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Sample records for picm-19 pig liver

  1. Feeder-independent continuous culture of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line is a bipotent cell line, i.e., capable of forming either bile ductules or hepatocyte monolayers in vitro, that was derived from the primary culture of pig embryonic stem cells. The cell line has been strictly feeder-dependent in that cell replication morphology,...

  2. The Effects of Space Flight and Microgravity on the Growth and Differentiation of PICM-19 Pig Liver Stem Cells.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to answer the question, what effects would microgravity have on the growth, differentiation, and function on liver stem cells, the ARS-PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line was cultured in space aboard space shuttle Endeavor for the 16 days of mission STS-126. The liver is among the few organs ...

  3. The effects of space flight and microgravity on the growth and differentiation of PICM-19 pig liver stem cells.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Caperna, Thomas J; Blomberg, LeAnn; Graninger, Paul G; Stodieck, Louis S

    2010-06-01

    The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line was cultured in space for nearly 16 d on the STS-126 mission to assess the effects of spaceflight on the liver's parenchymal cells-PICM-19 cells to differentiate into either monolayers of fetal hepatocytes or 3-dimensional bile ductules (cholangiocytes). Semi-quantitative data included light microscopic assessments of final cell density, cell morphology, and response to glucagon stimulation and electron microscopic assessment of the cells' ultrastructural features and cell-to-cell connections and physical relationships. Quantitative assessments included assays of hepatocyte detoxification functions, i.e., inducible P450 activities and urea production and quantitation of the mRNA levels of several liver-related genes. Three post-passage age groups were included: 4-d-, 10-d-, and 14-d-old cultures. In comparing flight vs. ground-control cultures 17 h after the space shuttle's return to earth, no differences were found between the cultures with the exception being that some genes were differentially expressed. By light microscopy both young and older cultures, flight and ground, had grown and differentiated normally in the Opticell culture vessels. The PICM-19 cells had grown to approximately 75% confluency, had few signs of apoptosis or necrosis, and had either differentiated into monolayer patches of hepatocytes with biliary canaliculi visible between the cells or into 3-dimensional bile ductules with well-defined lumens. Ultrastructural features between flight and ground were similar with the PICM-19 cells displaying numerous mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicular bodies, and occasional lipid vacuoles. Cell-to-cell arrangements were typical in both flight and ground-control samples; biliary canaliculi were well-formed between the PICM-19 cells, and the cells were sandwiched between the STO feeder cells. PICM-19 cells displayed inducible P450 activities. They produced urea in a glutamine

  4. Cytochrome P450 Expression Profile of the PICM-19H Pig Liver Cell Line: Potential Application to Rapid Liver Toxicity Assays.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro models of the liver are needed to replace animal models for the rapid assessment of drug biotransformation and toxicity. One hepatocellular model, the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line, may fulfill this need since these cells have many activities associated with xenobiotic phase I and phas...

  5. A feeder-cell independent subpopulation of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line capable of long-term growth and extensive expansion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for the feeder-independent culture of PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line was recently devised, but the cell line’s growth was finite and the cells essentially ceased dividing after approximately 20 passages over a one year culture period. Here we report the isolation, continuous culture, and...

  6. Characterization of two subpopulations of the PICM-19 porcine liver stem cell line for use in cell-based extracorporeal liver assistance devices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cell lines, PICM-19H and PICM-19B, were derived from the bipotent PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line and assessed for their potential application in artificial liver devices. The study included assessments of growth rate and cell density in culture, morphological features, and hepatocyte detoxifi...

  7. Characterization of PICM-19H porcine liver stem cell line for potential use in a bioartificial liver

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A hepatocyte cell line is needed as the biological component of a bioartificial liver (BAL). One candidate is the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line. These cells have many normal hepatocyte functions often lacking in tumor-derived liver cell lines. The study characterized a PICM-19 derivative cell ...

  8. Characterization of two subpopulations of the PICM-19 porcine liver stem cell line for use in cell-based extracorporeal liver assistance devices.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Neil C; Caperna, Thomas J; Willard, Ryan R; Meekin, John H; Garrett, Wesley M

    2010-06-01

    Two cell lines, PICM-19H and PICM-19B, were derived from the bipotent PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line and assessed for their potential application in artificial liver devices (ALD). The study included assessments of growth rate and cell density in culture, morphological features, serum protein production, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT) activity and hepatocyte detoxification functions, i.e., inducible P450 activity, ammonia clearance, and urea production. The PICM-19H cell line was derived by temperature selection at 33-34 degrees C. After each passage, PICM-19H cells grew to a nearly confluent monolayer of cells of hepatocyte morphology, i.e., cuboidal cells with centrally located nuclei joined by biliary canaliculi. No differentiation and self-organization into multi-cellular bile ductules, as observed in the parental PICM-19 cell line, occurred within the PICM-19H cell monolayers. The PICM-19H cells contained numerous mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, vesicular bodies and occasional lipid vacuoles. The cells had a doubling time of 48-72 h and reached a final density of 1.5 x 10(5) cells/cm(2) at approximately10 d post-passage from a 1:6 split ratio. PICM-19H cells displayed inducible P450 activity, cleared ammonia, and produced urea in a glutamine-free medium. The PICM-19B cells were colony-cloned after spontaneous generation from the PICM-19 parental cell line. PICM-19B cells grew as a tightly knit dome-forming monolayer with no visible biliary canaliculi. Their doubling time was 48-72 h with a final cell density of 2.6 x 10(5) cells/cm(2). Ultrastructural analysis of the PICM-19B monolayers showed the roughly cuboidal cells displayed basal-apical polarization and were joined by tight junction-like complexes. Other ultrastructure features were similar to those of PICM-19H cells except that they possessed numerous cell bodies resembling mucus vacuoles. The PICM-19B cells had relatively high levels of GGT activity, but did

  9. Development, characterization and use of a porcine epiblast-derived liver stem cell line: ARS-PICM-19

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Totipotent embryonic stem cell lines have not been established from ungulates, however, we have developed several somatic cell lines from the in vitro culture of pig epiblast cells. One such cell line, PICM-19, was isolated via colony-cloning and was found to spontaneously differentiate into hepati...

  10. Morphology and metabolic activity of a porcine liver stem cell line (PICM-19) maintained in a multicompartment hollow fiber bioreactor for two weeks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A functional hepatocyte cell line that differentiates normally is needed to develop a bioartificial liver (BAL). A porcine hepatic stem cell line, PICM-19H, maintained in a 3D multicompartmental hollow-fiber bioreactor (Hepalife Technologies) was studied. The bioreactor was filled with 400 million...

  11. Gene expression profiling of MYC-driven tumor signatures in porcine liver stem cells by transcriptome sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N; Talbot, Neil C; Steer, Clifford J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify the genes induced and regulated by the MYC protein in generating tumors from liver stem cells. METHODS: In this study, we have used an immortal porcine liver stem cell line, PICM-19, to study the role of c-MYC in hepatocarcinogenesis. PICM-19 cells were converted into cancer cells (PICM-19-CSCs) by overexpressing human MYC. To identify MYC-driven differential gene expression, transcriptome sequencing was carried out by RNA sequencing, and genes identified by this method were validated using real-time PCR. In vivo tumorigenicity studies were then conducted by injecting PICM-19-CSCs into the flanks of immunodeficient mice. RESULTS: Our results showed that MYC-overexpressing PICM-19 stem cells formed tumors in immunodeficient mice demonstrating that a single oncogene was sufficient to convert them into cancer cells (PICM-19-CSCs). By using comparative bioinformatics analyses, we have determined that > 1000 genes were differentially expressed between PICM-19 and PICM-19-CSCs. Gene ontology analysis further showed that the MYC-induced, altered gene expression was primarily associated with various cellular processes, such as metabolism, cell adhesion, growth and proliferation, cell cycle, inflammation and tumorigenesis. Interestingly, six genes expressed by PICM-19 cells (CDO1, C22orf39, DKK2, ENPEP, GPX6, SRPX2) were completely silenced after MYC-induction in PICM-19-CSCs, suggesting that the absence of these genes may be critical for inducing tumorigenesis. CONCLUSION: MYC-driven genes may serve as promising candidates for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma therapeutics that would not have deleterious effects on other cell types in the liver. PMID:25717234

  12. Scavenger properties of cultivated pig liver endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Elvevold, Kjetil H; Nedredal, Geir I; Revhaug, Arthur; Smedsrød, Bård

    2004-01-01

    Background The liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and Kupffer cells constitute the most powerful scavenger system in the body. Various waste macromolecules, continuously released from tissues in large quantities as a consequence of normal catabolic processes are cleared by the LSEC. In spite of the fact that pig livers are used in a wide range of experimental settings, the scavenger properties of pig LSEC has not been investigated until now. Therefore, we studied the endocytosis and intracellular transport of ligands for the five categories of endocytic receptors in LSEC. Results Endocytosis of five 125I-labelled molecules: collagen α-chains, FITC-biotin-hyaluronan, mannan, formaldehyde-treated serum albumin (FSA), and aggregated gamma globulin (AGG) was substantial in cultured LSEC. The endocytosis was mediated via the collagen-, hyaluronan-, mannose-, scavenger-, or IgG Fc-receptors, respectively, as judged by the ability of unlabelled ligands to compete with labelled ligands for uptake. Intracellular transport was studied employing a morphological pulse-chase technique. Ninety minutes following administration of red TRITC-FSA via the jugular vein of pigs to tag LSEC lysosomes, cultures of the cells were established, and pulsed with green FITC-labelled collagen, -mannan, and -FSA. By 10 min, the FITC-ligands was located in small vesicles scattered throughout the cytoplasm, with no co-localization with the red lysosomes. By 2 h, the FITC-ligands co-localized with red lysosomes. When LSEC were pulsed with FITC-AGG and TRITC-FSA together, co-localization of the two ligands was observed following a 10 min chase. By 2 h, only partial co-localization was observed; TRITC-FSA was transported to lysosomes, whereas FITC-AGG only slowly left the endosomes. Enzyme assays showed that LSEC and Kupffer cells contained equal specific activities of hexosaminidase, aryl sulphates, acid phosphatase and acid lipase, whereas the specific activities of α-mannosidase, and

  13. Identifying lipid metabolism genes in pig liver after clenbuterol administration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiuyue; Zhang, Jin; Guo, Wei; Zhao, Yiqiang; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2012-01-01

    Clenbuterol is a repartition agent (beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist) that can decrease fat deposition and increase skeletal muscle growth at manageable dose. To better understand the molecular mechanism of Clenbuterol's action, GeneChips and real-time PCR were used to compare the gene expression profiles of liver tissue in pigs with/without administration of Clenbuterol. Metabolism effects and the global gene expression profiles of liver tissue from Clenbuterol-treated and untreated pigs were conducted. Function enrichment tests showed that the differentially expressed genes are enriched in glycoprotein protein, plasma membrane, fatty acid and amino acid metabolic process, and cell differentiation and signal transduction groups. Pathway mining analysis revealed that physiological pathways such as MAPK, cell adhesion molecules, and the insulin signaling pathway, were remarkably regulated when Clenbuterol was administered. Gene prioritization algorithm was used to associate a number of important differentially expressed genes with lipid metabolism in response to Clenbuterol. Genes identified as differentially expressed in this study will be candidates for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved in Clenbuterol's effects on adipose and skeletal muscle tissue. PMID:22652664

  14. Biological characterization of liver fatty acid binding gene from miniature pig liver cDNA library.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y H; Wang, K F; Zhang, S; Fan, Y N; Guan, W J; Ma, Y H

    2015-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding proteins (L-FABP) are a family of small, highly conserved, cytoplasmic proteins that bind to long-chain fatty acids and other hydrophobic ligands. In this study, a full-length enriched cDNA library was successfully constructed from Wuzhishan miniature pig, and then the L-FABP gene was cloned from this cDNA library and an expression vector (pEGFP-N3-L-FABP) was constructed in vitro. This vector was transfected into hepatocytes to test its function. The results of western blotting analysis demonstrated that the L-FABP gene from our full-length enriched cDNA library regulated downstream genes, including the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family in hepatocytes. This study provides a theoretical basis and experimental evidence for the application of L-FABP for the treatment of liver injury. PMID:26345909

  15. Fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase deficient pigs are a novel large animal model of metabolic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Hickey, Raymond D.; Mao, Shennen A.; Glorioso, Jaime; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Fisher, James E.; Amiot, Bruce; Rinaldo, Piero; Harding, Cary O.; Marler, Ronald; Finegold, Milton J.; Grompe, Markus; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by deficiency in fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH), an enzyme that catalyzes the last step of tyrosine metabolism. The most severe form of the disease presents acutely during infancy, and is characterized by severe liver involvement, most commonly resulting in death if untreated. Generation of FAH+/− pigs was previously accomplished by adeno-associated virus-mediated gene knockout in fibroblasts and somatic cell nuclear transfer. Subsequently, these animals were outbred and crossed to produce the first FAH−/− pigs. FAH-deficiency produced a lethal defect in utero that was corrected by administration of 2-(2-nitro-4-trifluoromethylbenzyol)-1,3 cyclohexanedione (NTBC) throughout pregnancy. Animals on NTBC were phenotypically normal at birth; however, animals were euthanized approximately four weeks after withdrawal of NTBC due to clinical decline and physical examination findings of severe liver injury and encephalopthy consistent with acute liver failure. Biochemical and histological analyses, characterized by diffuse and severe hepatocellular damage, confirmed the diagnosis of severe liver injury. FAH−/− pigs provide the first genetically engineered large animal model of a metabolic liver disorder. Future applications of FAH−/− pigs include discovery research as a large animal model of HT1 and spontaneous acute liver failure, and preclinical testing of efficacy of liver cell therapies, including transplantation of hepatocytes, liver stem cells, and pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes. PMID:24879068

  16. Comparison of liver microRNA transcriptomes of Tibetan and Yorkshire pigs by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyue; Li, Xiaocheng; Sun, Wen-Kui; Cheng, Chi; Chen, Yi-Hui; Zeng, Kai; Chen, Xiaohui; Gu, Yiren; Gao, Rong; Liu, Rui; Lv, Xuebin

    2016-02-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in the modulation of various metabolic processes in the liver, yet little is known about the liver microRNAome (miRNAome) of the Tibetan pig. Here we used the Yorkshire pig as a control to analyze the Tibetan pig-specific liver miRNAome, and for preliminary investigation of differentially expressed miRNAs participating in metabolism. A comprehensive analysis of Tibetan and Yorkshire pig liver miRNAomes by small RNA sequencing identified 362 unique miRNAs. Among these, 304 were co-expressed in both libraries, and 10 and 48 miRNAs were specifically expressed. Differential expression analysis of miRNAs, miRNA target prediction and KEGG analysis revealed that differentially expressed miRNAs were associated mainly with the metabolism of glucose, lipid and protein. Six differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-34a, miR-326, miR-1, miR-335, miR-185 and miR-378) participating in the metabolism of glucose and lipid were identified. Additionally, qPCR results revealed that a lower expression of miR-34a in Tibetan pig liver may promote gluconeogenesis by increasing the expression of Sirtuin type 1 (Sirt1); a lower expression of miR-1 in Tibetan pig liver may promote the synthesis and accumulation of lipid by increasing the expression of Liver X receptor α (LXRα); and a lower expression of miR-185 in Tibetan pig liver may promote the uptake of cholesterol from blood and secretion of bile by increasing the expression of the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Our results provide new information and understanding of porcine miRNA profiles, which may help explain the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs in the metabolic functions of Tibetan pig liver, and provide new biomarkers to assist in the development of Tibetan pig breeding characteristics. PMID:26656174

  17. Purification and characterization of guinea pig liver morphine 6-dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yamano, S; Kageura, E; Ishida, T; Toki, S

    1985-05-10

    Morphine 6-dehydrogenase, which catalyzes the dehydrogenation of morphine to morphinone, has been purified about 440-fold from the soluble fraction of guinea pig liver with a yield of 38%. The purified enzyme was a homogeneous protein on polyacrylamide gel disc electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The molecular weight and isoelectric point of the enzyme were 29,000 and 7.6, respectively. The enzyme utilizes both NAD and NADP as a cofactor, and the Km values were 0.12 mM for NAD and 0.42 mM for NADP. The Vmax values for morphine were 588 milliunits/mg of protein (with NAD) and 1600 milliunits/mg of protein (with NADP). The Km values for morphine were 0.12 mM (with NAD) and 0.49 mM (with NADP). The enzyme also exhibited activity for morphine-related compounds: nalorphine, normorphine, codeine, and ethylmorphine; however, 7,8-saturated congeners such as dihydromorphine and dihydrocodeine were poor substrates. The enzyme was inactivated by removal of 2-mercaptoethanol from the enzyme solution. The inactivated enzyme was rapidly recovered by the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol. Phenylarsine oxide and CdCl2 (dithiol modifiers) inhibited competitively toward cofactor binding and noncompetitively toward morphine binding. These results suggest that the enzyme possesses the essential thiol groups, probably vicinal dithiol, at or near the cofactor-binding site. Using the partially purified enzyme, 8-(2-hydroxyethylthio)dihydromorphinone was isolated as the product and identified by UV, mass, and NMR spectra. It was confirmed that morphinone proposed as the dehydrogenation product was nonenzymatically and covalently bound to 2-mercaptoethanol. Accordingly, the isolated morphinone-2-mercaptoethanol conjugate must be formed by two steps: enzymatic production of morphinone from morphine and then nonenzymatic binding of 2-mercaptoethanol to morphinone. PMID:2580834

  18. Protective role of normothermic machine perfusion during reduced-size liver transplantation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Bin; Gao, Wei; Shi, Yuan; Liu, Lei; Ma, Ning; Chen, Jing; Zhu, Zhi-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore whether normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) preservation is superior to cold preservation during reduced-size liver transplantation (RSLT) in pigs. Twenty-four healthy Ba-Ma mini pigs were used (aged >13 months; weight 25-35 kg; regardless of sex). The animals were randomized into 2 groups. In group A (NMP), donor livers were harvested without warm ischemia time and heartbeats and then were connected to the NMP system to reduce the livers' size under the normothermic condition. In group B (University of Wisconsin [UW] solution), donor livers were harvested without warm ischemia time and heartbeats after being perfused by UW solution and were then preserved in 0°C-4°C UW solution to reduce the livers' size under cold conditions. After that, liver transplantation without venovenous bypass was performed. General RSLT information of the pigs from the 2 groups was recorded; the serological indices were measured; and routine pathological examination of liver tissue was observed. A significant difference was observed in the intraoperative bleeding between the 2 groups (P < 0.05), whereas no significant difference was found in the other indices (all P > 0.05). Significant differences of alanine aminotransferase levels, aspartate aminotransferase levels, and lactate dehydrogenase levels between the 2 groups were observed between postoperative days 3 and 5 (P < 0.05). Significant differences of lactic acid levels between the 2 groups were observed between postoperative days 2 and 5 (P < 0.05). Compared with the cold preservation group, the liver tissues of the NMP preservation group only rarely experienced liver cell necrosis and maintained integrities in the hepatic sinusoid spaces and endothelial cells. In conclusion, NMP preservation is superior to cold preservation during RSLT in pigs. Liver Transplantation 22 968-978 2016 AASLD. PMID:27037634

  19. Cellular immune responses to amoebic liver abcess in the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Bray, R S; Harris, W G

    1977-01-01

    Guinea-pigs infected in the liver with the Biswas strain of Entamoeba histolytica showed no dermal hypersensitivity but showed positive lymphocyte transformation and macrophage-migration inhibition. The time sequence showed an activated response at 4 days after infection, a full response at 8 days when the liver abscesses were resolving and a waning response at 12 days when the abscesses had healed. PMID:891028

  20. Liver ergothioneine accumulation in a guinea pig model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A possible mechanism of defence?

    PubMed

    Cheah, Irwin K; Tang, Richard; Ye, Peng; Yew, Terry S Z; Lim, Keith H S; Halliwell, Barry

    2016-01-01

    L-ergothioneine (ET), a putative antioxidant compound acquired by animals through dietary sources, has been suggested to accumulate in certain cells and tissues in the body that are predisposed to high oxidative stress. In the present study, we identified an elevation of ET in the liver of a guinea pig model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), elucidated a possible mechanism for the increased uptake and investigated the possible role for this accumulation. This increase in liver ET levels correlated with cholesterol accumulation and disease severity. We identified an increase in the transcriptional factor, RUNX1, which has been shown to upregulate the expression of the ET-specific transporter OCTN1, and could consequently lead to the observable elevation in ET. An increase was also seen in heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) which seemingly corresponds to ET elevation. No significant increase was observed in oxidative damage markers, F2-isoprostanes, and protein carbonyls, which could possibly be attributed to the increase in liver ET through direct antioxidant action, induction of HSP70, or by chelation of Fe(2+), preventing redox chemistry. The data suggest a novel mechanism by which the guinea pig fatty liver accumulates ET via upregulation of its transporter, as a possible stress response by the damaged liver to further suppress oxidative damage and delay tissue injury. Similar events may happen in other animal models of disease, and researchers should be aware of the possibility. PMID:26634964

  1. Identification of anthocyanins in the liver, eye, and brain of blueberry-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Kalt, Wilhelmina; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; McDonald, Jane E; Vinqvist-Tymchuk, Melinda R; Fillmore, Sherry A E; Graf, Brigitte A; O'Leary, Jennifer M; Milbury, Paul E

    2008-02-13

    Dietary intervention with anthocyanins may confer benefits in brain function, including vision. Research to date indicates that animals have only a limited capacity to absorb anthocyanins, compared to other types of flavonoids. Pigs, which are a suitable model for human digestive absorption, were used to examine the deposition of anthocyanins in tissues including the liver, eye, and brain tissue. Pigs were fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2, or 4% w/w blueberries ( Vaccinium corymbosum L. 'Jersey') for 4 weeks. Prior to euthanasia, pigs were fasted for 18-21 h. Although no anthocyanins were detected in the plasma or urine of the fasted animals, intact anthocyanins were detected in all tissues where they were sought. LC-MS/MS results are presented for the relative concentration of 11 intact anthocyanins in the liver, eye, cortex, and cerebellum. The results suggest that anthocyanins can accumulate in tissues, including tissues beyond the blood-brain barrier. PMID:18211026

  2. Evaluation of Encapsulated Liver Cell Spheroids in a Fluidised-Bed Bioartificial Liver for Treatment of Ischaemic Acute Liver Failure in Pigs in a Translational Setting

    PubMed Central

    Selden, Clare; Spearman, Catherine Wendy; Kahn, Delawir; Miller, Malcolm; Figaji, Anthony; Erro, Eloy; Bundy, James; Massie, Isobel; Chalmers, Sherri-Ann; Arendse, Hiram; Gautier, Aude; Sharratt, Peter; Fuller, Barry; Hodgson, Humphrey

    2013-01-01

    Liver failure is an increasing problem. Donor-organ shortage results in patients dying before receiving a transplant. Since the liver can regenerate, alternative therapies providing temporary liver-support are sought. A bioartificial-liver would temporarily substitute function in liver failure buying time for liver regeneration/organ-procurement. Our aim: to develop a prototype bioartificial-liver-machine (BAL) comprising a human liver-derived cell-line, cultured to phenotypic competence and deliverable in a clinical setting to sites distant from its preparation. The objective of this study was to determine whether its use would improve functional parameters of liver failure in pigs with acute liver failure, to provide proof-of-principle. HepG2cells encapsulated in alginate-beads, proliferated in a fluidised-bed-bioreactor providing a biomass of 4–6×1010cells, were transported from preparation-laboratory to point-of-use operating theatre (6000miles) under perfluorodecalin at ambient temperature. Irreversible ischaemic liver failure was induced in anaesthetised pigs, after portal-systemic-shunt, by hepatic-artery-ligation. Biochemical parameters, intracranial pressure, and functional-clotting were measured in animals connected in an extracorporeal bioartificial-liver circuit. Efficacy was demonstrated comparing outcomes between animals connected to a circuit containing alginate-encapsulated cells (Cell-bead BAL), and those connected to circuit containing alginate capsules without cells (Empty-bead BAL). Cells of the biomass met regulatory standards for sterility and provenance. All animals developed progressive liver-failure after ischaemia induction. Efficacy of BAL was demonstrated since animals connected to a functional biomass (+ cells) had significantly smaller rises in intracranial pressure, lower ammonia levels, more bilirubin conjugation, improved acidosis and clotting restoration compared to animals connected to the circuit without cells. In the +cell

  3. The lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney from Finnish pigs and cattle during 1987-1988.

    PubMed

    Niemi, A; Venäläinen, E R; Hirvi, T; Hirn, J; Karppanen, E

    1991-05-01

    The lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations in muscle, liver and kidney from Finnish pigs and cattle were determined. The average wet weight lead concentrations in pig muscle, liver and kidney were 15 micrograms/kg, 38 micrograms/kg and 40 micrograms/kg, respectively. The corresponding concentrations for cattle were 13 micrograms/kg, 57 micrograms/kg and 110 micrograms/kg. The average wet weight cadmium concentrations were 1.5 micrograms/kg, 28 micrograms/kg and 170 micrograms/kg (pigs) and 1.3 micrograms/kg, 61 micrograms/kg and 350 micrograms/kg (cattle). The corresponding mercury concentrations were 11 micrograms/kg, 12 micrograms/kg and 14 micrograms/kg (pigs) and 11 micrograms/kg, 12 micrograms/kg and 15 micrograms/kg (cattle). The average concentrations were at or above the detection limit of the metal in question. According to the results obtained by the National Veterinary Institute, the cadmium concentration in pigs and cattle has decreased during the period 1973-1988. The provisional tolerable daily intake of lead/person (60 kg), recommended by GEMS/Food, is 0.43 mg. According to the results for lead levels in these products in Finland, a daily intake of 29 kg pig muscle, 33 kg cattle muscle, 11 kg pig liver, 8 kg cattle liver, 11 kg pig kidney or 4 kg cattle kidney would be required to reach this norm. The corresponding provisional tolerable daily intake of cadmium/person (60 kg) is 0.06 mg and is equivalent to 40 kg pig muscle, 46 kg cattle muscle, 2 kg pig liver, 1 kg cattle liver, 0.4 kg pig kidney and 0.2 kg cattle kidney. The validity of the methods was tested four times a year using spiked check samples. PMID:2058312

  4. N-Nitrosodiethylamine-Induced Pig Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma Model: Radiological and Histopathological Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiao; Zhou Xiangping Guan Yongsong; Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Scutt, Diane; Gong Qiyong

    2006-06-15

    Experimental research involving animal models plays a critical role in the development and improvement of minimally invasive therapies for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As a large animal, the pig is commonly used for surgery and interventional radiology research. In this study, liver multicentric HCC with cirrhosis was induced in six China Taihu pigs by intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg of N-nitrosodiethylamine once a week for 3 months, followed by a period of 10-12 months without N-nitrosodiethylamine treatment. All pigs were in generally good health until the end of the study. The tumor nodules appeared hyperattenuating in the arterial phase of a dynamic computed tomography (CT) scan. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and CT angiography demonstrated that the tumors derived their blood supply mainly from the hepatic artery system. Lipiodol-CT showed Lipiodol retention in tumor areas. The histology and electron microscopic ultrastructure of the chemically induced liver HCC in this study resembled human HCC with a cirrhosis background. An immunohistochemistry study confirmed that the tumors were of hepatocyte origin. All highly, moderately, and poorly differentiated HCC tumors were identified in this study. Cholangiocarcinoma was not seen in any of the animals. Due to its comparable size to human anatomy, the pig liver HCC model would give a better scope for interventional and surgical manipulations than small animal models.

  5. Primary structure of the cytosolic beta-glucosidase of guinea pig liver.

    PubMed Central

    Hays, W S; Jenison, S A; Yamada, T; Pastuszyn, A; Glew, R H

    1996-01-01

    The cytosolic beta-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) present in the livers of mammalian species is distinguished by its broad specificity for sugars and its preference for hydrophobic aglycones. We purified the cytosolic beta-glucosidase from guinea pig liver and sequenced 142 amino acid residues contained within 12 trypsin digest fragments. Using degenerate oligonucleotide primers deduced from the peptide sequences, a 622 bp cytosolic beta-glucosidase cDNA was amplified by reverse-transcriptase PCR, using total guinea pig liver RNA as template. The 'rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE)' method [Frohman (1993) Methods Enzymol. 218, 340-356] was used to synthesize the remaining segments of the full-length cDNA. The complete cDNA contained 1671 nucleotides with an open reading frame coding for 469 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA sequence included the amino acid sequences of all 12 trypsin digest fragments derived from the purified enzyme. Amino acid sequence analysis indicates that the guinea pig liver cytosolic beta-glucosidase is a Family 1 beta-glycosidase and that it is most closely related to mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. These results suggest that the cytosolic beta-glucosidase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase diverged from a common evolutionary precursor. PMID:8920987

  6. Liver fibrosis in guinea pigs experimentally induced by combined copper and aflatoxin application.

    PubMed

    Schiller, F; Lippold, U; Heinze, R; Hoffmann, A; Seffner, W

    1998-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 alone (0.05 mg resp. 0.037 mg/kg/d), copper alone (6.6 mg/kg/d or 200 mg/l drinking water) or a combination of both was administrated orally for 6 months to young guinea pigs from the first/second day of life. In the copper group there were no pathomorphological changes. For the aflatoxin B1 group liver damage was established. In the combined group liver injury was more frequent and more severe compared to the aflatoxin B1 group. Compared with the copper group biliary copper excretion was diminished and the kidney copper content was elevated in the Afl. B1 + Cu group. While copper concentrations in bile and kidney correlated with other parameters, notably the pathological lesions of the liver, no such correlation was found for liver copper. Therefore in this experiment the degree of Cu accumulation was not decisive for the liver lesions. The livers' capacity for excreting Cu by bile seems to be a much more important factor. Histologically only the livers of the combined group exhibited degeneration, atrophy and steatosis of liver cells, and a fibrosis more or less pronounced. For childhood cirrhosis (ICC and ICT), a combined etiology--a liver damaging agent plus elevated alimentary copper--is a plausible hypothesis. PMID:9784033

  7. Comparison of hepatotoxicity and metabolism of butyltin compounds in the liver of mice, rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Shunji; Kashimoto, Takashige; Susa, Nobuyuki; Ishii, Masamitsu; Chiba, Toshikazu; Mutoh, Ken-ichiro; Hoshi, Fumio; Suzuki, Takashi; Sugiyama, Masayasu

    2003-03-01

    The hepatotoxicity of tributyltin chloride (TBTC) and dibutyltin dichloride (DBTC) was compared among mice, rats and guinea pigs in vivo. Further, the metabolism of these butyltin compounds in the liver was also investigated in these species. The oral administration of TBTC and DBTC to mice induced obvious liver injury, as demonstrated by both serodiagnosis and histopathological diagnosis. The concentrations of TBTC and DBTC that induced hepatotoxicity in mice at 24 h after oral administration were 180 and 60 micro mol/kg, respectively. In the case of rats, the liver injury induced by TBTC and DBTC was detected at 24 h by the serodiagnosis, but not by histopathological diagnosis. On the other hand, in guinea pigs, TBTC and DBTC administration did not produce any clear liver injury at 24 h, as evaluated by these two diagnostic methods. Thus, the following ranking was obtained with regard to increasing order of sensitivity to liver injury caused by TBTC and DBTC: mice, rats and guinea pigs. The total butyltin contents in the liver of mice were equivalent at 3 h and 24 h after the administration of TBTC or DBTC; however, the contents in the liver of rats and guinea pigs were relatively lower at 3 h and higher at 24 h than those of mice, although there were no differences between rats and guinea pigs in the total liver butyltin content. Concerning the liver metabolism of these butyltin compounds, the main form of butyltin compounds in these animals treated with TBTC was DBTC within 3 h after oral administration, while the main metabolites at 24 h were different in each species, indicating that the liver metabolism of TBTC might vary by animal type. When the animals were treated with DBTC orally, DBTC was hardly metabolized in the livers of these animals even at 24 h, and the liver levels of DBTC were two times greater in mice and guinea pigs than in rats at 3 h and were lower in mice at 24 h than in rats and guinea pigs. The analysis of cellular distributions of DBTC

  8. Influence of thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum cholesterol and triglycerides in young pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effect of feeding thermally-oxidized vegetable oils and animal fats on growth performance, liver gene expression, and liver and serum fatty acid and cholesterol concentration in young pigs, 102 barrows (6.67 ± 0.03 kg BW) were divided into 3 groups and randomly assigned to dietary tr...

  9. Determination and depletion of residues of carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle of pigs in feeding experiments.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, M G; Lund, C; Jacobsen, M

    1988-01-01

    The results of residue determinations of the growth promotors carbadox, tylosin, and virginiamycin in kidney, liver, and muscle from pigs in feeding experiments are described as well as the analytical methods used. Residues of the carbadox metabolite quinoxaline-2-carboxylic acid were found in liver from pigs fed 20 mg/kg in the diet with a withdrawal time of 30 days. No residues were detected in muscle with zero withdrawal time. The limit of determination was 0.01 mg/kg for both tissues. No residues of virginiamycin and tylosin were found in pigs fed 50 and 40 mg/kg, respectively, in the diet, even with zero withdrawal time. Residues of tylosin of 0.06 mg/kg and below were detected in liver and kidney from pigs fed 200 or 400 mg/kg and slaughtered within 3 h after the last feeding. PMID:3148611

  10. Excorporeal Normothermic Machine Perfusion Resuscitates Pig DCD Livers with Extended Warm Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongzhi; Berendsen, Tim; Kim, Karen; Soto-Gutiérrez, Alejandro; Bertheium, Francios; Yarmush, Martin L.; Hertl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background The shortage in donor livers has led to increased use of allografts derived from donation after cardiac death (DCD). The compromised viability in these livers leads to inferior post-transplantation allograft function and survival compared with donation after brain death (DBD) donor grafts. In this study, we reconditioned DCD livers using an optimized normothermic machine perfusion system. Methods Livers from 12 Yorkshire pigs (20–30 kg) were subjected to either 0 min (WI-0 group, n = 6) or 60 min (WI-60 group, n = 6) of warm ischemia and 2 h of cold storage in UW solution, followed by 4 h of oxygenated sanguineous normothermic machine perfusion. Liver viability and metabolic function were analyzed hourly. Results Warm ischemic livers showed elevated transaminase levels and reduced ATP concentration. After the start of machine perfusion, transaminase levels stabilized and there was recovery of tissue ATP, coinciding with an increase in bile production. These parameters reached comparable levels to the control group after 1 h of machine perfusion. Histology and gross morphology confirmed recovery of the ischemic allografts. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that metabolic and functional parameters of livers with extended warm ischemic time (60 min) can be significantly improved using normothermic machine perfusion. We hereby compound the existing body of evidence that machine perfusion is a viable solution for reconditioning marginal organs. PMID:22099594

  11. Efficacy of Fluidized Bed Bioartificial Liver in Treating Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Pigs: A Metabolomics Study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Shao, Li; Zhao, Lifu; Lv, Guoliang; Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Anye; Li, Jianzhou; Zhou, Ning; Chen, Deying; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Bioartificial livers may act as a promising therapy for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with better accessibility and less injury compared to orthotopic liver transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fluidized bed bioartificial liver (FBBAL) and to explore its therapeutic mechanisms based on metabolomics. FHF was induced by D-galactosamine. Eighteen hours later, pigs were treated with an FBBAL containing encapsulated primary porcine hepatocytes (B group), with a sham FBBAL (containing cell-free capsules, S group) or with only intensive care (C group) for 6 h. Serum samples were assayed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The difference in survival time (51.6 ± 7.9 h vs. 49.3 ± 6.6 h) and serum metabolome was negligible between the S and C groups, whereas FBBAL treatment significantly prolonged survival time (70.4 ± 11.5h, P < 0.01) and perturbed the serum metabolome, resulting in a marked decrease in phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelinase, and fatty acids and an increase in conjugated bile acids. The FBBAL exhibits some liver functions and may exert its therapeutic effect by altering the serum metabolome of FHF pigs. Moreover, alginate-chitosan capsules have less influence on serum metabolites. Nevertheless, the alterations were not universally beneficial, revealing that much should be done to improve the FBBAL. PMID:27194381

  12. Efficacy of Fluidized Bed Bioartificial Liver in Treating Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Pigs: A Metabolomics Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Shao, Li; Zhao, Lifu; Lv, Guoliang; Pan, Xiaoping; Zhang, Anye; Li, Jianzhou; Zhou, Ning; Chen, Deying; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Bioartificial livers may act as a promising therapy for fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) with better accessibility and less injury compared to orthotopic liver transplantation. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fluidized bed bioartificial liver (FBBAL) and to explore its therapeutic mechanisms based on metabolomics. FHF was induced by D-galactosamine. Eighteen hours later, pigs were treated with an FBBAL containing encapsulated primary porcine hepatocytes (B group), with a sham FBBAL (containing cell-free capsules, S group) or with only intensive care (C group) for 6 h. Serum samples were assayed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The difference in survival time (51.6 ± 7.9 h vs. 49.3 ± 6.6 h) and serum metabolome was negligible between the S and C groups, whereas FBBAL treatment significantly prolonged survival time (70.4 ± 11.5h, P < 0.01) and perturbed the serum metabolome, resulting in a marked decrease in phosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelinase, and fatty acids and an increase in conjugated bile acids. The FBBAL exhibits some liver functions and may exert its therapeutic effect by altering the serum metabolome of FHF pigs. Moreover, alginate–chitosan capsules have less influence on serum metabolites. Nevertheless, the alterations were not universally beneficial, revealing that much should be done to improve the FBBAL. PMID:27194381

  13. The interaction of triethyltin with a component of guinea-pig liver supernatant. Evidence for histidine in the binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M. S.; Lock, E. A.

    1970-01-01

    A protein fraction was isolated from guinea-pig liver that binds triethyltin with an affinity of approx. 2×106m−1 at pH8.0. It was shown that the protein responsible for binding 70% of the triethyltin found in guinea-pig liver after injection of radioactively labelled triethyltin is at most a few per cent of the total liver protein. Evidence is presented from the kinetics of loss of binding and loss of certain amino acids on photo-oxidation with either Methylene Blue or Rose Bengal that each binding site consists of two histidine residues. PMID:5494221

  14. Liver receptor homolog 1 influences blastocyst hatching in pigs

    PubMed Central

    GUO, Jing; ZHAO, Ming-Hui; LIANG, Shuang; CHOI, Jeong-Woo; KIM, Nam-Hyung; CUI, Xiang-Shun

    2016-01-01

    Liver receptor homolog 1 (Lrh1, also known as Nr5a2) belongs to the orphan nuclear receptor superfamily and has diverse functions in development, metabolism, and cell differentiation and death. Lrh1 regulates the expression of Oct4, which is a key factor of early embryonic differentiation. However, the role of Lrh1 in early development of mammalian embryo is unknown. In the present study, the localization, Lrh1 mRNA expression, and LRH1 protein levels in porcine early parthenotes were examined by immunofluorescence and real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. To determine the role of Lrh1 in porcine early embryo development, the parthenotes were treated with the specific LRH1 antagonist 505601. The immunofluorescence signal for LRH1 was only observed in the nucleus of blastocysts. The blastocyst developmental rate in the presence of 50 and 100 μM 505601 was significantly lower than that in the control group. The blastocyst hatching rate was also reduced in the presence of 50 and 100 μM 505601 than that under control conditions. The latter effect was possibly due to the decreased expression of hatching-related genes such as Fn1, Itgα5, and Cox2 upon the inhibition of Lrh1. Incubation with the LRH1 antagonist also increased the number of apoptotic cells among the blastocysts. Moreover, LRH1 inhibition enhanced the expression of the pro-apoptotic genes Bax and Casp3, and reduced the expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2. Lrh1 inhibition also led to significant decrease in the expression levels of Oct4 mRNA and octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (OCT4) protein in the blastocysts. In conclusion, Lrh1 affects blastocyst formation and hatching in porcine embryonic development through the regulation of OCT4 expression and cell apoptosis. PMID:26971889

  15. Diet-induced dyslipidemia leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and oxidative stress in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Birck, Malene M; Ipsen, David H; Thiessen, Tina; Feldmann, Linda de Bie; Lindblad, Maiken M; Jensen, Henrik E; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Chronic dyslipidemia imposed by a high-fat and high-caloric dietary regime leads to debilitating disorders such as obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance. As disease rates surge, so does the need for high validity animal models to effectively study the causal relationship between diet and disease progression. The dyslipidemic guinea pig displays a high similarity with the human lipoprotein profile and may in this aspect be superior to other rodent models. This study investigated the effects of 2 long-term Westernized diets (0.35% cholesterol, 18.5% vegetable oil and either 15% or 20% sucrose) compared with isocaloric standard chow in adult guinea pigs. Biochemical markers confirmed dyslipidemia in agreement with dietary regimens; however, both high-fat groups displayed a decreased tissue fat percentage compared with controls. Macroscopic appearance, histopathologic evaluation, and plasma markers of liver function confirmed NAFLD in high-fat groups, supported by liver redox imbalance and markers suggesting hepatic endothelial dysfunction. Plasma markers indicated endothelial dysfunction in response to a high-fat diet, although atherosclerotic lesions were not evident. Evaluation of glucose tolerance showed no indication of insulin resistance. The 5% increase in sucrose between the 2 high-fat diets did not lead to significant differences between groups. In conclusion, we find the dyslipidemic guinea pig to be a valid model of diet imposed dyslipidemia, particularly with regards to hepatic steatosis and endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, the absence of obesity supports the present study setup as targeting NAFLD in nonobese individuals. PMID:26518991

  16. Cholesterol ester hydrolase in pig liver is activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.J.S.; Dubin, E.; Margolis, S.

    1986-05-01

    To examine whether hepatic neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) is regulated by phosphorylation, the authors have assayed CEH activity from pig liver cytosol by measuring /sup 14/C-oleate release from labeled cholesteryl oleate at pH 7.4. When pig liver cytosol was incubated with 2 mM Mg and 0.5 mM ATP, CEH activity was increased (141 +/- 8% of control, mean +/- SEM). Addition of 25..mu..M cyclic AMP (cAMP) further activated CEH activity (164 +/- 4% of control) as compared to incubation with Mg and ATP (p < 0.02). In the presence of 5 mM EDTA or in the absence of either Mg or ATP, no activation of CEH was observed. The activation was completely abolished by further incubation of activated cytosol with E. coli alkaline phosphatase. Activation of CEH activity was partially prevented by the addition of protein kinase inhibitor (p < 0.02) and this effect was completely reversed in the presence of exogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase (p < 0.05). To examine further the role of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, CEH activity was purified 240-fold by 35% (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ precipitation and Sepharose 4B chromatography. Incubation of partially purified CEH fractions with Mg, ATP and cAMP did not increase CEH activity. Addition of exogenous cAMP-dependent protein kinase activated CEH activity of partially purified fractions. The authors observations indicate that pig liver CEH is activated by phosphorylation mediated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

  17. Purification and characterization of dioscin-alpha-L-rhamnosidase from pig liver.

    PubMed

    Qian, Srguleng; Yu, Hongshan; Zhang, Chunzhi; Lu, Mingchun; Wang, Hongying; Jin, Fengxie

    2005-08-01

    Dioscin-alpha-L-rhamnosidase was isolated, purified and partially characterized from pig liver. The maximum activity was reached at pH 7, 42 degrees C, 24 h, and 2% of substrate concentration. Fe3+ and Cu2+ inhibited the enzyme; the ion Ca2+ activated it. Mg2+ was an inhibitor at 100 mM, but it was an activator at 200 mM. Zn2+ could be a weak activator of the enzyme. The molecular weight of dioscin-alpha-L-rhamnosidase was about 47 kDa as determined by the method of SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PMID:16079518

  18. Lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury in meat, liver and kidney of Swedish pigs and cattle in 1984-88.

    PubMed

    Jorhem, L; Slorach, S; Sundström, B; Ohlin, B

    1991-01-01

    During the period 1984-88 several hundred samples of meat, liver and kidney from Swedish pigs and cattle were analysed for lead, cadmium, arsenic and mercury. Analysis was performed by AAS and extensive quality assurance was carried out. The mean lead levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were less than 0.005, 0.019 and 0.016 mg/kg, respectively: the mean levels in the corresponding bovine tissues were less than 0.005, 0.047 and 0.097 mg/kg. The mean cadmium levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.001, 0.019 and 0.11 mg/kg, whilst those in the corresponding bovine tissues were 0.001, 0.070 and 0.39 mg/kg. The mean arsenic levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.024, 0.023 and 0.019, respectively and those in the corresponding bovine tissues were lower, none exceeding 0.015 mg/kg. The mean mercury levels in pig meat, liver and kidney were 0.009, 0.015 and 0.019 mg/kg respectively, while those in the corresponding bovine tissues were 0.005, 0.006 and 0.010 mg/kg. A decrease in the levels of both arsenic and mercury in pig tissues was found during the period studied, which may be due to a decrease in the use of fish meal in pig feed. PMID:1868931

  19. Therapeutic potential of transplanted placental mesenchymal stem cells in treating Chinese miniature pigs with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Stem cell-based therapy to treat liver diseases is a focus of current research worldwide. So far, most such studies depend on rodent hepatic failure models. The purpose of this study was to isolate mesenchymal stem cells from human placenta (hPMSCs) and determine their therapeutic potential for treating Chinese experimental miniature pigs with acute liver failure (ALF). Methods hPMSCs were isolated and analyzed for their purity and differentiation potential before being employed as the donor cells for transplantation. ALF models of Chinese experimental miniature pigs were established and divided into four groups: no cell transplantation; hPMSCs transplantation via the jugular vein; X-ray-treated hPMSCs transplantation via the portal vein; and hPMSCs transplantation via the portal vein. The restoration of biological functions of the livers receiving transplantation was assessed via a variety of approaches such as mortality rate determination, serum biochemical analysis, and histological, immunohistochemical, and genetic analysis. Results hPMSCs expressed high levels of CD29, CD73, CD13, and CD90, had adipogenic, osteogenic, and hepatic differentiation potential. They improved liver functions in vivo after transplantation into the D-galactosamine-injured pig livers as evidenced by the fact that ALT, AST, ALP, CHE, TBIL, and TBA concentrations returned to normal levels in recipient ALF pigs. Meanwhile, histological data revealed that transplantation of hPMSCs via the portal vein reduced liver inflammation, decreased hepatic denaturation and necrosis, and promoted liver regeneration. These ameliorations were not found in the other three groups. The result of 7-day survival rates suggested that hPMSCs transplantation via the portal vein was able to significantly prolong the survival of ALF pigs compared with the other three groups. Histochemistry and RT-PCR results confirmed the presence of transplanted human cells in recipient pig livers (Groups III, IV

  20. Pathological studies on white spots of the liver in fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, M; Yoshihara, S; Suda, H; Ikeda, K

    1983-01-01

    Hepatic lesions were found in fattening pigs derived from a farm where swine had been suffering from the multiple occurrence of white spots in the liver. They were examined at a slaughter-house for 18 months. The white spots were classified into three patterns on the basis of the macroscopic appearance; that is a compact, a mesh-worked, and a lymphonodular pattern. Histologically, the following 3 kinds of lesions were seen: (1) Eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis accompanied with intralobular necrosis, arteriolar degeneration, boring focus, granuloma and the existence of Nematoda larvae. (2) Fibrosis accompanied occasionally with infiltration of a few eosinophils and lymphocytes. (3) Lymphofollicular hyperplasia. As to the relationship between macroscopic and histologic patterns, compact white spots were generally produced by eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis. The mesh-worked pattern consisted of eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis or fibrosis, and the lymphonodular pattern of lymphofollicular hyperplasia. The incidence of eosinophilic interstitial hepatitis was relatively high over a period from July to December and rather low over a period from January to June. That of fibrosis was considerably high all the year round. Lymphofollicular hyperplasia showed no distinct seasonal incidence. Intestinal ascarids were frequently detected over a period from August to October. Pigs having CF antibody against Ascaris suum increased in number over a period from August to December. From these results, the cause of the multiple occurrence of white spots in the liver was regarded as A. suum infection. PMID:6680776

  1. Inhibition of pig liver and Zea mays L. polyamine oxidase: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Federico, R; Leone, L; Botta, M; Binda, C; Angelini, R; Venturini, G; Ascenzi, P

    2001-01-01

    Polyamine oxidase (PAO) is involved in polyamine metabolism and production of hydrogen peroxide in animal and plants, thus representing a key system in development and programmed cell death. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of amiloride, p-aminobenzamidine, clonidine, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenyl-indole (DAPI), gabexate mesylate, guazatine, and N,N'-bis(2,3-butadienyl)-1,4-butane-diamine (MDL72527) on the catalytic activity of pig liver and Zea mays L. PAO, Lens culinaris L. and Pisum sativum L. and swine kidney copper amine oxidase, bovine trypsin, as well as neuronal constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) was investigated. Moreover, agmatine and N(3) -prenylagmatine (G3) were observed to inhibit pig liver and Zea mays L. PAO, bovine trypsin, and NOS-I action, but were substrates for Lens culinaris L., Pisum sativum L. and swine kidney copper amine oxidase. Guazatine and G3 inhibited selectively Zea mays L. PAO with K(i) values of 7.5 x 10(-9) M and 1.5 x 10(-8) M, respectively (at pH 6.5 and 25.0 degrees C). As a whole, the data reported here represent examples of enzyme cross-inhibition, and appear to be relevant in view of the use of cationic L-arginine-and imidazole-based compounds as drugs. PMID:11342283

  2. Effects of a Preconditioning Oral Nutritional Supplement on Pig Livers after Warm Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Nickkholgh, Arash; Li, Zhanqing; Yi, Xue; Mohr, Elvira; Liang, Rui; Mikalauskas, Saulius; Gross, Marie-Luise; Zorn, Markus; Benzing, Steffen; Schneider, Heinz; Büchler, Markus W.; Schemmer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background. Several approaches have been proposed to pharmacologically ameliorate hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). This study was designed to evaluate the effects of a preconditioning oral nutritional supplement (pONS) containing glutamine, antioxidants, and green tea extract on hepatic warm IRI in pigs. Methods. pONS (70 g per serving, Fresenius Kabi, Germany) was dissolved in 250 mL tap water and given to pigs 24, 12, and 2 hrs before warm ischemia of the liver. A fourth dose was given 3 hrs after reperfusion. Controls were given the same amount of cellulose with the same volume of water. Two hours after the third dose of pONS, both the portal vein and the hepatic artery were clamped for 40 min. 0.5, 3, 6, and 8 hrs after reperfusion, heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), portal venous flow (PVF), hepatic arterial flow (HAF), bile flow, and transaminases were measured. Liver tissue was taken 8 hrs after reperfusion for histology and immunohistochemistry. Results. HR, MAP, CVP, HAF, and PVF were comparable between the two groups. pONS significantly increased bile flow 8 hrs after reperfusion. ALT and AST were significantly lower after pONS. Histology showed significantly more severe necrosis and neutrophil infiltration in controls. pONS significantly decreased the index of immunohistochemical expression for TNF-α, MPO, and cleaved caspase-3 (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Administration of pONS before and after tissue damage protects the liver from warm IRI via mechanisms including decreasing oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis, and necrosis. PMID:22791934

  3. Immunizing pigs with Ascaris suum hemoglobin increases the inflammatory response in the liver but fails to induce a protective immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine whether purified Ascaris suum hemoglobin (AsHb) is a suitable vaccine candidate for the control of Ascaris infections, pigs were 30 vaccinated with AsHb in combination with QuilA adjuvant and challenged with A. suum eggs. The number of liver lesions and worms in the intestine was assess...

  4. Metabolism of low concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine in isolated liver cells of the guinea pig

    SciTech Connect

    Hauber, G.; Frommberger, R.; Remmer, H.; Schwenk, M.

    1984-04-01

    Freshly isolated liver cells of guinea pig were used to study the metabolism of NDMA in the concentration range 0.05 to 100 microM. Analysis was performed using the gas chromatograph-thermal energy analyzer nitrosamine detector method and with radiolabeled NDMA. At concentrations below 10 microM, NDMA was degraded by liver cells (10 mg of protein in 2.5 ml of medium) within 20 min (at 100 microM in 80 min). The majority of metabolized methyl groups were initially associated with volatile compounds and were subsequently integrated into nonvolatile, acid-soluble molecules (57%) or liberated as CO2 (14%). Less than 2% were bound to cellular macromolecules. Ethanol inhibited NDMA degradation competitively, with a Ki of 0.8 mM ethanol. It is concluded that low concentrations of NDMA are metabolized in liver cells, primarily by the high-affinity demethylase and that there are no additional catalytic activities with Km values below 5 microM. Most of the methyl groups, released during metabolism, enter the C1 pool.

  5. The effect of vitamin E on pathological changes in kidney and liver of sulphur mustard-exposed guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein; Tabatabayee, Abbas; Amiri, Sediqa; Vahedi, Nasim

    2012-04-01

    Sulphur mustard (SM) gas is a poisonous chemical agent causing various systemic action in laboratory animals. There is no definite treatment for disorders induced by SM. In this study, the effect of vitamin E alone and in combination with dexamethasone on the pathological changes in the kidney and liver of SM-exposed (SME) guinea pigs was examined. Guinea pigs were divided into five groups (n = 5 in each). These groups were exposed to ethanol (control group), 100 mg/m(3) inhaled SM (SME group), SME treated with vitamin E, 600 mg/kg (SME + E), SME treated with dexamethasone, 5 mg/kg (SME + D), and SME treated with both drugs (SME + E + D), respectively. Pathological evaluation of the kidneys and livers was done 14 days post exposure. There were statistically significant pathological changes in the liver and kidney of SME group compared to control animals (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Treatment of SME animals with vitamin E, dexamethasone and their combination caused statistically significant improvement in the pathological changes in the livers and kidneys (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). These results showed a preventive effect of vitamin E on pathological changes in the liver and more prominently in the kidneys of SME guinea pigs. PMID:21967843

  6. The formation of mono-N-acetylhexosamine derivatives of dolichol diphosphate by pig liver microsomal fractions.

    PubMed Central

    Palamarczyk, G; Hemming, F W

    1975-01-01

    Incubation of pig liver microsomal preparations with UDP-N[U-14C]acetylglucosamine yields a 14C-labelled lipid. The requirement for Mn2+, the pH optimum, time-dependence and the reversibility by UMP of the transferase are reported. Evidence is presented in favour of the lipid being a mixture of dolichol diphosphate N-[14C]acetylglucosamine and dolichol diphosphate N-[14C]acetylmannosamine. Available data suggest that the epimerization takes place while the hexosamine is bound in this lipid-soluble form. The N-acetylmannosamine appeared not be be released into the medium. The subfractionation of the microsomal fraction to separate transferase activity from membrane-bound beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity is also reported. Images PLATE 1 PMID:239708

  7. In vitro metabolism of norbormide in rat, mouse and guinea pig liver preparations.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Shanthinie; Hopkins, Brian; Bova, Sergio; Rennison, David; Brimble, Margaret; Tingle, Malcolm

    2009-01-01

    Differences between species in response to norbormide (NRB) may arise through differential pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic properties. We hypothesise that species-selectivity is at least partly determined by differences in metabolism based on in vitro data generated in liver preparations from rats, mice and guinea pigs. HPLC separation and LC/MS identification revealed that NRB undergoes metabolism primarily to hydroxylated form that was tentatively identified in both rat and non-rat species with NADPH as the preferred cofactor. However, the metabolic profile and the rate are different between species. Gender differences are also reported in the metabolic rate in rats and we postulate that this may be responsible for different toxic sensitivities seen between sexes. Using this knowledge, we aim to develop pharmacological tool(s) for use in designing a new class of drugs that can be targeted in a tissue-selective manner. Further in vivo pharmacokinetic with receptor affinity studies are warranted. PMID:21783932

  8. The stereochemical configuration of lysobisphosphatidic acid from rat liver, rabbit lung and pig lung.

    PubMed

    Joutti, A; Brotherus, J; Renkonen, O; Laine, R; Fischer, W

    1976-11-19

    Lysobisphosphatidic acid known also as bis(monoacyl-glycerol)phosphate, was isolated from liver of rats treated with Triton WR1339, and from rabbit and pig lung. Alkaline hydrolysates of all these samples of lysobisphosphatidic acid were essentially similar and contained phosphorus, total glycerol, free glycerol, total glycerophosphates, beta-glycerophosphate, total alpha-glycerophosphates, sn-glycero-1-phosphate and sn-glycero-3-phosphate in a molar ratio of 1.0 : 2.0 : 1.0 : 1.0 :0.6 : 0.4 : 0.38 : 0.04. This proves that the backbone of the principal lysobisphosphatidic acid from all three sources has the structure of 1-sn-glycerophospho-1-sn-glycerol. PMID:990300

  9. Exploration of steroidogenesis-related genes in testes, ovaries, adrenals, liver and adipose tissue in pigs.

    PubMed

    Robic, Annie; Feve, Katia; Louveau, Isabelle; Riquet, Juliette; Prunier, Armelle

    2016-08-01

    To explore the metabolism of steroids in the pig species, a qualitative PCR analysis was performed for the main transcript of 27 genes involved in steroid metabolism. We compared samples of testes, adipose tissue and liver from immature and peripubertal males, adrenal cortex from peripubertal males, ovaries from cyclic females and adipose tissue from peripubertal females. Some genes were shown to have a tissue-specific expression. Two of them were expressed only in testes, ovaries and adrenals: CYP11A1 and CYP11B. The CYP21 and HSD17B3 genes, were expressed respectively only in adrenals and only in testes. Very few differences were observed between transcriptional patterns of peripubertal testes and adrenal glands as well as between male and female fat tissues. However, the expression of genes involved in the sulfonation of steroids was higher in testes than in adrenals from males. Main differences between ovaries and testes were observed for HSD17B1/2/3, AKR1C-pig6 and sulfotransferase genes (SULT2A1/SULT2B1). The present study shows that the SRD5A2 and CYP21 genes were not involved in the testicular biosynthesis of androstenone. It also shows that porcine adrenal glands produce essentially corticosteroids and that fat tissue is unable to produce de novo steroids. PMID:27436769

  10. Metabolism of cardiac glycosides studied in the isolated perfused guinea-pig liver

    PubMed Central

    Kolenda, K.-D.; Lüllmann, H.; Peters, T.

    1971-01-01

    1. Metabolic degradation of tritiated ouabain, digoxin, and digitoxin has been investigated quantitatively using the isolated perfused guinea-pig liver. The cardiac glycosides and their metabolites have been extracted from the plasma, liver, and bile by different solvents and identified as far as possible by radio-chromatographic analysis. 2. The total metabolic activity in the experimental system was localized in the liver. 3. The hydrophilic glycoside ouabain could not penetrate into the metabolically active compartment of the liver and was, therefore, not degraded. The more lipophilic compound digitoxin, however, was completely degraded due to its high affinity for the metabolically active sites. The unchanged digitoxin cannot enter the aqueous bile fluid in contrast to its more hydrophilic metabolites. 4. The only detectable metabolic degradation of digoxin was a conjugation with glucuronic and/or sulphuric acid, but a cleavage of sugar molecules seemed not to occur. 5. In the case of digitoxin the metabolic processes are more complicated: sugar cleavage, conjugation, and C-12 hydroxylation take place simultaneously. An immediate hydroxylation of digitoxin leading to digoxin was not observed. After administration of digitoxin conjugation products as well as digoxigenin-bis-and digoxigenin-mono-digitoxosides were present in each of the compartments investigated, but the digitoxosides of digitoxigenin were intermediates in concentrations too low to be determined indicating a very high rate of conjugation and/or C-12 hydroxylation as compared with the cleavage of the digitoxoses. 6. A scheme for the metabolic pathways of the cardiac glycosides based on experimental results is presented. The metabolic behaviour of each of the three compounds involved is closely related to their physicochemical properties, especially the lipid solubility. PMID:5579464

  11. Experimental induction of liver fibrosis in young guinea pigs by combined application of copper sulphate and aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Seffner, W; Schiller, F; Lippold, U; Dieter, H H; Hoffmann, A

    1997-08-22

    Aflatoxin B1 alone (0.05 mg resp. 0.037 mg/kg/d), copper alone (6.6 mg/kg/d or 200 mg/l drinking water) or a combination of both was administered orally for 6 months to young guinea pigs from the first/second day of life. In the copper group there were no pathomorphological changes. For the aflatoxin B1 group, liver damage was established. In the combined group, liver injury was more frequent and more severe compared to the aflatoxin B1 group and biliary copper excretion was diminished compared with the copper group. Histologically, only the livers of this group exhibited degeneration, atrophy and steatosis of liver cells, inflammatory processes and a more or less prominent fibrosis. For childhood cirrhosis (ICC and ICT) a combined etiology--a liver damaging agent plus elevated alimentary copper--is a plausible hypothesis. PMID:9334826

  12. Cloning Changes the Response to Obesity of Innate Immune Factors in Blood, Liver, and Adipose Tissues in Domestic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rødgaard, Tina; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of cloned pigs as porcine obesity models reflecting obesity-associated changes in innate immune factor gene expression profiles. Liver and adipose tissue expression of 43 innate immune genes as well as serum concentrations of six immune factors were analyzed in lean and diet-induced obese cloned domestic pigs and compared to normal domestic pigs (obese and lean). The number of genes affected by obesity was lower in cloned animals than in control animals. All genes affected by obesity in adipose tissues of clones were downregulated; both upregulation and downregulation were observed in the controls. Cloning resulted in a less differentiated adipose tissue expression pattern. Finally, the serum concentrations of two acute-phase proteins (APPs), haptoglobin (HP) and orosomucoid (ORM), were increased in obese clones as compared to obese controls as well as lean clones and controls. Generally, the variation in phenotype between individual pigs was not reduced in cloned siblings as compared to normal siblings. Therefore, we conclude that cloning limits both the number of genes responding to obesity as well as the degree of tissue-differentiated gene expression, concomitantly with an increase in APP serum concentrations only seen in cloned, obese pigs. This may suggest that the APP response seen in obese, cloned pigs is a consequence of the characteristic skewed gene response to obesity in cloned pigs, as described in this work. This should be taken into consideration when using cloned animals as models for innate responses to obesity. PMID:23668862

  13. Clofibrate causes an upregulation of PPAR-{alpha} target genes but does not alter expression of SREBP target genes in liver and adipose tissue of pigs.

    PubMed

    Luci, Sebastian; Giemsa, Beatrice; Kluge, Holger; Eder, Klaus

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of clofibrate treatment on expression of target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and various genes of the lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue of pigs. An experiment with 18 pigs was performed in which pigs were fed either a control diet or the same diet supplemented with 5 g clofibrate/kg for 28 days. Pigs treated with clofibrate had heavier livers, moderately increased mRNA concentrations of various PPAR-alpha target genes in liver and adipose tissue, a higher concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate, and markedly lower concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterol in plasma and lipoproteins than control pigs (P < 0.05). mRNA concentrations of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP)-1 and -2, insulin-induced genes (Insig)-1 and Insig-2, and the SREBP target genes acetyl-CoA carboxylase, 3-methyl-3-hydroxyglutaryl-CoA reductase, and low-density lipoprotein receptor in liver and adipose tissue and mRNA concentrations of apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, and C-III in the liver were not different between both groups of pigs. In conclusion, this study shows that clofibrate treatment activates PPAR-alpha in liver and adipose tissue and has a strong hypotriglyceridemic and hypocholesterolemic effect in pigs. The finding that mRNA concentrations of some proteins responsible for the hypolipidemic action of fibrates in humans were not altered suggests that there were certain differences in the mode of action compared with humans. It is also shown that PPAR-alpha activation by clofibrate does not affect hepatic expression of SREBP target genes involved in synthesis of triglycerides and cholesterol homeostasis in liver and adipose tissue of pigs. PMID:17363680

  14. Expression of Innate Immune Response Genes in Liver and Three Types of Adipose Tissue in Cloned Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Rødgaard, Tina; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Stagsted, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The pig has been proposed as a relevant model for human obesity-induced inflammation, and cloning may improve the applicability of this model. We tested the assumptions that cloning would reduce interindividual variation in gene expression of innate immune factors and that their expression would remain unaffected by the cloning process. We investigated the expression of 40 innate immune factors by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR in samples from liver, abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and neck SAT in cloned pigs compared to normal outbred pigs. The variation in gene expression was found to be similar for the two groups, and the expression of a small number of genes was significantly affected by cloning. In the VAT and abdominal SAT, six out of seven significantly differentially expressed genes were downregulated in the clones. In contrast, most differently expressed genes in both liver and neck SAT were upregulated (seven out of eight). Remarkably, acute phase proteins (APPs) dominated the upregulated genes in the liver, whereas APP expression was either unchanged or downregulated in abdominal SAT and VAT. The general conclusion from this work is that cloning leads to subtle changes in specific subsets of innate immune genes. Such changes, even if minor, may have phenotypic effects over time, e.g., in models of long-term inflammation related to obesity. PMID:22928970

  15. Effects of ischemic preconditioning in a pig model of large-for-size liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Antonio José Gonçalves; Tannuri, Ana Cristina Aoun; Belon, Alessandro Rodrigo; Guimarães, Raimundo Renato Nunes; Coelho, Maria Cecília Mendonça; de Oliveira Gonçalves, Josiane; Serafini, Suellen; de Melo, Evandro Sobroza; Tannuri, Uenis

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In most cases of pediatric liver transplantation, the clinical scenario of large-for-size transplants can lead to hepatic dysfunction and a decreased blood supply to the liver graft. The objective of the present experimental investigation was to evaluate the effects of ischemic preconditioning on this clinical entity. METHODS: Eighteen pigs were divided into three groups and underwent liver transplantation: a control group, in which the weights of the donors were similar to those of the recipients, a large-for-size group, and a large-for-size + ischemic preconditioning group. Blood samples were collected from the recipients to evaluate the pH and the sodium, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. In addition, hepatic tissue was sampled from the recipients for histological evaluation, immunohistochemical analyses to detect hepatocyte apoptosis and proliferation and molecular analyses to evaluate the gene expression of Bax (pro-apoptotic), Bcl-XL (anti-apoptotic), c-Fos and c-Jun (immediate-early genes), ischemia-reperfusion-related inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-alpha and IL-6, which is also a stimulator of hepatocyte regeneration), intracellular adhesion molecule, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (a mediator of the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning) and TGF-beta (a pro-fibrogenic cytokine). RESULTS: All animals developed acidosis. At 1 hour and 3 hours after reperfusion, the animals in the large-for-size and large-for-size + ischemic preconditioning groups had decreased serum levels of Na and increased serum levels of K and aspartate aminotransferase compared with the control group. The molecular analysis revealed higher expression of the Bax, TNF-alpha, I-CAM and TGF-beta genes in the large-for-size group compared with the control and large-for-size + ischemic preconditioning groups. Ischemic preconditioning was responsible for an increase in c-Fos, IL-1, IL-6 and e-NOS gene expression. CONCLUSION

  16. Quantification of Hepatitis E Virus in Naturally-Contaminated Pig Liver Products.

    PubMed

    Martin-Latil, Sandra; Hennechart-Collette, Catherine; Delannoy, Sabine; Guillier, Laurent; Fach, Patrick; Perelle, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the cause of self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans, is widespread and endemic in many parts of the world. The foodborne transmission of HEV has become of concern due to the identification of undercooked pork products as a risk factor for infection. Foodborne enteric viruses are conventionally processed by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), which gives sensitive and quantitative detection results. Recently, digital PCR (dPCR) has been described as a novel approach to genome quantification with no need for a standard curve. The performance of microfluidic digital RT-PCR (RT-dPCR) was compared to RT-qPCR when detecting HEV in pig liver products. The sensitivity of the RT-dPCR assay was similar to that of RT-qPCR, and quantitative data obtained by both detection methods were not significantly different for almost all samples. This absolute quantification approach may be useful for standardizing quantification of HEV in food samples and may be extended to quantifying other human pathogens in food samples. PMID:27536278

  17. The Effects of Exogenous Administration of Human Coagulation Factors Following Pig-to-Baboon Liver Xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alvarez, N; Shah, J A; Zhu, A; Ligocka, J; Yeh, H; Elias, N; Rosales, I; Colvin, R; Cosimi, A B; Markmann, J F; Hertl, M; Sachs, D H; Vagefi, P A

    2016-06-01

    We sought to determine the effects of exogenous administration of human coagulation factors following pig-to-baboon liver xenotransplantation (LXT) using GalT-KO swine donors. After LXT, baboons received no coagulation factors (historical control, n = 1), bolus administration of a human prothrombin concentrate complex (hPCC; 2.5 mL/kg, n = 2), continuous infusion of hPCC (1.0 mL/h, n = 1) or continuous infusion of human recombinant factor VIIa (1 µg/kg per hour, n = 3). The historical control recipient demonstrated persistent thrombocytopenia despite platelet administration after transplant, along with widespread thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). In contrast, platelet levels were maintained in bolus hPCC recipients; however, these animals quickly developed large-vessel thrombosis and TMA, leading to graft failure with shortened survival. Recipients of continuous coagulation factor administration experienced either stabilization or an increase in their circulating platelets with escalating doses. Furthermore, transfusion requirements were decreased, and hepatic TMA was noticeably absent in recipients of continuous coagulation factor infusions compared with the historical control and bolus hPCC recipients. This effect was most profound with a continuous, escalating dose of factor VIIa. Further studies are warranted because this regimen may allow for prolonged survival following LXT. PMID:26613235

  18. Quantification of Hepatitis E Virus in Naturally-Contaminated Pig Liver Products

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Latil, Sandra; Hennechart-Collette, Catherine; Delannoy, Sabine; Guillier, Laurent; Fach, Patrick; Perelle, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the cause of self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans, is widespread and endemic in many parts of the world. The foodborne transmission of HEV has become of concern due to the identification of undercooked pork products as a risk factor for infection. Foodborne enteric viruses are conventionally processed by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), which gives sensitive and quantitative detection results. Recently, digital PCR (dPCR) has been described as a novel approach to genome quantification with no need for a standard curve. The performance of microfluidic digital RT-PCR (RT-dPCR) was compared to RT-qPCR when detecting HEV in pig liver products. The sensitivity of the RT-dPCR assay was similar to that of RT-qPCR, and quantitative data obtained by both detection methods were not significantly different for almost all samples. This absolute quantification approach may be useful for standardizing quantification of HEV in food samples and may be extended to quantifying other human pathogens in food samples. PMID:27536278

  19. Alkyl isocyanates as active site-directed inactivators of guinea pig liver transglutaminase.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; Whetzel, N K; Folk, J E

    1975-10-10

    Alkyl isocyanates are effective inactivators of guinea pig liver transglutaminase. Based on the specificity of the reaction the protection against inactivation by glutamine substrate, and the essential nature of calcium for the inactivation reaction, it is concluded that these reagents act as amide substrate analogs and, thus function in an active site-specific manner. Support for the contention that inactivation results from alkyl thiocarbamate ester formation through the single active site sulfhydryl group of the enzyme is (a) the loss of one free--SH group and the incorporation of 1 mol of reagent/mol of enzyme in the reaction, (b) similarity in chemical properties of the inactive enzyme derivative formed to those previously reported for another alkyl thiocarbamoylenzyme and an alkyl thiocarbamoylcysteine derivative, and (c) the finding that labeled peptides from digests of [methyl-14C]thiocarbamoyltransglutaminase and those from digests of iodoacetamide-inactivated enzyme occupy similar positions on peptide maps. Transglutaminase was found to be inactivated neither by urethan anlogs of its active ester substrates nor by urea analogs of its amide substrates. It is concluded on the basis of these findings that inactive carbamoylenzyme derivatives are formed only by direct addition of the transglutaminase active--SH group to the isocyanate C--N double bond, and not, like several serine active site enzymes, by nucleophilic displacement with urethan analogs of substrate, or by nucleophilic displacement with urea analogs of substrate. PMID:240837

  20. Activity and dynamics of an enzyme, pig liver esterase, in near-anhydrous conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, Murielle; Kurkal-Siebert, V; Dunn, Rachel V.; Tehei, M; Finney, J.L.; Smith, Jeremy C; Daniel, R. M.

    2010-10-01

    Water is widely assumed to be essential for life, although the exact molecular basis of this requirement is unclear. Water facilitates protein motions, and although enzyme activity has been demonstrated at low hydrations in organic solvents, such nonaqueous solvents may allow the necessary motions for catalysis. To examine enzyme function in the absence of solvation and bypass diffusional constraints we have tested the ability of an enzyme, pig liver esterase, to catalyze alcoholysis as an anhydrous powder, in a reaction system of defined water content and where the substrates and products are gaseous. At hydrations of 3 ( 2) molecules of water per molecule of enzyme, activity is several orders-of-magnitude greater than nonenzymatic catalysis. Neutron spectroscopy indicates that the fast ( nanosecond) global anharmonic dynamics of the anhydrous functional enzyme are suppressed. This indicates that neither hydration water nor fast anharmonic dynamics are required for catalysis by this enzyme, implying that one of the biological requirements of water may lie with its role as a diffusion medium rather than any of its more specific properties.

  1. Metabolomic and transcriptomic responses induced in the livers of pigs by the long-term intake of resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Yu, K; Zhou, L; Fang, L; Su, Y; Zhu, W

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated metabolomic and transcriptomic responses in the livers of pigs to evaluate the effects of resistant starch on the body's metabolism at the extraintestinal level. Thirty-six Duroc× Landrace × Large White growing barrows (70 d of age) were randomly allocated to either the corn starch (CS) group or the raw potato starch (RPS) group with a randomized complete block design; each group consisted of 6 replicates (pens), with 3 pigs per pen. Pigs in the CS group were offered a corn-soybean-based diet, whereas pigs in the RPS group were put on a diet in which 230 (growing) or 280 g/kg (finishing) purified CS was replaced with purified RPS during a 100-d trial. The livers of pigs were collected for metabolome and gene expression analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that compared with the CS diet, the RPS diet decreased ( < 0.05) cholesterol and palmitic acid as well as increased ( < 0.05) 3-hydroxybutyric acid, which indicated the reduction of adipose weight and fatty acid biosynthesis and the elevation of fatty acid β-oxidation. In addition, 2-ketoglutaric acid and glucose-6-phosphate were increased (< 0.05) although pyruvic acid was decreased ( < 0.05) in the RPS group, indicating the upregulated capacity of glucose phosphorylation and glycolysis. Microarray analysis showed that the mRNA expression of (), (), and () were downregulated ( < 0.05) whereas (), (), and () were upregulated ( < 0.05) in the RPS diet, indicating a decrease in fatty acid intake and synthesis and an increase in fatty acid oxidation and glycerophospholipid synthesis. The results demonstrated that the long-term consumption of RPS could modulate hepatic lipid metabolism by decreasing fatty acid synthesis as well as increasing lipid oxidation and glycerophospholipid synthesis. PMID:27065270

  2. Evaluation of the Hepa Wash® treatment in pigs with acute liver failure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mortality of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) is still unacceptably high. Available liver support systems are still of limited success at improving survival. A new type of albumin dialysis, the Hepa Wash® system, was newly introduced. We evaluated the new liver support system as well as the Molecular Adsorbent Recycling System (MARS) in an ischemic porcine model of ALF. Methods In the first study animals were randomly allocated to control (n=5) and Hepa Wash (n=6) groups. In a further pilot study, two animals were treated with the MARS-system. All animals received the same medical and surgical procedures. An intraparenchymal intracranial pressure was inserted. Hemodynamic monitoring and goal-directed fluid therapy using the PiCCO system was done. Animals underwent functional end-to-side portacaval shunt and ligation of hepatic arteries. Treatment with albumin dialysis was started after fall of cerebral perfusion pressure to 45 mmHg and continued for 8 h. Results All animals in the Hepa Wash group survived the 13-hour observation period, except for one that died after stopping treatment. Four of the control animals died within this period (p=0.03). Hepa Wash significantly reduced impairment of cerebral perfusion pressure (23±2 vs. 10±3 mmHg, p=0.006) and mean arterial pressure (37±1 vs. 24±2 mmHg, p=0.006) but had no effect on intracranial pressure (14±1 vs. 15±1 mmHg, p=0.72). Hepa Wash also enhanced cardiac index (4.94±0.32 vs. 3.36±0.25 l/min/m2, p=0.006) and renal function (urine production, 1850 ± 570 vs. 420 ± 180 ml, p=0.045) and eliminated water soluble (creatinine, 1.3±0.2 vs. 3.2±0.3 mg/dl, p=0.01; ammonia 562±124 vs. 1382±92 μg/dl, p=0.006) and protein-bound toxins (nitrate/nitrite 5.54±1.57 vs. 49.82±13.27 μmol/l, p=0.01). No adverse events that could be attributed to the Hepa Wash treatment were observed. Conclusions Hepa Wash was a safe procedure and improved multiorgan system failure in pigs with ALF. The survival

  3. Effect of a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids on the pig liver transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Szostak, Agnieszka; Ogłuszka, Magdalena; Te Pas, Marinus F W; Poławska, Ewa; Urbański, Paweł; Juszczuk-Kubiak, Edyta; Blicharski, Tadeusz; Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Dunkelberger, Jenelle R; Horbańczuk, Jarosław O; Pierzchała, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    The optimal ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is important for keeping the homeostasis of biological processes and metabolism, yet the underlying biological mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to identify changes in the pig liver transcriptome induced by a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids and to characterize the biological mechanisms related to PUFA metabolism. Polish Landrace pigs (n = 12) were fed diet enriched with linoleic acid (LA, omega-6) and α-linolenic acid (ALA, omega-3) or standard diet as a control. The fatty acid profiling was assayed in order to verify how feeding influenced the fatty acid content in the liver, and subsequently next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEG) between transcriptomes between dietary groups. The biological mechanisms and pathway interaction networks were identified using DAVID and Cytoscape tools. Fatty acid profile analysis indicated a higher contribution of PUFAs in the liver for LA- and ALA-enriched diet group, particularly for the omega-3 fatty acid family, but not omega-6. Next-generation sequencing identified 3565 DEG, 1484 of which were induced and 2081 were suppressed by PUFA supplementation. A low ratio of omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids resulted in the modulation of fatty acid metabolism pathways and over-representation of genes involved in energy metabolism, signal transduction, and immune response pathways. In conclusion, a diet enriched with omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids altered the transcriptomic profile of the pig liver and would influence animal health status. PMID:27482299

  4. Milk ceruloplasmin and its expression by mammary gland and liver in pigs.

    PubMed

    Cerveza, P J; Mehrbod, F; Cotton, S J; Lomeli, N; Linder, M C; Fonda, E G; Wickler, S J

    2000-01-15

    Concentrations of ceruloplasmin and copper in milk and blood plasma, the nature of milk ceruloplasmin, and the effects of lactation and gestation on these parameters, as well as the expression of ceruloplasmin mRNA by the mammary gland, were examined in pigs. As seen previously in humans, ceruloplasmin and copper concentrations in sow milk were much higher a few days after birth than 1 month later, averaging 26.5 and 6.6 mg ceruloplasmin/L (by immunoassay) and 1.67 and 0.34 mg total Cu/L, on days 3 and 33 postpartum, respectively. Values for ceruloplasmin oxidase activity (measured with p-phenylene diamine) were 7.8 and 1.3 nmol/min/L, respectively. Daily milk ceruloplasmin production went from 61 to 22 mg/day and daily copper output from 38 to 12 mg/day. In contrast, there was little or no variation in serum ceruloplasmin concentration during lactation or gestation, although total plasma copper was high at the end of gestation. Milk ceruloplasmin was of the same apparent size as serum ceruloplasmin, as determined by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting, and ceruloplasmin mRNAs of liver and mammary gland were indistinguishable by Northern analysis and RT-PCR of the various exons. Expression of total RNA and ceruloplasmin mRNA, as detected in biopsies of mammary gland, increased markedly upon onset of lactation and then declined during the next month in conjunction with a drop in milk ceruloplasmin production. The results indicate that milk ceruloplasmin, while being the same protein as in plasma, is not derived from the plasma but is produced by the mammary gland. PMID:10620372

  5. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanjun; Hao, Yue; Li, Jielei; Bao, Weiguang; Li, Gan; Gao, Yanli; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p < 0.05). Forty-five hepatic proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. PMID:27187351

  6. Chronic Heat Stress Induces Immune Response, Oxidative Stress Response, and Apoptosis of Finishing Pig Liver: A Proteomic Approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yanjun; Hao, Yue; Li, Jielei; Bao, Weiguang; Li, Gan; Gao, Yanli; Gu, Xianhong

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects human health, animal welfare, and livestock production. We analyzed the hepatic proteomes of finishing pigs subjected to chronic heat stress (HS), thermal neutral (TN), and restricted feed intake conditions, identifying differences between direct and indirect (via reduced feed intake) HS. Twenty-four castrated male pigs were randomly allocated to three treatments for three weeks: (1) thermal neutral (TN) (22 °C) with ad libitum feeding; (2) chronic HS (30 °C) with ad libitum feeding; and (3) TN, pair-fed to HS intake (PF). Hepatic proteome analysis was conducted using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Both HS and PF significantly reduced liver weight (p < 0.05). Forty-five hepatic proteins were differentially abundant when comparing HS with TN (37), PF with TN (29), and HS with PF (16). These proteins are involved in heat shock response and immune defense, oxidative stress response, cellular apoptosis, metabolism, signal transduction, and cytoskeleton. We also observed increased abundance of proteins and enzymes associated with heat shock response and immune defense, reduced the redox state, enhanced multiple antioxidant abilities, and increased apoptosis in HS liver. Heat-load, independent of reduced feed intake, induced an innate immune response, while food restriction caused stress and cellular apoptosis. Our results provide novel insights into the effects of chronic HS on liver. PMID:27187351

  7. Bioaccumulation of dioxin-like substances and selected brominated flame retardant congeners in the fat and livers of black pigs farmed within the Nebrodi Regional Park of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; De Filippis, Stefania Paola; Iamiceli, Anna Laura; Iacovella, Nicola; Abate, Vittorio; Aronica, Vincenzo; Di Marco, Vincenzo; di Domenico, Alessandro

    2011-02-01

    An observational study was designed to assess the bioaccumulation of polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDF), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCB), and 13 selected polybromodiphenylethers (PBDE) in autochthonous pigs reared in the Nebrodi Park of Sicily (Italy). Perirenal fat and liver samples were drawn from animals representative of three different outdoor farming systems and from wild pigs and then analyzed for the chemicals mentioned previously. The highest concentrations of PCDD + PCDF and DL-PCB were detected in the fat (0.45 and 0.35 pg World Health Organization toxicity equivalents [WHO-TE] per g of fat base [FB], respectively) and livers (12.7 and 3.28 pg WHO-TE per g FB) of the wild group, whereas the free-ranging group showed the lowest levels (0.05 and 0.03 pg WHO-TE per g FB in fat and 0.78 and 0.27 pg WHO-TE per g FB in livers). The sum of PBDE congeners was highest in wild pigs (0.52 ng/g FB in fat and 5.64 ng/g FB in livers) and lowest in the farmed group (0.14 ng/g FB in fat and 0.28 ng/g FB in livers). The contamination levels in fat and livers of outdoor pigs had mean concentration values lower than those levels reported for intensively indoor-farmed animals. In wild pigs, bioaccumulation was associated with their free grazing in areas characterized by bush fires. The results of this study aid to emphasize the quality of the environment as a factor to guarantee food safety in typical processed pig meat products, specifically from outdoor and extensive Nebrodi farming systems. PMID:21333146

  8. Fish oil attenuates liver injury caused by LPS in weaned pigs associated with inhibition of TLR4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Liu, Yulan; Zhu, Huiling; Hong, Yu; Wu, Zhifeng; Hou, Yongqing; Li, Quan; Ding, Binying; Yi, Dan; Chen, Hongbo

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated whether fish oil exerted a hepatoprotective effect in a LPS-induced liver injury model via regulation of TLR4 and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein (NOD) signaling pathways. Twenty-four piglets were used in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and the main factors included diet (5% corn oil or 5% fish oil) and immunological challenge (LPS or saline). Fish oil resulted in enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and total (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in liver. Less severe liver injury was observed in pigs fed fish oil, as evidenced by improved serum biochemical parameters and less severe histological liver damage. In addition, higher expression of liver tight junction proteins, and lower hepatocyte proliferation and higher hepatocyte apoptosis were observed in pigs fed fish oil. The improved liver integrity in pigs fed fish oil was concurrent with reduced hepatic mRNA expression of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88, IL-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 and TNF-α receptor-associated factor 6, and NOD1, NOD2 and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2, as well as reduced hepatic protein expression of NF-κB p65, leading to reduced hepatic pro-inflammatory mediators. These results indicate that fish oil improves liver integrity partially via inhibition of TLR4 and NOD signaling pathways under an inflammatory condition. PMID:23339927

  9. Purification and properties of acyl/alkyl dihydroxyacetone-phosphate reductase from guinea pig liver peroxisomes.

    PubMed

    Datta, S C; Ghosh, M K; Hajra, A K

    1990-05-15

    The peroxisomal acyl/alkyl dihydroxyacetone-phosphate reductase (EC 1.1.1.101) was solubilized and purified 5500-fold from guinea pig liver. The enzyme could be solubilized by detergents only at high ionic strengths in presence of the cosubstrate NADPH. Peroxisomes, isolated from liver by a Nycodenz step density gradient centrifugation, were first treated with 0.2% Triton X-100 to remove the soluble and a large fraction of the membrane-bound proteins. The enzyme was solubilized from the resulting residue by 0.05% Triton X-100, 1 M KCl, 0.3 mM NADPH, and 2 mM dithiothreitol in Tris-HCl buffer (10 mM) at pH 7.5. The enzyme was further purified after precipitating it by dialyzing out the KCl and then resolubilized with 0.8% octyl glucoside in 1 M KCl (plus NADPH and dithiothreitol). The second solubilized enzyme was purified to homogeneity (370-fold from peroxisomes) by gel filtration in a Sepharose CL-6B column followed by affinity chromatography on an NADPH-agarose gel matrix. NADPH-agarose was prepared by reacting periodate-oxidized NADP+ to adipic acid dihydrazide-agarose and then reducing the immobilized NADP+ with NaBH4. On sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the purified enzyme showed a single homogeneous band with an apparent molecular weight of 60,000. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be 75,000 by size exclusion chromatography. Amino acid analysis of the purified protein showed that hydrophobic amino acid comprised 27% of the molecule. The Km value of the purified enzyme for hexadecyldihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) was 21 microM, and the Vmax value in the presence of 0.07 mM NADPH was 67 mumol/min/mg. The turnover number (Kcat), after correcting for the isotope effect of the cosubstrate NADP3H, was calculated to be 6,000 mol/min/mol of enzyme, assuming the enzyme has a molecular weight of 60,000. The purified enzyme also used palmitoyldihydroxyactone phosphate as a substrate (Km = 15.4 microM, and Vmax = 75

  10. 1.0 T open-configuration magnetic resonance-guided microwave ablation of pig livers in real time

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jun; Zhang, Liang; Li, Wang; Mao, Siyue; Wang, Yiqi; Wang, Deling; Shen, Lujun; Dong, Annan; Wu, Peihong

    2015-01-01

    The current fastest frame rate of each single image slice in MR-guided ablation is 1.3 seconds, which means delayed imaging for human at an average reaction time: 0.33 seconds. The delayed imaging greatly limits the accuracy of puncture and ablation, and results in puncture injury or incomplete ablation. To overcome delayed imaging and obtain real-time imaging, the study was performed using a 1.0-T whole-body open configuration MR scanner in the livers of 10 Wuzhishan pigs. A respiratory-triggered liver matrix array was explored to guide and monitor microwave ablation in real-time. We successfully performed the entire ablation procedure under MR real-time guidance at 0.202 s, the fastest frame rate for each single image slice. The puncture time ranged from 23 min to 3 min. For the pigs, the mean puncture time was shorted to 4.75 minutes and the mean ablation time was 11.25 minutes at power 70 W. The mean length and widths were 4.62 ± 0.24 cm and 2.64 ± 0.13 cm, respectively. No complications or ablation related deaths during or after ablation were observed. In the current study, MR is able to guide microwave ablation like ultrasound in real-time guidance showing great potential for the treatment of liver tumors. PMID:26315365

  11. Effects of aqueous extract of Withania somnifera on some liver biochemical and histopathological parameters in male guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Al-Awthan, Yahya S; Hezabr, Samira M; Al-Zubairi, Aisha M; Al-Hemiri, Faten A

    2014-04-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides constitute one of the most widely used classes of pesticides being employed for both agricultural and landscape pest control. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dimethoate (DM), an organophosphorus insecticide, on some biochemical and histopathological parameters in liver of adult male guinea pigs as well as the possible role of Withania somnifera extract in attenuation of DM-induced hepatotoxicity. The animals were divided randomly into 5 groups and kept at 5 animals per group in an environmentally controlled condition with free access to food and water ad libitum. The first group was served as a control group and administered with olive oil orally; the group II received aqueous extract of W. somnifera (100 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) orally, group III, IV and V was administered with DM (14 mg kg(-1); 1/25LD50) for 21 days orally. Group IV and V received 100 mg kg(-1) of W. somnifera extract and silymarin, respectively half hour before DM administration for 21 days. DM caused a statistically significant increase in the serum level of liver enzymes (AST, ALT, ALP) when compared to control animals, whereas, W. somnifera and silymarin pre-treatment to the DM-intoxicated animals resulted in a significant normalization of the enzymes activities. On the other hand W. somnifera extract reduced the incidence of histopathological changes such as cytoplasmic vacuolization and degeneration in nuclei, rupture of epithelia lining the central vein, widened sinusoidal space and lymphocyte infiltration induced by DM treatment in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that W. somnifera aqueous extract could protect the liver against DM-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25911837

  12. Recombinant Factor VIIa Reduces Bleeding after Blunt Liver Injury in a Pig Model of Dilutional Coagulopathy under Severe Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Spronk, Henri M. H.; Braunschweig, Till; Rossaint, Rolf; Wüst, Dirk C.; van Oerle, Rene; Lauritzen, Brian; Tolba, Rene; Grottke, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Background Recombinant factor VIIa (rFVIIa) is registered for use in haemophilia with inhibitors and other rare bleeding disorders, but has also been used in various other clinical conditions to terminate life-threatening bleeding. Underlying conditions (e.g. coagulopathy) and dosing may affect treatment efficacy. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of increasing doses of rFVIIa on blood loss and coagulation assays in haemodiluted and hypothermic pigs undergoing blunt liver injury. Methods A grade III blunt liver injury was induced in 28 pigs after 70% haemodilution and cooling to 32.6–33.4°C. Ten minutes after trauma, animals randomly received placebo or 90, 180 or 360 μg/kg rFVIIa. Global coagulation parameters, thromboelastometry (TEM) and plasma thrombin generation (TG) were determined at different time points during the observation period of 120 minutes. Results Total blood loss was significantly lower following 90 μg/kg rFVIIa (1206 [1138–1470] mL) relative to placebo (2677 [2337–3068] mL; p<0.05), with no increased effect with higher dose levels of rFVIIa. Following trauma and haemodilution, coagulation was impaired relative to baseline in both TEM and TG analysis. At 60 and 120 minutes after trauma, TEM variables improved in the rFVIIa-treated animals compared with the placebo group. Similarly, rFVIIa improved coagulation kinetics in TG. As was observed with blood loss, no significant effect between different rFVIIa dose levels was found in TEM or TG. Macro- and microscopic post-mortem examination did not reveal any signs of thromboembolic events. Conclusion Early administration of 90 μg/kg rFVIIa reduced blood loss in pigs undergoing blunt liver injury even after severe haemodilution and hypothermia, with no further effect of higher dose levels. Coagulation assays showed impaired coagulation in coagulopathic animals, with a dose-independent improvement in animals treated with rFVIIa. PMID:26098426

  13. Insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and liver of neonatal pigs during endotoxemia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sepsis has been associated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, insulin resistance, and a profound suppression of muscle protein synthesis. However, lesser suppression of muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs occurs in response to endotoxin (LPS) whe...

  14. Identification of Anthocyanins in the Liver, Eye, and Brain of Blueberry-fed Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary intervention with anthocyanins may confer benefits in brain function, including vision. Research to date indicates that animals have only a limited capacity to absorb anthocyanins, compared to other types of flavonoids. Pigs, which are a suitable model for human digestive absorption, were us...

  15. Cisplatin Pharmacokinetics in Nontumoral Pig Liver Treated With Intravenous or Transarterial Hepatic Chemoembolization

    SciTech Connect

    Chabrot, Pascal; Cardot, Jean-Michel; Guibert, Pierre; Bouculat, Francois; Cassagnes, Lucie; Leger-Enreille, Anne; Buc, Emmanuel; Dechelotte, Pierre; Bommelaer, Gilles; Boyer, Louis; Abergel, Armand

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To evaluate cisplatin (CDDP) pharmacokinetics after its intravenous (IV) or intrahepatic arterial administration (IHA) in healthy pigs with or without embolization by absorbable gelatine. Material and Methods: We analysed plasmatic and hepatic drug concentration in four groups of six mini-pigs each according to the modality of administration of CDDP (1 mg/kg): IV, IHA, IHA with partial embolization using absorbable gelatine (IHA-Pe), and IHA with complete embolization (IHA-Te). Unbounded plasmatic and hepatic platinum concentrations were measured. Concentration and pharmacokinetics parameters were compared using analysis of variance. Results: For all groups, there was a rapid and biexponential decrease in free platinum concentration. Plasmatic terminal half-life (T{sub 1/2}) was significantly decreased after embolization at 191, 178, 42, and 41 min after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te administration, respectively. Maximal plasmatic concentration and systemic exposure to CDDP (AUC{sub 24}) values were significantly decreased after embolization (C{sub max}p = 0.0075; AUC{sub 24}p = 0.0053). Hepatic CDDP concentration rapidly peaked and then decreased progressively. After 24 h, the residual concentration represented 45, 47, 60, and 63 % of C{sub max}, respectively, after IV, IHA, IHA-Pe, and IHA-Te. Hepatic T{sub 1/2} and AUC{sub {infinity}} values were increased after embolization, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: This preliminary study confirms the feasibility of a pig model to study systemic and hepatic CDDP pharmacokinetics. Systemic exposure is lower after embolization, which could minimize systemic toxicity. Hepatic T{sub 1/2} elimination and hepatic exposition values are increased with IHA compared with IV administration.

  16. The transfer of mannose from guanosine diphosphate mannose to dolichol phosphate and protein by pig liver endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Richards, J. B.; Hemming, F. W.

    1972-01-01

    When pig liver microsomal preparations were incubated with GDP-[14C]mannose, 10–40% of the 14C was transferred to mannolipid and 1–3% to mannoprotein. The transfer to mannolipid was readily reversible and GDP was one of the products of the reaction. It was possible to reverse the reaction by adding excess of GDP and to show the incorporation of [14C]GDP into GDP-mannose. When excess of unlabelled GDP-mannose was added to a partially completed incubation there was a rapid transfer back of [14C]mannose from the mannolipid to GDP-mannose. The other product of the reaction, the mannolipid, had the properties of a prenol phosphate mannose. This was illustrated by its lability to dilute acid but stability to dilute alkali, and by its chromatographic properties. Dolichol phosphate stimulated the incorporation of [14C]mannose into both mannolipid and into protein, although the former effect was larger and more consistent than the latter. The incorporation of exogenous [3H]dolichol phosphate into the mannolipid, and its release, accompanied by mannose, on treatment of the mannolipid with dilute acid, confirmed that exogenous dolichol phosphate can act as an acceptor of mannose in this system. It was shown that other exogenous polyprenol phosphates (but not farnesol phosphate or cetyl phosphate) can substitute for dolichol phosphate in this respect but that they are much less efficient than dolichol phosphate in stimulating the transfer of mannose to protein. Since pig liver contained substances with the chromatographic properties of both dolichol phosphate and dolichol phosphate mannose, which caused an increase in transfer of [14C]mannose from GDP-[14C]mannose to mannolipid, it was concluded that endogenous dolichol phosphate acts as an acceptor of mannose in the microsomal preparation. The results indicate that the mannolipid is an intermediate in the transfer of mannose from GDP-mannose to protein. Some 4% of the mannose of a sample of mannolipid added to an

  17. Evolving technology in bipolar perfused radiofrequency ablation: assessment of efficacy, predictability and safety in a pig liver model.

    PubMed

    Burdío, Fernando; Navarro, Ana; Sousa, Ramón; Burdío, José M; Güemes, Antonio; Gonzalez, Ana; Cruz, Ignacio; Castiella, Tomás; Lozano, Ricardo; Berjano, Enrique; Figueras, Joan; de Gregorio, Miguel A

    2006-08-01

    Bipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation, especially with perfusion of saline, has been shown to increase volume over monopolar conventional methods. The aims of this study are to study whether this method is linked to too flattened thermal lesions and premature rise of impedance and to elucidate some safety concerns. Eighteen RF ablations were performed using a 1.8-mm-diameter bipolar applicator in the liver of nine healthy pigs through laparotomy with or without temporary vascular occlusion [the Pringle maneuver (PGM)]: group A (n=9), without PGM; group B (n=9), with PGM. Hypertonic saline solutions (3% and 20 %) were injected through the applicator at a rate of 400 ml/h during the procedure. The pigs were followed up and they were euthanased on the 15th day. Impedance, current, power output, energy output, temperatures, diameters of thermal lesion, volume, sphericity ratio of thermal lesion were correlated among groups. Impedance at the end of the procedure (50.00 Omega+/-28.39 and 52.88 Omega+/-26.77, for groups A and B, respectively) was very similar to the starting impedance (50 Omega). In a median of 1 (range, 0-6) time per RF ablation procedure a reduction of 30 W from the selected power supply was observed during the RF ablation procedure linked to a slight increase of impedance. Volume and short diameter of thermal lesion were 21.28 cm3+/-11.78 and 2.85 cm+/-0.87 for group A, 87.51 cm3+/-25.20 and 4.31 cm+/-0.65 for group B. Continuous thermal between both electrodes were described with a global sphericity ratio of 1.91. One major complication (thermal injury to the stomach) was encountered in a case of cross-sectional necrosis of the targeted liver and attributed to heat diffusion after the procedure. This method has been shown to determine: (1) the relative control of impedance during the procedure; (2) ovoid and relatively large thermal lesions with less dependence upon closest vessels. PMID:16541228

  18. Biotransformation of OH-PBDEs by pig liver microsomes: Investigating kinetics, identifying metabolites, and examining the role of different CYP isoforms.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Ya; Du, Zhongkun; Peng, Jianbiao; Mao, Liang; Gao, Shixiang

    2016-04-01

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are of great concern due to their potential risk to animal and human health. The biotransformation potential of OH-PBDEs in organisms is important for the understanding of their health risk. In the present study, the biotransformation of 3'-OH-2,4-di-BDE (3'-OH-BDE-7), 4'-OH-2,2',4-tri-BDE (4'-OH-BDE-17) and 3-OH-2,2',4,4'-tetra-BDE (3-OH-BDE-47) by pig liver microsomes was studied. Compared with their precursor PBDEs, the three OH-PBDEs were more readily biotransformed by pig liver microsomes, and the biotransformation rate followed the order: 3'-OH-BDE-7 > 4'-OH-BDE-17 > 3-OH-BDE-47. These results revealed that the biotransformation rate of OH-PBDEs was decreased with an increase in the number of bromine substituents. Cleavage of the diphenyl ether bond was the dominant pathway for biotransformation of the three OH-PBDEs by pig liver microsomes, while debromination and hydroxylation were found to be of less importance. CYP3A4 was suggested to be the specific enzyme responsible for the biotransformation of OH-PBDEs via associated inhibition assay. These findings may enrich our understanding of health risk associated with OH-PBDEs in mammals and human beings. PMID:26820782

  19. In vivo study of partial liver resection on pigs using a 1.9 μm thulium fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theisen-Kunde, D.; Wolken, H.; Danicke, V.; Brinkmann, R.; Bruch, H.; Kleemann, M.

    2011-07-01

    Dissection of liver tissue can be performed by different techniques (ultrasound, mono and bipolar dissection, water jet dissection and by stapler). In this animal study the potential of a Thulium fiber laser system was investigated for open parenchyma dissection. Based on a cw Thulium fiber laser (IPG laser GmbH, Burbach, Germany), emitting a wavelength at 1.9 μm and a maximal power at 50 W, a surgical dissection device was developed at the Medical Laser Centre Luebeck. Cw laser radiation (40 Watt) was transmitted via a 365 μm fiber with a polished distal fiber tip. Procedure was performed in contact mode; irradiance at the distal fiber tip was 38.2 kW/cm2. After general anesthesia and a median laparotomy an atypical laser resection of the liver was performed in 3 pigs. Healing process was controlled after 2-3 weeks by histological analysis (H&E staining). The final evaluation data included total resection time, blood loss, bile leakage and mass of dissected tissue. All animals treated in this study were cared for in accordance to the European convention on animal care. In general the dissection with the 1.9 μm laser radiation was easily performed. Hemostasis was highly sufficient so blood loss and bile leakage was negligible. Total resection time including hemostasis of the remaining tissue was 26 +/- 12 min. Weight of resected tissue was 17 +/- 8 g. During survival period no complications (bleeding or inflammation) occurred. After 2 weeks histology showed ongoing scar formation about 1 - 2 mm in depth of the dissected area.

  20. Oxidation Stability of Pig Liver Pâté with Increasing Levels of Natural Antioxidants (Grape and Tea)

    PubMed Central

    Pateiro, Mirian; Lorenzo, José M.; Vázquez, José A.; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the addition of increasing levels of the natural antioxidants tea (TEA) and grape seed extracts (GRA) on the physiochemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés. In addition, a synthetic antioxidant and a control batch were used, thus a total of eight batches of liver pâté were prepared: CON, BHT, TEA (TEA50, TEA200 and TEA1000) and GRA (GRA50, GRA200 and GRA1000). Pâté samples were analyzed following 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of storage. Color parameters were affected by storage period and level of antioxidant extract. Samples with TEA200 and GRA1000 levels of extracts showed lower total color difference between 0 and 24 weeks. At the end of storage period, the lower TBARs values were obtained in samples with the highest concentration on natural extract. Overall, the evolution of volatile compounds showed an increase in those ones that arise from the lipid oxidation and samples with TEA1000 extract showed the lowest values. PMID:26785340

  1. Oxidation Stability of Pig Liver Pâté with Increasing Levels of Natural Antioxidants (Grape and Tea).

    PubMed

    Pateiro, Mirian; Lorenzo, José M; Vázquez, José A; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the addition of increasing levels of the natural antioxidants tea (TEA) and grape seed extracts (GRA) on the physiochemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés. In addition, a synthetic antioxidant and a control batch were used, thus a total of eight batches of liver pâté were prepared: CON, BHT, TEA (TEA50, TEA200 and TEA1000) and GRA (GRA50, GRA200 and GRA1000). Pâté samples were analyzed following 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of storage. Color parameters were affected by storage period and level of antioxidant extract. Samples with TEA200 and GRA1000 levels of extracts showed lower total color difference between 0 and 24 weeks. At the end of storage period, the lower TBARs values were obtained in samples with the highest concentration on natural extract. Overall, the evolution of volatile compounds showed an increase in those ones that arise from the lipid oxidation and samples with TEA1000 extract showed the lowest values. PMID:26785340

  2. Genome-wide identification of quantitative trait transcripts for blood traits in the liver samples of a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 pig resource population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pan; Cui, Leilei; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Bin; Chen, Congying; Huang, Lusheng; Duan, Yanyu

    2016-08-01

    Blood cell counts are important clinical indicators for health status. The liver plays a crucial role in food digestion and metabolism and is also a blood-forming organ. Here, we conducted a whole-genome quantitative trait transcript (QTT) analysis on 497 liver samples for 16 hematological traits in a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 pig resource population. A total of 20,108 transcripts were explored to detect their association with hematological traits. By using Spearman correlation coefficients, we identified 1,267 QTTs for these 16 hematological traits at the significance threshold of P < 0.001. We found 31 candidate genes for erythrocyte and leukocyte-related traits by a look-up of human and pig genome-wide association study results. Furthermore, we constructed coexpression networks for leukocyte-related QTTs using weighted gene coexpression analysis. These QTTs were clustered into two to eight modules. The highest connection strength in intramodules was identified in a module for white blood cell count. In the module, USP18, RSAD2, and OAS1 appeared to be important genes involved in interferon-stimulated innate immune system. The findings improve our understanding of intrinsic relationships between the liver and blood cells and provide novel insights into the potential therapeutic targets of hematologic diseases. PMID:27260842

  3. Comparative transcriptomic analysis by RNA-seq to discern differential expression of genes in liver and muscle tissues of adult Berkshire and Jeju Native Pig.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Simrinder Singh; Song, Ki-Duk; Ghosh, Mrinmoy; Sharma, Neelesh; Lee, Sung Jin; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Nameun; Mongre, Raj Kumar; Adhikari, Pradeep; Kim, Jin Young; Hong, Sang Pyo; Oh, Sung Jong; Jeong, Dong Kee

    2014-08-10

    RNA-seq is being rapidly adopted for the profiling of the transcriptomes in different areas of biology, especially in the studies related to gene regulation. The discovery of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adult animals of Jeju Native Pig (JNP) and Berkshire breeds of Sus scrofa, is of particular interest for the current study. For the better understanding of the gene expression profiles of the liver and longissimus dorsi muscle, DEGs were identified via RNA-seq. Sequence reads were obtained from Illumina HiSeq2000 and mapped to the pig reference genome (Sscrofa10.2) using Tophat2. We identified 169 and 39 DEGs in the liver and muscle of JNP respectively, by comparison with Berkshire breed. Out of all identified genes, 41 genes in the liver and 9 genes in the muscle have given significant expression. Gene ontology (GO) terms of developmental process and KEGG pathway analysis showed that metabolic, immune response and protein binding were commonly enriched pathways in the two tissues. Further the heat map analysis by ArrayStar has shown the different levels of expression in JNP with respect to the Berkshire breed. The validation through real time PCR and western blotting also confirmed the differential expression of genes in both breeds. Genes pertaining to metabolic process and inflammatory and immune system are more enriched in Berkshire breed. This comparative transcriptome analysis of two tissues suggests a subset of novel marker genes which expressed differently between the JNP and Berkshire. PMID:24910116

  4. Experimental Evaluation of Early and Long-Term Effects of Microparticle Embolization in Two Different Mini-Pig Models. Part II: Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfl, S.; Stampfl, U.; Rehnitz, C.; Schnabel, Ph.; Satzl, S.; Christoph, P.; Henn, C.; Thomas, F.; Richter, G. M.

    2007-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate trisacryl-gelatin microspheres (40-120 {mu}m) for acute and chronic tissue embolization in mini-pig livers. Methods. Thirteen animals were divided into four groups: group 1 (n = 3), total arterial bed occlusion with acute procedure; groups 2 to 4, chronic superselective embolization with follow-up of 1 week (group 2, n = 1), 4 weeks (group 3, n 4) or 14 weeks (group 4, n = 5). Key endpoints were homogeneity and particle distribution in acute embolizations (group 1) and necrosis and inflammation in chronic embolizations (groups 2-4) as assessed microscopically and angiographically. Results. After liver embolization, parenchymal necrosis did not occur; only signs of vessel wall disintegration were evident. The bile ducts remained intact. A distinct foreign body reaction with sparse leukocytic infiltration and giant cells was found at 14 weeks, but no signs of major inflammation were found. Particles were seen at the presinusoidal level, but no particle transportation into the sinusoids was observed. Conclusions. Embolization in mini-pig livers, using small trisacryl-gelatin microspheres, results in vessel fibrosis without parenchymal or bile duct necrosis. The most likely explanation for preservation of the parenchyma is portal inflow. Small trisacryl-gelatin microspheres may be ideal as an adjunct for chemoembolization.

  5. The effect of a lipid-rich diet on the properties and composition of lipoprotein particles from the Golgi apparatus of guinea-pig liver.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M J; Mills, G L; Taylaur, C E

    1973-02-01

    1. A cell fraction rich in Golgi apparatus was isolated from the livers of guinea pigs fed on a lipid-rich diet (1.6% cholesterol, 15% corn oil). 2. The Golgi cisternae and secretory vesicles contained electron-dense particles which were tentatively identified as VLD (very-low-density) and LD (low-density) lipoproteins. Particles of moderate electron density, 150-500nm in diameter, were seen associated with membranous elements of the Golgi-apparatus cell fraction. Disruption of this cell fraction permitted the release of these three species of particles, which were separated into particulate lipid, and VLD and LD lipoproteins. 3. The large particles of moderate electron density, isolated as particulate lipid, were distinct from both species of Golgi particles in their chemical composition and in possessing an immunochemically unreactive apolipoprotein(s). Morphological observations suggest that the particulate lipid arose from cytoplasmic lipid droplets which were present as contaminants of the Golgi-rich fraction. 4. The chemical and immunochemical results are consistent with the suggestion that the Golgi LD particles are precursors of the VLD particles, into which they may be transformed by the addition of both triglyceride and cholesteryl ester. The present results provide further support for the proposal that the Golgi VLD particles are precursors of the serum VLD lipoproteins in the guinea pig. 5. Hepatic Golgi VLD particles isolated from guinea pigs fed on the lipid-rich diet contained significantly higher molar amounts (relative to protein) of both cholesteryl ester and triglyceride than similar particles from animals fed on a normal diet. These results suggest that the type of Golgi VLD particle produced from the LD particle is a direct consequence of the amount and composition of the dietary lipid. 6. Hepatic Golgi LD particles isolated from guinea pigs fed on different diets were similar in chemical composition and contained approx. 50% by weight of

  6. Ascorbic acid suppresses endotoxemia and NF-κB signaling cascade in alcoholic liver fibrosis in guinea pigs: A mechanistic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Abhilash, P.A.; Harikrishnan, R.; Indira, M.

    2014-01-15

    Alcohol consumption increases the small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and intestinal permeability of endotoxin. The endotoxin mediated inflammatory signaling plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. We evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA), silymarin and alcohol abstention on the alcohol induced endotoxemia and NF-κB activation cascade pathway in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Guinea pigs were administered ethanol at a daily dose of 4 g/kg b.wt for 90 days. After 90 days, ethanol administration was stopped. The ethanol treated animals were divided into abstention, silymarin (250 mg/kg b.wt) and AA (250 mg/kg b.wt) supplemented groups and maintained for 30 days. The SIBO, intestinal permeability and endotoxin were significantly increased in the ethanol group. The mRNA expressions of intestinal proteins claudin, occludin and zona occludens-1 were significantly decreased in ethanol group. The mRNA levels of inflammatory receptors, activity of IKKβ and the protein expressions of phospho-IκBα, NF-κB, TNF-α, TGF-β{sub 1} and IL-6 were also altered in ethanol group. The expressions of fibrosis markers α-SMA, α{sub 1} (I) collagen and sirius red staining in the liver revealed the induction of fibrosis. But the supplementation of AA could induce greater reduction of ethanol induced SIBO, intestinal barrier defects, NF-κB activation and liver fibrosis than silymarin. The possible mechanism may be the inhibitory effect of AA on SIBO, intestinal barrier defect and IKKβ, which decreased the activation of NF-κB and synthesis of cytokines. This might have led to suppression of HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Alcohol increases intestinal bacterial overgrowth and permeability of endotoxin. • Endotoxin mediated inflammation plays a major role in alcoholic liver fibrosis. • Ascorbic acid reduces endotoxemia, NF-κB activation and proinflammatory cytokines. • AA's action is by inhibition of SIBO, IKKβ and alteration of

  7. Differential regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and liver of neonatal pigs by leucine through an mTORC1-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Suryawan, Agus; Nguyen, Hanh V; Almonaci, Rosemarie D; Davis, Teresa A

    2012-02-28

    Neonatal growth is characterized by a high protein synthesis rate that is largely due to an enhanced sensitivity to the postprandial rise in insulin and amino acids, especially leucine. The mechanism of leucine's action in vivo is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of leucine infusion on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and liver of neonatal pigs. To evaluate the mode of action of leucine, we used rapamycin, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex-1 (mTORC1). Overnight-fasted 7-day-old piglets were treated with rapamycin for 1 hour and then infused with leucine (400 μmol·kg(-1)·h(-1)) for 1 hour. Leucine infusion increased the rate of protein synthesis, and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) phosphorylation in gastrocnemius and masseter muscles (P < 0.05), but not in the liver. The leucine-induced stimulation of protein synthesis and S6K1 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation were completely blocked by rapamycin, suggesting that leucine action is by an mTORC1-dependent mechanism. Neither leucine nor rapamycin had any effect on the activation of the upstream mTORC1 regulators, AMP-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B, in skeletal muscle or liver. The activation of eIF2α and elongation factor 2 was not affected by leucine or rapamycin, indicating that these two pathways are not limiting steps of leucine-induced protein synthesis. These results suggest that leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis in neonatal pigs by inducing the activation of mTORC1 and its downstream pathway leading to mRNA translation. PMID:22675606

  8. Potentiation of 2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123)-induced liver toxicity by ethanol in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoet, Perrine; Buchet, Jean-Pierre; Sempoux, Christine; Haufroid, Vincent; Rahier, Jacques; Lison, Dominique

    2002-12-01

    HCFC-123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane), a substitute for the banned chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), is a structural analogue of the well-known hepatotoxicant halothane. The objectives of these experiments were to investigate (1) whether, like halothane, multiple exposure increases the risk of HCFC-123-induced liver toxicity, and (2) whether ethanol, a potent CYP2E1 inducer, potentiates the liver toxicity of HCFC-123. In experiment 1, male Hartley guinea-pigs were exposed twice a week to 5000 ppm HCFC-123 (4 h) during 3 weeks followed by 2 weeks recovery, and then re-exposed or not during 4 h to 5000 ppm HCFC-123. A group with a single exposure to 5000 ppm HCFC-123 and a control group were also included. In experiment 2, guinea-pigs received 5 or 10% ethanol in drinking water during 12 days before a single 4-h exposure to 5000 ppm HCFC-123. A group receiving 10% only, a group exposed once to 5000 ppm HCFC-123 but not pre-treated with ethanol and a control group were also included. In both experiments, the liver toxicity was assessed, 24 h post-exposure, by the serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) as well as by histopathology. In experiment 2 the urinary excretion rate of the main metabolites trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and chlorodifluoroacetic acid (CDFA) was assessed and CYP2E1 activity was measured by the chlorzoxazone metabolic ratio. Multiple exposure to 5000 ppm HCFC-123 did not cause greater liver damage than a single exposure (ALT, ICDH 3-fold control values). At this level of exposure the liver lesions were totally reversible within two weeks. Ethanol consumption produced CYP2E1 induction, increased urinary excretion of both HCFC-123 metabolites (more than 2-fold the rate measured in the non-induced group) and markedly increased the liver toxicity of HCFC-123 as shown by the serum liver enzyme activities (ALT 8.5-fold increase, ICDH 13-fold increase), and the histopathology. The necrosis was predominantly

  9. Fetal liver glycogen production and glycogenic transcript expression during prenatal development from pig breeds differing in preweaning survivability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sow productivity is influenced by a number of factors including preweaning piglet mortality. In commercial pigs, low birth weight piglets exhibit the greatest susceptibility to preweaning mortality. In contrast, Meishan (MS) piglets have naturally occurring lower birth weight and also improved prewe...

  10. Liver.

    PubMed

    Kim, W R; Lake, J R; Smith, J M; Skeans, M A; Schladt, D P; Edwards, E B; Harper, A M; Wainright, J L; Snyder, J J; Israni, A K; Kasiske, B L

    2016-01-01

    The median waiting time for patients with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 18 days in 2012 to 9 days in 2014, after implementation of the Share 35 policy in June 2013. Similarly, mortality among candidates listed with MELD ≥ 35 decreased from 366 per 100 waitlist years in 2012 to 315 in 2014. The number of new active candidates added to the pediatric liver transplant waiting list in 2014 was 655, down from a peak of 826 in 2005. The number of prevalent candidates (on the list on December 31 of the given year) continued to decline, 401 active and 173 inactive. The number of deceased donor pediatric liver transplants peaked at 542 in 2008 and was 478 in 2014. The number of living donor liver pediatric transplants was 52 in 2014; most were from donors closely related to the recipients. Graft survival continued to improve among pediatric recipients of deceased donor and living donor livers. PMID:26755264

  11. Toxicity of Doxorubicin on Pig Liver After Chemoembolization with Doxorubicin-loaded Microspheres: A Pilot DNA-microarrays and Histology Study

    SciTech Connect

    Verret, Valentin Namur, Julien; Ghegediban, Saieda Homayra; Wassef, Michel; Moine, Laurence; Bonneau, Michel; Laurent, Alexandre

    2013-02-15

    The potential mechanisms accounting for the hepatotoxicity of doxorubicin-loaded microspheres in chemoembolization were examined by combining histology and DNA-microarray techniques.The left hepatic arteries of two pigs were embolized with 1 mL of doxorubicin-loaded (25 mg; (DoxMS)) or non-loaded (BlandMS) microspheres. The histopathological effects of the embolization were analyzed at 1 week. RNAs extracted from both the embolized and control liver areas were hybridized onto Agilent porcine microarrays. Genes showing significantly different expression (p < 0.01; fold-change > 2) between two groups were classified by biological process. At 1 week after embolization, DoxMS caused arterial and parenchymal necrosis in 51 and 38 % of embolized vessels, respectively. By contrast, BlandMS did not cause any tissue damage. Up-regulated genes following embolization with DoxMS (vs. BlandMS, n = 353) were mainly involved in cell death, apoptosis, and metabolism of doxorubicin. Down-regulated genes (n = 120) were mainly related to hepatic functions, including enzymes of lipid and carbohydrate metabolisms. Up-regulated genes included genes related to cell proliferation (growth factors and transcription factors), tissue remodeling (MMPs and several collagen types), inflammatory reaction (interleukins and chemokines), and angiogenesis (angiogenic factors and HIF1a pathway), all of which play an important role in liver healing and regeneration. DoxMS caused lesions to the liver, provoked cell death, and disturbed liver metabolism. An inflammatory repair process with cell proliferation, tissue remodeling, and angiogenesis was rapidly initiated during the first week after chemoembolization. This pilot study provides a comprehensive method to compare different types of DoxMS in healthy animals or tumor models.

  12. Effects on Transcriptional Regulation and Lipid Droplet Characteristics in the Liver of Female Juvenile Pigs after Early Postnatal Feed Restriction and Refeeding Are Dependent on Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Nebendahl, Constance; Krüger, Ricarda; Görs, Solvig; Albrecht, Elke; Martens, Karen; Hennig, Steffen; Storm, Niels; Höppner, Wolfgang; Pfuhl, Ralf; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Hammon, Harald M.; Metges, Cornelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that caloric restriction in early postnatal life may improve liver lipid metabolism in low birth weight individuals. The present study investigated transcriptional and metabolic responses to low (U) and normal (N) birth weight (d 75, T1) and postnatal feed restriction (R, 60% of controls, d 98, T2) followed by subsequent refeeding until d 131 of age (T3). Liver tissue studies were performed with a total of 42 female pigs which were born by multiparous German landrace sows. Overall, 194 genes were differentially expressed in the liver of U vs. N (T1) animals with roles in lipid metabolism. The total mean area and number of lipid droplets (LD) was about 4.6- and 3.7 times higher in U compared to N. In U, the mean LD size (µm2) was 24.9% higher. 3-week feed restriction reduced total mean area of LDs by 58.3 and 72.7% in U and N, respectively. A functional role of the affected genes in amino acid metabolism was additionally indicated. This was reflected by a 17.0% higher arginine concentration in the liver of UR animals (vs. NR). To evaluate persistency of effects, analyses were also done after refeeding period at T3. Overall, 4 and 22 genes show persistent regulation in U and N animals after 5 weeks of refeeding, respectively. These genes are involved in e.g. processes of lipid and protein metabolism and glucose homeostasis. Moreover, the recovery of total mean LD area in U and N animals back to the previous T1 level was observed. However, when compared to controls, the mean LD size was still reduced by 23.3% in UR, whereas it was increased in NR (+24.7%). The present results suggest that short-term postnatal feed restriction period programmed juvenile U animals for an increased rate of hepatic lipolysis in later life. PMID:24260100

  13. In vivo effects of 3-methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital, pyrethrum and 2,4,5-T isooctylester on liver, lung and kidney microsomal mixed-function oxidase system of guinea-pig: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Işcan, M; Arinç, E; Vural, N; Işcan, M Y

    1984-01-01

    The optimum conditions (pH, microsomal protein amount and substrate concentration) of guinea-pig liver, lung and kidney microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase, ethylmorphine N-demethylase and benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase activities were determined. Male guinea-pigs weighing 500-700 g were administered 3-methylcholanthrene (25 mg/kg, i.p. 3 days), phenobarbital (75 mg/kg, i.p. 3 days), pyrethrum (120 mg/kg, i.p. 2 days) and 2,4,5-T isooctylester (200 mg/kg, i.p. 3 days). 3-Methylcholanthrene treatment caused significant increases in liver microsomal benzo[a]pyrene hydroxylase and kidney microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase activities. However, with phenobarbital treatment the only significant increase was observed in liver microsomal ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity. Pyrethrum treatment decreased kidney microsomal ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity significantly. 2,4,5-T isooctylester treatment increased liver microsomal aniline 4-hydroxylase and lung microsomal ethylmorphine N-demethylase activities significantly. Liver microsomal NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity was increased significantly by phenobarbital and pyrethrum treatment. The other treatments did not cause any significant changes in microsomal NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activities of liver, lung and kidney. Cytochrome P-450 content of guinea-pig liver microsomes were increased significantly about 2.5-fold and 2-fold by treatment with 3-methylcholanthrene and phenobarbital, respectively. 3-Methylcholanthrene also caused 1 nm spectral shift in the absorption maxima of CO difference spectrum of the dithionite-reduced liver microsomal cytochrome P-450, forming P-449. PMID:6141874

  14. High-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for the treatment of colorectal liver metastases during an open procedure: study on the pig

    PubMed Central

    Parmentier, Hubert; Melodelima, David; N'Djin, William Apoutou; Chesnais, Sabrina; Chapelon, Jean Yves; Rivoire, Michel

    2009-01-01

    Objective : To demonstrate in a porcine model that high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with toroidshaped emitters may have a role in treating unresectable colorectal liver metastases. Summary Background Data : Surgical resection is the only curative option for colorectal hepatic metastases. Only 20% of patients are suitable for surgery. Many ablative techniques have been assessed but several limitations have been documented: traumatic puncture of the parenchyma, limited size of lesions and inability to monitor the treatment in real time. Methods : A HIFU device with 256 toroid-shaped emitters and integrated ultrasound imaging probe was used. Single lesions, induced in 40 seconds, and juxtaposition of 6 single lesions were created under ultrasound guidance on 13 pigs. The lesions were studied on sonograms, macroscopically and microscopically up to 30 days after the treatment. Results : Ninety percent of the HIFU lesions were immediately hypoechoic on ultrasound imaging. The average coagulated volume obtained from a 40 s total exposure in the liver was 7.0 ± 2.5 cm3 (1.5 – 20.0), average diameter: 19.5 ± 3.8 mm (10.0 – 29.0). Using the real-time visualisation of the treated region, single lesions were easily juxtaposed in order to produce larger lesions up to 6 cm in diameter without any major complication. Conclusions : This toroid HIFU device allows short treatment times, non-invasiveness regarding the liver and real time ultrasound guidance. It appears to be simpler and more reliable to use than current ablative methods. Additionally, lesions through large vessels (up to 5 mm) being feasible, treatment of some juxta-vascular metastases should be possible. PMID:19106688

  15. Cerebral microdialysis reflects the neuroprotective effect of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption in acute liver failure better and earlier than intracranial pressure: a controlled study in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cerebral edema is a well-recognized and potentially fatal complication of acute liver failure (ALF). The effectiveness of treatments that address intracranial hypertension is generally assessed by measuring intracranial pressure (ICP). The aim of this study was to determine the role of cerebral microdialysis in monitoring the efficacy of fractionated plasma separation and adsorption (FPSA) treatment for ALF. We hypothesized that in ALF cerebral microdialysis reflects the benefits of FPSA treatment on cerebral edema before ICP. Methods A surgical resection model of ALF was used in 21 pigs. We measured plasma ammonia concentration, brain concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate and glutamine, and ICP. Animals were randomized into three groups: in one group eight animals received 6 hours of FPSA treatment 2 hours after induction of ALF; in another group 10 animals received supportive treatment for ALF only; and in the final group three underwent sham surgery. Results The ICP was significantly higher in the ALF group than in the FPSA group 9 hours after surgery. The lactate/pyruvate (L/P) ratio was significantly lower in the FPSA group than the ALF group 5 hours after surgery, before any significant difference in ICP was detected. Indeed, significant changes in the L/P ratio could be observed within 1 hour of treatment. Glutamine levels were significantly lower in the FPSA group than the ALF group between 6 hours and 10 hours after surgery. Conclusions Brain lactate/pyruvate ratio and concentration of glutamine measured by cerebral microdialysis reflected the beneficial effects of FPSA treatment on cerebral metabolism more precisely and rapidly than ICP in pigs with fulminant ALF. The role of glutamine as a marker of the efficacy of FPSA treatment for ALF appears promising, but needs further evaluation. PMID:23758689

  16. Enteral bile acid treatment improves parenteral nutrition-related liver disease and intestinal mucosal atrophy in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is essential for patients with impaired gut function but leads to parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). TPN disrupts the normal enterohepatic circulation of bile acids, and we hypothesized that it would decrease intestinal expression of the newly des...

  17. Immunobiology of liver xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ekser, Burcin; Burlak, Christopher; Waldman, Joshua P; Lutz, Andrew J; Paris, Leela L; Veroux, Massimiliano; Robson, Simon C; Rees, Michael A; Ayares, David; Gridelli, Bruno; Tector, A Joseph; Cooper, David KC

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are currently the preferred species for future organ xenotransplantation. With advances in the development of genetically modified pigs, clinical xenotransplantation is becoming closer to reality. In preclinical studies (pig-to-nonhuman primate), the xenotransplantation of livers from pigs transgenic for human CD55 or from α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout pigs+/− transgenic for human CD46, is associated with survival of approximately 7–9 days. Although hepatic function, including coagulation, has proved to be satisfactory, the immediate development of thrombocytopenia is very limiting for pig liver xenotransplantation even as a ‘bridge’ to allotransplantation. Current studies are directed to understand the immunobiology of platelet activation, aggregation and phagocytosis, in particular the interaction between platelets and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatocytes and Kupffer cells, toward identifying interventions that may enable clinical application. PMID:23078060

  18. Detection of leptospiral antigen (L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae) by immunoelectron microscopy in the liver and kidney of experimentally infected guinea-pigs.

    PubMed Central

    De Brito, T.; Prado, M. J.; Negreiros, V. A.; Nicastri, A. L.; Sakata, E. E.; Yasuda, P. H.; Santos, R. T.; Alves, V. A.

    1992-01-01

    Guinea-pigs were experimentally infected with L. interrogans serovar copenhageni serogroup Icterohaemorrhagiae and their liver and kidney were studied by immunoelectron microscopy using the post embedding indirect immunogold labelling technique. Primary antibody was a purified rabbit anti-serum produced against the same leptospiral strain used in the inoculum. Gold-labelled leptospiral antigen (LAg) was found close to cell membranes of hepatocytes, kidney tubular cells and endothelial cells of the interstitial capillaries of the kidney. Afterwards it was internalized by hepatic and tubular cells, and eventually found in lysosomes. Phagolysosomes of Kupffer cells were also found to contain remnants of degraded leptospires and gold-labelled LAg. Gold-labelled intact leptospires were detected at the enlarged intercellular spaces between hepatocytes at the areas of hepatic cell plate disarray, showing the potential for leptospiral migration during the septicaemic phase of the disease potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of the lesions. The affinity of leptospiral antigenic material for cell membranes suggests an initial interaction with cell surface proteins followed by its internalization and cell damage. The nature of antigenic material detected, however, remains undefined; it may be a toxin, an enzyme or any other factor/s involved in leptospiral virulence. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:1419779

  19. Transplantable liver production plan: "Yamaton"--liver project, Japan.

    PubMed

    Hata, Toshiyuki; Uemoto, Shinji; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2013-10-01

    Organ grafts developed in the xenogeneic pig scaffold are expected to resolve most issues of donor safety and ethical concerns about living-donor liver transplantation in Japan. We have been working on so-called "Yamaton" projects to develop transplantable organs using genetically engineered pigs. Our goal is to produce chimeric livers with human parenchyma in such pigs. The Yamaton-Liver project demonstrated the proof of concept by showing that rat-mouse chimeric livers could develop in mice and be successfully transplanted into syngeneic or allogeneic rats. Under conventional immunosuppression, the transplanted livers showed long-term function and protection against rejection. Because chimeric liver grafts have xenogeneic components, additional strategies, such as humanization of pig genes, induction of hematopoietic chimeras in donors, and replacement of pig endothelial cells with human ones, might be required in clinical use. Our projects still need to overcome various hurdles but can bring huge benefits to patients in the future. PMID:23896578

  20. Cloned Genomic DNA of Type 2 Porcine Circovirus Is Infectious When Injected Directly into the Liver and Lymph Nodes of Pigs: Characterization of Clinical Disease, Virus Distribution, and Pathologic Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Fenaux, M.; Halbur, P. G.; Haqshenas, G.; Royer, R.; Thomas, P.; Nawagitgul, P.; Gill, M.; Toth, T. E.; Meng, X. J.

    2002-01-01

    . Histopathological lesions and PCV2-specific antigen were detected in numerous tissues and organs, including brain, lung, heart, kidney, tonsil, lymph nodes, spleen, ileum, and liver of infected pigs. This study more definitively characterizes the clinical course and pathologic lesions exclusively attributable to PCV2 infection. The data from this study indicate that the cloned PCV2 genomic DNA may replace infectious virus for future PCV2 pathogenesis and immunization studies. The data also suggest that PCV2, although essential for development of PMWS, may require other factors or agents to induce the full spectrum of clinical signs and lesions associated with advanced cases of PMWS. PMID:11752145

  1. The potential effects of antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of corn naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on antioxidant systems in the intestinal mucosa, plasma, and liver in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Van Le Thanh, Bich; Lemay, Michel; Bastien, Alexandre; Lapointe, Jérôme; Lessard, Martin; Chorfi, Younès; Guay, Frédéric

    2016-05-01

    Seventy-two piglets (6.0 kg BW) were randomly distributed within six different dietary treatments to evaluate the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) and the potential of four antioxidant feed additives in mitigating the adverse effects of DON on growth performances and oxidative status. Dietary treatments were as follows: control diet 0.8 mg/kg DON; contaminated diet (DON-contaminated diet) 3.1 mg/kg DON; and four contaminated diets, each supplemented with a different antioxidant feed additive, DON + vitamins, DON + organic selenium (Se)/glutathione (GSH), DON + quercetin, and DON + COMB (vitamins + Se/GSH + quercetin from the other treatments). Although DON was the main mycotoxin in the contaminated diet, this diet also contained 1.8 mg/kg of zearalenone (ZEN). The "mycotoxin" effects therefore included the combined effect of these two mycotoxins, DON, and ZEN. The DON-ZEN ingestion did not affect growth performances, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed efficiency (G:F ratio), but partially induced oxidative stress in weaned pigs as shown by increased malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the plasma and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in liver (P < 0.05). However, no change in the activity of other antioxidant enzymes or GSH concentrations was observed in plasma and liver of piglets fed the DON-contaminated diet (P > 0.05). Supplementation with individual antioxidant feed additive had a limited effect in weaned pigs fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Combination of antioxidants (vitamins A, C, and E, quercetin, and organic Se/GSH) reduced plasma and liver MDA content and SOD activity in liver (P < 0.05) of piglets fed DON-ZEN-contaminated diets. Furthermore, this combination also reduced MDA content in the ileum (P < 0.05), although activity of glutathione peroxidases (GPx), SOD or catalase (CAT) in the ileum was not affected by DON-ZEN contamination or antioxidant supplements. In conclusion, DON-ZEN contamination induced

  2. HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide as new T-2 toxin metabolite: enzymatic synthesis, analysis, and species specific formation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides by rat, mouse, pig, and human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Welsch, Tanja; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2012-10-10

    Glucuronides of the mycotoxin T-2 toxin and its phase I metabolite HT-2 toxin are important phase II metabolites under in vivo and in vitro conditions. Since standard substances are essential for the direct quantitation of these glucuronides, a method for the enzymatic synthesis of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides employing liver microsomes was optimized. Structure elucidation by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry revealed that besides T-2 toxin glucuronide and HT-2 toxin 3-glucuronide also the newly identified isomer HT-2 toxin 4-glucuronide was formed. Glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin in liver microsomes of rat, mouse, pig, and human was compared and metabolites were analyzed directly by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A distinct, species specific pattern of glucuronidation of T-2 and HT-2 toxin was observed with interesting interindividual differences. Until recently, glucuronides have frequently been analyzed indirectly by quantitation of the aglycone after enzymatic cleavage of the glucuronides by β-glucuronidase. Therefore, the hydrolysis efficiencies of T-2 and HT-2 toxin glucuronides using β-glucuronidases from Helix pomatia, bovine liver, and Escherichia coli were compared. PMID:22967261

  3. Microarray gene expression profiles of fasting induced changes in liver and adipose tissues of pigs expressing the melanocortin-4 receptor D298N variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling was used to identify porcine genes and pathways that respond to a fasting in pigs that express the missense mutation (D298N) in the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) gene, which has been associated with increased growth and feed efficiency. Prepubertal gilts (n=24; 12 wildtype...

  4. Gene expression in hypothalamus, liver and adipose tissues and food intake reponse to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist in pigs expressing MC4R mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genetic mechanisms that respond to alpha- melanocortin stimulating hormone (MSH), a melanocortin-3 and 4-receptor (MC3/4-R) agonist. Three MC4R genotypes (2 homozygous and the heterozygous for MC4R) were selected. Six pigs per genotype per treatment wer...

  5. Gene expression in hypothalamus, liver and adipose tissues and feed intake response to melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist in pigs expressing (MC4R) mutations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transcriptional profiling was used to identify genes and pathways that responded to intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) agonist, NDP-MSH, in pigs homozygous for the missense mutation in the MC4R, D298 allele (n = 12), N298 allele (n = 12) or heterozygous (n = 12...

  6. Rescue of a genotype 4 human hepatitis E virus from cloned cDNA and characterization of intergenotypic chimeric viruses in cultured human liver cells and in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Córdoba, Laura; Feagins, Alicia R.; Opriessnig, Tanja; Cossaboom, Caitlin M.; Dryman, Barbara A.; Huang, Yao-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an important but extremely understudied human pathogen. Genotypes 1 and 2 are restricted to humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 are zoonotic, infecting both humans and pigs. This report describes, for the first time, the successful rescue of infectious HEV in vitro and in vivo from cloned cDNA of a genotype 4 human HEV (strain TW6196E). The complete genomic sequence of the TW6196E virus was determined and a full-length cDNA clone (pHEV-4TW) was assembled. Capped RNA transcripts from the pHEV-4TW clone were replication competent in Huh7 cells and infectious in HepG2/C3A cells. Pigs inoculated intrahepatically with capped RNA transcripts from pHEV-4TW developed an active infection, as evidenced by faecal virus shedding and seroconversion, indicating the successful rescue of infectious genotype 4 HEV and cross-species infection of pigs by a genotype 4 human HEV. To demonstrate the utility of the genotype 4 HEV infectious clone and to evaluate the potential viral determinant(s) for species tropism, four intergenotypic chimeric clones were constructed by swapping various genomic regions between genotypes 1 and 4, and genotypes 1 and 3. All four chimeric clones were replication competent in Huh7 cells, but only the two chimeras with sequences swapped between genotypes 1 and 4 human HEVs produced viruses capable of infecting HepG2/C3A cells. None of the four chimeras was able to establish a robust infection in pigs. The availability of a genotype 4 HEV infectious clone affords an opportunity to delineate the molecular mechanisms of HEV cross-species infection in the future. PMID:22837416

  7. Investigations on the liver toxicity of a blend of HCFC-123 (2,2-dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane) and HCFC-124 (2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane) in guinea-pigs.

    PubMed

    Hoet, P; Buchet, J P; Sempoux, C; Nomiyama, T; Rahier, J; Lison, D

    2001-07-01

    2,2-Dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123) has been developed as a substitute for ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). It is a structural analogue of halothane and similarities in the metabolic pathways and liver toxicity of both compounds have been described. The present study was initiated after an accidental outbreak of hepatitis in an industrial setting to examine whether concomitant exposure to 2-chloro-1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HCFC-124), which is not hepatotoxic, could enhance the liver toxicity of HCFC-123. Male Hartley guinea-pigs were exposed for 4 h to 5,000 ppm HCFC-123 alone or blended with 5,000 ppm HCFC-124, either once (single exposure) or on 5 consecutive days (repeated exposure). The animals were killed either 24 or 48 h after the last exposure. A transient cytolytic action of HCFC-123 was evident by increased mean serum levels of alanine aminotransferase at 24 h and isocitrate dehydrogenase at 24 and 48 h, both after a single or repeated exposure. The liver toxicity of HCFC-123 was confirmed by pathological examination of liver tissue, which showed mild (foci of necrotic hepatocytes) to moderate (multifocal random degeneration and necrosis) damage. Steatosis was also observed and was more pronounced after repeated exposure than after single. One animal out of 6 that were repeatedly exposed to the blend and sacrificed at 24 h showed liver lesions similar to halothane hepatitis. Although a few other animals responded markedly in the blend-treated group, on average, no significant difference in the biochemical or pathological lesions was found between the groups treated with HCFC-123 alone or with the blend. Urinary excretion of trifluoroacetic acid and chlorodifluoroacetic acid increased dose-dependently upon exposure to HCFC-123 and indicated accumulation after repeated exposure. No difference in metabolite excretion was found between animals treated with HCFC-123 alone or blended with HCFC-124. Treatment with HCFC-123 depleted hepatic

  8. Vitamin E in new-generation lipid emulsions protects against parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease in parenteral nutrition-fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parenteral nutrition (PN) in preterm infants leads to PN-associated liver disease (PNALD). PNALD has been linked to serum accumulation of phytosterols that are abundant in plant oil but absent in fish oil emulsions. Whether modifying the phytosterol and vitamin E composition of soy and fish oil lipi...

  9. Experimental evidence of hepatitis A virus infection in pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Jo; Park, Woo-Jung; Park, Byung-Joo; Kwak, Sang-Woo; Kim, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Seo, Kun-Ho; Kang, Young-Sun; Park, Choi-Kyu; Song, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Soo

    2016-04-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the leading cause of acute viral hepatitis worldwide, with HAV infection being restricted to humans and nonhuman primates. In this study, HAV infection status was serologically determined in domestic pigs and experimental infections of HAV were attempted to verify HAV infectivity in pigs. Antibodies specific to HAV or HAV-like agents were detected in 3.5% of serum samples collected from pigs in swine farms. When the pigs were infected intravenously with 2 × 10(5) 50% tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50 ) of HAV, shedding of the virus in feces, viremia, and seroconversion were detected. In pigs orally infected with the same quantity of HAV, viral shedding was detected only in feces. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver and bile of intravenously infected pigs, but only in the bile of orally infected pigs. In further experiments, pigs were intravenously infected with 6 × 10(5) TCID50 of HAV. Shedding of HAV in feces, along with viremia and seroconversion, were confirmed in infected pigs but not in sentinel pigs. HAV genomic RNA was detected in the liver, bile, spleen, lymph node, and kidney of the infected pigs. HAV antigenomic RNA was detected in the spleen of one HAV-infected pig, suggesting HAV replication in splenic cells. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the livers of infected pigs but not in controls. This is the first experimental evidence to demonstrate that human HAV strains can infect pigs. PMID:26381440

  10. Liver metastases

    MedlinePlus

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic; Colorectal cancer - liver metastases; Colon cancer - liver metastases; Esophageal cancer - liver metastases; Lung cancer - liver metastases; Melanoma - liver metastases

  11. Effect of addition of green tea, chestnut and grape extract on the shelf-life of pig liver pâté.

    PubMed

    Pateiro, M; Lorenzo, J M; Amado, I R; Franco, D

    2014-03-15

    The effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut and grape seed extracts) on physico-chemical and oxidative stability of refrigerated stored pig pâtés was studied. This effect was compared with that showed by the synthetic antioxidant BHT. Pâté samples were analysed at 0, 4, 8 and 24 weeks of refrigerated storage (4°C). Colour parameters were affected by storage period and antioxidant extract. Samples with CHE and GRA extracts showed lower total colour difference between 0 and 24 weeks. The amount of TBARS gradually increased during refrigerated storage with the exception of pâtés that have CHE extract in composition. At the sampling end point, the lower TBARS values were obtained in samples with TEA and GRA extracts. Finally, the evolution of volatile compounds during storage showed an increase in the lipid-derived volatile values after refrigerated storage, since samples with TEA and GRA extract showed the lowest values. PMID:24206734

  12. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France.

    PubMed

    Jori, Ferran; Laval, Morgane; Maestrini, Oscar; Casabianca, François; Charrier, François; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%-31.6%) of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%-56.7%) of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%-91.9%) of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid) act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation. PMID:27556478

  13. Assessment of Domestic Pigs, Wild Boars and Feral Hybrid Pigs as Reservoirs of Hepatitis E Virus in Corsica, France

    PubMed Central

    Jori, Ferran; Laval, Morgane; Maestrini, Oscar; Casabianca, François; Charrier, François; Pavio, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    In Corsica, extensive pig breeding systems allow frequent interactions between wild boars and domestic pigs, which are suspected to act as reservoirs of several zoonotic diseases including hepatitis E virus (HEV). In this context, 370 sera and 166 liver samples were collected from phenotypically characterized as pure or hybrid wild boars, between 2009 and 2012. In addition, serum and liver from 208 domestic pigs belonging to 30 farms were collected at the abattoir during the end of 2013. Anti-HEV antibodies were detected in 26% (21%–31.6%) of the pure wild boar, 43.5% (31%–56.7%) of hybrid wild boar and 88% (82.6%–91.9%) of the domestic pig sera. In addition, HEV RNA was detected in five wild boars, three hybrid wild boars and two domestic pig livers tested. Our findings provide evidence that both domestic pig and wild boar (pure and hybrid) act as reservoirs of HEV in Corsica, representing an important zoonotic risk for Corsican hunters and farmers but also for the large population of consumers of raw pig liver specialties produced in Corsica. In addition, hybrid wild boars seem to play an important ecological role in the dissemination of HEV between domestic pig and wild boar populations, unnoticed to date, that deserves further investigation. PMID:27556478

  14. Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg. PMID:24713198

  15. Salinomycin residues and their ionophoricity in pig tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Dimenna, G.P.; Lyon, F.S.; Creegan, J.A. ); Wright, G.J. ); Wilkes, L.C. ); Johnson, D.E.; Szymanski, T. )

    1990-04-01

    The effect of pretreatment with medicated feed on ({sup 14}C) salinomycin residue levels in pig tissues was studied. Pigs were fed unmedicated feed or feed medicated with salinomycin at 41 ppm in the diet for 29 days and then dosed with ({sup 14}C)salinomycin for 8 days. Total drug residue levels were below quantifiable limits of detection of kidney, fat, and muscle but at the tolerance limit of 1,800 ppb for liver. In liver, pretreatment tended to lower total residue levels, and unchanged ({sup 14}C)salinomycin accounted for <1% of the total drug residue. Approximately 15-20% of the total drug residue in liver was bound. Ionophoric activity in extracts of livers from the treated pigs was minimal, and only 2 of the 12 treated samples had ionophoric activity more than twice that obtained from the controls.

  16. Selenium elimination in pigs after an outbreak of selenium toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Davidson-York, D; Galey, F D; Blanchard, P; Gardner, I A

    1999-07-01

    In May 1996, 150 grower pigs in 5 California counties were exposed to selenium-contaminated feed distributed by a single feed company. Feed samples from 20 herds had a mean selenium concentration of 121.7 ppm dry weight (range, 22.1-531 ppm). In San Luis Obispo County, 52 pigs in 24 herds were exposed to the feed, and 8 pigs died with signs of paralysis. Bilateral symmetrical poliomyelomalacia involving the ventral horns of the cervical and lumbar intumescence was evident on histologic examination of spinal cord from affected pigs. Of 44 surviving exposed pigs, 33 (75%) exhibited signs of selenosis, including anorexia, alopecia, and hoof lesions. Thirty-nine of 44 pigs (88.6%) had elevated (>1 ppm) blood selenium concentrations. Surviving exposed pigs were changed to a standard commercial ration containing approximately 0.5 ppm (dry weight) selenium. Blood selenium concentrations were determined weekly for 46 days following removal of the contaminated feed and were compared with values of 20 control pigs fed a standard commercial ration. Mean (+/-SD) blood selenium concentrations of exposed pigs were 3.2 +/- 2.6 ppm at the initial sampling and 0.4 +/- 0.1 ppm after 46 days. Mean blood selenium concentrations of < or = 0.3 ppm for control pigs at all samplings were significantly lower (P < 0.001) than concentrations for exposed pigs. Muscle and liver samples of 22 of the 44 exposed pigs were collected at slaughter approximately 72 days after withdrawal of the selenium-contaminated feed. Muscle samples had a mean selenium concentration of 0.36 ppm (wet weight). Liver samples had a mean selenium concentration of 1.26 ppm (wet weight). One liver sample had a selenium value in the toxic range for pigs (3.3 ppm wet weight; reference range, 0.4-1.2 ppm). A 1-compartment pharmacokinetic model of selenium elimination in exposed pigs was generated, and the geometric mean blood selenium elimination half-life was estimated to be 12 days. The 60-day withdrawal time recommended

  17. Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Primary liver cancer starts in the liver. Metastatic liver ... and spreads to your liver. Risk factors for primary liver cancer include Having hepatitis B or C ...

  18. Liver scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyperplasia or adenoma of the liver Abscess Budd-Chiari syndrome Infection Liver disease (such as cirrhosis or ... Amebic liver abscess Cirrhosis Hepatic vein obstruction (Budd-Chiari) Hepatitis Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma Liver disease Splenic ...

  19. Sex differences in constitutive mRNA levels of CYP2B22, CYP2C33, CYP2C49, CYP3A22, CYP3A29 and CYP3A46 in the pig liver: Comparison between Meishan and Landrace pigs.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Misaki; Degawa, Masakuni

    2016-06-01

    Breed and sex differences in hepatic mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms (CYP2B22, CYP2C33, CYP2C49, CYP3A22, CYP3A29 and CYP3A46) were examined in 5-month-old Meishan, Landrace, and their crossbred F1 (LM and ML) pigs. Serum testosterone levels in male Meishan, LM, and ML pigs were 2.5-3.5-fold higher than in Landrace pigs. CYP3A46 mRNA was breed-specifically detected only in Landrace, LM, and ML pigs. In Meishan, LM, and ML pigs only, male-predominant expressions of CYP2B22, CYP2C33, CYP2C49 and CYP3A29 mRNAs were observed; CYP3A22 mRNA expression showed the opposite pattern. Male-dominant mRNA expression was also observed in LM and ML pigs for CYP3A46. The sex differences in CYP mRNA levels in Meishan pigs disappeared when males were castrated and were restored by testosterone propionate (TP) administration to the castrated males. In Landrace pigs, TP administration to castrated males and intact females significantly increased the levels of CYP2B22, CYP2C33, and CYP3A46 mRNAs. Immature (1-month-old) pigs showed no breed or sex differences in CYP mRNA expressions. The results demonstrated that androgen is an important determinant of sex-associated expression of several CYPs and suggested that breed differences in sex-associated expression could be caused by differences in serum androgen level and by other genetic traits. PMID:27080814

  20. Cocoa husks in diets of Italian heavy pigs.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Malagutti, L; Galassi, G; Rosi, F

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa husks feeding on liver composition of the Italian heavy pig. Cocoa husks are by-products derived from chocolate production and have a high content of proteins, lipids, and NDF. Cocoa husks are also rich in antioxidants, polyphenols in particular. Eight finishing pigs were divided into 2 groups: control group fed a traditional diet, based on cereals, and treatment group fed a diet obtained by substitution of 10% of the control diet with coarsely ground cocoa husks. The trial was conducted during the hot season and lasted 6 wk, at the end of which all the pigs were slaughtered. Cocoa husks diet reduced dry matter intake (P < 0.01) and energy intake (P < 0.01) but neither body weight nor backfat thickness was affected by cocoa husks diet. Treatment did not influence carcass weight and hot dressing percentage but reduced liver weight (P < 0.05), liver dry matter percentage (P < 0.01), DNA (P = 0.01), and glycogen content (P = 0.01). By contrast, cocoa husks increased liver ether extract (P = 0.05) without affecting cholesterol content. Liver weight loss, reduction of protein synthesis, and a shift toward glycogen use instead of fat oxidation are considered metabolic strategies to reduce heat production under hot conditions. It is possible, therefore, that cocoa husks feeding promoted the process of acclimation because pigs needed less feeding to reach similar body and carcass weight as control pigs. PMID:23365339

  1. [Liver and artificial liver].

    PubMed

    Chamuleau, R A

    1998-06-01

    Despite good results of orthotopic liver transplantation in patients with fulminant hepatic failure the need still exists for an effective and safe artificial liver, able to temporarily take over the complex liver function so as to bridge the gap with transplantation or regeneration. Attempts to develop non-biological artificial livers have failed, mostly when controlled clinical trials were performed. In the last decade several different types of bioartificial livers have been devised, in which the biocomponent consists of freshly isolated porcine hepatocytes or a human hepatoblastoma cell line. The majority use semipermeable hollow fibers known from artificial kidney devices. The liver cells may lie either inside or outside the lumen of these fibers. In vitro analysis of liver function and animal experimental work showing that the bioartificial liver increases survival justify clinical application. Bioartificial livers are connected to patients extracorporeally by means of plasmapheresis circuit for periods of about 6 hours. In different trials about 40 patients with severe liver failure have been treated. No important adverse effects have not been reported in these phase I trials. Results of controlled studies are urgently needed. As long as no satisfactory immortalised human liver cell line with good function is available, porcine hepatocytes will remain the first choice, provided transmission of porcine pathogens to man is prevented. PMID:9752034

  2. Liver Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Before The Transplant / Organ Facts / Liver Organ Facts Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver ... Receiving "the call" About the Operation Heart Lung Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Facts How the Liver Works The liver is one ...

  3. DIETARY PROTEIN AND LACTOSE INCREASE TRANSLATION INITIATION FACTOR ACTIVATION AND TISSUE PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IN NEONATAL PIGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protein synthesis and eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) activation are increased in muscle and liver of pigs parenterally infused with amino acids and insulin. To examine the effects of enteral protein and carbohydrate on protein synthesis, pigs (n = 42, 1.7 kg body wt) were fed isocaloric milk die...

  4. Dioxin in soil: bioavailability after ingestion by rats and guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, E.E.; Lucier, G.W.; Rumbaugh, R.C.; Albro, P.W.; Harvan, D.J.; Hass, J.R.; Harris, M.W.

    1984-03-09

    Soil environmentally contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was given by gavage to guinea pigs and rats. The development of a characteristic clinicopathologic syndrome in guinea pigs, the induction of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in rats, and the presence of TCDD in the livers of both species show that TCDD in soil exhibits high biological availability after ingestion.

  5. Conjunctival and intramuscular vaccination of pigs with a live avirulent strain of Salmonella cholerae-suis.

    PubMed

    Kramer, T T; Pardon, P; Marly, J; Bernard, S

    1987-07-01

    An avirulent mutant strain of Salmonella cholerae-suis was cloned for resistance to streptomycin and nalidixic acid. The mutant strain 33-13 also was used because of its avirulence and immunogenicity in mice. Weaned pigs were vaccinated with live strain 33-13; 5 pigs were vaccinated by conjunctivally administered 5.5 X 10(7) organisms (low dose), 5 were conjunctivally administered 5.5 X 10(9) organisms (high dose), and 5 pigs were administered 5.5 X 10(9) organisms (high dose) IM. Transient fever and transient fecal shedding of the vaccine strain developed in pigs vaccinated IM, but not in 2 groups of pigs vaccinated conjunctivally. After intratracheal administration of virulent strain 38-9, nonvaccinated control pigs (n = 9) developed persistent high fever, anorexia, bacteremia, diarrhea, and fecal shedding of strain 38-9, whereas vaccinated pigs remained afebrile and clinically normal. Nonvaccinated and uninfected sentinel pigs (n = 8) were kept in units of 2 pigs with each group of experimental pigs, and remained healthy throughout the experiment. Thirteen vaccinated and 7 nonvaccinated control pigs were killed 42 days after vaccination, and 2 vaccinated, 2 nonvaccinated, and 8 sentinel control pigs were killed 58 days after vaccination. Ten organs were evaluated by quantitative bacteriology on necropsy of all pigs for the presence of vaccine strain 33-13, and for virulent strain 38-9. Strain 33-13 was not found. Lung and liver, lesions were found in most of the nonvaccinated control pigs, with a high frequency of recovery of large numbers of strain 38-9 from the mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, liver, and ileum.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3631689

  6. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  7. Liver Wellness

    MedlinePlus

    ... to liver wellness. • There are more than 100 liver diseases. • Liver disease is one of the top 10 causes of ... out of every 10 Americans is affected by liver disease. • Some liver diseases such as hepatitis A, hepatitis ...

  8. The portal lobule in rat liver fibrosis: a re-evaluation of the liver unit.

    PubMed

    Bhunchet, E; Wake, K

    1998-02-01

    We re-evaluated three schemes of liver organization: the classic lobule, the portal lobule, and Rappaport's liver acinus. The lobular angioarchitecture of normal rat liver and the three-dimensional structure of pseudolubules found in rat livers with fibrosis induced by swine serum were compared with the classic lobule of the pig. Normal and fibrotic rat livers and pig livers were perfused, injected with either India ink or 0.75% OsO4 through the portal and/or hepatic vein, and immersionfixed. Whole lobes and hand-cut thick sections were made transparent with a solution of benzyl benzoate and methyl salicylate. The angioarchitecture of normal rat liver differs from pig liver. In the former, terminal portal branches and central veins interdigitate, and in the latter, numerous terminal portal branches that arise from interlobular portal veins establish a vascular basket surrounding one central vein and forming classic lobule. The structure of liver acinus is never found in the pig liver. The terminal portal branch, together with the terminal hepatic artery and bile duct, are present inside each pseudolobule of fibrotic rat livers. Blood from the terminal portal branch flows through inlet venules into radiating sinusoids, and, at the periphery converges into newly formed septal and angular outlet venules; these venules terminate in fibrotic central veins located at each corner. Pseudolobules are not rugby ball-like as Rappaport's liver acini are but are polyhedron in shape. The rat pseudolobules are comparable with the portal lobule; its structure and microcirculation are the reverse of the pig classic lobule. Rat pseudolobules are different from liver acini, as shown by the following: 1) their three-dimensional shape is different; and 2) they have a reverse relationship to classic lobules while acini are defined to subdivide classic lobules. In normal and fibrotic rat livers, the liver unit is the portal lobule with a terminal portal branch as the axial branch and

  9. Tissue Remodelling following Resection of Porcine Liver

    PubMed Central

    Nygård, Ingvild Engdal; Mortensen, Kim Erlend; Hedegaard, Jakob; Conley, Lene Nagstrup; Bendixen, Christian; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Revhaug, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Aim. To study genes regulating the extracellular matrix (ECM) and investigate the tissue remodelling following liver resection in porcine. Methods. Four pigs with 60% partial hepatectomy- (PHx-) induced liver regeneration were studied over six weeks. Four pigs underwent sham surgery and another four pigs were used as controls of the normal liver growth. Liver biopsies were taken upon laparotomy, after three and six weeks. Gene expression profiles were obtained using porcine-specific oligonucleotide microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was performed and a proliferative index was assessed. Results. More differentially expressed genes were associated with the regulation of ECM in the resection group compared to the sham and control groups. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) and collagen 1, alpha 2 (COL1A2) were both upregulated in the early phase of liver regeneration, validated by immunopositive cells during the remodelling phase of liver regeneration. A broadened connective tissue was demonstrated by Masson's Trichrome staining, and an immunohistochemical staining against pan-Cytokeratin (pan-CK) demonstrated a distinct pattern of migrating cells, followed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) positive nuclei. Conclusions. The present study demonstrates both a distinct pattern of PCNA positive nuclei and a deposition of ECM proteins in the remodelling phase of liver regeneration. PMID:26240819

  10. Transsinusoidal Portal Vein Embolization with Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx): A Feasibility Study in Pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, Maarten L. J.; Vanlangenhove, Peter Sturm, Emiel J. C.; Bosch, Maurice A. A. J. van den; Hav, Monirath Praet, Marleen; Vente, Maarten A. D.; Snaps, Frederic R.; Defreyne, Luc

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Portal vein embolization is performed to increase the future liver remnant before liver surgery in patients with liver malignancies. This study assesses the feasibility of a transsinusoidal approach for portal vein embolization (PVE) with the ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, Onyx. Methods: Indirect portography through contrast injection in the cranial mesenteric artery was performed in eight healthy pigs. Onyx was slowly injected through a microcatheter from a wedged position in the hepatic vein and advanced through the liver lobules into the portal system. The progression of Onyx was followed under fluoroscopy, and the extent of embolization was monitored by indirect portography. The pigs were euthanized immediately (n = 2), at 7 days (n = 4), or at 21 days postprocedure (n = 2). All pigs underwent necropsy and the ex vivo livers were grossly and histopathologically analyzed. Results: Transsinusoidal PVE was successfully performed in five of eight pigs (63%). In 14 of 21 injections (67%), a segmental portal vein could be filled completely. A mean of 1.6 liver lobes per pig was embolized (range 1-2 lobes). There were no periprocedural adverse events. Focal capsular scarring was visible on the surface of two resected livers, yet the capsules remained intact. Histopathological examination showed no signs of recanalization or abscess formation. Mild inflammatory reaction to Onyx was observed in the perivascular parenchyma. Conclusions: The porcine portal vein can be embolized through injection of Onyx from a wedged position in the hepatic vein. Possible complications of transsinusoidal PVE and the effect on contralateral hypertrophy need further study.

  11. Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Can Use April May Calendar Liver Lowdown Mar 2014 Calendar of Events In The News Academic ... 2016 Calendar Jan Feb 2016 recipe Liver Lowdown Mar/Apr 2016 Liver Lowdown August 2016 Know Your ...

  12. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis A, ... the skin, can be one sign of liver disease. Cancer can affect the liver. You could also ...

  13. Liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the liver ...

  14. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  15. Hepatocellular carcinoma and suspected splenic hemangiosarcoma in a potbellied pig

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Janet L.

    2002-01-01

    A 10-year-old, lethargic, potbellied pig presented with signs of abdominal discomfort and a palpable abdominal mass. Laparotomy revealed a 20 cm diameter mass on the spleen and smaller masses on the omentum and liver. After euthanasia and histologic examination of the hepatic mass, the diagnosis was hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:12058574

  16. Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera.

    PubMed

    Taira, K; Saeed, I; Permin, A; Kapel, C M O

    2004-05-01

    The potential zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infections from consumption of swine or poultry viscera containing larvae was assessed using a pig model. Two groups of six pigs were fed either fresh swine viscera (group FS) or poultry viscera (FP) containing around 3500 Toxocara larvae. Another two groups of six pigs were fed swine viscera (PS) or poultry viscera (PP) preserved at 4 degrees C for 1 week. All pigs were necropsied 14 days after the exposure. Liver white spots were counted and T. canis specific IgG antibodies were measured by ELISA. Larval burdens were assessed in the mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, lungs, brain, tongue, and eyes. All recipient pigs exhibited several white spots on the liver surface and detectable antibody levels. Larvae were recovered predominantly from the lungs, but also from the mesenteric lymph nodes and the liver, a few larvae were found in the brain and tongue of the pigs. Two larvae were found in the eyes of two pigs in group FS. Mean percentages of total larval recoveries in groups FS, FP, PS, and PP were 75.3, 63.6, 42.6, and 18.8%, respectively. Significantly higher numbers of larvae were recovered from pigs given swine viscera than pigs given poultry viscera. The preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week caused a significant reduction in the larval infectivity overall, nevertheless, the recoveries remained substantial. The fact that larvae migrating in swine or poultry organs and tissues have high infectivity in pigs even after preservation at 4 degrees C for 1 week, suggests that human infection with T. canis might easily occur following consumption of raw or undercooked dishes, either fresh or refrigerated, prepared from swine or poultry organs and tissues harbouring T. canis larvae. PMID:15110409

  17. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  18. Lessons learned from the cystic fibrosis pig.

    PubMed

    Meyerholz, David K

    2016-07-01

    Deficient function in the anion channel cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator is the fundamental cause for CF. This is a monogenic condition that causes lesions in several organs including the respiratory tract, pancreas, liver, intestines, and reproductive tract. Lung disease is most notable, given it is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in people with CF. Shortly after the identification of CF transmembrane conductance regulator, CF mouse models were developed that did not show spontaneous lung disease as seen in humans, and this spurred development of additional CF animal models. Pig models were considered a leading choice for several reasons including their similarity to humans in respiratory anatomy, physiology, and in size for translational imaging. The first CF pig models were reported in 2008 and have been extremely valuable to help clarify persistent questions in the field and advance understanding of disease pathogenesis. Because CF pigs are susceptible to lung disease like humans, they have direct utility in translational research. In addition, CF pig models are useful to compare and contrast with current CF mouse models, human clinical studies, and even newer CF animal models being characterized. This "triangulation" strategy could help identify genetic differences that underlie phenotypic variations, so as to focus and accelerate translational research. PMID:27142487

  19. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given. PMID:18393899

  20. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  1. PLACENTAL TRANSFER AND FETAL DEPOSITION OF HEXACHLOROBENZENE IN THE HAMSTER AND GUINEA PIG

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was administered at dose levels of 0, 1.0, 10.0, or 50.0 mg HCB/kg body wt by gavage to pregnant hamsters and guinea pigs for 6 days up to the time of liver development in the fetus. Samples of maternal fat, thymus, skin, liver, lung, brain, spleen, urinar...

  2. Tylosin depletion from edible pig tissues.

    PubMed

    Prats, C; El Korchi, G; Francesch, R; Arboix, M; Pérez, B

    2002-12-01

    The depletion of tylosin from edible pig tissues was studied following 5 days of intramuscular (i.m.) administration of 10 mg/kg of tylosin to 16 crossbreed pigs. Animals were slaughtered at intervals after treatment and samples of muscle, kidney, liver, skin+fat, and injection site were collected and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Seven days after the completion of treatment, the concentration of tylosin in kidney, skin+fat, and at the injection site was higher than the European Union maximal residue limit (MRL) of 100 microg/kg. Tylosin residues in all tissues were below the quantification limit (50 microg/kg) at 10 and 14 days post-treatment. PMID:12443694

  3. Feeding probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei to Ossabaw pigs on a high fat diet prevents cholesteryl-ester accumulation and LPS modulation of the Liver X receptor and inflammatory axis in alveolar macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liver X receptors (LXR) play an integral role in regulation of cholesterol metabolism and the inflammatory response, and high fat (HF) diets and microbial infection can antagonize the LXR pathway leading to accumulation of cholesteryl-esters (CE) and increased expression of pro-inflammatory mediator...

  4. Pig production in the Solomon Islands. I. Village pig production.

    PubMed

    de Fredrick, D F

    1977-05-01

    In 181 villages in the Solomon Islands the pig: human ratio was 1:5-8 and the annual per capita pork consumption was 4-2 kg. Some communities did not keep pigs or eat pig meat. Sows weaned an average of 5-5 piglets per year and mean liveweight at 12 months of age was 28-4 kg. Most pigs were kept on the ground but some were housed in pens over the sea and very few lived in their owner's houses. Pigs were important in the social life of the people but proportionally fewer pigs were raised than in neighbouring Pacific countries. PMID:906090

  5. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... series References Keefe EB. Hepatic failure and liver transplantation. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ... 2011:chap 157. Martin P, Rosen HR. Liver transplantation. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  6. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  7. Liver biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Test is Performed The biopsy helps diagnose many liver diseases . The procedure also helps assess the stage (early, advanced) of liver disease. This is especially important in hepatitis C infection. ...

  8. Liver Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases. Viruses cause some of them, like hepatitis ...

  9. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Organizations ​​ (PDF, 341 KB)​​​​. Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is ... Points to Remember Clinical Trials What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that ...

  10. Liver Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... PDF, 341 KB)​​​​. Alternate Language URL Español Liver Biopsy Page Content On this page: What is a ... to Remember Clinical Trials What is a liver biopsy? A liver biopsy is a procedure that involves ...

  11. Pancreatic and biliary secretion are both altered in cystic fibrosis pigs

    PubMed Central

    Giriyappa, Radhamma; Meyerholz, David K.; Griffin, Michelle; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Abu-El-Haija, Marwa; Stoltz, David A.; Ludwig, Paula; Pezzulo, Alejandro; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Taft, Peter; Welsh, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are commonly involved in cystic fibrosis (CF), and acidic, dehydrated, and protein-rich secretions are characteristic findings. Pancreatic function studies in humans have been done by sampling the jejunal fluid. However, it has been difficult to separately study the function of pancreatic and biliary systems in humans with CF, because jejunal fluid contains a mixture of bile and pancreatic fluids. In contrast, pancreatic and biliary ducts open separately into the porcine intestine; therefore, biliary and pancreatic fluid can be individually analyzed in CF pigs. We studied newborn wild-type (WT) and CF pigs and found that CFTR was localized to the pancreatic ducts. We collected bile and pancreatic fluid and analyzed pancreatic enzymes with activity assays and immunoblot. Pancreatic enzyme expression was significantly decreased in CF compared with WT pigs. The volume and pH of pancreatic fluid were significantly lower and protein concentration was >5-fold higher in CF pigs. Secretin stimulation increased pancreatic fluid volume and pH in WT, but not CF, pigs. Baseline bile volume did not differ between WT and CF pigs, but volume did not increase in response to secretin in CF pigs. Bile pH was lower and protein concentration was twofold higher in CF pigs. These results indicate that pancreatic and biliary secretions are altered in CF pigs. Abnormal pancreatic and biliary secretion in CF may have important implications in disease pathogenesis. PMID:22936270

  12. Pancreatic and biliary secretion are both altered in cystic fibrosis pigs.

    PubMed

    Uc, Aliye; Giriyappa, Radhamma; Meyerholz, David K; Griffin, Michelle; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Tang, Xiao Xiao; Abu-El-Haija, Marwa; Stoltz, David A; Ludwig, Paula; Pezzulo, Alejandro; Abu-El-Haija, Maisam; Taft, Peter; Welsh, Michael J

    2012-10-15

    The pancreas, liver, and gallbladder are commonly involved in cystic fibrosis (CF), and acidic, dehydrated, and protein-rich secretions are characteristic findings. Pancreatic function studies in humans have been done by sampling the jejunal fluid. However, it has been difficult to separately study the function of pancreatic and biliary systems in humans with CF, because jejunal fluid contains a mixture of bile and pancreatic fluids. In contrast, pancreatic and biliary ducts open separately into the porcine intestine; therefore, biliary and pancreatic fluid can be individually analyzed in CF pigs. We studied newborn wild-type (WT) and CF pigs and found that CFTR was localized to the pancreatic ducts. We collected bile and pancreatic fluid and analyzed pancreatic enzymes with activity assays and immunoblot. Pancreatic enzyme expression was significantly decreased in CF compared with WT pigs. The volume and pH of pancreatic fluid were significantly lower and protein concentration was >5-fold higher in CF pigs. Secretin stimulation increased pancreatic fluid volume and pH in WT, but not CF, pigs. Baseline bile volume did not differ between WT and CF pigs, but volume did not increase in response to secretin in CF pigs. Bile pH was lower and protein concentration was twofold higher in CF pigs. These results indicate that pancreatic and biliary secretions are altered in CF pigs. Abnormal pancreatic and biliary secretion in CF may have important implications in disease pathogenesis. PMID:22936270

  13. Protective Effect of Two Yeast Based Feed Additives on Pigs Chronically Exposed to Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs. PMID:25533517

  14. Liver transplantation☆

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, M.; Mennini, G.; Lai, Q.; Ginanni Corradini, S.; Drudi, F.M.; Pugliese, F.; Berloco, P.B.

    2007-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) involves the substitution of a diseased native liver with a normal liver (or part of one) taken from a deceased or living donor. Considered an experimental procedure through the 1980s, OLT is now regarded as the treatment of choice for a number of otherwise irreversible forms of acute and chronic liver disease. The first human liver transplantation was performed in the United States in 1963 by Prof. T.E. Starzl of the University of Colorado. The first OLT to be performed in Italy was done in 1982 by Prof. R. Cortesini. The procedure was successfully performed at the Policlinico Umberto I of the University of Rome (La Sapienza). The paper reports the indications for liver transplantation, donor selection and organ allocation in our experience, surgical technique, immunosuppression, complications and results of liver transplantation in our center. PMID:23396075

  15. Multielement residues in tissues of guinea pigs fed sweet clover grown on fly ash.

    PubMed

    Furr, K; Stoewsand, G S; Bache, C A; Gutenmann, W A

    1975-05-01

    Yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis) was harvested from fly ash dumped in a landfill site at Lansing, NY. This clover was chopped, dried, and formulated at 45% into an otherwise purified diet and fed to six guinea pigs for 90 days. Control sweet clover was harvested from gravelly subsoil and processed and fed to another group of guinea pigs for the same period. Samples of fly ash, gravelly subsoil, sweet clover, liver, kidneys, and left-rear gastrocnemius muscle of all guinea pigs were freeze-dried and analyzed for 35 elements by neutron activation analysis. The fly ash contained 28 elements at higher levels than the gravelly subsoil, while the clover harvested from fly ash contained 19 elements in increased amounts over those in the clover harvested from the gravel soil. Growth rate of both groups of guinea pigs was similar. Rubidium and selenium were present at higher levels in the tissues of guinea pigs fed the fly ash clover. PMID:1130838

  16. Preservation of non-heart-beating donor livers in extracorporeal liver perfusion and histidine-trytophan-ketoglutarate solution

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jin; Lao, Xue-Jun; Wang, Xi-Mo; Long, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Chen, Shi

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To compare the preservation of non-heart-beating donor (NHBD) livers in cold histidine-trytophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and extracorporeal liver perfusion (ECLP). METHODS: Livers harvested from health pigs were stored for 10 h in cold HTK solution (group A, n = 4) or perfused with oxygenated autologous blood at body temperature (group B, n = 4). Both groups were then tested on the circuit for 4 h. Bile production, hemodynamic parameters, hepatocyte markers and reperfusion injury of extracorporeal livers were tested in each group. Liver tissues from each group were examined at the end of reperfusion. RESULTS: At 1, 2, 3 and 4 h after reperfusion, bile production, hemodynamic parameters, hepatocyte markers and reperfusion injury of livers in group A were statistically different from those in group B (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: ECLP is better than HTK solution to preserve NHBD livers. ECLP can assess the graft viability before liver transplantation. PMID:18416459

  17. Restriction of dietary protein does not promote hepatic lipogenesis in lean or fatty pigs.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Marta S; Pires, Virgínia M R; Alfaia, Cristina M; Lopes, Paula A; Martins, Susana V; Pinto, Rui M A; Prates, José A M

    2016-04-01

    The influence of genotype (lean v. fatty) and dietary protein level (normal v. reduced) on plasma metabolites, hepatic fatty acid composition and mRNA levels of lipid-sensitive factors is reported for the first time, using the pig as an experimental model. The experiment was conducted on forty entire male pigs (twenty lean pigs of Large White×Landrace×Pietrain cross-breed and twenty fatty pigs of Alentejana purebreed) from 60 to 93 kg of live weight. Each pig genotype was divided into two subgroups, which were fed the following diets: a normal protein diet (NPD) equilibrated for lysine (17·5 % crude protein and 0·7 % lysine) and a reduced protein diet (RPD) not equilibrated for lysine (13·1 % crude protein and 0·4 % lysine). The majority of plasma metabolites were affected by genotype, with lean pigs having higher contents of lipids, whereas fatty pigs presented higher insulin, leptin and urea levels. RPD increased plasma TAG, free fatty acids and VLDL-cholesterol compared with NPD. Hepatic total lipids were higher in fatty pigs than in the lean genotype. RPD affected hepatic fatty acid composition but had a slight influence on gene expression levels in the liver. Sterol regulatory element-binding factor 1 was down-regulated by RPD, and fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) were affected by the interaction between genotype and diet. In pigs fed RPD, FADS1 was up-regulated in the lean genotype, whereas FABP4 increased in the fatty genotype. Although there is a genotype-specific effect of dietary protein restriction on hepatic lipid metabolism, lipogenesis is not promoted in the liver of lean or fatty pigs. PMID:26927728

  18. Purification and crystallization of yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase subunit PIG-S (PIG-S71–467)

    PubMed Central

    Kamariah, Neelagandan; Eisenhaber, Frank; Adhikari, Sharmila; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Grüber, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors onto eukaryotic proteins is catalyzed by the transamidase complex, which is composed of at least five subunits (PIG-K, PIG-S, PIG-T, PIG-U and GPAA1). Here, the recombinant protein PIG-S71–467 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including residues 71–467 of the entire 534-residue protein, was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The monodisperse protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set was collected to 3.2 Å resolution with 91.6% completeness. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.72, b = 59.33, c = 124.3 Å, β = 114.19°, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21821889

  19. Pathogenesis of Lassa virus infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Jahrling, P B; Smith, S; Hesse, R A; Rhoderick, J B

    1982-01-01

    A rodent model for human Lassa fever was developed which uses inbred (strain 13) and outbred (Hartley) guinea pigs. Strain 13 guinea pigs were uniformly susceptible to lethal infection by 2 or more PFU of Lassa virus strain Josiah. In contrast, no more than 30% of the Hartley guinea pigs died regardless of the virus dose. In lethally infected strain 13 guinea pigs, peak titers of virus (10(7) to 10(8) PFU) occurred in the spleen and lymph nodes at 8 to 9 days, in the salivary glands at 11 days, and in the lung at 14 to 16 days. Virus reached low titers (10(4) PFU) in the plasma and brain and intermediate titers in the liver, adrenal glands, kidney, pancreas, and heart. In moribund animals, the most consistent and severe histological lesion as an interstitial pneumonia. In contrast, the brain was only minimally involved. The immune response of lethally infected strain 13 guinea pigs, as measured by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, was detectable within 10 days of infection and was similar in timing and intensity to the fluorescent antibody test response of both lethally infected and surviving outbred animals. In contrast to the fluorescent antibody response, neutralizing antibody developed late in convalescence and was thus detected only in surviving outbred guinea pigs. The availability of a rodent model for human Lassa fever in uniformly susceptible strain 13 guinea pigs should facilitate detailed pathophysiological studies and efficacy testing of antiviral drugs, candidate vaccines, and immunotherapy regimens to develop control methods for this life-threatening disease in humans. Images PMID:6749685

  20. Fructose utilization for nucleic acid synthesis in the fetal pig.

    PubMed

    White, C E; Piper, E L; Noland, P R; Daniels, L B

    1982-07-01

    Eight fetal pigs, in utero, were injected ip with 20 microCi/fetus [U14C]-fructose between d 55 and 65 pregnancy. The isotope was allowed to equilibrate between blood and tissues within injected fetuses for a period of 240 min. Fetal pigs were then sacrificed and nucleic acids were extracted from cold tissue homogenates of skeletal muscle and liver. Nuclide disintegrations per minute recovered in extracted DNA and RNA were used to calculate incorporation of labeled C from fructose. The recovery of labeled C per mmol of nucleic acids from skeletal muscle was greater (P less than .05) than that from liver. Relative incorporation of labeled C into skeletal muscle RNA (395.9 pmol/mmol) was greater (P less than .05) than for DNA (189.5 pmol/mmol). The same trend was observed for liver RNA (78.0 pmol/mmol) and DNA (55.6 pmol/mmol), but differences were nonsignificant. These data suggest that at least part of the high concentration of endogenous fructose measured in fetal pigs in utero is involved in synthesis of nucleic acids, thereby providing substrate for anabolic functions necessary for fetal growth and development. PMID:6181047

  1. A facilitated technique for hepatectomy of porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, S S; Jones, J W; Bentley, F R

    1996-01-01

    The swine liver has been used for experimental transplantation and as an ex vivo support system for patients with fulminant hepatic failure. Preservation of liver function after the cold storage period can be accomplished by complying with several key steps during the procurement: Keep the procedure short, provide extensive exposure, allow only minimal dissection, irrigate the portal system through the splenic vein and thereby obtain regular blood flow through the organ up to the clamping point, and ice the liver abruptly in situ. This retrieval technique was used and evaluated in 10 pigs. The method allowed a short and successful organ procurement while preserving normal function of the liver ex vivo. PMID:8951663

  2. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  3. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  4. Pipeline design essential in making pigging plans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.

    1998-08-01

    Pigs have gotten an unfortunate reputation for getting stuck in pipelines. As a result, for many years few pigged their pipelines and consequently, many companies are paying the price to repair or replace their corroded pipelines. It is currently considered a necessary evil to run pigs to improve pipeline efficiency and prevent corrosion. Some pipelines were not designed to run pigs and occasionally the wrong type of pig is selected to run in a particular pipeline, increasing the chances of sticking a pig. A pipeline properly designed for pigging along with proper pig selection greatly reduces chances of sticking a pig.

  5. Liver spots

    MedlinePlus

    Sun-induced skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun or other sources of ...

  6. Expression Profiles of IGF-1R Gene and Polymorphisms of its Regulatory Regions in Different Pig Breeds.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yunyun; Liu, Songcai; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Qingyan; Li, Siming; Fu, Haoyu; Dong, Lijie; Yu, Hao; Hao, Linlin

    2016-06-01

    Insulin like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is a candidate gene for growth and carcass traits in regulating animal growth, metabolism and endocrine. It is widely expressed in liver, muscle, bone tissues where the IGF-1R functions as a factor that promotes cell growth. In this study, the protein expression level of IGF-1R gene in liver and muscle tissues of three periods (birth, weaning and adult) of three pig breeds (BamaXiang pigs (BM), Tibetan pigs (TM) and Junmu No.1 pigs (JM)) were tested by western blot. SNPs within the regulatory region of pig IGF-1R gene were detected using direct sequencing and then the genotypes were identified through AS-PCR approach. Results showed expression profiles of IGF-1R gene between liver and muscle tissues were different and significant differences were also found among pig breeds. In the same time, four SNPs were detected in the regulatory region of IGF-1R gene, among which the genotype frequency of three (g.-1468G > C, g.-1192 C > T and g.330,424 C > T) were significantly different among the pig breeds. BM tended to heterozygous (GC/CT) of the anterior two loci, while TM and JM preferred the other two homozygotes respectively. For the g.330,424 C > T, all pig breeds were tended to be the heterozygous. In conclusion, the SNPs with different genotype distribution among the three pig breeds may explain the gene expression difference between the different pig breeds. PMID:27229719

  7. Pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in edible tissues of healthy and experimentally infected pigs with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bladek, Tomasz; Posyniak, Andrzej; Jablonski, Artur; Gajda, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the comparison of the tissue pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in healthy pigs and pigs experimentally infected with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App). Tulathromycin was given to 24 healthy and 24 infected pigs by intramuscular injection at a single dosage of 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight (b.w.). Pigs were euthanised at each group and then samples of liver, kidney, muscle, injection site and skin with fat were taken at scheduled time points. Drug concentrations were determined by LC-MS/MS. In this study, higher values of the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC) were calculated in all tissue samples taken from infected than healthy pigs. In pigs with App the AUCs of liver, kidney, muscle, skin with fat and injection site were 1111, 1973, 235, 181 and 2931 mg kg(-1) h, while in pigs without inflammation they were 509, 1295, 151, 111 and 1587 mg kg(-1) h, respectively. Maximum drug tissue concentrations (Cmax) in infected animals were 2370, 6650, 2016, 666 and 83,870 µg kg(-1), while in healthy pigs they were 1483, 6677, 1733, 509 and 55,006 µg kg(-1), respectively. The eliminations half-times (T1/2) were respectively longer in all tissue samples taken from infected animals (from 157.3 to 187.3 h) than in healthy ones (from 138.6 to 161.2 h). The tulathromycin tissue concentrations were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in all tissue samples of the infected pigs compared with the healthy animals at 360 h (from 0.0014 to 0.0280) and at 792 h (from 0.0007 to 0.0242) after drug administration. The results suggest that the tissue pharmacokinetic properties and residue depletion of tulathromycin can be influenced by the disease state of animals. PMID:26247868

  8. Expression of cationic amino acid transporters, carcass traits, and performance of growing pigs fed low-protein amino acid-supplemented versus high protein diets.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Grageola, F; García, H; Araiza, A; Zijlstra, R T; Cervantes, M

    2013-01-01

    Free amino acids (AA) appear to be absorbed faster than protein-bound AA (PB-AA). We conducted an experiment to assess the effect of feeding pigs with a partially free (F-AA) or totally PB-AA diet on expression of selected genes and performance of pigs. The expression of cationic AA transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in intestinal mucosa, liver, and longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (SM) muscles, as well as that of myosin in LM and SM, was analyzed. Twelve pigs (31.7 ± 2.7 kg) were used. The F-AA diet was based on wheat, supplemented with 0.59% L-Lys, 0.33% L-Thr, and 0.10% DL-Met. The PB-AA diet was formulated with wheat-soybean meal. Average daily feed intake was 1.53 kg per pig. The expression of b(0,+) and CAT-1 was analyzed in jejunal and ileal mucosa, liver, LM, and SM; myosin expression was also analyzed in both muscles. Pigs fed the PB-AA diet tended to have higher weight gain and feed efficiency (P < 0.10), and had thinner back fat (P = 0.02). The expression of b(0,+) was higher (P < 0.01) in jejunum but lower (P < 0.01) in the liver of pigs fed the F-AA diet; CAT-1 tended to be lower in liver but higher in LM of PB-AA pigs. Myosin expression was not affected. Intestinal AA absorption was faster in pigs fed the F-AA diet, but AA uptake by the liver seemed to be faster in pigs fed the PB-AA. Performance and expression of AA transporters and myosin suggest that the dietary content of free or protein-bound AA does not affect their availability for protein synthesis in pigs. PMID:24222247

  9. Analysis of the serine protease function of porcine factor I produced by liver cells for xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Nakahata, Kengo; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Chizuko; Omori, Takeshi; Xu, Hengjie; Firdawes, Sabere; Fukuzawa, Masahiro; Miyagawa, Shuji

    2008-04-01

    The use of a bioartificial liver with pig liver cells in the treatment of fulminant hepatic failure has already begun as a clinical trial in several countries. Therefore, studies on plasma complement regulatory proteins of the pig are necessary, because the liver produces them. Complement factor I is a serine protease that cleaves C3b and C4b. The DNA sequences of factor I have been reported in many species, with the noted exception of pigs. In this study, porcine factor I was cloned and an open reading frame of 1794 base pairs were identified. The predicted amino acid sequence maintained a relatively high homology compared to those of other mammals, especially in the serine protease (SP) region. The cell membrane-bound forms of the porcine and the human SP domain of factor I were constructed. Amelioration of complement-mediated cell lysis by these molecules was then tested, using several kinds of sera and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell transfectants. Both molecules had a suppressing effect on pig, human and dog complements, indicating little species-specificity. Further studies of other plasma complement regulatory proteins produced from pig liver cells will need to be considered as the primary feature of the pig bioartificial liver. PMID:18346635

  10. SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE GUINEA PIG DURING INFECTION WITH COXIELLA BURNETII

    PubMed Central

    Paretsky, D.; Downs, C. M.; Salmon, C. W.

    1964-01-01

    Paretsky, D. (University of Kansas, Lawrence), C. M. Downs, and C. W. Salmon. Some biochemical changes in the guinea pig during infection with Coxiella burnetii. J. Bacteriol. 88:137–142. 1964.—Guinea pigs infected with Coxiella burnetii, the rickettsial agent of Q fever, were studied for 11 days postinfection. Maximal changes in liver lipids, liver phosphorylase, and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG)-glycogen glucosyl-transferase activities occurred 3 to 4 days post-infection. In this period, total liver lipids increased from 1.26 to 5.46 mg/mg of N, with the largest increment in the glyceride fraction. Liver glycogen virtually disappeared by the second day, with no chemically detectable restoration until the eleventh day. A pattern of altered phosphorylase and UDPG-glycogen transglucosylase activities was observed, with maximal phosphorylase and minimal glucosyltransferase activities at the third and fourth days. Histochemical observations confirmed chemical analyses for lipids and glycogen. PMID:14197878

  11. SOME BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE GUINEA PIG DURING INFECTION WITH COXIELLA BURNETII.

    PubMed

    PARETSKY, D; DOWNS, C M; SALMON, C W

    1964-07-01

    Paretsky, D. (University of Kansas, Lawrence), C. M. Downs, and C. W. Salmon. Some biochemical changes in the guinea pig during infection with Coxiella burnetii. J. Bacteriol. 88:137-142. 1964.-Guinea pigs infected with Coxiella burnetii, the rickettsial agent of Q fever, were studied for 11 days postinfection. Maximal changes in liver lipids, liver phosphorylase, and uridine diphosphate glucose (UDPG)-glycogen glucosyl-transferase activities occurred 3 to 4 days post-infection. In this period, total liver lipids increased from 1.26 to 5.46 mg/mg of N, with the largest increment in the glyceride fraction. Liver glycogen virtually disappeared by the second day, with no chemically detectable restoration until the eleventh day. A pattern of altered phosphorylase and UDPG-glycogen transglucosylase activities was observed, with maximal phosphorylase and minimal glucosyltransferase activities at the third and fourth days. Histochemical observations confirmed chemical analyses for lipids and glycogen. PMID:14197878

  12. Performance, serum amino acid concentrations and expression of selected genes in pair-fed growing pigs exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; Grageola, F; García, H; Arce, N; Araiza, B; Yáñez, J; Cervantes, M

    2014-10-01

    Heat stress (HS) depresses pig performance mainly because of appetite reduction, although other factors involved in the cellular availability of nutrients may also contribute to that depression. An experiment was conducted with twelve pair-fed pigs (30.3 ± 2.7 kg BW) to examine the effect of severe HS (up to 45 °C) on the expression of genes coding for two cationic amino acid (AA) transporters (b(0,+) AT and CAT-1), leptin, heat-shock protein (Hsp-90) and myosin in several tissues; serum concentrations (SC) of AA; and performance. There were two treatments: Comfort, pigs housed at an average temperature of 22 (±2) °C; and HS, pigs housed in a similar room with no climate control, where temperature was raised up to 45 °C. All pigs received the same wheat-soybean meal diet and had similar daily feed intake. Comfort pigs had a higher daily gain and better gain/feed ratio than HS pigs (p < 0.05). The expression of b(0,+) AT in jejunum and liver, that of myosin in the Semitendinosus muscle, and leptin in adipose tissue was lower, but CAT-1 in jejunum and liver, and Hsp-90 in liver was higher in HS pigs. The SC of Lys and Met in HS pigs were around 55% and 20%, respectively, of that in Comfort pigs (p < 0.05). In conclusion, HS affects the expression of cationic AA transporters, myosin, Hsp-90, leptin; the SC of Lys and Met; and the performance of pair-fed pigs. These results suggest that HS-related changes in gene expression affect the performance of pigs beyond the effect caused by the reduction in voluntary feed intake. PMID:24393083

  13. A Methionine Deficient Diet Enhances Adipose Tissue Lipid Metabolism and Alters Anti-Oxidant Pathways in Young Growing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Castellano, Rosa; Perruchot, Marie-Hélène; Conde-Aguilera, José Alberto; van Milgen, Jaap; Collin, Anne; Tesseraud, Sophie; Mercier, Yves; Gondret, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Methionine is a rate-limiting amino-acid for protein synthesis but non-proteinogenic roles on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress have been demonstrated. Contrary to rodents where a dietary methionine deficiency led to a lower adiposity, an increased lipid accretion rate has been reported in growing pigs fed a methionine deficient diet. This study aimed to clarify the effects of a dietary methionine deficiency on different aspects of tissue lipid metabolism and anti-oxidant pathways in young pigs. Post-weaned pigs (9.8 kg initial body weight) were restrictively-fed diets providing either an adequate (CTRL) or a deficient methionine supply (MD) during 10 days (n=6 per group). At the end of the feeding trial, pigs fed the MD diet had higher lipid content in subcutaneous adipose tissue. Expression levels of genes involved in glucose uptake, lipogenesis but also lipolysis, and activities of NADPH enzyme suppliers were generally higher in subcutaneous and perirenal adipose tissues of MD pigs, suggesting an increased lipid turnover in those pigs. Activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione reductase were increased in adipose tissues and muscle of MD pigs. Expression level and activity of the glutathione peroxidase were also higher in liver of MD pigs, but hepatic contents in the reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione and glutathione reductase activity were lower compared with control pigs. In plasma, superoxide dismutase activity was higher but total anti-oxidant power was lower in MD pigs. These results show that a dietary methionine deficiency resulted in increased levels of lipogenesis and lipolytic indicators in porcine adipose tissues. Decreased glutathione content in the liver and coordinated increase of enzymatic antioxidant activities in adipose tissues altered the cellular redox status of young pigs fed a methionine-deficient diet. These findings illustrate that a rapidly growing animal differently adapts tissue

  14. Course of coccidioidomycosis in intratracheally infected guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, R A; Pavey, E F; Mead, C G

    1981-01-01

    Two hundred Hartley-inbred guinea pigs were infected intratracheally with 50 viable arthrospores of Coccidioides immitis. At weeks 1 through 10 postinfection, groups of 20 guinea pigs were assayed for skin test, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and lymphocyte transformation (LT) responses to coccidioidin. Forty-eight hours after skin testing and just before MIF and LT assays, blood was obtained for complement-fixing (CF) antibody titers and the animals were autopsied to assess the extent of fungal dissemination. Immunological assays established that skin tests and MIF responses converted within 3 weeks of infection. LT responses were not demonstrable until week 5. Dissemination of C. immitis to the liver or spleen was an early event, with 21% of guinea pigs positive by week 2 and 70% positive by week 5. CF antibody titers were demonstrable at week 5, increased logarithmically through week 7, then increased at a slower rate thereafter. Concomitant with the decreased rate of antibody production, guinea pigs began to clear C. immitis from their extrapulmonary tissues. Skin test responses peaked at 6 weeks postinfection when CF antibody titers were less than or equal to 1:16 and then plateaued with increased CF titers. Although this overall immunological profile is consistent with the disease in humans, there was not a direct correlation between CF antibody titer and dissemination to the liver or spleen, nor was there an inverse correlation between CF antibody titers and skin test or MIF responses. Rather, CF antibody titers and cell-mediated immune responses were equally demonstrable in guinea pigs with disseminated or nondisseminated disease. PMID:7216468

  15. Liver bioengineering

    PubMed Central

    Caralt, Mireia; Velasco, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Baptista, Pedro M

    2014-01-01

    Liver bioengineering has been a field of intense research and popular excitement in the past decades. It experiences great interest since the introduction of whole liver acellular scaffolds generated by perfusion decellularization1–3. Nevertheless, the different strategies developed so far have failed to generate hepatic tissue in vitro bioequivalent to native liver tissue. Even notable novel strategies that rely on iPSC-derived liver progenitor cells potential to self-organize in association with endothelial cells in hepatic organoids are lacking critical components of the native tissue (e.g., bile ducts, functional vascular network, hepatic microarchitecture, etc)4. Hence, it is vital to understand the strengths and short comes of our current strategies in this quest to re-create liver organogenesis in vitro. To shed some light into these issues, this review describes the different actors that play crucial roles in liver organogenesis and highlights the steps still missing to successfully generate whole livers and hepatic organoids in vitro for multiple applications. PMID:25102189

  16. Liver Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, George K.

    2009-01-01

    Liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy is a very complex and well-orchestrated phenomenon. It is carried out by the participation of all mature liver cell types. The process is associated with signaling cascades involving growth factors, cytokines, matrix remodeling, and several feedbacks of stimulation and inhibition of growth related signals. Liver manages to restore any lost mass and adjust its size to that of the organism, while at the same time providing full support for body homeostasis during the entire regenerative process. In situations when hepatocytes or biliary cells are blocked from regeneration, these cell types can function as facultative stem cells for each other. PMID:17559071

  17. Expression and hypoxia adaptation analysis of the EPO gene in different tissues of plateau Tibetan pigs.

    PubMed

    Deji, B Z; Shang, P; Danzeng, W J; Zhang, H; Qiangba, Y Z

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to observe the expression characteristics of the erythropoietin (EPO) gene in different tissues of Tibetan pigs and to explore the adaptation to hypoxic environments. The cDNA in heart, liver, lung, kidney, muscle, brain, and fat of Tibetan pigs was used as the template. Through the number of cycles of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), annealing temperature, and system optimization, a stable and specific semi-quantitative PCR system was established. The EPO gene in different tissues of Tibetan pigs was detected using this system. The results showed that the EPO gene was expressed in heart, liver, lung, kidney, muscle, brain, and fat of the pigs. There were obvious differences in the expression in each tissue, and the expression sequence was as follows: kidney > muscle > lung > brain > liver > heart > fat. The results showed that the EPO gene was expressed in various tissues of Tibetan pigs. There were obvious differences in expression and each tissue may play a different regulatory role in the adaptation to hypoxia. PMID:25867312

  18. What Is Liver Cancer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topic Key statistics about liver cancer What is liver cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  19. Benign Liver Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search: Your Liver Liver Health and Wellness Recipes Liver Disease Information Patients & Families Caregiver's FAQ Become an Organ ... 2013 Liver Awareness Month Personal Story - David Roncori Liver Disease - The Big Picture 13 Ways to a Healthy ...

  20. Liver Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... liver; the best test for detecting hepatitis Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) – an enzyme related to the bile ducts ... only moderately elevated or close to normal. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ALP may be significantly increased with obstructed ...

  1. Liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, E. J.; Iredale, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Liver fibrosis and its related complications continue to represent a significant worldwide healthcare burden. Over the past decade there has been considerable improvement in our understanding of the cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology underlying hepatic fibrosis. This greater insight into the relevant basic sciences may lead to the development of novel treatment strategies designed to block the fibrogenic cascade or even enhance matrix degradation. In addition, there have been significant advances in the management of the complications of cirrhosis, with specific treatments now available for some conditions. Perhaps most notably, liver transplantation is now a highly successful treatment for end-stage liver disease and should be considered in all patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:9683971

  2. Liver transplant

    MedlinePlus

    Risks for any anesthesia are: Problems breathing Reactions to medications Risks for any surgery are: Bleeding Heart attack or stroke Infection Liver transplant surgery and management after surgery carry major risks. There is ...

  3. [Liver intervention].

    PubMed

    Oi, H

    2000-12-01

    Interventional radiology is now widely performed for the treatment of liver tumors, because surgery is sometimes limited by poor liver function. Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) is an effective therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Lipiodol TACE shows a strong antitumor effect because of the overflow of excess iodized oil into the portal veins, and segmental TACE is recommended to avoid deteriorating liver function. Selective CT arteriography is performed in order to decide on the treatment area, and TACE under CT guidance leads to effective results in terms of dense accumulation of the chemotherapeutic drug in the individual tumors that are affected by the ischemic state and anticancer drugs. Percutaneous microwave or radiofrequency coagulation therapy is adequate for a few of the hypovascular tumors. Excessive coagulation through the needle tract is indispensable in these therapies, and precisely designed puncture is necessary to minimize damage to the liver parenchyma. Selective chemotherapy to the tumor-bearing organ is the first step in a number of liver tumors. Continuous intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy is performed for multiple liver metastases. The reservoir implantation technique is percutaneously achieved via the left subclavian artery under ultrasound guidance, without the exposure of an artery in the incision method, which can induce thrombus formation. PMID:11197832

  4. Gastric bolus feeding rapidly stimulates hepatic protein synthesis in neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth and protein deposition rates are more rapid during the neonatal period than at any other stage of postnatal life. Feeding stimulates protein synthesis in the liver, as it does in other tissues of the neonatal pig. The purpose of this study was to examine the feeding-induced time course of the...

  5. New generation lipid emulsions prevent PNALD in chronic parentally fed preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD, yet it is unknown if they can prevent PNALD. We studied preterm pigs administered TPN for 14 days with either 100...

  6. Disruption of the CFTR gene produces a model of cystic fibrosis in newborn pigs.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Christopher S; Stoltz, David A; Meyerholz, David K; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Taft, Peter J; Rogan, Mark P; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Karp, Philip H; Itani, Omar A; Kabel, Amanda C; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine L; Davis, Greg J; Hanfland, Robert A; Smith, Tony L; Samuel, Melissa; Wax, David; Murphy, Clifton N; Rieke, August; Whitworth, Kristin; Uc, Aliye; Starner, Timothy D; Brogden, Kim A; Shilyansky, Joel; McCray, Paul B; Zabner, Joseph; Prather, Randall S; Welsh, Michael J

    2008-09-26

    Almost two decades after CFTR was identified as the gene responsible for cystic fibrosis (CF), we still lack answers to many questions about the pathogenesis of the disease, and it remains incurable. Mice with a disrupted CFTR gene have greatly facilitated CF studies, but the mutant mice do not develop the characteristic manifestations of human CF, including abnormalities of the pancreas, lung, intestine, liver, and other organs. Because pigs share many anatomical and physiological features with humans, we generated pigs with a targeted disruption of both CFTR alleles. Newborn pigs lacking CFTR exhibited defective chloride transport and developed meconium ileus, exocrine pancreatic destruction, and focal biliary cirrhosis, replicating abnormalities seen in newborn humans with CF. The pig model may provide opportunities to address persistent questions about CF pathogenesis and accelerate discovery of strategies for prevention and treatment. PMID:18818360

  7. Further studies on the effects of diets containing dried coffee pulp: growth performance, blood and carcass characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Okai, D B; Dabo, P

    1991-01-01

    4 groups of 5 pigs each were fed rations containing 0, 10, 20, or 30% of dried coffee pulp over a period of 10 weeks. The inclusion of these rations had no significant influence on the feed intake, growth rate and feed conversion efficiency. There were no significant differences in the blood parameters either (glucose, protein, P, Ca, cholesterol) or in the slaughter weight. Pigs fed the coffee pulp had less backfat and higher liver weights. PMID:1793431

  8. Taenia hydatigena cysticercosis in slaughtered pigs, goats, and sheep in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Braae, Uffe Christian; Kabululu, Mwemezi; Nørmark, Michelle Elisabeth; Nejsum, Peter; Ngowi, Helena Aminel; Johansen, Maria Vang

    2015-12-01

    Few studies have been carried out in Africa to estimate the prevalence of Taenia hydatigena. With the aim to determine the prevalence of T. hydatigena in slaughtered pigs and small ruminants (goats and sheep) in Mbeya, Tanzania, two cross-sectional surveys were carried out investigating pigs in April to May 2014 and small ruminants in September 2012. In total, 243 pigs were examined post-mortem for T. hydatigena cysts which were found in 16 (6.6 %) pigs. The majority (80 %) of cysts were found on the omentum and the rest on the liver (20 %), all on the visceral surface. Two pigs were also found infected with Taenia solium but showed no signs of other infections. A total of 392 goats and 27 sheep were examined post-mortem, and the prevalence of T. hydatigena was similar in goats and sheep with 45.7 and 51.9 %, respectively. DNA sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1) from a subsample of metacestodes from goats and sheep confirmed the T. hydatigena infection. The prevalence found in small ruminants was comparable to other studies conducted in Africa, but for pigs, it is one of the highest recorded to date. The present study also confirms the occurrence of T. hydatigena and T. solium in pigs from Mbeya. Further studies are needed to determine the impact of T. hydatigena on production under sub-Saharan conditions and the financial consequences for smallholder farmers. PMID:26210397

  9. Pathogenesis of Bolivian Hemorrhagic Fever in Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Bell, T M; Bunton, T E; Shaia, C I; Raymond, J W; Honnold, S P; Donnelly, G C; Shamblin, J D; Wilkinson, E R; Cashman, K A

    2016-01-01

    Machupo virus, the cause of Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, is a highly lethal viral hemorrhagic fever with no Food and Drug Administration-approved vaccines or therapeutics. This study evaluated the guinea pig as a model using the Machupo virus-Chicava strain administered via aerosol challenge. Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) were serially sampled to evaluate the temporal progression of infection, gross and histologic lesions, and sequential changes in serum chemistry and hematology. The incubation period was 5 to 12 days, and complete blood counts revealed leukopenia with lymphopenia and thrombocytopenia. Gross pathologic findings included congestion and hemorrhage of the gastrointestinal mucosa and serosa, noncollapsing lungs with fluid exudation, enlarged lymph nodes, and progressive pallor and friability of the liver. Histologic lesions consisted of foci of degeneration and cell death in the haired skin, liver, pancreas, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, tongue, esophagus, salivary glands, renal pelvis, small intestine, and large intestine. Lymphohistiocytic interstitial pneumonia was also present. Inflammation within the central nervous system, interpreted as nonsuppurative encephalitis, was histologically apparent approximately 16 days postexposure and was generally progressive. Macrophages in the tracheobronchial lymph node, on day 5 postexposure, were the first cells to demonstrate visible viral antigen. Viral antigen was detected throughout the lymphoid system by day 9 postexposure, followed by prominent spread within epithelial tissues and then brain. This study provides insight into the course of Machupo virus infection and supports the utility of guinea pigs as an additional animal model for vaccine and therapeutic development. PMID:26139838

  10. Exercise enclosures for guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cyndi

    2009-11-01

    Exercise and exploration are important to the health and happiness of guinea pigs. Laboratory housing does not always provide the space necessary for such opportunities. This article presents an inexpensive, versatile option for an enclosed exercise area for the laboratory guinea pig. PMID:19847177

  11. Prospects for the temporary treatment of acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Stockmann, Hein B A C; IJzermans, Jan N M

    2002-02-01

    At present, the most successful treatment of acute liver failure is orthotopic liver transplantation, with survival rates ranging from 70% to 85%. However, mortality rates for liver failure remain high because of the shortage of available donor organs. Therefore, there has been renewed interest in temporary treatment methods for patients with acute liver failure to either allow liver regeneration or await liver transplantation. It is thought that the function of the liver can only be replaced with the biological substrate, e.g. liver cells or a whole liver specimen, which requires the availability of liver tissue from xenogeneic or human sources. In this review, existing temporary liver support techniques are summarized and the potential hazards are described. These include the immunological implications of these techniques, e.g. the host versus graft reaction, which may influence the effectivity of the support system, and in the long run may sensitize the patient to subsequent allogeneic transplantation. The graft versus host reaction is also considered. At present, one of the major concerns is the threat of pig-to-human transmission of activated endogenous retrovirus present in the pig genome. An overview is given of literature concerning the transmission of retrovirus particles in vitro and in vivo. Finally, new solutions for the development of ex vivo systems for temporary treatment of patients with acute liver failure are discussed. These include the use of new immortalized human cell lines and human fetal hepatocytes, and the possibility of isolating, expanding and genetically manipulating stem cells in order to have stable differentiated and committed cells. PMID:11981346

  12. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  13. The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Arthur

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

  14. Differential regulation by a peroxisome proliferator of the different multifunctional proteins in guinea pig: cDNA cloning of the guinea pig D-specific multifunctional protein 2.

    PubMed Central

    Caira, F; Clémencet, M C; Cherkaoui-Malki, M; Dieuaide-Noubhani, M; Pacot, C; Van Veldhoven, P P; Latruffe, N

    1998-01-01

    After our previous report on the cloning of two cDNA species in guinea pig, both encoding the same hepatic 79 kDa multifunctional protein 1 (MFP-1) [Caira, Cherkaoui-Malki, Hoefler and Latruffe (1996) FEBS Lett. 378, 57-60], here we report the cloning of a cDNA encoding a second multifunctional peroxisomal protein (MFP-2) in guinea-pig liver. This 2356 nt cDNA encodes a protein of 735 residues (79.7 kDa) whose sequence shows 83% identity with rat MFP-2 [Dieuaide-Noubhani, Novikov, Baumgart, Vanhooren, Fransen, Goethals, Vandekerckhove, Van Veldhoven and Mannaerts (1996) Eur. J. Biochem. 240, 660-666]. In parallel, we studied the effect of ciprofibrate, a hypolipaemic agent also known as peroxisome proliferator in rodent, on the expression of MFP-1 and MFP-2 (2.6 kb) in rats and guinea pigs. By Northern blotting analysis we demonstrated that three MFP-1-related mRNA species are expressed in the guinea-pig liver. The expression of two of them (3.5 and 2.6 kb) is slightly increased by ciprofibrate, whereas the 3.0 kb MFP-1 mRNA is, unlike the rat one, strongly down-regulated in guinea pigs treated with ciprofibrate. In a similar way, the hepatic expression of the guinea-pig 2.6 kb MFP-2 mRNA is also down-regulated in guinea pigs treated with ciprofibrate. These results demonstrate (1) that in contrast with the unique 3.0 kb MFP-1 rat mRNA, at least three hepatic MFP-1-related mRNA species are co-expressed in guinea pig; and (2) that, opposed to the accepted idea of non-responsiveness of the guinea pig to ciprofibrate, this drug affects MFP-1 and MFP-2 gene expression in this species. Also, the mRNA species for acyl-CoA oxidase and thiolase, two other enzymes of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway that are induced severalfold in responsive species are down-regulated in guinea pig. This paper is the first, to our knowledge, reporting the down-regulation of the expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids (MFP-1) and

  15. [The pig sty].

    PubMed

    Pires, J C

    1993-11-01

    A first-page picture of the journal O Estado de S. Paulo on October, 1993, depicts 3 children playing in the ruins of a school building in Bahia. They are dressed in rags, just like the immense majority of children begotten in recent years. They are disgracefully filthy, with dishevelled hair, in the company of a pig content to share its habitat with such animalistic beings. In the inside pages of the same edition are profuse photos of other pigs dressed in suits and ties. This ostentation mocks the people and mainly the 3 children who do not attend school because the money for it has been embezzled from their pockets. Decent journalists, conscious of these piggish humans, endeavor every day to make this country a decent place to live. In the fight for a dignified and decent country, the journal Planejamento Agora, edited by ABEPF, makes an important statement with its slogan that the fight is true when the spirit is unabated. Planejamento Agora stoically battles to make every animal child alive today a human child who is wanted. The work and team of Planejamento Agora are saluted, and they are urged to continue the struggle on behalf of such children. PMID:12346085

  16. Schistosoma mansoni: migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated parasites in naive guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Kamiya, H.; McLaren, D.J.

    1987-02-01

    Compressed tissue autoradiography using (75Se)selenomethionine labelled parasites has been used to investigate the migration potential of normal and radiation attenuated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni in naive guinea pigs. By Day 14 after infection. 44% of normal parasites were detected as reduced silver foci in the liver; this value corresponded well with the number of liver parasites recovered by retrograde perfusion of the hepatic portal system on Day 42 (42% of the challenge). In contrast, cercariae subjected to 50 krad of gamma irradiation failed to migrate out of the skin. The migration capacity of 20 krad irradiated parasites was less severely affected in that about half of the challenge parasites reached the lungs, but virtually none moved to the liver. These data are discussed in relation to the kinetics of immunity induced in guinea pigs by infection or vaccination with normal or radiation attenuated parasites.

  17. Magnetic system tracts steel bodied pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Kershaw, C.F.

    1982-06-01

    A new magnetic detection method can track and locate all types of pipeline-pigging devices - the standard swabbing, batching, and cleaning pig; online corrosion survey pigs; both dummy and live tools; and internal geometry pigs. The battery-operated detection instrument has six levels of sensitivity for varying pipeline depths, diameters, and wall thicknesses. Its operating principle involves sensing and recording the pig's characteristic magnetic signature.

  18. Molecular basis of complement C3 deficiency in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, H S; Burger, R; Dodds, A; Colten, H R

    1990-01-01

    In experiments to ascertain the biochemical basis of a genetically determined deficiency of the third component of complement (C3) in guinea pigs, we found that C3-deficient liver and peritoneal macrophages contain C3 messenger RNA of normal size (approximately 5 kb) and amounts, that this mRNA programs synthesis of pro-C3 in oocytes primed with liver RNA and in primary macrophage cultures. In each instance, heterodimeric native C3 protein was secreted with normal kinetics but the C3 protein product of the deficient cells failed to undergo autolytic cleavage and was unusually susceptible to proteolysis. These data and a selective failure of C3 in plasma of deficient animals to incorporate [14C]methylamine suggested either a mutation in primary structure of the C3 protein or a selective defect in co- or postsynthetic processing affecting the thiolester bridge, a structure important for C3 function. A mutation in the primary structure of C3 was ruled out by comparison of direct sequence analysis of C3 cDNA generated from two C3 deficient and two C3 sufficient guinea pig liver libraries. Three base pair differences, none resulting in derived amino acid sequence differences were identified. Finally, restriction fragment length polymorphisms were identified in the C3 gene that are independent of the deficiency phenotype. This marker of the C3 gene permits testing of these hypotheses using molecular biological and classical genetic methods. Images PMID:1973176

  19. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. Hepatocellular ...

  20. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    MedlinePlus

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  1. Liver disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - liver disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on liver disease : American Liver Foundation -- www.liverfoundation.org Children's Liver Association for Support Services -- www.classkids.org Hepatitis ...

  2. Tests for Liver Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer Next Topic Liver cancer stages Tests for liver cancer If you have some of the signs ... cancer has come back (recurred). Other blood tests Liver function tests (LFTs): Because liver cancer often develops ...

  3. Liver transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The liver is in the right upper abdomen. The liver serves many functions, including the detoxification of substances delivered ... A liver transplant may be recommended for: liver damage due to alcoholism (Alcoholic cirrhosis) primary biliary cirrhosis long-term ( ...

  4. Field experiences with intelligent pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.N.; Duvivier, J.P.; Lefevre, D.E.; Robb, G.A.

    1996-08-01

    Oil and gas production operations use intelligent pigs for corrosion inspection of gathering systems and pipelines worldwide. The authors have been involved with intelligent pig inspections which have been conducted on over 155 different pipelines owned by one international corporation. A variety of intelligent pig vendors have been used with tools ranging from standard first generation magnetic flux leakage (MFL) to high-resolution MFL to standard and custom made ultrasonic (UT) tools. Experiences encountered during these inspections are discussed and resolutions to many of the problems are described.

  5. New generation lipid emulsions prevent PNALD in chronic parenterally fed preterm pigs

    PubMed Central

    Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; Ng, Kenneth; Stoll, Barbara; Benight, Nancy; Chacko, Shaji; Kluijtmans, Leo A. J.; Kulik, Wim; Squires, E. James; Olutoye, Oluyinka; Schady, Deborah; Finegold, Milton L.; van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Burrin, Douglas G.

    2014-01-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with the development of parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD) in infants. Fish oil-based lipid emulsions can reverse PNALD, yet it is unknown if they can prevent PNALD. We studied preterm pigs administered TPN for 14 days with either 100% soybean oil (IL), 100% fish oil (OV), or a mixture of soybean oil, medium chain triglycerides (MCTs), olive oil, and fish oil (SL); a group was fed formula enterally (ENT). In TPN-fed pigs, serum direct bilirubin, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), and plasma bile acids increased after the 14 day treatment but were highest in IL pigs. All TPN pigs had suppressed hepatic expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR), cholesterol 7-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), and plasma 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (C4) concentrations, yet hepatic CYP7A1 protein abundance was increased only in the IL versus ENT group. Organic solute transporter alpha (OSTα) gene expression was the highest in the IL group and paralleled plasma bile acid levels. In cultured hepatocytes, bile acid-induced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression was inhibited by phytosterol treatment. We show that TPN-fed pigs given soybean oil developed cholestasis and steatosis that was prevented with both OV and SL emulsions. Due to the presence of phytosterols in the SL emulsion, the differences in cholestasis and liver injury among lipid emulsion groups in vivo were weakly correlated with plasma and hepatic phytosterol content. PMID:24478031

  6. [Expression analysis of green fluorescent protein in tissues and organs in α-1,3 galactosyltransferase knockout pigs].

    PubMed

    Zhifang, Li; Chong, Feng; Huili, Ji; Ningning, Shi; Xiaofeng, Song; Qinli, Zhao; Chuan, Long; Dengke, Pan; Xiaogan, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The pig is an ideal source to provide organs because its organ size and physiology are similar to humans. However, an acute rejection will ensue after pig-to-human xenotransplantation. The α-1,3 galactosyltransferase gene knockout (GTKO) pigs were generated in recent years, and could solve the problem of hyperacute rejection. But due to lack of reporting genes, the rejection status of cells and organs post pig-to-human xenotransplantation cannot be visualized. In this study, we introduced the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene driven by the CAG promoter into GTKO porcine ear fibroblasts. Then we produced transgenic pigs expressing the EGFP gene by nuclear transfer technology. Expression levels of EGFP in different tissues and organs of the cloned pig were investigated by Nightsea DFP-1 Fluorescent Protein Flashlight, fluorescence microscope and quantitative PCR assays. The results showed that the protein and transcript of EGFP were expressed in all tissues and organs of the GTKO pig, but the expression was weak in the liver and central nervous system. In conclusion, we have successfully produced the transgenic GTKO pigs expressing EGFP in all tested tissues and organs, which builds up a good basis to track transplanted cells or tissues. PMID:26704946

  7. Impact of dietary betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on insulin sensitivity, protein and fat metabolism of obese pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Lachica, M; Martín, A; Nieto, R; González-Valero, L; Rodríguez-López, J M; Aguilera, J F

    2012-07-01

    To determine possible mechanisms of action that might explain the nutrient partitioning effect of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in Iberian pigs and to address potential adverse effects, twenty gilts were restrictively fed from 20 to 50 kg BW Control, 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA diets. Serum hormones and metabolites profile were determined at 30 kg BW and an oral glucose test was performed before slaughter. Pigs were slaughtered at 50 kg BW and livers were obtained for chemical and histological analysis. Decreased serum urea in pigs fed betaine and betaine + CLA diets (11%; P = 0.0001) indicated a more efficient N utilization. The increase in serum triacylglycerol (58% and 28%, respectively; P = 0.0098) indicated that CLA and betaine + CLA could have reduced adipose tissue triacylglycerol synthesis from preformed fatty acids. Serum glucose, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were unaffected. CLA and betaine + CLA altered serum lipids profile, although liver of pigs fed CLA diet presented no histopathological changes and triglyceride content was not different from Control pigs. Compared with controls, serum growth hormone decreased (20% to 23%; P = 0.0209) for all treatments. Although serum insulin increased in CLA, and especially in betaine + CLA pigs (28% and 83%; P = 0.0001), indices of insulin resistance were unaffected. In conclusion, CLA, and especially betaine + CLA, induced changes in biochemical parameters and hormones that may partially explain a nutrient partitioning effect in young pigs. Nevertheless, they exhibited weak, although detrimental, effects on blood lipids. Moreover, although livers were chemically and histologically normal, pigs fed CLA diet challenged with a glucose load had higher serum glucose than controls. PMID:23031465

  8. Bioavailability of PCDDs and PCDFs of fly ash after semi-chronic oral ingestion by guinea pig and Syrian golden hamster

    SciTech Connect

    van den Bery, M.; de Vroom, E.; Olie, K.; Hutzinger, O.

    1986-01-01

    Groups of guinea pigs and syrian golden hamster were fed 2.5% HCl pre-treated fly ash from the electrostatic precipitator of a municipal incinerator during one, two, and three months, respectively, in the diet. The livers were analyzed for tetra-, penta-, and hexa-chlorinated dibenzo(p)dioxines (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). In the livers of the hamsters 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs were the major isomers retained. In the livers of the guinea pigs 2,3,7,8 substituted PCDDs and PCDF congeners were retained, but also a number of otherwise substituted PCDFs. The PCDF congener which had the highest retention in the livers of guinea pigs was 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDF, 11.3% after 95 days. In the livers of the hamsters highest retention was found for 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF, 8.4% after 95 days. For most 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs the retention in the livers of the guinea pigs and hamsters was not significantly different during the whole period, which could indicate a bioconcentration approaching a linear relationship to the administered dose. Constant relative concentrations in the livers were found for the 2,3,7,8-substituted penta- and hexa-chlorinated PCDDs and PCDF in both species during the three time periods.

  9. Pig shipping container test sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Adkins, H.E. Jr.

    1995-01-13

    This test plan outlines testing of the integrity of the pig shipping container. It is divided into four sections: (1) drop test requirements; (2) test preparations; (3) perform drop test; and (4) post-test examination.

  10. Solanum malacoxylon toxicity to pigs.

    PubMed

    Rucksan, B E; Wells, G A; Lewis, G

    1978-08-19

    Newly weaned pigs were given Solanum malacoxylon at dose rates of 0.2 and 1.0 g per kg body-weight per week for eight weeks. The Solanum malacoxylon was given either as an aqueous extract (SM) or as an aqueous extract incubated with fresh rumen liquor (SMLR). Tubulonephrosis, dose related in severity, was evident in all treated pigs and focal calcification in kidney and lung occurred in pigs receiving the higher dose rate. There was a marked hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia over the trial period; the latter feature was in contrast with the hyperphosphataemia produced in sheep. Incubation of SM with rumen liquor enhanced hypophosphataemia at both dose levels in the pig but its effect on serum calcium was equivocal. PMID:695263

  11. Elodontoma in Two Guinea Pigs.

    PubMed

    Capello, Vittorio; Lennox, Angela; Ghisleni, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Elodontoma was diagnosed in two pet guinea pigs, one involving a maxillary premolar tooth and the other affecting a mandibular incisor tooth. Diagnostic imaging, including radiographs, computed tomography, and oral endoscopy was performed in order to quantify dental disease. Diagnostic imaging was also used to guide treatment of acquired dental disease, which included intraoral restoration of normal occlusal plane and tooth extraction using an extraoral approach. These are the first histologically confirmed cases of elodontoma in guinea pigs. PMID:26415388

  12. Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in pigs.

    PubMed

    Done, S H; Tokarina, C H; Dämmrich, K; Döbereiner, J

    1976-03-01

    Solanum malacoxylon was given orally to four pigs. The animals were examined clinically and subjected to post mortem examination. Macroscopic lesions were not seen with the exception of a small calcified plaque in the endocardium of one animal. Microscopic examinations revealed slight calcification of elastic fibres in the soft tissues. The pathological changes in the bones were extensive and are described in detail. The pigs showed minimal lesions at dose levels which cause considerable systemic calcification in cattle and sheep. PMID:1265362

  13. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    PubMed

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  14. Molecular Structure of Human-Liver Glycogen

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Bin; Sullivan, Mitchell A.; Chen, Cheng; Li, Jialun; Powell, Prudence O.; Hu, Zhenxia; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen is a highly branched glucose polymer which is involved in maintaining blood-sugar homeostasis. Liver glycogen contains large composite α particles made up of linked β particles. Previous studies have shown that the binding which links β particles into α particles is impaired in diabetic mice. The present study reports the first molecular structural characterization of human-liver glycogen from non-diabetic patients, using transmission electron microscopy for morphology and size-exclusion chromatography for the molecular size distribution; the latter is also studied as a function of time during acid hydrolysis in vitro, which is sensitive to certain structural features, particularly glycosidic vs. proteinaceous linkages. The results are compared with those seen in mice and pigs. The molecular structural change during acid hydrolysis is similar in each case, and indicates that the linkage of β into α particles is not glycosidic. This result, and the similar morphology in each case, together imply that human liver glycogen has similar molecular structure to those of mice and pigs. This knowledge will be useful for future diabetes drug targets. PMID:26934359

  15. Carcass characteristics and fat depots in Iberian and F Large White × Landrace pigs intensively finished or raised outdoors in oak-tree forests.

    PubMed

    Bressan, M C; Almeida, J; Santos Silva, J; Bettencourt, C; Francisco, A; Gama, L T

    2016-06-01

    A factorial experiment was performed with 117 barrows belonging to the Iberian (IB) and crossbred F Large White × Landrace (F) genetic groups, either intensively finished (IN) or finished outdoors on pasture in an oak and cork tree forest (EX). Information was collected on carcass weight, yield, and dimensions; weight of organs, carcass cuts, and abdominal fat depots; backfat depth; measurements of the longissimus thoracis (LT); and yield of different leg tissues. For the 41 slaughter and carcass traits analyzed, the interaction between genetic group and finishing system was significant ( < 0.05) in 18 traits, and overall, there was a more pronounced influence of genetic group than of finishing system. In most variables, particularly those related with fat deposition, the interaction reflected mostly changes in mean differences among genetic groups rather than in their ranking, where IB pigs consistently produced fatter carcasses, regardless of the finishing system. Liver weight in IB-EX pigs was lower by nearly 8% when compared with F-EX or IB-IN pigs, but the opposite pattern was found in F pigs, where liver weight in F-EX pigs was higher by 16% relative to IB-EX pigs or to F-IN pigs. The deposition of adipose tissue was much larger ( < 0.05) in IB pigs compared with F pigs, with means for fat depots in IB pigs that were higher by about 25% in total abdominal fat, 94% in dorsal fat depth, 72% in intermuscular plus subcutaneous fat in the leg, and over 300% in intramuscular fat (IMF). The deposition of lean tissue was much lower in IB pigs ( < 0.05), with means for trimmed loin weight corresponding to about one-half of the means obtained in F pigs, whereas lean percentage in the leg of IB pigs was about two-thirds of the mean in F pigs and the mean area of the LT was nearly one-half of that observed in F pigs in the same finishing system ( < 0.05). A strong correlation was observed between the various fat depots when the full data set was considered (correlations

  16. Effects of heat stress on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in growing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Victoria Sanz Fernandez, M; Johnson, Jay S; Abuajamieh, Mohannad; Stoakes, Sara K; Seibert, Jacob T; Cox, Lindsay; Kahl, Stanislaw; Elsasser, Theodore H; Ross, Jason W; Clay Isom, S; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H

    2015-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) jeopardizes human and animal health and reduces animal agriculture productivity; however, its pathophysiology is not well understood. Study objectives were to evaluate the direct effects of HS on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Female pigs (57 ± 5 kg body weight) were subjected to two experimental periods. During period 1, all pigs remained in thermoneutral conditions (TN; 20°C) and were ad libitum fed. During period 2, pigs were exposed to: (1) constant HS conditions (32°C) and fed ad libitum (n = 7), or (2) TN conditions and pair-fed (PFTN; n = 10) to minimize the confounding effects of dissimilar feed intake. All pigs received an intravenous glucose tolerance test (GTT) and an epinephrine challenge (EC) in period 1, and during the early and late phases of period 2. After 8 days of environmental exposure, all pigs were killed and tissue samples were collected. Despite a similar reduction in feed intake (39%), HS pigs tended to have decreased circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA; 20%) and a blunted NEFA response (71%) to the EC compared to PFTN pigs. During early exposure, HS increased basal circulating C-peptide (55%) and decreased the insulinogenic index (45%) in response to the GTT. Heat-stressed pigs had a reduced T3 to T4 ratio (56%) and hepatic 5′-deiodinase activity (58%). After 8 days, HS decreased or tended to decrease the expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation in liver and skeletal muscle, and ATGL in adipose tissue. In summary, HS markedly alters both lipid and carbohydrate metabolism independently of nutrient intake. PMID:25716927

  17. Extracorporeal liver assist device to exchange albumin and remove endotoxin in acute liver failure: Results of a pivotal pre-clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Karla C.L.; Baker, Luisa A.; Stanzani, Giacomo; Alibhai, Hatim; Chang, Yu Mei; Jimenez Palacios, Carolina; Leckie, Pamela J.; Giordano, Paola; Priestnall, Simon L.; Antoine, Daniel J.; Jenkins, Rosalind E.; Goldring, Christopher E.; Park, B. Kevin; Andreola, Fausto; Agarwal, Banwari; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P.; Davies, Nathan A.; Jalan, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Background & Aims In acute liver failure, severity of liver injury and clinical progression of disease are in part consequent upon activation of the innate immune system. Endotoxaemia contributes to innate immune system activation and the detoxifying function of albumin, critical to recovery from liver injury, is irreversibly destroyed in acute liver failure. University College London-Liver Dialysis Device is a novel artificial extracorporeal liver assist device, which is used with albumin infusion, to achieve removal and replacement of dysfunctional albumin and reduction in endotoxaemia. We aimed to test the effect of this device on survival in a pig model of acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure. Methods Pigs were randomised to three groups: Acetaminophen plus University College London-Liver Dialysis Device (n = 9); Acetaminophen plus Control Device (n = 7); and Control plus Control Device (n = 4). Device treatment was initiated two h after onset of irreversible acute liver failure. Results The Liver Dialysis Device resulted in 67% reduced risk of death in acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure compared to Control Device (hazard ratio = 0.33, p = 0.0439). This was associated with 27% decrease in circulating irreversibly oxidised human non-mercaptalbumin-2 throughout treatment (p = 0.046); 54% reduction in overall severity of endotoxaemia (p = 0.024); delay in development of vasoplegia and acute lung injury; and delay in systemic activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway. Liver Dialysis Device-associated adverse clinical effects were not seen. Conclusions The survival benefit and lack of adverse effects would support clinical trials of University College London-Liver Dialysis Device in acute liver failure patients. PMID:25937432

  18. Pharmacokinetics of activated protein C in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, H. Jr.; Kirstein, C.G.; Orthner, C.L. )

    1991-05-15

    Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent zymogen of the serine protease, activated protein C (APC), an important regulatory enzyme in hemostasis. In view of the potential of human APC as an anticoagulant and profibrinolytic agent, the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of APC were studied in guinea pigs. The plasma elimination of a trace dose of {sup 125}I-APC was biphasic following an initial rapid elimination of approximately 15% of the injected dose within 1 to 2 minutes. This rapid removal of {sup 125}I-APC from the circulation was found to be a result of an association with the liver regardless of the route of injection. Essentially identical results were obtained with active site-blocked forms of APC generated with either diisopropylfluorophosphate or D-phenylalanyl-L-prolyl-L-arginine chloromethyl ketone, which indicates that the active site was not essential for the liver association. Accumulation of all three forms of APC in the liver peaked at 30 minutes and then declined as increasing amounts of degraded radiolabeled material appeared in the gastrointestinal tract and urine. Removal of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (gla) domain of diisopropylphosphoryl-APC resulted in a 50% reduction in the association with liver and an accumulation in the kidneys. Protein C and protein S were cleared from the circulation at rates approximately one-half and one-fourth, respectively, that of APC. Both in vitro and in vivo, APC was found to form complexes with protease inhibitors present in guinea pig plasma. Complex formation resulted in a more rapid disappearance of the enzymatic activity of APC than elimination of the protein moiety. These findings indicate two distinct mechanisms for the elimination of APC. One mechanism involves reaction with plasma protease inhibitors and subsequent elimination by specific hepatic receptors. (Abstract Truncated)

  19. Natural trematode infestation in feral Nebrodi Black pigs: pathological investigations.

    PubMed

    Capucchio, Maria Teresa; Catalano, Deborah; Di Marco, Vincenzo; Russo, Miriam; Aronica, Vincenzo; Tomaselli, Amedeo; Lazzara, Alessandro; Amedeo, Stefano; Scaglione, Frine Eleonora; Dore, Bruno; Guarda, Franco

    2009-01-22

    Few studies describe the parasites of pigs bred in the wild state, although pigs are a known reservoir of trematode infestation. This article reports the results of a retrospective study carried out from January 2003 to June 2007 on 3021 Nebrodi Black male and female pigs, regularly slaughtered, aged between 8 months and 4 years. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum flukes were detected in 143 (4.37%) of 3021 livers. The predominant histological features were multifocal to diffuse chronic hepatitis, with fibrosis and severely thickened walls of the bile ducts and chronic parietal, sometimes nodular inflammation. F. hepatica infestation was frequently associated with marked hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the submucosal glands. The study results confirm the important role swine play in the transmission of trematode infestations, indicate the prevalence of these parasites in the Nebrodi Park area, and draw attention to the need for a prophylaxis plan to prevent the spread of infestation to ruminants and humans living in the area. PMID:19038498

  20. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, David A.; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E.; Pezzulo, Alejandro A.; Ostedgaard, Lynda S.; Karp, Philip H.; Samuel, Melissa S.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Rector, Michael V.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Bouzek, Drake C.; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H. Abou; Hoegger, Mark J.; Ludwig, Paula S.; Taft, Peter J.; Wallen, Tanner J.; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D.; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L.; Adam, Ryan J.; Hornick, Emma E.; Nelson, George A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Chang, Eugene H.; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B.; Prather, Randall S.; Meyerholz, David K.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid–binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR–/–;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  1. Intestinal CFTR expression alleviates meconium ileus in cystic fibrosis pigs.

    PubMed

    Stoltz, David A; Rokhlina, Tatiana; Ernst, Sarah E; Pezzulo, Alejandro A; Ostedgaard, Lynda S; Karp, Philip H; Samuel, Melissa S; Reznikov, Leah R; Rector, Michael V; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Bouzek, Drake C; Alaiwa, Mahmoud H Abou; Hoegger, Mark J; Ludwig, Paula S; Taft, Peter J; Wallen, Tanner J; Wohlford-Lenane, Christine; McMenimen, James D; Chen, Jeng-Haur; Bogan, Katrina L; Adam, Ryan J; Hornick, Emma E; Nelson, George A; Hoffman, Eric A; Chang, Eugene H; Zabner, Joseph; McCray, Paul B; Prather, Randall S; Meyerholz, David K; Welsh, Michael J

    2013-06-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) pigs develop disease with features remarkably similar to those in people with CF, including exocrine pancreatic destruction, focal biliary cirrhosis, micro-gallbladder, vas deferens loss, airway disease, and meconium ileus. Whereas meconium ileus occurs in 15% of babies with CF, the penetrance is 100% in newborn CF pigs. We hypothesized that transgenic expression of porcine CF transmembrane conductance regulator (pCFTR) cDNA under control of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (iFABP) promoter would alleviate the meconium ileus. We produced 5 CFTR-/-;TgFABP>pCFTR lines. In 3 lines, intestinal expression of CFTR at least partially restored CFTR-mediated anion transport and improved the intestinal phenotype. In contrast, these pigs still had pancreatic destruction, liver disease, and reduced weight gain, and within weeks of birth, they developed sinus and lung disease, the severity of which varied over time. These data indicate that expressing CFTR in intestine without pancreatic or hepatic correction is sufficient to rescue meconium ileus. Comparing CFTR expression in different lines revealed that approximately 20% of wild-type CFTR mRNA largely prevented meconium ileus. This model may be of value for understanding CF pathophysiology and testing new preventions and therapies. PMID:23676501

  2. Surgical techniques of orthotopic rat liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, H U; Palmes, D

    1998-01-01

    Liver transplantation in rats is frequently used as a transplantation model. Although liver transplantation in larger laboratory animals such as dogs and pigs is technically easier, the rat has become the most important subject for experimental liver transplantation because of the availability of genetically defined animals. Numerous surgical techniques have been developed that permit the investigator to carry out studies with high clinical relevance. In this article the principal models of orthotopic rat liver transplantation and their technical modifications of vessel anastomoses, rearterialization, and bile duct reconstruction techniques are reviewed. More than 20 transplantation models are described in detail and demonstrated with clear illustrations. Finally, the advantages and uses of all the surgical procedures (e.g., suture and cuff anastomoses, bile duct anastomoses, and rearterialization techniques), specific problems, and survival criteria are discussed and the experiences of investigators who applied these techniques are analyzed. In conclusion, an overview and critical evaluation of all surgical techniques of orthotopic rat liver transplantation are given, together with instructions for learning these techniques. PMID:9700616

  3. Assessment of thermal sensitivity of CT during heating of liver: an ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Pandeya, G D; Greuter, M J W; Schmidt, B; Flohr, T; Oudkerk, M

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the thermal sensitivity of CT during heating of ex-vivo animal liver. Methods Pig liver was indirectly heated from 20 to 90 °C by passage of hot air through a plastic tube. The temperature in the heated liver was measured using calibrated thermocouples. In addition, image acquisition was performed with a multislice CT scanner before and during heating of the liver sample. The reconstructed CT images were then analysed to assess the change of CT number as a function of temperature. Results During heating, a decrease in CT numbers was observed as a hypodense area on the CT images. In addition, the hypodense area extended outward from the heat source during heating. The analysis showed a linear decrease of CT number as a function of temperature. From this relationship, we derived a thermal sensitivity of CT for pig liver tissue of −0.54±0.03 HU °C−1 with an r2 value of 0.91. Conclusions The assessment of the thermal sensitivity of CT in ex-vivo pig liver tissue showed a linear dependency on temperature ≤90 °C. This result may be beneficial for the application of isotherms or thermal maps in CT images of liver tissue. PMID:22919016

  4. Isolation and pathogenicity of Toxoplasma gondii in naturally infected (rustic farm) pigs in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cademartori, B G; Santos, L M J F; Oliveira, F C; Quevedo, P; Oliveira, P A; Ramos, T S; Rocha, A S R; Ruas, J L; Farias, N A R

    2014-06-16

    This study reported a serological test for Toxoplasma gondii infection in 100 pigs from 58 rural farms in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thirty-six pigs were seropositive (IFAT≥1:64). Bioassays were performed for all 36 seropositive pigs, and 17 isolates were obtained (47.2%). Seven of these isolates (41.2%) were highly pathogenic to mice, as clinical signs of acute infection were observed, and tachyzoites were found in the peritoneal exudates, livers, and lungs. The remaining 10 isolates were able to establish a chronic infection in mice, therefore, they were not highly virulent. The results of this study indicate that pork is a potential source of T. gondii transmission to humans. PMID:24612744

  5. Pathological and virological features of arenavirus disease in guinea pigs. Comparison of two Pichinde virus strains.

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, J. F.; Herzog, N. K.; Jerrells, T. R.

    1994-01-01

    A guinea pig passage-adapted strain of the arena-virus Pichinde (adPIC) is highly virulent in inbred guinea pigs, whereas the related strain PIC3739 is attenuated. Both viruses were macrophage tropic and infected peritoneal, splenic, liver, and alveolar macrophages during experimental Pichinde virus infection. Infection with the virulent strain was associated with unlimited viral replication in the face of exaggerated delayed-type hypersensitivity response, manifested by the macrophage disappearance reaction. Histopathological lesions unique to adPIC-infected guinea pigs included intestinal villus blunting with mucosal infiltration by pyknotic debris-laden macrophages and apoptosis of crypt epithelial cells. Splenic red pulp necrosis was also significantly associated with adPIC infection but not PIC3739 infection. These findings may provide clues to the pathogenesis of a group of poorly understood human viral hemorrhagic fevers. Images Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:8030751

  6. [An experimental model of hepatointestinal transplant in the pig with clinical applications].

    PubMed

    López Santamaría, M; Gámez, M; Murcia, J; Bueno, J; Paz, J A; Canser, E; Reinoso, F; Muñoz, J; Lobato, R; Martínez, L; de Miguel, E; Polanco, I; Jara, P; Tovar, J

    1996-10-01

    A model of experimental hepatointestinal transplant in pigs, with clinical applications is presented. Ten animals received a graft composed by the liver and the full length of the small bowel. Two pigs died during the transplant and in eight the surgical procedure was well tolerated with a good revascularization of the grafts. The coagulation parameters were normal after the transplant and only minor biochemical disturbances were found. The main difficulties of the surgical technique are related with the poor tolerance of the pig to the portal and caval clamping, and the close relationships of the duodenum, pancreas and distal colon, produced by the 360 degrees anti-clockwise bowel rotation around the mesenteric vessels. Clamping the supraceliac aorta during the implant of the graft keeps the animal hemodynamically stable and makes unnecessary the use of the more complicated veno venous shunt. PMID:9131980

  7. Varying dietary levels of wheat pollard and wheat bran in growing pigs: effect on growth and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kabugo, Stephen; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of increasing levels of wheat pollard as a replacement for wheat bran on growth and carcass characteristics of growing pigs, 64 crossbred (Landrace × Large white Yorkshire) pigs were fed with diets in which wheat pollard was added back to wheat bran in ratios of 15, 30, 45 and 60 %. The pigs were divided into groups of four, balanced for sex, ancestry and body weight. They were then allotted to the dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. The trial lasted 4 months and data were collected on feed intake and weight gain. A digestibility trial was carried out on eight male pigs per treatment during the growth period. At the end of the growth period, two pigs per replicate in each treatment (n = 32) were slaughtered for determination of carcass characteristics. There were significant differences in the rate of gain and efficiency of feed utilisation among treatments. Diet significantly affected weights of the liver, lungs and small intestine (P < 0.05). The availability of nutrients was not a limiting factor for the growing pigs and that substituting wheat bran by wheat pollard at 60 % improved the pig's average daily gain and feed efficiency. PMID:23846767

  8. A pig model of acute Staphylococcus aureus induced pyemia

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Ole L; Iburg, Tine; Aalbaek, Bent; Leifsson, Páll S; Agerholm, Jørgen S; Heegaard, Peter; Boye, Mette; Simon, Sofie; Jensen, Kristine B; Christensen, Sophie; Melsen, Karin; Bak, Anne K; Backman, Elín R; Jørgensen, Mia H; Groegler, Désirée K; Jensen, Asger L; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Jensen, Henrik E

    2009-01-01

    Background Sepsis caused by Staphylococcus aureus constitutes an important cause of morbidity and mortality in humans, and the incidence of this disease-entity is increasing. In this paper we describe the initial microbial dynamics and lesions in pigs experimentally infected with S. aureus, with the aim of mimicking human sepsis and pyemia. Methods The study was conducted in anaesthetized and intravenously inoculated pigs, and was based on bacteriological examination of blood and testing of blood for IL-6 and C-reactive protein. Following killing of the animals and necropsy bacteriological and histological examinations of different organs were performed 4, 5 or 6 h after inoculation. Results Clearance of bacteria from the blood was completed within the first 2 h in some of the pigs and the highest bacterial load was recorded in the lungs as compared to the spleen, liver and bones. This probably was a consequence of both the intravenous route of inoculation and the presence of pulmonary intravascular macrophages. Inoculation of bacteria induced formation of acute microabscesses in the lungs, spleen and liver, but not in the kidneys or bones. No generalized inflammatory response was recorded, i.e. IL-6 was not detected in the blood and C-reactive protein did not increase, probably because of the short time course of the study. Conclusion This study demonstrates the successful induction of acute pyemia (microabscesses), and forms a basis for future experiments that should include inoculation with strains of S. aureus isolated from man and an extension of the timeframe aiming at inducing sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock. PMID:19327150

  9. Supplemental dietary inulin influences expression of iron and inflammation related genes in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Koji; Dawson, Harry D; Wasmuth, Elizabeth V; Roneker, Carol A; Chen, Celine; Urban, Joseph F; Welch, Ross M; Miller, Dennis D; Lei, Xin Gen

    2009-11-01

    We have previously shown improved hemoglobin (Hb) repletion efficiency by supplementing a 50:50 mixture of short (P95) and long-chain (HP) inulin (Synergy 1, BENEO-Orafti) into a corn-soybean meal-basal diet (BD) for young pigs. In this study, weanling pigs (5 or 6 wk old) were fed the BD or the BD + 4% of P95, HP, or Synergy 1 (50:50 mixtures of HP and P95) for 5-7 wk. Blood Hb concentrations of pigs were measured weekly and digesta samples were collected at the end of the trial. In a replicate experiment, total RNA was isolated from the liver and mucosa of duodenum, ileum, cecum, and colon of all pigs at the end of the trial. Relative mRNA expression of 27 genes, including iron and inflammation-related genes, was quantified using real-time quantitative-PCR. Although all 3 types of inulin resulted in similar improvements (P < 0.05) in blood Hb concentration and liver ferritin protein amount, neither type of inulin was detectable in the digesta of cecum or colon. Supplemental inulin enhanced the expression of iron-storing protein genes but decreased that of inflammation-related genes. Such effects were more pronounced (P < 0.05) in the mucosa of the lower than the upper gut and were seen on 7 genes in liver. In conclusion, all 3 types of inulin shared similar efficacy and possibly similar modes of action in improving dietary iron utilization by young pigs. Suppressing inflammation-induced genes that can negatively influence iron metabolism might help explain the benefit of inulin. PMID:19776179

  10. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... You Can Use April May Calendar Liver Lowdown Mar 2014 Calendar of Events In The News Academic ... 2016 Calendar Jan Feb 2016 recipe Liver Lowdown Mar/Apr 2016 Liver Lowdown August 2016 Know Your ...

  11. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... herbal supplements you are taking. What are normal ranges for liver function tests? Normal ranges for liver function tests can vary by age, ... other factors. Laboratory test results usually provide normal ranges for each liver function test with your results. ...

  12. Liver Function Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see how well your liver ... hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or you ...

  13. Pyogenic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many potential causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  14. Diet and Your Liver

    MedlinePlus

    ... scarring of your liver (cirrhosis). For people with liver disease, even a small amount of alcohol can make ... time. Eating an unhealthy diet can lead to liver disease. For example, a person who eats a lot ...

  15. Characterization of pig colonic mucins.

    PubMed Central

    Fogg, F J; Hutton, D A; Jumel, K; Pearson, J P; Harding, S E; Allen, A

    1996-01-01

    Pig colonic mucins isolated from the adherent mucus gel in the presence of proteinase inhibitors were solubilized by homogenization and the component mucins fractionated by CsC1 density-gradient centrifugation. Polymeric and reduced pig colonic mucin were both largely excluded on Sepharose CL-2B, papain-digested colonic mucin was included. The M(r) values of polymeric, reduced and digested mucins were 5.5 x 10(6), 2.1 x 10(6) and 0.6 x 10(6) respectively. This suggests that pig colonic mucin is comprised of 2-3 subunits, each subunit containing 3-4 glycosylated regions. The intrinsic viscosities of polymeric, reduced and digested mucin were 240 ml.g-1, 100 ml.g-1 and 20 ml.g-1 respectively. Polymeric pig colonic mucin comprised 16% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine and proline (43% of total amino acids). There were approx. 150 disulphide bridges and 53 free thiol groups per mucin polymer. A seventh of the protein content was lost on reduction. This protein was particularly rich in proline and the hydrophobic amino acids. Papain-digested pig colonic mucin contained 11% protein per mg of glycoprotein and was rich in serine, threonine, glutamate and aspartate. All types of amino acids with the exception of aspartate were lost on digestion. The amino acid analysis of the proteolytically digested regions of pig colonic mucin are markedly different to the tandem repeat regions of the human mucin genes shown to be expressed in the colon. PMID:8670173

  16. Metabolic liver disease.

    PubMed

    McKiernan, Pat

    2012-06-01

    Diagnosis of metabolic liver disease requires a high level of diagnostic suspicion. Diet is usually the primary treatment for metabolic liver disease. Where indicated, liver transplantation provides lifelong functional correction of liver-based metabolic defects. Liver cell therapy warrants further study for the future treatment of metabolic liver disease. All families should receive genetic advice and pre-emptive management of future affected siblings. PMID:22521124

  17. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  18. Comparative carcass and tissue nutrient composition of transgenic Yorkshire pigs expressing phytase in the saliva and conventional Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, C W; Meidinger, R G; Ajakaiye, A; Murray, D; Fan, M Z; Mandell, I B; Phillips, J P

    2014-10-01

    A transgenic line of Yorkshire (YK) pigs named the Cassie (CA) line was produced with a low copy number phytase transgene inserted in the genome. The transgenic line efficiently digests P, Ca, and other major minerals of plant dietary origin. The objectives of this study were to 1) compare carcass and tissue nutrient composition and meat quality traits for third generation hemizygous CA line market BW finisher pigs (n = 24) with age-matched conventional YK finisher pigs (n = 24) and 2) examine effects of outbreeding with high-index conventional YK boars on modifying carcass leanness from the third to sixth generations in CA line finisher boars (n = 73) and gilts (n = 103). Cassie boars (n = 12) and CA gilts (n = 12) were fed diets without supplemental P and comparable numbers of age-matched YK boars and gilts fed diets containing supplement P were raised throughout the finisher phase. The pigs were slaughtered and then fabricated into commercial pork primals before meat composition and quality evaluation. Proximate and major micronutrient composition was determined on tissues including fat, kidney, lean, liver, and skin. The main difference observed was greater (P = 0.033) crude fat content in CA boar carcasses and increased (P < 0.04) leaf lard in both CA boars and gilts but no differences were observed (P = 0.895 and P = 0.223, respectively) in carcass backfat thickness as compared with YK pigs. There were no substantive differences in tissue composition, except for CA boar kidneys. Numerous changes in the mineral, fatty acid, and indispensable AA composition for CA boar kidneys were not apparent in CA gilts. These changes may point to adaptive physiological changes in the boar kidney necessary for homeostatic regulation of mineral retention related to phytase action rather than to insertion of the transgene. However, from a meat composition perspective, transgenic expression of phytase in the CA line of YK pigs had little overall effect on meat composition

  19. Agronomic recycling of pig slurry and pig sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Garrido, Melisa; Sánchez García, Pablo; Faz Cano, Ángel; Büyükkılıç Yanardag, Asuman; Yanardag, Ibrahim; Kabas, Sebla; Ángeles Múñoz García, María; María Rosales Aranda, Rosa; Segura Ruíz, Juan Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Recycling pig slurry as organic fertilizer is a convenient and suitable way of waste elimination due to its low cost and high agronomic benefits. The objectives of this two year study are focused on improving and recycling pig slurry appropriately, and monitoring the soil-plant system at the same time. The evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of different types of pig slurry (raw, solid, treated and depurated) in different doses (170 kg N ha-1 (legislated dose), 340 and 510 kg N ha-1) is innovative because the fertilizer value of each amendment can be balanced. Furthermore environmental issues such us volatilisation, leaching and salinisation have been considered for each treatment in order to set the viability of the study and to justify the treatments applied. Electrical conductivity, Kjeldhal nitrogen, sodium and potassium are the physico-chemical parameters most influenced in soils treated with doses 340 and 510 kg N ha-1. Additionally plant samples, especially halophyte, have shown the highest major and minor nutrients contents. Finally, pig slurry application in legislated doses could be considered a useful environmental practice; however, the development of the crop will be very influenced by the type of dose and amendment selected.

  20. Effects of a Chelated Copper as Growth Promoter on Performance and Carcass Traits in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, J.; Allee, G.; Gerlemann, G.; Ma, L.; Gracia, M. I.; Parker, D.; Vazquez-Anon, M.; Harrell, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate whether a chelated Cu can replace CuSO4 as a growth promoter in pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of 240 piglets (Large White×Landrace, 7.36±0.10 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatments with 8 replicates and 10 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (CuSO4, 6 mg/kg), two Cu supplementations from either CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 at 170 mg/kg. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 were 6.0% heavier than pigs fed either the NRC control or 170 mg/kg CuSO4 (p = 0.03) at the end of the experiment. During the 42 days of experimental period, pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 gained 9.0% more (p = 0.01), tended to eat more feed (p = 0.09), and had better feed efficiency (p = 0.06) than those fed CuSO4. Compared with the 6 mg/kg CuSO4 NRC control, liver Cu was increased 2.7 times with 170 mg/kg CuSO4 supplementation, and was further increased with Cu(HMTBa)2 (4.5 times, p<0.05). In Exp. 2, a total of 616 crossbred piglets (PIC, 5.01±0.25 kg) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments with 7 replicates and 22 piglets per pen. Treatments included a NRC control (from CuSO4), and three pharmaceutical levels of Cu (150 mg/kg) supplemented either from CuSO4, tri-basic copper chloride (Cu2[OH]3Cl), or Cu(HMTBa)2. Pigs fed CuSO4 or Cu(HMTBa)2 had better feed efficiency (p = 0.01) and tended to gain more (p = 0.08) compared with those fed the NRC control. Pigs fed Cu2(OH)3Cl were intermediate. Pigs fed Cu(HMTBa)2 had the highest liver Cu, which was significantly higher than those fed (Cu2[OH]3Cl) or the negative control (p = 0.01). In Exp. 3, a total of 1,048 pigs (PIC, 32.36±0.29 kg) were allotted to 6 treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 20 to 22 pigs per pen. The treatments included a NRC control with 4 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, a positive control with 160 mg/kg Cu from CuSO4, and incremental levels of Cu(HMTBa)2 at 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg. During the overall experimental period of 100 days, no benefit from 160 mg/kg CuSO4 was observed. Pigs fed Cu

  1. Isolated hepatic perfusion in the pig with TNF-alpha with and without melphalan.

    PubMed Central

    Borel Rinkes, I. H.; de Vries, M. R.; Jonker, A. M.; Swaak, T. J.; Hack, C. E.; Nooyen, P. T.; Wiggers, T.; Eggermont, A. M.

    1997-01-01

    Isolated limb perfusion with tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and melphalan is well tolerated and highly effective in irresectable sarcoma and melanoma. No data are available on isolated hepatic perfusion (IHP) with these drugs for irresectable hepatic malignancies. This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of such an approach by analysing hepatic and systemic toxicity of IHP with TNF-alpha with and without melphalan in pigs. Ten healthy pigs underwent IHP. After vascular isolation of the liver, inflow catheters were placed in the hepatic artery and portal vein, and an outflow catheter was placed in the inferior vena cava (IVC). An extracorporeal veno-venous bypass was used to shunt blood from the lower body and intestines to the heart. The liver was perfused for 60 min with (1) 50 microg kg(-1) TNF-alpha (n = 5), (2) 50 microg kg(-1) TNF-alpha plus 1 mg kg(-1) melphalan (n = 3) or (3) no drugs (n = 2). The liver was washed with macrodex before restoring vascular continuity. All but one pigs tolerated the procedure well. Stable perfusion was achieved in all animals with median perfusate TNF-alpha levels of 5.1 +/- 0.78 x 10(6) pg ml(-1) (+/- s.e.m). Systemic leakage of TNF-alpha from the perfusate was consistently < 0.02%. Following IHP, a transient elevation of systemic TNF-alpha levels was observed in groups 1 and 2 with a median peak level of 23 +/- 3 x 10(3) pg ml(-1) at 10 min after washout, which normalized within 6 h. No significant systemic toxicity was observed. Mild transient hepatotoxicity was seen to a similar extent in all animals, including controls. IHP with TNF-alpha with(out) melphalan in pigs is technically feasible, results in minimal systemic drug exposure and causes minor transient disturbances of liver biochemistry and histology. PMID:9166936

  2. Sequential targeting of CFTR by BAC vectors generates a novel pig model of cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Klymiuk, N; Mundhenk, L; Kraehe, K; Wuensch, A; Plog, S; Emrich, D; Langenmayer, M C; Stehr, M; Holzinger, A; Kröner, C; Richter, A; Kessler, B; Kurome, M; Eddicks, M; Nagashima, H; Heinritzi, K; Gruber, A D; Wolf, E

    2012-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common lethal inherited disease in Caucasians and is caused by mutations in the CFTR gene. The disease is incurable and medical treatment is limited to the amelioration of symptoms or secondary complications. A comprehensive understanding of the disease mechanisms and the development of novel treatment options require appropriate animal models. Existing CF mouse models fail to reflect important aspects of human CF. We thus generated a CF pig model by inactivating the CFTR gene in primary porcine cells by sequential targeting using modified bacterial artificial chromosome vectors. These cells were then used to generate homozygous CFTR mutant piglets by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The homozygous CFTR mutants lack CFTR protein expression and display severe malformations in the intestine, respiratory tract, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and male reproductive tract. These phenotypic abnormalities closely resemble both the human CF pathology as well as alterations observed in a recently published CF pig model which was generated by a different gene targeting strategy. Our new CF pig model underlines the value of the CFTR-deficient pig for gaining new insight into the disease mechanisms of CF and for the development and evaluation of new therapeutic strategies. This model will furthermore increase the availability of CF pigs to the scientific community. PMID:22170306

  3. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Q K; Zhou, K F; Hu, H M; Zhao, H B; Zhang, Y; Ying, W

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects. PMID:26954164

  4. Effect of Bacillus subtilis Natto on Meat Quality and Skatole Content in TOPIGS Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Q. K.; Zhou, K. F.; Hu, H. M.; Zhao, H. B.; Zhang, Y.; Ying, W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) natto on meat quality and skatole in TOPIGS pigs. Sixty TOPIGS pigs were randomly assigned to 3 groups (including 5 pens per group, with 4 pigs in each pen) and fed with basic diet (control group), basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto (B group), and basic diet plus 0.1% B. subtilis natto plus 0.1% B. coagulans (BB group), respectively. All pigs were sacrificed at 100 kg. Growth performance, meat quality, serum parameters and oxidation status in the three groups were assessed and compared. Most parameters regarding growth performance and meat quality were not significantly different among the three groups. However, compared with the control group, meat pH24, fat and feces skatole and the content of Escherichia coli (E. Coli), Clostridium, NH3-N were significantly reduced in the B and BB groups, while serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, the levels of liver P450, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1, total antioxidant capability (T-AOC) and glutathione peroxidase and Lactobacilli in feces were significantly increased in the B and BB groups. Further, the combined supplementation of B. subtilis natto and B. coagulans showed more significant effects on the parameters above compared with B. subtilis, and Clostridium, and NH3-N. Our results indicate that the supplementation of pig feed with B. subtilis natto significantly improves meat quality and flavor, while its combination with B. coagulans enhanced these effects. PMID:26954164

  5. Early lethality of shRNA-transgenic pigs due to saturation of microRNA pathways* #

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhen; Wu, Rong; Zhao, Yi-cheng; Wang, Kan-kan; Huang, Yong-ye; Yang, Xin; Xie, Zi-cong; Tu, Chang-chun; Ouyang, Hong-sheng; Wang, Tie-dong; Pang, Da-xin

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is considered as a potential modality for clinical treatment and anti-virus animal breeding. Here, we investigate the feasibility of inhibiting classical swine fever virus (CSFV) replication by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in vitro and in vivo. We generate four different shRNA-positive clonal cells and two types of shRNA-transgenic pigs. CSFV could be effectively inhibited in shRNA-positive clonal cells and tail tip fibroblasts of shRNA-transgenic pigs. Unexpectedly, an early lethality due to shRNA is observed in these shRNA-transgenic pigs. With further research on shRNA-positive clonal cells and transgenic pigs, we report a great induction of interferon (IFN)-responsive genes in shRNA-positive clonal cells, altered levels of endogenous microRNAs (miRNA), and their processing enzymes in shRNA-positive cells. What is more, abnormal expressions of miRNAs and their processing enzymes are also observed in the livers of shRNA-transgenic pigs, indicating saturation of miRNA/shRNA pathways induced by shRNA. In addition, we investigate the effects of shRNAs on the development of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos. These results show that shRNA causes adverse effects in vitro and in vivo and shRNA-induced disruption of the endogenous miRNA pathway may lead to the early lethality of shRNA-transgenic pigs. We firstly report abnormalities of the miRNA pathway in shRNA-transgenic animals, which may explain the early lethality of shRNA-transgenic pigs and has important implications for shRNA-transgenic animal preparation. PMID:24793764

  6. Heat stress in pigs is accompanied by adipose tissue-specific responses that favor increased triglyceride storage.

    PubMed

    Qu, H; Yan, H; Lu, H; Donkin, S S; Ajuwon, K M

    2016-05-01

    Heat stress (HS) negatively affects all aspects of performance in pigs. Although certain tissue-specific responses in the liver, skeletal muscle, and intestine are known, there is paucity of information on responses within the adipose tissue. Therefore, the objective of this study was to delineate adipose tissue responses during HS in pigs. Thirty crossbred (Ossabaw × Duroc × Landrace) pigs were assigned to 3 treatments for 7 d. Treatments were 1) control and libitum fed (CON) with room temperature set at 20°C ± 1°C, 2) pair fed (PF) with room temperature as the CON treatment but pair fed to HS pigs, and 3) HS with room temperature 35°C ± 1°C and ad libitum access to feed. Compared with CON pigs, HS pigs had decreased feed intake and elevated skin temperature and respiration rate ( < 0.01). Blood urea nitrogen was higher ( = 0.01) in HS pigs compared with CON pigs only in males. In both subcutaneous and mesenteric adipose tissue, mRNA abundance of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1) was more elevated ( < 0.01) in HS groups compared with the CON and PF groups. Heat stress also caused increased heat shock protein 70 (HSP70; = 0.067) and CCAT/enhancer-binding homologous protein (CHOP) content ( < 0.05) in the mesenteric fat compared with the CON treatment. In conclusion, induction of PCK1 expression in adipose tissue by HS suggests elevated glyceroneogenesis might be involved in the increased fat storage in pigs under HS. PMID:27285686

  7. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH Toxocara cati IN PIGS: MIGRATORY PATTERN AND PATHOLOGICAL RESPONSE IN EARLY PHASE

    PubMed Central

    Sommerfelt, Irma Estela; Duchene, Adriana; Daprato, Betina; Lopez, Clara María; Cardillo, Natalia; Franco, Aníbal Juan

    2014-01-01

    Experimental inoculations of approximately 100,000 infective Toxocara cati larval eggs were done in twelve pigs. The T. cati eggs used for inoculation were collected from cat's feces. Another group of three pigs served as an uninfected control. Groups of infected pigs were euthanized at seven, 14, 21, and 28 days post-inoculation (dpi). Tissue samples were taken for digestion and histopathology changes in early phase. The number of larvae recovered from the lungs peaked at seven and 14 dpi and were also present at 21, and 28 dpi. Larvae of T. cati were present in the lymph nodes of the small and large intestine at seven, 14, and 28 dpi and at seven, 14, 21, and 28 dpi respectively. In other studied tissues, no larvae or less than one larva per gram was detected. The pathological response observed in the liver and lungs at seven and 14 dpi, showed white spots on the liver surface and areas of consolidation were observed in the lungs. The lungs showed an inflammatory reaction with larvae in center at 28 dpi. In the liver we observed periportal and perilobular hepatitis. The lymph nodes of the intestines displayed eosinophil lymphadenitis with reactive centers containing parasitic forms in some of them. The granulomatous reaction was not observed in any tissues. The role of the other examined tissues had less significance. The relevance of this parasite as an etiological agent that leads to disease in paratenic hosts is evident. PMID:25076437

  8. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  9. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gallegos-Orozco, Juan F; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Excessive alcohol use is a common health care problem worldwide and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic liver disease represents the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation in North America and Europe. The pretransplant evaluation of patients with alcoholic liver disease should aim at identifying those at high risk for posttransplant relapse of alcohol use disorder, as return to excessive drinking can be deleterious to graft and patient survival. Carefully selected patients with alcoholic liver disease, including those with severe alcoholic hepatitis, will have similar short-term and long-term outcomes when compared with other indications for liver transplantation. PMID:27373614

  10. Porcine acute liver failure model established by two-phase surgery and treated with hollow fiber bioartificial liver support system

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Mu, Ning; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Wang, Yan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a highly reproducible animal model of acute liver failure (ALF), for assessing the effect of bioartificial liver support system (BALSS). METHODS: A two-phase complete liver devascularization procedure was performed in eight loco-hybrid pigs. Blood biochemical index and liver biopsy were studied every 2 h after surgery, and survival time was recorded. The BALSS constructed with high volume recirculating technique was a hollow fiber circulating system consisting of a hepatocyte reactor-hollow fiber module inoculated with microcarrier-adhering hepatocytes, and a double pump, heparinized, thermostabilized, micro-capsulized activated carbon-adsorbing plasmapheresis system. Twelve pigs undergoing two-phase surgery were randomized into: control group (perfused without hepatocytes, n = 6) and treatment group (perfused with hepatocytes, n = 6). Intergroup liver biochemical indexes, survival time, and liver pathological changes were analyzed at regular intervals. RESULTS: Two-phase surgery was performed in all the experimental pigs, and there was no obvious difference between their biochemical indexes. After 3 h of phase II surgery, ammonia (Amm) increased to (269±37) μmol/L. After 5 h of the surgery, fibrinogen (Fib) decreased to (1.5±0.2) g/L. After 7 h of the surgery, ALT, AST, Tbil and PT were (7.6±1.8) nka/L, (40±5) nka/L, (55±8) μmol/L and (17.5±1.7) nka/L respectively. After 9 h of surgery, ALB and Cr were (27±4) g/L and (87±9) μmol/L. After 13 h of surgery, BUN was (3.5±0.9) μmol/L. All the above values were different from those determined before surgery. Survival time of pigs averaged 13.5±1.4 h. ALF pigs in the other group were treated with BALSS. The comparison analysis between the treated and control animals showed the changes of Tbil, PT, Alb, BUN, Cr, Fib, and Amm (P<0.01), but there was no change of ALT and AST. The survival time was statistically different (P<0.01), and there was no significant difference in histological

  11. Aberrations in hemostasis and coagulation in untreated discordant hepatic xenotransplantation: studies in the dog-to-pig model.

    PubMed

    Tector, A Joseph; Fridell, Jonathan A; Elias, Nahel; Watanabe, Taichi; Salazar, Julie; Greinke, Doris; Metrakos, Peter; Tchervenkov, Jean I

    2002-02-01

    Discordant liver xenotransplantation is a poorly explored entity. Data from the few large animal studies of hepatic xenotransplantation suggest that severe hemorrhage is encountered. The purpose of the studies described here is to characterize the nature of the hemorrhage that accompanies liver xenotransplantation. Canine livers were transplanted into porcine recipients, and lethal hemorrhage was encountered. Analysis of recipient blood showed that factors V, IX, and X were present in adequate levels until after the hemorrhage appeared, suggesting that coagulation factor loss was the result and not the cause of hemorrhage. Platelet counts decreased dramatically in recipients within minutes of graft reperfusion. There also was no evidence of clotting activity in the blood of recipients of liver xenografts within minutes of graft reperfusion. This loss of clotting activity was specific to liver xenografts, was not seen in renal xenografts with or without venovenous bypass, and also was absent in pig-to-pig liver allografts. In brief, the hemorrhage that accompanies liver xenotransplantation occurs because of a decrease in the number and function of circulating platelets in the recipient. PMID:11862592

  12. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A.

    2015-01-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs. PMID:25713804

  13. Functional and association studies of the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene in a Wannan Black pig model.

    PubMed

    Ding, Y Y; Zhang, W; Zhang, M Q; Fu, K; Chen, W P; Ding, C; He, X L; Zhang, X D; Huang, L; Yin, Z J

    2015-12-01

    Some polymorphisms of the human CETP gene are causally and significantly associated with serum lipids levels; however, the information regarding this gene in pigs is sparse. To evaluate the effects of CETP on blood lipid traits and fat deposition in pig, porcine CETP tissue expression patterns were observed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) first. High expression was detected in liver, spleen, gluteus medius (GM) muscle and backfat. A de novo polymorphism (AF333037:g.795C>T) in the intron 1 region of porcine CETP was identified. This polymorphism was further genotyped by direct sequencing of the PCR products of 390 Wannan Black pigs, a Chinese native breed population. Association analyses at 45 and 300 days of age revealed highly significant associations between CETP genotypes and serum lipid traits. Furthermore, this polymorphism was proved to be associated with differences in liver CETP mRNA levels: pigs at 300 days of age with the TT genotype had higher levels than did those with other genotypes (P = 0.021). Additionally, analysis at 300 days of age showed that GM CETP mRNA expression correlated positively with serum lipids levels as well as with carcass backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content in GM. These results indicate that CETP is involved in serum, adipose and muscle lipid metabolism in pigs. The mechanisms underlying such relationships and their functional implications are worthy of further research. PMID:26477338

  14. Higher Chlorinated Dioxins Implicated in the Mortality of Young Pigs Kept on a Pentachlorophenol-treated Wooden Floor

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Young pigs raised on a pentachlorophenol-treated wooden floor showed a high mortality. The deaths ceased when the original treated wood was covered with untreated plywood. Analysis of the wood, mother's milk, and young pig tissues was carried out for pentachlorophenol and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. Pentachlorophenol was found in the wood and mother's milk but not in the young pig tissues. Concentrations of the higher chlorinated dioxins were found in the wood at the ppm level, in the mother's milk at the low ppt level and in the skin and liver of the young pigs at the ppb level. A comparison of the concentrations of hexa-and hepta-dioxin isomers in the wood, and in the piglet skin and liver indicated that a selective absorption and/or metabolism of these isomers had occurred. The results of this case history implicate the higher chlorinated dioxins in the mortality of the young pigs and underline the danger of using technical pentachlorophenol for wood treatment in association with food producing animals. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 5. PMID:17422233

  15. Higher Chlorinated Dioxins Implicated in the Mortality of Young Pigs Kept on a Pentachlorophenol-treated Wooden Floor.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J J

    1983-03-01

    Young pigs raised on a pentachlorophenol-treated wooden floor showed a high mortality. The deaths ceased when the original treated wood was covered with untreated plywood. Analysis of the wood, mother's milk, and young pig tissues was carried out for pentachlorophenol and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. Pentachlorophenol was found in the wood and mother's milk but not in the young pig tissues. Concentrations of the higher chlorinated dioxins were found in the wood at the ppm level, in the mother's milk at the low ppt level and in the skin and liver of the young pigs at the ppb level. A comparison of the concentrations of hexa-and hepta-dioxin isomers in the wood, and in the piglet skin and liver indicated that a selective absorption and/or metabolism of these isomers had occurred. The results of this case history implicate the higher chlorinated dioxins in the mortality of the young pigs and underline the danger of using technical pentachlorophenol for wood treatment in association with food producing animals. PMID:17422233

  16. Dietary pharmacological or excess zinc and phytase effects on tissue mineral concentrations, metallothionein, and apparent mineral retention in the newly weaned pig.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M M; Link, J E; Hill, G M

    2005-01-01

    Feeding pharmacological zinc (Zn) to weaned pigs improves growth, and dietary phytase improves P and Zn availability. Metallothionein (MT) increases in the duodenum, kidney, and liver of pigs fed 1000 mg Zn/kg with phytase or 2000 mg Zn/kg with or without phytase when fed for 14 d postweaning. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of feeding pharmacological Zn and phytase on tissue minerals, MT, mineral excretion, and apparent retention. Twenty-four newly weaned pigs (20 d; 7.2 kg) were individually fed twice daily, a basal diet supplemented with 0, 1000, or 4000 mg Zn/kg as Zn oxide, without or with phytase (500 phytase units [FTU]/kg) for 14 d, followed by a basal diet (100 mg Zn/kg) without phytase for 7 d. Pigs fed 4000 mg Zn/kg without phytase had higher (p=0.01) plasma, hepatic, renal Zn, renal Cu, and hepatic, renal, and jejunal MT than pigs fed the basal diet or 1000 mg Zn/kg. Duodenal MT was higher (p=0.0001) in pigs fed 1000 and 4000 mg Zn/kg than in pigs fed the basal diet. In pigs fed 1000 and 4000 mg Zn/kg, Zn loading occurred during the first 11 d of supplementation; by d 14, excess Zn was being excreted in the feces. PMID:16034157

  17. Toxoplasmosis in pigs-The last 20 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs are important to the economy of many countries because they are a source of food for humans. Infected pig meat is a source of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans and animals in many countries. This parasite also causes mortality in pigs, especially neonatal pigs. Most pigs acquire T. gondii ...

  18. Engineering Liver

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda G.; Wells, Alan; Stolz, Donna Beer

    2014-01-01

    Interest in “engineering liver” arises from multiple communities: therapeutic replacement; mechanistic models of human processes; and drug safety and efficacy studies. An explosion of micro- and nano-fabrication, biomaterials, microfluidic, and other technologies potentially afford unprecedented opportunity to create microphysiological models of human liver, but engineering design principles for how to deploy these tools effectively towards specific applications, including how to define the essential constraints of any given application (including available sources of cells, acceptable cost, and user-friendliness) are still emerging. Arguably less appreciated is the parallel growth in computational systems biology approaches towards these same problems – particularly, in parsing complex disease processes from clinical material, building models of response networks, and in how to interpret the growing compendium of data on drug efficacy and toxicology in patient populations. Here, we provide insight into how the complementary paths of “engineering liver” – experimental and computational – are beginning to interplay towards greater illumination of human disease states and technologies for drug development. PMID:24668880

  19. Liver xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Marino, I R; Tzakis, A G; Fung, J J; Todo, S; Doyle, H R; Manez, R; Starzl, T E

    1993-10-01

    During the past 30 years orthotopic liver transplantation has become a highly successful form of surgical treatments. The significant advances achieved in this field have led to an increased demand for organs and created a wide gap between organ availability and organ supply. A wider availability of organs for transplantation would allow an expansions rather than a contraction of the indications for transplantation, and, at the same time a relaxation of the patient selection criteria. All these facts clearly justify the renewed interest observed in the last decade in xenotransplantation. The original concept of xenografting, meaning the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs between different species, is so ancient that it is easily recognizable in Greek and Roman mythology. The centaur Chiron, the teacher of Esculapius, and the Chimera are legendary examples of discordant xenogeneic creatures. However, it is only during this century that scientists have been able to bring this idea into the clinical arena. The early efforts were prompted by the shortage of humans organs at a time when there were few alternatives for treating end-stage organ failure. PMID:25951555

  20. L-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)-commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation-was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs-as in humans-is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis. PMID:26609560

  1. Liver disease in menopause

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Carla W

    2015-01-01

    There are numerous physiologic and biochemical changes in menopause that can affect the function of the liver and mediate the development of liver disease. Menopause represents a state of growing estrogen deficiency, and this loss of estrogen in the setting of physiologic aging increases the likelihood of mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, declining immune responses to injury, and disarray in the balance between antioxidant formation and oxidative stress. The sum effect of these changes can contribute to increased susceptibility to development of significant liver pathology, particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, as well as accelerated progression of fibrosis in liver diseases, as has been particularly demonstrated in hepatitis C virus liver disease. Recognition of the unique nature of these mediating factors should raise suspicion for liver disease in perimenopausal and menopausal women and offer an opportunity for implementation of aggressive treatment measures so as to avoid progression of liver disease to cirrhosis, liver cancer and liver failure. PMID:26167064

  2. A Simple Model for Learning Improvement: Weigh Pig, Feed Pig, Weigh Pig. Occasional Paper #23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Keston H.; Good, Megan R.; Coleman, Chris M.; Smith, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing learning does not by itself result in increased student accomplishment, much like a pig never fattened up because it was weighed. Indeed, recent research shows that while institutions are more regularly engaging in assessment, they have little to show in the way of stronger student performance. This paper clarifies how assessment results…

  3. Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

    2007-01-01

    Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

  4. Gene expression, serum amino acid levels, and growth performance of pigs fed dietary leucine and lysine at different ratios.

    PubMed

    García, H; Morales, A; Araiza, A; Htoo, J K; Cervantes, M

    2015-01-01

    We examined 96 pigs (28.1 ± 0.83 kg) to analyze the effect of Leu:Lys ratios on expression of the cationic amino acid transporters b(0,+) and CAT-1 in the jejunum and liver as well as myosin expression in 2 muscles to estimate the optimum standardized ileal digestible (SID) Leu:Lys ratio for growth rate and efficiency. A wheat-and wheat bran-based diets were formulated to meet the requirements of SID amino acids other than Leu (0.70%) and Lys (0.80%). L-Leu was added to the basal diet in 5 SID Leu:Lys ratios (88, 100, 120, 140, and 160% in diets 1-5). Tissue samples were collected from 8 pigs with ratios of 88, 120, and 160%. Relative expression of b(0,+), CAT-1, and myosin was analyzed. b(0,+) expression in the jejunum was higher but lower in the liver of pigs with the 120% ratio compared to those with the 88 or 160% ratio; myosin expression in longissimus dorsi was also higher in pigs with the 120% ratio (P < 0.05). CAT-1 was lower in the jejunum and longissimus dorsi of pigs with 120 or 160% ratios than in pigs with 88%. Serum concentration of nearly all amino acids decreased with excess dietary Leu (P < 0.05). The SID Leu:Lys of 104 and 109% optimized average daily gain and feed conversion ratio, respectively. Thus, the dietary Leu:Lys ratio affects the expression of genes coding for amino acid transporters and myosin, the availability of Lys, and the growth rate and efficiency in pigs. PMID:25867302

  5. Liver fibrosis markers in alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Chrostek, Lech; Panasiuk, Anatol

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the main factors of liver damage. The evaluation of the degree of liver fibrosis is of great value for therapeutic decision making in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Staging of liver fibrosis is essential to define prognosis and management of the disease. Liver biopsy is a gold standard as it has high sensitivity and specificity in fibrosis diagnostics. Taking into account the limitations of liver biopsy, there is an exigency to introduce non-invasive serum markers for fibrosis that would be able to replace liver biopsy. Ideal serum markers should be specific for the liver, easy to perform and independent to inflammation and fibrosis in other organs. Serum markers of hepatic fibrosis are divided into direct and indirect. Indirect markers reflect alterations in hepatic function, direct markers reflect extracellular matrix turnover. These markers should correlate with dynamic changes in fibrogenesis and fibrosis resolution. The assessment of the degree of liver fibrosis in alcoholic liver disease has diagnostic and prognostic implications, therefore noninvasive assessment of fibrosis remains important. There are only a few studies evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic values of noninvasive biomarkers of fibrosis in patients with ALD. Several noninvasive laboratory tests have been used to assess liver fibrosis in patients with alcoholic liver disease, including the hyaluronic acid, FibroTest, FibrometerA, Hepascore, Forns and APRI indexes, FIB4, an algorithm combining Prothrombin index (PI), α-2 macroglobulin and hyaluronic acid. Among these tests, Fibrotest, FibrometerA and Hepascore demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy in identifying advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis, and additionally, Fibrotest was independently associated with survival. Therefore, the use of biomarkers may reduce the need for liver biopsy and permit an earlier treatment of alcoholic patients. PMID:25009372

  6. Effects of pre-slaughter stressor and feeding preventative Chinese medicinal herbs on glycolysis and oxidative stability in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiumei; Yan, Xue; Xie, Linqi; Hu, Xiaodong; Lin, Xi; Wu, Changzheng; Zhou, Ningcong; Wang, Anru; See, Miles Todd

    2016-08-01

    A total of 64 5-month-old Pietrain pigs were randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates per treatment according to body weight. The pigs were fed either a standard corn-soybean meal based control diet (treatments 1 and 2), the standard diet with 1% Lycium barbarum (LB) (treatment 3), or the standard diet with 1% Polygala tenuifolia Willd (PT) (treatment 4). Serum lactic acid and glucose concentrations were increased in stressed pigs (P < 0.05). Addition of the herbs in the diet had no effect on the serum lactic acid concentration, but 1% LB decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose concentration in the stressed pigs. Pre-slaughter stress also decreased (P < 0.01) liver glycogen concentration and the decrease could be inhibited by addition of 1% LB in the diet (P > 0.05). Pre-slaughter stress increased the concentration of maleic dialdehyde (MDA) (P < 0.05) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity in serum, while dietary 1% LB increased (P < 0.05) the activity of GSH-Px and decreased the concentration of MDA in the serum. In conclusion, pre-slaughter stress induces oxidative stress in pigs and dietary supplementation with 1% LB improves antioxidant capacity in stressed pigs before slaughtering. PMID:26497952

  7. Supplementation of a grape seed and grape marc meal extract decreases activities of the oxidative stress-responsive transcription factors NF-κB and Nrf2 in the duodenal mucosa of pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In pigs, enteric infections and the development of gut disorders such as diarrhoea are commonly observed, particularly after weaning. The present study investigated the hypothesis that feeding a grape seed and grape marc extract (GSGME) as a dietary supplement has the potential to suppress the inflammatory process in the small intestine of pigs by modulating the activities of NF-κB and Nrf2 due to its high content of flavonoids. Methods Twenty-four crossbred, 6 weeks old pigs were randomly assigned to 2 groups of 12 animals each and fed nutritionally adequate diets without or with 1% GSGME for 4 weeks. Results Pigs administered GSGME had a lower transactivation of NF-κB and Nrf2 and a lower expression of various target genes of these transcription factors in the duodenal mucosa than control pigs (P < 0.05). Concentrations of α-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in liver and plasma and total antioxidant capacity of plasma and relative mRNA abundances of NF-κB and Nrf2 target genes in the liver did not differ between the two groups. However, the ratio of villus height:crypt depth and the gain:feed ratio was higher in the pigs fed GSGME than in control pigs (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that dietary supplementation of a polyphenol rich GSGME suppresses the activity of NF-κB in the duodenal mucosa of pigs and thus might provide a useful dietary strategy to inhibit inflammation in the gut frequently occurring in pigs. Feeding GSGME did not influence vitamin E status and the antioxidant system of the pigs but improved the gain:feed ratio. In overall, the study suggests that polyphenol-rich plant extracts such GSGME could be useful feed supplements in pig nutrition, in order to maintain animal health and improve performance. PMID:23453040

  8. Metabolism and disposition of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, J.R.

    1986-09-15

    Marked interspecies variability exists in the acute toxicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with the guinea pig being the mammalian species most sensitive to the acute toxicity of TCDD. The metabolism and disposition of TCDD was investigated in guinea pigs for 45 days following a single exposure to purified (/sup 3/H)TCDD (0.56 microgram/kg, ip). Guinea pigs included in the toxicokinetic study gained body weight, maintained a normal relative body composition, and exhibited no gross signs of toxicity during the 45-day study. Approximately 36% of the dose of TCDD-derived /sup 3/H remained in the adipose tissue at 45 days following exposure to (/sup 3/H)TCDD, while the liver, pelt, and skeletal muscle and carcass each contained about 7% of the administered dose. Although most of the TCDD-derived radioactivity in liver, kidney, perirenal adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle represented unchanged TCDD, from 4 to 28% of the /sup 3/H was associated with metabolites of TCDD. This unexpected finding suggests that TCDD metabolites are not efficiently excreted from guinea pigs. The urinary and fecal excretion of TCDD-derived radioactivity followed apparent first-order kinetics, with an elimination half-life of 93.7 +/- 15.5 days (mean +/- SD). HPLC analysis of urine and bile from (/sup 3/H)TCDD-treated guinea pigs showed that all of the radioactivity represented metabolites of TCDD, indicating that these routes of elimination are dependent on prior metabolism of TCDD. However, 70 to 90% of the radioactivity in fecal samples was found to represent unmetabolized TCDD throughout the 45-day excretion study. The presence of TCDD in feces and its absence in bile suggest that the fecal excretion of unchanged TCDD resulted from the direct intestinal elimination of the lipophilic toxin.

  9. Cryptosporidium parvum pig genotype II diagnosed in pigs from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs may represent a source of Cryptosporidium sp. infection to humans. The objective of this study was to identify the species present in pigs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and verify what risks pigs represent in transmission of human cryptosporidiosis, since there is no such informati...

  10. Molecular studies on pig cryptosporidiosis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Rzeżutka, A; Kaupke, A; Kozyra, I; Pejsak, Z

    2014-01-01

    Cryptosporidium intestinal parasites have been detected in farmed pigs worldwide. Infections are usually asymptomatic with a low number of oocysts shed in pig feces. This makes the recognition of infection difficult or unsuccessful when microscopic methods are used. The aim of this study was molecular identification of Cryptosporidium species in pig herds raised in Poland with regard to the occurrence of zoonotic species. In total, 166 pig fecal samples were tested. The examined pigs were aged 1 to 20 weeks. Overall, 39 pig farms were monitored for parasite presence. The detection and identification of Cryptosporidium DNA was performed on the basis of PCR-RFLP and nucleotide sequence analysis of the amplified 18 SSU rRNA and COWP gene fragments. Infected animals were housed in 21 (53.8%) of the pig farms monitored. The presence of Cryptosporidum was confirmed in 46 (27.7%) samples of pig feces. Among positive fecal samples, 34 (29.3%) were collected from healthy animals, and 12 (24%) from diarrheic pigs. Most infected animals (42.1%) were 2 to 3 months old. The following parasite species were detected: C. scrofarum, C. suis and C. parvum. Indeed, asymptomatic infections caused by C. scrofarum were observed in the majority of the herds. Mixed infections caused by C. suis and C. scrofarum were not common; however, they were observed in 8.6% of the positive animals. C. parvum DNA was found only in one sample collected from a diarrheic pig. The application of molecular diagnostic tools allowed for detection and identification of Cryptosporidium species in pigs. The sporadic findings of C. parvum are subsequent evidence for the contribution of pigs in the transmission of cryptosporidiosis from animals to humans. PMID:25638969

  11. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  12. Zoonotic potential of infection with Fasciola spp. by consumption of freshly prepared raw liver containing immature flukes.

    PubMed

    Taira, N; Yoshifuji, H; Boray, J C

    1997-07-01

    Mice were successfully infected with metacercariae of the Japanese Fasciola sp., resulting in the recovery of a mean number of 110 live immature flukes per mouse 4-5 days after inoculation. Twenty-four mice were then inoculated orally, each with a mean number of 68 freshly recovered immature flukes. The livers of 7 of the 24 recipient mice showed migratory lesions of capsular and subcapsular granulomatous infiltration and 2 of those mice also had haemorrhagic lesions. The lesions were typical of those caused by active migration of early immature flukes. However, no flukes were found in the livers of the recipient mice at necropsy when the flukes were aged 14 weeks. In another experiment, 10 piglets were given fresh livers of mice harbouring approximately 2000 live immature flukes aged 3-7 days. Two additional piglets were inoculated with 2000 metacercariae of Fasciola. All pigs were killed when the flukes were 14 days old. Granulomatous lesions were present in all pigs, except in those that were given livers containing flukes aged 7 days. The lesions were localized, forming well-defined foci, different from the typical migratory lesions normally observed in mouse or sheep liver at the early stage of fluke migration. From the 10 pigs given livers, 65 live flukes were recovered at necropsy, 0.29% of the estimated number of immature flukes given. From the 2 pigs which received 2000 metacercariae each, a total of 198 flukes were recovered (5%). The results of the experiments suggest that humans consuming raw liver dishes prepared from fresh livers infected with immature Fasciola spp. could become infected with liver fluke. PMID:9279579

  13. Semi-spherical Radiofrequency Bipolar Device - A New Technique for Liver Resection: Experimental In Vivo Study on the Porcine Model.

    PubMed

    Vavra, P; Penhaker, M; Jurcikova, J; Skrobankova, M; Crha, M; Ostruszka, P; Ihnat, P; Grepl, J; Delongova, P; Dvorackova, J; Prochazka, V; Salounova, D; Skoric, M; Rauser, P; Habib, N; Zonca, P

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of colorectal carcinoma is still growing in the Czech Republic and also all around the world. With success of oncological treatment is also growing a number of potential patients with liver metastases, who can profit from surgical therapy. The aim of this study was to confirm on porcine models that this method by using new surgical device is effective and safe for patients who have to undergo liver resection. The primary hypothesis of the study was to evaluate whether this new device is able to consistently produce homogeneous and predictable areas of coagulation necrosis without the Pringle maneuver of vascular inflow occlusion. The secondary hypothesis of the study was to compare the standard linear radiofrequency device and a new semi-spherical bipolar device for liver ablation and resection in a hepatic porcine model. Twelve pigs were randomly divided into two groups. Each pig underwent liver resection from both liver lobes in the marginal, thinner part of liver parenchyma. The pigs in first group were operated with standard using device and in the second group we used new developed semi-spherical device. We followed blood count in 0(th), 14(th) and 30(th) day from operation. 14(th) day from resection pigs underwent diagnostic laparoscopy to evaluate of their state, and 30(th) day after operation were all pigs euthanized and subjected to histopathological examination. Histopathological evaluation of thermal changes at the resection margin showed strong thermal alteration in both groups. Statistical analysis of collected dates did not prove any significant (p < 0.05) differences between standard using device and our new surgical tool. We proved safety of new designed semi-spherical surgical. This device can offer the possibility of shortening the ablation time and operating time, which is benefit for patients undergoing the liver resection. PMID:24945372

  14. Catheterization of the urethra in female pigs.

    PubMed

    Musk, G C; Zwierzchoniewska, M; He, B

    2015-10-01

    Female pigs are commonly utilized as an animal model for biomedical research and require urethral catheterization. Sixteen pigs were anaesthetized for research purposes and required the placement of a urethral catheter. Post-mortem examination of the vaginas revealed the urethral opening to be consistently halfway from the mucocutaneous junction of the vulva to the cervix. A shallow diverticulum was also observed on the ventral floor of the urethral opening. To optimize conditions for success the pig should be carefully positioned supine, a vaginal speculum and light source should be used, the pig should be adequately anaesthetized, and the anatomy of the vagina should be reviewed. PMID:25977261

  15. Improved survival of porcine acute liver failure by a bioartificial liver device implanted with induced human functional hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Yimeng; Yan, Yupeng; Ma, Hucheng; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Pengyu; Ni, Xuan; Zhang, Ludi; Zhao, Xin; Ren, Haozhen; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Feng; Ji, Yuan; Cheng, Xin; Pan, Guoyu; Ding, Yi-Tao; Hui, Lijian

    2016-02-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening illness. The extracorporeal cell-based bioartificial liver (BAL) system could bridge liver transplantation and facilitate liver regeneration for ALF patients by providing metabolic detoxification and synthetic functions. Previous BAL systems, based on hepatoma cells and non-human hepatocytes, achieved limited clinical advances, largely due to poor hepatic functions, cumbersome preparation or safety concerns of these cells. We previously generated human functional hepatocytes by lineage conversion (hiHeps). Here, by improving functional maturity of hiHeps and producing hiHeps at clinical scales (3 billion cells), we developed a hiHep-based BAL system (hiHep-BAL). In a porcine ALF model, hiHep-BAL treatment restored liver functions, corrected blood levels of ammonia and bilirubin, and prolonged survival. Importantly, human albumin and α-1-antitrypsin were detectable in hiHep-BAL-treated ALF pigs. Moreover, hiHep-BAL treatment led to attenuated liver damage, resolved inflammation and enhanced liver regeneration. Our findings indicate a promising clinical application of the hiHep-BAL system. PMID:26768767

  16. Improved survival of porcine acute liver failure by a bioartificial liver device implanted with induced human functional hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiao-Lei; Gao, Yimeng; Yan, Yupeng; Ma, Hucheng; Sun, Lulu; Huang, Pengyu; Ni, Xuan; Zhang, Ludi; Zhao, Xin; Ren, Haozhen; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Tian, Feng; Ji, Yuan; Cheng, Xin; Pan, Guoyu; Ding, Yi-Tao; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a life-threatening illness. The extracorporeal cell-based bioartificial liver (BAL) system could bridge liver transplantation and facilitate liver regeneration for ALF patients by providing metabolic detoxification and synthetic functions. Previous BAL systems, based on hepatoma cells and non-human hepatocytes, achieved limited clinical advances, largely due to poor hepatic functions, cumbersome preparation or safety concerns of these cells. We previously generated human functional hepatocytes by lineage conversion (hiHeps). Here, by improving functional maturity of hiHeps and producing hiHeps at clinical scales (3 billion cells), we developed a hiHep-based BAL system (hiHep-BAL). In a porcine ALF model, hiHep-BAL treatment restored liver functions, corrected blood levels of ammonia and bilirubin, and prolonged survival. Importantly, human albumin and α-1-antitrypsin were detectable in hiHep-BAL-treated ALF pigs. Moreover, hiHep-BAL treatment led to attenuated liver damage, resolved inflammation and enhanced liver regeneration. Our findings indicate a promising clinical application of the hiHep-BAL system. PMID:26768767

  17. Gender and Obesity Specific MicroRNA Expression in Adipose Tissue from Lean and Obese Pigs.

    PubMed

    Mentzel, Caroline M Junker; Anthon, Christian; Jacobsen, Mette J; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Bruun, Camilla S; Jørgensen, Claus B; Gorodkin, Jan; Cirera, Susanna; Fredholm, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a complex condition that increases the risk of life threatening diseases such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Studying the gene regulation of obesity is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms behind the obesity derived diseases and may lead to better intervention and treatment plans. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs regulating target mRNA by binding to their 3'UTR. They are involved in numerous biological processes and diseases, including obesity. In this study we use a mixed breed pig model designed for obesity studies to investigate differentially expressed miRNAs in subcutaneous adipose tissue by RNA sequencing (RNAseq). Both male and female pigs are included to explore gender differences. The RNAseq study shows that the most highly expressed miRNAs are in accordance with comparable studies in pigs and humans. A total of six miRNAs are differentially expressed in subcutaneous adipose tissue between the lean and obese group of pigs, and in addition gender specific significant differential expression is observed for a number of miRNAs. The differentially expressed miRNAs have been verified using qPCR. The results of these studies in general confirm the trends found by RNAseq. Mir-9 and mir-124a are significantly differentially expressed with large fold changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue between lean and obese pigs. Mir-9 is more highly expressed in the obese pigs with a fold change of 10 and a p-value < 0.001. Mir-124a is more highly expressed in the obese pigs with a fold change of 114 and a p-value < 0.001. In addition, mir-124a is significantly higher expressed in abdominal adipose tissue in male pigs with a fold change of 119 and a p-value < 0.05. Both miRNAs are also significantly higher expressed in the liver of obese male pigs where mir-124a has a fold change of 12 and mir-9 has a fold change of 1.6, both with p-values < 0.05. PMID:26222688

  18. Biomarkers for liver fibrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Jon M.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Baker, Erin M.; Smith, Richard D.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Orton, Daniel

    2015-09-15

    Methods and systems for diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in a subject are provided. In some examples, such methods and systems can include detecting liver fibrosis-related molecules in a sample obtained from the subject, comparing expression of the molecules in the sample to controls representing expression values expected in a subject who does not have liver fibrosis or who has non-progressing fibrosis, and diagnosing or prognosing liver fibrosis in the subject when differential expression of the molecules between the sample and the controls is detected. Kits for the diagnosis or prognosis of liver fibrosis in a subject are also provided which include reagents for detecting liver fibrosis related molecules.

  19. The "kidney-liver" multiorgan ex vivo perfused model improves the circuit's biochemical milieu during perfusion compared to the "liver-kidney" counterpart.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen Yuan; Gravante, Gianpiero; Eltweri, Amar; Sorge, Roberto; Ong, Seok Ling; Pollard, Cristina; Metcalfe, Mathew; Dennison, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    The multiorgan ex vivo perfused liver-kidney model allows studying the hepatic pathophysiology and purifying waste products. We tested if the addition of the kidney first followed by the liver (KL circuit) produces better results compared to the classic liver-first approach (LK). Intact livers and kidneys were obtained post mortem from ten female domestic white pigs, five experiments were conducted with the KL circuit and five with the LK. Bile, urine production, arterial blood gases, glucose, renal and liver tests were collected hourly during the perfusions. The KL circuit had values more close to physiological ranges, more stable over time and showed less variability compared to the LK circuit for urine production, glucose, PH, anion gap, lactate, urea, sodium, potassium and Alanine Transaminase (ANOVA test for repeated measures p < 0.05). The KL circuit produced a more physiological and reliable biochemical milieu. PMID:25557139

  20. Malnutrition induces gut atrophy and increases hepatic fat infiltration: studies in a pig model of childhood malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Lykke, Mikkel; Hother, Anne-Louise; Hansen, Christian F; Friis, Henrik; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F; Briend, André; Larsen, Torben; Sangild, Per T; Thymann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Childhood malnutrition is a problem in developing countries, and pathological changes in digestive organs such as the intestine and liver are poorly understood. An animal model to study the progression of severe acute malnutrition could elucidate pathological changes in the intestine and liver. We sought to characterize growth and clinical changes during malnutrition related to structural and functional indices in the intestine and liver. Newly weaned piglets were given ad libitum access to a maize flour diet (MAIZE, n=9) or a nutritionally optimized reference diet (REFERENCE, n=12) for 7 weeks. Growth, hematology and clinical biochemistry where recorded weekly. After 7 weeks, the MAIZE pigs had lower body weights than the REF pigs (8.3 kg vs. 32.4 kg, P < 0.001), indicating severe stunting and moderate to severe wasting. This was paralleled by lower values for hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean cell volume in MAIZE vs. REFERENCE (P < 0.01), indicating anemia. Although the observed temporal changes in MAIZE were associated with atrophy of the small intestinal mucosa (P < 0.001), digestive enzyme activity was only marginally reduced. Serum alanine aminotransferase, bilirubin and albumin were increased in the MAIZE pigs (P < 0.001), and the liver had a vacuolated appearance and tendency toward increased triglyceride content (P=0.054). We conclude that liver and intestinal indices are compromised during malnutrition and are associated with temporal changes in growth and hematological and biochemical endpoints. The pig model is relevant for malnourished infants and can act as a valuable tool for understanding the pathophysiology of malnutrition. PMID:23977413

  1. Metabolism, Distribution, and Elimination of Mequindox in Pigs, Chickens, and Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lingli; Yin, Fujun; Pan, Yuanhu; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Juan; Wan, Dan; Liu, Zhenli; Yuan, Zonghui

    2015-11-11

    Mequindox (MEQ), a quinoxaline-N,N-dioxide antibacterial agent used to control bacterial enteritis in various food-producing animals, is a potential violative residue in food animal-derived products. The disposition and elimination of MEQ in rats, pigs, and chickens was comprehensively investigated to identify the marker residue and target tissue of MEQ in food animals for residue monitoring. Following a single oral administration, 62-71% of MEQ was rapidly excreted via urine and feces in all species within 24 h. Urinary excretion of radioactivity was 84 and 83.5% of the administered dose in rats and pigs, respectively. More than 92% of the administered dose was excreted in all species within 15 days. Radioactivity was found in nearly all tissues at the first 6 h after dosing, with the majority of radioactivity cleared within 4-6 days. The highest radioactivity and longest persisting time were found to be in the liver and kidney. Totals of 11, 12, and 7 metabolites were identified in rats, chickens, and pigs, respectively. No parent drug could be detected in any of the tissues of pigs and chickens. 3-Methyl-2-acetyl quinoxaline (M1), 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-N4-monoxide (M4), and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (M6) were the common and major metabolites of MEQ in all three species. Additionally, 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline (M5), 3-hydroxymethyl-2-ethanol quinoxaline-1,4-dioxide (M7), and 3-methyl-2-(1-hydroxyethyl) quinoxaline-N1-monoxide (M8) were the major metabolites of MEQ in rats, pigs, and chickens, respectively. M1 was designated to be the marker residue of MEQ in pigs and chickens. These results provide scientific data for the determination of marker residues and withdrawal time of MEQ in food animals and improve the understanding of the toxicity and disposition of MEQ in animals. PMID:26376954

  2. Immunomodulating effects of intestinal absorbed maternal colostral leukocytes by neonatal pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, P P

    1993-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled maternal colostral leukocytes (FITC-CL) was studied in 49 neonatal colostrum-deprived (CD) pigs from nine Minnesota miniature sows. Within 2 h postfeeding (pf), maternal FITC-CL were absorbed from the sibling's digestive tract and migrated into blood. The peak appearance of FITC-CL in blood occurred in samples at 5 and 7 h pf. By 24 h pf, cells were detected in liver, lung, lymph nodes, spleen and gastrointestinal tissues. To confirm intercellular migration of FITC-CL, gastrointestinal explant cultures from neonatal CD pigs were used. Maternal FITC-CL were observed to intercellularly migrate in 24 to 48 h pf between duodenal- and jejunal-epithelial cells to lamina propria cells and submucosal spaces. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled maternal colostral leukocytes were not absorbed via ileal explant cultures. Unlike FITC-CL, maternal FITC-peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (FITC-PBL) were not absorbed either in vivo or in vitro by gastrointestinal tissues. When maternal FITC-PBL were intravenously administered to siblings they were distributed in blood and organs similar to FITC-CL. Following exposure to FITC-labelled cells, treated- and mock (untreated)-pigs were compared on the basis of PBL proliferative responses to phytomitogens. Sibling CD-pigs fed maternal FITC-CL showed higher PBL T-cell responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (ConA), and a significant stimulation (p < or = 0.01) of B-cell responses to pokeweed mitogen (PWM). Pigs fed FITC-PBL showed little PBL responses to PHA, ConA and PWM over PBL from mock pigs. Similarly, the influence of noncellular constituents of colostrum were also assessed by proliferative studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. PMID:8431798

  3. Generation and Characterization of a Transgenic Pig Carrying a DsRed-Monomer Reporter Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Mei-Han; Yang, Cho-Chen; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kui; Wu, Shinn-Chih; Lin, Yao-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Pigs are an optimal animal for conducting biomedical research because of their anatomical and physiological resemblance to humans. In contrast to the abundant resources available in the study of mice, few fluorescent protein-harboring porcine models are available for preclinical studies. In this paper, we report the successful generation and characterization of a transgenic DsRed-Monomer porcine model. Methods The transgene comprised a CMV enhancer/chicken-beta actin promoter and DsRed monomeric cDNA. Transgenic pigs were produced by using pronuclear microinjection. PCR and Southern blot analyses were applied for identification of the transgene. Histology, blood examinations and computed tomography were performed to study the health conditions. The pig amniotic fluid progenitor/stem cells were also isolated to examine the existence of red fluorescence and differentiation ability. Results Transgenic pigs were successfully generated and transmitted to offspring at a germ-line transmission rate of 43.59% (17/39). Ubiquitous expression of red fluorescence was detected in the brain, eye, tongue, heart, lung, liver, pancreas, spleen, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, kidney, testis, and muscle; this was confirmed by histology and western blot analyses. In addition, we confirmed the differentiation potential of amniotic fluid progenitor stem cells isolated from the transgenic pig. Conclusions This red fluorescent pig can serve as a host for other fluorescent-labeled cells in order to study cell-microenvironment interactions, and can provide optimal red-fluorescent-labeled cells and tissues for research in developmental biology, regenerative medicine, and xenotransplantation. PMID:25187950

  4. Effect of heat stress on performance and expression of selected amino acid and glucose transporters, HSP90, leptin and ghrelin in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, Miguel; Cota, Margarita; Arce, Néstor; Castillo, Gilberto; Avelar, Ernesto; Espinoza, Salvador; Morales, Adriana

    2016-07-01

    Exposing animals to high ambient temperature provokes heat stress (HS) that may affect cellular function and reduced productive performance. The effect of chronic exposure (21d) of pigs to high ambient temperature on expression of amino acid (b(0,+)AT, CAT1) and glucose (SGLT1, GLUT4) transporters, ghrelin, leptin and HSP90 was evaluated. Eighteen pigs (32.6kg body weight) were distributed into 3 groups: (1) pigs housed under natural high ambient temperature conditions, and fed ad libitum (HS); (2) pigs housed in an air-conditioned room at 24°C (thermo-neutral) fed ad libitum (TNad); (3) pigs housed as in (2), but pair-fed with the HS pigs (TNpf). Body temperature, respiratory frequency, weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio were measured. At d-21 pigs were euthanized and samples from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, liver, longissimus and semitendinosus muscles, and white adipose tissue were collected for mRNA analysis. In the HS room ambient temperature fluctuated every day (23.6-37.6°C). Respiratory frequency and body temperature were higher in HS pigs (P<0.001). Weight gain and feed intake of TNad were higher (P<0.001) than TNpf and HS; gain: feed ratio was not affected by ambient temperature. Expression of HSP90 was higher in duodenum and longissimus (P≤0.038) of HS compared to TNpf. Expression of ghrelin, leptin and b(0,+)AT were not affected by ambient temperature (P>0.050). CAT1 expression in liver was higher (P=0.050) but in longissimus was lower (P=0.017) in HS than in TNpf pigs. Expression of SGLT1 was higher (P=0.045) in duodenum of HS than in TNpf but it was not different in jejunum (P=0.545); GLUT4 tended to be higher in liver and semitendinosus of HS pigs (P=0.063). In conclusion, feed intake remains low whereas respiratory frequency and body temperature remain higher; and expression of HSP90, CAT1, SGLT1 and GLUT4 increases in some tissues in pigs under chronic HS conditions. PMID:27264891

  5. Comparison of guinea-pig, bovine and rat alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Büscher, R.; Heeks, C.; Taguchi, K.; Michel, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. To elucidate a possible role of species differences in the classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, we have characterized the alpha 1-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig spleen, kidney and cerebral cortex and in bovine cerebral cortex using concentration-dependent alkylation by chloroethylclonidine and competitive binding with 5-methlurapidil, methoxamine, (+)-niguldipine, noradrenaline, oxymetazoline, phentolamine, SDZ NVI-085, tamsulosin and (+)-tamsulosin. Rat liver alpha 1B-adrenoceptors were studied for comparison. Chloroethylclonidine-sensitivity and (+)-niguldipine affinity were also compared at cloned rat and bovine alpha 1a-adrenoceptors. 2. Chloroethylclonidine concentration-dependently inactivated alpha 1-adrenoceptors in all five tissues. While chloroethylclonidine inactivated almost all alpha 1-adrenoceptors in rat liver and guinea-pig kidney and brain, 20-30% of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig spleen and bovine brain were resistant to alkylation by 10 microM chloroethylclonidine. With regard to concentration-dependency guinea-pig kidney and brain were approximately 10 fold less sensitive than guinea-pig spleen or rat liver. 3. In rat liver, all drugs tested competed for [3H]-prazosin binding with steep and monophasic curves. Drug affinities were relatively low and resembled most closely those of cloned rat alpha 1b-adrenoceptors. 4. In guinea-pig spleen, all drugs tested competed for [3H]-prazosin binding with steep and monophasic curves. Drug affinities were relatively low and resembled most closely those of cloned rat alpha 1b-adrenoceptors. 5. In guinea-pig kidney most drugs tested competed for [3H]-prazosin binding with steep and monophasic curves and had relatively low drug affinities close to those of cloned rat alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-adrenoceptors. However, noradrenaline and tamsulosin had consistently biphasic competition curves recognizing 36-39% high and 61-64% low affinity sites. 6. In guinea-pig cerebral cortex, all drugs tested

  6. Technique of subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion for the storage, assessment, and repair of marginal liver grafts.

    PubMed

    Knaak, Jan M; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Louis, Kristine S; Selzner, Nazia; Selzner, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The success of liver transplantation has resulted in a dramatic organ shortage. In most transplant regions 20-30% of patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation die without receiving an organ transplant or are delisted for disease progression. One strategy to increase the donor pool is the utilization of marginal grafts, such as fatty livers, grafts from older donors, or donation after cardiac death (DCD). The current preservation technique of cold static storage is only poorly tolerated by marginal livers resulting in significant organ damage. In addition, cold static organ storage does not allow graft assessment or repair prior to transplantation. These shortcomings of cold static preservation have triggered an interest in warm perfused organ preservation to reduce cold ischemic injury, assess liver grafts during preservation, and explore the opportunity to repair marginal livers prior to transplantation. The optimal pressure and flow conditions, perfusion temperature, composition of the perfusion solution and the need for an oxygen carrier has been controversial in the past. In spite of promising results in several animal studies, the complexity and the costs have prevented a broader clinical application so far. Recently, with enhanced technology and a better understanding of liver physiology during ex vivo perfusion the outcome of warm liver perfusion has improved and consistently good results can be achieved. This paper will provide information about liver retrieval, storage techniques, and isolated liver perfusion in pigs. We will illustrate a) the requirements to ensure sufficient oxygen supply to the organ, b) technical considerations about the perfusion machine and the perfusion solution, and c) biochemical aspects of isolated organs. PMID:25145990

  7. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk with your health provider.Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs)Cod liver oil might slow blood clotting. Taking cod liver oil along with medications that ...

  8. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver cancer is not common in the United States. Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American men, have an increased ...

  9. Fatty liver - nonalcoholic

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Gastroenterological Association. The diagnosis and management of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: Practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, American College of Gastroenterology, and ...

  10. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood count (CBC) Liver biopsy Liver function tests Coagulation studies Tests to rule out other diseases include: ... over-the-counter medicines. MEDICINES FROM YOUR DOCTOR "Water pills" (diuretics) to get rid of fluid build- ...

  11. Liver transplant - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Liver failure causes many problems, including malnutrition, problems with blood clotting, bleeding form the gastrointestinal tract, and jaundice. Frequently, patients who undergo liver transplantation are quite ill, and require ...

  12. Antioxidants in liver health

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Grajales, Sael; Muriel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Liver diseases are a worldwide medical problem because the liver is the principal detoxifying organ and maintains metabolic homeostasis. The liver metabolizes various compounds that produce free radicals (FR). However, antioxidants scavenge FR and maintain the oxidative/antioxidative balance in the liver. When the liver oxidative/antioxidative balance is disrupted, the state is termed oxidative stress. Oxidative stress leads to deleterious processes in the liver and produces liver diseases. Therefore, restoring antioxidants is essential to maintain homeostasis. One method of restoring antioxidants is to consume natural compounds with antioxidant capacity. The objective of this review is to provide information pertaining to various antioxidants found in food that have demonstrated utility in improving liver diseases. PMID:26261734

  13. Diet - liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002441.htm Diet - liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some people with liver disease must eat a special diet. This diet helps ...

  14. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis. This group of tests helps your health care provider diagnose ...

  15. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  16. Method and a horizontal pipeline pig launching mechanism for sequentially launching pipeline pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, G.W.

    1992-08-18

    This patent describes a method for timed automatic sequential launching of serially oriented pipeline pigs from a pig launching system having a tubular pig storage and launching magazine into a gas transmission pipeline. It comprises providing a source of hydraulic fluid medium; locating a free piston within the tubular pig storage and launching magazine for motive contact with the last of the serially oriented pipeline pigs; employing gas pressure from the gas transmission pipeline for pressurizing the hydraulic fluid medium from the source; introducing the pressurized hydraulic fluid medium into the hydraulic chamber; controllably releasing the restraining of the first of the serially oriented pipeline pigs from the tubular pig storage and launching magazine.

  17. Liver angioscintigraphy: clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Dragoteanu, Mircea; Cotul, Sabin O; Pîgleşan, Cecilia; Tamaş, Stefan

    2004-03-01

    Liver angioscintigraphy (LAS) is a radio-isotope method for the investigation of liver perfusion and its alteration in various hepatic diseases. It measures the arterial and portal venous fractions of total liver blood flow. The percentage of liver blood flow supplied by hepatic artery is estimated mathematically by the hepatic perfusion index (HPI), normally between 25 % and 40 %. The decrease of portal blood flow in liver cirrhosis is compensated ("buffer" mechanisms) by increased arterial supply, with higher HPI value. For a patient with chronic liver disease, HPI over 50% suggests arterialization of hepatic perfusion, guiding the diagnose to liver cirrhosis. Splenic curve is completing the diagnostic information of the hepatic curve. Corroborated with per rectal scintigraphy and liver SPECT, LAS offers a good hemodynamic staging of chronic inflammatory liver diseases. Malignant tumors (primitive or metastases) increase the arterial supply of the liver and decrease the portal flow, HPI being over 50% (currently 65 % - 90 %). Benign tumors do not change portal/arterial liver blood flow ratio. SPECT or non-scintigraphic morphological investigations increase the diagnostic value of LAS for primitive liver tumors. Liver cancer occurring on cirrhosis is a limitative factor for LAS. Hepatic metastases increase the arterial perfusion (and HPI value) very quickly, before their size allows morphologic imaging diagnosis. LAS is therefore an early method to diagnose liver metastases being especially used in colorectal cancer. Other clinical applications of LAS are: follow up of liver toxicity of drugs, evaluation of portal vein permeability, post surgery follow up of the liver tumor patients. PMID:15054528

  18. [Feed supplementation with selenium in relation to the vitamin E-selenium deficiency syndrome in pigs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pedersen, K B; Simesen, M G

    1977-01-01

    After the addition of selenium to swine feed (max. 0.1 ppm) was legalized in Denmark in 1975, a marked reduction has occurred in the incidence of hepatosis dietetica (HD) in the material received at the State Veterinary Serum Laboratory for diagnostic examination, while the incidence of mulberry heart disease (MHD) appears to be unchanged (Table I). In a material collected before the addition of selenium to swine feed was permitted, the selenium content in liver and heart was found to be significantly lower in the pigs that had died of MHD than in normal pigs, but higher than in pigs that had died of HD (Table II). These observations tend to support the view that feed supplementation with selenium is more effective to prevent HD than MHD. PMID:866121

  19. Cell Therapies for Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yue; Fisher, James E.; Lillegard, Joseph B.; Rodysill, Brian; Amiot, Bruce; Nyberg, Scott L.

    2011-01-01

    Cell therapies, which include bioartificial liver support and hepatocyte transplantation, have emerged as potential treatments for a variety of liver diseases. Acute liver failure (ALF), acute-on-chronic liver failure, and inherited metabolic liver diseases are examples of liver diseases that have been successfully treated with cell therapies at centers around the world. Cell therapies also have the potential for wide application in other liver diseases, including non-inherited liver diseases and liver cancer, and in improving the success of liver transplantation. Here we briefly summarize current concepts of cell therapy for liver diseases. PMID:22140063

  20. Of guinea pigs and men--an unusual case of jaundice.

    PubMed

    Pischke, S; Ehmer, U; Schedel, I; Gratz, W F; Wedemeyer, H; Ziesing, S; Bange, F C; Burchard, G D; Manns, M P; Bahr, M J; Strassburg, C P

    2010-01-01

    A 21-year-old male presented at the emergency room with jaundice, itching, dry cough, malaise and weight loss of 10 kg during the preceding four weeks. Eighteen months earlier, the patient had suffered an automobile accident leading to polytrauma. Serological markers for viral or other causes of hepatitis were absent. For suspected secondary sclerosing cholangitis, ultrasound and ERCP were performed but failed to reveal pathological findings. A liver biopsy showed cholestatic liver disease without signs of portal field-associated hepatitis. Hepato-biliary scintigraphy demonstrated hepatocellular dysfunction. The patient finally mentioned his guinea pig farm with around 50 animals, 20 of which had recently died for unknown reasons. The patient and three of his guinea pigs were subsequently tested for serological evidence of leptospirosis. IgG and IgM antibodies reacting with Leptospira interrogans were detected in the patient's serum, and all 3 guinea pigs were serologically positive for serovar Bratislava. Bacterial culture was not successful, and also PCR tests remained negative. The clinical symptoms quickly resolved after the initiation of antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin. PMID:20072994

  1. Pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin and the rate of depletion of its residues in pigs.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Larrañaga, M R; Anadón, A; Martínez, M A; Díaz, M J; Frejo, M T; Castellano, V J; Isea, G; De la Cruz, C O

    2004-05-15

    Six pigs were used in a two-period crossover study to investigate the pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin after single intravenous and oral doses of 20 mg/kg bodyweight. Twelve pigs were used to study the residues of the drug in muscle, kidney, liver and fat after they had received daily oral doses of 20 mg/kg amoxycillin for five days. The mean (sd) elimination half life (t1/2beta) and mean residence time of amoxycillin in plasma were 3.38 (0.30) and 3.54 (0.43) hours, respectively, after intravenous administration and 4.13 (0.50) and 4.47 (0.30) hours, respectively, after oral administration. After oral administration, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) was 7.37 (0.42) microg/ml and it was reached after 0.97 (0.29) hours. Six days after the last oral dose, the mean concentration of amoxycillin in the pigs' kidneys was 21.38 ng/g and in the liver it was 12.32 ng/g, but no amoxycillin could be detected in fat or muscle; the concentrations of amoxycillin in edible tissues were less than the European Union maximal residue limit of 50 microg/kg. PMID:15180397

  2. Ultrastructural and Metabolic Determinants of Resistance to Azo-dye and Susceptibility to Nitrosamine Carcinogenesis of the Guinea-pig

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, G. M.; Sohal, R. S.; Argus, M. F.; Arcos, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    During diethylnitrosamine (DEN) administration, a distinctive difference was observed between rats and guinea-pigs in the sequence of ultrastructural changes in the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In DEN-induced hepatic tumour cells in the guinea-pig there was extensive proliferation of the rough ER, while the smooth ER was quite sparse; in the premalignant liver the opposite was noted. This is in contrast to the rat, in which administration of either DEN or 3′-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (3′-Me-DAB) brings about, in both premalignant and malignant hepatic tissue, proliferation of the smooth ER and sparsity of the rough ER. Yet, as in the rat, the number of ribosomes on the outer surface of the guinea-pig liver rough ER is greatly reduced and this is paralleled by a 49% decrease of the RNA/protein ratio as early as 4 weeks of nitrosamine administration. The decrease of RNA/protein ratio and ultrastructurally observed loss of ribosomes from the ER, following nitrosamine administration, correlate with a decrease of photometric response of microsomal suspensions to the sulphydryl probe, p-chloromercuribenzoate. While azo-dye-reductase activity is higher in untreated rats than in untreated guinea-pigs, feeding 3′-Me-DAB for 6 weeks brings about a 76% decrease in the rat, but no significant decrease in the guinea-pig, which is refractory to azo-dye carcinogenesis. Thus, the ability of the liver to inactivate the dye is greatly decreased in the rat, but not in the guinea-pig, as administration progresses toward the threshold dose for tumorigenesis. On the other hand, constitutive levels of nitrosamine dealkylase are identical in the 2 species and remain essentially unchanged following administration of DEN for 10 weeks. Inasmuch as nitrosamine dealkylation represents activating metabolism, this provides a rationale for the comparable susceptibility of the rat and guinea-pig to DEN carcinogenesis. Of the 2 enzymes in the 2 species, it is only azo

  3. Synergistic effects of betaine and conjugated linoleic acid on the growth and carcass composition of growing Iberian pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fígares, I; Conde-Aguilera, J A; Nieto, R; Lachica, M; Aguilera, J F

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of dietary betaine, CLA, or both as growth promotants and carcass modifiers in growing Iberian pigs. Twenty gilts (20 kg of BW) were individually penned and fed barley- and soybean meal-based diets (12% CP, 0.81% Lys, and 14.8 MJ of ME/kg of DM) containing either no added betaine or CLA (control), 0.5% betaine, 1% CLA, or 0.5% betaine + 1% CLA, at 95% of ad libitum energy intake. An additional group of 5 pigs was slaughtered at the beginning of the experiment to obtain the initial body composition. At 30 kg of BW, a balance experiment was conducted. At 50 kg of BW, pigs were slaughtered and viscera was removed and weighed. Betaine or CLA alone did not affect growth performance. However, betaine + CLA increased ADG (601 vs. 558 g, P = 0.03) and gain relative to ME intake (25.4 vs. 22.2 g/MJ, P = 0.03) compared with control pigs. Digestibility of nutrients and metabolizability of energy did not differ among diets (P = 0.46 to 0.75). Carcass protein, water, and lean deposition (g/d) increased (19.8, 24.2, and 23.4%, respectively, P < 0.01) in pigs fed betaine + CLA compared with control pigs. Similarly, protein deposition relative to ME intake increased by 28% in betaine + CLA-supplemented pigs (P < 0.05). Fat and mineral deposition did not differ among treatments. Carcass protein, water, and lean content (g/kg of carcass) of pigs fed betaine + CLA-supplemented diets tended to increase (P = 0.07 to 0.09) and carcass fat content tended to decrease (P = 0.09). Similarly, estimated composition of carcass gain was affected, such that water and lean content tended to increase (P = 0.06 to 0.08), whereas fat tended to decrease (P = 0.08) in pigs fed betaine + CLA-supplemented diets. Longissimus muscle area was not altered by treatments (P = 0.49). The liver of pigs fed betaine + CLA diets had increased weight (19%, P < 0.05) compared with control pigs. Overall, dietary supplementation of betaine + CLA increased ADG

  4. Genetically modified pig models for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Holm, Ida E; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Luo, Yonglun

    2016-01-01

    Increasing incidence of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease has become one of the most challenging health issues in ageing humans. One approach to combat this is to generate genetically modified animal models of neurodegenerative disorders for studying pathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Owing to the genetic, anatomic, physiologic, pathologic, and neurologic similarities between pigs and humans, genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders have been attractive large animal models to bridge the gap of preclinical investigations between rodents and humans. In this review, we provide a neuroanatomical overview in pigs and summarize and discuss the generation of genetically modified pig models of neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's diseases, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinal muscular atrophy, and ataxia-telangiectasia. We also highlight how non-invasive bioimaging technologies such as positron emission tomography (PET), computer tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavioural testing have been applied to characterize neurodegenerative pig models. We further propose a multiplex genome editing and preterm recloning (MAP) approach by using the rapid growth of the ground-breaking precision genome editing technology CRISPR/Cas9 and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). With this approach, we hope to shorten the temporal requirement in generating multiple transgenic pigs, increase the survival rate of founder pigs, and generate genetically modified pigs that will more closely resemble the disease-causing mutations and recapitulate pathological features of human conditions. PMID:26446984

  5. Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

  6. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-01-01

    In his interesting and informative book "Is That a Fact?," Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on…

  7. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blastocystis subtype 5, a subtype known to infect humans, was detected by molecular methods in the feces of 36 naturally infected market age pigs. At necropsy, 6 heavily infected pigs were selected to determine the tropism of the infection within the gastrointestinal tract. Because so little is know...

  8. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  9. Molecular cloning, sequence characteristics, and tissue expression analysis of ECE1 gene in Tibetan pig.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Jian; Li, Chuan-Hao; Xu, Hai-Peng; Chen, Wei; Zeng, Yong-Qing; Wang, Hui

    2015-10-25

    Low air pressure and low oxygen partial pressure at high altitude seriously affect the survival and development of human beings and animals. ECE1 is a recently discovered gene that is involved in anti-hypoxia, but the full-length cDNA sequence has not been obtained. For a better understanding of the structure and function of the ECE1 gene and to study its effect in Tibetan pig, the cDNA of the ECE1 gene from the muscle of Tibetan pig was cloned, sequenced and characterized. The ECE1 full-length cDNA sequence consists of 2262 bp coding sequence (CDS) that encodes 753 amino acids with a molecular mass of 85,449 kD, 2 bp 5'UTR and 1507 bp 3'UTR. In addition, the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that the Tibetan pig ECE1 has a closer genetic relationship and evolution distance with the land mammals ECE1. Furthermore, analysis by qPCR showed that the ECE1 transcript is constitutively expressed in the 10 tissues tested: the liver, subcutaneous fat, kidney, muscle, stomach, heart, brain, spleen, pancreas, and lung. These results serve as a foundation for further insight into the Tibetan pig ECE1 gene. PMID:26115769

  10. Protection of guinea pigs against Leptospira interrogans serovar Lai by LipL21 DNA vaccine.

    PubMed

    He, Han Jiang; Wang, Wen Yu; Wu, Zhong Dao; Lv, Zhi Yue; Li, Jun; Tan, Li Zhi

    2008-10-01

    In this study, the full lipL21 gene fragment encoding outer membrane protein LipL21 was cloned from L. interrogans serovar Lai and inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1(+). The guinea pigs were immunized with pcDNA3.1(+)-lipL21, pcDNA3.1(+) or PBS. Six weeks after the second immunization, the splenocytes were isolated to detect their proliferative ability by lymphocyte transformation experiments. In addition, microscopic agglutination test was used for quantitative detection of specific antibodies. The rest guinea pigs were challenged intraperitoneally with L. interogans sorevar Lai. Then, protective effect was evaluated on the basis of survival and histopathological lesions in the kidneys, lungs, and liver. The lipL21 gene was successfully expressed in COS-7 cells through recombinant pcDNA3.1(+)-lipL21. The titer of specific antibodies substantially increased, and the stimulation index of splenocytes increased significantly. Hence, the pcDNA3.1(+)-lipL21 could protect the immunized guinea pigs from homotypic Leptospira infection. Furthermore, no obvious pathologic changes were observed in the pcDNA3.1(+)-lipL21 immunized guinea pigs. The results showed that the protective effect with pathogenic strains of Leptospira was shared by LipL21 mediated through a plasmid vector. Consequently, these results indicated that the lipL21 DNA vaccine was a promising candidate for the prevention of leptospirosis. PMID:18954563

  11. Glucose tolerance normalization following transplantation of pig pancreatic primordia into non-immunosuppressed diabetic ZDF rats.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sharon A; Chen, Feng; Talcott, Mike; Liapis, Helen; Hammerman, Marc R

    2006-11-01

    Pancreas or pancreatic islet transplantation in humans is limited by organ availability, and success of the latter is negatively impacted upon by tissue loss post-transplantation and limited potential for expansion of beta cells. A way to overcome the supply and expansion problems is to xenotransplant embryonic tissue. Previously, we have shown that beta cells originating from embryonic day (E) 28 (E28) pig pancreatic primordia transplanted into the mesentery of streptozotocin-diabetic (type 1) Lewis rats engraft without the need for host immune-suppression and normalize glucose tolerance. Here we show long-term engraftment of pig beta cells within liver, pancreas and mesenteric lymph nodes post-transplantation of E28 pig pancreatic primordia into diabetic ZDF rats, a model for type 2 diabetes. Porcine insulin is present in circulation after an oral glucose load. Glucose tolerance is normalized in transplanted ZDF hosts and insulin sensitivity restored in formerly diabetic ZDF males. Release of porcine insulin in vitro from tissue originating in transplanted rats occurs within 1 min of glucose stimulation characteristic of first-phase secretion from beta cells. Of potential importance for application of this transplantation technology to treatment of type 2 diabetes in humans and confirmatory of our previous findings in Lewis rats, no host immunosuppression is required for engraftment of E28 pig pancreatic primordia. PMID:17138051

  12. Natural and experimental hepatitis E virus genotype 3-infection in European wild boar is transmissible to domestic pigs.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Josephine; Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Fast, Christine; Dremsek, Paul; Lange, Elke; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of acute hepatitis E in humans in developing countries, but sporadic and autochthonous cases do also occur in industrialised countries. In Europe, food-borne zoonotic transmission of genotype 3 (gt3) has been associated with domestic pig and wild boar. However, little is known about the course of HEV infection in European wild boar and their role in HEV transmission to domestic pigs. To investigate the transmissibility and pathogenesis of wild boar-derived HEVgt3, we inoculated four wild boar and four miniature pigs intravenously. Using quantitative real-time RT-PCR viral RNA was detected in serum, faeces and in liver, spleen and lymph nodes. The antibody response evolved after fourteen days post inoculation. Histopathological findings included mild to moderate lymphoplasmacytic hepatitis which was more prominent in wild boar than in miniature pigs. By immunohistochemical methods, viral antigens were detected mainly in Kupffer cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, partially associated with hepatic lesions, but also in spleen and lymph nodes. While clinical symptoms were subtle and gross pathology was inconspicuous, increased liver enzyme levels in serum indicated hepatocellular injury. As the faecal-oral route is supposed to be the most likely transmission route, we included four contact animals to prove horizontal transmission. Interestingly, HEVgt3-infection was also detected in wild boar and miniature pigs kept in contact to intravenously inoculated wild boar. Given the high virus loads and long duration of viral shedding, wild boar has to be considered as an important HEV reservoir and transmission host in Europe. PMID:25421429

  13. l-dehydroascorbic acid can substitute l-ascorbic acid as dietary vitamin C source in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Frikke-Schmidt, Henriette; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C deficiency globally affects several hundred million people and has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in numerous studies. In this study, bioavailability of the oxidized form of vitamin C (l-dehydroascorbic acid or DHA)—commonly found in vitamin C containing food products prone to oxidation—was studied. Our aim was to compare tissue accumulation of vitamin C in guinea pigs receiving different oral doses of either ascorbate or DHA. In all tissues tested (plasma, liver, spleen, lung, adrenal glands, kidney, muscle, heart, and brain), only sporadic differences in vitamin C accumulation from ascorbate or DHA were observed except for the lowest dose of DHA (0.25 mg/ml in the drinking water), where approximately half of the tissues had slightly yet significantly less vitamin C accumulation than from the ascorbate source. As these results contradicted data from rats, we continued to explore the ability to recycle DHA in blood, liver and intestine in guinea pigs, rats and mice. These investigations revealed that guinea pigs have similar recycling capacity in red blood cells as observed in humans, while rats and mice do not have near the same ability to reduce DHA in erythrocytes. In liver and intestinal homogenates, guinea pigs also showed a significantly higher ability to recycle DHA compared to rats and mice. These data demonstrate that DHA in guinea pigs—as in humans—is almost as effective as ascorbate as vitamin C source when it comes to taking up and storing vitamin C and further suggest that the guinea pig is superior to other rodents in modeling human vitamin C homeostasis. PMID:26609560

  14. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Bataller, Ramón; Burra, Patrizia; DiMartini, Andrea; Graziadei, Ivo; Lucey, Michael R; Mathurin, Philippe; OʼGrady, John; Pageaux, Georges; Berenguer, Marina

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol-related liver disease is the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation (LT), yet as many as 90% to 95% of patients with alcohol-related end-stage liver disease are never formally evaluated for LT. Furthermore, despite its significance as a cause of chronic liver disease and indication for LT, it has received little attention in recent years for several reasons, including the good posttransplant short-term results, and the lack of specific "drugs" used for this disease. A writing group, endorsed by the International Liver Transplant Society, was convened to write guidelines on Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease to summarize current knowledge and provide answers to controversial and delicate ethical as well as clinical problems. We report here a short version of the guidelines (long version available at www.ilts.org) with the final recommendations graded for level of evidence. The writing group membership is expected to remain active for 5 years, reviewing the guideline annually, and updating the online version when appropriate. PMID:26985744

  15. Acute liver failure and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Nobuhisa; Sugawara, Yasuhiko; Kokudo, Norihiro

    2013-08-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is defined by the presence of coagulopathy (International Normalized Ratio ≥ 1.5) and hepatic encephalopathy due to severe liver damage in patients without pre-existing liver disease. Although the mortality due to ALF without liver transplantation is over 80%, the survival rates of patients have considerably improved with the advent of liver transplantation, up to 60% to 90% in the last two decades. Recent large studies in Western countries reported 1, 5, and 10-year patient survival rates after liver transplantation for ALF of approximately 80%, 70%, and 65%, respectively. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), which has mainly evolved in Asian countries where organ availability from deceased donors is extremely scarce, has also improved the survival rate of ALF patients in these regions. According to recent reports, the overall survival rate of adult ALF patients who underwent LDLT ranges from 60% to 90%. Although there is still controversy regarding the graft type, optimal graft volume, and ethical issues, LDLT has become an established treatment option for ALF in areas where the use of deceased donor organs is severely restricted. PMID:25343108

  16. Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (Tc-NGA) liver imaging: Potential application in liver transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Woodle, E.S.; Vera, D.R.; Ward, R.E.; Hutak, D.P.; Stadalnik, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-NGA is a hepatocyte receptor-specific imaging agent whose uptake by the liver has been shown to be dependent upon blood flow and receptor concentration. The combination of anatomic and physiologic information obtained with Tc-NGA may provide a new tool for studying hepatic function in liver transplant recipients. To evaluate the potential role of Tc-NGA in liver transplant recipients, studies were performed in four groups of pigs: controls (n=18); common bile duct (CBD) ligation (n=8); orthotopic liver transplant (n=9); and acute hepatic artery ligation (n=1). Serial studies performed in two animals with CBD ligation demonstrated normal imaging anatomy with minor changes in the hepatic time-activity curves when compared to control studies. Studies in liver-transplanted animals showed significant changes in the hepatic time-activity curves during acute rejection and in preservation-related ischemic injury. Tc-NGA also demonstrated focal areas of hepatic infarction in a hepatic allograft within 24 hours of transplantation. The hepatic artery ligation study showed massive changes in the hepatic time-activity curve within two hours after ligation, with a diffuse decrease in hepatic activity. These results indicate that: (1) extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction causes only minor changes in Tc-NGA uptake; (2) Tc-NGA uptake by the liver is very sensitive to acute hepatic ischemia; (3) Tc-NGA may indicate the presence of preservation damage in the early postoperative period; and (4) Tc-NGA hepatic time-activity curves demonstrate significant changes during acute rejection.

  17. Guinea Pig Ciliary Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Pucker, Andrew D.; Carpenter, Ashley R.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Mutti, Donald O.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to develop a method for quantifying guinea pig ciliary muscle volume (CMV) and to determine its relationship to age and ocular biometric measurements. Methods Six albino guinea pigs eyes were collected at each of five ages (n=30 eyes). Retinoscopy and photography were used to document refractive error, eye size, and eye shape. Serial sections through the excised eyes were made and then labeled with an α-smooth muscle actin antibody. The CM was then visualized with an Olympus BX51 microscope, reconstructed with Stereo Investigator (MBF Bioscience) and analyzed using Neurolucida Explorer (MBF Bioscience). Full (using all sections) and partial (using a subset of sections) reconstruction methods were used to determine CMV. Results There was no significant difference between the full and partial volume determination methods (P = 0.86). The mean CMV of the 1, 10, 20, 30, and 90-day old eyes was 0.40 ± 0.16 mm3, 0.48 ± 0.13 mm3, 0.67 ± 0.15 mm3, 0.86 ± 0.35 mm3, and 1.09 ± 0.63 mm3, respectively. CMV was significantly correlated with log age (P = 0.001), ocular length (P = 0.003), limbal circumference (P = 0.01), and equatorial diameter (P = 0.003). It was not correlated with refractive error (P = 0.73) or eye shape (P = 0.60). Multivariate regression determined that biometric variables were not significantly associated with CMV after adjustment for age. Conclusions Three-dimensional reconstruction was an effective means of determining CMV. These data provide evidence that CM growth occurs with age in tandem with eye size in normal albino guinea pigs. Additional work is needed to determine the relationship between CMV and abnormal ocular growth. PMID:24901488

  18. FXR and liver carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiong-fei; Zhao, Wei-yu; Huang, Wen-dong

    2015-01-01

    Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor family and a ligand-modulated transcription factor. In the liver, FXR has been considered a multi-functional cell protector and a tumor suppressor. FXR can suppress liver carcinogenesis via different mechanisms: 1) FXR maintains the normal liver metabolism of bile acids, glucose and lipids; 2) FXR promotes liver regeneration and repair after injury; 3) FXR protects liver cells from death and enhances cell survival; 4) FXR suppresses hepatic inflammation, thereby preventing inflammatory damage; and 5) FXR can directly increase the expression of some tumor-suppressor genes and repress the transcription of several oncogenes. However, inflammation and epigenetic silencing are known to decrease FXR expression during tumorigenesis. The reactivation of FXR function in the liver may be a potential therapeutic approach for patients with liver cancer. PMID:25500874

  19. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality. PMID:27194895

  20. Serological examination of fattening pigs reveals associations between Ascaris suum, lung pathogens and technical performance parameters.

    PubMed

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Düsseldorf, Simon; Heres, Lourens; Geldhof, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Diagnosing the presence of the highly prevalent and economically important pig parasite Ascaris suum on fattening farms has so far been challenging. Currently, only the number of livers affected at slaughter is routinely used to measure parasite exposure. However, recently, a new serological test was developed based on the detection of antibodies to the A. suum haemoglobin molecule. The test showed to be highly sensitive for the detection of exposure to A. suum in fattening pigs. In this study we first compared the performance of A. suum serology versus the percentage of affected livers at slaughter, subsequently we investigated potential associations between A. suum infection levels and exposure to important lung pathogens and finally we identified correlations between serological data and technical performance parameters (TPIs) from 20 Belgian and 20 German pig fattening farms. In both Belgian and German farms, a significant relationship was detected between elevated average Ascaris serology and percentages of affected livers (ρ=0.63 and ρ=0.75, respectively). On the Belgian farms, both Ascaris serology and the percentage of affected livers were negatively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) (ρ=-0.69 and ρ=-0.56, respectively). Using the German dataset, only a borderline negative association was detected between the percentage of affected livers and the ADG (ρ=-0.44, P=0.053). In contrast, only in the German farms, correlations between the percentage of affected lungs at slaughter and elevated presence of A. suum and several other airway pathogens were detected. To conclude, this study indicates that serological screening for A. suum on fattening farms is an attractive new diagnostic tool that can be used to indicate the presence of roundworm infection by measuring infection intensity. Furthermore the results of this study also add weight to the evidence that both roundworm infections as well as herd exposure to airway pathogens have a significant

  1. Toxicological and Pathological Review of Concurrent Occurrence of Nitrite Toxicity and Swine Fever in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Pritam Kaur; Mahajan, Vishal; Verma, Sunil; Ashuma; Gupta, Mohinder Partap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plant associated nitrate/nitrite poisoning in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep had been reported from various parts of the world. Horses and pigs are considered less susceptible to nitrate poisoning. In this study epidemiology of rare outbreak of nitrate poisoning in combination with classical swine fever in a small pig farm was investigated for development of strategies to control and prevent such incidents in future. Materials and Methods: Concurrent infection of nitrate toxicity and classical swine fever were recorded in district Nawanshahar, Punjab. Eight pigs suddenly fell sick and died 2 days after feeding barseem + oats and marriage waste food. Twelve pigs were sick exhibiting symptoms of anorexia, fever (104-105oF), depression, constipation followed by diarrhea, respiratory difficulty, tremors and staggering gait with recumbency in four completely off-feed pigs. Blotchy discolorations of the skin of extremities (ears and snout) were observed in three pigs. Results: Hematological examination revealed marked leucopenia. Postmortem examination revealed dark brown colored blood evident on opening the carcass and presence of barseem, oats in stomach and intestines. Lymph nodes were swollen and hemorrhagic. Serosal surface of spleen show various infarcts and button ulcers were recorded in cecum and colon, pathognomic lesion of classical swine fever. Nitrate toxicity was confirmed on the basis of quantitative determination of nitrate in the biological material of sick and dead animals. Fodder samples were (barseem + oats) positive for diphenylamine blue (DPB) test, Nitrate concentration in offended barseem and oats were found to be 2612 ppm and 3344 ppm as nitrate nitrogen (No3-N), respectively. Excessive amount of nitrate in stomach contents (924-1365 ppm), liver (22-48 ppm) and kidney (17-22 ppm) of dead animals (n = 8) confirmed that death of pigs was due to toxicity induced by nitrate/nitrite. Conclusion: The green fodder should be used cautiously

  2. [Tumours and liver transplants].

    PubMed

    Mejzlík, Vladimír; Husová, Libuše; Kuman, Milan; Štěpánková, Soňa; Ondrášek, Jiří; Němec, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Liver transplantation as a curative treatment method can be used for selected primary liver tumours, in particular for hepatocellular carcinoma and rather rare semi-malignant tumours such as epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, further for infiltration of liver by metastatic neuroendocrine tumours (provided that metastases are only located in the liver and the primary tumour was removed) and for benign tumours (hemangiomas and adenomas) with oppression symptoms and size progression. Cholangiocarcinoma is not indicated for liver transplantation at the CKTCH Brno. In recent years liver transplants for hepatocellular carcinoma have increased and hepatocellular carcinoma has also been more frequently found ex post, in the explanted livers. Liver transplantation is indicated in selected patients with a good chance of long-term survival after liver transplantation (a generally accepted limit is 5 year survival of 50 % after transplantation). By 20 March 2015 there were liver transplants carried out on 38 patients - in 25 of them was hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosed before transplantation and in 13 it was found in the liver explants. 5 year survival following transplantation is reached by 53 % of this cohort. 32 % patients suffered from chronic hepatitis C. The longest surviving (32 years) patient at CKTCH Brno had liver transplanted for a big fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, which points to the prognostic significance of tumour histology: the criterion only considered in some indication schemes for practical reasons. Benign liver tumours (adenomatosis, cystadenoma, hemangioma with oppression symptoms) are rather rare indications and the transplantation results are favourable. 4 patients underwent transplantation for infiltration of liver by carcinoid, tumour recurrence occurred in one. PMID:26375706

  3. Myocardial kinetics of hexakis (trimethylphosphite) technetium-99m (I) chloride (Tc-TMP) in rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, M.S.; Adams, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-TMP is readily taken up by the myocardium following intravenous administration to rats and dogs. In order to assess its potential as a myocardial perfusion imaging agent, the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of Tc-TMP were evaluated following intravenous administration to rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and miniature pigs. Rats and rabbits were killed at several time points within a 24 hr period after treatment and tissue samples were assayed for radioactivity. In rats, estimated heart, liver and lung half-lives were 14.4 hr, 24 min and 40 min, respectively. In rabbits, 0.6% dose/g was observed in the heart at 30 min. Corresponding heart/blood, heart/liver and heart/lung ratios were 39.1, 10.7 and 5.1. Gamma camera imaging experiments were conducted in rabbits, dogs, cats and pigs over a 1-2 hr period following administration of Tc-TMP. All species exhibited myocardial uptake resulting in sustained visualization, although myocardial image intensity was less pronounced in the pig compared to the other species. Regions of interest were selected over the heart, liver and background, and time-activity curves were generated. Minimal myocardial clearance was observed in all species during the imaging time course. Hepatic activity was rapidly cleared in rabbits and pigs (t1/2 < 1.0 hr) resulting in improved heart/liver ratios at later time intervals. The myocardial accumulation and retention of Tc-TMP, demonstrated in five species, supports clinical evaluation as a myocardial imaging agent.

  4. Determination of tylosin residues in pig tissues using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    De Liguoro, M; Anfossi, P; Angeletti, R; Montesissa, C

    1998-06-01

    In accordance with the maximum residue limit of 100 micrograms kg-1 established by EU legislation, a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the measurement of tylosin residues in pig tissues (fat, kidney, liver and muscle). Tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic, is extracted with water-methanol and cleaned-up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) on cation-exchange cartridges using methanol elution. Tylosin was determined by reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection at 280 nm and the mean recovery from pig tissues fortified in the range 50-200 micrograms kg-1 was 70-85%, with intra- and inter-day RSDs in the ranges 3.4-9.1 and 3.9-10.1% respectively. PMID:9764508

  5. Porcine liver decellularization under oscillating pressure conditions: a technical refinement to improve the homogeneity of the decellularization process.

    PubMed

    Struecker, Benjamin; Hillebrandt, Karl Herbert; Voitl, Robert; Butter, Antje; Schmuck, Rosa B; Reutzel-Selke, Anja; Geisel, Dominik; Joehrens, Korinna; Pickerodt, Philipp A; Raschzok, Nathanael; Puhl, Gero; Neuhaus, Peter; Pratschke, Johann; Sauer, Igor M

    2015-03-01

    Decellularization and recellularization of parenchymal organs may facilitate the generation of autologous functional liver organoids by repopulation of decellularized porcine liver matrices with induced liver cells. We present an accelerated (7 h overall perfusion time) and effective protocol for human-scale liver decellularization by pressure-controlled perfusion with 1% Triton X-100 and 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate via the hepatic artery (120 mmHg) and portal vein (60 mmHg). In addition, we analyzed the effect of oscillating pressure conditions on pig liver decellularization (n=19). The proprietary perfusion device used to generate these pressure conditions mimics intra-abdominal conditions during respiration to optimize microperfusion within livers and thus optimize the homogeneity of the decellularization process. The efficiency of perfusion decellularization was analyzed by macroscopic observation, histological staining (hematoxylin and eosin [H&E], Sirius red, and alcian blue), immunohistochemical staining (collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin), and biochemical assessment (DNA, collagen, and glycosaminoglycans) of decellularized liver matrices. The integrity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) postdecellularization was visualized by corrosion casting and three-dimensional computed tomography scanning. We found that livers perfused under oscillating pressure conditions (P(+)) showed a more homogenous course of decellularization and contained less DNA compared with livers perfused without oscillating pressure conditions (P(-)). Microscopically, livers from the (P(-)) group showed remnant cell clusters, while no cells were found in livers from the (P(+)) group. The grade of disruption of the ECM was higher in livers from the (P(-)) group, although the perfusion rates and pressure did not significantly differ. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that important matrix components were still present after decellularization. Corrosion casting showed an intact

  6. Formation of (4R)- and (4S)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A from ochratoxin A by liver microsomes from various species.

    PubMed Central

    Størmer, F C; Hansen, C E; Pedersen, J I; Hvistendahl, G; Aasen, A J

    1981-01-01

    Two metabolic products were formed from ochratoxin A by human, pig, and rat liver microsomal fractions in the presence of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. They were isolated from the incubation mixture in the presence of pig liver microsomes by extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and high-pressure liquid chromatography Their structures are suggested to be (4R)- and (4S)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A on the basis of mass and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Km and the maximum velocity for the formation of the two metabolites by human, pig, and rat microsomes were determined. Their formation was inhibited by carbon monoxide and metyrapone. The results indicate that the microsomal hydroxylation system is a cytochrome P-450 and that different species are involved in the formation of the two epimeric forms of 4-hydroxyochratoxin A. PMID:7316512

  7. Fate of Transgenic DNA from Orally Administered Bt MON810 Maize and Effects on Immune Response and Growth in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Maria C.; Buzoianu, Stefan G.; Gardiner, Gillian E.; Rea, Mary C.; Gelencsér, Eva; Jánosi, Anna; Epstein, Michelle M.; Ross, R. Paul; Lawlor, Peadar G.

    2011-01-01

    We assessed the effect of short-term feeding of genetically modified (GM: Bt MON810) maize on immune responses and growth in weanling pigs and determined the fate of the transgenic DNA and protein in-vivo. Pigs were fed a diet containing 38.9% GM or non-GM isogenic parent line maize for 31 days. We observed that IL-12 and IFNγ production from mitogenic stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased (P<0.10) following 31 days of GM maize exposure. While Cry1Ab-specific IgG and IgA were not detected in the plasma of GM maize-fed pigs, the detection of the cry1Ab gene and protein was limited to the gastrointestinal digesta and was not found in the kidneys, liver, spleen, muscle, heart or blood. Feeding GM maize to weanling pigs had no effect on growth performance or body weight. IL-6 and IL-4 production from isolated splenocytes were increased (P<0.05) in response to feeding GM maize while the proportion of CD4+ T cells in the spleen decreased. In the ileum, the proportion of B cells and macrophages decreased while the proportion of CD4+ T cells increased in GM maize-fed pigs. IL-8 and IL-4 production from isolated intraepithelial and lamina propria lymphocytes were also increased (P<0.05) in response to feeding GM maize. In conclusion, there was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or protein translocation to the organs and blood of weaning pigs. The growth of pigs was not affected by feeding GM maize. Alterations in immune responses were detected; however, their biologic relevance is questionable. PMID:22132091

  8. Covalent binding of nitroso-sulfonamides to glutathione S-transferase in guinea pigs with delayed type hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Eyanagi, Reiko; Toda, Akihisa; Imoto, Masumi; Uchiyama, Hidemori; Ishii, Yuji; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Yukako; Soeda, Shinji; Shimeno, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Drug induced allergies are believed to be induced by conjugates consisting of biological macromolecules and active metabolites. The present study investigated whether guinea pig glutathione S-transferase (gpGST), a protein that binds with sulfanilamide (SA) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX), could be detected in the liver cytosol fraction of guinea pigs that intraperitoneally received SA or SMX, and whether gpGST is a carrier protein. We synthesized three nitroso compounds, i.e., 4-nitroso-sulfanilamide (SA-NO), 4-nitrososulfamethoxazole (SMX-NO) and fluorescent-labeled nitroso compound (DNSBA-NO), and examined binding quantities of nitroso compounds to gpGST purified from untreated female guinea pigs. Furthermore, the concentrations of IgG in serum antibody for nitroso compounds were estimated using ELISA. When guinea pigs were sensitized using the three nitroso compounds, the dose dependent skin reactions were confirmed with each compound. In addition, sensitized guinea pigs using each nitroso compound showed positive skin reactions at an elicitation test performed using gpGST alone. The results confirmed synthesis of antibody against gpGST due to hapten sensitization. Therefore, when a nitroso compound binds with gpGST in the body of guinea pigs, nitroso-gpGST acts as a neoantigen, which induces synthesis of autoantibody. Thus, gpGST appears to be one of the carrier proteins that induce sulfa drug-induced allergies. Immunization of guinea pigs with active metabolite of drugs may give information for predicting the occurrence of delayed type hypersensitivity in human. PMID:22342371

  9. Effect of L-lysine on expression of selected genes, serum concentration of amino acids, muscle growth and performance of growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Morales, A; García, H; Arce, N; Cota, M; Zijlstra, R T; Araiza, B A; Cervantes, M

    2015-08-01

    Lysine (Lys) is the first limiting amino acid (AA) in most feed formulations for pigs and most abundant, along with leucine, in muscle proteins. An experiment was conducted with 17 pigs (17.7 ± 0.05 kg initial BW) to identify a role of dietary Lys in the control of protein synthesis in pigs. Fourteen pigs were randomly assigned to one of the two wheat-based dietary treatments: Lys-deficient, 3.0 g/kg (DEF) and Lys-adequate, 10.8 g/kg (ADE). Samples from jejunum mucosa, liver, Longissumus and Semitendinosus muscles, and blood were collected. The other three pigs were sacrificed at the beginning of the trial to measure basal carcass composition. Weight gain, gain:feed ratio, Lys intake and loin eye area were greater in ADE than in DEF pigs (p < 0.01). Muscle-related carcass characteristics were better, and myosin heavy chain IIb expression (MyHC IIb) in Semitendinosus was higher in ADE than in DEF pigs. Expression of AA transporters CAT-1 was lower (p < 0.05), serum Lys was higher and serum Val was lower in pigs fed the ADE diet. The higher muscularity, MyHC IIb expression in Semitendinosus muscle and Lys serum of pigs fed the ADE diet suggest that Lys increases growth rate not only by functioning as protein construction unit but also as potential control of the protein synthesis process. PMID:25354230

  10. Salmonellas on pig farms and in abattoirs

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J. A.; Ghosh, A. C.; Mann, P. G.; Tee, G. H.

    1972-01-01

    Salmonella infection on two pig farms and its relation to infection in pigs at slaughter was studied. On the first farm feed ingredients were mixed on the farm, and these included fish meal which was found to be contaminated with salmonellas. The feed was pumped to pigs in liquid form. There was a high salmonella isolation rate at slaughter when the contaminated fish meal was fed in liquid feed, but it was significantly lower when no fish meal was fed to the pigs examined at slaughter. In some instances the same serotypes were found in fish meal and pig excreta on the farm and in caecal contents of the pigs at slaughter. No serotype was repeatedly isolated from any source and it appeared that the serotypes were not able to establish themselves in the pigs. It is concluded that infection found at slaughter originated on the farm where fish meal introduced and maintained infection. There was an opportunity for salmonellas to have multiplied in the liquid feed for several hours each day. On a second farm environmental conditions were similar, but feed was given in the form of ready-made pellets and nuts. Salmonellas were not isolated from the feed. At slaughter there was a significantly lower isolation rate than on the first farm. PMID:4501835

  11. Continuous odour measurement from fattening pig units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romain, Anne-Claude; Nicolas, Jacques; Cobut, Pierre; Delva, Julien; Nicks, Baudouin; Philippe, François-Xavier

    2013-10-01

    A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou s.pig-1), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess the odour annoyance zone. Dynamic olfactometry measurements carried out at different development stages of pigs showed a logical trend of the mean assessed odour emission factor with the pig mass. However, the variation within the same mass class was much larger than variation between classes. Possible causes of such variation were identified as the evolution of ventilation rate during the day and the circadian rhythm of pig. To be able to monitor continuously the daily variation of the odour, an electronic nose was used with suitable regression model calibrated against olfactometric measurements. After appropriate validation check, the electronic nose proved to be convenient, as a complementary tool to dynamic olfactometry, to record the daily variation of the odour emission factor in the pig barn. It was demonstrated that, in the controlled conditions of the experimental pens, the daily variation of the odour emission rate could be mainly attributed to the sole influence of the circadian rhythm of pig. As a consequence, determining a representative odour emission factor in a real case cannot be based on a snapshot odour sampling.

  12. Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs: an overview.

    PubMed

    Laha, R

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. It is the most common mange infestation of pigs. The parasite is distributed worldwide. Pig owners are generally concerned about the internal parasitic infections and ignored the external parasitic infestations. But the external parasitic infestation with S. scabiei var. suis has economic significance as it causes morbidity, mortality, decreased fertility and feed conversion ratio in pigs. Keeping in view of importance of S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, this communication discussed about the present and past research works done on S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, particularly its prevalence, life cycle, pathological lesions, clinical symptoms, haematobiochemical changes, diagnosis, treatment and control, to have an idea about this infestation at a glance. It has been concluded that the research work done on sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs in India is less in comparison to other countries. It may be due to its consideration as a neglected parasite or due to it's under report. Organization of awareness programs for the farmers by extension personalities or other authorities might be able to save the farmers from economic losses due to this infestation. PMID:26688620

  13. An epidemiological investigation into the association between biomarkers and growth performance in nursery pigs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomarkers are useful tools in research and clinical practice where they are often used to detect and monitor differences in the physiological state of an animal. The proteins IGF-1, IGFBP-3, GHR, CRP, SAA, Hp, IFN-α, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 have been proposed as potential biomarkers for monitoring growth in livestock. The objective of this study was to determine whether hepatic gene expression of these proposed biomarkers is associated with growth performance in nursery pigs. Herd information and growth parameters were collected for 168 piglets from 8 commercial farms in southern Ontario. From these pigs, a subset of liver tissue samples (n = 74) was used for gene expression analysis of the proposed biomarkers. Multivariable linear regression methods were used to determine whether genetic expression of the proposed biomarkers was associated with growth performance in the nursery. Results Modelling the herd information and individual piglet traits in relation to growth performance revealed that the weight at weaning and the age at weaning are significantly associated with nursery performance. Average daily gain (ADG) was significantly associated with hepatic IGFBP-3 and GHR expression in the liver (P < 0.05), and tended to be associated with hepatic IGF-1 expression (P = 0.071). Similarly, 9-week body weight was significantly associated with hepatic expression of IGFBP-3 and GHR expression (P < 0.05), and tended to be associated with hepatic expression of IGF-1 (P = 0.055). Conclusion The age and weight at which pigs are weaned is an important determinant for nursery performance. Hepatic gene expression of IGF-1, IGFBP-3, and GHR can be useful biomarkers for monitoring growth performance in nursery pigs. PMID:24314007

  14. Interaction between titanium and cadmium in various guinea pig organs.

    PubMed

    Takano, Takashi; Kaneda, Takeharu; Kaneshige, Masaki; Tsutsumi, Tomoko; Ochiai, Yoshitsugu; Shimizu, Kazumasa; Hondo, Ryo; Mochizuki, Mariko; Ueda, Fukiko

    2013-02-01

    Titanium (Ti) is used in many fields, while cadmium (Cd) is known to cause the itai-itai disease. In the present study, possible interactions between titanium and cadmium were investigated. Aorta, taenia coli, and liver were removed from male guinea pigs. Muscle tension was measured using intact aorta and taenia coli and using β-escin-permeabilized taenia coli in a physiological salt solution and a hyperpotassium solution containing Cd and/or Ti. Cellular Cd contents were determined using all tissues after washout with EDTA solution. Cadmium-induced relaxation in the hyperpotassium solution recovered significantly (P < 0.01) following Ti treatment in taenia coli, but not in the aorta. In β-escin-permeabilized taenia coli, the percentage recoveries after Cd treatment and after Ti plus Cd treatment were 67.3 ± 8.7 % (n = 4) and 87.7 ± 3.8 % (n = 4), respectively, compared with Ca-induced control contraction. Cellular Cd contents in taenia coli decreased significantly following treatment with Ti 10(-4) M. Although similar results were obtained using the aorta and the liver, there were no significant differences between the control and Ti 10(-5) M. High concentrations of Ti may reduce cellular Cd content. PMID:23238609

  15. Nuclear transfer and transgenesis in the pig.

    PubMed

    Kurome, Mayuko; Kessler, Barbara; Wuensch, Annegret; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Wolf, Eckhard

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using genetically modified donor cells facilitates the generation of tailored pig models for biomedical research and for xenotransplantation. Up to now, SCNT is the main way to generate gene-targeted pigs, since germ line-competent pluripotent stem cells are not available for this species. In this chapter, we introduce our routine workflow for the production of genetically engineered pigs, especially focused on the genetic modification of somatic donor cells, SCNT using in vitro matured oocytes, and laparoscopic embryo transfer. PMID:25287337

  16. [Liver and drug metabolism].

    PubMed

    Mikheeva, O M

    2011-01-01

    Liver metabolism aims to change the biological activity of drugs to make them water-soluble to be excreted with bile and urine. The degree of metabolism depends on fermentative capacity for each drag (P450 fermentative system is localized in microsomal fraction of hepatocyte). Metabolism ability also changes under the influence of other substances. Liver diseases lead up to decrease of drug clirens and to increase the semi-excretion time because of reduction of liver metabolism. Therefore the drags usually undergoing intensive liver metabolism necessitate a high risk of overdose when liver diseases present. On the other hand no risk of overdose exist when drags with low liver metabolism are used. PMID:21560652

  17. Liver transplantation in India.

    PubMed

    Narasimhan, Gomathy; Kota, Venugopal; Rela, Mohamed

    2016-07-01

    Liver transplantation as an established form of treatment for end-stage liver disease has gained acceptance in India over the last 10 years. Liver transplantation in India has unique features that have contributed to the growth of both deceased donor and living donor transplantations of which living donor currently dominates the picture. Living donor contributes to 80% and deceased donor to 20% of the liver transplants currently performed in India. The majority of these transplants are performed within the private sector with public sector hospitals lagging behind significantly. This article gives an overview of the evolution of liver transplantation in India and the potential future challenges. Liver Transplantation 22 1019-1024 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082718

  18. Tolerance Induction in Liver.

    PubMed

    Karimi, M H; Geramizadeh, B; Malek-Hosseini, S A

    2015-01-01

    Liver is an exclusive anatomical and immunological organ that displays a considerable tolerance effect. Liver allograft acceptance is shown to occur spontaneously within different species. Although in human transplant patients tolerance is rarely seen, the severity level and cellular mechanisms of transplant rejection vary. Non-paranchymal liver cells, including Kupffer cells, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells, hepatic stellate cells, and resident dendritic cells may participate in liver tolerogenicity. The mentioned cells secret anti-inflammatory cytokines such as TGF-β and IL-10 and express negative co-stimulatory molecules like PD-L1 to mediate immunosuppression. Other mechanisms such as microchimerism, soluble major histocompatibility complex and regulatory T cells may take part in tolerance induction. Understanding the mechanisms involved in liver transplant rejection/tolerance helps us to improve therapeutic options to induce hepatic tolerance. PMID:26082828

  19. Robotic liver surgery

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  20. The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Alexandra C.; See, M. Todd; Hansen, Jeff A.; Kim, Yong B.; De Souza, Anna L. P.; Middleton, Tina F.; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth. PMID:23867763

  1. Statins and the Liver.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Cynthia; Bahrainy, Samira; Gill, Edward A

    2016-03-01

    Lipid lowering, particularly with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors ("statins"), reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Patients with chronic liver disease present challenges to the use of lipid medications. In the case of most liver disorders, the concern has been one of safety. There is evidence that most lipid-lowering medications can be used safely in many situations, although large outcomes trials are lacking. This review examines lipid physiology and cardiovascular risk in specific liver diseases and reviews the evidence for lipid lowering and the use of statins in chronic liver disease. PMID:26893001

  2. Gene expression profiling in hepatic tissue of newly weaned pigs fed pharmacological zinc and phytase supplemented diets

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Montemayor, Michelle M; Hill, Gretchen M; Raney, Nancy E; Rilington, Valencia D; Tempelman, Robert J; Link, Jane E; Wilkinson, Christopher P; Ramos, Antonio M; Ernst, Catherine W

    2008-01-01

    Background Zinc (Zn) is an essential trace element. However, Zn bioavailability from commonly consumed plants may be reduced due to phytic acid. Zn supplementation has been used to treat diarrheal disease in children, and in the U.S. swine industry at pharmacological levels to promote growth and fecal consistency, but underlying mechanisms explaining these beneficial effects remain unknown. Moreover, adding supplemental phytase improves Zn bioavailability. Thus, we hypothesized that benefits of pharmacological Zn supplementation result from changes in gene expression that could be further affected by supplemental phytase. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding newly weaned pigs dietary Zn (150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg) as Zn oxide with or without phytase [500 phytase units (FTU)/kg] for 14 d on hepatic gene expression. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150, 1,000, or 2,000 mg Zn/kg, or 1,000 mg Zn/kg with phytase (n = 4 per treatment) was reverse transcribed and examined using the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique. Liver RNA from pigs fed 150 or 2,000 mg Zn/kg (n = 4 per treatment) was also evaluated using a 70-mer oligonucleotide microarray. Results Expressed sequence tags for 61 putatively differentially expressed transcripts were cloned and sequenced. In addition, interrogation of a 13,297 element oligonucleotide microarray revealed 650 annotated transcripts (FDR ≤ 0.05) affected by pharmacological Zn supplementation. Seven transcripts exhibiting differential expression in pigs fed pharmacological Zn with sequence similarities to genes encoding GLO1, PRDX4, ACY1, ORM1, CPB2, GSTM4, and HSP70.2 were selected for confirmation. Relative hepatic GLO1 (P < 0.0007), PRDX4 (P < 0.009) and ACY1 (P < 0.01) mRNA abundances were confirmed to be greater in pigs fed 1,000 (n = 8) and 2,000 (n = 8) mg Zn/kg than in pigs fed 150 (n = 7) mg Zn/kg. Relative hepatic HSP70.2 (P < 0.002) mRNA abundance was confirmed to

  3. Human Liver Progenitor Cells for Liver Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lombard, Catherine A.; Prigent, Julie; Sokal, Etienne M.

    2013-01-01

    Because of their high proliferative capacity, resistance to cryopreservation, and ability to differentiate into hepatocyte-like cells, stem and progenitor cells have recently emerged as attractive cell sources for liver cell therapy, a technique used as an alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation in the treatment of various hepatic ailments ranging from metabolic disorders to end-stage liver disease. Although stem and progenitor cells have been isolated from various tissues, obtaining them from the liver could be an advantage for the treatment of hepatic disorders. However, the techniques available to isolate these stem/progenitor cells are numerous and give rise to cell populations with different morphological and functional characteristics. In addition, there is currently no established consensus on the tests that need to be performed to ensure the quality and safety of these cells when used clinically. The purpose of this review is to describe the different types of liver stem/progenitor cells currently reported in the literature, discuss their suitability and limitations in terms of clinical applications, and examine how the culture and transplantation techniques can potentially be improved to achieve a better clinical outcome. PMID:26858860

  4. Infection status of pigs with Cryptosporidium parvum

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jae-Ran

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the infection status of pigs with Cryptosporidium parvum, 589 fecal samples were collected from pigs raised at farm in Chungcheongbuk-do and Chungcheongnam-do. Of the 589 pig fecal samples, 62 (10.5%) were positive for C. parvum. The area showing the highest positive rate was Dangjin-gun, Chungcheongnam-do (14.0%), and the lowest (0%) Salmi-myon, Chungcheongbuk-do. The positive rate of C. parvum in Judok-eup increased from 12.7% in the winter to 22.1% in the summer. The results of this study suggest that the pigs may be a source of human C. parvum infection. PMID:15060340

  5. The Pig Olfactory Brain: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Brunjes, Peter C; Feldman, Sanford; Osterberg, Stephen K

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that pigs are reputed to have excellent olfactory abilities, few studies have examined regions of the pig brain involved in the sense of smell. The present study provides an overview of the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and piriform cortex of adult pigs using several approaches. Nissl, myelin, and Golgi stains were used to produce a general overview of the organization of the regions and confocal microscopy was employed to examine 1) projection neurons, 2) GABAergic local circuit neurons that express somatostatin, parvalbumin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, or calretinin, 3) neuromodulatory fibers (cholinergic and serotonergic), and 4) glia (astrocytes and microglia). The findings revealed that pig olfactory structures are quite large, highly organized and follow the general patterns observed in mammals. PMID:26936231

  6. Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the United States since 2005 Prevention Treatment Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... Submit Button Past Newsletters Key Facts about Swine Influenza (Swine Flu) in Pigs Language: English Español ...

  7. Animal models of tuberculosis: Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Clark, Simon; Hall, Yper; Williams, Ann

    2015-05-01

    The progression of the disease that follows infection of guinea pigs with Mycobacterium tuberculosis displays many features of human tuberculosis (TB), and the guinea pig model of TB has been used for more than 100 years as a research tool to understand and describe disease mechanisms. Changes in the bacterial burden and pathology following infection can be readily monitored and used to evaluate the impact of TB interventions. Demonstration of the protective efficacy of vaccines in the low-dose aerosol guinea pig model is an important component of the preclinical data package for novel vaccines in development, and there is a continual need to improve the model to facilitate progression of vaccines to the clinic. Development of better tools with which to dissect the immune responses of guinea pigs is a focus of current research. PMID:25524720

  8. The Pig Olfactory Brain: A Primer

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Sanford; Osterberg, Stephen K.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that pigs are reputed to have excellent olfactory abilities, few studies have examined regions of the pig brain involved in the sense of smell. The present study provides an overview of the olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus, and piriform cortex of adult pigs using several approaches. Nissl, myelin, and Golgi stains were used to produce a general overview of the organization of the regions and confocal microscopy was employed to examine 1) projection neurons, 2) GABAergic local circuit neurons that express somatostatin, parvalbumin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, or calretinin, 3) neuromodulatory fibers (cholinergic and serotonergic), and 4) glia (astrocytes and microglia). The findings revealed that pig olfactory structures are quite large, highly organized and follow the general patterns observed in mammals. PMID:26936231

  9. Sweating Like a Pig: Physics or Irony?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohren, Craig F.

    2016-03-01

    In his interesting and informative book Is That a Fact?, Joe Schwarcz avers that pigs do not sweat and the saying "sweating like a pig" originates in iron smelting. Oblong pieces of hot iron, with a fancied resemblance to a sow with piglets, cool in sand to the dew point of the surrounding air, and hence water condenses on the "pig." But this explanation, which I have seen on the Internet, lacks a few caveats. It implies that molten iron, solidifying and cooling, anywhere, anytime, accretes liquid water, as if this were a special property of cooling iron. Set aside that real pigs sweat perceptibly from their snouts; kiss a pig and verify for yourself. Pigs also sweat imperceptibly. Imperceptible (insensible) perspiration is water vapor from the skin and lungs exuded without sensible condensation. That from humans is about 1 liter/day. Sweat is 99% liquid water, NaCl the dominant solute, secreted quickly, sometimes profusely, by subcutaneous sweat glands in response to thermal stress, in contrast to the slow, continuous diffusion of water vapor through skin.

  10. Solid gel pigs for cleaning production pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.E.; Bohon, W.M.; Chesnut, G.R.

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields, such as that at Kuparuk, on the North Slope of Alaska, have been built as a trunk and lateral gathering system, with many different pipeline diameters in a branched network. No launchers nor receivers were built for the Kuparuk oil production pipelines. The high cost of retrofitting launchers and receivers prompted investigation of alternative methods for cleaning the pipelines. This paper describes a novel approach to mold solid gelatin pigs in bypass lines, and to run those pigs through the production pipelines to the primary separators. The gelatin pigs would slowly melt, eliminating the need for receivers. Field and laboratory testing showed that gelatin pigs could not effectively clean the pipelines. The addition of cross linking agents could increase the mechanical integrity of the gelatin pigs, but also elevated the melting temperatures above the operating temperatures of the primary separators. As such, they were not meltable (in time), and no benefits could be obtained by the use of solid gelatin pigs for cleaning applications.

  11. Liver transplantation for polycystic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Pirenne, J; Aerts, R; Yoong, K; Gunson, B; Koshiba, T; Fourneau, I; Mayer, D; Buckels, J; Mirza, D; Roskams, T; Elias, E; Nevens, F; Fevery, J; McMaster, P

    2001-03-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PLD) may provoke massive hepatomegaly and severe physical and social handicaps. Data on orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for PLD are rare and conflicting. Conservative surgery (resection or fenestration) is indicated for large single cysts, but its value for small diffuse cysts is questionable. In addition, conservative surgery is not devoid of morbidity and mortality. OLT offers the prospect of a fully curative treatment, but controversy remains because those patients usually have preserved liver function. Thus, we reviewed our experience with OLT for PLD. Sixteen adult women underwent OLT for small diffuse PLD between 1990 and 1999. Mean age was 45 years (range, 34 to 56 years). Fourteen patients had combined liver and kidney cystic disease, but only 1 patient required combined liver and kidney transplantation, whereas 13 patients underwent OLT alone. Two patients had isolated PLD. Indications for transplantation were massive hepatomegaly causing physical handicaps (n = 16), social handicaps (n = 16), malnutrition (n = 4), and cholestasis and/or portal hypertension (n = 5). OLT caused no technical difficulty in 15 of 16 patients (surgery duration, 6.8 hours; range, 5 to 8 hours), with blood transfusions of 7.9 units (range, 0 to 22 units). One patient who underwent attempted liver-mass reduction pre-OLT died of bleeding and pulmonary emboli. Native liver weight was 10 to 20 kg. Posttransplantation immunosuppression consisted of cyclosporine or FK506, azathioprine, and steroids (discontinued at 3 months). Morbidity included biliary stricture (2 patients), revision for bleeding and hepatitis (1 patient), pneumothorax and subphrenic collection (1 patient), and tracheostomy (1 patient). One patient died of lung cancer 6 years posttransplantation. Both patient and graft survival rates are 87.5% (follow-up, 3 months to 9 years). Of 15 patients who underwent OLT alone, only 1 patient needed a kidney transplant 4 years after OLT. Kidney

  12. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tuan; Dick, Travis B; Charlton, Michael R

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is prevalent in the general population and a growing indication for liver transplant. Longer wait times and challenges with pretransplant survivorship are expected, underscoring the need for improved management of attendant comorbidities. Recognition with potential modification of obesity, sarcopenia, chronic kidney disease, and cardiovascular disease in patients with NAFLD may have important implications in the pretransplant and posttransplant periods. Although patients with NAFLD have generally favorable postoperative outcomes, they are at risk for developing recurrent disease in their allograft, driving the need for pharmacotherapies and dietary innovations appropriate for use in the posttransplant period. PMID:27063277

  13. About the Operation: Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Transplant There are two very different surgical approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both of ...

  14. About the Operation: Liver Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart/Lung Kidney Pancreas Kidney/Pancreas Liver Intestine Liver Transplant There are two very different surgical approaches to liver transplantation: the orthotopic and the heterotopic approach, both ...

  15. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    PubMed Central

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver regeneration) and as in vitro screening systems in the early stages of the drug development process, like assessing hepatotoxicity, hepatic drug metabolism, and induction/inhibition studies. Relevant literature is summarized about artificial human liver cell culture systems by scrutinizing PubMed from 2003 to 2009. Existing devices are divided in 2D configurations (e.g., static monolayer, sandwich, perfused cells, and flat plate) and 3D configurations (e.g., liver slices, spheroids, and different types of bioreactors). The essential features of an ideal liver cell culture system are discussed: different types of scaffolds, oxygenation systems, extracellular matrixes (natural and artificial), cocultures with nonparenchymal cells, and the role of shear stress problems. Finally, miniaturization and high-throughput systems are discussed. All these factors contribute in their own way to the viability and functionality of liver cells in culture. Depending on the aim for which they are designed, several good systems are available for predicting hepatotoxicity and hepatic metabolism within the general population. To predict hepatotoxicity in individual cases genomic analysis might be essential as well. PMID:26998397

  16. Nutrition and liver diseases.

    PubMed

    Teran, J C

    1999-08-01

    Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are common in patients with liver diseases. The pathogenesis of protein-energy malnutrition in cirrhosis involves many factors, including poor oral intake, malabsorption, and metabolic abnormalities similar to stress. Encephalopathy may complicate cirrhosis but is usually not caused by diet. Protein restriction is only necessary in rare patients with refractory encephalopathy. The use of branched-chain amino-acid solutions is not supported by the literature. Chronic liver diseases without cirrhosis are not usually associated with protein-energy malnutrition, but vitamin and mineral deficiencies are common, especially with significant cholestasis. Fatty liver may result from excessive triglyceride uptake and production by the liver or by a secretory defect. Therapy for fatty liver depends on its cause. Chronic total parenteral nutrition may induce fatty liver and inflammation especially in patients with short-bowel syndrome. Deficiency of choline in parenteral nutrition has been proposed as the mechanism for liver disease. Acute liver diseases such as fulminant hepatic failure or alcoholic hepatitis are considered hypercatabolic diseases and thus require prompt nutritional intervention with a high-calorie enteral or parenteral formula. In fulminant hepatic failure, low-protein, fluid-restricted formulas are recommended. PMID:10980970

  17. Using guinea pigs in studies relevant to asthma and COPD

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Brendan J.; Chou, Yangling

    2010-01-01

    The guinea pig has been the most commonly used small animal species in preclinical studies related to asthma and COPD. The primary advantages of the guinea pig are the similar potencies and efficacies of agonists and antagonists in human and guinea pig airways and the many similarities in physiological processes, especially airway autonomic control and the response to allergen. The primary disadvantages to using guinea pigs are the lack of transgenic methods, limited numbers of guinea pig strains for comparative studies and a prominent axon reflex that is unlikely to be present in human airways. These attributes and various models developed in guinea pigs are discussed. PMID:18462968

  18. A Genetic Analysis of Taoyuan Pig and Its Phylogenetic Relationship to Eurasian Pig Breeds

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kuan-Yi; Li, Kuang-Ti; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hsuan; Hung, Chien-Yi; Ju, Yu-Ten

    2015-01-01

    Taoyuan pig is a native Taiwan breed. According to the historical record, the breed was first introduced to Taiwan from Guangdong province, Southern China, around 1877. The breed played an important role in Taiwan’s early swine industry. It was classified as an indigenous breed in 1986. After 1987, a conserved population of Taoyuan pig was collected and reared in isolation. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences and 18 microsatellite markers were used to investigate maternal lineage and genetic diversity within the Taoyuan pig population. Population differentiation among Taoyuan, Asian type, and European type pig breeds was also evaluated using differentiation indices. Only one D-loop haplotype of the Taoyuan pig was found. It clustered with Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China Type pig breeds. Based on the polymorphism of microsatellite markers, a positive fixation index value (FIS) indicates that the conserved Taoyuan population suffers from inbreeding. In addition, high FST values (>0.2105) were obtained, revealing high differentiation among these breeds. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed a clear geometric structure among 7 breeds. Together these results indicate that maternally Taoyuan pig originated in the Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China; however, since being introduced to Taiwan differentiation has occurred. In addition, Taoyuan pig has lost genetic diversity in both its mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25656199

  19. Prevalence of the Cryptosporidium Pig Genotype II in Pigs from the Yangtze River Delta, China

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhongying; Lu, Weiyuan; Xu, Yuxin; Cao, Jianping

    2011-01-01

    Background Cryptosporidium spp. is prevalent globally, pigs are an important Cryptosporidium reservoir. In China, little data regarding rates of Cryptosporidium infections in pigs are available. The present study was therefore aimed at characterizing the distribution of Cryptosporidium species in pigs from two different cities, Shaoxing and Shanghai, from the Yangtze River delta. Methodology/Principal Findings Nested PCR to amplify the 18S rRNA locus on DNA extracted from fecal samples (n = 94) revealed the positive rate of Cryptosporidium in pigs from two cities was approximately 17.0%. The positive rates in Shanghai and Shaoxing were 14.3% and 25.0% respectively. Amplified sequences were verified by sequencing. The identified strain belonged to the C. pig genotype II using BLAST analysis in the NCBI database. Conclusion/Significance Our finding of Cryptosporidium pig genotype II in pigs in the Yangtze River delta area suggests that pig farms in this region must be considered a public health threat and proper control measures be introduced. PMID:21677776

  20. Acute and subchronic dermal toxicity of nanosilver in guinea pig

    PubMed Central

    Korani, M; Rezayat, SM; Gilani, K; Bidgoli, S Arbabi; Adeli, S

    2011-01-01

    Silver has been used as an antimicrobial agent for a long time in different forms, but silver nanoparticles (nanosilver) have recently been recognized as potent antimicrobial agents. Although nanosilver is finding diverse medical applications such as silver-based dressings and silver-coated medical devices, its dermal and systemic toxicity via dermal use has not yet been identified. In this study, we analyzed the potential toxicity of colloidal nanosilver in acute and subchronic guinea pigs. Before toxicity assessments, the size of colloidal nanosilver was recorded in sizes <100 nm by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. For toxicological assessments, male guinea pigs weighing 350 to 400 g were exposed to two different concentrations of nanosilver (1000 and 10,000 μg/mL) in an acute study and three concentrations of nanosilver (100, 1000, and 10,000 μg/mL) in a subchronic study. Toxic responses were assessed by clinical and histopathologic parameters. In all experimental animals the sites of exposure were scored for any type of dermal toxicity and compared with negative control and positive control groups. In autopsy studies during the acute test, no significant changes in organ weight or major macroscopic changes were detected, but dose-dependent histopathologic abnormalities were seen in skin, liver, and spleen of all test groups. In addition, experimental animals subjected to subchronic tests showed greater tissue abnormalities than the subjects of acute tests. It seems that colloidal nanosilver has the potential to provide target organ toxicities in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PMID:21720498

  1. Monitoring for Presence of Potentially Xenotic Viruses in Recipients of Pig Islet Xenotransplantation

    PubMed Central

    Garkavenko, O.; Croxson, M. C.; Irgang, M.; Karlas, A.; Denner, J.; Elliott, R. B.

    2004-01-01

    This study represents a long-term follow-up of human patients receiving pig islet xenotransplantation. Eighteen patients had been monitored for up to 9 years for potentially xenotic pig viruses: pig endogenous retrovirus, pig cytomegalovirus, pig lymphotropic herpesvirus, and pig circovirus type 2. No evidence of viral infection was found. PMID:15528741

  2. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    PubMed Central

    Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Fusconi, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Muratori, Paolo; Sambri, Vittorio; Battista, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Francesco B.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α - fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbohydrate 19-9 antigen serum levels were normal. Laboratory and instrumental investigations, including colon and liver biopsies revealed no signs of malignancy. In the light of spontaneous improvement of symptoms and CT findings, his personal history was revaluated revealing direct contact with pigs and their tissues. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and confirmed by detection of an elevated titer of antibodies to leptospira. After two mo, biochemical data, CT and colonoscopy were totally normal. PMID:15285043

  3. Efficient liver repopulation of transplanted hepatocyte prevents cirrhosis in a rat model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ludi; Shao, Yanjiao; Li, Lu; Tian, Feng; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Xie, Weifen; Zheng, Yunwen; Ji, Yuan; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah). Fah-deficient mice and pigs are phenotypically analogous to human HT1, but do not recapitulate all the chronic features of the human disorder, especially liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Rats as an important model organism for biomedical research have many advantages over other animal models. Genome engineering in rats is limited till the availability of new gene editing technologies. Using the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technique, we generated Fah−/− rats. The Fah−/− rats faithfully represented major phenotypic and biochemical manifestations of human HT1, including hypertyrosinemia, liver failure, and renal tubular damage. More importantly, the Fah−/− rats developed remarkable liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which have not been observed in Fah mutant mice or pigs. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes rescued the Fah−/− rats from impending death. Moreover, the highly efficient repopulation of hepatocytes in Fah−/− livers prevented the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and in turn restored liver architecture. These results indicate that Fah−/− rats may be used as an animal model of HT1 with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, Fah−/− rats may be used as a tool in studying hepatocyte transplantation and a bioreactor for the expansion of hepatocytes. PMID:27510266

  4. Efficient liver repopulation of transplanted hepatocyte prevents cirrhosis in a rat model of hereditary tyrosinemia type I.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ludi; Shao, Yanjiao; Li, Lu; Tian, Feng; Cen, Jin; Chen, Xiaotao; Hu, Dan; Zhou, Yan; Xie, Weifen; Zheng, Yunwen; Ji, Yuan; Liu, Mingyao; Li, Dali; Hui, Lijian

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by a deficiency in the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (Fah). Fah-deficient mice and pigs are phenotypically analogous to human HT1, but do not recapitulate all the chronic features of the human disorder, especially liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Rats as an important model organism for biomedical research have many advantages over other animal models. Genome engineering in rats is limited till the availability of new gene editing technologies. Using the recently developed CRISPR/Cas9 technique, we generated Fah(-/-) rats. The Fah(-/-) rats faithfully represented major phenotypic and biochemical manifestations of human HT1, including hypertyrosinemia, liver failure, and renal tubular damage. More importantly, the Fah(-/-) rats developed remarkable liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, which have not been observed in Fah mutant mice or pigs. Transplantation of wild-type hepatocytes rescued the Fah(-/-) rats from impending death. Moreover, the highly efficient repopulation of hepatocytes in Fah(-/-) livers prevented the progression of liver fibrosis to cirrhosis and in turn restored liver architecture. These results indicate that Fah(-/-) rats may be used as an animal model of HT1 with liver cirrhosis. Furthermore, Fah(-/-) rats may be used as a tool in studying hepatocyte transplantation and a bioreactor for the expansion of hepatocytes. PMID:27510266

  5. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. PMID:24951302

  6. Effect of added zinc in diets with ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Paulk, C B; Burnett, D D; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Hill, G M; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of increasing the dietary Zn content on growth performance, carcass characteristics, plasma Zn, and ileal mucosal inflammation mRNA expression of finishing pigs fed diets containing ractopamine HCl (RAC; Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN). In Exp. 1, 312 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC, Hendersonville, TN; 94 kg BW) were used in a 27-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 26 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal diet (control; 0.66% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; and the RAC diet plus 50, 100, or 150 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or 50 mg Zn/kg from a Zn AA complex (ZnAA; Availa-Zn; Zinpro, Eden Prairie, MN). All diets also contained 83 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 in the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet without added Zn had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, carcass yield, and loin weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. Increasing Zn from ZnO in diets containing RAC tended to increase (linear, P = 0.067) G:F and loin weight (quadratic, P = 0.064). Pigs fed diets with 50 mg Zn/kg from ZnAA tended to have increased (P = 0.057) ADG compared with pigs fed the RAC diet. In Exp. 2, 320 pigs (327 × 1050; PIC; 98 kg BW) were used in a 35-d study. There were 2 pigs per pen and 20 pens per treatment. Treatments included a control diet (0.66% SID Lys); a diet (0.92% SID Lys) with 10 mg/kg RAC; or the RAC diet plus 75, 150, and 225 mg Zn/kg from ZnO or ZnAA. All diets also contained 55 mg Zn/kg from ZnSO4 from the trace mineral premix. Pigs fed the RAC diet had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, G:F, HCW, loin depth, percentage lean, and liver weight compared with pigs fed the control diet. No Zn level or source effects or level × source interactions were observed for growth performance. A Zn level × source interaction (quadratic, P = 0.007) was observed in liver Zn concentrations. This resulted from liver Zn concentrations plateauing at 150 mg Zn/kg when Zn

  7. A description of smallholder pig production systems in eastern Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Edwina E C; Geong, Maria; Abdurrahman, Muktasam; Ward, Michael P; Toribio, Jenny-Ann L M L

    2015-03-01

    Pig farming is a common practice among smallholder farmers in Nusa Tenggara Timur province (NTT), eastern Indonesia. To understand their production systems a survey of smallholder pig farmers was conducted. Eighteen villages were randomly selected across West Timor, Flores and Sumba islands, and 289 pig farmers were interviewed. Information on pig management, biosecurity practices, pig movements and knowledge of pig health and disease, specifically classical swine fever was collected. The mean number of pigs per herd was 5.0 (not including piglets), and total marketable herd size (pigs≥two months of age) did not differ significantly between islands (P=0.215). Chickens (71%) and dogs (62%) were the most commonly kept animal species in addition to pigs. Pigs were mainly kept as a secondary income source (69%) and 83% of farmers owned at least one sow. Seventy-four percent (74%) of pigs were housed in a kandang (small bamboo pen) and 25% were tethered. Pig feeds were primarily locally sourced agricultural products (93%). The majority of farmers had no knowledge of classical swine fever (91%) and biosecurity practices were minimal. Forty-five percent (45%) reported to consuming a pig when it died and 74% failed to report cases of sick or dead pigs to appropriate authorities. Sixty-five percent (65%) of farmers reported that a veterinarian or animal health worker had never visited their village. Backyard slaughter was common practice (55%), with meat mainly used for home consumption (89%). Most (73%) farmers purchased pigs in order to raise the animal on their farm with 36% purchasing at least one pig within the last year. Predominantly fattener pigs (34%) were given as gifts for celebratory events, most commonly for funerals (32%), traditional ceremonies (27%) and marriages (10%). For improved productivity of this traditional low-input system, research incorporating farming training and improved knowledge on pig disease and biosecurity needs to be integrated with

  8. Polymorphonuclear leucocyte sequestration in the lungs and liver following soft-tissue trauma: an in vivo study

    SciTech Connect

    Thoerne, J.B.; Blomquist, S.; Elmer, O.; Grafstroem, G.M.; Martensson, L.

    1989-04-01

    Neutrophils are thought to sequestrate in the lungs and the liver in association with shock. Indications for this have previously been demonstrated in different in vitro studies. In this experiment an in vivo technique for dynamic studies of pulmonary and liver neutrophil sequestration (PNT and LNT, respectively) is described. Autologous neutrophils from ten pigs were labelled with indium-111 oxine. The pigs were placed under a scintillation camera for continuous recording of the activity distribution in the pigs during 105 minutes. Following a steady-state period of 15 minutes seven pigs were subjected to a standardized soft-tissue trauma. Three pigs were used as controls and not traumatized. Within 1-3 minutes after trauma the radioactivity over the lungs increased dramatically, indicating PNT. This was followed by a fast decrease but 90 minutes after trauma PNT levels were still significantly elevated. LNT showed a similar pattern, although the immediate increase was less dramatic. This study shows that PNT and LNT occur immediately after soft-tissue trauma and can be studied dynamically in vivo.

  9. Organohalogens and their hydroxylated metabolites in the blood of pigs from an open waste dumping site in south India: association with hepatic cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Mizukawa, Hazuki; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Michio X; Subramanian, Annamalai; Iwata, Hisato; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2015-04-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs) were measured in the blood of Eurasian wild pigs (Sus scrofa) from a municipal waste open dumping site (DS) and a reference site (RS) in South India. We showed that contamination with OH-PCBs was higher in female pigs from the DS than in all other adult pigs. The highest OH-PCB concentrations were found in piglets from the DS. Moreover, the hepatic expression levels of CYP1A and CYP2B were higher in piglets than in their dam, implying metabolism of PCBs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. The OH-PCB congener profiles differed according to sex and collection sites, possibly because of variations in the expression levels of phase I and phase II enzymes among individual pigs, differences in the exposure sources, and maternal transfer of parent PCBs. The hepatic CYP1A expression levels were positively correlated with the blood concentrations of 4OH-CB107, 4OH-CB162, and 4OH-CB187, implying CYP1A-dependent formation of these OH-PCBs in the pig liver. We found no significant correlations between the blood concentrations of OH-PCBs and thyroid hormones (THs); however, the thyroxin (T4) levels were lower in pigs from the DS than in pigs from the RS. Our limited dataset suggest that induced CYP enzymes accelerate the metabolism of xenobiotics and endogenous molecules in pigs. Thus, besides parental compounds, the risk of hydroxylated metabolites entering wildlife and humans living in and around municipal open waste dumping sites should be considered. PMID:25743931

  10. Early- and traditionally weaned nursery pigs benefit from phase-feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc oxide: effect on metallothionein and mineral concentrations.

    PubMed

    Carlson, M S; Hill, G M; Link, J E

    1999-05-01

    Benefits of feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc (Zn) provided by Zn oxide (ZnO) to 21-d conventionally weaned pigs in the nursery have been documented; however, several management questions remain. We conducted two experiments to evaluate the effect on growth from feeding 3,000 ppm Zn as ZnO during different weeks of the nursery period. In Exp. 1 (n = 138, 11.5 d of age, 3.8 kg BW) and Exp. 2 (n = 246, 24.5 d of age, 7.2 kg BW), pigs were fed either basal diets containing 100 ppm supplemental Zn (adequate) or the same diet with an additional 3,000 ppm Zn (high) supplied as ZnO. Pigs were fed four or two dietary phases in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, that changed in dietary ingredients and nutrient content (lysine and crude protein) to meet the changing physiological needs of the pigs for the 28-d nursery period. Dietary Zn treatments were 1) adequate Zn fed wk 1 to 4, 2) high Zn fed wk 1, 3) high Zn fed wk 2, 4) high Zn fed wk 1 and 2, 5) high Zn fed wk 2 and 3, and 6) high Zn fed wk 1 to 4. In Exp. 1 and 2, pigs fed high Zn for wk 1 and 2 or the entire 28-d nursery period had the greatest (P < .05) ADG. During any week, pigs fed high Zn had greater concentrations of hepatic metallothionein and Zn in plasma, liver, and kidney than those pigs fed adequate Zn (P < .05). In summary, both early- and traditionally weaned pigs need to be fed pharmacological concentrations of Zn provided as ZnO for a minimum of 2 wk immediately after weaning to enhance growth. PMID:10340587

  11. Pig surgery: cryptorchidectomy using an inguinal approach.

    PubMed

    Scollo, A; Martelli, P; Borri, E; Mazzoni, C

    2016-06-11

    The objective of the study was to determine whether a less-invasive surgical technique used in cryptorchid horses, dogs and cats can be used successfully to remove retained testicles in pigs on farm. In total, 284 monolateral cryptorchid pigs underwent surgery on-farm condition, during which an incision was made over the inguinal ring and the undescended testicle was located for removal via identification of the vaginal process and the embryonic gubernaculum. A traction of these structures allowed the testis to pass through the deep and the superficial rings up to its exteriorisation outside the abdominal wall through the inguinal canal. The undescended testicle was located in the abdomen in 258 cases (90.8 per cent) and in the inguinal region in the remaining 26 cases (9.1 per cent). In none of the pigs was the abdominal cavity breached or the inguinal rings enlarged. However, in 23 pigs (8.1 per cent) the gubernaculum testis was thin and it frayed and ruptured when traction was applied, requiring a recovering by inserting a finger and Kelly curved forceps into the abdomen through the inguinal ring. In two pigs (0.7 per cent), the undescended testicle was not found. All surgical procedures were completed within 6-12 minutes. Four pigs died within two days after surgery (1.4 per cent). Major intraoperative or long-term complications did not occur. Results suggested that this surgical method is highly effective and could be used as a primary surgical approach in cryptorchid pigs as it is in cryptorchid dogs, cats and horses. PMID:27053253

  12. Estimation of body composition of pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

    1984-04-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.

  13. Perinatal upregulation of intestinal transport of carnitine (C) in newborn pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.U.K.; Murray, R.D.; Heitlinger, L.A.; McClung, H.J.; Hughes, A.M.; O'Dorisio, T.M.; Sloan, H.R. Ohio State Univ., Columbus )

    1990-02-26

    Since C facilitates the perinatal transition from carbohydrate to lipid-derived energy, the authors examined the contribution of intestinal transport of dietary C to this process by determining (C)'s in sow's milk, pig jejunum and liver, and C flux across the jejunum (J{sub m-s}) as a function of postnatal age. The authors measured portal venous glucagon (G) and insulin (l) as potential regulatory signals and attempted to alter intestinal transport of C by infusing G. Pigs at days 1-7 (NB-newborn), 14-16 (SU-suckling) and 33-35 (WN-weanling) were studied. (C)'s in sow milk, piglet jejunum, and liver were determined. Fluxes were measured in an Ussing chamber and in an in situ recirculating jejunal perfusion. The effect of an IV infusion of G on ({sup 3}H)C absorption was evaluated in a single animal; an adjacent jejunal segment received saline. Sow's milk and liver (C)'s, and jejunal C transport were highest following birth and declined towards weaning. Plasma (G) and the G:I ratio demonstrated a parallel temporal pattern. The G-stimulated jejunal segment removed 53% of the C and the non-stimulated control segment, 8%. It was concluded that during the perinatal metabolic transition, enhanced intestinal nutrient assimilation promotes the transfer of dietary C to the liver where it could facilitate fatty acid oxidation. This pattern of upregulated intestinal transport immediately after birth may be mediated by pancreatic G and I secretion.

  14. Proteoglycans in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  15. Pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Ce; Zhang, Quan-Bao; Qiao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Liver cirrhosis is the final pathological result of various chronic liver diseases, and fibrosis is the precursor of cirrhosis. Many types of cells, cytokines and miRNAs are involved in the initiation and progression of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in fibrosis. Defenestration and capillarization of liver sinusoidal endothelial cells are major contributing factors to hepatic dysfunction in liver cirrhosis. Activated Kupffer cells destroy hepatocytes and stimulate the activation of HSCs. Repeated cycles of apoptosis and regeneration of hepatocytes contribute to pathogenesis of cirrhosis. At the molecular level, many cytokines are involved in mediation of signaling pathways that regulate activation of HSCs and fibrogenesis. Recently, miRNAs as a post-transcriptional regulator have been found to play a key role in fibrosis and cirrhosis. Robust animal models of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, as well as the recently identified critical cellular and molecular factors involved in the development of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis will facilitate the development of more effective therapeutic approaches for these conditions. PMID:24966602

  16. Proteoglycans in liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  17. Tissue deposition and residue depletion of melamine in fattening pigs following oral administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Hong; Yu, Bing; Mao, Xiangbing; Chen, Daiwen

    2014-01-01

    The adulteration of animal feed as well as milk products with melamine has led to concerns about the ability to establish appropriate withdrawal intervals to ensure food safety. Two experiments were conducted in this study. The first was to investigate the deposition and depletion of melamine in blood and tissues of pigs exposed to adulterated feed with high doses of melamine. A total of 500 or 1000 mg kg(-1) melamine was added to the diet for fattening pigs (initial BW = ±60.24 kg). Melamine residues were detected in tissues (brain, duodenum, liver, heart, muscle and kidney) by LC-MS/MS. Dose-dependent effects were found between melamine residual concentration and its dose in feed. Five days after the withdrawal of melamine from the diets, the residue concentration in tissues fell below 2.5 mg kg(-1). In the second experiment, blood samples were taken at different time points from fattening pigs (BW = 100 kg) fed with adulterated feed with 1000 mg kg(-1) of melamine for 42 days. Results from the pharmacokinetics analysis showed that it would take 83 h for the melamine level in plasma depleting to the safe level of 50 ng ml(-1) after an expose of 1000 mg kg(-1) melamine contaminated feed for 42 days. PMID:24397789

  18. Overexpression of Porcine Beta-Defensin 2 Enhances Resistance to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae Infection in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xi; Cheng, Yu-Ting; Tan, Mei-Fang; Zhang, Hua-Wei; Liu, Wan-Quan; Zou, Geng; Zhang, Liang-Sheng; Zhang, Chun-Yan; Deng, Si-Min; Yu, Lei; Hu, Xue-Ying; Li, Lu

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the need for antibiotics in animal production, alternative approaches are needed to control infection. We hypothesized that overexpression of native defensin genes will provide food animals with enhanced resistance to bacterial infections. In this study, recombinant porcine beta-defensin 2 (PBD-2) was overexpressed in stably transfected PK-15 porcine kidney cells. PBD-2 antibacterial activities against Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, an important respiratory pathogen causing porcine contagious pleuropneumonia, were evaluated on agar plates. Transgenic pigs constitutively overexpressing PBD-2 were produced by a somatic cell cloning method, and their resistance to bacterial infection was evaluated by direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. Recombinant PBD-2 peptide that was overexpressed in the PK-15 cells showed antibacterial activity against A. pleuropneumoniae. PBD-2 was overexpressed in the heart, liver, spleen, lungs, kidneys, and jejunum of the transgenic pigs, which showed significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and reduced lung lesions after direct or cohabitation infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. The results demonstrate that transgenic overexpression of PBD-2 in pigs confers enhanced resistance against A. pleuropneumoniae infection. PMID:25916992

  19. Manganese status of baby pigs born to sows on low or high manganese diets

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, L.; Christianson, S.; Peo, E. Kies, C. )

    1991-03-15

    The main route to manganese (Mn) excretion is in the bile, which normally begins within the first few days of life. The objective of the research was: to determine when Mn excretion commences; to determine the Mn content in liver, heart, kidney and brain of baby pigs born to sows on a high or low Mn diet; and compare these values with sow milk concentration. The Mn concentration in sow milk increases from day 1 to day 3 to day 7 and was consistently higher in the high Mn group vs the low Mn group. Initial excretions of Mn were high at birth and gradually decreased by day 4, then increased slightly on day 7. The Mn excretion values were also consistently higher in the high Mn group vs the low Mn group. There were no significant differences between Mn values in any of the organs from baby pigs in the low or high Mn groups. In both groups there was a significant increase in organ Mn concentration between day of birth and day 7. Thus, baby pigs consuming sow milk of high or low Mn concentrations accumulated the amount of Mn needed for growth and tended to excrete any excess.

  20. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    PubMed Central

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette; Poulsen, Karin T.; Campbell, Fiona M.; Eckersall, P. David; Heegaard, Peter M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14–18 h after lung infection in pigs. The lung infection was established with the pig specific respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative real-time PCR based expression analysis were performed on samples from liver, tracheobronchial lymph node, tonsils, spleen and on blood leukocytes, supplemented with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14–18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase protein response occurring concomitantly with the hepatic response. This suggests that the acute phase protein response is a more disseminated systemic response than previously thought. The current study provides to our knowledge the first example of porcine extrahepatic expression and regulation of C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, pig major acute phase protein, and transferrin in peripheral lymphoid tissues. PMID:19236838

  1. Multi-Etiological Nature of Tuberculosis-Like Lesions in Condemned Pigs at the Slaughterhouse

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Toset, Fernando; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Amarilla, Shyrley P.; Vela, Ana I.; Carrasco, Librado; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F.; Astorga, Rafael J.; Luque, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis-like lesions (TBL) in pigs have been associated with microorganisms other than mycobacteria. In this work a histopathological and microbiological evaluation of TBL in pigs is shown. A total of 352 samples belonging to 171 pigs totally condemned at slaughterhouse due to generalized TBL were sampled and selected for analysis. Pyogranulomatous (56.2%) and granulomatous lesions (20.2%) were observed in all analysed organs. Most of the granulomas observed in both lymph nodes and lungs belonged to more advanced stages of development (stages III and IV) whereas in the liver and the spleen most of lesions belonged to intermediate stages (stages II and III). Different microorganisms were simultaneously detected from TBL in the 42.7% of the animals. Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) (38%), coryneform bacteria (40.3%) and streptococci (28.1%) were the main groups of microorganisms detected after bacteriological analysis, with Trueperella pyogenes and Streptococcus suis as the most frequently isolated species. Mycobacteria belonging to MTC were the most frequently detected pathogens in granulomatous and pyogranulomatous lesions in submandibular lymph nodes (32.7%) and coryneform bacteria were the microorganisms more frequently isolated from lungs (25.9%) and spleen samples (37.2%). These results may provide new insights into the pathogenesis and diagnosis of this pathology. The importance of coryneform bacteria and streptococci in such processes must be evaluated in future studies. PMID:26418681

  2. Pig but not Human Interferon-γ Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

    1997-08-01

    Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-γ (IFN-γ ) but not human IFN-γ or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-γ also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-γ (but not human IFN-γ or heat-inactivated pig IFN-γ ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

  3. Capecitabine-related liver lesions: sinusoidal dilatation mimicking liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Groom, Katherine; Penna, Marta; Arul, Dhili; Steward, Michael; Leonard, Pauline; Wilson, Jonathan

    2016-06-01

    A 30-year-old lady treated with capecitabine for primary colon adenocarcinoma developed liver lesions suspicious for metastasis. Liver biopsies showed sinusoidal dilatation thought to be secondary to capecitabine. This case highlights the importance of differentiating between benign and malignant liver lesions during cancer surveillance preventing unnecessary liver resections for benign disease. PMID:27398193

  4. Infections in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Nanchal, Rahul S; Ahmad, Shahryar

    2016-07-01

    Infectious complications are common occurrences in end-stage liver disease (ESLD). Frequent infections precipitate decompensation of liver disease leading to acute or chronic liver failure, organ dysfunction, de-listing from transplant, and major morbidity and mortality. The spectrum of microorganisms has shifted with the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains, which has major implications for both therapy and prophylaxis. Cirrhosis is often associated with an underlying noninfectious systemic inflammatory state that makes diagnosis of infections particularly challenging. Adequate resuscitation and timely administration of appropriate antibiotics are pivotal to improved outcomes from infections in ESLD. PMID:27339680

  5. Imaging of liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ariff, Ben; Lloyd, Claire R; Khan, Sameer; Shariff, Mohamed; Thillainayagam, Andrew V; Bansi, Devinder S; Khan, Shahid A; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D; Lim, Adrian KP

    2009-01-01

    Improvements in imaging technology allow exploitation of the dual blood supply of the liver to aid in the identification and characterisation of both malignant and benign liver lesions. Imaging techniques available include contrast enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This review discusses the application of several imaging techniques in the diagnosis and staging of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma and outlines certain characteristics of benign liver lesions. The advantages of each imaging technique are highlighted, while underscoring the potential pitfalls and limitations of each imaging modality. PMID:19294758

  6. Pasteurella multocida liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Cortez, J C; Shapiro, M; Awe, R J

    1986-08-01

    A previously healthy 61-year-old woman was seen with an abnormal chest roentgenogram and a 3-week history of fever, chills, malaise, and right upper quadrant pain. Blood cultures revealed Pasteurella multocida sensitive to penicillin. Liver spleen radioisotope scan and CT scan revealed space occupying lesions in the right lobe of the liver. The patient was a gardener with no pets or animal exposure. This case illustrates P. multocida septicemia and a liver abscess in a patient without animal exposure. In addition, the possibility of soil as another reservoir of infection is raised. PMID:3487981

  7. Alcohol induced liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, K A; McGee, J O

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol induces a variety of changes in the liver: fatty change, hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The histopathological appearances of these conditions are discussed, with special attention to differential diagnosis. Many forms of alcoholic liver disease are associated with Mallory body formation and fibrosis. Mallory bodies are formed, at least in part, from intermediate filaments. Associated changes in intermediate filament organisation in alcoholic liver disease also occur. Their significance in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte death may be related to abnormalities in messenger RNA function. The mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrogenesis are also discussed. Images PMID:6086722

  8. Managing alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease continues to be a significant cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality throughout the world. A number of diagnostic and prognostic models have been developed in the management of this condition, although specific roles for liver biopsy still remain particularly in the setting of alcoholic hepatitis. Despite a large number of recent treatment trials, the ideal pharmacotherapy approach remains undefined. Most essential is the supportive care and focus on abstinence and nutrition. Owing in part to a great deal of attention from governmental funding sources, a number of new treatment approaches are undergoing rigorous evaluation, hopefully providing future treatment options in this very severe condition. PMID:26523266

  9. Effects of zinc sulfate pretreatment on heat tolerance of Bama miniature pig under high ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Cao, Y; Zhou, X; Wang, F; Shan, T; Li, Z; Xu, W; Li, C

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the heat tolerance of Bama miniature pigs under high ambient temperature (40°C) and Zn interactive functions during heat treatment (HT). Bama miniature pigs (male; n = 24; 6-mo old; BW = 10.79 ± 0.06 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 groups and were fed a basal diet or the basal diet supplemented with 1,500 mg of Zn (ZnSO4·H2O)/kg diet for 38 d. At 7 mo of age (d 30), the thermal neutral (TN) groups remained at 25°C, whereas the HT groups were exposed to ambient temperature at 40°C for 5 h daily for 8 consecutive days. Pigs in 4 groups were sacrificed on d 38. Individual rectal temperatures, skin temperatures, and breathing rates were recorded at 3 h after the onset of HT and the blood samples were collected immediately after HT on d 30, 34, and 38. Pigs fed diets with or without Zn doubled their breathing rates (P < 0.05) and increased body surface, scrotal, and rectal temperatures during HT on d 30, 34, and 38, respectively. Zinc supplementation increased BW gain (BWG; P < 0.05) during 38-d experiment period, and HT decreased BWG only from d 30 to 34 (P < 0.05). Heat treatment increased serum testosterone on d 30 (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the heat-induced increase of testosterone in HT on d 30 and 34 (P < 0.05). The relative weight of liver increased in HT groups (P < 0.05). Zinc supplementation decreased the relative weights of spleen (P < 0.05) and testis (P < 0.01). The values of abnormal lymphocyte count and large unstained cell count declined approximately 5 times in groups of Zn supplementation, whereas Zn supplementation increased the values of red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin. Zinc concentrations increased in serum, liver, kidney, epididymis, longissimus, hair, and feces in groups fed with Zn (P < 0.01). However, additional Zn decreased Zn concentrations in lung, spleen, and testis (P < 0.01). Moreover, HT decreased serum Zn

  10. Artificial insemination in pigs today.

    PubMed

    Knox, R V

    2016-01-01

    Use of artificial insemination (AI) for breeding pigs has been instrumental for facilitating global improvements in fertility, genetics, labor, and herd health. The establishment of AI centers for management of boars and production of semen has allowed for selection of boars for fertility and sperm production using in vitro and in vivo measures. Today, boars can be managed for production of 20 to 40 traditional AI doses containing 2.5 to 3.0 billion motile sperm in 75 to 100 mL of extender or 40 to 60 doses with 1.5 to 2.0 billion sperm in similar or reduced volumes for use in cervical or intrauterine AI. Regardless of the sperm dose, in liquid form, extenders are designed to sustain sperm fertility for 3 to 7 days. On farm, AI is the predominant form for commercial sow breeding and relies on manual detection of estrus with sows receiving two cervical or two intrauterine inseminations of the traditional or low sperm doses on each day detected in standing estrus. New approaches for increasing rates of genetic improvement through use of AI are aimed at methods to continue to lower the number of sperm in an AI dose and reducing the number of inseminations through use of a single, fixed-time AI after ovulation induction. Both approaches allow greater selection pressure for economically important swine traits in the sires and help extend the genetic advantages through AI on to more production farms. PMID:26253434

  11. Liver Transplantation for Cholestatic Liver Diseases in Adults.

    PubMed

    Khungar, Vandana; Goldberg, David Seth

    2016-02-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is an established lifesaving therapy for patients with cholestatic liver diseases, including primary cholestatic diseases, namely primary sclerosing cholangitis and primary biliary cirrhosis, as well as secondary forms of cholestatic liver disease, including those with cholestatic complications of LT needing a retransplant. Patients with cholestatic liver diseases can be transplanted for complications of end-stage liver disease or for disease-specific symptoms before the onset of end-stage liver disease. These patients should be regularly assessed. Patient survival after LT for cholestatic liver diseases is generally better than for other indications. PMID:26593299

  12. Metabolic response to an inflammatory challenge in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Merlot, E; Gilbert, H; Le Floc'h, N

    2016-02-01

    Selection for residual feed intake (RFI), which is used to select animals for feed efficiency, also influences nutrient partitioning between growth and maintenance functions. This study was designed to investigate if selection for reduced RFI can alter the trade-off between growth and immunity and contributes to differences in metabolic responses to an inflammatory challenge. Piglets from 2 lines divergently selected on RFI (low: RFI, = 10, and high: RFI, = 11) were challenged at 55 d of age (on d 0) with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce a noninfectious pneumonia. Plasma haptoglobin and nutrient concentrations (in fasted state and 2 h after feeding) were determined from d -1 to d 7, and tissue protein metabolism was determined on d 8. Haptoglobin concentrations were greater from d 1 to d 7 relative to d -1 ( < 0.01). Feed intake was less on d 1 than on the other days ( < 0.001), as was total AA plasma concentrations at fasted state ( < 0.05). Fasted concentrations of His ( = 0.06) and Trp ( = 0.05) tended to be less, those of Val were less ( < 0.05), and fed concentrations of Lys were increased ( < 0.05) on d 7 compared to d -1. Uremia was less on d 7 than on d -1 at fasted state ( < 0.05), whereas it did not vary at fed state ( 0.1). Fasted glucose and insulin plasma concentrations were stable across days ( 0.1). In the fed state and in only RFI pigs, glucose concentration was greater on d 1 than on d 3, 5, and 7 ( < 0.05). Total AA, Gln, Ile, Leu, Pro ( < 0.05), and hydroxyproline ( = 0.07) were less in RFI than RFI pigs at fed state, whereas Ala and Gly were less in RFI pigs at fasted and fed states ( < 0.05). Citrulline ( < 0.05) and Met ( < 0.01) concentrations were greater in RFI than RFI pigs in the fasted state, whereas Asp was greater in RFI pigs in both fasted and fed states ( < 0.05). On d 8, liver and LM protein synthesis tended to be lower ( = 0.07 and 0.09, respectively) and liver calpain activity was greater ( = 0.07) in RFI than RFI pigs

  13. Liver Transplantation for Alcohol-Related Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Narendra S; Kumar, Naveen; Saigal, Sanjiv; Rai, Rahul; Saraf, Neeraj; Soin, Arvinder S

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a common indication for liver transplantation. It is a much debated indication for deceased donor liver transplantation due to organ shortage and potential of alcohol relapse after liver transplantation. A six-month abstinence before liver transplantation is required at most centers to decrease chances of alcohol relapse after liver transplantation. However, this rule is not relevant for patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis or severely decompensated patients who are unlikely to survive till 6 months. Long-term care of these patients after liver transplantation includes assessment of relapse, smoking, and surveillance of de novo malignancies. Current review discusses role of abstinence, factors affecting alcohol relapse, liver transplantation for alcoholic hepatitis, role of living donor liver transplantation, and long-term care of ALD patients who undergo liver transplantation. PMID:27194896

  14. Computer tracks pigs to speed gas drying

    SciTech Connect

    Ashburner, M.

    1984-04-01

    Advanced pipeline drying techniques have been used to commission a 27-mile, 30-in. undersea natural gas pipeline in Malaysia's Luconia field. After first sending a series of torpedo-shape foam and rubber cup pigs through the line to force out some 4 million gal of seawater, a new technique combines a vacuum drying process with a sophisticated computer program to keep track of the pigs, thereby enabling the job to be completed in just 4 weeks. The program simulates pipeline conditions at the pig air/water interface under constant propelling flow conditions. The computer produces a pressure profile, calculates the overall time along the pipe, and then uses the resultant time-pressure model to interpret the actual results from the flow measurement-pressure plot for the pig's progress. The program was developed primarily to forecast the effects of changes in propelling capacity in deepwater conditions to ensure that adequate pressure capacity was available to maintain pig speeds above minimum self-cleaning velocities.

  15. A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

  16. Influence of immunomodulation on the development of Listeria monocytogenes infection in aged guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Pang, Hoan-Jen E; Lo, Chih-Yu; Matthews, Karl R

    2007-04-01

    We investigated the impact of immunomodulation on the development of listeriosis within an aged population of guinea pigs after an intragastric challenge with Listeria monocytogenes. Supplementation with vitamin E for 35 days significantly increased the level of cytotoxic T cells (CD8(+)), while treatment with cyclosporin A resulted in a 25% decrease of CD8(+) T cells. In the animals receiving the low dose (10(2) CFU) of L. monocytogenes, 50% of the control-group animals became infected. Only 22% of animals receiving the orthomolecular dose of vitamin E became infected, whereas animals that were immunosuppressed had an infection rate of 89%. In the immunosuppressed group three animals (16%) developed listerial infection with a quantifiable bacterial level of 0.3-3 log CFU g(-1) of organ in the spleen and liver. In the high-dose study, the population of L. monocytogenes was consistently 1 log CFU g(-1) lower in the spleen or liver of the vitamin E-supplemented group, compared with the control and cyclosporin A-treated animals. At day 4, a significant increase in the levels of CD8(+) during listerial infection occurred in vitamin E-supplemented animals, suggesting an increased ability to produce CD8(+) T cells. The results suggest that immunomodulation of the host can influence listerial infection within an aged population of guinea pigs. PMID:17378902

  17. Cellular stress marker alteration and inflammatory response in pigs fed with an ochratoxin contaminated diet.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Chiara; Grilli, Ester; Duvigneau, Johanna Catharina; Zannoni, Augusta; Tugnoli, Benedetta; Gentilini, Fabio; Bertuzzi, Terenzio; Spinozzi, Silvia; Camborata, Cecilia; Bacci, Maria Laura; Piva, Andrea; Forni, Monica

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this study was to characterize the effects of an ochratoxin A (181 ± 34 ng/g) contaminated diet on growth performances, blood parameters, systemic cytokine levels, cell stress markers and reactivity of immune system of weaned pigs. Growth performance was not affected by OTA consumption even if OTA levels increased in plasma, kidney and liver. OTA diminished the protein content in the serum and increased levels of TNF-alpha and IL-10 in plasma. HO-1 mRNA, indicative for cells stress, was decreased in the kidney but increased in the liver. Additionally, whole blood of the animals of the OTA-group showed a decreased capacity to respond with cytokine expression (mRNA and protein) to ex vivo challenge with LPS. In conclusion our findings indicate that chronic ingestion with OTA-contaminated feed, even at low level, is hazardous for the animal and virtually for human health, pig being an excellent model for human. PMID:25151433

  18. Split marketing: A risk factor for Salmonella in market pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if split marketing affects Salmonella prevalence in market pigs, by comparing the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical co...

  19. Absence of Chlamydia-like organisms in pigs.

    PubMed

    Van Gils, M; Aeby, S; Vanrompay, D; Greub, G

    2015-09-01

    Porcine reproductive failure, especially abortion, causes significant economic loss in the pig industry. Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are potential abortigenic agents for pigs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of these two Chlamydia-like organisms in abortion-related samples originating from Belgian pig farms. All investigated samples remained negative. PMID:26137311

  20. Absence of Chlamydia-like organisms in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Van Gils, M.; Aeby, S.; Vanrompay, D.; Greub, G.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive failure, especially abortion, causes significant economic loss in the pig industry. Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are potential abortigenic agents for pigs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of these two Chlamydia-like organisms in abortion-related samples originating from Belgian pig farms. All investigated samples remained negative. PMID:26137311

  1. Salmonella infection and immune response in finishing pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Finishing pigs infected with Salmonella pose significant food safety risks by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in finishing pigs, and the immunological alterations that occur in Salmonella-carrier pigs, by longitudinally com...

  2. Experimental Salmonella Enterica Infection in Market-weight Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Market pigs infected with Salmonella pose a significant food safety risk by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in market-weight pigs (220-240 lbs.). Pigs (n=24) were individually inoculated (intranasally; 108 cfu/mL) with Salm...

  3. First report of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in pigs in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although Brazil is the world’s fourth largest producer and exporter of pork, there is no information on E. bieneusi in pigs. This study was undertaken to determine the presence of E. bieneusi in pigs in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Fecal samples were collected from 91 pigs (1- to 12-mo-old) ...

  4. Endotoxin induced uncoupling of the somatotrophic axis in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin known to stimulate the innate immune response and stress axis in pigs. However, little is known about the effects of LPS on pig somatotrophic responses. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an endotoxin challenge on weaned pig serum con...

  5. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals... pigs during the observation period, the serial or subserial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38...

  6. 9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... be injected either intramuscularly or subcutaneously into each of two guinea pigs and the animals... pigs during the observation period, the serial or subserial is unsatisfactory. If unfavorable reactions... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38...

  7. Pregnancy after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Carlo B; Doria, Cataldo

    2014-11-01

    Women constitute >30% of patients undergoing liver transplantation (orthotopic liver transplantation, OLT) and about 8% are of reproductive age, and 5% are pediatric females who will mostly survive into adulthood and will consider pregnancy. Although pregnancy in OLT recipients is associated with an increased incidence of hypertension, preeclampsia, anemia, preterm deliveries, and cesarean section, acute rejection and liver allograft loss do not appear to be increased and pregnancy-related maternal death is uncommon. The incidence of structural malformations in the newborn of liver transplant recipients is reported to be 4.4%, which is similar to the rate of 3-5% in the US general population. Patients are advised to defer conception for at least 1-2 years after OLT, while maintaining effective contraception. Pregnancy after OLT usually results in a favorable maternal and neonatal outcome when there is coordinated pre- and perinatal care by a multidisciplinary team composed of obstetric-gynecologists, and a transplant team. PMID:25257968

  8. Research Areas: Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 900 drugs and supplements.​​ Recent discoveries from NIDDK research include: New medication shows promise against liver fibrosis ... linked to biliary atresia in newborn animals Support Research NIDDK invests in basic, clinical and translational research ...

  9. Fusobacterium Liver Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Buelow, Ben D.; Lambert, Joelle M.; Gill, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation. PMID:24348321

  10. Fusobacterium liver abscess.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Ben D; Lambert, Joelle M; Gill, Ryan M

    2013-01-01

    Fusobacterium is well characterized as an oropharyngeal pathogen that may induce a septic thrombophlebitis by direct extension of abscess into an adjacent neck vessel (Lemierre's syndrome); its potential for visceral abscess formation, however, remains under-recognized. A 65-year-old man with a recent history of multiple rim-enhancing liver lesions presented to the emergency room with fever and abdominal pain. Based on interval increase in the size of the lesions, abscess was suspected. A liver biopsy was performed, and although no organism could be identified on routine microscopy, Warthin-Starry stain revealed Gram-negative bacilli consistent with an anaerobic Fusobacterium species as the underlying etiology of liver abscess formation. Subsequent anaerobic culture results confirmed the diagnosis. This case highlights the importance of consideration for Fusobacterium infection in the setting of liver abscess if anaerobic organisms have not yet been excluded on initial culture evaluation. PMID:24348321

  11. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... United States than in other parts of the world. Liver cancer is uncommon in the United States, ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. In the United States, men, especially Chinese American ...

  12. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    MedlinePlus

    ... VHA Forms & Publications Quality & Safety Quality of Care Ethics VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guidelines Hospital Quality Data ... decreases the strain on your liver and other organs, and will make your recovery from surgery easier. ...

  13. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. PMID:23628170

  14. Pediatric liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Spada, Marco; Riva, Silvia; Maggiore, Giuseppe; Cintorino, Davide; Gridelli, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    In previous decades, pediatric liver transplantation has become a state-of-the-art operation with excellent success and limited mortality. Graft and patient survival have continued to improve as a result of improvements in medical, surgical and anesthetic management, organ availability, immunosuppression, and identification and treatment of postoperative complications. The utilization of split-liver grafts and living-related donors has provided more organs for pediatric patients. Newer immunosuppression regimens, including induction therapy, have had a significant impact on graft and patient survival. Future developments of pediatric liver transplantation will deal with long-term follow-up, with prevention of immunosuppression-related complications and promotion of as normal growth as possible. This review describes the state-of-the-art in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:19222089

  15. Cod Liver Oil

    MedlinePlus

    ... cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. When taken in appropriate doses by mouth, cod ... young children. Heart disease. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Wound healing. Glaucoma. Other conditions. More evidence is needed to ...

  16. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    MedlinePlus

    ... AST). This enzyme, which plays a role in processing proteins, is found in the liver, heart, muscles, ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  17. Amebic liver abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... sanitation exist. Africa, Latin America, Southeast Asia, and India have significant health problems from this disease. Risk ... are the usual treatment for liver abscess. A drug such as paromomycin or diloxanide must also be ...

  18. Effect of feeding organic and inorganic sources of additional zinc on growth performance and zinc balance in nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Case, C L; Carlson, M S

    2002-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding pharmacological concentrations of zinc (Zn), from organic and inorganic sources, on growth performance, plasma and tissue Zn accumulation, and Zn excretion of nursery pigs. Blood from all pigs was collected for plasma Zn determination on d 14 in Exp. 1, d 7 and 28 in Exp. 2, and d 15 in Exp. 3. In Exp. 1, 2, and 3, 90, 100, and 15 crossbred (GenetiPorc USA, LLC, Morris, MN) pigs were weaned at 24+/-0.5, 18, and 17 d of age (6.45, 5.47, and 5.3 kg avg initial BW), respectively, and allotted to dietary treatment based on initial weight, sex, and litter. A Phase 1 nursery diet was fed as crumbles from d 0 to 14 in Exp. 1, 2, and 3, and a Phase 2 nursery diet was fed as pellets from d 15 to 28 in Exp. 1 and 2. The Phase 1 and Phase 2 basal diets were supplemented with 100 ppm Zn as ZnSO4. Both dietary phases contained the same five dietary treatments: 150 ppm additional Zn as zinc oxide (ZnO), 500 ppm added Zn as ZnO, 500 ppm added Zn as a Zn-amino acid complex (Availa-Zn 100), 500 ppm added Zn as a Zn-polysaccharide complex (SQM-Zn), and 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO. Overall in Exp. 1, pigs fed 500 ppm added Zn as SQM-Zn or 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had greater ADG (P < 0.05) than pigs fed 150 ppm, 500 ppm added Zn as ZnO, or 500 ppm added Zn as Availa-Zn 100 (0.44 and 0.46 kg/d vs 0.35, 0.38, and 0.33 kg/d respectively). Overall in Exp. 2, pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had greater (P < 0.05) ADG and ADFI than pigs fed any other dietary treatment. On d 14 of Exp. 1 and d 28 of Exp. 2, pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had higher (P < 0.05) plasma Zn concentrations than pigs on any other treatment. In Exp. 3, fecal, urinary, and liver Zn concentrations were greatest (P < 0.05) in pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO. On d 10 to 15 of Exp. 3, pigs fed 3,000 ppm added Zn as ZnO had the most negative Zn balance (P < 0.05) compared with pigs fed the other four dietary Zn treatments. In conclusion, feeding

  19. [Peculiarities of antioxidant defense system in erythroid cells and tissues of pigs under action of chromium chloride].

    PubMed

    Iskra, R Ia; Vlizlo, V V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of CrCI3 in the amount of 400 mg Cr/kg of feed on antioxidant defense in populations of erythrocytes, erythroid bone marrow cells and tissues of pigs was studied. The increasing of the antioxidant defense of swine organism, as evidenced by the increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the fractions of "young" erythrocytes, was shown. Superoxide dismutase activity decreases, while glutathione and catalase activity increases in the erythroid cells of the bone marrow after of CrCl3 action. Oxidative processes are intensified in the liver of pigs of the experimental group, in contrast to other tissues, leading to the increase of content of TBARS-products, growth of superoxide dismutase activity and reduction of glutathione peroxidase activity. At the same time, the action of CrCl3 in other tissues activates antioxidant system, including the kidneys, lungs and myocardium, increases superoxide dismutase activity, and catalase activity in the spleen and kidneys. A decrease of content of TBARS-products and reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, as well as the increase of katalase activity and reduction of glutathione content were discovered in the skeletal muscles of pigs of the experimental group. As a result of research it is suggested to add CrCl3 to the diet of pigs to enhance antioxidant defense during their intensive growth. PMID:23940874

  20. Multi-transgenic pigs expressing three fluorescent proteins produced with high efficiency by sperm mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Webster, Nicole L; Forni, Monica; Bacci, Maria Laura; Giovannoni, Roberto; Razzini, Riccardo; Fantinati, Paolo; Zannoni, Augusta; Fusetti, Lisa; Dalprà, Leda; Bianco, Maria Rosaria; Papa, Michele; Seren, Eraldo; Sandrin, Mauro S; Mc Kenzie, Ian F C; Lavitrano, Marialuisa

    2005-09-01

    Multi-gene transgenic pigs would be of benefit for large animal models in medical, agricultural, and pharmaceutical applications; in particular for xenotransplantation, where extensive genetic manipulation of donor pigs is required to make them suitable for organ grafting to humans. We used the sperm mediated gene transfer (SMGT) method to produce with high efficiency multi-gene transgenic pigs using three genes coding for fluorescent proteins: enhanced blue (EBFP), green (EGFP), and red (DsRed2). All three fluorescent proteins were expressed in 171 out of 195 normally developed morula/blastocysts examined at day 6 post insemination (88%). Genomic DNA of 18 piglets born from two litters was screened by PCR, showing that all piglets were transgenic with at least one gene, 7/18 piglets were triple transgenic, 7/18 double transgenic, and 4/18 single transgenic. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed multiple sites of integration of the transgenes. RNA and protein expression was found in muscle, heart, liver, hair, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). These results show that SMGT is an effective method for introducing multiple genes into pigs as shown by the simultaneous expression of three fluorescent proteins. PMID:15906394

  1. Abcb1 in Pigs: Molecular cloning, tissues distribution, functional analysis, and its effect on pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingting; Huang, Jinhu; Zhang, Hongyu; Dong, Lingling; Guo, Dawei; Guo, Li; He, Fang; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known ATP-dependent efflux transporters, contributing to differences in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Until now, studies on pig P-gp have been scarce. In our studies, the full-length porcine P-gp cDNA was cloned and expressed in a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. P-gp expression was then determined in tissues and its role in the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in pigs was studied. The coding region of pig Abcb1 gene was 3,861 bp, encoding 1,286 amino acid residues (Mw = 141,966). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship between porcine P-gp and those of cow and sheep. Pig P-gp was successfully stably overexpressed in MDCK cells and had efflux activity for rhodamine 123, a substrate of P-gp. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that P-gp was highly expressed in brain capillaries, small intestine, and liver. In MDCK-pAbcb1 cells, enrofloxacin was transported by P-gp with net efflux ratio of 2.48 and the efflux function was blocked by P-gp inhibitor verapamil. High expression of P-gp in the small intestine could modify the pharmacokinetics of orally administrated enrofloxacin by increasing the Cmax, AUC and Ka, which was demonstrated using verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp. PMID:27572343

  2. Abcb1 in Pigs: Molecular cloning, tissues distribution, functional analysis, and its effect on pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tingting; Huang, Jinhu; Zhang, Hongyu; Dong, Lingling; Guo, Dawei; Guo, Li; He, Fang; Bhutto, Zohaib Ahmed; Wang, Liping

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known ATP-dependent efflux transporters, contributing to differences in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interactions. Until now, studies on pig P-gp have been scarce. In our studies, the full-length porcine P-gp cDNA was cloned and expressed in a Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line. P-gp expression was then determined in tissues and its role in the pharmacokinetics of oral enrofloxacin in pigs was studied. The coding region of pig Abcb1 gene was 3,861 bp, encoding 1,286 amino acid residues (Mw = 141,966). Phylogenetic analysis indicated a close evolutionary relationship between porcine P-gp and those of cow and sheep. Pig P-gp was successfully stably overexpressed in MDCK cells and had efflux activity for rhodamine 123, a substrate of P-gp. Tissue distribution analysis indicated that P-gp was highly expressed in brain capillaries, small intestine, and liver. In MDCK-pAbcb1 cells, enrofloxacin was transported by P-gp with net efflux ratio of 2.48 and the efflux function was blocked by P-gp inhibitor verapamil. High expression of P-gp in the small intestine could modify the pharmacokinetics of orally administrated enrofloxacin by increasing the Cmax, AUC and Ka, which was demonstrated using verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp. PMID:27572343

  3. Dietary zinc oxide in weaned pigs--effects on performance, tissue concentrations, morphology, neutrophil functions and faecal microflora.

    PubMed

    Jensen-Waern, M; Melin, L; Lindberg, R; Johannisson, A; Petersson, L; Wallgren, P

    1998-01-01

    The uptake and distribution of zinc in tissues and the effects of 2500 ppm dietary zinc oxide on health, faecal microflora, and the functions of circulating neutrophils were evaluated in weaned pigs. One group was fed a zinc supplement diet and another group was used as a control. All pigs remained healthy throughout the study, but the supplemented animals showed better performance than the controls. The serum zinc values rose rapidly. At autopsy, carried out at the age of 63 days, the zinc concentrations in liver tissue were 4.5 times higher, and in renal tissue two times higher in the supplemented group than in controls (P<0.001). Microscopic examination showed increased lipid accumulation in hepatocytes from supplemented pigs. No effect on the number of excreted Escherichia coli and enterococci per gram faeces or on the functions of circulating neutrophils was observed. Dietary supplementation with 2500 ppm ZnO for up to two weeks after weaning appears to be potentially beneficial in the prevention of postweaning diarrhoea in pigs. PMID:9690608

  4. Effects of dietary zinc and iron supplementation on mineral excretion, body composition, and mineral status of nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Rincker, M J; Hill, G M; Link, J E; Meyer, A M; Rowntree, J E

    2005-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary Zn and Fe supplementation on mineral excretion, body composition, and mineral status of nursery pigs. In Exp. 1 (n = 24; 6.5 kg; 16 to 20 d of age) and 2 (n = 24; 7.2 kg; 19 to 21 d of age), littermate crossbred barrows were weaned and allotted randomly by BW, within litter, to dietary treatments and housed individually in stainless steel pens. In Exp. 1, Phases 1 (d 0 to 7) and 2 (d 7 to 14) diets (as-fed basis) were: 1) NC (negative control, no added Zn source); 2) ZnO (NC + 2,000 mg/kg as Zn oxide); and 3) ZnM (NC + 2,000 mg/kg as Zn Met). In Exp. 2, diets for each phase (Phase 1 = d 0 to 7; Phase 2 = d 7 to 21; Phase 3 = d 21 to 35) were the basal diet supplemented with 0, 25, 50, 100, and 150 mg/kg Fe (as-fed basis) as ferrous sulfate. Orts, feces, and urine were collected daily in Exp. 1; whereas pigs had a 4-d adjustment period followed by a 3-d total collection period (Period 1 = d 5 to 7; Period 2 = d 12 to 14; Period 3 = d 26 to 28) during each phase in Exp. 2. Blood samples were obtained from pigs on d 0, 7, and 14 in Exp. 1 and d 0, 7, 21, and 35 in Exp. 2 to determine hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), and plasma Cu, (PCu), Fe (PFe), and Zn (PZn). Pigs in Exp. 1 were killed at d 14 (mean BW = 8.7 kg) to determine whole-body, liver, and kidney mineral concentrations. There were no differences in growth performance in Exp. 1 or 2. In Exp. 1, pigs fed ZnO or ZnM diets had greater (P < 0.001) dietary Zn intake during the 14-d study and greater fecal Zn excretion during Phase 2 compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Pigs fed 2,000 mg/kg, regardless of Zn source, had greater (P < 0.010) PZn on d 7 and 14 than pigs fed the NC diet. Whole-body Zn, liver Fe and Zn, and kidney Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.010), whereas kidney Fe and Zn concentrations were less (P < 0.010) in pigs fed pharmacological Zn diets than pigs fed the NC diet. In Exp. 2, dietary Fe supplementation tended to increase

  5. Analgesia after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Zoka

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses postoperative analgesia in patients with end-stage liver disease who have undergone liver transplantation (LT). Postoperative analgesia determines how patients perceive LT. Although important, this topic is underrepresented in the current literature. With an increased frequency of fast tracking in LT, efficient intra- and postoperative analgesia are undergoing changes. We herein review the current literature, compare the benefits and disadvantages of the therapeutic options, and make recommendations based on the current literature and clinical experience. PMID:26413222

  6. Soluble pig for radioactive waste transfer lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohl, P.C., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    Flushing transfer pipe after radioactive waste transfers generates thousands of gallons of additional radioactive waste each year at the Hanford site. The use of pneumatic pigging with waste soluble pigs as a means to clear transfer piping may be an effective alternative to raw water flushes. A feasibility study was performed by a group of senior mechanical engineering students for their senior design project as part of their curriculum at Washington State University. The students divided the feasibility study into three sub-projects involving: (1) materials research, (2) delivery system design, and (3) mockup fabrication and testing. The students screened through twenty-three candidate materials and selected a thermoplastic polymer combined 50:50 wt% with sucrose to meet the established material performance criteria. The students also prepared a conceptual design of a remote pneumatic delivery system and constructed a mockup section of transfer pipe for testing the prototype pigs.

  7. Growth and skeletal development of the pig.

    PubMed

    Reiland, S

    1978-01-01

    Growth and skeletal development of the domestic pig (Swedish landrace and Yorkshire) are reported and the weight curve of males from birth to maturity included. Other parameters were tooth development and growth of certain bones. It was concluded that daily weight gain increases rapidly to an age of about 5 months. Sexual maturity is reached by both the male and female pig at about 5--6 months of age. At this time there is an inflection point on the weight curve. The period from 5--6 months to about 18 months of age is called adolescence. After 18 months of age the weight curve is flattened. The data from the domestic pigs were compared with the corresponding data of the wild European hog. It was found that the wild hog has a much slower weight gain. PMID:233594

  8. Discerning Pig Screams in Production Environments

    PubMed Central

    Vandermeulen, J.; Bahr, C.; Tullo, E.; Fontana, I.; Ott, S.; Kashiha, M.; Guarino, M.; Moons, C. P. H.; Tuyttens, F. A. M.; Niewold, T. A.; Berckmans, D.

    2015-01-01

    Pig vocalisations convey information about their current state of health and welfare. Continuously monitoring these vocalisations can provide useful information for the farmer. For instance, pig screams can indicate stressful situations. When monitoring screams, other sounds can interfere with scream detection. Therefore, identifying screams from other sounds is essential. The objective of this study was to understand which sound features define a scream. Therefore, a method to detect screams based on sound features with physical meaning and explicit rules was developed. To achieve this, 7 hours of labelled data from 24 pigs was used. The developed detection method attained 72% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 83% precision. As a result, the detection method showed that screams contain the following features discerning them from other sounds: a formant structure, adequate power, high frequency content, sufficient variability and duration. PMID:25923725

  9. Trichinella pseudospiralis in pig from Croatia.

    PubMed

    Beck, Relja; Beck, Ana; Lucinger, Snjezana; Florijancić, Tihomir; Bosković, Ivica; Marinculić, Albert

    2009-02-23

    Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are species that are frequently found in domestic pigs and various sylvatic animals in Croatia. During routine trichinoscopy, non-encapsulated larvae were detected in the muscle tissue of a domestic pig. Artificial digestion revealed a larvae burden of 602 muscle larvae per gram of tissue. Tissue section analysis confirmed the presence of non-encapsulated larvae. Multiplex PCR identified the larvae as T. pseudospiralis. This observation is consistent with the reports of a local veterinary inspector who described the presence of non-encapsulated Trichinella in four individual cases over the last 2 years. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in Croatia and one of very few cases of T. pseudospiralis infection described in domestic pigs. The detection of non-encapsulated larvae stresses the need for implementation of artificial digestion instead of trichinoscopy for the detection and identification of Trichinella infections. PMID:19054619

  10. Smart pigs assess reliability of corroded pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.G.; Dawson, S.J.; Brown, M.

    1995-03-01

    Pipeline operating companies are relying more and more on high-resolution, magnetic pigs to inspect onshore and offshore pipelines for corrosion. Data derived from these corrosion surveys can be used to develop a safe future operating strategy. British Gas has successfully developed and applied a realistic deterministic analysis for corroded pipelines. It involves identification and calculation of failure pressure and time to failure of corroded pipe spools with the highest risk of failure. High-resolution, intelligent pigs (smart pigs) can accurately detect, size, and locate corrosion in pipelines. Once corrosion is detected, the operator needs to known if the corrosion will affect the integrity of the pipeline and when it could fail from further corrosion growth. This information can be used to develop a pipeline de-rating schedule, implement a repair or replacement program, determine if re-inspection is necessary, and evaluate effectiveness of a corrosion inhibitor program. Such methods are described.

  11. Classification of Liver Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Rizoli, Sandro B.; Brenneman, Frederick D.; Hanna, Sherif S.; Kahnamoui, Kamyar

    1996-01-01

    The classification of liver injuries is important for clinical practice, clinical research and quality assurance activities. The Organ Injury Scaling (OIS) Committee of the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma proposed the OIS for liver trauma in 1989. The purpose ofthe present study was to apply this scale to a cohort ofliver trauma patients managed at a single Canadian trauma centre from January 1987 to June 1992.170 study patients were identified and reviewed. The mean age was 30, with 69% male and a mean ISS of 33.90% had a blunt mechanism ofinjury. The 170 patients were categorized into the 60IS grades ofliver injury. The number of units of blood transfused, the magnitude of the operative treatment required, the liver-related complications and the liver-related mortality correlated well with the OIS grade. The OIS grade was unable to predict the need for laparotomy or the length of stay in hospital. We conclude that the OIS is a useful, practical and important tool for the categorization of liver injuries, and it may prove to be the universally accepted classification scheme in liver trauma. PMID:8809585

  12. Liver transplantation in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Masood; Elrayah, Elgaily A; Traynor, Oscar; McCormick, P Aiden

    2016-07-01

    The Irish National Liver Transplant program commenced in 1993 in St. Vincent's University Hospital in Dublin. It is an adult-only program and is the only liver transplant program in Ireland. Pediatric recipients are referred to King's College Hospital in the United Kingdom. To date, almost 1000 adult liver transplants have been performed. Current 1-year patient survival is 93%, and 5-year survival is 79%. The program is fully funded by the government health service. There is a close collaboration with the United Kingdom Organ Donation and Transplant Directorate, and there is an arrangement for organ sharing for super-urgent transplants. Traditionally, organ donation rates have been high in Ireland. However, demand for liver transplant has increased over the past 20 years, and waiting lists are now lengthening. Deceased cardiac death donation is now being considered, but there are no plans for living related donor liver transplant. Donor coordinators have recently been appointed to the major hospitals in Ireland, and it is hoped that this initiative will lead to an increase in organ donation rates. Liver Transplantation 22 1014-1018 2016 AASLD. PMID:27065358

  13. Fortuitously discovered liver lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F; Sharma, Malay; Gibson, Robert N; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; Jenssen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The fortuitously discovered liver lesion is a common problem. Consensus might be expected in terms of its work-up, and yet there is none. This stems in part from the fact that there is no preventive campaign involving the early detection of liver tumors other than for patients with known liver cirrhosis and oncological patients. The work-up (detection and differential diagnosis) of liver tumors comprises theoretical considerations, history, physical examination, laboratory tests, standard ultrasound, Doppler ultrasound techniques, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, as well as image-guided biopsy. CEUS techniques have proved to be the most pertinent method; these techniques became part of the clinical routine about 10 years ago in Europe and Asia and are used for a variety of indications in daily clinical practice. CEUS is in many cases the first and also decisive technical intervention for detecting and characterizing liver tumors. This development is reflected in many CEUS guidelines, e.g., in the European Federation of Societies for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology (EFSUMB) guidelines 2004, 2008 and 2012 as well as the recently published World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology-EFSUMB guidelines 2012. This article sets out considerations for making a structured work-up of incidental liver tumors feasible. PMID:23745019

  14. The domestic pig as a model for evaluating olestra's nutritional effects.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D A; Berry, D A; Spendel, V A; Kiorpes, A L; Peters, J C

    1997-08-01

    Experimental conditions for measuring the effect of the noncaloric fat substitute olestra on the availability of dietary nutrients were established in the weanling domestic pig. To evaluate the tolerance of the pig for dietary fat levels similar to those in the human diet, groups were fed a standard corn-soy-based swine feed with and without 14% (30% of energy) added fat for 4 wk. To evaluate the adequacy of a purified diet to produce good growth, groups of pigs were fed purified diets providing 30% of energy from fat and micronutrients at 1, 1.3 or 1.6 times the NRC's requirements for 5- to 10-kg swine. Cumulative body weight gain, digestible feed efficiency and a lack of adverse effects showed that the pig can tolerate diets providing 30% of energy from fat and that a purified diet providing the NRC's requirements for micronutrients produces growth comparable to a nutritionally complete swine feed. To determine whether tissue concentrations of vitamins A, D, E and K in the pig respond to olestra and dietary concentrations of the vitamins, two groups were fed purified diet providing 1 or 1.6 times the NRC's requirements for micronutrients and 4.8% olestra. Significant increases occurred in the serum concentration of 25-hydroxyergocalciferol and liver concentrations of retinol and alpha-tocopherol with increasing dietary concentrations of the vitamins. Olestra reduced the tissue concentrations of vitamins A, D and E. Prothrombin time was not affected by dietary concentration of either phylloquinone or olestra. To determine the amount of UV light exposure required to produce 50-80% of vitamin D status from vitamin D3, a range typical of humans, two groups of pigs were fed the NRC requirement for vitamin D and exposed to 15 or 45 min/d of UV light. Serum concentration of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol increased with increased exposure time. UV exposure of 1-2 min/d was calculated to be sufficient to produce 50-80% of total vitamin D status from vitamin D3. No antemortem

  15. Biochemical, nutritional and genetic effects on boar taint in entire male pigs.

    PubMed

    Zamaratskaia, G; Squires, E J

    2009-11-01

    Pork odour is to a great extent affected by the presence of malodorous compounds, mainly androstenone and skatole. The present review outlines the current state of knowledge about factors involved in the regulation of androstenone and skatole in entire male pigs. Androstenone is a pheromonal steroid synthesised in the testes and metabolised in the liver. Part of androstenone accumulates in adipose tissue causing a urine-like odour. Skatole is produced in the large intestine by bacterial degradation of tryptophan and metabolised by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes and sulphotransferase. The un-metabolised part accumulates in adipose tissue, causing faecal-like odour. Androstenone levels are mostly determined by genetic factors and stage of puberty, whereas skatole levels in addition to genetic background and hormonal status of the pigs are also controlled by nutritional and environmental factors. To reduce the risk of tainted carcasses entering the market, male pigs are surgically castrated in many countries. However, entire males compared to castrates have superior production characteristics: higher growth rate, better feed efficiency and leaner carcasses. Additionally, animal welfare aspects are currently of particular importance in light of increasing consumers' concerns. Nutrition, hormonal status, genetic influence on boar taint compounds and the methods to develop genetic markers are discussed. Boar taint due to high levels of skatole and androstenone is moderately heritable and not all market weight entire males have boar taint; it should thus be possible to select for pigs that do not have boar taint. In these studies, it is critical to assess the steroidogenic potential of the pigs in order to separate late-maturing pigs from those with a low genetic potential for boar taint. A number of candidate genes for boar taint have been identified and work is continuing to develop genetic markers for low boar taint. More research is needed to clarify the factors

  16. Health parameters in tail biters and bitten pigs in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Munsterhjelm, C; Simola, O; Keeling, L; Valros, A; Heinonen, M

    2013-05-01

    Health in relation to tail-biting behaviour was investigated on a problem farm. Quartets (n = 16) of age- and gender-matched fattening pigs including a tail biter (TB, n = 16), a victim (V, n = 16), a control in the same pen (Ctb, n = 10) and a control in a pen where no tail biting was observed (Cno, n = 14) were chosen by direct behavioural observation. Haematological and clinicochemical analyses, autopsy and histological examination of 16 different tissues were carried out. Tail lesion severity was evaluated both macroscopically, on the basis of inspection, and histologically, in the sagittally cut tail. Category effects were tested using Friedman's ANOVA by Ranks, Cochran's Q or a repeated-measure GLM and, if significant, pair-wise tests were conducted using Wilcoxon Signed Ranks or McNemar's Test. The number of received tail bites correlated better with histological than with macroscopic tail lesion scoring because of deep inflammation beneath healthy skin in some cases. Most individuals had mild inflammatory lesions in internal organs suggestive of generalized activation of the immune system, and 30% of the animals were anaemic, possibly because of systemic spread of infectious agents. V had more severe respiratory organ lesions and higher serum protein concentrations than all other categories of pigs. Liver- and muscle-specific enzymes (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase) differed between categories. In conclusion, most animals had signs of generalized activation of the immune system, possibly because of systemic spread of infectious agents. V pigs suffered from more severe inflammatory lesions than TB, Ctb or Cno. Deep infections may exist under healthy skin in the tail of bitten pigs. PMID:23190797

  17. Tritium metabolism in young pigs after exposure of the mothers to tritium oxide during pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Van Bruwaene, R.; Gerber, G.B.; Kirchmann, R.; van den Hoek, J.; Vankerkom, J.

    1982-07-01

    Pregnant sows were given tritiated water at two different doses (0.517 and 1.53 mCi/liter) during pregnancy and for 43 days thereafter (a total of 120 days). Some of the young pigs were left with their mother while the others were exchanged with uncontaiminated newborn to follow tritium oxide and organic tritium in different organs with respect to (a) continuing uptake, (b) uptake from milk, and (c) loss of activity after birth. Turnnover time of tritium oxide in adult sows is almost 10 days, and that in young pigs is about 8 days. In addition, components (less than or equal to 5%) of slower turnover are present. At equilibrium, the relative specific activity (i.e., the ratio of specific activity of tritium oxide isolated either directly or after combustion or organic matter to the specific activity of tritiated water ingested) is about 0.7 for body water in adult and newborn pigs and about 0.14 for organic tritium in most tissues. It is somewhat higher (0.22) in the brain of newborns than in other tissues. Turnover time for organic tritium in young pigs is longest in brain (59 days) and slower in muscular tissues (28 days), kidney, spleen, and pancreas (22 days), and liver and intestine (17 days). From the data presented it is estimated that the contribution of organic tritium to the integral tissue dose is on the order of one-third to two-thirds of that from tritium oxide alone, except in the case of brain, where the contribution to the dose from organic tritium may equal or even exceed that from tritium oxide.

  18. Oral Infection with Signature-Tagged Listeria monocytogenes Reveals Organ-Specific Growth and Dissemination Routes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Melton-Witt, Jody A.; Rafelski, Susanne M.; Portnoy, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes causes a serious food-borne disease due to its ability to spread from the intestine to other organs, a process that is poorly understood. In this study we used 20 signature-tagged wild-type clones of L. monocytogenes in guinea pigs in combination with extensive quantitative data analysis to gain insight into extraintestinal dissemination. We show that L. monocytogenes colonized the liver in all asymptomatic animals. Spread to the liver occurred as early as 4 h after ingestion via a direct pathway from the intestine to the liver. This direct pathway contributed significantly to the bacterial load in the liver and was followed by a second wave of dissemination via the mesenteric lymph nodes (indirect pathway). Furthermore, bacteria were eliminated in the liver, whereas small intestinal villi provided a niche for bacterial replication, indicating organ-specific differences in net bacterial growth. Bacteria were shed back from intestinal villi into the small intestinal lumen and reinfected the Peyer's patches. Together, these results support a novel dissemination model where L. monocytogenes replicates in intestinal villi, is shed into the lumen, and reinfects intestinal immune cells that traffic to liver and mesenteric lymph nodes, a process that occurs even during asymptomatic colonization. PMID:22083714

  19. Lipopolysaccharides of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bind pig hemoglobin.

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, M; Bégin, C; Jacques, M

    1995-01-01

    A previous study indicated that lipopolysaccharides (LPS) extracted from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae bind two low-molecular-mass proteins, of approximately 10 and 11 kDa, present in porcine respiratory tract secretions (M. Bélanger, D. Dubreuil, and M. Jacques, Infect. Immun. 62:868-873, 1994). In the present study, we determined the N-terminal amino acid sequences of these two proteins, which revealed high homology with the alpha and beta chains of pig hemoglobin. Some isolates of A. pleuropneumoniae were able to use hemoglobin from various animal species as well as other heme compounds as sole sources of iron for growth, while other isolates were unable to use them. Immunoelectron microscopy showed binding of pig hemoglobin at the surface of all A. pleuropneumoniae isolates as well as labeling of outer membrane blebs. We observed, using Western blotting (immunoblotting), that the lipid A-core region of LPS of all isolates was binding pig hemoglobin. Furthermore, lipid A obtained after acid hydrolysis of LPS extracted from A. pleuropneumoniae was able to bind pig hemoglobin and this binding was completely abolished by preincubation of lipid A with polymyxin B but was not inhibited by preincubation with glucosamines. Fatty acids constituting the lipid A of A. pleuropneumoniae, namely, dodecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, 3-hydroxytetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, and octadecanoic acid, were also binding pig hemoglobin. Our results indicate that LPS of all A. pleuropneumoniae isolates tested bind pig hemoglobin and that lipid A is involved in this binding. Our results also indicate that some A. pleuropneumoniae isolates are, in addition, able to use hemoglobin for growth. Binding of hemoglobin to LPS might represent an important means by which A. pleuropneumoniae acquires iron in vivo from hemoglobin released from erythrocytes lysed by the action of its hemolysins. PMID:7822035

  20. Farming practices and genetic characterization of Nicobari pig, an indigenous pig germplasm of Nicobar group of islands, India.

    PubMed

    De, Arun Kumar; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, Madhu Sudan; Kundu, Anandamoy; Sunder, Jai; Ramachandran, M

    2014-04-01

    The Nicobari pig, locally known as Ha-un, is an indigenous pig germplasm located only in the Nicobar group of islands, India. The present study documents the Nicobari pig-rearing practices of the tribal farmers and genetically characterizes them using 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) in Car Nicobar, India. A total of 225 farmers were surveyed (15 farmers per village of 15 villages). Information on herd statistics, husbandry practices, and constraints faced by the farmers in pig production were collected. The pigs were reared in a free-range system. Mean pig herd size per house hold was 8.9, and main feed for pigs was coconut and some indigenous feed materials such as pandanus, bread fruit, and Nicobari alu. The main constraints faced by the farmers were lack of feed after the tsunami, different disease conditions, piglet mortality, and predator attack. The Nicobari pigs were genotyped by 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The mean observed number of alleles for all 23 loci in Nicobari pigs was 6.96 ± 0.31. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.66 ± 0.02 and 0.75 ± 0.01, respectively. It was found that the genetic diversity of this pig breed was very high compared to Large White Yorkshire and other European pig breeds. This genetic characterization of the pig breed will be helpful in their conservation effort. PMID:24595559

  1. The Liver in Critical Illness.

    PubMed

    Damm, Tessa W; Kramer, David J

    2016-07-01

    Caring for critically ill patients with acute and/or chronic liver dysfunction poses a unique challenge. Proper resuscitation and early consideration for transfer to liver transplant centers have resulted in improved outcomes. Liver support devices and cellular models have not yet shown mortality benefit, but they hold promise in the critical care of patients with liver disease. This article reviews pertinent anatomic and physiologic considerations of the liver in critical illness, followed by a selective review of associated organ dysfunction. PMID:27339681

  2. Autoimmune liver disease, autoimmunity and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Neuberger, James M

    2014-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) represent the three major autoimmune liver diseases (AILD). PBC, PSC, and AIH are all complex disorders in that they result from the effects of multiple genes in combination with as yet unidentified environmental factors. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous risk loci for PBC and PSC that host genes involved in innate or acquired immune responses. These loci may provide a clue as to the immune-based pathogenesis of AILD. Moreover, many significant risk loci for PBC and PSC are also risk loci for other autoimmune disorders, such type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis, suggesting a shared genetic basis and possibly similar molecular pathways for diverse autoimmune conditions. There is no curative treatment for all three disorders, and a significant number of patients eventually progress to end-stage liver disease requiring liver transplantation (LT). LT in this context has a favourable overall outcome with current patient and graft survival exceeding 80% at 5years. Indications are as for other chronic liver disease although recent data suggest that while lethargy improves after transplantation, the effect is modest and variable so lethargy alone is not an indication. In contrast, pruritus rapidly responds. Cholangiocarcinoma, except under rigorous selection criteria, excludes LT because of the high risk of recurrence. All three conditions may recur after transplantation and are associated with a greater risk of both acute cellular and chronic ductopenic rejection. It is possible that a crosstalk between alloimmune and autoimmune response perpetuate each other. An immunological response toward self- or allo-antigens is well recognised after LT in patients transplanted for non-autoimmune indications and sometimes termed "de novo autoimmune hepatitis". Whether this is part of the spectrum of rejection or an autoimmune

  3. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hipple, D.L.; O'Neal, W.C.

    1982-09-09

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe will run from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe will be filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6-inch-diameter, 420-foot-long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe. The tests provided information on how the effectiveness and velocity of the pig and the flow rate of the expelled fluid changed with pressure and shutoff time of the drive gas and with temperature. The pig designs that left the least liquid during the water tests were a polyurethane foam pig and a cylindrical metal pig with flexible metal wipers. In the liquid nitrogen tests, the metal pig with wipers performed best. It removed all the liquid nitrogen and survived most of the tests well.

  4. Cardiac ganglioneuroma in a juvenile pig.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Ryoko; Joma, Ikumi; Otsubo, Koji; Matsutake, Hiroshi; Yanai, Tokuma; Sakai, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    A cardiac mass (3 × 5 × 3 cm) was detected at the base between the right auricular wall and right vena cava of a slaughtered 6-month-old female mixed-breed pig during a meat inspection. The tumor comprised infiltrative prominent interweaving fascicles of Schwann cells with Verocay bodies. Moreover, the ganglion cells were scattered or aggregated throughout the neoplastic tissue. The ganglion and Schwann cells had neither cellular atypism nor mitosis. On the basis of the bearing site as well as the morphological and immunohistochemical features, this is the first case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma in a pig. PMID:26256406

  5. Cardiac ganglioneuroma in a juvenile pig

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Ryoko; JOMA, Ikumi; OTSUBO, Koji; MATSUTAKE, Hiroshi; YANAI, Tokuma; SAKAI, Hiroki

    2015-01-01

    A cardiac mass (3 × 5 × 3 cm) was detected at the base between the right auricular wall and right vena cava of a slaughtered 6-month-old female mixed-breed pig during a meat inspection. The tumor comprised infiltrative prominent interweaving fascicles of Schwann cells with Verocay bodies. Moreover, the ganglion cells were scattered or aggregated throughout the neoplastic tissue. The ganglion and Schwann cells had neither cellular atypism nor mitosis. On the basis of the bearing site as well as the morphological and immunohistochemical features, this is the first case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma in a pig. PMID:26256406

  6. Pigs from iron containing dusts and sludges

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    DK Recycling und Roheisen GmbH converts 380,000 annual tonnes of iron containing waste materials into pig iron. Zinc is the main reason that these materials are classified as waste. The materials are processed in the conventional way by making sinter which is then smelted in a blast furnace to foundry grade pig iron. The trick lies not in the unit operations which are quite standard but rather in the modifications made to the plant and operating procedures to cope with the much higher levels of tramp elements.

  7. Effects of dietary humic and butyric acid on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in young pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; van Sambeek, D M; Gabler, N K; Kerr, B J; Moreland, S; Johal, S; Edmonds, M S

    2014-09-01

    Humic acid (MFG) and fat-protected butyric acid (BA) has been shown to modulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the effects of MFG and BA, alone and in combination, on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in young pigs. An experiment was conducted using 448 crossbred weanling pigs, which were stratified by gender and BW and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of control and MFG with or without BA. The pigs were housed at a density of 8 pigs/pen and with 14 pens/dietary treatment. Growth performance and feed intake were assessed for 35 d. To assess the inflammation-related properties of MFG and BA, on d 36 a subset of 48 pigs from each treatment was intramuscular injected with either sterile saline or Escherichia coli LPS (20 μg/kg BW; E. coli serotype O55:B5) for 4 h in a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement (± LPS, ± MFG and ± BA; n = 6 pigs/treatment group) to assess their febrile response as well as serum, liver, and muscle cytokine responses. Results from this study showed that neither BA nor MFG alone or in combination altered pig ADG, ADFI, and G:F. Moreover, in the presence of LPS, the combination of MFG and BA resulted in a 62% decrease (P = 0.08) in serum cortisol compared to when neither compound was added to the diet. In contrast, serum IGF-I was increased (P < 0.01) by 59% from the use of both MFG and BA, as opposed to when neither was added, with pigs subjected to LPS. However, both MFG and BA inclusion appear to have a complex role in modulating different aspects of the immune response to LPS, particularly when both are fed in combination. Humic acid also appeared to play a role in decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:25023805

  8. Glucagon increases hepatic oxygen supply-demand ratio in pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Gelman, S.; Dillard, E.; Parks, D.A.

    1987-05-01

    The present study was performed on eight young pigs to test the hypothesis that glucagon increases hepatic oxygen supply to a greater extent than hepatic oxygen uptake, providing a better hepatic oxygen supply-demand relationship. The experiments were performed under pentobarbital sodium anesthesia and controlled ventilation. Splanchnic blood flow was studied using radioactive microspheres. Glucagon was administered in doses of 1 and 5 ..mu..g x kg/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/. During glucagon infusion, hepatic arterial blood flow substantially increased, splenic and pancreatic blood flows increased moderately, while stomach and intestinal blood flows, as well as portal blood flow did not change significantly. Shunting of both 9- and 15-..mu..m spheres through preportal tissues did not change significantly. Oxygen content in arterial or portal venous blood did not change significantly, while it increased in hepatic venous blood by 30%. There were no differences in the effects between the doses of glucagon administered. There was no correlation found between changes in hepatic oxygen supply and cardiac output or blood pressure. The changes observed during glucagon administration resulted in an increase in oxygen delivery to the liver and hepatic oxygen supply-uptake ratio.

  9. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    SciTech Connect

    Brückner, Sandra; Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael; Winkler, Sandra; Stock, Peggy; Dollinger, Matthias; Christ, Bruno

    2014-02-15

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention in the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The hepatocyte

  10. THEMES OF LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Starzl, Thomas E.; Fung, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Liver transplantation was the product of 5 interlocking themes. These began in 1958-59 with canine studies of then theoretical hepatotrophic molecules in portal venous blood (Theme I) and with the contemporaneous parallel development of liver and multivisceral transplant models (Theme II). Further Theme I investigations showed that insulin was the principal, although not the only, portal hepatotrophic factor. In addition to resolving long-standing controversies about the pathophysiology of portacaval shunt, the hepatotrophic studies blazed new trails in the regulation of liver size, function, and regeneration. They also targeted inborn metabolic errors (e.g. familial hyperlipoproteinemia) whose palliation by portal diversion presaged definitive correction with liver replacement. Clinical use of the Theme II transplant models depended on multiple drug immunosuppression (Theme III, Immunology), guided by an empirical algorithm of pattern recognition and therapeutic response. Successful liver replacement was first accomplished in 1967 with azathioprine, prednisone, and ALG. With this regimen, the world’s longest surviving liver recipient is now 40 years postoperative. Incremental improvements in survival outcome occurred (Theme IV) when azathioprine was replaced by cyclosporine (1979) which was replaced in turn by tacrolimus (1989). However, the biologic meaning of alloengraftment remained enigmatic until multilineage donor leukocyte microchimerism was discovered in 1992 in long surviving organ recipients. Seminal mechanisms were then identified (clonal exhaustion-deletion and immune ignorance) that linked organ engraftment and the acquired tolerance of bone marrow transplantation and eventually clarified the relationship of transplantation immunology to the immunology of infections, neoplasms, and autoimmune disorders. With this insight, better strategies of immunosuppression have evolved. As liver and other kinds of organ transplantation became accepted as

  11. Themes of liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Starzl, Thomas E; Fung, John J

    2010-06-01

    Liver transplantation was the product of five interlocking themes. These began in 1958-1959 with canine studies of then theoretical hepatotrophic molecules in portal venous blood (Theme I) and with the contemporaneous parallel development of liver and multivisceral transplant models (Theme II). Further Theme I investigations showed that insulin was the principal, although not the only, portal hepatotrophic factor. In addition to resolving long-standing controversies about the pathophysiology of portacaval shunt, the hepatotrophic studies blazed new trails in the regulation of liver size, function, and regeneration. They also targeted inborn metabolic errors (e.g., familial hyperlipoproteinemia) whose palliation by portal diversion presaged definitive correction with liver replacement. Clinical use of the Theme II transplant models depended on multiple drug immunosuppression (Theme III, Immunology), guided by an empirical algorithm of pattern recognition and therapeutic response. Successful liver replacement was first accomplished in 1967 with azathioprine, prednisone, and antilymphoid globulin. With this regimen, the world's longest surviving liver recipient is now 40 years postoperative. Incremental improvements in survival outcome occurred (Theme IV) when azathioprine was replaced by cyclosporine (1979), which was replaced in turn by tacrolimus (1989). However, the biologic meaning of alloengraftment remained enigmatic until multilineage donor leukocyte microchimerism was discovered in 1992 in long-surviving organ recipients. Seminal mechanisms were then identified (clonal exhaustion-deletion and immune ignorance) that linked organ engraftment and the acquired tolerance of bone marrow transplantation and eventually clarified the relationship of transplantation immunology to the immunology of infections, neoplasms, and autoimmune disorders. With this insight, better strategies of immunosuppression have evolved. As liver and other kinds of organ transplantation

  12. Dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmission among Pigs in Northwest Bangladesh and the Potential Impact of Pig Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Salje, Henrik; Hannan, A.; Islam, Md. Atiqul; Bhuyan, A. A. Mamun; Islam, Md. Ariful; Rahman, M. Ziaur; Nahar, Nazmun; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P.; Gurley, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection can cause severe disease in humans, resulting in death or permanent neurologic deficits among survivors. Studies indicate that the incidence of JE is high in northwestern Bangladesh. Pigs are amplifying hosts for JE virus (JEV) and a potentially important source of virus in the environment. The objectives of this study were to describe the transmission dynamics of JEV among pigs in northwestern Bangladesh and estimate the potential impact of vaccination to reduce incidence among pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive census of pigs in three JE endemic districts and tested a sample of them for evidence of previous JEV infection. We built a compartmental model to describe JEV transmission dynamics in this region and to estimate the potential impact of pig vaccination. We identified 11,364 pigs in the study area. Previous JEV infection was identified in 30% of pigs with no spatial differences in the proportion of pigs that were seropositive across the study area. We estimated that JEV infects 20% of susceptible pigs each year and the basic reproductive number among pigs was 1.2. The model suggest that vaccinating 50% of pigs each year resulted in an estimated 82% reduction in annual incidence in pigs. Conclusions/Significance The widespread distribution of historic JEV infection in pigs suggests they may play an important role in virus transmission in this area. Future studies are required to understand the contribution of pig infections to JE risk in humans and the potential impact of pig vaccination on human disease. PMID:25255286

  13. Feasibility tests of pipeline pigs for cryogenic pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hipple, D.L.

    1983-07-01

    The cryogenic pig experiment reported here was designed to test the concept of using a pneumatically driven pipeline pig to force cryogenic fluid through a long, large-diameter pipe, which is one of the key features of the proposed large-scale Spill Safety Test Facility. The Spill Safety Test Facility will spill materials such as liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ammonia, and other liquefied gases under controlled conditions so that atmospheric dispersion of these materials can be better understood. Three pig design concepts were tested: (1) commercially available, bullet-shaped polyurethane foam pigs, (2) close-fitting spherical metal pigs with sufficient clearance to pass through the pipe at cryogenic temperatures. Three different sizes were tested to determine the effect of a loose fit, and (3) cylindrical metal pigs with flexible wipers at each end which would maintain a seal during transit through the pipe. The most effective pigs in removing liquid from the pipe were the polyurethane foam pig and the cylindrical wiper pig. For the LN/sub 2/ tests these two pigs left no liquid in the pipe, and for the water tests they left 1% of pipe volume. The large sphere was the next best pig, leaving 2 to 3% of pipe volume during the LN/sub 2/ tests and about 3% of pipe volume during the water tests.

  14. Screening pigs for xenotransplantation: expression of porcine endogenous retroviruses in transgenic pig skin.

    PubMed

    Kimsa-Dudek, Magdalena; Strzalka-Mrozik, Barbara; Kimsa, Malgorzata W; Blecharz, Irena; Gola, Joanna; Skowronek, Bartlomiej; Janiszewski, Adrian; Lipinski, Daniel; Zeyland, Joanna; Szalata, Marlena; Slomski, Ryszard; Mazurek, Urszula

    2015-06-01

    Pigs seem to be the answer to worldwide organ donor shortage. Porcine skin may also be applied as a dressing for severe burns. Genetic modifications of donor animals enable reduction of immune response, which prolongs xenograft survival as temporary biological dressing and allows achieving resistance against xenograft rejection. The risk posed by porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) cannot be eliminated by breeding animals under specific-pathogen-free conditions and so all recipients of porcine graft will be exposed to PERVs. Therefore our study has been focused on the assessment of PERV DNA and mRNA level in skin samples of transgenic pigs generated for xenotransplantation. Porcine skin fragments were obtained from 3- to 6-month-old non-transgenic and transgenic Polish Landrace pigs. Transgenic pigs were produced by pronuclear DNA microinjection and were developed to express the human α-galactosidase and the human α-1,2-fucosyltransferase gene. The copy numbers of PERV DNA and RNA were evaluated using real-time Q-PCR and QRT-PCR. Comparative analysis of all PERV subtypes revealed that PERV-A is the main subtype of PERVs in analyzed skin samples. There was no significantly different copy number of PERV-A, PERV-B and PERV-C between non-transgenic pigs, pigs with the human α-galactosidase and pigs expressing the human α-1,2-fucosyltransferase gene, except of PERV-C DNA. It brings the conclusion, that transgenesis process exerts no influence on PERVs transinfection. That is another step forward in the development of pig skin xenografts as burn wounds dressing. PMID:25812516

  15. A QTL resource and comparison tool for pigs: PigQTLDB.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhi-Liang; Dracheva, Svetlana; Jang, Wonhee; Maglott, Donna; Bastiaansen, John; Rothschild, Max F; Reecy, James M

    2005-10-01

    During the past decade, efforts to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in pigs have resulted in hundreds of QTL being reported for growth, meat quality, reproduction, disease resistance, and other traits. It is a challenge to locate, interpret, and compare QTL results from different studies. We have developed a pig QTL database (PigQTLdb) that integrates available pig QTL data in the public domain, thus, facilitating the use of this QTL data in future studies. We also developed a pig trait classification system to standardize names of traits and to simplify organization and searching of the trait data. These steps made it possible to compare primary data from diverse sources and methods. We used existing pig map databases and other publicly available data resources (such as PubMed) to avoid redundant developmental work. The PigQTLdb was also designed to include data representing major genes and markers associated with a large effect on economically important traits. To date, over 790 QTL from 73 publications have been curated into the database. Those QTL cover more than 300 different traits. The data have been submitted to the Entrez Gene and the Map Viewer resources at NCBI, where the information about markers was matched to marker records in NCBI's UniSTS database. Having these data in a public resource like NCBI allows regularly updated automatic matching of markers to public sequence data by e-PCR. The submitted data, and the results of these calculations, are retrievable from NCBI via Entrez Gene, Map Viewer, and UniSTS. Efforts were undertaken to improve the integrated functional genomics resources for pigs. PMID:16261421

  16. Liver transplantation in acute-on-chronic liver failure: lessons learnt from acute liver failure setting.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Rajalingam, Rajesh; Rela, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a clinical entity with high risk of mortality. These patients can have severe liver dysfunction complicated with multiple organ failure. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for these patients. Literature regarding management of acute liver failure with special emphasis on liver transplantation was reviewed. Lessons learnt from the management of patients with acute liver failure which could be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure are discussed. Significant improvement in outcomes of acute liver failure has been reported across the world. Several aspects in transplantation for acute liver failure were found to be relevant to the management of acute-on-chronic liver failure. These include defining criteria to identify patients needing early liver transplantation, prioritizing patients with acute liver failure on the waiting list, defining when to abandon transplantation in acute liver failure, emphasis on graft quality and the need for a multi-disciplinary approach to manage multiple organ dysfunction. Useful lessons can be learnt from the progress made in the management of acute liver failure and these can be extrapolated to the management of patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure. PMID:25788191

  17. Hepatic function in hypothermically stored porcine livers: comparison of hypothermic machine perfusion vs cold storage.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Lee, C Y; Baicu, S; Duncan, H; Xu, H; Jones, J W; Clemens, M G; Brassil, J; Taylor, M J; Brockbank, K G M

    2005-01-01

    Hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) has a potential to relieve the current donor liver crisis by providing an improved and extended preservation method. This study examined the effect of HMP on hepatocellular functions, using a prototype liver transporter capable of preserving livers for 24 hours. Livers obtained from adult farm pigs (28 to 32 kg body weight) were divided into three groups: fresh control, HMP, and simple cold storage (n = 4 each). A 4-hour normothermic reperfusion of livers was conducted to assess hepato-metabolic and cellular functions. The hepatic transport function, as indicated by canalicular excretion of indocyanine green, was improved in the HMP group than in the SCS group. The overall tissue viability, as indicated by oxygen consumption levels, was notably improved in HMP and control livers as compared to the SCS group. Higher bile production in both the preserved groups as compared to the fresh control livers could be a result of biliary edema and leakage of plasma into the canaliculus. The hepato-cellular injury, measured by ALT, release was significantly greater in the SCS group as compared to the HMP and control groups. These findings suggest that HMP could be a better method to preserve hepatic function and overall tissue viability as compared to SCS. Improved hepatic functions are indirect indicators of superior microcirculation and sinusoidal endothelial cell functions. Further studies in progress will evaluate these functions to confirm the significance of these observations. PMID:15808637

  18. In vitro and in vivo percutaneous absorption of organoleads, lead salts, and inorganic lead in guinea pig and human autopsy skin

    SciTech Connect

    Bress, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Using diffusion tubes, the degree of penetration of tetrabutyl lead, lead napthanate, lead nuolate, lead acetate and lead oxide through guinea pig skin and human skin from autopsy was measured. Tetrabutyl lead demonstrated the greatest absorption in both the guinea pig and man. Lead nuolate, lead napthanate and lead acetate followed in descending order with the human tissue. The same leads, applied to guinea pig skin, followed a similar pattern of absorption in most cases. There were no measureable amounts of lead oxide absorbed in either species. Tetrabutyl lead, lead nuolate, lead napthanate, lead acetate and lead oxide were applied to the shaved backs of guinea pigs at 300mg/kg, under an occluded wrapping, daily, for seven days. Tissue concentrations of lead were highest when tetrabutyl lead was applied. The application of lead nuolate caused higher concentrations of lead in liver and kidney, than the corresponding applicaiton of lead napthanate. Lead acetate was poorly absorbed. No absorption was evidenced in the case of the lead oxide application. Light microscopic examination of integument, treated with tetrabutyl lead, revealed marked inflammation within the dermis. Inflammation was less marked in the integument of animals treated with lead napthanate and lead nuolate. Staining with sodium rhodizonate proved unsuccessful, but treatment of tissues exposed to lead nuolate and lead napthanate with ammonium sulfide showed evidence of lead on the stratum corneum and hair shafts. Correlation between the in vitro and in vivo data, as well as the comparison of human and guinea pig results, are discussed.

  19. Gut microbiota and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Several studies revealed that gut microbiota are associated with various human diseases, e.g., metabolic diseases, allergies, gastroenterological diseases, and liver diseases. The liver can be greatly affected by changes in gut microbiota due to the entry of gut bacteria or their metabolites into the liver through the portal vein, and the liver-gut axis is important to understand the pathophysiology of several liver diseases, especially non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. Moreover, gut microbiota play a significant role in the development of alcoholic liver disease and hepatocarcinogenesis. Based on these previous findings, trials using probiotics have been performed for the prevention or treatment of liver diseases. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the changes in gut microbiota associated with various liver diseases, and we describe the therapeutic trials of probiotics for those diseases. PMID:25684933

  20. Kinetics of IFN-Gamma and TNF-Alpha Gene Expression and Their Relationship with Disease Progression after Infection with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Roh, In Soon; Cho, Sungae; Eum, Seok-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Guinea pig is one of the most suitable animal models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) infection since it shows similarities to pulmonary infection in humans. Although guinea pig shows hematogenous spread of M. tb infection into the whole body, immunological studies have mainly focused on granulomatous tissues in lungs and spleens. In order to investigate the time-course of disease pathogenesis and immunological profiles in each infected organ, we performed the following approaches with guinea pigs experimentally infected with M. tb over a 22-week post-infection period. Materials and Methods We examined body weight changes, M. tb growth curve, cytokine gene expression (IFN-γ and TNF-α), and histopathology in liver, spleen, lungs and lymph nodes of infected guinea pigs. Results The body weights of infected guinea pigs did not increase as much as uninfected ones and the number of M. tb bacilli in their organs increased except bronchotracheal lymph node during the experimental period. The gene expression of IFN-γ and TNF-α was induced between 3 and 6 weeks of infection; however, kinetic profiles of cytokine gene expression showed heterogeneity among organs over the study period. Histophathologically granulomatous lesions were developed in all four organs of infected guinea pigs. Conclusion Although IFN-γ and TNF-α gene expression profiles showed heterogeneity, the granuloma formation was clearly observed in every organ regardless of whether the number of bacilli increased or decreased. However, this protective immunity was accompanied with severe tissue damage in all four organs, which may lead to the death of guinea pigs. PMID:23549819

  1. Imaging in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Monti, L; Soglia, G; Tomà, P

    2016-05-01

    Liver transplantation has become an established curative treatment in adult patients with acute or chronic end-stage liver diseases. In pediatric cases the number of cadaveric donor livers is not sufficient and to overcome the shortage of appropriate-sized whole liver grafts, technical variants of liver transplantation have been practiced. Reduced-size cadaveric and split cadaveric allografts have become an important therapeutic option, expanding the availability of size-appropriate organs for pediatric recipients with terminal liver disease. The number of pediatric deaths awaiting liver transplantation has been reduced by the introduction of living-related liver transplantation, developed to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children. It is important for radiologists to know that children have distinct imaging of liver transplantation that distinguish them from adults. A multidisciplinary pediatric liver transplantation team should be skilled in pediatric conditions and in associated processes, risks and complications. Radiologists should know the common pediatric liver diseases that lead to liver transplantation, the anastomotic techniques and the expected postoperative imaging findings. The aim of this study is to illustrate the role of non-invasive imaging such us ultrasonography, color Doppler ultrasonography, multidetector computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of pediatric liver transplantation and in potential liver donors. PMID:26909515

  2. HCV in liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Germani, Giacomo; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Papastergiou, Vasilios; Burroughs, Andrew K

    2013-01-01

    HCV-related cirrhosis represents the leading indication for liver transplantation in the Western countries. HCV reinfection after liver transplantation occurs in virtually all patients transplanted for HCV-related liver disease Histological evidence of chronic HCV infection develops in 50 to 90 % of patients by 12 months after liver transplantation, and cirrhosis occurs in about 20 % of patients within 5 years after transplant. Several studies have evaluated host, viral, and transplant-related factors that might be associated with the severity of HCV recurrence. Among host factors, immunosuppression is one of the major factors that accounts for accelerated HCV recurrence and it has been an area of extensive research and controversy. Donor age, steatosis, and immunogenetic factors are also relevant in determining the outcome in patients transplanted for HCV-related cirrhosis. A major step to prevent complications of HCV recurrence related to the rapid fibrosis is the posttransplant antiviral treatment. Two strategies have been tried: pre-emptive or other strategies as soon as possible after liver transplantation or elective therapy once there is histological evidence of recurrent hepatitis C. Retransplantation due to graft failure from recurrent hepatitis C is rarely an option in the era of organ shortage as it is associated with poor outcome, but many case needs to be considered early in the evolution of disease. New antivirals may change the outcome dramatically of patients transplanted for HCV cirrhosis. PMID:22829333

  3. Anesthesia for liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) have complex problems such as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), hepatic encephalopathy, intracranial hypertension, (ICP), left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), high Model of end liver disease (MELD) scores, hyponatremia, and coagulopathies. The anesthesia management for liver transplantation can be very complex, dynamic and challenging. Anesthesia agents affect hepatic blood flow and anesthetic drug distribution, metabolism and elimination maybe altered in end stage liver disease. Other non-anesthetic agents such as nitric oxide, epoprosterenol, THAM, hypertonic saline, fibrinogen concentrates, fresh frozen plasma, platelets, packed red blood cells, recombinant plasminogen activator, calcium chloride, epinephrine etc. may play a vital role in the perioperative management of these patients. Intraoperative hemostasis and coagulation management can be very arduous as these patients may bleed or be at risk for thrombosis. Monitoring modalities such as Thromboelastography (TEG), Transcranial Doppler (TCD), Transesophageal Echocardiography (TEE), Bispectral Index (BIS) and Optic Nerve Sheath Diameter (ONSD) ultrasound play a significant role in various circumstances. Surgical techniques include complete or partial occlusion of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with or without use of venovenous bypass (VVBP) or portocaval shunts. Post reperfusion syndrome (PRS) is a crucial event in this procedure, where patients may experience arrhythmia and/or cardiac arrest. Anesthetic handling of this phase has been recapitulated in detail. Provision of anesthesia services to the living liver transplant donor and pain management has been outlined. PMID:26118926

  4. Angiogenesis and liver fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Elpek, Gülsüm Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Recent data indicate that hepatic angiogenesis, regardless of the etiology, takes place in chronic liver diseases (CLDs) that are characterized by inflammation and progressive fibrosis. Because anti-angiogenic therapy has been found to be efficient in the prevention of fibrosis in experimental models of CLDs, it is suggested that blocking angiogenesis could be a promising therapeutic option in patients with advanced fibrosis. Consequently, efforts are being directed to revealing the mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during the progression of liver fibrosis. Literature evidences indicate that hepatic angiogenesis and fibrosis are closely related in both clinical and experimental conditions. Hypoxia is a major inducer of angiogenesis together with inflammation and hepatic stellate cells. These profibrogenic cells stand at the intersection between inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis and play also a pivotal role in angiogenesis. This review mainly focuses to give a clear view on the relevant features that communicate angiogenesis with progression of fibrosis in CLDs towards the-end point of cirrhosis that may be translated into future therapies. The pathogenesis of hepatic angiogenesis associated with portal hypertension, viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease are also discussed to emphasize the various mechanisms involved in angiogenesis during liver fibrogenesis. PMID:25848465

  5. Exosomes in liver pathology.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keisaku; Meng, Fanyin; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco

    2016-07-01

    Exosomes are small (∼100nm) membrane-bound extracellular vesicles released by various types of cells into biological fluids. They contain proteins, mRNAs and miRNAs as cargo. Different cell types can take up exosomes by endocytosis and the cargo contained within them can be transferred horizontally to these recipient cells. Exosomal proteins and miRNAs can be functional and regulate physiological cell events modifying the microenvironment in target cells, a key event of liver pathology. Exosome-mediated cell-cell communication can alter tumor growth, cell migration, antiviral infection and hepatocyte regeneration, indicating that exosomes have great potential for development as diagnostic or therapeutic tools. Analyses of circulating total or exosomal miRNAs have identified a large number of candidate miRNAs that are regulated in liver diseases, and the diagnostic testing using single or multiple miRNAs shows good sensitivity and specificity. Some candidate miRNAs have been identified to play an important role in various liver disorders. This review summarizes recent findings on the role of extracellular vesicles in liver diseases and their diagnostic and therapeutic potential, mainly focusing on exosomes but also includes microvesicles in liver pathology. PMID:26988731

  6. Stereoscopic liver surface reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Karwan, Adam; Rudnicki, Jerzy; Wróblewski, Tadeusz

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a practical approach to measuring liver motion, both respiratory and laparoscopic, with a tool guided in the operating room. The presented method is based on standard operating room equipment, i.e. rigid laparoscopic cameras and a single incision laparoscopic surgery trocar. The triangulation algorithm is used and stereo correspondence points are marked manually by two independent experts. To calibrate the cameras two perpendicular chessboards, a pinhole camera model and a Tsai algorithm are used. The data set consists of twelve real liver surgery video sequences: ten open surgery and two laparoscopic, gathered from different patients. The setup equipment and methodology are presented. The proposed evaluation method based on both calibration points of the chessboard reconstruction and measurements made by the Polaris Vicra tracking system are used as a reference system. In the analysis stage we focused on two specific goals, measuring respiration and laparoscopic tool guided liver motions. We have presented separate examples for left and right liver lobes. It is possible to reconstruct liver motion using the SILS trocar. Our approach was made without additional position or movement sensors. Diffusion of cameras and laser for distance measurement seems to be less practical for in vivo laparoscopic data, but we do not exclude exploring such sensors in further research. PMID:23256023

  7. PIG-TO-MONKEY ISLET XENOTRANSPLANTATION USING MULTI-TRANSGENIC PIGS

    PubMed Central

    Bottino, R.; Wijkstrom, M.; van der Windt, D.J.; Hara, H.; Ezzelarab, M.; Murase, N.; Bertera, S.; He, J.; Phelps, C.; Ayares, D.; Cooper, D.K.C.; Trucco, M.

    2014-01-01

    The generation of pigs with genetic modifications has significantly advanced the field of xenotransplantation. New genetically-engineered pigs were produced on an α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout background with ubiquitous expression of human CD46 (GTKO/CD46 pigs), with islet beta cell-specific expression of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (hTFPI) and/or human CD39 and/or porcine CTLA4-lg. Isolated islets from pigs with 3, 4, or 5 genetic modifications were transplanted intraportally into streptozotocin-diabetic, immunosuppressed cynomolgus monkeys (n=5). Immunosuppression was based on anti-CD154mAb costimulation blockade. Monitoring included features of early islet destruction, glycemia, exogenous insulin requirement, and histopathology of the islets at necropsy. Using these modified pig islets, there was evidence of reduced islet destruction in the first hours after transplantation, compared with two series of historical controls that received identical therapy but were transplanted with islets from pigs with either no or only one genetic modification. Despite encouraging effects on early islet loss, these multi-transgenic islet grafts did not demonstrate consistency in regard to long-term success, with only 2 of 5 demonstrating function beyond 5 months. PMID:25220221

  8. W5 - If Pigs Could Fly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannon, Trina

    2012-10-01

    Centripetal force seems to be a challenge for students and we are typically using stoppers, string, tubes and slotted masses (that always crash to the floor). But if we use a toy that reminds them of an amusement park ride, we can get the message across and have some fun. Come and see if pigs can fly!

  9. Chlamydia prevalence in Polish pig herds.

    PubMed

    Rypuła, K; Kumala, A; Płoneczka-Janeczko, K; Karuga-Kuźniewska, E; Dudek, K; Chorbiński, P

    2016-09-01

    Chlamydiae are frequently encountered intracellular Gram-negative bacteria. In pigs, these bacteria in combination with other pathogens contribute to the induction of a multi-aetiological syndrome. One of the major characteristics of Chlamydia spp. is their ability to cause prolonged, often subclinical infections. While the economic consequences of Chlamydia spp. infections in pig farms are not fully established, we know that reproductive disorders and other syndromes correlated with Chlamydia infection can lead to financial loss as a result of a reduction in pork production. Additionally, Chlamydia spp. presents a potential zoonotic hazard, therefore determining the prevalence of Chlamydia in pig populations is critical. In the present study 97 pig herds from Poland were involved. To determine the prevalence of Chlamydia PCR and CFT tests were used. In total 797 vaginal samples, 797 conjunctival samples, and 235 serum samples were collected and tested. The study took place from 2011 to 2014. We found Chlamydia spp. present in 71·2% of all tested farms. The percentage of animals testing positive on any given farm varied from 20% to 100%. PMID:27174765

  10. Feeding biofuels co-products to pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other co-products from the fuel ethanol industry may be included in diets fed to pigs in all phases of production. The concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in DDGS and corn germ is similar to corn, but high protein dis...

  11. Dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system for bloodless liver resection surgery.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sheng Chieh; Chang, Yi Yuan; Chao, Ying Jui; Shan, Yan Shen; Lin, Xi Zhang; Lee, Gwo Bin

    2012-03-01

    Electromagnetic thermotherapy has been extensively investigated recently and may become a new surgical modality for a variety of medical applications. It applies a high-frequency alternating magnetic field to heat up magnetic materials inserted within the human body to generate tissue coagulation or cell apoptosis. Using a new procedure with dual-row needle arrays under an electromagnetic thermotherapy system with a feedback temperature control system, this study demonstrates bloodless porcine liver resection, which is challenging using existing methods. In vitro experiments showed that hollowed, stainless-steel needles could be heated up to more than 300 °C within 30 s when centered under the induction coils of the electromagnetic thermotherapy system. In order to generate a wide ablation zone and to prevent the dual-row needle arrays from sticking to the tissue after heating, a constant temperature of 120 °C was applied using a specific treatment protocol. The temperature distribution in the porcine livers was also measured to explore the effective coagulation area. Liver resection was then performed in Lan-Yu pigs. Experimental results showed that seven pigs underwent liver resection without bleeding during surgery and no complications afterward. The dual-row needle arrays combined with the electromagnetic thermotherapy system are thus shown to be promising for bloodless tissue resection. PMID:22194233

  12. Image-guided, Lobe-specific Hydrodynamic Gene Delivery to Swine Liver

    PubMed Central

    Kamimura, Kenya; Suda, Takeshi; Xu, Wei; Zhang, Guisheng; Liu, Dexi

    2009-01-01

    Image-guided, lobe-specific hydrodynamic gene delivery to liver was assessed in pigs. The procedure involved image-guided insertion of a balloon catheter to the hepatic vein of the selected lobe from the jugular vein and hydrodynamic injection of plasmid DNA using a newly developed computer-controlled injection device. We demonstrated that the impact of the procedure was regional with minimal effects on neighboring lobes. Level of gene expression resulted from the procedure was 107 relative light units (RLU)/mg in the targeted lobes and 102–105 RLU/mg in the nontargeted lobes 4 hours after hydrodynamic injection of pCMV-Luc plasmids. Occlusion of blood flow in the inferior vena cava (IVC) or IVC plus portal vein (PV) was effective in elevating hydrodynamic pressure in the targeted vasculature but did not enhance gene delivery efficiency. Physiological examination on pigs with IVC occlusion revealed transient decreases of blood pressure and respiration rate. Removal of occlusion from IVC resulted in a rapid and transient increase in heart rate. Occlusion of the PV and hepatic vein showed no effect on physiological and cardiac activities. No major changes in serum composition were observed. These results suggest that (i) image-guided, lobe-specific hydrodynamic procedure is effective for regional gene delivery to liver, (ii) blockade in IVC should be avoided for hydrodynamic gene delivery to the liver, and (iii) clinical application of hydrodynamic gene delivery to liver is feasible. PMID:19156134

  13. Efficacy evaluation of SurgiGuard® in partially hepatectomized pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Hye Sung; In, Chang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims This study evaluated the hemostatic effects of a novel oxidized regenerated cellulose, SurgiGuard®, during liver surgery, using a reproducible and clinically relevant animal model. Methods Fifteen mini-pigs underwent left partial hepatectomy. They were randomized to treatment of the resected surface with SurgiGuard® (Group C [test], n=5), Surgicel® (Group B [reference], n=5), or nothing (Group A [control], n=5). Blood loss was measured 5, 7 and 9 min after resection. Time to hemostasis was recorded. Mini-pigs were necropsied 4 or 6 weeks postoperatively to evaluate toxicity changes and material dissolution. Results The median resected liver weight was 2.13 g (2.02-2.20) in control group, 2.04 g (2.01-2.13) in reference group, and 2.01 g (1.99-2.12) in test group (p=0.024). Median total blood loss was 57.18 g (52.02-59.54) in control group, 32.52 g (27.66-35.10) in reference group, and 35.52 g (25.70-38.71) in test group (p=0.008). Blood loss at 0-5 minutes and 7-9 minutes was significantly different between groups (p=0.009 and p=0.006, respectively). At necropsy, no hematomas, granulomas, or adhesions were noted in any group. Histopathological analysis revealed no changes suggesting toxicity related to SurgiGuard®. Conclusions SurgiGuard® is as effective as Surgicel® in achieving hemostasis after porcine partial liver resection. PMID:27621746

  14. Kidney Injury in Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Regner, Kevin R; Singbartl, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently in patients with liver disease and increases morbidity and mortality. Hepatorenal syndrome is a common cause of AKI in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and is due to alterations in systemic and renal hemodynamics. Serum creatinine-based estimation of kidney function is a key component of the Model for End-stage Liver Disease score in liver transplant candidates. Continuous renal replacement therapy is used in critically ill patients with liver failure and AKI. Simultaneous liver-kidney transplantation (SLK) may be required in patients with liver failure and prolonged AKI. Identification of appropriate candidates for SLK remains controversial. PMID:27339675

  15. Liver involvement in systemic infection

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    The liver is often involved in systemic infections, resulting in various types of abnormal liver function test results. In particular, hyperbilirubinemia in the range of 2-10 mg/dL is often seen in patients with sepsis, and several mechanisms for this phenomenon have been proposed. In this review, we summarize how the liver is involved in various systemic infections that are not considered to be primarily hepatotropic. In most patients with systemic infections, treatment for the invading microbes is enough to normalize the liver function tests. However, some patients may show severe liver injury or fulminant hepatic failure, requiring intensive treatment of the liver. PMID:25276279

  16. Liver disease in the adolescent.

    PubMed

    Mavis, Alisha M; Alonso, Estella M

    2015-02-01

    This article discusses common liver diseases in the adolescent. Briefly reviewed is the evaluation of the adolescent with new-onset liver enzyme elevation. Then the article discusses common liver diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatitis, metabolic disease, biliary atresia, cystic fibrosis, and inherited disorders of cholestasis. Finally, a management approach to the adolescent with liver disease is outlined, noting the challenges that must be addressed to effectively care for not only liver disease in the adolescent but also the patient as a whole. PMID:25454303

  17. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  18. Liver transplantation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Tacke, Frank; Kroy, Daniela C; Barreiros, Ana Paula; Neumann, Ulf P

    2016-08-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a well-accepted procedure for end-stage liver disease in Germany. In 2015, 1489 patients were admitted to the waiting list (including 1308 new admissions), with the leading etiologies being fibrosis and cirrhosis (n = 349), alcoholic liver disease (n = 302), and hepatobiliary malignancies (n = 220). Organ allocation in Germany is regulated within the Eurotransplant system based on urgency as expressed by the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. In 2015, only 894 LTs (n = 48 from living donors) were performed at 23 German transplant centers, reflecting a shortage of organs. Several factors may contribute to the low number of organ donations. The German transplant legislation only accepts donation after brain death (not cardiac death), whereas advances in neurosurgery and a more frequently requested "palliative care" approach render fewer patients suitable as potential donors. The legislation further requires the active consent of the donor or first-degree relatives before donation. Ongoing debates within the German transplant field address the optimal management of patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and cholangiocarcinoma and measures to increase living donor transplantations. As a result of irregularities at mainly 4 German transplant centers that were exposed in 2012, guiding principles updated by the German authorities have since implemented strict rules (including internal and external auditing, the 8-eyes principle, mandatory repeated testing for alcohol consumption) to prohibit any manipulations in organ allocation. In conclusion, we will summarize important aspects on the management of LT in Germany, discuss legal and organizational aspects, and highlight challenges mainly related to the relative lack of organ donations, increasing numbers of extended criteria donors, and the peculiarities of the recipient patients. Liver Transplantation 22 1136-1142 2016 AASLD. PMID:27082951

  19. Neoplasms of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Okuda, K.; Ishak, K.G.

    1987-01-01

    Primary Liver Cancer is perhaps the most prevalent malignancy in the world, particularly in South East Asia and Africa. After the discovery of hepatitis B virus as a cause of chronic liver disease often terminating cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, and, more recently, the integration of viral DNA into host chromosomal DNA, the progress made in this field has been remarkable. This book contains 35 chapters and covers all topical aspects, such as oncogenes, epidemiology, carcinogenic role of hepatitis viruses, histopathology, new imaging techniques and new treatment modalities that include ultrasound-guided intratumor injections of ethanol and targeting chemotherapy.

  20. Obesity and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Ayloo, Subhashini; Armstrong, John; Hurton, Scott; Molinari, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The percentage of overweight and obese patients (OPs) waiting for a liver transplant continues to increase. Despite the significant advances occurred in bariatric medicine, obesity is still considered a relative contraindication to liver transplantation (LT). The main aim of this review is to appraise the literature on the outcomes of OPs undergoing LT, treatments that might reduce their weight before, during or after surgery, and discuss some of the controversies and limitations of the current knowledge with the intent of highlighting areas where future research is needed. PMID:26421262

  1. Liver and chorion cytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Roels, F; De Prest, B; De Pestel, G

    1995-01-01

    Microscopic visualization of peroxisomes in chorionic villus cytotrophoblast and in biopsy and autopsy samples of liver and kidney, the presence of enlarged liver macrophages containing lipid droplets insoluble in acetone and n-hexane as well as polarizing inclusions formed by stacks of trilamellar sheets are of diagnostic value in peroxisomal disorders. Methods are presented for evaluating these structures by light microscopy; trilamellar inclusions are only detected by electron microscopy. Macrophage features are preserved in archival paraffin blocks. In adrenal cortex, insoluble lipid, polarizing inclusions and trilamellar structures should be looked for. The stains are easily reproducible, and all reagents are commercially available. PMID:9053549

  2. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  3. Plasma exchange-based plasma recycling dialysis system as an artificial liver support.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kentaro; Umehara, Yutaka; Umehara, Minoru; Nishimura, Akimasa; Narumi, Shunji; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Hakamada, Kenichi; Yoshihara, Syuichi; Sasaki, Mutsuo

    2008-08-01

    We developed a plasma recycling dialysis (PRD) system based on plasma exchange (PE). In this system, rapid reduction of toxic substances and restitution of deficient essential substances are performed by PE and subsequent blood purification is performed by dialysis between separated plasma recycled over a purification device and the patient's blood across the membrane of a plasma separator. To demonstrate the safety and efficacy of this system, we used a pig model of fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) and anion exchange resin, activated charcoal and hemodialysis for the purification device. FHF was induced by intraportal administration of alpha-amanitine (0.1 mg/kg) and lipopolysaccharides (1 microg/kg) in pigs. Three groups of animals were studied: group 1, diseased controls (N = 4); group 2, PE group (N = 4), 16 h after drug infusion the pigs underwent PE of approximately 1.2 L for 2 h; and group 3, PE + PRD group (N = 4), the pigs underwent PE followed by PRD for 6 h. The hemodynamic status of all animals was stable during the procedure. In group 3, the values of ammonia, total bile acid and total bilirubin continuously decreased and were significantly lower than those of the animals in group 2 24 h after the induction of FHF. The Fischer ratio was significantly higher than in group 2 after 24 h. Group 3 pigs maintained a higher level of consciousness and survived longer than group 2 pigs. Safety of this PE-based PRD system was demonstrated and the removal of toxic substances was significant. This study confirmed the clinical utility of this system as an artificial liver support. PMID:18789112

  4. The PPAR-α activator fenofibrate fails to provide myocardial protection in ischemia and reperfusion in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ya; Lu, Li; Greyson, Clifford; Rizeq, Mona; Nunley, Karin; Wyatt, Beata; Bristow, Michael R.; Long, Carlin S.; Schwartz, Gregory G.

    2010-01-01

    Rodent studies suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPAR-α) activation reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and infarct size; however, effects of PPAR-α activation in large animal models of myocardial I/R are unknown. We determined whether chronic treatment with the PPAR-α activator fenofibrate affects myocardial I/R injury in pigs. Domestic farm pigs were assigned to treatment with fenofibrate 50 mg·kg−1 ·day−1 orally or no drug treatment, and either a low-fat (4% by weight) or a high-fat (20% by weight) diet. After 4 wk, 66 pigs underwent 90 min low-flow regional myocardial ischemia and 120 min reperfusion under anesthetized open-chest conditions, resulting in myocardial stunning. The high-fat group received an infusion of triglyceride emulsion and heparin during this terminal experiment to maintain elevated arterial free fatty acid (FFA) levels. An additional 21 pigs underwent 60 min no-flow ischemia and 180 min reperfusion, resulting in myocardial infarction. Plasma concentration of fenofibric acid was similar to the EC50 for activation of PPAR-α in vitro and to maximal concentrations achieved in clinical use. Myocardial expression of PPAR-α mRNA was prominent but unaffected by fenofibrate treatment. Fenofibrate increased expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-I mRNA in liver and decreased arterial FFA and lactate concentrations (each P < 0.01). However, fenofibrate did not affect myocardial CPT-I expression, substrate uptake, lipid accumulation, or contractile function during low-flow I/R in either the low- or high-fat group, nor did it affect myocardial infarct size. Despite expression of PPAR-α in porcine myocardium and effects of fenofibrate on systemic metabolism, treatment with this PPAR-α activator does not alter myocardial metabolic or contractile responses to I/R in pigs. PMID:16339839

  5. The Virtual Liver: Modeling Chemical-Induced Liver Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA Virtual Liver (v-Liver) project is aimed at modeling chemical-induced processes in hepatotoxicity and simulating their dose-dependent perturbations. The v-Liver embodies an emerging field of research in computational tissue modeling that integrates molecular and cellul...

  6. Tests of cryogenic pigs for use in liquefied gas pipelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hipple, D. L.; Oneal, W. C.

    1982-09-01

    Pipeline pigs are a key element in the design of a proposed spill test facility whose purpose is to evaluate the hazards of large spills of liquefied gaseous fuels (LGFs). A long pipe runs from the LGF storage tanks to the spill point; to produce a rapid spill, the pipe is filled with LGF and a pig will be pneumatically driven through the pipe to force out the LGF quickly and cleanly. Several pig designs were tested in a 6 inch diameter, 420 foot long pipe to evaluate their performance at liquid-nitrogen temperature and compare it with their performance at ambient temperature. For each test, the pig was placed in one end of the pipe and either water or liquid nitrogen was put into the pipe in front of the pig. Then pressurized drive gas, either nitrogen or helium, was admitted to the pipe behind the pig to push the pig and the fluid ahead of it out the exit nozzle. For some tests, the drive gas supply was shut off when the pig was part way through the pipe as a method of velocity control; in these cases, the pressurized gas trapped behind the pig continued to expand until it pushed the pig the remaining distance out of the pipe.

  7. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P < 0.001), and carcass yield was greater (+2.3%; P < 0.001) in the low RFI compared with the high RFI line; the most-efficient line was also leaner (+3.2% for loin proportion in the carcass, P < 0.001). In both lines, ADFI and ADG were lower when pigs were fed the HF diet (-12.3% and -15%, respectively, relatively to LF diet; P < 0.001). Feeding the HF diet reduced the perirenal fat weight and backfat proportion in the carcass to the same extent in both lines (-27% on average; P < 0.05). Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P < 0.05) in pigs offered the HF diet. The proportion of saturated fatty acids (FA) was lower, but the percentage of PUFA, especially the EFA C18:2 and C18:3, was greater (P < 0.001) in backfat of HF-fed pigs. In both lines, these changes were associated with a marked decrease (P < 0.001) in the activities of two lipogenic enzymes, the fatty acid synthase (FASN) and the malic enzyme, in backfat. For the high RFI line, the hepatic lipid content was greater (P < 0.05) in pigs fed the HF diet than in pigs fed the LF diet, despite a reduced FASN activity (-32%; P < 0.001). In both lines, the HF diet also led to lower glycogen content (-70%) and

  8. Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Patient information Membership Directory (SIR login) Interventional Radiology Interventional Treatments for Liver Disease There are a ... liver that can be treated with nonsurgical, interventional radiology techniques. Portal Hypertension Seen most frequently in patients ...

  9. Plants Consumption and Liver Health

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Yong-Song; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a very important organ with a lot of functions for the host to survive. Dietary components are essential for and can be beneficial or detrimental to the healthy or diseased liver. Plants food is an essential part of the human diet and comprises various compounds which are closely related to liver health. Selected food plants can provide nutritional and medicinal support for liver disease. At the present, the knowledge of the effects of plants on the liver is still incomplete. The most urgent task at the present time is to find the best dietary and medicinal plants for liver health in an endless list of candidates. This review article updates the knowledge about the effects of plants consumption on the health of the liver, putting particular emphasis on the potential beneficial and harmful impact of dietary and medicinal plants on liver function. PMID:26221179

  10. [Hygienic aspects of pig's head meat. 1. Obtaining and processing pigs' heads].

    PubMed

    Bijker, P G; Koolmees, P A

    1988-05-01

    Pigs's head meat is mainly obtained in specialised deboning plants and provides raw materials for the manufacture of meat products and snacks. Few data on hygiene in processing and production of pig's heads or on the bacteriological quality and tissue composition of pig's head meat have so far been published. The object of the present investigation was to supplement these data and to examine the extent to which this quality could be improved by Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP's). A total number of 11 slaughter-houses and 14 deboning plants were studied. Hygiene was assessed by two investigators on the basis of a check list. Temperatures of rooms, heads and head meat were measured. Twenty-one samples (7 x 3) were taken in each of nine deboning plants for bacteriological and histological examination. The investigations carried out in slaughter-houses showed that pig's heads were only washed in five out of eleven slaughter-houses. Cleansing and disinfection of the apparatus used in splitting the carcasses were omitted or merely carried out incidentally during slaughter. Assessment of hygiene in the deboning plants ranged from adequate to satisfactory in 13 out of 14 plants. The average aerobic colony count in Log N g-1 of pig's head meat was 6.7 +/- 0.7; this was 4.4 +/- 0.9 for counts of colony-forming units (CFU) of Enterobacteriaceae. Tonsils, mucous membranes, bone, hair and dirt were found to be present in 8, 13, 21, 39 and 9 per cent of the samples respectively. As a result of the manual cleavage of heads, relatively large bone particles (greater than 8 mm) were detected in the head meat. It is concluded that an improvement of the hygienic quality of pig's head meat can mainly be achieved by taking more care in obtaining pig's heads. PMID:3287680

  11. Prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase and the activation of benzo(a)pyrene to reactive metabolites in vivo in guinea pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Garattini, E.; Coccia, P.; Romano, M.; Jiritano, L.; Noseda, A.; Salmona, M.

    1984-11-01

    The role of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase in the in vivo activation of benzo(a)pyrene to reactive metabolites capable of interacting irreversibly with cellular macromolecules was studied in guinea pig liver, lung, kidney, spleen, small intestine, colon, and brain. DNA and protein covalent binding experiments were made after systemic administration of acetylsalicylic acid (200 mg/kg) followed by radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene (4 microgram/kg). Results are compared with a control situation in which the prostaglandin endoperoxide synthetase inhibitor (acetylsalicylic acid) was not administered. No decrease in the level of DNA or protein benzo(a)pyrene-derived covalent binding was observed in any of the tissues studied.

  12. Increased levels of hepatic and renal metallothionein in the rat and guinea pig after percutaneous application of zinc chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Wormser, U.; BenZakine, S. )

    1991-02-01

    Metallothionein (MT) is a cytoplasmic, low molecular weight, cysteine rich, heat stable protein. It was detected in various organs including liver, spleen, pancreas, testes, lung, intestine, brain, heart, adrenal, lacrimal and parotid glands. The most powerful inducers of metallothionein are cadmium and zinc. Water soluble zinc salts are common contaminants of the environment. In the present study dose-response relationship and the cumulative effect of topically applied zinc chloride have been demonstrated. For comparison, metal-binding protein induction by the same route of exposure has been also tested in the guinea pig.

  13. Structure of rabbit liver fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase at 2.3 A resolution.

    PubMed

    Weeks, C M; Roszak, A W; Erman, M; Kaiser, R; Jörnvall, H; Ghosh, D

    1999-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the R form of rabbit liver fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase (Fru-1,6-Pase; E.C. 3.1.3.11) has been determined by a combination of heavy-atom and molecular-replacement methods. A model, which includes 2394 protein atoms and 86 water molecules, has been refined at 2.3 A resolution to a crystallographic R factor of 0.177. The root-mean-square deviations of bond distances and angles from standard geometry are 0.012 A and 1.7 degrees, respectively. This structural result, in conjunction with recently redetermined amino-acid sequence data, unequivocally establishes that the rabbit liver enzyme is not an aberrant bisphosphatase as once believed, but is indeed homologous to other Fru-1,6-Pases. The root-mean-square deviation of the Calpha atoms in the rabbit liver structure from the homologous atoms in the pig kidney structure complexed with the product, fructose 6-phosphate, is 0.7 A. Fru-1,6-Pases are homotetramers, and the rabbit liver protein crystallizes in space group I222 with one monomer in the asymmetric unit. The structure contains a single endogenous Mg2+ ion coordinated by Glu97, Asp118, Asp121 and Glu280 at the site designated metal site 1 in pig kidney Fru-1,6-Pase R-form complexes. In addition, two sulfate ions, which are found at the positions normally occupied by the 6-phosphate group of the substrate, as well as the phosphate of the allosteric inhibitor AMP appear to provide stability. Met177, which has hydrophobic contacts with the adenine moiety of AMP in pig kidney T-form complexes, is replaced by glycine. Binding of a non-hydrolyzable substrate analog, beta-methyl-fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, at the catalytic site is also examined. PMID:10089399

  14. Coffee and liver health.

    PubMed

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients. PMID:25291138

  15. Solitary liver nodules.

    PubMed

    Fisher, A W; Curry, B; Jacques, J

    1975-05-17

    There has been confusion in the literature over the nomenclature of solitary liver nodules. Several such lesions have recently been reported in patients taking oral contraceptives. Similarities exist between these cases that suggest they may be examples of focal nodular hyperplasia. Here three further cases are presented. The criteria for making the diagnosis and its importance are discussed. PMID:165001

  16. The EPA Liver Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The v-Liver is part of a broader EPA effort on Virtual Tissues (VT) aimed at reducing the magnitude and spectrum of animal testing by integrative in silico and in vitro models, which recapitulate the properties of intact organs. The other VT projects include the Virtual Embryo (...

  17. Ton That Tung's livers.

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S; Azoulay, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    Born in the early 20th century, the Vietnamese surgeon Ton That Tung received his medical education in French colonial Indochina at the fledgling l'Ecole de Médecine de Hanoi, the first indigenous medical school in Southeast Asia. The benefactor of a postgraduate position at the medical school, Ton That Tung subsequently obtained his surgical training at the Phù Doãn Hospital in Hanoi and concurrently developed a passion for the study of liver anatomy, pathology, and surgery. His contributions to an understanding of liver anatomy based on meticulous dissection of autopsy specimens antedated and rivaled later work by the famous Western anatomists Couinaud, Healey, Schroy, and others. Ton That Tung's contributions, however, were overshadowed by the intense national struggles of the Vietnamese to establish independent rule and self-governance from the French and by eventual alignment with eastern bloc Communist countries, thus isolating much of his work behind the "Iron Curtain" until well after the end of the Cold War. Nevertheless, Ton That Tung remains a pioneer in liver anatomy and liver surgery. His commitment to surgical science and, more importantly, to the Vietnamese people stands as a tribute to the tireless pursuit of his ideals. PMID:24335785

  18. Glycosylation and Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Anand; Herrera, Harmin; Block, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer is the 5th most common cancer, but the 2nd leading cause of cancer death, in the world, with more than 700,000 fatalities annually. The major etiology of liver cancer is infection with an hepatotropic virus such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus infection (HCV). While chronic viral infection remains the main cause of liver disease and risk of HCC, rates of non –viral associated HCC are occurring at an alarmingly increasing rate. Like many cancers, survival rates are closely associated with time of detection. If HCC is caught early, survival rates can be as high as 50%. Regrettably, most cases of HCC are caught late where survival rates can be as low as 2–7%. Thus, there has been great interest in discovering serum biomarkers that could be used to identify those with HCC. To this end, many groups have examined the N-linked glycans to identify changes that occur with HCC. As the liver secretes the vast majority of proteins into the serum, this has often been a starting point for study. In serum, alterations in core fucosylation, outer-arm fucosylation, increased sialylation and glycan branching have been observed in patients with HCC. Similar findings have been found directly in HCC tissue suggesting that these glycan changes may play a role in tumor formation and development. PMID:25727150

  19. [Dietotherapy children with liver diseases].

    PubMed

    Pavlovskaia, E V; Strokova, T V; Topil'skaia, N V; Isakova, V A

    2009-01-01

    In children with liver diseases disorders of the nutritional status appear more quickly and delay normal growth and development. Administration of the nutritional support based on nosological and syndromal approaches lets provide optimal conditions for normalization of the liver functions, improves efficiency of therapy and prognosis of the disease. The article contents modern recommendations on the organization of nutrition in children with different liver diseases, correction of metabolic disorders during complications of liver pathology. PMID:20120964

  20. Pig xenogeneic antigen modification with green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase.

    PubMed

    Luo, Y; Wen, J; Luo, C; Cummings, R D; Cooper, D K

    1999-11-01

    Green coffee bean alpha-galactosidase can cleave the terminal alpha-galactose (alphaGal) on oligosaccharides that form the major antigen on pig endothelial cells recognized by primate-specific antibodies. Studies have been made of the conditions under which it is functional (e.g. temperature, pH) and of its biochemical and immunologic effects. Pig-to-rhesus monkey vein transplants were studied to identify the efficiency of the enzyme in delaying hyperacute rejection. When a graft became occluded, biopsies were taken for light microscopy (hematoxylin and eosin), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and immunostaining with Griffonia simplicifolia IB4 lectin (GSIB4), and for IgM, IgG and C3. alpha-Galactosidase was stable for 72-96 h and was effective at 4 degrees C and pH 6.9 (conditions of human liver graft storage), although better function was obtained at 20 degrees C and pH 6.5. Using the porcine PK15 cell assay, the cytotoxicity of human serum was reduced after treatment of the pig cells with the enzyme. In vitro studies demonstrated that porcine veins treated with alpha-galactosidase lost endothelial expression of the Gal epitope within 30 min. SEM, however, demonstrated endothelial damage beginning within 2 h, probably caused by the alpha-galactosidase, as no damage was found in phosphate-buffered saline-treated veins, where the Gal epitope was preserved for >3 h. No change was found in either group on light microscopy. In vivo studies demonstrated that patency of the alpha-galactosidase-treated veins (mean 2.5 h) was longer than that of untreated veins (0.23 h) (P < 0.01). Biopsies showed no GSIB4 lectin staining for alpha-Gal epitopes and much less IgM and C3 deposition in the treated group. Light microscopy and SEM demonstrated more severe endothelial damage, hemorrhage, and fibrin formation in the untreated group. Galactosidase is effective in removing the terminal alphaGal and delays the onset of hyperacute rejection of pig veins transplanted into monkeys