–30 °C, and inoculums range of 8 %-12 %, while optimum growth conditions were reached at a temperature of 30 °C, pH 5.0, and inoculums of 10 %. Furthermore, when the alkaline hydrolyzed Shatian pummelo peel solutions were inoculated with 10 % Y-1 and fermented at 30 °C for 6 d, 4.7 % pure ethanol (w/w) was produced, as evidenced by gas chromatography analysis. Our present study shows potential for the Y-1 strain to be a promising candidate for bioethanol production. PMID:24031678

  7. An approach toward optimization of the influential growth determinants of opportunistic yeast isolate Pichia guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Suprabhat; Mukherjee, Niladri; Roy, Priya; Saini, Prasanta; Sinha Babu, Santi P

    2016-07-01

    The present study reports statistical optimization of growth conditions of an opportunistic fungal strain Pichia guilliermondii, isolated from the blood of patients suffering from bancroftian filariasis. Seven key determinants, namely, primary inoculums size (%), volume (mL) and pH of media, serum proportion, temperature (°C), incubation time (hr), and agitation speed (rpm) that influence in vitro growth of the pathogen were optimized statistically using response surface methodology (RSM). RSM with seven factors and two-level Box-Behnken design was employed for designing experimental run, prediction of case statistics, suitable exploration of quadratic response surfaces, and constructing a second-order polynomial equation. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that primary inoculums size, volume of culture media, temperature, incubation time, and agitation speed exert most significant influence over fungal growth. The RSM study predicted that optimum fungal growth can be obtained using 10% primary inoculums size in 100 mL culture media with pH 6.0, 6.28% serum, 32.5°C temperature, and 24 hr of incubation, alongside agitation speed at 400 rpm. The desirability of the optimized growth model for P. guilliermondii is 99.123%, which indicated its accuracy and acceptability. Finally, the optimized growth module illustrated in the study could be useful in improving in vitro growth of clinically important P. guilliermondii. PMID:26176798

  8. Expression of Functional Influenza Virus RNA Polymerase in the Methylotrophic Yeast Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jung-Shan; Yamada, Kazunori; Honda, Ayae; Nakade, Kohji; Ishihama, Akira

    2000-01-01

    Influenza virus RNA polymerase with the subunit composition PB1-PB2-PA is a multifunctional enzyme with the activities of both synthesis and cleavage of RNA and is involved in both transcription and replication of the viral genome. In order to produce large amounts of the functional viral RNA polymerase sufficient for analysis of its structure-function relationships, the cDNAs for RNA segments 1, 2, and 3 of influenza virus A/PR/8, each under independent control of the alcohol oxidase gene promoter, were integrated into the chromosome of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Simultaneous expression of all three P proteins in the yeast P. pastoris was achieved by the addition of methanol. To purify the P protein complexes, a sequence coding for a histidine tag was added to the PB2 protein gene at its N terminus. Starting from the induced P. pastoris cell lysate, we partially purified a 3P complex by Ni2+-agarose affinity column chromatography. The 3P complex showed influenza virus model RNA-directed and ApG-primed RNA synthesis in vitro but was virtually inactive without addition of template or primer. The kinetic properties of model template-directed RNA synthesis and the requirements for template sequence were analyzed using the 3P complex. Furthermore, the 3P complex showed capped RNA-primed RNA synthesis. Thus, we conclude that functional influenza virus RNA polymerase with the catalytic properties of a transcriptase is formed in the methylotrophic yeast P. pastoris. PMID:10756019

  9. Separation of bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin from Pichia pastoris glycoproteins by borate anion exchange.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jung Hee; Neville, David M

    2003-08-01

    A major problem encountered in the large-scale purification of the bivalent anti-T cell immunotoxin, A-dmDT390-bisFv(G4S), from Pichia pastoris supernatants was the presence of host glycoproteins exhibiting similar charge, size, and hydrophobicity characteristics. We overcame this problem by employing borate anion exchange chromatography. The borate anion has an affinity for carbohydrates and imparts negative charges to these structures. We found that at a concentration of sodium borate between 50 and 100 mM, the nonglycosylated immunotoxin did not bind to Poros 50 HQ anion exchanger resin, but glycoproteins, including aggregates related to the immunotoxin, did. By using this property of the immunotoxin in the presence of sodium borate, we successfully developed a 3-step purification procedure: (i) Butyl-650M hydrophobic interaction chromatography, (ii) Poros 50 HQ anion exchange chromatography in the presence of borate, and (iii) HiTrap Q anion exchange chromatography. The final preparation exhibited a purity of greater than 98% and a yield of greater than 50% from the supernatant. Previously, boronic acid resins have been used to separate glycoproteins from proteins. However, combining borate anion with conventional anion exchange resins accomplishes the separation of the immunotoxin from glycoproteins and eliminates the need to evaluate nonstandard resins with respect to good manufacturing practice guidelines. PMID:12951782

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Recombinant Pig Intestinal Parasite Cecropin P4 Peptide Secreted from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Song, Ki-Duk; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2014-02-01

    Cecropins (Cec) are antibacterial peptides and their expression is induced in a pig intestinal parasite Ascaris suum by bacterial infection. To explore the usefulness of its activity as an antibiotic, CecP4 cDNA was prepared and cloned into the pPICZ B expression vector and followed by the integration into AOX1 locus in Pichia pastoris. The supernatants from cell culture were collected after methanol induction and concentrated for the test of antimicrobial activity. The recombinant P. patoris having CecP4 showed antimicrobial activity when tested against Staphyllococcus aureus in disc diffusion assay. We selected one of the CecP4 clones (CecP4-2) and performed further studies with it. The growth of recombinant P. pastoris was optimized using various concentration of methanol, and it was found that 2% methanol in the culture induced more antibacterial activity, compared to 1% methanol. We extended the test of antimicrobial activity by applying the concentrated supernatant of CecP4 culture to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli respectively. Recombinant CecP4 also showed antimicrobial activity against both Pseudomona and E. coli, suggesting the broad spectrum of its antimicrobial activity. After improvements for the scale-up, it will be feasible to use recombinant CecP4 for supplementation to the feed to control microbial infections in young animals, such as piglets. PMID:25049952

  11. Heterologous expression of codon optimized Trichoderma reesei Cel6A in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fubao Fuelbiol; Bai, Renhui; Yang, Huimin; Wang, Fei; He, Jing; Wang, Chundi; Tu, Maobing

    2016-10-01

    The Cel6A deficiency has become one of the limiting factors for cellulose saccharification in biochemical conversion of cellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals. The work attempted to use codon optimization to enhance Trichoderma reesei Cel6A expression in Pichia pastoris. Two recombinants P. pastoris GS115 containing AOX1 and GAP promotors were successfully constructed, respectively. The optimal temperatures and pHs of the expressed Cel6A from two recombinants were consistent with each other, were also in the extremely similar range to that reported on the native Cel6A from T. reesei. Based on the shake flask fermentation, AOX1 promotor enabled the recombinant to produce 265U/L and 300mg/L of the Cel6A enzyme, and the GAP promotor resulted in 145U/L and 200mg/L. High cell density fed batch (HCDFB) fermentation significantly improved the enzyme titer (1100U/L) and protein yield (2.0g/L) for the recombinant with AOX1 promotor. Results have showed that the AOX1 promotor is more suitable than the GAP for the Cel6A expression in P. pastoris. And the HCDFB cultivation is a favorable way to express the Cel6A highly in the methanol inducible yeast. PMID:27542751

  12. Centromeres of the Yeast Komagataella phaffii (Pichia pastoris) Have a Simple Inverted-Repeat Structure

    PubMed Central

    Coughlan, Aisling Y.; Hanson, Sara J.; Byrne, Kevin P.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.

    2016-01-01

    Centromere organization has evolved dramatically in one clade of fungi, the Saccharomycotina. These yeasts have lost the ability to make normal eukaryotic heterochromatin with histone H3K9 methylation, which is a major component of pericentromeric regions in other eukaryotes. Following this loss, several different types of centromere emerged, including two types of sequence-defined (“point”) centromeres, and the epigenetically defined “small regional” centromeres of Candida albicans. Here we report that centromeres of the methylotrophic yeast Komagataella phaffii (formerly called Pichia pastoris) are structurally defined. Each of its four centromeres consists of a 2-kb inverted repeat (IR) flanking a 1-kb central core (mid) region. The four centromeres are unrelated in sequence. CenH3 (Cse4) binds strongly to the cores, with a decreasing gradient along the IRs. This mode of organization resembles Schizosaccharomyces pombe centromeres but is much more compact and lacks the extensive flanking heterochromatic otr repeats. Different isolates of K. phaffii show polymorphism for the orientation of the mid regions, due to recombination in the IRs. CEN4 is located within a 138-kb region that changes orientation during mating-type switching, but switching does not induce recombination of centromeric IRs. Our results demonstrate that evolutionary transitions in centromere organization have occurred in multiple yeast clades. PMID:27497317

  13. Cloning, expression and purification of squalene synthase from Candida tropicalis in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pey Yee; Yong, Voon Chen; Rosli, Rozita; Gam, Lay Harn; Chong, Pei Pei

    2014-02-01

    Squalene synthase (SS) is the key precursor and first committed enzyme of the sterol biosynthesis pathway. In a previous work, SS has been identified as one of the immunogenic proteins that could be a potential diagnostic candidate for the pathogenic fungus Candida tropicalis. In this study, SS from C. tropicalis was cloned and expressed as recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris to investigate its reactivity with serum antibodies. ERG9 gene that encodes for SS was amplified by PCR and cloned in-frame into pPICZB expression vector. The recombinant construct was then transformed into P. pastoris GS115 host strain. Expression of the recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using anti-His tag probe. Optimal protein production was achieved by cultivating the culture with 1.0% methanol for 72h. The recombinant protein was purified to approximately 97% pure in a single step immobilized metal affinity chromatography with a yield of 70.3%. Besides, the purified protein exhibited specific reactivity with immune sera on Western blot. This is the first report on heterologous expression of antigenic SS from C. tropicalis in P. pastoris which can be exploited for large-scale production and further research. The results also suggested that the protein might be of great value as antigen candidate for serodiagnosis of Candida infection. PMID:24184232

  14. Promoter library designed for fine-tuned gene expression in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Hartner, Franz S.; Ruth, Claudia; Langenegger, David; Johnson, Sabrina N.; Hyka, Petr; Lin-Cereghino, Geoffrey P.; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Kovar, Karin; Cregg, James M.; Glieder, Anton

    2008-01-01

    Although frequently used as protein production host, there is only a limited set of promoters available to drive the expression of recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris. Fine-tuning of gene expression is often needed to maximize product yield and quality. However, for efficient knowledge-based engineering, a better understanding of promoter function is indispensable. Consequently, we created a promoter library by deletion and duplication of putative transcription factor-binding sites within the AOX1 promoter (PAOX1) sequence. This first library initially spanned an activity range between ∼6% and >160% of the wild-type promoter activity. After characterization of the promoter library employing a green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant, the new regulatory toolbox was successfully utilized in a ‘real case’, i.e. the expression of industrial enzymes. Characterization of the library under repressing, derepressing and inducing conditions displayed at least 12 cis-acting elements involved in PAOX1-driven high-level expression. Based on this deletion analysis, novel short artificial promoter variants were constructed by combining cis-acting elements with basal promoter. In addition to improving yields and quality of heterologous protein production, the new PAOX1 synthetic promoter library constitutes a basic toolbox to fine-tune gene expression in metabolic engineering and sequential induction of protein expression in synthetic biology. PMID:18539608

  15. [Respiratory system of Pichia guilliermondii yeasts with different levels of flavinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Zviagil'skaia, R A; Fedorovich, D V; Shavlovskiĭ, G M

    1978-01-01

    The yeast Pichia guilliermondii was grown on media with different content of iron and its respiration system was studied. When the yeast was cultivated on a complete medium, its respiratory chain operated at the maximum rate in the exponential growth phase, i. e. all the three points of phosphorylation were involved; cytochrome oxidase was the only terminal oxidase. When the growth was decelerated and at the stationary phase, the alternative autooxidable cyanide-resistant pathway inhibited with salicyl hydroxamate partly functioned. Iron deficiency in the medium resulted in a two-three-fold decrease in the content of total and non-hemin iron in the cells, changes in the character and rate of growth, a decrease in the biomass yield, a high rate of flavinogenesis, a slight decrease in the respiration activity, though no drastic changes in the respiration system occurred. This system is represented, as in the case of cells grown on a complete medium, by a typical cytochrome system and an alternative autooxidable pathway. The absence of principal differences in the respiration systems of normal and iron-deficient cells, as well as the operation of the first point of coupling in flavinogenic cells, makes it doubtful that Fenh-proteins of the first segment of the respiratory chain are involved in the regulation of flavinogenesis. PMID:745565

  16. [Inhibition of alkaline phosphatase I of Pichia guilliermondii yeast in vitro and in vivo].

    PubMed

    Sibirnyi, A A; Shavlovskii, G M

    1978-01-01

    The rate of p-nitrophenyl phosphate and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) hydrolysis by the partially purified preparation of alkaline phosphatase I of Pichia guilliermondii flavinogenic yeast was studied as affected by different substrates and inorganic ions. Their Km was established to be 2.0 X 10(-4) m and 2.5 X 10(-4) M, respectively. Dephosphorylation of p-nitrophenylphosphate and FMN was inhibited competitively by beta-glycerophosphate (Ki = 3.1 X 10(-3) M, respectively). The presence of inorganic phosphate ions in the reaction mixture decreases or removes inhibition of these compounds hydrolysis by other substrates of alkaline phosphatase I. The activity of alkaline phosphatase I increases in the presence of Mg2+ and was strongly inhibited in the presence of Be2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and inorganic phosphate, the mixture of Be2+ and F- being the most effective. This mixture inhibited the phosphatase activity of the partially purified preparation of alkaline phosphatase I of the cell-free extract as well as of intact cells in both the alkaline and acid zones of pH (8.6 and 5.5, respectively). Incubation of the washed iron-deficient P. guilliermondii cells in the presence of Be2+ and F- did not result in accumulation of FMN in the yeast culture. A possible role of nonspecific phosphomonoesterases in hydrolysis of FMN in vivo is discussed. PMID:208203

  17. Efficient microbial production of stylopine using a Pichia pastoris expression system

    PubMed Central

    Hori, Kentaro; Okano, Shunsuke; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Stylopine is a protoberberine-type alkaloid that has potential biological activities. Based on the successful microbial production of (S)-reticuline, we attempted to produce stylopine from (S)-reticuline by the reaction of berberine bridge enzyme, cheilanthifoline synthase (CYP719A5), and stylopine synthase (CYP719A2). Biosynthetic enzyme expression was examined in a methanol-utilizing yeast (Pichia pastoris), and both a “consolidated” system with all genes expressed in one cell and a “co-culture” system with three cell lines that each express a single gene were examined. Although both systems efficiently converted reticuline to stylopine, the consolidated system was more rapid and efficient than the co-culture system. However, substrate-feeding experiments revealed a decrease in the conversion efficiency in the consolidated system during successive cultures, whereas the conversion efficiency in the co-culture system remained constant. Thus, the final amount of stylopine produced from reticuline after successive feedings in the co-culture system was more than 150 nmoles from 750 nmoles of (R, S)-reticuline (375 nmoles of (S)-reticuline). The advantages and drawbacks of the “consolidated” system and the “co-culture” system are discussed. PMID:26923560

  18. Expression of the Trichoderma reesei tyrosinase 2 in Pichia pastoris: isotopic labeling and physicochemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Westerholm-Parvinen, Ann; Selinheimo, Emilia; Boer, Harry; Kalkkinen, Nisse; Mattinen, Maija; Saloheimo, Markku

    2007-09-01

    Trichoderma reesei tyrosinase TYR2 has been demonstrated to be able to oxidize various phenolic compounds and also peptide and protein bound tyrosine, and thus is of great interest for different biotechnological applications. In order to understand the reaction mechanism of the enzyme it would be essential to solve its three dimensional structure. Pichia pastoris is a suitable expression system for the production of recombinant enzymes for NMR studies and therefore we expressed TYR2 in this host. As a result of extensive optimization, the production yield of active histidine tagged tyrosinase purified from P. pastoris shake flask cultures was increased from 2.5 to 24 mg/L. Correct copper concentration in the growth medium was critical for the expression of this copper containing enzyme. Our analysis showed that TYR2 expressed in P. pastoris is post-translationally modified; the C-terminal domain of 153 amino acids of the protein is proteolytically cleaved off from the catalytic domain and the only potential N-glycosylation site is glycosylated. The activities of TYR2 expressed in P. pastoris and T. reesei on diphenolic L-dopa and monophenolic L-tyrosine were rather similar. The TYR2 expressed in P. pastoris showed the same physicochemical properties in CD and unfolding assays as the native TYR2 enzyme. Uniform isotopic (15)N-labeling of TYR2 was carried out with (15)NH(4)SO(4) in minimal medium to assess the suitability of the expression system for investigation by NMR spectroscopy. PMID:17562370

  19. Purification and characterization of a laccase from Coprinopsis cinerea in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Lijuan; Lin, Yaqiu; Han, Qing; Han, Jing; Gao, Jianjie; Tian, Yongsheng; Zhao, Wei; Peng, Rihe; Yao, Quanhong

    2014-04-01

    A modified laccase gene, CcLCC6, from Coprinopsis cinerea was chemically synthesized according to the yeast codon bias and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The main properties of laccase, effects of ions and inhibitors, and optimal condition for decolouring malachite green (MG) were investigated in this study. The optimal pH level and temperature of laccase are 3.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The metal ions Mn²⁺, Zn²⁺, Fe³⁺ and Al³⁺ could inhibit laccase activity, as well as 1 mM of sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium thiosulphate. 2,2'-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), as a mediator, was necessary in decolorizing MG. The optimal pH and temperature for MG decolorization were 3.0 and 50 °C, respectively. Approximately 0.02 μM recombinant laccase could effectively decolour 0.05 mM of MG in 1 h. CcLCC6I could inhibit the toxicity of MG to P. pastoris. This is the first report on the successful expression in P. pastoris of CcLCC6I and its enzymatic property. Laccase can also be considered as a candidate for treating industrial effluent containing MG. PMID:24178808

  20. Production of the sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone by metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wriessnegger, Tamara; Augustin, Peter; Engleder, Matthias; Leitner, Erich; Müller, Monika; Kaluzna, Iwona; Schürmann, Martin; Mink, Daniel; Zellnig, Günther; Schwab, Helmut; Pichler, Harald

    2014-07-01

    The sesquiterpenoid (+)-nootkatone is a highly demanded and highly valued aroma compound naturally found in grapefruit, pummelo or Nootka cypress tree. Extraction of (+)-nootkatone from plant material or its production by chemical synthesis suffers from low yields and the use of environmentally harmful methods, respectively. Lately, major attention has been paid to biotechnological approaches, using cell extracts or whole-cell systems for the production of (+)-nootkatone. In our study, the yeast Pichia pastoris initially was applied as whole-cell biocatalyst for the production of (+)-nootkatone from (+)-valencene, the abundant aroma compound of oranges. Therefore, we generated a strain co-expressing the premnaspirodiene oxygenase of Hyoscyamus muticus (HPO) and the Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) that hydroxylated extracellularly added (+)-valencene. Intracellular production of (+)-valencene by co-expression of valencene synthase from Callitropsis nootkatensis resolved the phase-transfer issues of (+)-valencene. Bi-phasic cultivations of P. pastoris resulted in the production of trans-nootkatol, which was oxidized to (+)-nootkatone by an intrinsic P. pastoris activity. Additional overexpression of a P. pastoris alcohol dehydrogenase and truncated hydroxy-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (tHmg1p) significantly enhanced the (+)-nootkatone yield to 208mg L(-1) cell culture in bioreactor cultivations. Thus, metabolically engineered yeast P. pastoris represents a valuable, whole-cell system for high-level production of (+)-nootkatone from simple carbon sources. PMID:24747046

  1. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris to produce ricinoleic acid, a hydroxy fatty acid of industrial importance.

    PubMed

    Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Chen, Yan; Ng, Siew Hon; Chen, Jianan; Qiu, Xiao

    2015-11-01

    Ricinoleic acid (12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid) has many specialized uses in bioproduct industries, while castor bean is currently the only commercial source for the fatty acid. This report describes metabolic engineering of a microbial system (Pichia pastoris) to produce ricinoleic acid using a "push" (synthesis) and "pull" (assembly) strategy. CpFAH, a fatty acid hydroxylase from Claviceps purpurea, was used for synthesis of ricinoleic acid, and CpDGAT1, a diacylglycerol acyl transferase for the triacylglycerol synthesis from the same species, was used for assembly of the fatty acid. Coexpression of CpFAH and CpDGAT1 produced higher lipid contents and ricinoleic acid levels than expression of CpFAH alone. Coexpression in a mutant haploid strain defective in the Δ12 desaturase activity resulted in a higher level of ricinoleic acid than that in the diploid strain. Intriguingly, the ricinoleic acid produced was mainly distributed in the neutral lipid fractions, particularly the free fatty acid form, but with little in the polar lipids. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the metabolic engineering strategy and excellent capacity of the microbial system for production of ricinoleic acid as an alternative to plant sources for industrial uses. PMID:26323290

  2. Expression of soluble recombinant lipoxygenase from Pleurotus sapidus in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kelle, Sebastian; Zelena, Katerina; Krings, Ulrich; Linke, Diana; Berger, Ralf G

    2014-03-01

    The first heterologous expression of an iron-containing lipoxygenase from a basidiomycete in Pichia pastoris is reported. Five different expression constructs of the lipoxygenase gene LOX1 from Pleurotus sapidus were cloned and successfully transferred into P. pastoris SMD1168, but only one pPIC9K vector construct was functionally expressed. In this construct the vector-provided α-factor signal sequence was replaced by insertion of a second Kozak sequence between the signal sequence and the LOX1 gene. His(+) transformants were screened for their level of resistance to geneticin (G418). Lox1 was expressed under different culture conditions and purified using the N-terminal His-tag. Relative enzyme activity increased significantly 48h after methanol induction and was highest with 2mll(-1) inducer. The recombinant enzyme showed an optimal lipoxygenase activity at pH 7 and 30-35°C and a vmax like the wild-type enzyme. PMID:24440506

  3. Recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) produced in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J; Sánchez, Jhonnathan; Moreno, Jefferson; Beltran, Laura; Díaz, Dennis; Pardo, Andrea; Ramírez, Aura María; Espejo-Mojica, Angela J; Pimentel, Luisa; Barrera, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A (MPS IV A, Morquio A disease) is a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) produced by mutations on N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Recently an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for this disease was approved using a recombinant enzyme produced in CHO cells. Previously, we reported the production of an active GALNS enzyme in Escherichia coli that showed similar stability properties to that of a recombinant mammalian enzyme though it was not taken-up by culture cells. In this study, we showed the production of the human recombinant GALNS in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 (prGALNS). We observed that removal of native signal peptide and co-expression with human formylglycine-generating enzyme (SUMF1) allowed an improvement of 4.5-fold in the specific GALNS activity. prGALNS enzyme showed a high stability at 4 °C, while the activity was markedly reduced at 37 and 45 °C. It was noteworthy that prGALNS was taken-up by HEK293 cells and human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner through a process potentially mediated by an endocytic pathway, without any additional protein or host modification. The results show the potential of P. pastoris in the production of a human recombinant GALNS for the development of an ERT for Morquio A. PMID:27378276

  4. Enhanced production of leech hyaluronidase by optimizing secretion and cultivation in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhen; Zhang, Na; Zhang, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Leech hyaluronidase (LHAase) was recently cloned and successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris. To increase its secretory expression level, four signal peptides (nsB, YTP1, SCS3, and HKR1) and six amphipathic peptides (APs) were comparatively investigated. After substitution with nsB and fusion with AP2, the production of LHAase was significantly increased, from 8.42 × 10(5) to 1.24 × 10(6) U/ml. Compared with the parental LHAase, the variant AP2-LHAase showed a lower optimum pH (5.0), higher optimum temperature (50 °C), and a broader range of thermal stability (20-60 °C). To further promote fermentative production of the variant AP2-LHAase, the cultivation temperature was systematically optimized according to cell viability and alcohol oxidase activity. Eventually, through a combination of N-terminal engineering and optimization of cultivation, the production of LHAase was improved to 1.68 × 10(6) U/ml, with a high productivity of 1.87 × 10(4) U/ml/h. PMID:26476646

  5. Expression, purification and characterization of human interferon-γ in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Ren, Hui; Xu, Jing-Wei; Sun, Peng-Da; Fang, Xue-Dong

    2014-02-01

    Human interferon-γ (hIFN-γ) is a multifunctional protein known to possess immunoregulatory, antiviral and anticancer functions. In the present study, in order to explore the biological roles of hIFN-γ and its mechanisms of action, IFN-γ was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) under the control of alcohol oxidase promoter 1 (AOX1). The protein was secreted by two different signal peptides, the native secretion signal peptide of hIFN-γ and the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α signal peptide. Following 96 h of methanol induction, Tricine-SDS-PAGE Coomassie staining, western blot analysis and N-terminal protein sequencing revealed that the level of recombinant hIFN-γ (rhIFN-γ) secreted by the native secretion signal was barely detectable, while the α signal peptide secreted ~300 mg/l. rhIFN-γ was purified by Vivaflow 200, SP Sepharose Fast Flow and Vivaspin 2 ml, yielding >96% of a highly purified rhIFN-γ preparation, with a specific activity of 1 x 10(7)-1.4 x 10(7) IU/mg protein as determined by an antiviral assay. The results demonstrated that the experimental procedures developed are capable of producing a large quantity of active rhIFN-γ from P. pastoris. PMID:24253448

  6. Engineering Pichia pastoris for improved NADH regeneration: A novel chassis strain for whole-cell catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Martina; Brandner, Christoph; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Hall, Mélanie; Hartner, Franz S

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many synthetically useful reactions are catalyzed by cofactor-dependent enzymes. As cofactors represent a major cost factor, methods for efficient cofactor regeneration are required especially for large-scale synthetic applications. In order to generate a novel and efficient host chassis for bioreductions, we engineered the methanol utilization pathway of Pichia pastoris for improved NADH regeneration. By deleting the genes coding for dihydroxyacetone synthase isoform 1 and 2 (DAS1 and DAS2), NADH regeneration via methanol oxidation (dissimilation) was increased significantly. The resulting Δdas1 Δdas2 strain performed better in butanediol dehydrogenase (BDH1) based whole-cell conversions. While the BDH1 catalyzed acetoin reduction stopped after 2 h reaching ~50% substrate conversion when performed in the wild type strain, full conversion after 6 h was obtained by employing the knock-out strain. These results suggest that the P. pastoris Δdas1 Δdas2 strain is capable of supplying the actual biocatalyst with the cofactor over a longer reaction period without the over-expression of an additional cofactor regeneration system. Thus, focusing the intrinsic carbon flux of this methylotrophic yeast on methanol oxidation to CO2 represents an efficient and easy-to-use strategy for NADH-dependent whole-cell conversions. At the same time methanol serves as co-solvent, inductor for catalyst and cofactor regeneration pathway expression and source of energy. PMID:26664594

  7. Expression, purification and characterization of glycosylated influenza H5N1 hemagglutinin produced in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Edyta; Dwornyk, Angela; Kosson, Piotr; Florys, Katarzyna; Sączyńska, Violetta; Dębski, Janusz; Cecuda-Adamczewska, Violetta; Szewczyk, Bogusław; Zagórski-Ostoja, Włodzimierz; Grzelak, Krystyna

    2014-01-01

    The A/swan/Poland/305-135V08/2006 (H5N1-subtype) hemagglutinin (HA) gene was cloned and expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris). The HA cDNA lacking the C-terminal transmembrane anchor-coding sequence was fused to an α-factor leader peptide and placed under control of the methanol-inducible P. pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. Two P. pastoris strains: SMD 1168 and KM 71 were used for protein expression. Recombinant HA protein was secreted into the culture medium reaching an approximately 15 mg/L (KM 71 strain). Fusion protein with a His6 tag was purified to homogeneity in one step affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and MS/MS analysis indicated that the protein is cleaved into HA1 and HA2 domains linked by a disulfide bond. Analysis of the N-linked glycans revealed that the overexpressed HA is fully glycosylated at the same sites as the native HA in the vaccine strain. Immunological activity of the hemagglutinin protein was tested in mice, where rHA elicited a high immune response. PMID:25210934

  8. A toolbox of endogenous and heterologous nuclear localization sequences for the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Weninger, Astrid; Glieder, Anton; Vogl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear localization sequences (NLSs) are required for the import of proteins in the nucleus of eukaryotes. However many proteins from bacteria or bacteriophages are used for basic studies in molecular biology, to generate synthetic genetic circuits or for genome editing applications. Prokaryotic recombinases, CRISPR-associated proteins such as Cas9 or bacterial and viral polymerases require efficient NLSs to function in eukaryotes. The yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used expression platform for heterologous protein production, but molecular tools such as NLSs are limited. Here we have characterized a set of 10 NLSs for P. pastoris, including the first endogenous NLSs (derived from P. pastoris proteins) and commonly used heterologous NLSs. The NLSs were evaluated by fusing them in N- and C-terminal position to an enhanced green fluorescent protein showing pronounced differences in fluorescence levels and nuclear targeting. Thereby we provide a set of different NLSs that can be applied to optimize the nuclear import of heterologous proteins in P. pastoris, paving the way for the establishment of intricate synthetic biology applications. PMID:26347503

  9. Expression and Characterization of the RKOD DNA Polymerase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Li, Shuntang; Zhao, Hui; Bian, Lu; Chen, Liang; Zhang, Zhen; Zhong, Xing; Ma, Lixin; Yu, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    The present study assessed high-level expression of the KOD DNA polymerase in Pichia pastoris. Thermococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 is a DNA polymerase that is widely used in PCR. The DNA coding sequence of KOD was optimized based on the codon usage bias of P. pastoris and synthesized by overlapping PCR, and the nonspecific DNA-binding protein Sso7d from the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus was fused to the C-terminus of KOD. The resulting novel gene was cloned into a pHBM905A vector and introduced into P. pastoris GS115 for secretory expression. The yield of the target protein reached approximately 250 mg/l after a 6-d induction with 1% (v/v) methanol in shake flasks. This yield is much higher than those of other DNA polymerases expressed heterologously in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified, and its enzymatic features were studied. Its specific activity was 19,384 U/mg. The recombinant KOD expressed in P. pastoris exhibited excellent thermostability, extension rate and fidelity. Thus, this report provides a simple, efficient and economic approach to realize the production of a high-performance thermostable DNA polymerase on a large scale. This is the first report of the expression in yeast of a DNA polymerase for use in PCR. PMID:26134129

  10. Differential gene expression in recombinant Pichia pastoris analysed by heterologous DNA microarray hybridisation

    PubMed Central

    Sauer, Michael; Branduardi, Paola; Gasser, Brigitte; Valli, Minoska; Maurer, Michael; Porro, Danilo; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2004-01-01

    Background Pichia pastoris is a well established yeast host for heterologous protein expression, however, the physiological and genetic information about this yeast remains scanty. The lack of a published genome sequence renders DNA arrays unavailable, thereby hampering more global investigations of P. pastoris from the beginning. Here, we examine the suitability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA microarrays for heterologous hybridisation with P. pastoris cDNA. Results We could show that it is possible to obtain new and valuable information about transcriptomic regulation in P. pastoris by probing S. cerevisiae DNA microarrays. The number of positive signals was about 66 % as compared to homologous S. cerevisiae hybridisation, and both the signal intensities and gene regulations correlated with high significance between data obtained from P. pastoris and S. cerevisiae samples. The differential gene expression patterns upon shift from glycerol to methanol as carbon source were investigated in more detail. Downregulation of TCA cycle genes and a decrease of genes related to ribonucleotide and ribosome synthesis were among the major effects identified. Conclusions We could successfully demonstrate that heterologous microarray hybridisations allow deep insights into the transcriptomic regulation processes of P. pastoris. The observed downregulation of TCA cycle and ribosomal synthesis genes correlates to a significantly lower specific growth rate during the methanol feed phase. PMID:15610561

  11. Peroxisomal Targeting, Import, and Assembly of Alcohol Oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Waterham, Hans R.; Russell, Kimberly A.; Vries, Yne de; Cregg, James M.

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol oxidase (AOX), the first enzyme in the yeast methanol utilization pathway is a homooctameric peroxisomal matrix protein. In peroxisome biogenesis-defective (pex) mutants of the yeast Pichia pastoris, AOX fails to assemble into active octamers and instead forms inactive cytoplasmic aggregates. The apparent inability of AOX to assemble in the cytoplasm contrasts with other peroxisomal proteins that are able to oligomerize before import. To further investigate the import of AOX, we first identified its peroxisomal targeting signal (PTS). We found that sequences essential for targeting AOX are primarily located within the four COOH-terminal amino acids of the protein leucine-alanine-arginine-phenylalanine COOH (LARF). To examine whether AOX can oligomerize before import, we coexpressed AOX without its PTS along with wild-type AOX and determined whether the mutant AOX could be coimported into peroxisomes. To identify the mutant form of AOX, the COOH-terminal LARF sequence of the protein was replaced with a hemagglutinin epitope tag (AOX–HA). Coexpression of AOX–HA with wild-type AOX (AOX-WT) did not result in an increase in the proportion of AOX–HA present in octameric active AOX, suggesting that newly synthesized AOX–HA cannot oligomerize with AOX-WT in the cytoplasm. Thus, AOX cannot initiate oligomerization in the cytoplasm, but must first be targeted to the organelle before assembly begins. PMID:9396748

  12. Recombinant human N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS) produced in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-López, Alexander; Alméciga-Díaz, Carlos J.; Sánchez, Jhonnathan; Moreno, Jefferson; Beltran, Laura; Díaz, Dennis; Pardo, Andrea; Ramírez, Aura María; Espejo-Mojica, Angela J.; Pimentel, Luisa; Barrera, Luis A.

    2016-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis IV A (MPS IV A, Morquio A disease) is a lysosomal storage disease (LSD) produced by mutations on N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase (GALNS). Recently an enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) for this disease was approved using a recombinant enzyme produced in CHO cells. Previously, we reported the production of an active GALNS enzyme in Escherichia coli that showed similar stability properties to that of a recombinant mammalian enzyme though it was not taken-up by culture cells. In this study, we showed the production of the human recombinant GALNS in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 (prGALNS). We observed that removal of native signal peptide and co-expression with human formylglycine-generating enzyme (SUMF1) allowed an improvement of 4.5-fold in the specific GALNS activity. prGALNS enzyme showed a high stability at 4 °C, while the activity was markedly reduced at 37 and 45 °C. It was noteworthy that prGALNS was taken-up by HEK293 cells and human skin fibroblasts in a dose-dependent manner through a process potentially mediated by an endocytic pathway, without any additional protein or host modification. The results show the potential of P. pastoris in the production of a human recombinant GALNS for the development of an ERT for Morquio A. PMID:27378276

  13. Effects of pre- and pro-sequence of thaumatin on the secretion by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Ide, Nobuyuki; Masuda, Tetsuya; Kitabatake, Naofumi

    2007-11-23

    Thaumatin is a 22-kDa sweet-tasting protein containing eight disulfide bonds. When thaumatin is expressed in Pichia pastoris using the thaumatin cDNA fused with both the alpha-factor signal sequence and the Kex2 protease cleavage site from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the N-terminal sequence of the secreted thaumatin molecule is not processed correctly. To examine the role of the thaumatin cDNA-encoded N-terminal pre-sequence and C-terminal pro-sequence on the processing of thaumatin and efficiency of thaumatin production in P. pastoris, four expression plasmids with different pre-sequence and pro-sequence were constructed and transformed into P. pastoris. The transformants containing pre-thaumatin gene that has the native plant signal, secreted thaumatin molecules in the medium. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the secreted thaumatin molecule was processed correctly. The production yield of thaumatin was not affected by the C-terminal pro-sequence, and the pro-sequence was not processed in P. pastoris, indicating that pro-sequence is not necessary for thaumatin synthesis. PMID:17897626

  14. In Pichia pastoris, growth rate regulates protein synthesis and secretion, mating and stress response

    PubMed Central

    Rebnegger, Corinna; Graf, Alexandra B; Valli, Minoska; Steiger, Matthias G; Gasser, Brigitte; Maurer, Michael; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2014-01-01

    Protein production in yeasts is related to the specific growth rate μ. To elucidate on this correlation, we studied the transcriptome of Pichia pastoris at different specific growth rates by cultivating a strain secreting human serum albumin at μ = 0.015 to 0.15 h–1 in glucose-limited chemostats. Genome-wide regulation revealed that translation-related as well as mitochondrial genes were upregulated with increasing μ, while autophagy and other proteolytic processes, carbon source-responsive genes and other targets of the TOR pathway as well as many transcriptional regulators were downregulated at higher μ. Mating and sporulation genes were most active at intermediate μ of 0.05 and 0.075 h–1. At very slow growth (μ = 0.015 h–1) gene regulation differs significantly, affecting many transporters and glucose sensing. Analysis of a subset of genes related to protein folding and secretion reveals that unfolded protein response targets such as translocation, endoplasmic reticulum genes, and cytosolic chaperones are upregulated with increasing growth rate while proteolytic degradation of secretory proteins is downregulated. We conclude that a high μ positively affects specific protein secretion rates by acting on multiple cellular processes. PMID:24323948

  15. Discovery of a rhamnose utilization pathway and rhamnose-inducible promoters in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Zhang, Yuwei; Zhang, Xue; Yan, Chengliang; Zhang, Yuhong; Xu, Xinxin; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The rhamnose utilization pathway in Pichia pastoris has not been clarified although this strain can grow well on rhamnose as a sole carbon source. In this study, four genes, PAS_chr4_0338, PAS_chr4_0339, PAS_chr4_0340, and PAS_chr4_0341, were, for the first time, predicted to be involved in rhamnose metabolism along with the previously identified gene PAS_chr1_4-0075. Moreover, expression of these genes, especially PAS_chr4_0341 and PAS_chr1_4-0075 designated as LRA4 and LRA3, was confirmed to significantly increase and clearly decrease in the presences of rhamnose and glucose, respectively. LRA4 encoding a putative L-2-keto-3-deoxyrhamnonate aldolase, was further confirmed via gene disruption and gene complementation to participate in rhamnose metabolism. Using β-galactosidase and green fluorescent protein as reporters, the promoters of LRA4 and LRA3 performed well in driving efficient production of heterologous proteins. By using food grade rhamnose instead of the toxic compound methanol as the inducer, the two promoters would be excellent candidates for driving the production of food-grade and therapeutically important recombinant proteins. PMID:27256707

  16. Genome-scale metabolic model of Pichia pastoris with native and humanized glycosylation of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Irani, Zahra Azimzadeh; Kerkhoven, Eduard J; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-05-01

    Pichia pastoris is used for commercial production of human therapeutic proteins, and genome-scale models of P. pastoris metabolism have been generated in the past to study the metabolism and associated protein production by this yeast. A major challenge with clinical usage of recombinant proteins produced by P. pastoris is the difference in N-glycosylation of proteins produced by humans and this yeast. However, through metabolic engineering, a P. pastoris strain capable of producing humanized N-glycosylated proteins was constructed. The current genome-scale models of P. pastoris do not address native nor humanized N-glycosylation, and we therefore developed ihGlycopastoris, an extension to the iLC915 model with both native and humanized N-glycosylation for recombinant protein production, but also an estimation of N-glycosylation of P. pastoris native proteins. This new model gives a better prediction of protein yield, demonstrates the effect of the different types of N-glycosylation of protein yield, and can be used to predict potential targets for strain improvement. The model represents a step towards a more complete description of protein production in P. pastoris, which is required for using these models to understand and optimize protein production processes. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 961-969. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26480251

  17. Production in Pichia pastoris of protein-based polymers with small heterodimer-forming blocks.

    PubMed

    Domeradzka, Natalia E; Werten, Marc W T; de Vries, Renko; de Wolf, Frits A

    2016-05-01

    Some combinations of leucine zipper peptides are capable of forming α-helical heterodimeric coiled coils with very high affinity. These can be used as physical cross-linkers in the design of protein-based polymers that form supramolecular structures, for example hydrogels, upon mixing solutions containing the complementary blocks. Such two-component physical networks are of interest for many applications in biomedicine, pharmaceutics, and diagnostics. This article describes the efficient secretory production of A and B type leucine zipper peptides fused to protein-based polymers in Pichia pastoris. By adjusting the fermentation conditions, we were able to significantly reduce undesirable proteolytic degradation. The formation of A-B heterodimers in mixtures of the purified products was confirmed by size exclusion chromatography. Our results demonstrate that protein-based polymers incorporating functional heterodimer-forming blocks can be produced with P. pastoris in sufficient quantities for use in future supramolecular self-assembly studies and in various applications. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 953-960. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26479855

  18. Production of a soluble and functional recombinant apolipoproteinD in the Pichia pastoris expression system.

    PubMed

    Armanmehr, Shiva; Kalhor, Hamid Reza; Tabarraei, Alijan

    2016-05-01

    ApolipoproteinD (ApoD) is a human glycoprotein from the lipocalin family. ApoD contains a conserved central motif of an 8-stranded antiparallel β-sheet, which forms a beta-barrel that can be used for transport and storage of diverse hydrophobic ligands. Due to hydrophobic nature of ApoD, it has been difficult to generate a recombinant version of this protein. In the present work, we aimed at the production of ApoD in the robust Pichia pastoris expression system. To this end, the ApoD gene sequence was synthesized and subcloned for expression in the yeast host cells. Following integration of the ApoD gene into the yeast genomic region using homologous recombination, the ApoD recombinant protein was induced using methanol, reaching its maximum induction at 96 h. Having purified the ApoD recombinant protein by affinity chromatography, we measured the dissociation constant (KD) using its natural ligands: progesterone and arachidonic acid. Our results provide a viable solution to the production of recombinant ApoD protein in lieu of previous obstacles in generating soluble and functional ApoD protein. PMID:26826316

  19. Comparison of ADH3 promoter with commonly used promoters for recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Karaoglan, Mert; Karaoglan, Fidan Erden; Inan, Mehmet

    2016-05-01

    Recombinant protein production under the control of the PADH3 was compared with Pichia pastoris PAOX1 and PGAP. The single-copy-clones expressing Aspergillus niger xylanase (XylB) gene with the three different promoters were tested in shake flask and 5 L fed-batch fermentation processes. Recombinant protein production with PADH3, PAOX1 and PGAP were initiated by addition of ethanol, methanol and glucose, respectively in the culture medium. The fermentation process was carried out for 72 h at 30 °C, pH 5 and 30% dissolved oxygen. Extracellular protein production yield for PADH3 (3725 U/mL) was higher than for PAOX1 (2095 U/mL) and PGAP (580 U/mL) at fermentor scale under the conditions tested. These results show that the PADH3 promoter is a promising tool for large scale production of recombinant proteins and can be an alternative to the PAOX1 and PGAP. PMID:26835836

  20. Production, characteristics and applications of the cell-bound phytase of Pichia anomala.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Ashima; Kaur, Parvinder; Satyanarayana, T

    2011-01-01

    Among several yeasts isolated from dried flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa, Pichia anomala produced a high titre of cell-bound phytase. The optimization of fermentation variables led to formulation of media and selection of cultural variables that supported enhanced phytase production. The enzyme productivity was very high in fed batch fermentation in air-lift fermentor as compared to that in stirred tank fermentor. Amelioration in the cell-bound phytase activity was observed when yeast cells were permeabilized with Triton-X-100. The enzyme is thermostable and acid stable with broad substrate specificity, the characteristics that are desirable for enzymes to be used in the animal feed industry. The phytase-encoding gene was cloned and sequenced. The 3D structure of the enzyme was proposed by comparative modeling using phytase of Debaryomyces occidentalis (50% sequence identity) as template. When broiler chicks, and fresh water and marine fishes were fed with the feed supplemented with yeast biomass containing phytase, improvement in growth and phosphorus retention, and decrease in the excretion of phosphorus in the faeces were recorded. The cell-bound phytase of P. anomala could effectively dephytinize wheat flour and soymilk. PMID:20730601

  1. Incorporation of Nasutitermes takasagoensis endoglucanase into cell surface-displayed minicellulosomes in Pichia pastoris X33.

    PubMed

    Ou, Jingshen; Cao, Yicheng

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the yeast Pichia pastoris was genetically modified to assemble minicellulosomes on its cell surface by the heterologous expression of a truncated scaffoldin CipA from Clostridium acetobutylicum. Fluorescence microscopy and western blot analysis confirmed that CipA was targeted to the yeast cell surface and that NtEGD, the Nasutitermes takasagoensis endoglucanase that was fused with dockerin, interacted with CipA on the yeast cell surface, suggesting that the cohesin and dockerin domains and cellulose-binding module of C. acetobutylicum were functional in the yeasts. The enzymatic activities of the cellulases in the minicellulosomes that were displayed on the yeast cell surfaces increased dramatically following interaction with the cohesin-dockerin domains. Additionally, the hydrolysis efficiencies of NtEGD for carboxymethyl cellulose, microcrystal cellulose, and filter paper increased up to 1.4-fold, 2.0-fold, and 3.2-fold, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the expression of C. acetobutylicum minicellulosomes in yeast and the incorporation of animal cellulases into cellulosomes. This strategy of heterologous cellulase incorporation lends novel insight into the process of cellulosome assembly. Potentially, the surface display of cellulosomes, such as that reported in this study, may be utilized in the engineering of S. cerevisiae for ethanol production from cellulose and additional future applications. PMID:24851815

  2. [Expression purification and verification of HBscFv-IFNgamma in Pichia pastoris x33].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shishui; Wang, Xiaoning

    2008-03-01

    In order to effectively cure hepatitis B virus (HBV), we studied on fusion protein HBscFv-IFNgamma, which was connected with single-chain Fv against HBV surface antigen(HBscFv) and gamma-interferon(IFNgamma) of being used in clinic against HBV. Adopting overlap PCR, the hbscfv and the ifngamma were connected into hbscfv-ifngamma. Then the pPICZalphaA/(hbscfv-ifngamma)(1,2,4) of multi-copy recombinant plasmid were constructed and transformed into Pichia pastoris x33. The engineering strain x4 was screened from transformed x33 and could secretively express HBscFv-IFNgamma. The preliminary verification indicates that HBscFv-IFNgamma has the bioactivity of HBscFv and IFNgamma by SDS-PAGE, Western blotting and ELISA. The supernatant of culturing X4 was purified by 14F7 affinity chromatography to HBscFv-IFNgamma with purity of 95%-98%. The HBscFv-IFNgamma is able to bind 27.9% HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) in the serum of HBV transgenic mice, which shows the antibody of HBscFv-IFNgamma has bioactivity in vivo. Therefore HBscFv-IFNgamma can shed light on the development of a new promising HBV-targeted drug. PMID:18589818

  3. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii. PMID:25721585

  4. Intracellular expression and purification of the Canstatin-N protein in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huixiang; Liu, Zhenwang; Zhang, Ailian; Zhang, Tianyuan; Luo, Jinxian; Shen, Jincheng; Chen, Liping; Zhou, Bing; Fu, Xian; Fu, Ceyi; Zhang, Zehua

    2012-08-01

    Canstatin-N DNA fragment amplified from human genome was inserted into the MCS of pGAP9K*, an intracellular expression vector of Pichia pastoris, to generate pGAP9K*-can-N which was then transformed into P. pastoris GS115 by electroporation. A transformant was chosen as an engineering strain from the plate containing G418 (700 μg/ml). D-sorbitol was selected as the only carbon source. The fermentation was carried out in a 50 L bioreactor at a 20 L working volume. After 48 h fermentation with continuous feeding of 25% (w/v) D-sorbitol and 0.8% PTM4, the cell grew to A(600)=178 and intracellularly expressed Canstatin-N reached 780 mg/L. Snail enzyme was combined with water to crack P. pastoris and to release intracellular proteins. The purified recombinant Canstatin-N inhibited CAM angiogenesis and induced significant apoptosis of the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (EVC340). PMID:22575729

  5. Model based engineering of Pichia pastoris central metabolism enhances recombinant protein production

    PubMed Central

    Nocon, Justyna; Steiger, Matthias G.; Pfeffer, Martin; Sohn, Seung Bum; Kim, Tae Yong; Maurer, Michael; Rußmayer, Hannes; Pflügl, Stefan; Ask, Magnus; Haberhauer-Troyer, Christina; Ortmayr, Karin; Hann, Stephan; Koellensperger, Gunda; Gasser, Brigitte; Lee, Sang Yup; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2014-01-01

    The production of recombinant proteins is frequently enhanced at the levels of transcription, codon usage, protein folding and secretion. Overproduction of heterologous proteins, however, also directly affects the primary metabolism of the producing cells. By incorporation of the production of a heterologous protein into a genome scale metabolic model of the yeast Pichia pastoris, the effects of overproduction were simulated and gene targets for deletion or overexpression for enhanced productivity were predicted. Overexpression targets were localized in the pentose phosphate pathway and the TCA cycle, while knockout targets were found in several branch points of glycolysis. Five out of 9 tested targets led to an enhanced production of cytosolic human superoxide dismutase (hSOD). Expression of bacterial β-glucuronidase could be enhanced as well by most of the same genetic modifications. Beneficial mutations were mainly related to reduction of the NADP/H pool and the deletion of fermentative pathways. Overexpression of the hSOD gene itself had a strong impact on intracellular fluxes, most of which changed in the same direction as predicted by the model. In vivo fluxes changed in the same direction as predicted to improve hSOD production. Genome scale metabolic modeling is shown to predict overexpression and deletion mutants which enhance recombinant protein production with high accuracy. PMID:24853352

  6. Expression of Apostichopus japonicus lysozyme in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Xu, Yongping; Liu, Wenjia; Sun, Yongxin; Jin, Liji

    2011-05-01

    Apostichopus japonicus (sea cucumber) is one of the economically important farmed echinoderm species in Northern China. As a crucial enzyme in innate immunity, lysozyme plays a key role in the overall defense against pathogens in A. japonicus. In the present study, a lysozyme gene from A. japonicus was cloned by PCR and expressed in Pichia pastoris using the expression vector pPIC9K. The expressed lysozyme had a molecular mass of ∼14 kD, as shown by SDS-PAGE and Western-blotting. The expression condition was optimized, and the highest expression level was achieved by induction with 1% methanol at pH 5.0 for 120 h. The recombinant lysozyme was purified by affinity chromatography using a Ni-NTA column. The specific activity of the purified lysozyme was 34,000 U/mg using Micrococcus lysodeikticus as substrates. It exhibited antimicrobial activity toward M.lysodeikticus, as detected by growth inhibition on agar plate and turbidity assay, suggesting a potential application of A. japonicus lysozyme as an antimicrobial agent in A. japonicus aquaculture. PMID:21241808

  7. Production of Influenza Virus HA1 Harboring Native-Like Epitopes by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingshan; Yang, Kunyu; He, Fangping; Jiang, Jie; Li, Tingting; Chen, Zhenqin; Li, Rui; Chen, Yixin; Li, Shaowei; Zhao, Qinjian; Xia, Ningshao

    2016-08-01

    The outbreak of the H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza which exhibits high variation had brought a serious threat to the safety of humanity. To overcome this high variation, hemagglutinin-based recombinant subunit vaccine with rational design has been considered as a substitute for traditional virion-based vaccine development. Here, we expressed HA1 part of the hemagglutinin protein using the Pichia pastoris expression system and attained a high yield of about 120 mg/L through the use of fed-batch scalable fermentation. HA1 protein in the culture supernatant was purified using two-step ion-exchange chromatography. The resultant HA1 protein was homogeneous in solution in a glycosylated form, as confirmed by endoglycosidase H treatment. Sedimentation velocity tests, silver staining of protein gels, and immunoblotting were used for verification. The native HA1 reacted well with conformational, cross-genotype, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, whereas a loss of binding activity was noted with the denatured HA1 form. Moreover, the murine anti-HA1 serum exhibited a virus-capture capability in the hemagglutination inhibition assay, which suggests that HA1 harbors native-like epitopes. In conclusion, soluble HA1 was efficiently expressed and purified in this study. The functional glycosylated protein will be an alternative for the development of recombinant protein-based influenza vaccine. PMID:27040529

  8. High-Level Expression of Endo-β-N-Acetylglucosaminidase H from Streptomyces plicatus in Pichia pastoris and Its Application for the Deglycosylation of Glycoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Yu, Xiaolan; Fu, Lin; Liu, Yunyun; Ma, Lixin; Zhai, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (Endo H, EC3.2.1.96) is a glycohydrolase that is widely used in the study of glycoproteins. The present study aimed to assess the effect of high-level endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H expression in Pichia pastoris. The DNA coding sequence of this enzyme was optimized based on the codon usage bias of Pichia pastoris and synthesized through overlapping PCR. This novel gene was cloned into a pHBM905A vector and introduced into Pichia pastoris GS115 for secretary expression. The yield of the target protein reached approximately 397 mg/l after a 6-d induction with 1% (v/v) methanol in shake flasks, which is much higher than that observed upon heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and silkworm. This recombinant enzyme was purified and its enzymatic features were studied. Its specific activity was 461573 U/mg. Its optimum pH and temperature were pH 5.5 and 37°C, respectively. Moreover, our study showed that the N-linked glycan side-chains of several recombinant proteins expressed in Pichia pastoris can be efficiently removed through either the co-fermentation of this recombinant strain with strains expressing substrates or by mixing the cell culture supernatants of the endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H expressing strain with strains expressing substrates after fermentation. This is the first report of high-level endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H expression in Pichia pastoris and the application of this enzyme in the deglycosylation of raw glycoproteins heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris using simplified methods. PMID:25781897

  9. Probing the Crucial Role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS Alkaline Protease in Substrate Recognition and Enzymatic Depilation of Animal Hide

    PubMed Central

    Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ben Hlima, Hajer; Rekik, Hatem; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Aicha, Houda Slimene Ben; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Toumi, Abdessatar; Aghajari, Nushin; Bejar, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y) were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine) at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine) at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity. PMID:25264614

  10. Probing the crucial role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS alkaline protease in substrate recognition and enzymatic depilation of animal hide.

    PubMed

    Zaraî Jaouadi, Nadia; Jaouadi, Bassem; Ben Hlima, Hajer; Rekik, Hatem; Belhoul, Mouna; Hmidi, Maher; Ben Aicha, Houda Slimene; Hila, Chiraz Gorgi; Toumi, Abdessatar; Aghajari, Nushin; Bejar, Samir

    2014-01-01

    The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y) were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine) at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine) at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity. PMID:25264614

  11. Chemical Composition and Medicinal Value of Fruiting Bodies and Submerged Cultured Mycelia of Caterpillar Medicinal Fungus Cordyceps militaris CBS-132098 (Ascomycetes).

    PubMed

    Chan, Jannie Siew Lee; Barseghyan, Gayane S; Asatiani, Mikheil D; Wasser, Solomon P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we report the results of a proximate analysis (i.e., moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrates, and energy); a bioactive compounds analysis (i.e., cordycepin and ergothioneine); fatty and amino acid analysis; and analyses of vitamin content, macro- and microelement composition of fruiting body (FB), and mycelial biomass (MB) of medicinal caterpillar fungus Cordyceps militaris strain CBS-132098. These results demonstrate that the FB and MB of C. militaris are good sources of proteins: 59.8% protein content in the FB and 39.5% in the MB. The MB was distinguished by its carbohydrate content (39.6%), which was higher than that of the FB (29.1% carbohydrate). In the FB of C. militaris, the total amino acid content was 57.39 mg/g and in the MB it was 24.98 mg/g. The quantification of the identified fatty acids indicated that palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were the major fatty acids. The micro- and macroelement compositions were studied. The highest results were calcium (797 mg/kg FB; 11 mg/kg MB); potassium (15,938 mg/kg FB 12,183 mg/kg MB); magnesium (4,227 mg/kg FB; 3,414 mg/kg MB); sodium (171 mg/kg FB; 1,567 mg/kg MB); phosphorus (7,196 mg/kg FB; 14,293 mg/kg MB); and sulfur (5,088 mg/kg FB; 2,558 mg/kg MB). The vitamin composition was studied, and the most abundant vitamins were vitamin A, vitamin B3, and vitamin E. The bioactive components were cordycepin, cordycepic acid (D-mannitol), and ergothioneine. There were differences in cordycepin and ergothioneine contents between the FB and the MB. The cordycepin concentration was 0.11% in the FB and 0.182% in the MB, the cordycepic acid was 4.7 mg/100g in the FB and 5.2 mg/100 g in the MB, and the ergothioneine content was 782.37 mg/kg in the FB and 130.65 mg/kg in the MB. The nutritional values of the FB and the MB of C. militaris detected indicate its potential use in well-balanced diets and sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26559699

  12. Use of Pichia fermentans and Candida sp. strains for the biological treatment of stored olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Taccari, Manuela; Ciani, Maurizio

    2011-12-01

    Of 105 isolates screened for growth on plates containing olive mill wastewater (OMW), five were selected and identified as Pichia fermentans (Y1, Y4) and Candida sp. (Y2, Y11, and Y18). On the basis of their ability to use phenol at 716 mg l(-1), strains Y2 (15% reduction) and Y4 (18% reduction) were then used to detoxify stored OMW under various operational conditions. Yeast treatment of OMW increased the pH and, in the best conditions (aeration and no glucose addition), the COD decreased (47%) and phytotoxicity was also decreased (56%) probably due to the changes in the composition of phenolic compounds. PMID:21785989

  13. [Cloning and expression of bacteriophage FMV lysocyme gene in cells of yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris].

    PubMed

    Kozlov, D G; Cheperigin, S E; Chestkov, A V; Krylov, V N; Tsygankov, Iu D

    2010-03-01

    Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene for soluble lysozyme of bacteriophage FMV from Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria were conducted in yeast cells. Comparable efficiency of two lysozyme expression variants (as intracellular or secreted proteins) was estimated in cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris. Under laboratory conditions, yeast S. cerevisiae proved to be more effective producer of phage lysozyme than P. pastoris, the yield of the enzyme in the secreted form being significantly higher than that produced in the intracellular form. PMID:20391778

  14. Expression of hepatitis B surface antigen in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris using the GAP promoter.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, A; Chugh, D A; Swaminathan, S; Khanna, N

    2001-06-01

    High-level expression and efficient assembly of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) particles have been reported in Pichia pastoris by integrating a single copy of the HBsAg gene under the control of the alcohol oxidase (AOX1) promoter. However, the time taken to reach peak product concentration is usually very long ( approximately 240 h). In this paper, we describe the expression of HBsAg in P. pastoris using the recently described glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. Unlike the previously described AOX1 promoter based system (in which biomass is generated first followed by methanol-induced antigen production), biomass generation and antigen production occur simultaneously in medium containing glycerol or glucose. Maximal levels of HBsAg expression in case of the single copy AOX1 integrant (attained after 6 days of induction) exceeded the levels of antigen produced by the single copy GAP integrant. However, this was offset by continuous antigen production by the GAP clone. In an attempt to further enhance antigen production levels of the GAP clones, we isolated multicopy Pichia integrants containing up to four copies of the GAP promoter-driven constitutive expression cassette using the Zeocin screening procedure. The data demonstrated a direct correlation between the gene dosage and the levels of HBsAg expressed by the GAP clones. The effect of copy number was additive and the four copy clone resulted in about four-fold higher yield of HBsAg. The majority of HBsAg produced in the constitutive expression system was found to be of particulate form, based on sedimentation behaviour and particle-specific ELISA, suggesting that it has the potential to serve as an effective immunogen. These particles were sensitive to thiol reagents. We also explored the possibility of secreting the GAP expressed HBsAg in P. pastoris. In-frame fusion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor secretion signal under the constitutive GAP promoter resulted in

  15. High level expression of organophosphorus hydrolase in Pichia pastoris by multicopy ophcM assembly.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wei; Shu, Min; Ma, Lixin; Ni, Hong; Yan, Hong

    2016-03-01

    The residues of organophosphorus pesticides bring serious impact on the environmental safety and people's health. Biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides is recognized as an ideal method. An organophosphorus hydrolase (OPHCM) from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes was synthesized and expressed in Pichia pastoris. The yield reached approximately 470 mg/l after a 6-d induction in shake flasks. To improve the enzyme production, we describe a novel approach to express OPHCM efficiently with a biobrick assembly method in vitro. Four recombinant plasmids containing 1-4 copies of ophcM-expressing cassettes were constructed and transformed into P. pastoris. Increasing the copy number of ophcM gene enhanced the expression level of OPHCM. The maximum yield and specific activity in P. pastoris harboring two-copy tandem ophcM-expressing cassettes reached 610 mg/l after a 6-d induction in shake flasks and 7.8 g/l in high-density fermentation with specific activity of 13.7 U/mg. The optimum pH and temperature of the recombinant OPHCM activity were 11.0 and 50 °C, respectively. In addition, the enzyme activity of recombinant OPHCM enhanced 57.6% and 30.1% in the presence of 1 mM Cd(2+) and 5% glycerol, respectively. The high expression and good properties of recombinant OPHCM provide an effective solution to solve the pollution of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment. Moreover, the approach for generating multicopy gene expressing vectors here will benefit the study for enhancing the expression level of genes of interest. PMID:26611611

  16. Heterologous expression and enzymatic characterization of fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus niger in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hailin; Wang, Yitian; Zhang, Ling; Shen, Wei

    2016-01-25

    In this work, the cDNA encoding fructosyltransferase (FTase) from Aspergillus niger YZ59 (CICIM F0901) was obtained and expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris strain GS115. The yield of recombinant FTase in a 5-L fermentor reached 1020.0 U/mL after 96 h of induction, which was 1160.4 times higher that of native FTase from A. niger YZ59. The specific activity of recombinant FTase was 6.8×10(4) U/mg. The optimum temperature and pH of the recombinant FTase were 55 °C and 5.5, respectively. The recombinant FTase was stable below 40 °C and at pH from 3.0 to 10.0. Using sucrose as the substrate, the Km and Vmax values of recombinant FTase were 159.8 g/L and 0.66 g/(L min), respectively. The turnover number (kcat) and catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of recombinant FTase was 1.1×10(4) min(-1) and 68.8 L/(g min), respectively. The recombinant FTase was slightly activated by 5mM Ni(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), Fe(3+), or Mn(2+), but inhibited by all other metal ions (Na(+), Li(+), Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+)). The highest yield of fructooligosaccharides for purified FTase reached approximately 343.3 g/L (w/v). This is the first study reporting the heterologous expression of FTases from A. niger in P. pastoris. This study plays an important role in the fructooligosaccharide synthesis industry by recombinant FTases. PMID:25976629

  17. Molecular genetic manipulation of Pichia pastoris SEC4 governs cell growth and glucoamylase secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, S.-H.; Chou, W.-I; Lin, S.-C.; Sheu, C.-C.; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr . E-mail: dtchang@life.nthu.edu.tw

    2005-11-04

    We have previously engineered a recombinant Pichia pastoris GS115 transformant, MSPGA-7, harboring seven copies of glucoamylase (GA) fused with modified signal peptide. High yield secretion of GA was achieved as an extra copy of SEC4 was integrated to the transformant. To elucidate the physiological role of SEC4, a dominant-negative mutant of SEC4, SEC4 {sub S28N}, was overexpressed under the control of alchohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter in P. pastoris strain MSPGA-7 as well as a set of host cells harboring multi-copy of wild type SEC4. We found that SEC4 {sub S28N} mutation in the key guanine nucleotide binding domain reduced guanine nucleotide binding affinity, hence it blocked the transport of vesicles required for targeting and fusion to the plasma membrane. The inhibitory levels of cell growth and GA secretion were correlated with the dosage of SEC4 {sub S28N} gene. In addition, overexpression of SEC4 driven by AOX1 promoter in MSPGA-7 improved the secretory production of GA, but demonstrated the delay of cell growth by increased gene dosage of SEC4. Interestingly, a limited level of Sec4p did not disturb the cell growth. It was because expression of only one copy of SEC4 resulted in delay of cell growth at an early stage while still maintaining high level Sec4p at long-term incubation. Accordingly, as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter was used to substitute AOX1 promoter to drive the SEC4 expression, enhanced GA secretion but not inhibition of cell growth was achieved. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SEC4 is essential for P. pastoris in regulating cell growth and heterologous protein secretion in a dosage-dependent manner.

  18. Complete sucrose hydrolysis by heat-killed recombinant Pichia pastoris cells entrapped in calcium alginate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An ideal immobilized biocatalyst for the industrial-scale production of invert sugar should stably operate at elevated temperatures (60-70°C) and high sucrose concentrations (above 60%, w/v). Commercial invertase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thermolabile and suffers from substrate inhibition. Thermotoga maritima β-fructosidase (BfrA) is the most thermoactive and thermostable sucrose-hydrolysing enzyme so far identified and allows complete inversion of the substrate in highly concentrated solutions. Results In this study, heat-killed Pichia pastoris cells bearing N-glycosylated BfrA in the periplasmic space were entrapped in calcium alginate beads. The immobilized recombinant yeast showed maximal sucrose hydrolysis at pH 5–7 and 90°C. BfrA was 65% active at 60°C and had no activity loss after incubation without the substrate at this temperature for 15 h. Complete inversion of cane sugar (2.04 M) at 60°C was achieved in batchwise and continuous operation with respective productivities of 4.37 and 0.88 gram of substrate hydrolysed per gram of dry beads per hour. The half-life values of the biocatalyst were 14 and 20 days when operated at 60°C in the stirred tank and the fixed-bed column, respectively. The reaction with non-viable cells prevented the occurrence of sucrose fermentation and the formation of by-products. Six-month storage of the biocatalyst in 1.46 M sucrose (pH 5.5) at 4°C caused no reduction of the invertase activity. Conclusions The features of the novel thermostable biocatalyst developed in this study are more attractive than those of immobilized S. cerevisiae cells for application in the enzymatic manufacture of inverted sugar syrup in batch and fixed-bed reactors. PMID:24943124

  19. Upscale of recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase production by Pichia pastoris MutS strain

    PubMed Central

    Markošová, Kristína; Weignerová, Lenka; Rosenberg, Michal; Křen, Vladimír; Rebroš, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is currently one of the most preferred microorganisms for recombinant enzyme production due to its efficient expression system. The advantages include the production of high amounts of recombinant proteins containing the appropriate posttranslational modifications and easy cultivation conditions. α-L-Rhamnosidase is a biotechnologically important enzyme in food and pharmaceutical industry, used for example in debittering of citrus fruit juices, rhamnose pruning from naringin, or enhancement of wine aromas, creating a demand for the production of an active and stable enzyme. The production of recombinant α-L-rhamnosidase cloned in the MutS strain of P. pastoris KM71H was optimized. The encoding gene is located under the control of the AOX promoter, which is induced by methanol whose concentration is instrumental for these strain types. Fermentation was upscaled in bioreactors employing various media and several methanol-feeding strategies. It was found that fed batch with BSM media was more effective compared to BMMH (Buffered Methanol-complex Medium) media due to lower cost and improved biomass formation. In BSM (Basal Salt Medium) medium, the dry cell weight reached approximately 60 g/L, while in BMMH it was only 8.3 g/L, without additional glycerol, which positively influenced the amount of enzyme produced. New methanol feeding strategy, based on the level of dissolved oxygen was developed in this study. This protocol that is entirely independent on methanol monitoring was up scaled to a 19.5-L fermenter with 10-L working volume with the productivity of 13.34 mgprot/L/h and specific activity of α-L-rhamnosidase of 82 U/mg. The simplified fermentation protocol was developed for easy and effective fermentation of P. pastoris MutS based on dissolved oxygen monitoring in the induction phase of an enzyme production. PMID:26539173

  20. Heterologous expression of a Penicillium purpurogenum pectin lyase in Pichia pastoris and its characterization.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Fuentes, Claudio; Cristina Ravanal, María; Eyzaguirre, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Lignocellulose is the major component of plant cell walls and it represents a great source of renewable organic matter. One of lignocellulose constituents is pectin. Pectin is composed of two basic structures: a 'smooth' region and a 'hairy' region. The 'smooth' region (homogalacturonan) is a linear polymer of galacturonic acid residues with α-(1→4) linkages, substituted by methyl and acetyl residues. The 'hairy' region is more complex, containing xylogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonans I and II. Among the enzymes which degrade pectin (pectinases) is pectin lyase (E.C. 4.2.2.10). This enzyme acts on highly esterified homogalacturonan, catalysing the cleavage of α-(1→4) glycosidic bonds between methoxylated residues of galacturonic acid by means of β-elimination, with the formation of 4,5-unsaturated products. In this work, the gene and cDNA of a pectin lyase from Penicillium purpurogenum have been sequenced, and the cDNA has been expressed in Pichia pastoris. The gene is 1334 pb long, has three introns and codes for a protein of 376 amino acid residues. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity and characterized. Pectin lyase has a molecular mass of 45 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE. It is active on highly esterified pectin, and decreases 40% the viscosity of pectin with a degree of esterification ≥85%. The enzyme showed no activity on polygalacturonic acid and pectin from citrus fruit 8% esterified. The optimum pH and temperature for the recombinant enzyme are 6.0 and 50 °C, respectively, and it is stable up to 50 °C when exposed for 3 h. A purified pectin lyase may be useful in biotechnological applications such as the food industry where the liberation of toxic methanol in pectin degradation should be avoided. PMID:24863479

  1. Increasing pentose phosphate pathway flux enhances recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Nocon, Justyna; Steiger, Matthias; Mairinger, Teresa; Hohlweg, Jonas; Rußmayer, Hannes; Hann, Stephan; Gasser, Brigitte; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2016-07-01

    Production of heterologous proteins in Pichia pastoris (syn. Komagataella sp.) has been shown to exert a metabolic burden on the host metabolism. This burden is associated with metabolite drain, which redirects nucleotides and amino acids from primary metabolism. On the other hand, recombinant protein production affects energy and redox homeostasis of the host cell. In a previous study, we have demonstrated that overexpression of single genes of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) had a positive influence on recombinant production of cytosolic human superoxide dismutase (hSOD). In this study, different combinations of these genes belonging to the oxidative PPP were generated and analyzed. Thereby, a 3.8-fold increase of hSOD production was detected when glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (ZWF1) and 6-gluconolactonase (SOL3) were simultaneously overexpressed, while the combinations of other genes from PPP had no positive effect on protein production. By measuring isotopologue patterns of (13)C-labelled metabolites, we could detect an upshift in the flux ratio of PPP to glycolysis upon ZWF1 and SOL3 co-overexpression, as well as increased levels of 6-phosphogluconate. The substantial improvement of hSOD production by ZWF1 and SOL3 co-overexpression appeared to be connected to an increase in PPP flux. In conclusion, we show that overexpression of SOL3 together with ZWF1 enhanced both the PPP flux ratio and hSOD accumulation, providing evidence that in P. pastoris Sol3 limits the flux through PPP and recombinant protein production. PMID:27020289

  2. Droplet digital PCR-aided screening and characterization of Pichia pastoris multiple gene copy strains.

    PubMed

    Cámara, Elena; Albiol, Joan; Ferrer, Pau

    2016-07-01

    Pichia (syn. Komagataella) pastoris is a widely used yeast platform for heterologous protein production. Expression cassettes are usually stably integrated into the genome of this host via homologous recombination. Although increasing gene dosage is a powerful strategy to improve recombinant protein production, an excess in the number of gene copies often leads to decreased product yields and increased metabolic burden, particularly for secreted proteins. We have constructed a series of strains harboring different copy numbers of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase gene (ROL), aiming to find the optimum gene dosage for secreted Rol production. In order to accurately determine ROL gene dosage, we implemented a novel protocol based on droplet digital PCR (ddPCR), and cross validated it with conventional real-time PCR. Gene copy number determination based on ddPCR allowed for an accurate ranking of transformants according to their ROL gene dosage. Results indicated that ddPCR was particularly superior at lower gene dosages (one to five copies) over quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This facilitated the determination of the optimal ROL gene dosage as low as two copies. The ranking of ROL gene dosage versus Rol yield was consistent at both small scale and bioreactor chemostat cultures, thereby easing clone characterization in terms of gene dosage dependent physiological effects, which could be discriminated even among strains differing by only one ROL copy. A selected two-copy strain showed twofold increase in Rol specific production in a chemostat culture over the single copy strain. Conversely, strains harboring more than two copies of the ROL gene showed decreased product and biomass yields, as well as altered substrate consumption specific rates, compared to the reference (one-copy) strain. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1542-1551. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26704939

  3. Expression of a Phanerochaete chrysosporium manganese peroxidase gene in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Gu, Lina; Lajoie, Curtis; Kelly, Christine

    2003-01-01

    A gene encoding manganese peroxidase (mnp1) from Phanerochaete chrysosporium was cloned downstream of a constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Three different expression vectors were constructed: pZBMNP contains the native P. chrysosporium fungal secretion signal, palphaAMNP contains an alpha-factor secretion signal derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and pZBIMNP has no secretion signal and was used for intracellular expression. Both the native fungal secretion signal sequence and alpha-factor secretion signal sequence directed the secretion of active recombinant manganese peroxidase (rMnP) from P. pastoris transformants. The majority of the rMnP produced by P. pastoris exhibited a molecular mass (55-100 kDa) considerably larger than that of the wild-type manganese peroxidase (wtMnP, 46 kDa). Deletion of the native fungal secretion signal yielded a molecular mass of 39 kDa for intracellular rMnP in P. pastoris. Treatment of the secreted rMnP with endoglycosidase H (Endo H) resulted in a considerable decrease in the mass of rMnP, indicating N-linked hyperglycosylation. Partially purified rMnP showed kinetic characteristics similar to those of wtMnP. Both enzymes also had similar pH stability profiles. Addition of exogenous Mn(II), Ca(II), and Fe(III) conferred additional thermal stability to both enzymes. However, rMnP was slightly less thermostable than wtMnP, which demonstrated an extended half-life at 55 degrees C. PMID:14524699

  4. The intracellular production and secretion of HIV-1 envelope protein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Scorer, C A; Buckholz, R G; Clare, J J; Romanos, M A

    1993-12-22

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein, gp120 (ENV), is required in large quantities for immunological studies and as a potential vaccine component. We have expressed the DNA encoding gp120 in a highly efficient expression system based on the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris. The native gene was found to contain a sequence which resembled a Saccharomyces cerevisiae polyadenylation consensus and acted as a premature polyadenylation site in P. pastoris, resulting in the production of truncated mRNA. As full-length mRNA was produced in S. cerevisiae, this indicates differences in mRNA 3'-end formation between the two yeasts. Inactivation of this site by site-directed mutagenesis revealed several additional fortuitous polyadenylation sites within the gene. We have designed and constructed a 69%-synthetic gene with increased G + C content which overcomes this transcriptional problem, giving rise to full-length mRNA. High levels of intracellular, insoluble, unglycosylated ENV were produced [1.25 mg/ml in high-density (2 x 10(10) cells per ml) fermentations]. ENV also was secreted from P. pastoris using the S. cerevisiae alpha-factor prepro secretion leader and the S. cerevisiae invertase signal sequence. However, a high proportion of the secreted product was found to be hyperglycosylated, in contrast to other foreign proteins secreted from P. pastoris. There also was substantial proteolytic degradation, but this was minimized by maintaining a low pH on induction. Insoluble, yeast-derived ENV proteins are being considered as vaccine antigens and the P. pastoris system offers an efficient method of production. PMID:8293993

  5. A proteomic analysis of the Pichia pastoris secretome in methanol-induced cultures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Jr; Damasceno, Leonardo M; Anderson, Kyle A; Zhang, Sheng; Old, Lloyd J; Batt, Carl A

    2011-04-01

    The secreted proteome of Pichia pastoris X-33 was investigated in methanol-induced cultures with a goal to enhance the secretion and purification of recombinant proteins. In a fed-batch fermentation at 30 °C, more host proteins were found in greater concentrations compared to cultures grown at 25 °C. Protein samples collected directly from the culture media at 25 °C, as well as separated by two-dimensional (2D) gel, were subjected to ESI-MS/MS analysis. A total of 75 proteins were identified in the media from different conditions including pre- and post-methanol induction and in a strain overexpressing a recombinant schistosomiasis vaccine, Sm14-C62V. The identified proteins include native secreted proteins and some intracellular proteins, most of which have low isoelectric points (pI < 6). 2D gel analyses further revealed important characteristics, such as abundance, degradation, and glycosylation of these identified proteins in this proteome. Cell wall-associated proteins involved in cell wall biogenesis, structure, and modification comprised the majority of the secreted proteins which have been identified. Intracellular proteins such as alcohol oxidase and superoxide dismutase were also found in the proteome, suggesting some degree of cell lysis. However, both protocols show that their concentrations are significantly lower than the native secreted proteins. This study identifies proteins secreted or released into the culture media in the methanol-induced fermentation cultures of P. pastoris X-33 and suggests potential biotechnology applications based on the discovery of this proteome. PMID:21305280

  6. Effects of gene dosage, promoters, and substrates on unfolded protein stress of recombinant Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hohenblum, Hubertus; Gasser, Brigitte; Maurer, Michael; Borth, Nicole; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2004-02-20

    The expression of heterologous proteins may exert severe stress on the host cells at different levels. Depending on the specific features of the product, different steps may be rate-limiting. For the secretion of recombinant proteins from yeast cells, folding and disulfide bond formation were identified as rate-limiting in several cases and the induction of the chaperone BiP (binding protein) is described. During the development of Pichia pastoris strains secreting human trypsinogen, a severe limitation of the amount of secreted product was identified. Strains using either the AOX1 or the GAP promoter were compared at different gene copy numbers. With the constitutive GAP promoter, no effect on the expression level was observed, whereas with the inducible AOX1 promoter an increase of the copy number above two resulted in a decrease of expression. To identify whether part of the product remained in the cells, lysates were fractionated and significant amounts of the product were identified in the insoluble fraction containing the endoplasmic reticulum, while the soluble cytosolic fraction contained product only in clones using the GAP promoter. An increase of BiP was observed upon induction of expression, indicating that the intracellular product fraction exerts an unfolded protein response in the host cells. A strain using the GAP promoter was grown both on glucose and methanol and trypsinogen was identified in the insoluble fractions of both cultures, but only in the soluble fraction of the glucose grown cultures, indicating that the amounts and distribution of intracellularly retained product depends on the culture conditions, especially the carbon source. PMID:14755554

  7. Expression and secretion of rabbit plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Kotake, H; Li, Q; Ohnishi, T; Ko, K W; Agellon, L B; Yokoyama, S

    1996-03-01

    The rabbit cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) was expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris by introducing the CETP cDNA under the control of the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase promoter. The cDNA was cloned from in vitro amplified cDNA of rabbit liver mRNA. The nucleotide sequence of the cloned cDNA differed slightly from the previously published sequence that changed the amino acid sequence in six residues. Interestingly, five of these replacements are identical to the corresponding residues in human CEPT. In addition, the encoded mature N-terminal sequence was changed from Cys- to Arg-Glu-Phe- to link the CETP sequence to the yeast acid phosphatase signal peptide. The culture medium of the transformed cells induced with 1% methanol contained both cholesteryl ester and triglyceride transfer activity comparable to that of rabbit plasma. Like rabbit plasma, the lipid transfer activity in the medium could be inhibited by monoclonal antibodies that block CE/TG transfer or TG transfer alone. Immunoblot analysis of M(r) = 80 K and minor species of M(r) = 60-100 K. In spite of these differences, the specific transfer activity of the recombinant CETP was indistinguishable from that of rabbit plasma CETP of M(r) = 74 K. N-Glycosidase F treatment converted both the recombinant and plasma CETP to a single species of M(r) = 55 K. Both the plasma and recombinant CETP lost their activity after removal of N-linked carbohydrate and sialic acid. A single 55 K component was found in the cell-lysates. The intracellular form of the recombinant CETP was not modified by N-glycosidase F treatment. In conclusion, the recombinant CETP is synthesized as an inactive polypeptide that is processed and secreted as a functional glycoprotein. In addition, the N-terminal Cys residue of the plasma CETP is not required for its activity. PMID:8728322

  8. Metabolic engineering of Pichia pastoris for production of hyaluronic acid with high molecular weight.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Euijoon; Shim, Woo Yong; Kim, Jung Hoe

    2014-09-20

    The high molecular weight (>1 MDa) of hyaluronic acid (HA) is important for its biological functions. The reported limiting factors for the production of HA with high molecular weight (MW) by microbial fermentation are the insufficient HA precursor pool and cell growth inhibition. To overcome these issues, the Xenopus laevis xhasA2 and xhasB genes encoding hyaluronan synthase 2 (xhasA2) and UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (xhasB), were expressed in Pichia pastoris widely used for production of heterologous proteins. In this study, expression vectors containing various combination cassettes of HA pathway genes including xhasA2 and xhasB from X. laevis as well as UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (hasC), UDP-N-acetylglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (hasD) and phosphoglucose isomerase (hasE) from P. pastoris were constructed and tested. First, HA pathway genes were overexpressed using pAO815 and pGAPZB vectors, resulting in the production of 1.2 MDa HA polymers. Second, in order to decrease hyaluronan synthase expression a strong AOX1 promoter in the xhasA2 gene was replaced by a weak AOX2 promoter which increased the mean MW of HA to 2.1 MDa. Finally, the MW of HA polymer was further increased to 2.5 MDa by low-temperature cultivation (26 °C) which reduced cell growth inhibition. The yield of HA production by the P. pastoris recombinant strains in 1L of fermentation culture was 0.8-1.7 g/L. PMID:24892811

  9. The transcriptional response of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to proapoptotic concentrations of Pichia membranifaciens killer toxin.

    PubMed

    Santos, A; Marquina, D

    2011-10-01

    PMKT (Pichia membranifaciens killer toxin) reportedly has antimicrobial activity against yeasts and filamentous fungi. In previous research we posited that high PMKT concentrations pose a serious challenge for cell survival by disrupting plasma membrane electrochemical gradients, inducing a transcriptional response similar to that of certain stimuli such as hyperosmotic shock. This response was related to the HOG-pathway with Hog1p phosphorylation and a transitional increase in intracellular glycerol accumulation. Such a response was consistent with the notion that the effect induced by high PMKT concentrations lies in an alteration to the ionic homeostasis of the sensitive cell. By contrast, the evidence presented here shows that low PMKT doses lead to a cell death process in Saccharomyces cerevisiae accompanied by cytological and biochemical indicators of apoptotic programmed cell death, namely, the production of reactive oxygen species, DNA strand breaks, metacaspase activation and cytochrome c release. Furthermore, dying cells progressed from an apoptotic state to a secondary necrotic state, and the rate at which this change occurred was proportional to the intensity of the stimulus. We have explored the global gene expression response of S. cerevisiae during that stimulus. The results obtained from DNA microarrays indicate that genes related with an oxidative stress response were induced in response to proapoptotic concentrations of PMKT, showing that the coordinated transcriptional response is not coincident with that obtained when ionophoric concentrations of PMKT are used. By contrast, cwp2Δ mutants showed no signs of apoptosis, indicating that the initial steps of the killer mechanism coincide when proapoptotic (low) or ionophoric (high) PMKT concentrations are used. Additionally, low dosages of PMKT promoted Hog1p phosphorylation and glycerol accumulation. PMID:21801845

  10. Expression of enzymatically inactive wasp venom phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M; Wagner, Tim; Hachem, Maher A; Søndergaard, Ib; Poulsen, Lars K

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification.Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A). All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST). Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils.The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy. PMID:21731687

  11. Cflec-5, a pattern recognition receptor in scallop Chlamys farreri agglutinating yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Kong, Pengfei; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Yang, Jialong; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2010-07-01

    C-type lectins are a superfamily of carbohydrate-recognition proteins which play crucial roles as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the innate immunity. In this study, the full-length cDNA of a C-type lectin was cloned from scallop Chlamys farreri (designated as Cflec-5) by expression sequence tag (EST) analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The full-length cDNA of Cflec-5 was of 1412 bp. The open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 153 amino acids, including a signal sequence and a conserved carbohydrate-recognition domain with the EPN motif determining the mannose-binding specificity. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cflec-5 showed high similarity to members of C-type lectin superfamily. The quantitative real-time PCR was performed to investigate the tissue distribution of Cflec-5 mRNA and its temporal expression profiles in hemocytes post pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) stimulation. In healthy scallops, the Cflec-5 mRNA was mainly detected in gill and mantle, and marginally in other tissues. The mRNA expression of Cflec-5 could be significantly induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and glucan stimulation and reached the maximum level at 6 h and 12 h, respectively. But its expression level did not change significantly during peptidoglycan (PGN) stimulation. The function of Cflec-5 was investigated by recombination and expression of the cDNA fragment encoding its mature peptide in Escherichia coli Rosetta Gami (DE3). The recombinant Cflec-5 agglutinated Pichia pastoris in a calcium-independent way. The agglutinating activity could be inhibited by d-mannose, LPS and glucan, but not by d-galactose or PGN. These results collectively suggested that Cflec-5 was involved in the innate immune response of scallops and might contribute to nonself-recognition through its interaction with various PAMPs. PMID:20211738

  12. Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) currently raises enormous interest in the field of glucose biosensors. Due to its superior properties such as high turnover rate, substrate specificity and oxygen independence, GDH makes its way into glucose biosensing. The recently discovered GDH from the ascomycete Glomerella cingulata is a novel candidate for such an electrochemical application, but also of interest to study the plant-pathogen interaction of a family of wide-spread, crop destroying fungi. Heterologous expression is a necessity to facilitate the production of GDH for biotechnological applications and to study its physiological role in the outbreak of anthracnose caused by Glomerella (anamorph Colletotrichum) spp. Results Heterologous expression of active G. cingulata GDH has been achieved in both Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris, however, the expressed volumetric activity was about 4800-fold higher in P. pastoris. Expression in E. coli resulted mainly in the formation of inclusion bodies and only after co-expression with molecular chaperones enzymatic activity was detected. The fed-batch cultivation of a P. pastoris transformant resulted in an expression of 48,000 U L-1 of GDH activity (57 mg L-1). Recombinant GDH was purified by a two-step purification procedure with a yield of 71%. Comparative characterization of molecular and catalytic properties shows identical features for the GDH expressed in P. pastoris and the wild-type enzyme from its natural fungal source. Conclusions The heterologous expression of active GDH was greatly favoured in the eukaryotic host. The efficient expression in P. pastoris facilitates the production of genetically engineered GDH variants for electrochemical-, physiological- and structural studies. PMID:22151971

  13. Characterization of an N-glycosylated Bacillus subtilis leucine aminopeptidase expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Xi, Hongxing; Tian, Yaping; Zhou, Nandi; Zhou, Zhemin; Shen, Wei

    2015-02-01

    Aminopeptidase is an important flavorsome especially in protein hydrolysate debittering by removing hydrophobic amino acid residue at the N-terminal end. Besides, it is also applied to preparation of active peptides and analysis of protein sequence. In this study, leucine aminopeptidase from Bacillus subtilis was cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris, a widely used heterologous protein expression host. Then it was purified and characterized. After methanol induction for 96 h, the aminopeptidase activity in culture supernatant reached 28.4 U ml(À1) , which was 7.1 times that of wild strain B. subtilis Zj016. The optimal temperature and pH of the purified recombinant enzyme were 60 °C and 8.5, respectively. The purified aminopeptidase was stable within 30-60 °C and pH 8.0-9.0. It was intensively inhibited by Ni(2β) , Ca(2β) , DL-dithiothreitol (DTT) and ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), but activated by Co(2β) . The Km toward leucine-p-nitroanilines (Leu-pNA) of the enzyme was 0.97 mM. The sequence analysis of aminopeptidase indicated three potential N-glycosylation sites and it was further verified via MALDI-TOF-MS analysis. Consequently, the N-glycosylated aminopeptidase exhibited higher thermostability and catalytic efficiency. The purified enzyme exhibited two bands through sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) while a single band can be identified when the enzyme was deglycosylated. Circular dichroism spectroscopy indicated that the secondary structure of recombinant aminopeptidase was similar to the wild-type. PMID:25389014

  14. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of Siamese Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) Hemoglobin from Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Anwised, Preeyanan; Jangpromma, Nisachon; Temsiripong, Theeranan; Patramanon, Rina; Daduang, Sakda; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Araki, Tomohiro; Klaynongsruang, Sompong

    2016-08-01

    Recombinant Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin (cHb) has been constructed and expressed using Escherichia coli as the expression system in conjunction with a trigger factor from the Cold-shock system as the fusion protein. While successful processing as soluble protein in E. coli was achieved, the net yields of active protein from downstream purification processes remained still unsatisfactory. In this study, cHb was constructed and expressed in the eukaryotic expression system Pichia pastoris. The results showed that cHb was excreted from P. pastoris as a soluble protein after 72 h at 25 °C. The amino acid sequence of recombinant cHb was confirmed using LC-MS/MS. Indeed, the characteristic of Hb was investigated by external heme incorporation. The UV-Vis profile showed a specific pattern of the absorption at 415 nm, indicating the recombinant cHb was formed complex with heme, resulting in active oxyhemoglobin (OxyHb). This result suggests that the heme molecules were fully combined with heme binding site of the recombinant cHb, thus producing characteristic red color for the OxyHb at 540 and 580 nm. The results revealed that the recombinant cHb was prosperously produced in P. pastoris and exhibited a property as protein-ligand binding. Thus, our work described herein offers a great potential to be applied for further studies of heme-containing protein expression. It represents further pleasing option for protein production and purification on a large scale, which is important for determination and characterization of the authenticity features of cHb proteins. PMID:27301987

  15. Construction of new Pichia pastoris X-33 strains for production of lycopene and β-carotene.

    PubMed

    Araya-Garay, J M; Feijoo-Siota, L; Rosa-dos-Santos, F; Veiga-Crespo, P; Villa, T G

    2012-03-01

    In this study, we used the non-carotenogenic yeast Pichia pastoris X33 as a receptor for β-carotene-encoding genes, in order to obtain new recombinant strains capable of producing different carotenoidic compounds. We designed and constructed two plasmids, pGAPZA-EBI* and pGAPZA-EBI*L*, containing the genes encoding lycopene and β-carotene, respectively. Plasmid pGAPZA-EBI*, expresses three genes, crtE, crtB, and crtI*, that encode three carotenogenic enzymes, geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, phytoene synthase, and phytoene desaturase, respectively. The other plasmid, pGAPZA-EBI*L*, carried not only the three genes above mentioned, but also the crtL* gene, that encodes lycopene β-cyclase. The genes crtE, crtB, and crtI were obtained from Erwinia uredovora, whereas crtL* was cloned from Ficus carica (JF279547). The plasmids were integrated into P. pastoris genomic DNA, and the resulting clones Pp-EBI and Pp-EBIL were selected for either lycopene or β-carotene production and purification, respectively. Cells of these strains were investigated for their carotenoid contents in YPD media. These carotenoids produced by the recombinant P. pastoris clones were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography, coupled to photodiode array detector. These analyses confirmed that the recombinant P. pastoris clones indeed produced either lycopene or β-carotene, according to the integrated vector, and productions of 1.141 μg of lycopene and 339 μg of β-carotene per gram of cells (dry weight) were achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that P. pastoris has been genetically manipulated to produce β-carotene, thus providing an alternative source for large-scale biosynthesis of carotenoids. PMID:22159890

  16. Expression of Enzymatically Inactive Wasp Venom Phospholipase A1 in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Borodina, Irina; Jensen, Bettina M.; Wagner, Tim; Hachem, Maher A.; Søndergaard, Ib; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2011-01-01

    Wasp venom allergy is the most common insect venom allergy in Europe. It is manifested by large local reaction or anaphylactic shock occurring after a wasp sting. The allergy can be treated by specific immunotherapy with whole venom extracts. Wasp venom is difficult and costly to obtain and is a subject to composition variation, therefore it can be advantageous to substitute it with a cocktail of recombinant allergens. One of the major venom allergens is phospholipase A1, which so far has been expressed in Escherichia coli and in insect cells. Our aim was to produce the protein in secreted form in yeast Pichia pastoris, which can give high yields of correctly folded protein on defined minimal medium and secretes relatively few native proteins simplifying purification. Residual amounts of enzymatically active phospholipase A1 could be expressed, but the venom protein had a deleterious effect on growth of the yeast cells. To overcome the problem we introduced three different point mutations at the critical points of the active site, where serine137, aspartate165 or histidine229 were replaced by alanine (S137A, D165A and H229A). All the three mutated forms could be expressed in P. pastoris. The H229A mutant did not have any detectable phospholipase A1 activity and was secreted at the level of several mg/L in shake flask culture. The protein was purified by nickel-affinity chromatography and its identity was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein could bind IgE antibodies from wasp venom allergic patients and could inhibit the binding of wasp venom to IgE antibodies specific for phospholipase A1 as shown by Enzyme Allergo-Sorbent Test (EAST). Moreover, the recombinant protein was allergenic in a biological assay as demonstrated by its capability to induce histamine release of wasp venom-sensitive basophils. The recombinant phospholipase A1 presents a good candidate for wasp venom immunotherapy. PMID:21731687

  17. A multi-level study of recombinant Pichia pastoris in different oxygen conditions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Yeasts are attractive expression platforms for many recombinant proteins, and there is evidence for an important interrelation between the protein secretion machinery and environmental stresses. While adaptive responses to such stresses are extensively studied in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, little is known about their impact on the physiology of Pichia pastoris. We have recently reported a beneficial effect of hypoxia on recombinant Fab secretion in P. pastoris chemostat cultivations. As a consequence, a systems biology approach was used to comprehensively identify cellular adaptations to low oxygen availability and the additional burden of protein production. Gene expression profiling was combined with proteomic analyses and the 13C isotope labelling based experimental determination of metabolic fluxes in the central carbon metabolism. Results The physiological adaptation of P. pastoris to hypoxia showed distinct traits in relation to the model yeast S. cerevisiae. There was a positive correlation between the transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic fluxes adaptation of P. pastoris core metabolism to hypoxia, yielding clear evidence of a strong transcriptional regulation component of key pathways such as glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and TCA cycle. In addition, the adaptation to reduced oxygen revealed important changes in lipid metabolism, stress responses, as well as protein folding and trafficking. Conclusions This systems level study helped to understand the physiological adaptations of cellular mechanisms to low oxygen availability in a recombinant P. pastoris strain. Remarkably, the integration of data from three different levels allowed for the identification of differences in the regulation of the core metabolism between P. pastoris and S. cerevisiae. Detailed comparative analysis of the transcriptomic data also led to new insights into the gene expression profiles of several cellular processes that are not only susceptible to low oxygen

  18. Development of a transformation system for gene knock-out in the flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Boretsky, Yuriy R; Pynyaha, Yuriy V; Boretsky, Volodymyr Y; Kutsyaba, Vasyl I; Protchenko, Olga V; Philpott, Caroline C; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2007-07-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of a yeast species, all of which over-synthesize riboflavin in response to iron deprivation. Molecular genetic studies in this yeast species have been hampered by a lack of strain-specific tools for gene manipulation. Stable P. guilliermondii ura3 mutants were selected on the basis of 5'-fluoroorotic acid resistance. Plasmid carrying Saccharomyces cerevisiae URA3 gene transformed the mutant strains to prototrophy with a low efficiency. Substitution of a single leucine codon CUG by another leucine codon CUC in the URA3 gene increased the efficiency of transformation 100 fold. Deletion cassettes for the RIB1 and RIB7 genes, coding for GTP cyclohydrolase and riboflavin synthase, respectively, were constructed using the modified URA3 gene and subsequently introduced into a P. guilliermondii ura3 strain. Site-specific integrants were identified by selection for the Rib(-) Ura(+) phenotype and confirmed by PCR analysis. Transformation of the P. guilliermondii ura3 strain was performed using electroporation, spheroplasting or lithium acetate treatment. Only the lithium acetate transformation procedure provided selection of uracil prototrophic, riboflavin deficient recombinant strains. Depending on the type of cassette, efficiency of site-specific integration was 0.1% and 3-12% in the case of the RIB1 and RIB7 genes, respectively. We suggest that the presence of the ARS element adjacent to the 3' end of the RIB1 gene significantly reduced the frequency of homologous recombination. Efficient gene deletion in P. guilliermondii can be achieved using the modified URA3 gene of S. cerevisiae flanked by 0.8-0.9 kb sequences homologous to the target gene. PMID:17467833

  19. Cloning and constitutive expression of Deschampsia antarctica Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Venegas, Jaime R; Navarrete, Alejandro; Dinamarca, Jorge; Bravo Ramírez, León A; Moraga, Ana Gutiérrez; Gidekel, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Background Deschampsia antarctica shows tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as low temperature, high light intensity and an increasing UV radiation as result of the Antarctic ozone layer thinning. It is very likely that the survival of this species is due to the expression of genes that enable it to tolerate high levels of oxidative stress. On that account, we planned to clone the D. antarctica Cu/ZnSOD gene into Pichia pastoris and to characterize the heterologous protein. Findings The Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) gene, SOD gene, was isolated from a D. antarctica by cDNA library screening. This SOD gene was cloned in the expression vector pGAPZαA and successfully integrated into the genome of the yeast P. pastoris SMD1168H. A constitutive expression system for the expression of the recombinant SOD protein was used. The recombinant protein was secreted into the YPD culture medium as a glycosylated protein with a 32 mg/l expression yield. The purified recombinant protein possesses a specific activity of 440 U/mg. Conclusion D. antarctica Cu/ZnSOD recombinant protein was expressed in a constitutive system, and purified in a single step by means of an affinity column. The recombinant SOD was secreted to the culture medium as a glycoprotein, corresponding to approximately 13% of the total secreted protein. The recombinant protein Cu/ZnSOD maintains 60% of its activity after incubation at 40°C for 30 minutes and it is stable (80% of activity) between -20°C and 20°C. The recombinant SOD described in this study can be used in various biotechnological applications. PMID:19821975

  20. Role of the PAS1 gene of Pichia pastoris in peroxisome biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Several groups have reported the cloning and sequencing of genes involved in the biogenesis of yeast peroxisomes. Yeast strains bearing mutations in these genes are unable to grow on carbon sources whose metabolism requires peroxisomes, and these strains lack morphologically normal peroxisomes. We report the cloning of Pichia pastoris PAS1, the homologue (based on a high level of protein sequence similarity) of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae PAS1. We also describe the creation and characterization of P. pastoris pas1 strains. Electron microscopy on the P. pastoris pas1 cells revealed that they lack morphologically normal peroxisomes, and instead contain membrane-bound structures that appear to be small, mutant peroxisomes, or "peroxisome ghosts." These "ghosts" proliferated in response to induction on peroxisome-requiring carbon sources (oleic acid and methanol), and they were distributed to daughter cells. Biochemical analysis of cell lysates revealed that peroxisomal proteins are induced normally in pas1 cells. Peroxisome ghosts from pas1 cells were purified on sucrose gradients, and biochemical analysis showed that these ghosts, while lacking several peroxisomal proteins, did import varying amounts of several other peroxisomal proteins. The existence of detectable peroxisome ghosts in P. pastoris pas1 cells, and their ability to import some proteins, stands in contrast with the results reported by Erdmann et al. (1991) for the S. cerevisiae pas1 mutant, in which they were unable to detect peroxisome-like structures. We discuss the role of PAS1 in peroxisome biogenesis in light of the new information regarding peroxisome ghosts in pas1 cells. PMID:7962088

  1. Yeasts in malting, with special emphasis on Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala).

    PubMed

    Laitila, Arja; Sarlin, Tuija; Raulio, Mari; Wilhelmson, Annika; Kotaviita, Erja; Huttunen, Timo; Juvonen, Riikka

    2011-01-01

    Malted barley is a major raw material of beer, as well as distilled spirits and several food products. The production of malt (malting) exploits the biochemical reactions of a natural process, grain germination. In addition to germinating grain, the malting process includes another metabolically active component: a diverse microbial community that includes various types of bacteria and fungi. Therefore, malting can be considered as a complex ecosystem involving two metabolically active groups. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi are an important part of this ecosystem, but previously the significance of yeasts in malting has been largely underestimated. Characterization and identification of yeasts in industrial processes revealed 25 ascomycetous yeasts belonging to 10 genera, and 18 basidiomycetous yeasts belonging to 7 genera. In addition, two ascomycetous yeast-like fungi belonging to the genera Aureobasidium and Exophiala were commonly detected. Yeasts and yeast-like fungi produced extracellular hydrolytic enzymes with a potentially positive contribution to the malt enzyme spectrum. Several ascomycetous yeast strains showed strong antagonistic activity against field and storage moulds, Wickerhamomyces anomalus (synonym Pichia anomala) being the most effective species. Malting studies revealed that W. anomalus VTT C-04565 effectively restricted Fusarium growth and hydrophobin production during malting and prevented beer gushing. In order to broaden the antimicrobial spectrum and to improve malt brewhouse performance, W. anomalus could be combined with other starter cultures such as Lactobacillus plantarum. Well-characterized microbial mixtures consisting of barley and malt-derived microbes open up several possibilities to improve malt properties and to ensure the safety of the malting process. PMID:20872177

  2. Functional expression of the lactate permease Jen1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Silva, Isabel; Schuller, Dorit; Andrade, Raquel P; Baltazar, Fátima; Cássio, Fernanda; Casal, Margarida

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the activity for the lactate-proton symporter is dependent on JEN1 gene expression. Pichia pastoris was transformed with an integrative plasmid containing the JEN1 gene. After 24 h of methanol induction, Northern and Western blotting analyses indicated the expression of JEN1 in the transformants. Lactate permease activity was obtained in P. pastoris cells with a V (max) of 2.1 nmol x s(-1) x mg of dry weight(-1). Reconstitution of the lactate permease activity was achieved by fusing plasma membranes of P. pastoris methanol-induced cells with Escherichia coli liposomes containing cytochrome c oxidase, as proton-motive force. These assays in reconstituted heterologous P. pastoris membrane vesicles demonstrate that S. cerevisiae Jen1p is a functional lactate transporter. Moreover, a S. cerevisiae strain deleted in the JEN1 gene was transformed with a centromeric plasmid containing JEN1 under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase constitutive promotor. Constitutive JEN1 expression and lactic acid uptake were observed in cells grown on either glucose and/or acetic acid. The highest V (max) (0.84 nmol x s(-1) x mg of dry weight(-1)) was obtained in acetic acid-grown cells. Thus overexpression of the S. cerevisiae JEN1 gene in both S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris cells resulted in increased activity of lactate transport when compared with the data previously reported in lactic acid-grown cells of native S. cerevisiae strains. Jen1p is the only S. cerevisiae secondary porter characterized so far by heterologous expression in P. pastoris at both the cell and the membrane-vesicle levels. PMID:12962538

  3. A Gene Optimization Strategy that Enhances Production of Fully Functional P-Glycoprotein in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Protasevich, Irina I.; Brouillette, Christie G.; Harrell, Patina M.; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Gasser, Brigitte; Mattanovich, Diethard; Ward, Andrew; Chang, Geoffrey; Urbatsch, Ina L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural and biochemical studies of mammalian membrane proteins remain hampered by inefficient production of pure protein. We explored codon optimization based on highly expressed Pichia pastoris genes to enhance co-translational folding and production of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump involved in multidrug resistance of cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings Codon-optimized “Opti-Pgp” and wild-type Pgp, identical in primary protein sequence, were rigorously analyzed for differences in function or solution structure. Yeast expression levels and yield of purified protein from P. pastoris (∼130 mg per kg cells) were about three-fold higher for Opti-Pgp than for wild-type protein. Opti-Pgp conveyed full in vivo drug resistance against multiple anticancer and fungicidal drugs. ATP hydrolysis by purified Opti-Pgp was strongly stimulated ∼15-fold by verapamil and inhibited by cyclosporine A with binding constants of 4.2±2.2 µM and 1.1±0.26 µM, indistinguishable from wild-type Pgp. Maximum turnover number was 2.1±0.28 µmol/min/mg and was enhanced by 1.2-fold over wild-type Pgp, likely due to higher purity of Opti-Pgp preparations. Analysis of purified wild-type and Opti-Pgp by CD, DSC and limited proteolysis suggested similar secondary and ternary structure. Addition of lipid increased the thermal stability from Tm ∼40°C to 49°C, and the total unfolding enthalpy. The increase in folded state may account for the increase in drug-stimulated ATPase activity seen in presence of lipids. Conclusion The significantly higher yields of protein in the native folded state, higher purity and improved function establish the value of our gene optimization approach, and provide a basis to improve production of other membrane proteins. PMID:21826197

  4. Pichia pastoris Production of Tat-NGB and Its Neuroprotection on Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qiao; Sun, Yangdong; Wu, Yonghong; Gao, Yan; Li, Zhihui; Li, Weiguang; Zhang, Chenggang

    2016-01-01

    Neuroglobin (NGB) is a newly discovered neuroprotector and mainly localized in the neurons and retinal cells of the central and peripheral nervous systems in vertebrates, and its prokaryotic expression protein of which fused with HIV-1 virus-encoded Tat peptide exhibited significant antioxidant and anti-hypoxia. However, no study has documented on the anti-hypoxia of yeast expressed Tat-NGB. To address it, the NGB cDNA fragment with and without Tat tag was designed and conjugated to pPIC9K followed by electroporation, and positive colonies were screened. Subsequently, Tat-NGB-His and His-NGB-His proteins were expressed by inducer methanol and identified by SDS-PAGE, and purified with HisTrap™ FF crude column. After desalting, the transmembrane transduction of Tat-NGB was examined and identified by Western blot, and the anti-hypoxia activity was also examined by CCK-8 kit. Unexpectedly, Tat-NGB-His and His-NGB-His proteins were high yield and secretory expressed in GS115 Pichia pastoris. After purification, the high purified protein was prepared and exhibited a significant transmembrane transduction of Tat-NGB-His (**p < 0.01, compare to control and His-NGB-His). Significantly, Tat-NGB-His could protect hypoxia induced injury of PC12 cells and had an obviously difference when comparing to control and His-NGB-His groups (*p < 0.05, **p < 0.01). The present study first reported the yeast expressed production of Tat-NGB-His and His-NGB-His, and then elucidated the transduction and neuroprotection of Tat-NGB-His on PC12 cell. It not only provided a significant reference for high-yield expression of NGB in yeast expression system, but also provided a significant prevention and treatment of hypoxic and ischemic brain injury. PMID:26646387

  5. Molecular genetic manipulation of Pichia pastoris SEC4 governs cell growth and glucoamylase secretion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shi-Hwei; Chou, Wei-I; Lin, Shu-Chuan; Sheu, Chia-Chin; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2005-11-01

    We have previously engineered a recombinant Pichia pastoris GS115 transformant, MSPGA-7, harboring seven copies of glucoamylase (GA) fused with modified signal peptide. High yield secretion of GA was achieved as an extra copy of SEC4 was integrated to the transformant. To elucidate the physiological role of SEC4, a dominant-negative mutant of SEC4, SEC4(S28N), was overexpressed under the control of alchohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter in P. pastoris strain MSPGA-7 as well as a set of host cells harboring multi-copy of wild type SEC4. We found that SEC4(S28N) mutation in the key guanine nucleotide binding domain reduced guanine nucleotide binding affinity, hence it blocked the transport of vesicles required for targeting and fusion to the plasma membrane. The inhibitory levels of cell growth and GA secretion were correlated with the dosage of SEC4(S28N) gene. In addition, overexpression of SEC4 driven by AOX1 promoter in MSPGA-7 improved the secretory production of GA, but demonstrated the delay of cell growth by increased gene dosage of SEC4. Interestingly, a limited level of Sec4p did not disturb the cell growth. It was because expression of only one copy of SEC4 resulted in delay of cell growth at an early stage while still maintaining high level Sec4p at long-term incubation. Accordingly, as glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter was used to substitute AOX1 promoter to drive the SEC4 expression, enhanced GA secretion but not inhibition of cell growth was achieved. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SEC4 is essential for P. pastoris in regulating cell growth and heterologous protein secretion in a dosage-dependent manner. PMID:16176807

  6. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity and probiotic properties of wild-strain Pichia kudriavzevii isolated from frozen idli batter.

    PubMed

    Chelliah, Ramachandran; Ramakrishnan, Sudha Rani; Prabhu, Prince R; Antony, Usha

    2016-08-01

    The present research was undertaken to study the probiotic characteristics of Pichia kudriavzevii isolated from frozen idli batter. Polymerase chain reaction amplification with 18S rRNA primers confirmed Pichia kudriavzevii, a xylose-utilizing probiotic strain. It was resistant to physiological concentrations of bile salts, pepsin and pancreatic enzyme. It also showed efficient auto-aggregation as well as co-aggregation ability with four commercial probiotic yeasts and exhibited good hydrophobicity in xylene and toluene. The strain inhibited the growth of 13 enteropathogens and showed a commensal relationship with four commercial probiotic yeast and bacteria. Moreover, it was resistant to 30 antibiotics with different modes of action. The yeast exhibited thermotolerance up to 95 °C for 2 h. The cell-free supernatants were also found to be heat stable, indicating the presence of thermostable secondary metabolites. Hence it could be exploited as starter culture, co-culture or probiotic in the preparation of fermented products or incorporated in heatable foods as well. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27370793

  7. Accumulation of properly folded human type III procollagen molecules in specific intracellular membranous compartments in the yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Keizer-Gunnink, I; Vuorela, A; Myllyharju, J; Pihlajaniemi, T; Kivirikko, K I; Veenhuis, M

    2000-02-01

    It was recently reported that co-expression of the proalpha1(III) chain of human type III procollagen with the subunits of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase in Pichia pastoris produces fully hydroxylated and properly folded recombinant type III procollagen molecules (Vuorela, A., Myllyharju, J., Nissi, R., Pihlajaniemi, T., Kivirikko, K.I., 1997. Assembly of human prolyl 4-hydroxylase and type III collagen in the yeast Pichia pastoris: formation of a stable enzyme tetramer requires coexpression with collagen and assembly of a stable collagen requires coexpression with prolyl 4-hydroxylase. EMBO J. 16, 6702-6712). These properly folded molecules accumulated inside the yeast cell, however, only approximately 10% were found in the culture medium. We report here that replacement of the authentic signal sequence of the human proalpha1(III) with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha mating factor prepro sequence led only to a minor increase in the amount secreted. Immunoelectron microscopy studies indicated that the procollagen molecules accumulate in specific membranous vesicular compartments that are closely associated with the nuclear membrane. Prolyl 4-hydroxylase, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumenal enzyme, was found to be located in the same compartments. Non-helical proalpha1(III) chains produced by expression without recombinant prolyl 4-hydroxylase likewise accumulated within these compartments. The data indicate that properly folded recombinant procollagen molecules accumulate within the ER and do not proceed further in the secretory pathway. This may be related to the large size of the procollagen molecule. PMID:10686423

  8. High-level expression and characterization of a thermostable xylanase mutant from Trichoderma reesei in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang-yuan; Zhong, Kai-xin; Hu, Ai-hong; Liu, Dan-ni; Chen, Li-zhi; Xu, Shu-de

    2015-04-01

    A gene encoding xylanase 2 mutant from Trichoderma reesei (T2C/T28C, named mxyn2) was cloned into the Pichia pastoris X33 strain using the vector pPICZαA. Recombinant Mxyn2p was functionally expressed in P. pastoris X33 and secreted into the supernatant. Real time qPCR demonstrated that an increase in gene copy number correlated with higher levels of expression. Supernatant from methanol induced cells was concentrated by ultrafiltration with a 10kDa cut off membrane, and purified with ion exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. Recombinant Mxyn2p protein had the highest activity at 75°C, while recombinant protein encoded by the "wild type" xylanase gene xyn2, also expressed in Pichia, was 20°C lower. The Mxyn2p enzyme retained more than 70% of its activity after incubation at 80°C for 10min. The effects of the optimal pH and temperature for higher expression levels in P. pastoris were also determined, 6.0 and 22°C, respectively. The maximum xylanase activity of Mxyn2p was 13,000nkat/mg (9.88g/l) in fed-batch cultivation after 168h induction with methanol in a 50l bioreactor. PMID:25434687

  9. High-Level Expression of Pro-Form Lipase from Rhizopus oryzae in Pichia pastoris and Its Purification and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Xu, Shu-De; Li, Peng; Liu, Jing-Shan; Liu, Dan-Ni

    2014-01-01

    A gene encoding Rhizopus oryzae lipase containing prosequence (ProROL) was cloned into the pPICZαA and electrotransformed into the Pichia pastoris X-33 strain. The lipase was functionally expressed and secreted in Pichia pastoris with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. The maximum lipase activity of recombinant lipase (rProROL) was 21,000 U/mL, which was obtained in a fed-batch cultivation after 168 h induction with methanol in a 50-L bioreactor. After fermentation, the supernatant was concentrated by ultrafiltration with a 10 kDa cut off membrane and purified with ion exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. The optimum pH and temperature of the rProROL were pH 9.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The lipase was stable from pH 4.0 to 9.0 and from 25 to 55 °C. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+. The lipase showed high activity toward triglyceride-Tripalmitin (C16:0) and triglyceride-Trilaurin (C12:0). PMID:24368519

  10. A novel form of 6-phosphofructokinase. Identification and functional relevance of a third type of subunit in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Tanneberger, Katrin; Kirchberger, Jürgen; Bär, Jörg; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Rothemund, Sven; Kamprad, Manja; Otto, Henning; Schöneberg, Torsten; Edelmann, Anke

    2007-08-10

    Classically, 6-phosphofructokinases are homo- and hetero-oligomeric enzymes consisting of alpha subunits and alpha/beta subunits, respectively. Herein, we describe a new form of 6-phosphofructokinase (Pfk) present in several Pichia species, which is composed of three different types of subunit, alpha, beta, and gamma. The sequence of the gamma subunit shows no similarity to classic Pfk subunits or to other known protein sequences. In-depth structural and functional studies revealed that the gamma subunit is a constitutive component of Pfk from Pichia pastoris (PpPfk). Analyses of the purified PpPfk suggest a heterododecameric assembly from the three different subunits. Accordingly, it is the largest and most complex Pfk identified yet. Although, the gamma subunit is not required for enzymatic activity, the gamma subunit-deficient mutant displays a decreased growth on nutrient limitation and reduced cell flocculation when compared with the P. pastoris wild-type strain. Subsequent characterization of purified Pfks from wild-type and gamma subunit-deficient strains revealed that the allosteric regulation of the PpPfk by ATP, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, and AMP is fine-tuned by the gamma subunit. Therefore, we suggest that the gamma subunit contributes to adaptation of P. pastoris to energy resources. PMID:17522059

  11. Differential secretion pathways of proteins fused to the Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP) in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Moua, Pachai S; Gonzalez, Alfonso; Oshiro, Kristin T; Tam, Vivian; Li, Zhiguo Harry; Chang, Jennifer; Leung, Wilson; Yon, Amy; Thor, Der; Venkatram, Sri; Franz, Andreas H; Risser, Douglas D; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2016-08-01

    The Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP) is an N-terminal fusion partner that was shown to enhance the secretion of some heterologous proteins from the yeast Pichia pastoris, a popular host for recombinant protein expression. The amount of increase in secretion was dependent on the identity of the cargo protein, and the fusions were proteolyzed prior to secretion, limiting its use as a purification tag. In order to overcome these obstacles, we used the MBP as C-terminal partner for several cargo peptides. While the Cargo-MBP proteins were no longer proteolyzed in between these two moieties when the MBP was in this relative position, the secretion efficiency of several fusions was lower than when MBP was located at the opposite end of the cargo protein (MBP-Cargo). Furthermore, fluorescence analysis suggested that the MBP-EGFP and EGFP-MBP proteins followed different routes within the cell. The effect of several Pichia pastoris beta-galactosidase supersecretion (bgs) strains, mutants showing enhanced secretion of select reporters, was also investigated on both MBP-EGFP and EGFP-MBP. While the secretion efficiency, proteolysis and localization of the MBP-EGFP was influenced by the modified function of Bgs13, EGFP-MBP behavior was not affected in the bgs strain. Taken together, these results indicate that the location of the MBP in a fusion affects the pathway and trans-acting factors regulating secretion in P. pastoris. PMID:27079175

  12. The major volatile compound 2-phenylethanol from the biocontrol yeast Pichia anomala inhibits growth and expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes of Aspergillus flavus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aspergillus flavus is a globally distributed fungus and an important food contaminant because it produces the most potent natural carcinogenic compound known as aflatoxin (AF) B1. The major volatile from a yeast strain, Pichia anomala WRL-076 was identified by SPEM-GC/MS analysis to be 2-phenylethan...

  13. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with changes in the morphology and pathogenicity of Pichia fermentans on apple and peach fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pichia fermentans (strain DISAABA 726) is an effective biocontrol agent against Monilinia fructicola or Botrytis cinerea when inoculated in artificially wounded apple fruit but is an aggressive pathogen when inoculated on wounded peach fruit, causing severe fruit decay. P. fermentans grows as a bud...

  14. Regulation of aflatoxin biosynthesis and branched-chain amino acids metabolism in Aspergillus flavus by 2-phenylethanol reveal biocontrol mechanism of Pichia anomala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pichia anomala WRL-076 is a biocontrol yeast which has been shown to inhibit growth and aflatoxin production of A. flavus. Using the SPME-GC/MS analysis we identified that the volatile, 2-phenylethanol (2-PE) produced by this yeast and demonstrated that the compound inhibited aflatoxin production. W...

  15. Expression of recombinant AccMRJP1 protein from royal jelly of Chinese honeybee in Pichia pastoris and its proliferation activity in an insect cell line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Main royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1) is the most abundant member of the main royal jelly protein (MRJP) family among honeybees. Mature MRJP1 cDNA of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana MRJP1, or AccMRJP1) was expressed in Pichia pastoris. SDS-PAGE showed that recombinant AccMRJP1 was identical in...

  16. Whole recombinant Pichia pastoris expressing HPV16 L1 antigen is superior in inducing protection against tumor growth as compared to killed transgenic Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Bolhassani, Azam; Muller, Martin; Roohvand, Farzin; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Agi, Elnaz; Shokri, Mehdi; Rad, Mahdieh Motamedi; Hosseinzadeh, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    The development of an efficient vaccine against high-risk HPV types can reduce the incidence rates of cervical cancer by generating anti-tumor protective responses. Traditionally, the majority of prophylactic viral vaccines are composed of live, attenuated or inactivated viruses. Among them, the design of an effective and low-cost vaccine is critical. Inactivated vaccines especially heat-killed yeast cells have emerged as a promising approach for generating antigen-specific immunotherapy. Recent studies have indicated that yeast cell wall components possess adjuvant activities. Moreover, a non-pathogenic protozoan, Leishmania tarentolae (L.tar) has attracted a great attention as a live candidate vaccine. In current study, immunological and protective efficacy of whole recombinant killed Pichia pastoris and Leishmania tarentolae expressing HPV16 L1 capsid protein was evaluated in tumor mice model. We found that Pichia-L1, L.tar-L1 and Gardasil groups increase the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, indicating a relative preference for the induction of Th1 immune responses. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of killed Pichia-L1 generated the significant L1-specific IFN-γ immune response as well as the best protective effects in vaccinated mice as compared to killed L.tar-L1, killed Pichia pastoris, killed L.tar and PBS groups. Indeed, whole recombinant Leishmania tarentolae could not protect mice against C3 tumor mice model. These data suggest that Pichia-L1 may be a candidate for the control of HPV infections. PMID:25668661

  17. Whole recombinant Pichia pastoris expressing HPV16 L1 antigen is superior in inducing protection against tumor growth as compared to killed transgenic Leishmania

    PubMed Central

    Bolhassani, Azam; Muller, Martin; Roohvand, Farzin; Motevalli, Fatemeh; Agi, Elnaz; Shokri, Mehdi; Rad, Mahdieh Motamedi; Hosseinzadeh, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    The development of an efficient vaccine against high-risk HPV types can reduce the incidence rates of cervical cancer by generating anti-tumor protective responses. Traditionally, the majority of prophylactic viral vaccines are composed of live, attenuated or inactivated viruses. Among them, the design of an effective and low-cost vaccine is critical. Inactivated vaccines especially heat-killed yeast cells have emerged as a promising approach for generating antigen-specific immunotherapy. Recent studies have indicated that yeast cell wall components possess adjuvant activities. Moreover, a non-pathogenic protozoan, Leishmania tarentolae (L.tar) has attracted a great attention as a live candidate vaccine. In current study, immunological and protective efficacy of whole recombinant killed Pichia pastoris and Leishmania tarentolae expressing HPV16 L1 capsid protein was evaluated in tumor mice model. We found that Pichia-L1, L.tar-L1 and Gardasil groups increase the IgG2a/IgG1 ratio, indicating a relative preference for the induction of Th1 immune responses. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of killed Pichia-L1 generated the significant L1-specific IFN-γ immune response as well as the best protective effects in vaccinated mice as compared to killed L.tar-L1, killed Pichia pastoris, killed L.tar and PBS groups. Indeed, whole recombinant Leishmania tarentolae could not protect mice against C3 tumor mice model. These data suggest that Pichia-L1 may be a candidate for the control of HPV infections. PMID:25668661

  18. Optimization of Recombinant Expression of Synthetic Bacterial Phytase in Pichia pastoris Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Akbarzadeh, Ali; Dehnavi, Ehsan; Aghaeepoor, Mojtaba; Amani, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Escherichia coli phytase is an acidic histidine phytase with great specific activity. Pichia pastoris is a powerful system for the heterologous expression of active and soluble proteins which can express recombinant proteins in high cell density fermenter without loss of product yield and efficiently secrete heterologous proteins into the media. Recombinant protein expression is influenced by expression conditions such as temperature, concentration of inducer, and pH. By optimization, the yield of expressed proteins can be increase. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been widely used for the optimization and studying of different parameters in biotechnological processes. Objectives: In this study, the expression of synthetic appA gene in P. pastoris was greatly improved by adjusting the expression condition. Materials and Methods: The appA gene with 410 amino acids was synthesized by P. pastoris codon preference and cloned in expression vector pPinkα-HC, under the control of AOX1 promoter, and it was transformed into P. pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Recombinant phytase was expressed in buffered methanol-complex medium (BMMY) and the expression was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and enzymatic assay. To achieve the highest level of expression, methanol concentration, pH and temperature were optimized via RSM. Finally, the optimum pH and temperature for recombinant phytase activity was determined. Results: Escherichia coli phytase was expressed in P. pastoris under different cultivation conditions (post-induction temperature, methanol concentration, and post-induction pH). The optimized conditions by RSM using face centered central composite design were 1% (v/v) methanol, pH = 5.8, and 24.5°C. Under the optimized conditions, appA was successfully expressed in P. pastoris and the maximum phytase activity was 237.2 U/mL after 72 hours of expression. Conclusions: By optimization of recombinant

  19. Engineered fungal polyketide biosynthesis in Pichia pastoris: a potential excellent host for polyketide production

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Polyketides are one of the most important classes of secondary metabolites and usually make good drugs. Currently, heterologous production of fungal polyketides for developing a high potential industrial application system with high production capacity and pharmacutical feasibility was still at its infancy. Pichia pastoris is a highly successful system for the high production of a variety of heterologous proteins. In this work, we aim to develop a P. pastoris based in vivo fungal polyketide production system for first time and evaluate its feasibility for future industrial application. Results A recombinant P. pastoris GS115-NpgA-ATX with Aspergillus nidulans phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPtase) gene npgA and Aspergillus terrus 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA) synthase (6-MSAS) gene atX was constructed. A specific compound was isolated and idenified as 6-MSA by HPLC, LC-MS and NMR. Transcription of both genes were detected. In 5-L bioreactor, the GS115-NpgA-ATX grew well and produced 6-MSA quickly until reached a high value of 2.2 g/L by methanol induction for 20 hours. Thereafter, the cells turned to death ascribing to high concentration of antimicrobial 6-MSA. The distribution of 6-MSA changed that during early and late induction phase it existed more in supernatant while during intermediate stage it mainly located intracellular. Different from 6-MSA production strain, recombinant M. purpureus pksCT expression strains for citrinin intermediate production, no matter PksCT located in cytoplasm or in peroxisomes, did not produce any specfic compound. However, both npgA and pksCT transcripted effectively in cells and western blot analysis proved the expression of PPtase. Then the PPTase was expressed and purified, marked by fluorescent probes, and reacted with purified ACP domain and its mutant ACPm of PksCT. Fluoresence was only observed in ACP but not ACPm, indicating that the PPTase worked well with ACP to make it bioactive holo-ACP. Thus, some

  20. Effect of a killer toxin of Pichia anomala to Pneumocystis. Perspectives in the control of pneumocystosis.

    PubMed

    Séguy, N; Polonelli, L; Dei-Cas, E; Cailliez, J C

    1998-09-01

    Despite the development of drugs in the prophylaxis of pneumocystosis, Pneumocystis carinii remains a major opportunistic microorganism in immunosuppressed individuals, especially in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Since side effects were frequently observed after administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pentamidine, the drugs which are mainly used in treating human P. carinii pneumonia (PCP), new therapeutic strategies should be developed. Over the last years, the inhibitory effect of a Pichia anomala killer toxin (PaKT), a molecule with a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity, was characterized on P. carinii. The susceptibility of mouse and rat-derived Pneumocystis to PaKT has been demonstrated by in vitro attachment tests and in vivo infectivity assays. Nevertheless, PaKT is strongly antigenic, toxic and could not be used directly as a therapeutic agent. Then, a new strategy using killer toxin-like anti-idiotypic antibodies (KT-antiIds) mimicking the fungal toxin activity has been developed. Different KT-antiIds were obtained by idiotypic immunization with a monoclonal antibody (mabKT4). This mabKT4 neutralized the killer properties of the PaKT. KT-antiIds were produced by immunization against the variable domain (idiotype) of mAbKT4 (internal image of the killer toxin receptor), or they were obtained directly from vaginal fluid of patients affected by recurrent vaginal candidiosis. In this last case, such natural KT-antiIds were immunopurified by affinity-chromatography with mAbKT4 and their anti-P. carinii activity was then evaluated. Our results showed that both the in vitro attachment of rat-derived parasites and their infectivity to nude rats were inhibited by the KT-antiIds. With regard to KT-antiIds obtained by immunization, the antimicrobial activity of a monoclonal KT-antiIds (mAbK10) has been evaluated by using a PCP experimental nude rat model treated by mAbK10 administered by aerosol. The pneumocystosis extension was

  1. Enhanced production of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase in Pichia pastoris via genetic and fermentation strategies.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhonggang; Xu, Li; Pan, Dujie; Jiao, Liangcheng; Liu, Ziming; Yan, Yunjun

    2014-10-01

    This study attempted to enhance the expression level of Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) in Pichia pastoris using a series of strategies. The tll gene was first inserted into the expression vector pPIC9 K and transformed into P. pastoris strain GS115. The maximum hydrolytic activity of TLL reached 4,350 U/mL under the optimal culture conditions of a 500 mL shaking flask containing 20 mL culture medium with the addition of 1.2 % (w/v) methanol, cultivation for 144 h at pH 7.0 and 27 °C. To further increase the TLL expression and copy number, strains containing two plasmids were obtained by sequential electroporation into GS115/9k-TLL #3 with a second vector, either pGAPZαA-TLL, pFZα-TLL, or pPICZαA-TLL. The maximum activity of the resultant strains GS115/9KTLL-ZαATLL #40, GS115/9KTLL-FZαATLL #46 and GS115/9KTLL-GAPTLL #45 was 6,600 U/mL, 6,000 U/mL and 4,800 U/mL, respectively. The tll copy number in these strains, as assessed by real-time quantitative PCR, was demonstrated to be seven, five, and three, respectively, versus two copies in GS115/9k-TLL #3. When a co-feeding strategy of sorbitol/methanol was adopted in a 3-L fermenter, the maximum TLL activity of GS115/9k-TLL #3 increased to 27,000 U/mL after 130 h of fed-batch fermentation, whereas, the maximum TLL activity was 19,500 U/mL after 145 h incubation when methanol was used as the sole carbon source. PMID:25074457

  2. The response to unfolded protein is involved in osmotolerance of Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The effect of osmolarity on cellular physiology has been subject of investigation in many different species. High osmolarity is of importance for biotechnological production processes, where high cell densities and product titers are aspired. Several studies indicated that increased osmolarity of the growth medium can have a beneficial effect on recombinant protein production in different host organisms. Thus, the effect of osmolarity on the cellular physiology of Pichia pastoris, a prominent host for recombinant protein production, was studied in carbon limited chemostat cultures at different osmolarities. Transcriptome and proteome analyses were applied to assess differences upon growth at different osmolarities in both, a wild type strain and an antibody fragment expressing strain. While our main intention was to analyze the effect of different osmolarities on P. pastoris in general, this was complemented by studying it in context with recombinant protein production. Results In contrast to the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the main osmolyte in P. pastoris was arabitol rather than glycerol, demonstrating differences in osmotic stress response as well as energy metabolism. 2D Fluorescence Difference Gel electrophoresis and microarray analysis were applied and demonstrated that processes such as protein folding, ribosome biogenesis and cell wall organization were affected by increased osmolarity. These data indicated that upon increased osmolarity less adaptations on both the transcript and protein level occurred in a P. pastoris strain, secreting the Fab fragment, compared with the wild type strain. No transcriptional activation of the high osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway was observed at steady state conditions. Furthermore, no change of the specific productivity of recombinant Fab was observed at increased osmolarity. Conclusion These data point out that the physiological response to increased osmolarity is different to S. cerevisiae

  3. Metabolic flux profiling of recombinant protein secreting Pichia pastoris growing on glucose:methanol mixtures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has emerged as one of the most promising yeast hosts for the production of heterologous proteins. Mixed feeds of methanol and a multicarbon source instead of methanol as sole carbon source have been shown to improve product productivities and alleviate metabolic burden derived from protein production. Nevertheless, systematic quantitative studies on the relationships between the central metabolism and recombinant protein production in P. pastoris are still rather limited, particularly when growing this yeast on mixed carbon sources, thus hampering future metabolic network engineering strategies for improved protein production. Results The metabolic flux distribution in the central metabolism of P. pastoris growing on a mixed feed of glucose and methanol was analyzed by Metabolic Flux Analysis (MFA) using 13C-NMR-derived constraints. For this purpose, we defined new flux ratios for methanol assimilation pathways in P. pastoris cells growing on glucose:methanol mixtures. By using this experimental approach, the metabolic burden caused by the overexpression and secretion of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol) in P. pastoris was further analyzed. This protein has been previously shown to trigger the unfolded protein response in P. pastoris. A series of 13C-tracer experiments were performed on aerobic chemostat cultivations with a control and two different Rol producing strains growing at a dilution rate of 0.09 h−1 using a glucose:methanol 80:20 (w/w) mix as carbon source. The MFA performed in this study reveals a significant redistristribution of carbon fluxes in the central carbon metabolism when comparing the two recombinant strains vs the control strain, reflected in increased glycolytic, TCA cycle and NADH regeneration fluxes, as well as higher methanol dissimilation rates. Conclusions Overall, a further 13C-based MFA development to characterise the central metabolism of methylotrophic yeasts when growing on mixed

  4. Antibacterial efficacy of recombinant Siganus oramin L-amino acid oxidase expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Ruijun; Li, Anxing

    2014-12-01

    Siganus oraminl-amino acid oxidase is a novel natural protein (named SR-LAAO) isolated from serum of the rabbitfish (S. oramin), which showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and had a lethal effect on the parasites Cryptocaryon irritans, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. In order to test whether recombinant SR-LAAO (rSR-LAAO) produced by the eukaryotic expression system also has antimicrobial activity, the yeast Pichia pastoris was used as the expression host to obtain rSR-LAAO in vitro. Crude rSR-LAAO produced by P. pastoris integrated with the SR-LAAO gene had antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as shown by inhibition zone assay of the antibacterial spectrum on agar plates. The average diameter of the inhibition zone of crude rSR-LAAO against the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae was 1.040 ± 0.045 cm and 1.209 ± 0.085 cm, respectively. For the Gram-negative bacteria Aeromonas sobria, Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio cholera and Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida, the average diameter of inhibition zone was 1.291 ± 0.089 cm, 0.943 ± 0.061 cm, 0.756 ± 0.057 cm, 0.834 ± 0.023 cm and 1.211 ± 0.026 cm, respectively. These results were obtained at the logarithmic growth phase of S. agalactiae and A. sobria cell suspensions after incubation with 0.5 mg/mL crude rSR-LAAO for 24 h. The final bacterial growth rate was decreased significantly. The relative inhibition rate can reach 50% compared to crude products from P. pastoris integrated with an empty vector at the same concentration of protein. The antimicrobial activity of crude rSR-LAAO was likely associated with H2O2 formation, because its inhibition zones were disturbed significantly by catalase. Scanning electron microscopy results showed crude rSR-LAAO-treated bacterial surfaces became rough and particles were attached, cell walls were

  5. Graphene oxide induces plasma membrane damage, reactive oxygen species accumulation and fatty acid profiles change in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Qilin; Liang, Chen; Liu, Zhe; Zhang, Biao; Li, Mingchun

    2016-10-01

    During the past couple of years, graphene nanomaterials were extremely popular among the scientists due to the promising properties in many aspects. Before the materials being well applied, we should first focus on their biosafety and toxicity. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of synthesized graphene oxide (GO) against the model industrial organism Pichia pastoris. We found that the synthesized GO showed dose-dependent toxicity to P. pastoris, through cell membrane damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. In response to these cell stresses, cells had normal unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) levels but increased contents of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with up-regulation of UFA synthesis-related genes on the transcriptional level, which made it overcome the stress under GO attack. Two UFA defective strains (spt23Δ and fad12Δ) were used to demonstrate the results above. Hence, this study suggested a close connection between PUFAs and cell survival against GO. PMID:27376352

  6. Expression of HpaI in Pichia pastoris and optimization of conditions for the heparinase I production.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Yang, Jun; Gu, Huifen

    2014-06-15

    Heparinase I has important applications in the fields of biomedicine and pharmaceuticals. The heparinase I gene (HpaI) from Flavobacterium heparinum was cloned and overexpressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, and the conditions for the heparinase I production were optimized by RSM. PCR analysis indicated that HpaI was integrated into the P. pastoris GS115 genome. The concentrations of key factors that affected the heparinase I activity were optimized, and were as follows: oleic acid, 0.07%, liquid volume in flask, 34.3 ml/L, and methanol, 0.96%. Under the optimal conditions, the activity of heparinase I was up to 323 U/L in shake flask. A maximal heparinase I activity of 398.5 U/L from the transformant 2 was achieved in a 5L fermentor. This study demonstrates the overproduction of heparinase I by recombinant P. pastoris. PMID:24721072

  7. Effect of particulation on the immunogenic and protective properties of the recombinant Bm86 antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    García-García, J C; Montero, C; Rodríguez, M; Soto, A; Redondo, M; Valdés, M; Méndez, L; de la Fuente, J

    1998-02-01

    The recombinant Bm86 tick antigen expressed in Pichia pastoris is obtained in a highly particulated form, as a distinguish feature of this expression system. This particulated protein, the active principle of the recombinant vaccine Gavac against the cattle tick, have shown high immunogenic and protective properties, probably associated with its own characteristics. To evaluate the effects of particulation on the properties of Bm86, three groups of calves were immunized with particulated or non-particulated recombinant Bm86 and the anti-Bm86 antibody response determined. Animals were challenged with a controlled tick infestation and the protective capacities of both proteins assessed. Humoral immune response and protection in cattle vaccinated with the particulated antigen were higher. These experiments suggested that particulation of the Bm86 expressed in P. pastoris is an important feature for the protective properties of the antigen in vaccine preparations. PMID:9607058

  8. The Effect of α-Mating Factor Secretion Signal Mutations on Recombinant Protein Expression in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P.; Stark, Carolyn M.; Kim, Daniel; Chang, Jennifer; Shaheen, Nadia; Poerwanto, Hansel; Agari, Kimiko; Moua, Pachai; Low, Lauren K.; Tran, Namphuong; Huang, Amy D.; Nattestad, Maria; Oshiro, Kristin T.; Chang, John William; Chavan, Archana; Tsai, Jerry W.; Lin-Cereghino, Joan

    2013-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast, Pichia pastoris, has been genetically engineered to produce many heterologous proteins for industrial and research purposes. In order to secrete proteins for easier purification from the extracellular medium, the coding sequence of recombinant proteins are initially fused to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae α-mating factor secretion signal leader. Extensive site-directed mutagenesis of the prepro region of the α-mating factor secretion signal sequence was performed in order to determine the effects of various deletions and substitutions on expression. Though some mutations clearly dampened protein expression, deletion of amino acids 57-70, corresponding to the predicted 3rd alpha helix of α-mating factor secretion signal, increased secretion of reporter proteins horseradish peroxidase and lipase at least 50% in small-scale cultures. These findings raise the possibility that the secretory efficiency of the leader can be further enhanced in the future. PMID:23454485

  9. [Alterations in the excess synthesis of riboflavin in Pichia guilliermondii under the influence of branched-chain amino acids].

    PubMed

    Shlee, D

    1977-01-01

    The effect of the branched-chain amino acids: L-valine, L-isoleucine and L-leucine on riboflavin overproduction was studied in the Pichia (Candida) guilliermondii (Cast.) Lang. et G. yeast, L-Val, L-Ile and L-Leu were found to inhibit riboflavin overproduction only under iron-deficient growth conditions. Other amino acids used did not show this effect. In crude extracts of P. guilliermondii the specific activity of the alpha-acetolactate forming enzyme, pH 8.0, is inhibited by L-Val. It is revealed that the activity of alpha-acetolactate synthetase in iron-deficient riboflavin-overproduction cells was exceedingly higher than in the valine-inhibited cells. Under iron deficiency alpha-acetolactate synthetase shows maximal activity after 48 h of growth. It was possible to detect diacetyl (and aceton) in the culture fluid. PMID:867527

  10. Operational strategies, monitoring and control of heterologous protein production in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris under different promoters: a review.

    PubMed

    Cos, Oriol; Ramón, Ramón; Montesinos, José Luis; Valero, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has been widely reported as a suitable expression system for heterologous protein production. The use of different phenotypes under PAOX promoter, other alternative promoters, culture medium, and operational strategies with the objective to maximize either yield or productivity of the heterologous protein, but also to obtain a repetitive product batch to batch to get a robust process for the final industrial application have been reported. Medium composition, kinetics growth, fermentation operational strategies from fed-batch to continuous cultures using different phenotypes with the most common PAOX promoter and other novel promoters (GAP, FLD, ICL), the use of mixed substrates, on-line monitoring of the key fermentation parameters (methanol) and control algorithms applied to the bioprocess are reviewed and discussed in detail. PMID:16600031

  11. New Genetic Constructs for Generation of Stable Therapeutic Antibodies to Organophosphorus Toxins in Methylotrophic Yeasts Pichia Pastoris.

    PubMed

    Mokrushina, Yu A; Stepanova, A V; Bobik, T V; Smirnov, I V; Gabibov, A G

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new method of obtaining of stable Fab-fragments of antibodies in Pichia pastoris expression system. Recently, we obtained Fab-fragments of antibodies neutralizing organophosphorus toxins. However, high yield of the target products was not attained because of high level of proteolytic degradation. In the present study, we identified sites of proteolytic degradation in Fab-fragments and endogenous proteases performing degradation, which allowed obtaining optimized genetic constructs for expression of antibody heavy chains (IgGγ1) and kappa and lambda isotypes of light chains. Co-transformation of these vectors allowed obtaining Fab-fragments of antibodies to organophosphorus toxins without proteolytic degradation of the product. PMID:27270933

  12. High-level expression, purification, characterization and structural prediction of a snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yi; Ji, Ming-Kai; Xu, Jian-Wen; Lin, Xu; Lin, Jian-Yin

    2012-03-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinase inhibitor BJ46a is from the serum of the venomous snake Bothrops jararaca. It has been proven to possess the capacity to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), likely based on its structural similarity to MMPs. This report describes the successful expression, purification, and characterization of the recombinant protein BJ46a in Pichia pastoris. Purified recombinant protein BJ46a was found to inhibit MMPs. Structural modeling was completed and should provide the foundation for further functional research. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the large scale expression of BJ46a, and it provides promise as a method for generation of BJ46a and investigation of its potential use as a new drug for treatment of antitumor invasion and metastasis. PMID:22307654

  13. Laboratory Scale Production of Recombinant Haa86 Tick Protein in Pichia pastoris and in Escherichia coli System.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Binod; P, Azhahianambi; Ghosh, Srikant

    2016-01-01

    The commercial recombinant Bm86-based vaccines against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Australia (TickGARD™, TickGARD plus™) and in Cuba (Gavac™) provided significant impetus to researchers globally to work on anti-tick vaccines. The Bm86 homologue of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum Izatnagar isolate, rHaa86, is considered a potent vaccine candidate against Hyalomma tick species, transmitting animal and human diseases. The two expression systems, prokaryotic, using bacterial expression plasmid vectors and Escherichia coli, and eukaryotic, using methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and yeast expression plasmid vectors, are used in the laboratory level production of rHaa86. Unlike proteins expressed in prokaryotic system, eukaryotic system-expressed proteins are glycosylated and may be a requisite for proper immunogenicity. Here, the protocol for laboratory scale expression of rHaa86 antigen in E. coli and P. pastoris for development of an anti-Hyalomma tick vaccine is described. PMID:27076316

  14. Oversynthesis of riboflavin in the yeast Pichia guilliermondii is accompanied by reduced catalase and superoxide dismutases activities.

    PubMed

    Prokopiv, Tetyana M; Fedorovych, Dariya V; Boretsky, Yuriy R; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2013-01-01

    Iron deficiency causes oversynthesis of riboflavin in several yeast species, known as flavinogenic yeasts. Under iron deprivation conditions, Pichia guilliermondii cells increase production of riboflavin and malondialdehyde and the formation of protein carbonyl groups, which reflect increased intracellular content of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we found that P. guilliermondii iron deprived cells showed dramatically decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Previously reported mutations rib80, rib81, and hit1, which affect repression of riboflavin synthesis and iron accumulation by iron ions, caused similar drops in activities of the mentioned enzymes. These findings could explain the previously described development of oxidative stress in iron deprived or mutated P. guilliermondii cells that overproduce riboflavin. Similar decrease in superoxide dismutase activities was observed in iron deprived cells in the non-flavinogenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23053489

  15. Enhancing Biosynthesis of a Ginsenoside Precursor by Self-Assembly of Two Key Enzymes in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chengcheng; Gao, Xin; Liu, Xinbin; Wang, Yong; Yang, Shengli; Wang, Fengqing; Ren, Yuhong

    2016-05-01

    Ginsenosides from the edible and medicinal plant ginseng have demonstrated various pharmacological activities. However, producing ginsenoside efficiently remains a challenge. Engineering metabolic pathways through protein assembly in yeast is a promising way for ginsenoside production. In the biosynthetic pathway of ginsenosides, dammarenediol-II synthase and squalene epoxidase are two key enzymes that determine the production rate of the dammarane-type ginsenoside precursor dammarenediol-II. In this work, a strategy to enhance the biosynthesis of dammarenediol-II in Pichia pastoris was developed by the self-assembly of the two key enzymes via protein-protein interaction. After being modified by interacting proteins, the two enzymes were successfully co-localized, resulting in a 2.1-fold enhancement in dammarenediol-II yields. PMID:27074597

  16. The GDI1 genes from Kluyveromyces lactis and Pichia pastoris: cloning and functional expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Brummer, M H; Richard, P; Sundqvist, L; Väänänen, R; Keränen, S

    2001-07-01

    The nucleotide sequences of 2.8 kb and 2.9 kb fragments containing the Kluyveromyces lactis and Pichia pastoris GDI1 genes, respectively, were determined. K. lactis GDI1 was found during sequencing of a genomic library clone, whereas the P. pastoris GDI1 was obtained from a genomic library by complementing a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sec19-1 mutant strain. The sequenced DNA fragments contain open reading frames of 1338 bp (K.lactis) and 1344 bp (P. pastoris), coding for polypeptides of 445 and 447 residues, respectively. Both sequences fully complement the S. cerevisiae sec19-1 mutation. They have high degrees of homology with known GDP dissociation inhibitors from yeast species and other eukaryotes. PMID:11447595

  17. Production, purification, and characterization of human scFv antibodies expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Keith D.; Feldhaus, Jane M.; Gray, Sean A.; Siegel, Robert W.; Feldhaus, Michael J.

    2005-08-01

    Single chain (scFv) antibodies are used as affinity reagents for diagnostics, therapeutics, and proteomic analyses. The antibody discovery platform we use to identify novel antigen binders involves discovery, characterization, and production. The discovery and characterization components have previously been characterized but in order to fully utilize the capabilities of affinity reagents from our yeast surface display library, efforts were focused on developing a production component to obtain purified, soluble, and active scFvs. Instead of optimizing conditions to achieve maximum yield, efforts were focused on using a system that could quickly and easily produce and process hundreds of scFv antibodies. Heterologous protein expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia pastoris, and Escherichia coli were evaluated for their ability to rapidly, efficaciously, and consistently produce scFv antibodies for use in downstream proteomic applications. Following purification, the binding activity of several scFv antibodies were quantified using a novel Biacore assay. All three systems produced soluble scFv antibodies which ranged in activity from 0-99%. scFv antibody yields from Saccharomyces, Pichia, and E. coli were 1.5-4.2, 0.4-7.3, and 0.63-16.4 mg L-1 culture, respectively. For our purposes, expression in E. coli proved to be the quickest and most consistent way to obtain and characterize purified scFv for downstream applications. The E. coli expression system was also used to compare scFv production levels from the periplasm, inclusion bodies, and culture media. The E. coli production system was then used to produce variants of several scFv to determine structure function relationships.

  18. Improved production of recombinant ovine interferon-tau by mut(+) strain of Pichia pastoris using an optimized methanol feed profile.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jayanta; Plantz, Bradley A; Zhang, Wenhui; Gouthro, Mark; Schlegel, Vicki; Liu, Chih-Ping; Meagher, Michael M

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant ovine interferon-tau (r-oIFN-tau) production by Pichia pastoris was studied using methanol as the sole carbon source during induction. The cells were grown on glycerol up to a certain cell density before induction of the AOX1 promoter by methanol for expression of the recombinant protein. Cell growth on methanol has been modeled using a substrate-feed equation, which served as the basis for an effective computer control of the process. The r-oIFN-tau concentration in the culture began to decline despite continued cell growth after 50 (+/- 6) h of induction, which was associated with an increase in proteolytic activity of the fermentation broth. A specific growth rate of 0.025 h(-1) was found to be optimal for r-oIFN-tau production. No significant improvement in r-oIFN-tau production was observed when the specific growth rate was stepped up before the critical point when r-oIFN-tau concentration started decreasing during fermentation. However, best results were obtained when the specific growth rate was stepped down from 0.025 to 0.02 h(-1) at 38 h of induction, whereby the active production period was prolonged until 70 h of induction and the broth protease activity was correspondingly reduced. The corresponding maximum protein yield was 391.7 mg x L(-1) after 70 h of fermentation. The proteolytic activity could be reduced by performing fermentations at specific growth rates of 0.025 h(-1) or below. The recombinant protein production can be performed at an optimal yield by directly controlling the methanol feed rate by a computer-controlled model. The production profile of r-oIFN-tau was found to be significantly different from other secreted and intracellular recombinant protein processes, which is an indication that recombinant protein production in Pichia pastoris needs to be optimized as individual processes following established principles. PMID:12790641

  19. Identification of the genes affecting the regulation of riboflavin synthesis in the flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii using insertion mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Boretsky, Yuriy R.; Pynyaha, Yuriy V.; Boretsky, Volodymyr Y.; Fedorovych, Dariya V.; Fayura, Lyubov R.; Protchenko, Olha; Philpott, Caroline C.; Sibirny, Andriy A.

    2012-01-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of a group of so-called flavinogenic yeast species that overproduce riboflavin (vitamin B2) in response to iron limitation. Using insertion mutagenesis, we isolated P. guilliermondii mutants overproducing riboflavin. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of recombination sites revealed that insertion cassettes integrated into the genome disrupting P. guilliermondii genes similar to the VMA1 gene of Ashbya gossypii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and FES1 and FRA1 genes of S. cerevisiae. The constructed P. guilliermondii Δvma1–17 mutant possessed five- to sevenfold elevated riboflavin production and twofold decreased iron cell content as compared with the parental strain. Pichia guilliermondii Δfra1–45 mutant accumulated 1.8–2.2-fold more iron in the cells and produced five- to sevenfold more riboflavin as compared with the parental strain. Both Δvma1–17 and Δfes1–77 knockout strains could not grow at 37 °C in contrast to the wild-type strain and the Δfra1–45 mutant. Increased riboflavin production by the wild-type strain was observed at 37 °C. Although the Δfes1–77 mutant did not overproduce riboflavin, it showed partial complementation when crossed with previously isolated P. guilliermondii riboflavin-overproducing mutant rib80–22. Complementation analysis revealed that Δvma1–17 and Δfra1–45 mutants are distinct from previously reported riboflavin-producing mutants hit1-1, rib80-22 and rib81-31 of this yeast. PMID:21261808

  20. Identification of the genes affecting the regulation of riboflavin synthesis in the flavinogenic yeast Pichia guilliermondii using insertion mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Boretsky, Yuriy R; Pynyaha, Yuriy V; Boretsky, Volodymyr Y; Fedorovych, Dariya V; Fayura, Lyubov R; Protchenko, Olha; Philpott, Caroline C; Sibirny, Andriy A

    2011-05-01

    Pichia guilliermondii is a representative of a group of so-called flavinogenic yeast species that overproduce riboflavin (vitamin B(2)) in response to iron limitation. Using insertion mutagenesis, we isolated P. guilliermondii mutants overproducing riboflavin. Analysis of nucleotide sequence of recombination sites revealed that insertion cassettes integrated into the genome disrupting P. guilliermondii genes similar to the VMA1 gene of Ashbya gossypii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and FES1 and FRA1 genes of S. cerevisiae. The constructed P. guilliermondiiΔvma1-17 mutant possessed five- to sevenfold elevated riboflavin production and twofold decreased iron cell content as compared with the parental strain. Pichia guilliermondiiΔfra1-45 mutant accumulated 1.8-2.2-fold more iron in the cells and produced five- to sevenfold more riboflavin as compared with the parental strain. Both Δvma1-17 and Δfes1-77 knockout strains could not grow at 37 °C in contrast to the wild-type strain and the Δfra1-45 mutant. Increased riboflavin production by the wild-type strain was observed at 37 °C. Although the Δfes1-77 mutant did not overproduce riboflavin, it showed partial complementation when crossed with previously isolated P. guilliermondii riboflavin-overproducing mutant rib80-22. Complementation analysis revealed that Δvma1-17 and Δfra1-45 mutants are distinct from previously reported riboflavin-producing mutants hit1-1, rib80-22 and rib81-31 of this yeast. PMID:21261808

  1. Conversion of starch to ethanol in a recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae strain expressing rice [alpha]-amylase from a novel Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, M.H.; Sverlow, G.G.; della-Cioppa, G.; Grill, L.K. )

    1993-05-01

    A recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae, expressing and secreting rice [alpha]-amylase, converts starch to ethanol. The rice [alpha]-amylase gene (OS103) was placed under the transcriptional control of the promoter from a newly described Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase genomic clone. The nucleotide sequences of ZZA1 and other methanol-regulated promoters were analyzed. A highly conserved sequence (TTG-N[sub 3]-GCTTCCAA-N[sub 5]-TGGT) was found in the 5' flanking regions of alcohol oxidase, methanol oxidase, and dihydroxyacetone synthase genes in Pichia pastoris, Hansenula polymorpha, and Candida biodinii S2. The yeast strain containing the ZZA1-OS103 fusion secreted biologically active enzyme into the culture media while fermenting soluble starch. 45 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Pichia pastoris Exhibits High Viability and a Low Maintenance Energy Requirement at Near-Zero Specific Growth Rates

    PubMed Central

    Rebnegger, Corinna; Vos, Tim; Graf, Alexandra B.; Valli, Minoska; Pronk, Jack T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Pichia pastoris is a widely used host for recombinant protein production. Understanding its physiology at extremely low growth rates is a first step in the direction of decoupling product formation from cellular growth and therefore of biotechnological relevance. Retentostat cultivation is an excellent tool for studying microbes at extremely low specific growth rates but has so far not been implemented for P. pastoris. Retentostat feeding regimes were based on the maintenance energy requirement (mS) and maximum biomass yield on glucose (YX/Smax) estimated from steady-state glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Aerobic retentostat cultivation enabled reproducible, smooth transitions from a specific growth rate (μ) of 0.025 h−1 to near-zero specific growth rates (μ < 0.001 h−1). At these near-zero specific growth rates, viability remained at least 97%. The value of mS at near-zero growth rates was 3.1 ± 0.1 mg glucose per g biomass and h, which was 3-fold lower than the mS estimated from faster-growing chemostat cultures. This difference indicated that P. pastoris reduces its maintenance energy requirement at extremely low μ, a phenomenon not previously observed in eukaryotes. Intracellular levels of glycogen and trehalose increased, while μ progressively declined during retentostat cultivation. Transcriptional reprogramming toward zero growth included the upregulation of many transcription factors as well as stress-related genes and the downregulation of cell cycle genes. This study underlines the relevance of comparative analysis of maintenance energy metabolism, which has an important impact on large-scale industrial processes. IMPORTANCE The yeast Pichia pastoris naturally lives on trees and can utilize different carbon sources, among them glucose, glycerol, and methanol. In biotechnology, it is widely used for the production of recombinant proteins. For both the understanding of life in its natural habitat and optimized production

  3. Two variants of the major serine protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Ziegelmüller, Patrick; González, Lidice; Mansur, Manuel; Machado, Yoan; Redecke, Lars; Hahn, Ulrich; Betzel, Christian; Chávez, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-07-01

    The major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (ShPI-1) is a non-specific inhibitor that binds trypsin and other trypsin-like enzymes, as well as chymotrypsin, and human neutrophil elastase. We performed site-directed mutagenesis of ShPI-1 to produce two variants (rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S) that were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized. After a single purification step, 65 mg and 15 mg of protein per liter of culture supernatant were obtained for rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S, respectively. Functional studies demonstrated a 100-fold decreased trypsin inhibitory activity as result of the K13L substitution at the reactive (P1) site. This protein variant has a novel tight-binding inhibitor activity of pancreatic elastase and increased activity toward neutrophil elastase in comparison to rShPI-1A. In contrast, the substitution Y15S at P2' site did not affect the Ki value against trypsin, but did reduce activity 10-fold against chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase. Our results provide two new ShPI-1 variants with modified inhibitory activities, one of them with increased biomedical potential. This study also offers new insight into the functional impact of the P1 and P2' sites on ShPI-1 specificity. PMID:26993255

  4. A Toolbox of Diverse Promoters Related to Methanol Utilization: Functionally Verified Parts for Heterologous Pathway Expression in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Thomas; Sturmberger, Lukas; Kickenweiz, Thomas; Wasmayer, Richard; Schmid, Christian; Hatzl, Anna-Maria; Gerstmann, Michaela A; Pitzer, Julia; Wagner, Marlies; Thallinger, Gerhard G; Geier, Martina; Glieder, Anton

    2016-02-19

    The heterologous expression of biosynthetic pathways for pharmaceutical or fine chemical production requires suitable expression hosts and vectors. In eukaryotes, the pathway flux is typically balanced by stoichiometric fine-tuning of reaction steps by varying the transcript levels of the genes involved. Regulated (inducible) promoters are desirable to allow a separation of pathway expression from cell growth. Ideally, the promoter sequences used should not be identical to avoid loss by recombination. The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is a commonly used protein production host, and single genes have been expressed at high levels using the methanol-inducible, strong, and tightly regulated promoter of the alcohol oxidase 1 gene (PAOX1). Here, we have studied the regulation of the P. pastoris methanol utilization (MUT) pathway to identify a useful set of promoters that (i) allow high coexpression and (ii) differ in DNA sequence to increase genetic stability. We noticed a pronounced involvement of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and genes involved in the defense of reactive oxygen species (ROS), providing strong promoters that, in part, even outperform PAOX1 and offer novel regulatory profiles. We have applied these tightly regulated promoters together with novel terminators as useful tools for the expression of a heterologous biosynthetic pathway. With the synthetic biology toolbox presented here, P. pastoris is now equipped with one of the largest sets of strong and co-regulated promoters of any microbe, moving it from a protein production host to a general industrial biotechnology host. PMID:26592304

  5. Genetically engineered Pichia pastoris yeast for conversion of glucose to xylitol by a single-fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hairong; Lv, Jiyang; Wang, Hengwei; Wang, Ben; Li, Zilong; Deng, Zixin

    2014-04-01

    Xylitol is industrially synthesized by chemical reduction of D-xylose, which is more expensive than glucose. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production of xylitol from a readily available and much cheaper substrate, such as glucose. The commonly used yeast Pichia pastoris strain GS115 was shown to produce D-arabitol from glucose, and the derivative strain GS225 was obtained to produce twice amount of D-arabitol than GS115 by adaptive evolution during repetitive growth in hyperosmotic medium. We cloned the D-xylulose-forming D-arabitol dehydrogenase (DalD) gene from Klebsiella pneumoniae and the xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) gene from Gluconobacter oxydans. Recombinant P. pastoris GS225 strains with the DalD gene only or with both DalD and XDH genes could produce xylitol from glucose in a single-fermentation process. Three-liter jar fermentation results showed that recombinant P. pastoris cells with both DalD and XDH converted glucose to xylitol with the highest yield of 0.078 g xylitol/g glucose and productivity of 0.29 g xylitol/L h. This was the first report to convert xylitol from glucose by the pathway of glucose-D-arabitol-D-xylulose-xylitol in a single process. The recombinant yeast could be used as a yeast cell factory and has the potential to produce xylitol from glucose. PMID:24419799

  6. Pichia anomala, a new species of yeast-like endosymbionts and its variation in small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus).

    PubMed

    Cao, Wei; Ma, Zheng; Chen, Yolanda H; Yu, Xiaoping

    2015-06-01

    Yeast-like symbionts (YLS) are endosymbionts that promote the growth of delphacid planthoppers (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), some of which are pests on cultivated rice. Identification and characterization of YLS growth can be helpful for pest control, because it has been demonstrated that there is a variety of YLS in rice planthopper and they affected the planthopper's growth and virulence to plant hosts. So, elucidation of the species of YLS in planthopper is crucial for exploiting a new way to control planthopper. In this study, a new isolated of YLS was obtained from the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, which was cultured in vitro, simultaneously identified as Pichia anomala based on its phylogenetic analysis. In order to confirm the existence of P. anomala in the L. striatellus body, we used the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to identify the YLS and obtain the specific bands for P. anomala. The quantification and localization of P. anomala in L. striatellus samples were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using genus-specific 18S rDNA targeted probe. The result confirmed that a certain number of P. anomala exist in L. striatellus's abdomen. Subsequently, the variation and copy number of P. anomala in different L. striatellus instars was measured by using absolute quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), the results indicated that the new isolated strain was closely related to the developmental process of L. striatellus. PMID:25499750

  7. Recombinant Expression of Trichoderma reesei Cel61A in Pichia pastoris: Optimizing Yield and N-terminal Processing.

    PubMed

    Tanghe, Magali; Danneels, Barbara; Camattari, Andrea; Glieder, Anton; Vandenberghe, Isabel; Devreese, Bart; Stals, Ingeborg; Desmet, Tom

    2015-12-01

    The auxiliary activity family 9 (AA9, formerly GH61) harbors a recently discovered group of oxidative enzymes that boost cellulose degradation. Indeed, these lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are able to disrupt the crystalline structure of cellulose, thereby facilitating the work of hydrolytic enzymes involved in biomass degradation. Since these enzymes require an N-terminal histidine residue for activity, their recombinant production as secreted protein is not straightforward. We here report the expression optimization of Trichoderma reesei Cel61A (TrCel61A) in the host Pichia pastoris. The use of the native TrCel61A secretion signal instead of the alpha-mating factor from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was found to be crucial, not only to obtain high protein yields (>400 mg/L during fermentation) but also to enable the correct processing of the N-terminus. Furthermore, the LPMO activity of the enzyme is demonstrated here for the first time, based on its degradation profile of a cellulosic substrate. PMID:26285758

  8. Recombinant Expression of a Modified Shrimp Anti-Lipopolysaccharide Factor Gene in Pichia pastoris GS115 and Its Characteristic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Li, Shihao; Li, Fuhua; Yu, Kuijie; Yang, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianhai

    2016-01-01

    Anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) with a LPS-binding domain (LBD) are considered to have broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and certain antiviral properties in crustaceans. FcALF2 was one isoform of ALFs isolated from the Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Our previous study showed that a modified LBD domain (named LBDv) of FcALF2 exhibited a highly enhanced antimicrobial activity. In the present study, a modified FcALF2 gene (mFcALF2), in which the LBD was substituted by LBDv, was designed and synthesized. This gene was successfully expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris GS115 eukaryotic expression system, and the characteristics of the recombinant protein mFcALF2 were analyzed. mFcALF2 exhibited apparent antibacterial activities against Gram-negative bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus licheniformis and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, mFcALF2 could reduce the propagation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in vivo by pre-incubation with virus. The present study paves the way for developing antimicrobial drugs in aquaculture. PMID:27517939

  9. Crystallization and preliminary characterization of three different crystal forms of human saposin C heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz-Heienbrok, Robert; Rossocha, Maksim; Saenger, Wolfram

    2006-02-01

    Three different crystal forms were obtained of human saposin C. The structures could not be determined by molecular replacement using known solution structures of the protein as search models, supporting the notion of a highly flexible protein. The amphiphilic saposin proteins (A, B, C and D) act at the lipid–water interface in lysosomes, mediating the hydrolysis of membrane building blocks by water-soluble exohydrolases. Human saposin C activates glucocerebrosidase and β-galactosylceramidase. The protein has been expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified and crystallized in three different crystal forms, diffracting to a maximum resolution of 2.5 Å. Hexagonal crystals grew from 2-propanol-containing solution and contain a single molecule in the asymmetric unit according to the Matthews coefficient. Orthorhombic and tetragonal crystals were both obtained with pentaerythritol ethoxylate and are predicted to contain two molecules in the asymmetric unit. Attempts to determine the respective crystal structures by molecular replacement using either the known NMR structure of human saposin C or a related crystal structure as search models have so far failed. The failure of the molecular-replacement method is attributed to conformational changes of the protein, which are known to be required for its biological activity. Crystal structures of human saposin C therefore might be the key to mapping out the conformational trajectory of saposin-like proteins.

  10. Importance of solute partitioning in biphasic oxidation of benzyl alcohol by free and immobilized whole cells of Pichia pastoris

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakami, Koei; Nakahara, Takehiko . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-04-25

    Using free and immobilized whole cells of Pichia pastoris, the biocatalytic oxidation of benzyl alcohol was investigated in different two-phase systems. This reaction was strongly influenced by both the substrate and product inhibitions, and the production rate of benzaldehyde in the aqueous system became maximum at the initial substrate concentration of ca. 29 g/L with the aldehyde formation less than 4 to 5 g/L even after a longer reaction period. The reaction rates in the two-liquid phase systems were predominantly determined by the partitioning behaviors of the substrate and the product between the two phases rather than by enzyme deactivation by the organic solvents. In the two-liquid phase systems, consequently, the organic solvent acted as a reservoir to reduce these inhibitory effects, and it was essential to select the organic solvent providing the optimal partitioning of the substrate into the aqueous phase as well as the preferential extraction of the product into the organic phase. The whole cells immobilized in a mixed matrix composed of silicone polymer and Ca alginate gel worked well in the xylene and decane media, providing comparable activities with the free cells. The production rate of aldehyde was also influenced by the solute partitioning into the hydrophilic alginate phase where the cells existed.

  11. Co-expression of protein tyrosine kinases EGFR-2 and PDGFRβ with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Tu, Pham Ngoc; Wang, Yamin; Cai, Menghao; Zhou, Xiangshan; Zhang, Yuanxing

    2014-02-28

    The regulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation is mediated by protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and is essential for cellular homeostasis. Coexpression of PTKs with PTPs in Pichia pastoris was used to facilitate the expression of active PTKs by neutralizing their apparent toxicity to cells. In this study, the gene encoding phosphatase PTP1B with or without a blue fluorescent protein or peroxisomal targeting signal 1 was cloned into the expression vector pAG32 to produce four vectors. These vectors were subsequently transformed into P. pastoris GS115. The tyrosine kinases EGFR-2 and PDGFRβ were expressed from vector pPIC3.5K and were fused with a His-tag and green fluorescent protein at the N-terminus. The two plasmids were transformed into P. pastoris with or without PTP1B, resulting in 10 strains. The EGFR-2 and PDGFRβ fusion proteins were purified by Ni(2+) affinity chromatography. In the recombinant P. pastoris, the PTKs co-expressed with PTP1B exhibited higher kinase catalytic activity than did those expressing the PTKs alone. The highest activities were achieved by targeting the PTKs and PTP1B into peroxisomes. Therefore, the EGFR-2 and PDGFRβ fusion proteins expressed in P. pastoris may be attractive drug screening targets for anticancer therapeutics. PMID:24248091

  12. Display of fungal hydrophobin on the Pichia pastoris cell surface and its influence on Candida antarctica lipase B.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; He, Jie; Sun, Yufei; Reynolds, Matthew; Zhang, Li; Han, Shuangyan; Liang, Shuli; Sui, Haixin; Lin, Ying

    2016-07-01

    To modify the Pichia pastoris cell surface, two classes of hydrophobins, SC3 from Schizophyllum commune and HFBI from Trichoderma reesei, were separately displayed on the cell wall. There was an observable increase in the hydrophobicity of recombinant strains. Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB) was then co-displayed on the modified cells, generating strains GS115/SC3-61/CALB-51 and GS115/HFBI-61/CALB-51. Interestingly, the hydrolytic and synthetic activities of strain GS115/HFBI-61/CALB-51 increased by 37 and 109 %, respectively, but decreased by 26 and 43 %, respectively, in strain GS115/SC3-61/CALB-51 compared with the hydrophobin-minus recombinant strain GS115/CALB-GCW51. The amount of glycerol by-product from the transesterification reaction adsorbed on the cell surface was significantly decreased following hydrophobin modification, removing the glycerol barrier and allowing substrates to access the active sites of lipases. Electron micrographs indicated that the cell wall structures of both recombinant strains appeared altered, including changes to the inner glucan layer and outer mannan layer. These results suggest that the display of hydrophobins can change the surface structure and hydrophobic properties of P. pastoris and affect the catalytic activities of CALB displayed on the surface of P. pastoris cells. PMID:26969039

  13. Structural and functional characterization of recombinant napin-like protein of Momordica charantia expressed in methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shailesh Kumar R; Sahu, Tejram; Dixit, Aparna

    2016-08-01

    Napin and napin-like proteins belong to the 2S albumin seed storage family of proteins and have been shown to display a variety of biological activities. However, due to a high degree of polymorphism, purification of a single napin or napin-like protein exhibiting biological activity is extremely difficult. In the present study, we have produced the napin-like protein of Momordica charantia using the methylotrophic Pichia pastoris expression system. The recombinant napin-like protein (rMcnapin) secreted in the extracellular culture supernatant was enriched by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and purified using size exclusion chromatography at a yield of ∼290 mg/L of culture. Secondary structure analysis of the purified rMcnapin revealed it to be predominantly α-helical with minimal β strand content. CD spectroscopic and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses revealed the rMcnapin to be stable at a wide range of temperatures and pH. The rMcnapin exhibited antifungal activity against Trichoderma viride with an IC50 of ∼3.7 μg/ml and trypsin inhibitor activity with an IC50 of 4.2 μM. Thus, large amounts of homogenous preparations of the biologically active rMcnapin could be obtained at shake flask level, which is otherwise difficult from its natural source. PMID:27020281

  14. Disruption of KEX1 gene reduces the proteolytic degradation of secreted two-chain Insulin glargine in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, Suma; Krishnaiah, Sateesh M; Shyam Mohan, Anil H; Mallikarjun, Niveditha; Govindappa, Nagaraja; Chatterjee, Amarnath; Sastry, Kedarnath N

    2016-02-01

    Insulin glargine is a slow acting analog of insulin used in diabetes therapy. It is produced by recombinant DNA technology in different hosts namely E. coli and Pichia pastoris. In our previous study, we have described the secretion of fully folded two-chain Insulin glargine into the medium by over-expression of Kex2 protease. The enhanced levels of the Kex2 protease was responsible for the processing of the glargine precursor with in the host. Apart from the two-chain glargine product we observed a small proportion of arginine clipped species. This might be due to the clipping of arginine present at the C-terminus of the B-chain as it is exposed upon Kex2 cleavage. The carboxypeptidase precursor Kex1 is known to be responsible for clipping of C-terminal lysine or arginine of the proteins or peptides. In order to address this issue we created a Kex1 knock out in the host using Cre/loxP mechanism of targeted gene deletion. When two-chain glargine was expressed in the Kex1 knock out host of P. pastoris GS115 the C-terminal clipped species reduced by ∼80%. This modification further improved the process by reducing the levels of product related impurities. PMID:26470649

  15. Effects of temperature and glycerol and methanol-feeding profiles on the production of recombinant galactose oxidase in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Anasontzis, George E; Salazar Penã, Margarita; Spadiut, Oliver; Brumer, Harry; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Optimization of protein production from methanol-induced Pichia pastoris cultures is necessary to ensure high productivity rates and high yields of recombinant proteins. We investigated the effects of temperature and different linear or exponential methanol-feeding rates on the production of recombinant Fusarium graminearum galactose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.9) in a P. pastoris Mut+ strain, under regulation of the AOX1 promoter. We found that low exponential methanol feeding led to 1.5-fold higher volumetric productivity compared to high exponential feeding rates. The duration of glycerol feeding did not affect the subsequent product yield, but longer glycerol feeding led to higher initial biomass concentration, which would reduce the oxygen demand and generate less heat during induction. A linear and a low exponential feeding profile led to productivities in the same range, but the latter was characterized by intense fluctuations in the titers of galactose oxidase and total protein. An exponential feeding profile that has been adapted to the apparent biomass concentration results in more stable cultures, but the concentration of recombinant protein is in the same range as when constant methanol feeding is employed. © 2014 The Authors Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:728–735, 2014 PMID:24493559

  16. Extracellular expression and efficient purification of a functional recombinant Volvariella volvacea immunomodulatory protein (FIP-vvo) using Pichia pastoris system.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xilin; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Sijia; Liang, Chongyang; Zhang, Shuqin; Liu, Zhiyi; Sun, Fei

    2014-02-01

    The fungal immunomodulatory proteins (FIPs) are a new protein family identified from several edible and medical mushrooms and play an important role in antitumor, anti-allergy and immunomodulating activities. A gene encoding the FIP-vvo was cloned from the mycelia of Volvariella volvacea and recombinant expressed in the Pichia pastoris expression system. SDS-PAGE, amino acid composition and circular dichroism analyses of the recombinant FIP-vvo (reFIP-vvo) indicated that the gene was correctly and successfully expressed. In vitro assays of biological activities revealed that the reFIP-vvo exhibited similar immunomodulating capacities as native form. The reFIP-vvo significantly stimulated the proliferation of mouse spleen lymphocytes and apparently enhanced the expression level of IFN-γ released from the mouse splenocytes. Taken together, the FIP-vvo gene from V. volvacea has been integrated into the yeast genome and expressed effectively at a high level (about 410mg/L), it was capable of agglutinating sheep and rat red blood cells. The reFIP-vvo possessed very similar biological activities to native FIPs, suggesting its potential application as a food supplement or immunomodulating agent in pharmaceuticals and even medical studies. PMID:24262209

  17. Cloning and optimized expression of a neutral endoglucanase gene (ncel5A) from Volvariella volvacea WX32 in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianfang; Tang, Cunduo; Shi, Hongling; Wu, Minchen

    2011-05-01

    A cDNA fragment encoding a mature neutral endoglucanase with 366 amino acids was cloned from Volvariella volvacea WX32. Online analysis of amino acid sequence homology showed that the endoglucanase, designated as NCel5A, belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 5. The recombinant plasmid, pPIC9K-ncel5A, was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation. Screening of multiple copies of the gene ncel5A in transformants was performed on YPD plates containing geneticin G418. One transformant expressing the highest recombinant NCel5A (rNCel5A) activity, numbered as GSNCel4-3, was chosen for optimizing expression conditions. In optimized conditions, the expressed rNCel5A activity was up to 4612 U/ml. SDS-PAGE and enzyme activity assays demonstrated that the rNCel5A, a glycosylated protein with an M.W. of about 42 kDa, was extracellularly expressed in P. pastoris. The rNCel5A showed the highest activity at pH 7.5 and 55°C and was stable at a broad pH range of 6.0-9.0 and at a temperature of 55°C or below. PMID:21367655

  18. [Enhancement of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase in Pichia pastoris by co-expression chaperone PDI and Ero1].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Hu, Meirong; Jiang, Xianzhang; Tao, Yong; Huang, Jianzhong

    2015-12-01

    The 1,095 bp gene encoding peroxidase from Coprinus cinereus was synthesized and integrated into the genome of Pichia pastoris with a highly inducible alcohol oxidase. The recombinant CiP (rCiP) fused with the a-mating factor per-pro leader sequence derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was secreted into the culture medium and identified as the target protein by mass spectrometry, confirming that a C. cinereus peroxidase (CiP) was successfully expressed in P. pastoris. The endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductase 1 (Ero1) and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) were co-expressed with rCiP separately and simultaneously. Compared with the wild type, overexpression of PDI and Erol-PDI increaseed Cip activity in 2.43 and 2.6 fold and their activity reached 316 U/mL and 340 U/mL respectively. The strains co-expressed with Erol-PDI was used to high density fermentation, and their activity reached 3,379 U/mL, which was higher than previously reported of 1,200 U/mL. PMID:27093831

  19. The cattle tick antigen, Bm95, expressed in Pichia pastoris contains short chains of N- and O-glycans.

    PubMed

    González, Luis J; Cremata, José A; Guanche, Yazmín; Ramos, Yassel; Triguero, Ada; Cabrera, Gleysin; Montesino, Raquel; Huerta, Vivian; Pons, Tirso; Boué, Oscar; Farnós, Omar; Rodríguez, Manuel

    2004-12-15

    Bm95 is an antigen isolated from Boophilus microplus strains with low susceptibility to antibodies developed in cattle vaccinated with the recombinant Bm86 antigen (Gavac, HeberBiotec S.A., Cuba). It is a Bm86-like surface protein, which by similarity contains seven EGF-like domains and a lipid-binding GPI-anchor site at the C-terminal region. The primary structure of the recombinant (rBm95) protein expressed in Pichia pastoris was completely verified by LC/MS. The four potential glycosylation sites (Asn 122, 163, 329, and 363) are glycosylated partially with short N-glycans, from Man(5)GlcNAc(2) to Man(9)GlcNAc(2) of which, Man(8-9)GlcNAc(2) were the most abundant. O-Glycopeptides are distributed mostly towards the protein N-terminus. While the first N-glycosylated site (Asn(122)) is located between EGF-like domains 2 and 3, where the O-glycopeptides were found, two other N-glycosylated sites (Asn(329) and Asn(363)) are located between EGF-like domains 5 and 6, a region devoid of O-glycosylated Ser or Thr. PMID:15542059

  20. Phase analysis in single-chain variable fragment production by recombinant Pichia pastoris based on proteomics combined with multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Fujiki, Yuya; Kumada, Yoichi; Kishimoto, Michimasa

    2015-08-01

    The proteomics technique, which consists of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF), gel image analysis, and multivariate statistics, was applied to the phase analysis of a fed-batch culture for the production of a single-chain variable fragment (scFv) of an anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibody by Pichia pastoris. The time courses of the fed-batch culture were separated into three distinct phases: the growth phase of the batch process, the growth phase of the fed-batch process, and the production phase of the fed-batch process. Multivariate statistical analysis using 2-DE gel image analysis data clearly showed the change in the culture phase and provided information concerning the protein expression, which suggested a metabolic change related to cell growth and production during the fed-batch culture. Furthermore, specific proteins, such as alcohol oxidase, which is strongly related to scFv expression, and proteinase A, which could biodegrade scFv in the latter phases of production, were identified via the PMF method. The proteomics technique provided valuable information about the effect of the methanol concentration on scFv production. PMID:25636980

  1. Enhanced hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass: Bi-functional enzyme complexes expressed in Pichia pastoris improve bioethanol production from Miscanthus sinensis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang Kyu; Hyeon, Jeong Eun; Kim, Young In; Kang, Dea Hee; Kim, Seung Wook; Park, Chulhwan; Han, Sung Ok

    2015-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant utilizable natural resource. In the process of bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, an efficient hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to release hexose and pentose is essential. We have developed a strain of Pichia pastoris that can produce ethanol via pentose and hexose using an assembly of enzyme complexes. The use of enzyme complexes is one of the strategies for effective lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. Xylanase XynB from Clostridium cellulovorans and a chimeric endoglucanase cCelE from Clostridium thermocellum were selected as enzyme subunits, and were bound to a recombinant scaffolding protein mini-CbpA from C. cellulovorans to assemble the enzyme complexes. These complexes efficiently degraded xylan and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), producing approximately 1.18 and 1.07 g/L ethanol from each substrate, respectively, which is 2.3-fold and 2.7-fold higher than that of the free-enzyme expressing strain. Miscanthus sinensis was investigated as the lignocellulosic biomass for producing bioethanol, and 1.08 g/L ethanol was produced using our recombinant P. pastoris strain, which is approximately 1.9-fold higher than that of the wild-type strain. In future research, construction of enzyme complexes containing various hydrolysis enzymes could be used to develop biocatalysts that can completely degrade lignocellulosic biomass into valuable products such as biofuels. PMID:26479167

  2. [Ultrasonic and thermal inactivation of catalases from the bovine liver, the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, and the fungus Penicillium piceum].

    PubMed

    Potapovich, M V; Eremin, A N; Metelitsa, D I

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of inactivation of catalases from bovine liver (CAT), the fungus Penicillium piceum (CAT1), and the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (CAT2) was studied in phosphate buffer (pH 5.5 or 7.4) at 45 and 50 degrees C or under the conditions of exposure to low-frequency ultrasound (LFUS; 27 kHz, 60 W/cm2). The processes were characterized by effective first-order rate constants (s(-1)): kin (total inactivation), k*in in (thermal inactivation), and k*in (us) (ultrasonic inactivation). The values of kin and k*in increased in the following order: CAT1 < CAT < CAT2. CD spectra of the enzyme solutions were recorded in the course of inactivation by high temperatures (45 and 50 degrees C) and LFUS, and the ratios of secondary structures were calculated. Processes of thermal and ultrasonic inactivation of catalases were associated with a decrease in the content of alpha helices and an increase in that of antiparallel beta structures and irregular regions (CAT1 < CAT < CAT2). We conclude that the enzymes exhibit the following rank order of resistance: CAT1 > CAT >CAT2. Judging from the characteristics of CAT1, it appears to be an optimum component for antioxidant enzyme complexes. PMID:16358747

  3. Optimization of the production of gurmarin, a sweet-taste-suppressing protein, secreted by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sigoillot, Maud; Brockhoff, Anne; Lescop, Ewen; Poirier, Nicolas; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Briand, Loïc

    2012-12-01

    Gurmarin, a 35-residue polypeptide, is known to selectively inhibit responses to sweet substances in rodents without affecting responses to other basic taste stimuli, such as NaCl, HCl, and quinine. Here, we report the heterologous expression of gurmarin using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Gurmarin was secreted into the buffered minimal medium using the α-factor preprosequence without the EAEA spacer peptide of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and was under the control of the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase promoter. We found that gurmarin accumulated in the yeast culture medium reaching 5 mg per liter of culture over an expression period of 4 days. To compare the production level and the signal peptide processing, the N-terminal amino acid of gurmarin was substituted by a glutamic acid residue. This construct resulted in a 6-fold increase in the level of gurmarin secretion leading to 30 mg of purified protein per liter of culture. Purified recombinant gurmarin resulting from both constructs was characterized using mass spectrometry. Circular dichroism and NMR spectroscopy revealed that recombinant gurmarin was properly folded and had secondary and tertiary structures. We also confirmed its capability to inhibit the rat heterodimeric sweet taste T1R2/T1R3 receptor by functional expression in human embryonic kidney HEK293T cells. The high level of fully active gurmarin obtained in P. pastoris makes this expression system attractive for fermentor growth and pharmacological investigations of taste receptor and gurmarin functions. PMID:22307499

  4. Enhancement of Biocontrol Efficacy of Pichia carribbica to Postharvest Diseases of Strawberries by Addition of Trehalose to the Growth Medium

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lina; Zhang, Hongyin; Li, Jun; Cui, Jinghua; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Ren, Xiaofeng

    2012-01-01

    The effects of trehalose on the antagonistic activity of Pichia caribbica against Rhizopus decay and gray mold decay of strawberries and the possible mechanisms involved were investigated. The proteomic analysis and comparison of P. carribbica in response to trehalose was analyzed based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The antagonistic activity of P. carribbica harvested from the culture media of NYDB amended with trehalose at 0.5% was improved greatly compared with that without trehalose. The PPO (Polyphenoloxidase) and POD (Peroxidase) activity of strawberries treated with P. carribbica cultured in the NYDB media amended with trehalose at 0.5% was higher than that of the strawberries treated with P. carribbica harvested from NYDB. The β-1, 3-glucanase activity of strawberries treated with P. carribbica cultured in the NYDB media amended with trehalose at 0.5% was also higher than that of the strawberries treated with P. carribbica harvested from NYDB and the control. Several differentially expressed proteins of P. carribbica in response to trehalose were identified in the cellular proteome, most of them were related to basic metabolism. PMID:22489189

  5. High-level secretory expression and purification of unhydroxylated human collagen α1(III) chain in Pichia pastoris GS115.

    PubMed

    Li, Linbo; Fan, Daidi; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Deng, Jianjun; He, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant collagen and gelatin have been applied in biomedical materials field because of products from genetically engineered microorganisms with improved safety, traceability, reproducibility, and homogeneous quality. To obtain high-level secretory expression of single-chain full-length human collagen α1(III) chain (COL3A1) without the N and C telopeptides, the cDNA coding for the human COL3A1 gene was cloned into the secretory expression vector pPIC9K and integrated into Pichia pastoris GS115. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of culture supernatant from the recombinant methylotrophic yeast suggested that the unhydroxylated recombinant human COL3A1 (rhCOL3A1) was secreted into the culture medium, and exhibited an apparent molecular mass of approximately 130 kDa, which is 1.4 times higher than the theoretical one. Finally, the unhydroxylated rhCOL3A1 was purified to greater than 90% purity using a four-step approach. In addition, methylthiazolydiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide experiments indicated that low concentration of rhCOL3A1 could promote Baby hamster kidney cell (BHK21) proliferation effectively. The production and purification of rhCOL3A1 described in this study offer a new method for obtaining high level of rhCOL3A1 in relatively pure form, which is suitable for biomedical materials application. PMID:25231012

  6. New strategy for expression of recombinant hydroxylated human collagen α1(III) chains in Pichia pastoris GS115.

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Ma, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Fenglong; Li, Linbo; Deng, Jianjun; Xue, Wenjiao; Zhu, Chenhui; Fan, Daidi

    2015-01-01

    Type III collagen is one of the most abundant proteins in the human body, which forms collagen fibrils and provides the stiff, resilient characteristics of many tissues. In this paper, a new method for secretory expression of recombinant hydroxylated human collagen α1(III) chain in Pichia pastoris GS115 was applied. The gene encoding for full-length human collagen α1(III) chain (COL3A1) without N-terminal propeptide and C-terminal propeptide was cloned in the pPIC9K expression vector. The prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H, EC 1.14.11.2) α-subunit (P4Hα) and β-subunit (P4Hβ) genes were cloned in the same expression vector, pPICZB. Fluorogenic quantitative PCR indicates that COL3A1 and P4H genes have been expressed in mRNA level. SDS-PAGE shows that secretory expression of recombinant human collagen α1(III) chain was successfully achieved in P. pastoris GS115. In addition, the result of amino acids composition analysis shows that the recombinant human collagen α1(III) chain contains hydroxyproline by coexpression with the P4H. Furthermore, liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis demonstrates that proline residues of the recombinant human collagen α1(III) chain were hydroxylated in the X or Y positions of Gly-X-Y triplets. PMID:24953863

  7. Enhanced cell disruption strategy in the release of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen from Pichia pastoris using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cell disruption strategies by high pressure homogenizer for the release of recombinant Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) from Pichia pastoris expression cells were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM) based on the central composite design (CCD). The factors studied include number of passes, biomass concentration and pulse pressure. Polynomial models were used to correlate the above mentioned factors to project the cell disruption capability and specific protein release of HBsAg from P. pastoris cells. Results The proposed cell disruption strategy consisted of a number of passes set at 20 times, biomass concentration of 7.70 g/L of dry cell weight (DCW) and pulse pressure at 1,029 bar. The optimized cell disruption strategy was shown to increase cell disruption efficiency by 2-fold and 4-fold for specific protein release of HBsAg when compared to glass bead method yielding 75.68% cell disruption rate (CDR) and HBsAg concentration of 29.20 mg/L respectively. Conclusions The model equation generated from RSM on cell disruption of P. pastoris was found adequate to determine the significant factors and its interactions among the process variables and the optimum conditions in releasing HBsAg when validated against a glass bead cell disruption method. The findings from the study can open up a promising strategy for better recovery of HBsAg recombinant protein during downstream processing. PMID:23039947

  8. Expression of four mutant fibrinogen gammaC domains in Pichia pastoris confirms them as causes of hypofibrinogenaemia.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Campbell R; Dear, Amy; Brennan, Stephen O

    2010-10-01

    Mutations in the fibrinogen gene cluster can cause low plasma fibrinogen concentrations, known as hypofibrinogenaemia. It is important to verify whether a detected sequence variant in this cluster is deleterious or benign and this can be accomplished using protein expression systems. In this study, four mutations in the fibrinogen gammaC domain that had previously been described in patients with hypofibrinogenaemia were introduced into a gammaC construct and expressed in a Pichia pastoris yeast system to investigate their effects on protein stability and secretion. These experiments showed that the fibrinogen Middlemore (N230D), Dorfen (A289V), Mannheim II (H307Y), and Muncie (T371I) mutations were not secreted, supporting their causative role in hypofibrinogenaemia. Overexpression of the N230D, A289V and H307Y mutants revealed that the majority of the synthesised protein was retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, with only a minor proportion reaching the trans-Golgi network. Regardless, none of this protein was secreted which confirms that the four mutations investigated are indeed responsible for hypofibrinogenaemia. PMID:20580674

  9. Improved yields of full-length functional human FGF1 can be achieved using the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Fantoni, Adele; Bill, Roslyn M; Gustafsson, Lena; Hedfalk, Kristina

    2007-03-01

    We have produced human fibroblast growth factor 1 (hFGF1) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris in order to obtain the large amounts of active protein required for subsequent functional and structural characterization. Four constructs were made to examine both intracellular and secreted expression, with variations in the location of the His6 tag at either end of the peptide. hFGF1 could be produced from all four constructs in shake flasks, but production was optimized by growing only the highest-yielding of these strains, which produced hFGF1 intracellularly, under tightly controlled conditions in a 3 L fermentor. One hundred and eight milligrams of pure protein was achieved per liter culture (corresponding to 0.68 mg of protein per gram of wet cells), the function of which was verified using NIH 3T3 cell cultures. This is a 30-fold improvement over previously reported yields of full-length hFGF1. PMID:17134911

  10. Expression and secretion of a biologically active mouse sonic hedgehog protein by the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Y; Kimura, M; Takabatake, T; Takeshima, K; Fujimura, H

    1999-09-01

    We have successfully secreted the amino-terminal functional domain of mouse sonic hedgehog protein (SHH) into culture fluid using a yeast Pichia pastoris expression system. A cDNA fragment encoding the amino-terminal domain of mouse SHH was inserted downstream of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-mating factor secretion signal. The DNA fragment was introduced into the host genome by the spheroplast transformation method. Transformants were selected based on their resistance to G418: His+ transformants which showed resistance to over 8 mg G418/ml were selected and analyzed for determination of the plasmid copy number. One His+ clone which has eight copies of the expression cassette per genome was cultured in minimal medium deficient for histidine, and further cultured in buffered medium supplemented with methanol which activates the AOX1 promoter. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated efficient expression and secretion of mouse SHH into culture fluid. The yield of secreted SHH was estimated to be 50 micrograms/ml. Purified protein was assayed for biological activity and found to activate the transcription of the Patched genes (Ptc-1 and Ptc-2) encoding receptors for SHH. PMID:10531654

  11. Native-state stability determines the extent of degradation relative to secretion of protein variants from Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Whyteside, Graham; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Kumita, Janet R; Dobson, Christopher M; Lazarou, Maria; Pleass, Richard J; Archer, David B

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the relationship between the stability and secreted yield of a series of mutational variants of human lysozyme (HuL) in Pichia pastoris. We show that genes directly involved in the unfolded protein response (UPR), ER-associated degradation (ERAD) and ER-phagy are transcriptionally up-regulated more quickly and to higher levels in response to expression of more highly-destabilised HuL variants and those variants are secreted to lower yield. We also show that the less stable variants are retained within the cell and may also be targeted for degradation. To explore the relationship between stability and secretion further, two different single-chain-variable-fragment (scFv) antibodies were also expressed in P. pastoris, but only one of the scFvs gave rise to secreted protein. The non-secreted scFv was detected within the cell and the UPR indicators were pronounced, as they were for the poorly-secreted HuL variants. The non-secreted scFv was modified by changing either the framework regions or the linker to improve the predicted stability of the scFv and secretion was then achieved and the levels of UPR indicators were lowered Our data support the hypothesis that less stable proteins are targeted for degradation over secretion and that this accounts for the decrease in the yields observed. We discuss the secretion of proteins in relation to lysozyme amyloidosis, in particular, and optimised protein secretion, in general. PMID:21818368

  12. Intracellular interactome of secreted antibody Fab fragment in Pichia pastoris reveals its routes of secretion and degradation.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Martin; Maurer, Michael; Stadlmann, Johannes; Grass, Josephine; Delic, Marizela; Altmann, Friedrich; Mattanovich, Diethard

    2012-03-01

    Protein translation, translocation, folding, processing, and secretion in eukaryotic cells are complex and not always straightforward processes, e.g., different routes of secretion and degradation exist. Formation of malfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can be one of the major bottlenecks for recombinant protein production. In this regard, an in-depth analysis of the interactions of a secreted protein during its pathway through the cell may be beneficial, as realized in this study for the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The antibody fragment Fab3H6 used here is the anti-idiotype to the HIV neutralizing antibody 2F5 and is known to be intracellularly degraded in significant amounts when expressed in P. pastoris. The interactome of Fab3H6 was analyzed by using a pull-down mass spectrometry approach, and 23 proteins were found to bind specifically to the antibody fragment. Those allowed concluding that Fab3H6 is post-translationally translocated into the ER and degraded via the proteasome as well as the vacuole. In line with this, the expression of Fab3H6 increased the proteasomal activities by over 20%. Partial inhibition of the proteasome resulted in a significant increase of extracellular Fab3H6. Thus, it seems that ER quality control overshoots its requirements for the recombinant protein expressed and that more than just terminally malfolded protein is degraded by ER-associated degradation. This work will further facilitate our understanding how recombinant proteins behave in the secretory pathway. PMID:22350260

  13. Expression of an alkalo-tolerant fungal xylanase enhanced by directed evolution in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    McHunu, Nokuthula Peace; Singh, Suren; Permaul, Kugen

    2009-04-20

    The alkaline stability of the xylanase from Thermomyces lanuginosus was further improved by directed evolution using error-prone PCR mutagenesis. Positive clones were selected by their ability to produce zones of clearing on pH 9 and 12 xylan agar plates. Variant NC38 was able to withstand harsh alkaline conditions retaining 84% activity after exposure at pH 10 for 90 min at 60 degrees C, while the parent enzyme had 22% activity after 60 min. The alkaline stable variant NC38 was cloned into pBGP1 under the control GAP promoter and pET22b(+) for expression in Pichia pastoris and Escherichia coli BL21, respectively. Best extracellular expression of the recombinant xylanase was observed in P. pastoris (261.7+/-0.61 U ml(-1)) whereas intracellular activity was observed in E. coli (47.9+/-0.28 U ml(-1)) was low. Total activity obtained in P. pastoris was 545-fold higher than E. coli. The mutated alkaline stable xylanase from P. pastoris was secreted into the culture medium with little or no contamination by host proteins, which favours the application of this enzyme in the pulp and paper industry. PMID:19428727

  14. Secretion and proteolysis of heterologous proteins fused to the Escherichia coli maltose binding protein in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiguo; Leung, Wilson; Yon, Amy; Nguyen, John; Perez, Vincent C; Vu, Jane; Giang, William; Luong, Linda T; Phan, Tracy; Salazar, Kate A; Gomez, Seth R; Au, Colin; Xiang, Fan; Thomas, David W; Franz, Andreas H; Lin-Cereghino, Joan; Lin-Cereghino, Geoff P

    2010-07-01

    The Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP) has been utilized as a translational fusion partner to improve the expression of foreign proteins made in E. coli. When located N-terminal to its cargo protein, MBP increases the solubility of intracellular proteins and improves the export of secreted proteins in bacterial systems. We initially explored whether MBP would have the same effect in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, a popular eukaryotic host for heterologous protein expression. When MBP was fused as an N-terminal partner to several C-terminal cargo proteins expressed in this yeast, proteolysis occurred between the two peptides, and MBP reached the extracellular region unattached to its cargo. However, in two of three instances, the cargo protein reached the extracellular region as well, and its initial attachment to MBP enhanced its secretion from the cell. Extensive mutagenesis of the spacer region between MBP and its C-terminal cargo protein could not inhibit the cleavage although it did cause changes in the protease target sites in the fusion proteins, as determined by mass spectrometry. Taken together, these results suggested that an uncharacterized P. pastoris protease attacked at different locations in the region C-terminal of the MBP domain, including the spacer and cargo regions, but the MBP domain could still act to enhance the secretion of certain cargo proteins. PMID:20230898

  15. Functional and structural analysis of Pichia pastoris-expressed Aspergillus niger 1,4-β-endoglucanase.

    PubMed

    Yan, Junjie; Liu, Weidong; Li, Yujie; Lai, Hui-Lin; Zheng, Yingying; Huang, Jian-Wen; Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Yun; Jin, Jian; Li, Huazhong; Guo, Rey-Ting

    2016-06-17

    Eukaryotic 1,4-β-endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4) have shown great potentials in many commercial applications because they effectively catalyze hydrolysis of cellulose, the main component of the plant cell wall. Here we expressed a glycoside hydrolase family (GH) 5 1,4-β-endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger (AnCel5A) in Pichia pastoris, which exhibits outstanding pH and heat stability. In order to further investigate the molecular mechanism of AnCel5A, apo-form and cellotetraose (CTT) complex enzyme crystal structures were solved to high resolution. AnCel5A folds into a typical (β/α)8-TIM barrel architecture, resembling other GH5 members. In the substrate binding cavity, CTT is found to bind to -4 - -1 subsites, and several polyethylene glycol molecules are found in positive subsites. In addition, several unique N-glycosylation motifs that may contribute to protein higher stability were observed from crystal structures. These results are of great importance for understanding the molecular mechanism of AnCel5A, and also provide guidance for further applications of the enzyme. PMID:27154222

  16. Combination of Pichia membranifaciens and ammonium molybdate for controlling blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum in peach fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Yuan, Yongjun; Hu, Zhichao; Zheng, Yonghua

    2010-07-15

    The potential enhancement of Pichia membranifaciens by ammonium molybdate (NH(4)Mo) to control blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum on peach fruit was investigated. Combining P. membranifaciens at 1x10(8) cell/ml with 1 mM NH(4)Mo provided a more effective control of blue mould rot than applying the yeast or NH(4)Mo alone. Addition of 1 mM NH(4)Mo significantly increased the growth of P. membranifaciens in peach wounds, but did not affect the population in nutrient yeast dextrose broth medium. The in vitro experiment showed that the combined treatment inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of P. expansum in comparison with the treatment of P. membranifaciens or NH(4)Mo alone. Moreover, P. membranifaciens, NH(4)Mo, and the combination of them did not impair the quality parameters including fruit firmness and content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and vitamin C of peach fruit after 6 days of storage at 20 degrees C. These results suggested that the use of NH(4)Mo is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of P. membranifaciens for postharvest disease control in peach fruit. PMID:20605650

  17. Production of the virus-like particles of nipah virus matrix protein in Pichia pastoris as diagnostic reagents.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Narcisse Ms; Ho, Kok Lian; Tey, Beng Ti; Tan, Chon Seng; Shafee, Norazizah; Tan, Wen Siang

    2016-07-01

    The matrix (M) protein of Nipah virus (NiV) is a peripheral protein that plays a vital role in the envelopment of nucleocapsid protein and acts as a bridge between the viral surface and the nucleocapsid proteins. The M protein is also proven to play an important role in production of virus-like particles (VLPs) and is essential for assembly and budding of NiV particles. The recombinant M protein produced in Escherichia coli assembled into VLPs in the absence of the viral surface proteins. However, the E. coli produced VLPs are smaller than the native virus particles. Therefore, the aims of this study were to produce NiV M protein in Pichia pastoris, to examine the structure of the VLPs formed, and to assess the potential of the VLPs as a diagnostic reagent. The M protein was successfully expressed in P. pastoris and was detected with anti-myc antibody using Western blotting. The VLPs formed by the recombinant M protein were purified with sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and Immobilized Metal Affinity Chromatography (IMAC). Immunogold staining and transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the M protein assembled into VLPs as large as 200 nm. ELISA revealed that the NiV M protein produced in P. pastoris reacted strongly with positive NiV sera demonstrating its potential as a diagnostic reagent. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:1038-1045, 2016. PMID:27088434

  18. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α -Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Rong; Li, Yang-Yuan; Liu, Dan-Ni; Liu, Jing-Shan; Li, Peng; Chen, Li-Zhi; Xu, Shu-De

    2015-01-01

    α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis), the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use. PMID:26171389

  19. Enhancing the production of Fc fusion protein in fed-batch fermentation of Pichia pastoris by design of experiments.

    PubMed

    Lin, Henry; Kim, Tina; Xiong, Fei; Yang, Xiaoming

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on the feasibility of producing a therapeutic Fc fusion protein in Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) and presents an optimization design of experiment (DOE) strategy in a well-defined experimental space. The parameters examined in this study include pH, temperature, salt supplementation, and batch glycerol concentration. The effects of these process conditions were captured by statistical analysis focusing on growth rate and titer responses. Batch medium and fermentation conditions were also investigated prior to the DOE study in order to provide a favorable condition to enable the production of this Fc fusion protein. The results showed that approximately 373 mg/L of the Fc fusion protein could be produced. The pH was found to be particularly critical for the production of this Fc fusion protein. It was significantly higher than the conventional, recommended pH for P. pastoris fermentation. The development of this process shows that protein production in P. pastoris is protein specific, and there is not a set of pre-defined conditions that can work well for all types of proteins. Thorough process development would need to be performed for every type of protein in order for large-scale production in P. pastoris to be feasible. PMID:17461547

  20. Intracellular trehalose and sorbitol synergistically promoting cell viability of a biocontrol yeast, Pichia anomala, for aflatoxin reduction.

    PubMed

    Hua, Sui Sheng T; Hernlem, Bradley J; Yokoyama, Wallace; Sarreal, Siov Bouy L

    2015-05-01

    Pichia anomala (Wickerhamomyces anomalus) WRL-076 was discovered by a visual screening bioassay for its antagonism against Aspergillus flavus. The yeast was shown to significantly inhibit aflatoxin production and the growth of A. flavus. P. anomala is a potential biocontrol agent for reduction of aflatoxin in the food chain. Maintaining the viability of biocontrol agents in formulated products is a great challenge for commercial applications. Four media, NYG, NYGS, NYGT and NYGST are described which support good growth of yeast cells and were tested as storage formulations. Post growth supplement of 5 % trehalose to NYGST resulted in 83 % viable yeast cells after 12 months in cold storage. Intracellular sorbitol and trehalose concentrations were determined by HPLC analysis at the beginning of the storage and at the end of 12 month. Correlation of cell viability to both trehalose and sorbitol suggested a synergistic effect. Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, Tukey's Studentized Range (HSD) Test and Duncan's Multiple Range Test, all showed that yeast cell viability in samples with both intracellular trehalose and sorbitol were significantly higher than those with either or none, at a 95 % confidence level. DiBAC4(5) and CFDA-AM were used as the membrane integrity fluorescent stains to create a two-color vital staining scheme with red and green fluorescence, respectively. Yeast cells stored in formulations NYG and NYGS with no detectable trehalose, displayed mostly red fluorescence. Yeast cells in NYGST+5T showed mostly green fluorescence. PMID:25700743