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Sample records for picture archiving communication

  1. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS).

    PubMed

    Honeyman, J C; Frost, M M; Huda, W; Loeffler, W; Ott, M; Staab, E V

    1994-01-01

    Although there has been a recent increase in interest in picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) topics, little has been published to assist the non-technical person in understanding the complexities of the technologies required for a PACS implementation. This issue of Current Problems in Radiology defines each PACS component and explains why each is important in a system design. PACS installations at the University of Florida are used as examples to tie the concepts together. The infrastructure required for PACS consists of the information system interfaces, networks, and databases. Information system interfaces guarantee consistent patient data across all platforms and reduce labor requirements by eliminating duplicate data entry. Data networks move information from the originating location to users around the hospital, clinic, campus, city, or world. In the PACS environment, the data consist of patient and study information as well as images and information about these images. Databases organize the data from multiple sources into a coherent package that can be queried for many different purposes, such as retrieving images, reviewing patient and study information, studying practice statistics, and performing outcomes analysis. PACS components consist of acquisition nodes, archives, and output devices. Acquisition nodes may include "digital modalities" such as CT, MRI, nuclear medicine, and computed radiography (CR), along with devices to convert from analog to digital, such as digitizers and frame grabbers. Options for archives are discussed along with configuration schemes. Output devices include both hard copy (film and paper prints) and soft copy (workstations for display and diagnosis). Finally, a description of the PACS installations at the University of Florida is presented, with comments on some of the difficulties and complexities encountered. A discussion of the cost and benefits of PACS is included, along with a forecast of the future of

  2. From archives to picture archiving and communications systems.

    PubMed

    Verhelle, F; Van den Broeck, R; Osteaux, M

    1995-12-01

    Keeping organised and consistent film archives is a well-known problem in the radiological world. With the introduction of digital modalities (CT, MR,...) the idea of archiving the image data in a non common way was born. The aim is to keep the information in digital form from acquisition to destination, e.g. archives, viewing station, teleradiology, a task that was not as easy as some people believed, due to bare technical possibilities and to the lack of standards concerning medical image data. These reasons made it not so common to integrate components of different origins into a digital Picture Archiving and Communication environment. How should we attempt to integrate the analogue examinations? It is ridiculous to exclude the conventional XR-examination that accounts for more than 70% of the total production. We believe that there will be a migration to light-stimulable phosphor plates, but these are not yet user friendly and certainly not cost effective. We have similar problems of immature technology as we had for the digital modalities. In a first attempt the bridge can be crossed, between the two worlds by means of converters (laser scanner, CCD camera). PACS will become a reality in the future as almost all examinations will be digitalized. We are now in a transition period with its inconveniences, but we will gain a lot soon. The migration from piles of films through a computer assisted radiological archiving system to a full digital environment is sketched in a historical survey. PMID:8576029

  3. Picture archiving and communication in radiology.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Marzia; Nanni, Marinella; Cimarra, Stefania; Crisafulli, Letizia; Campioni, Paolo; Marano, Pasquale

    2003-01-01

    After over 80 years of exclusive archiving of radiologic films, at present, in Radiology, digital archiving is increasingly gaining ground. Digital archiving allows a considerable reduction in costs and space saving, but most importantly, immediate or remote consultation of all examinations and reports in the hospital clinical wards, is feasible. The RIS system, in this case, is the starting point of the process of electronic archiving which however is the task of PACS. The latter can be used as radiologic archive in accordance with the law provided that it is in conformance with some specifications as the use of optical long-term storage media or with electronic track of change. PACS archives, in a hierarchical system, all digital images produced by each diagnostic imaging modality. Images and patient data can be retrieved and used for consultation or remote consultation by the reporting radiologist who requires images and reports of previous radiologic examinations or by the referring physician of the ward. Modern PACS owing to the WEB server allow remote access to extremely simplified images and data however ensuring the due regulations and access protections. Since the PACS enables a simpler data communication within the hospital, security and patient privacy should be protected. A secure and reliable PACS should be able to minimize the risk of accidental data destruction, and should prevent non authorized access to the archive with adequate security measures in relation to the acquired knowledge and based on the technological advances. Archiving of data produced by modern digital imaging is a problem now present also in small Radiology services. The technology is able to readily solve problems which were extremely complex up to some years ago as the connection between equipment and archiving system owing also to the universalization of the DICOM 3.0 standard. The evolution of communication networks and the use of standard protocols as TCP/IP can minimize

  4. Costs and benefits of picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, S H; Arenson, R L

    1994-01-01

    A picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is an electronic and ideally filmless information system for acquiring, sorting, transporting, storing, and electronically displaying medical images. PACS have developed rapidly and are in operation in a number of hospitals. Before widespread adoption of PACSs can occur, however, their cost-effectiveness must be proven. This article introduces the basic components of a PACS. The current PACS cost-analysis literature is reviewed. Some authors conclude that the PACS would pay for itself, while others find the PACS much more expensive. Explanations for these differences are explored. Almost all of these studies focus on direct costs and ignore indirect costs and benefits. The literature characterizing the indirect costs of PACS is reviewed. The authors conclude that there is a need for uniform, well-defined criteria for the calculation of the costs and savings of PACSs. PMID:7850560

  5. Cost-effectiveness prospects of picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed

    Hindel, R; Preger, W

    1988-01-01

    PAC (picture archiving and communication) systems are widely discussed and promoted as the organizational solution to digital image management in a radiology department. For approximately two decades digital imaging has increasingly been used for such diagnostic modalities as CT, DSA, MRI, DR (Digital Radiography) and others. PACS are seen as a step toward high technology integration and more efficient management. Although the acquisition of such technology is investment intensive, there are well-founded projections that prolonged operation will prove cost justified. Such justification can only partly be derived from cost reduction through PAC with respect to present department management--the major justification is preparation for future economic pressures which could make survival of a department without modern technology difficult. Especially in the United States the political climate favors 'competitive medicine' and reduced government support. Seen in this context PACS promises to speed the transition of Health Care Services into a business with tight resource management, cost accounting and marketing. The following paper analyzes cost and revenue in a typical larger Radiology Department, projects various scenarios of cost reduction by means of digital technology and concludes with cautious optimism that the investment expenses for a PACS will be justified in the near future by prudent utilization of high technology. PMID:10312445

  6. Acceptance testing of integrated picture archiving and communications systems.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T E; Horton, M C; Kinsey, T V; Shelton, P D

    1999-05-01

    An integrated picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a large investment in both money and resources. With all of the components and systems contained in the PACS, a methodical set of protocols and procedures must be developed to test all aspects of the PACS within the short time allocated for contract compliance. For the Department of Defense (DoD), acceptance testing (AT) sets the protocols and procedures. Broken down into modules and test procedures that group like components and systems, the AT protocol maximizes the efficiency and thoroughness of testing all aspects of an integrated PACS. A standardized and methodical protocol reduces the probability of functionality or performance limitations being overlooked. The AT protocol allows complete PACS testing within the 30 days allocated by the digital imaging network (DIN)-PACS contract. AT shortcomings identified during the testing phase properly allows for resolution before complete acceptance of the system. This presentation will describe the evolution of the process, the components of the DoD AT protocol, the benefits of the AT process, and its significance to the successful implementation of a PACS. This is a US government work. There are no restrictions on its use. PMID:10342200

  7. Security model for picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed

    Harding, D B; Gac, R J; Reynolds, C T; Romlein, J; Chacko, A K

    2000-05-01

    The modern information revolution has facilitated a metamorphosis of health care delivery wrought with the challenges of securing patient sensitive data. To accommodate this reality, Congress passed the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA). While final guidance has not fully been resolved at this time, it is up to the health care community to develop and implement comprehensive security strategies founded on procedural, hardware and software solutions in preparation for future controls. The Virtual Radiology Environment (VRE) Project, a landmark US Army picture archiving and communications system (PACS) implemented across 10 geographically dispersed medical facilities, has addressed that challenge by planning for the secure transmission of medical images and reports over their local (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) infrastructure. Their model, which is transferable to general PACS implementations, encompasses a strategy of application risk and dataflow identification, data auditing, security policy definition, and procedural controls. When combined with hardware and software solutions that are both non-performance limiting and scalable, the comprehensive approach will not only sufficiently address the current security requirements, but also accommodate the natural evolution of the enterprise security model. PMID:10847401

  8. Future trends in picture archiving and communication system (PACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hajeri, Mona; Clarke, Malcolm

    2015-03-01

    Objective: This research investigates the needs and opinions of radiologists on the use of enhanced information technologies and approaches to improve the functionality of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). Method: Six interviews were conducted in the main governmental hospital in Kuwait (AL-Sabah Hospital) with radiologists, including two senior radiologists, two junior radiologists, and two trainee radiologists undertaking the Irish radiology board. Results: The radiologists identified a number of limitations that exist in current PACS and requirements to enhance usability and functionality. However, it was the case that some of the radiologists had little knowledge about the advanced trends in PACS. Four themes emerged from the thematic analysis of the data: (1) limitations of traditional PACS; (2) Features and requirements that can increase PACS functionality; (3) web based solutions of PACS; (4) PACS in mobile phones. Conclusion: It is widely recognized that PACS has limitations. This research has identified themes that, when incorporated, will enhance the functionality of PACS and provide better quality clinical practice. This research has determined the important future trends of PACS. Primarily web based solutions and use in mobile phones. The findings from this research can be used as recommendations to vendors, for product development and medical institutes to consider when undertaking implementation of PACS and training future radiologists.

  9. The Internet as a Medium of Training for Picture Archival and Communication Systems (PACS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majid, Shaheen; Misra, Ramesh Kumar

    2002-01-01

    Explores the potential of Web-based training for PACS (Picture Archival and Communication Systems) used in radiology departments for the storage and archiving of patients' medical images. Reports results of studies in three hospitals in Malaysia, Singapore and the Philippines that showed that the Internet can be used effectively for training.…

  10. Development and implementation of ultrasound picture archiving and communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Wolfram S.; Tessler, Franklin N.; Grant, Edward G.; Kangarloo, Hooshang; Huang, H. K.

    1990-08-01

    The Department of Radiological Sciences at the UCLA School of Medicine is developing an archiving and communication system (PACS) for digitized ultrasound images. In its final stage the system will involve the acquisition and archiving of ultrasound studies from four different locations including the Center for Health Sciences, the Department for Mental Health and the Outpatient Radiology and Endoscopy Departments with a total of 200-250 patient studies per week. The concept comprises two stages of image manipulation for each ultrasound work area. The first station is located close to the examination site and accomodates the acquisition of digital images from up to five ultrasound devices and provides for instantaneous display and primary viewing and image selection. Completed patient studies are transferred to a main workstation for secondary review, further analysis and comparison studies. The review station has an on-line storage capacity of 10,000 images with a resolution of 512x512 8 bit data to allow for immediate retrieval of active patient studies of up to two weeks. The main work stations are connected through the general network and use one central archive for long term storage and a film printer for hardcopy output. First phase development efforts concentrate on the implementation and testing of a system at one location consisting of a number of ultrasound units with video digitizer and network interfaces and a microcomputer workstation as host for the display station with two color monitors, each allowing simultaneous display of four 512x512 images. The discussion emphasizes functionality, performance and acceptance of the system in the clinical environment.

  11. Modus operandi for a picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Noz, M E; Erdman, W A; Maguire, G Q; Stahl, T J; Tokarz, R J; Menken, K L; Salviani, J A

    1984-07-01

    The authors describe their 18 month experience operating an all digital nuclear medicine department, which led to the development of a system that allows multiple users to access patient reports and images through terminals located in various parts of the hospital. All user interactions are mediated through protocols that automatically acquire, process, display, and archive data. This approach offers distinct advantages over film and paper methods and is applicable in theory to any digital image format. PMID:6729119

  12. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... processing of medical images. Its hardware components may include workstations, digitizers, communications... hardcopy devices. The software components may provide functions for performing operations related to...

  13. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... processing of medical images. Its hardware components may include workstations, digitizers, communications... hardcopy devices. The software components may provide functions for performing operations related to...

  14. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... processing of medical images. Its hardware components may include workstations, digitizers, communications... hardcopy devices. The software components may provide functions for performing operations related to...

  15. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... processing of medical images. Its hardware components may include workstations, digitizers, communications... hardcopy devices. The software components may provide functions for performing operations related to...

  16. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... processing of medical images. Its hardware components may include workstations, digitizers, communications... hardcopy devices. The software components may provide functions for performing operations related to...

  17. A Simulation Model Of A Picture Archival And Communication System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Silva, Vijay; Perros, Harry; Stockbridge, Chris

    1988-06-01

    A PACS architecture was simulated to quantify its performance. The model consisted of reading stations, acquisition nodes, communication links, a database management system, and a storage system consisting of magnetic and optical disks. Two levels of storage were simulated, a high-speed magnetic disk system for short term storage, and optical disk jukeboxes for long term storage. The communications link was a single bus via which image data were requested and delivered. Real input data to the simulation model were obtained from surveys of radiology procedures (Bowman Gray School of Medicine). From these the following inputs were calculated: - the size of short term storage necessary - the amount of long term storage required - the frequency of access of each store, and - the distribution of the number of films requested per diagnosis. The performance measures obtained were - the mean retrieval time for an image, - mean queue lengths, and - the utilization of each device. Parametric analysis was done for - the bus speed, - the packet size for the communications link, - the record size on the magnetic disk, - compression ratio, - influx of new images, - DBMS time, and - diagnosis think times. Plots give the optimum values for those values of input speed and device performance which are sufficient to achieve subsecond image retrieval times

  18. Lessons learned from a whole hospital PACS installation. Picture Archiving and Communication System.

    PubMed

    Pilling, J R

    2002-09-01

    The Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital has incorporated a fully filmless Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) as part of a new hospital provision using PFI funding. The PACS project has been very successful and has met with unanimous acclaim from radiologists and clinicians. A project of this size cannot be achieved without learning some lessons from mistakes and recognising areas where attention to detail resulted in a successful implementation. This paper considers the successes and problems encountered in a large PACS installation. PMID:12384103

  19. An integrated picture archiving and communications system-radiology information system in a radiological department.

    PubMed

    Wiltgen, M; Gell, G; Graif, E; Stubler, S; Kainz, A; Pitzler, R

    1993-02-01

    In this report we present an integrated picture archiving and communication system (PACS)--radiology information system (RIS) which runs as part of the daily routine in the Department of Radiology at the University of Graz. Although the PACS and the RIS have been developed independently, the two systems are interfaced to ensure a unified and consistent long-term archive. The configuration connects four computer tomography scanners (one of them situated at a distance of 1 km), a magnetic resonance imaging scanner, a digital subtraction angiography unit, an evaluation console, a diagnostic console, an image display console, an archive with two optical disk drives, and several RIS terminals. The configuration allows the routine archiving of all examinations on optical disks independent of reporting. The management of the optical disks is performed by the RIS. Images can be selected for retrieval via the RIS by using patient identification or medical criteria. A special software process (PACS-MONITOR) enables the user to survey and manage image communication, archiving, and retrieval as well as to get information about the status of the system at any time and handle the different procedures in the PACS. The system is active 24 hours a day. To make the PACS operation as independent as possible from the permanent presence of a system manager (electronic data processing expert), a rule-based expert system (OPERAS; OPERating ASsistant) is in use to localize and eliminate malfunctions that occur during routine work. The PACS-RIS reduces labor and speeds access to images within radiology and clinical departments. PMID:8439578

  20. The Conquest Hospital picture archiving and communications system development, 1992 to 1999.

    PubMed

    Foord, K; Tomlinson, N

    1999-05-01

    Conquest Hospital was a UK regional development site for a pre-Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The initial system was installed in mid 1992. Identification has been made of data transfer, ergonomic and single point of failure issues in the original PACS, which was called "iLAN." This has informed respecification of a DICOM/HTML PACS, the first stages of which have been hospital renetworking and installation of new DICOM 3.0 computed radiography/fluorography and computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging segments. Final PACS elements are at contract stage. Plans are being completed for linkage of PACS to a clinical information system to create a comprehensive electronic patient record system. PMID:10342218

  1. Accessing picture archiving and communication system text and image information through personal computers.

    PubMed

    Ramaswamy, M R; Wong, A W; Lee, J K; Huang, H K

    1994-11-01

    Recent advances in storage technology have made possible the archiving of tremendous amounts of text and image information within a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). However, a radiologist's access to this information typically has been limited to viewing workstations designed primarily to support clinical activities. Unfortunately, these workstations often overlook the benefits of PACS in teaching and research applications, which are of significant importance in an academic institution. To support such activities at our own institution, we have included two major objectives in our second-generation PACS development: (1) to provide access to text and image information archived within our PACS in an environment that is easily accessible to and comfortable for our radiologists, namely, their own Macintosh (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA) personal computers; and (2) to provide this information in standard Macintosh formats, so that tools with which radiologists are already familiar can be used in frequently performed teaching activities--the production of slides and prints, the maintenance of personal teaching and research files, and specialized image analysis and processing. PMID:7976909

  2. Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) implementation, integration & benefits in an integrated health system.

    PubMed

    Mansoori, Bahar; Erhard, Karen K; Sunshine, Jeffrey L

    2012-02-01

    The availability of the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) has revolutionized the practice of radiology in the past two decades and has shown to eventually increase productivity in radiology and medicine. PACS implementation and integration may bring along numerous unexpected issues, particularly in a large-scale enterprise. To achieve a successful PACS implementation, identifying the critical success and failure factors is essential. This article provides an overview of the process of implementing and integrating PACS in a comprehensive health system comprising an academic core hospital and numerous community hospitals. Important issues are addressed, touching all stages from planning to operation and training. The impact of an enterprise-wide radiology information system and PACS at the academic medical center (four specialty hospitals), in six additional community hospitals, and in all associated outpatient clinics as well as the implications on the productivity and efficiency of the entire enterprise are presented. PMID:22212425

  3. Department of Defense picture archiving and communication system acceptance testing: results and identification of problem components.

    PubMed

    Allison, Scott A; Sweet, Clifford F; Beall, Douglas P; Lewis, Thomas E; Monroe, Thomas

    2005-09-01

    The PACS implementation process is complicated requiring a tremendous amount of time, resources, and planning. The Department of Defense (DOD) has significant experience in developing and refining PACS acceptance testing (AT) protocols that assure contract compliance, clinical safety, and functionality. The DOD's AT experience under the initial Medical Diagnostic Imaging Support System contract led to the current Digital Imaging Network-Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (DIN-PACS) contract AT protocol. To identify the most common system and component deficiencies under the current DIN-PACS AT protocol, 14 tri-service sites were evaluated during 1998-2000. Sixteen system deficiency citations with 154 separate types of limitations were noted with problems involving the workstation, interfaces, and the Radiology Information System comprising more than 50% of the citations. Larger PACS deployments were associated with a higher number of deficiencies. The most commonly cited systems deficiencies were among the most expensive components of the PACS. PMID:15924273

  4. The philosophy of benchmark testing a standards-based picture archiving and communications system.

    PubMed

    Richardson, N E; Thomas, J A; Lyche, D K; Romlein, J; Norton, G S; Dolecek, Q E

    1999-05-01

    The Department of Defense issued its requirements for a Digital Imaging Network-Picture Archiving and Communications System (DIN-PACS) in a Request for Proposals (RFP) to industry in January 1997, with subsequent contracts being awarded in November 1997 to the Agfa Division of Bayer and IBM Global Government Industry. The Government's technical evaluation process consisted of evaluating a written technical proposal as well as conducting a benchmark test of each proposed system at the vendor's test facility. The purpose of benchmark testing was to evaluate the performance of the fully integrated system in a simulated operational environment. The benchmark test procedures and test equipment were developed through a joint effort between the Government, academic institutions, and private consultants. Herein the authors discuss the resources required and the methods used to benchmark test a standards-based PACS. PMID:10342251

  5. The design and implementation of a picture archiving and communication system for pediatric radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Taira, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    The methods for viewing and managing radiological images have remained relatively unchanged for several decades. Inefficiencies in the current system result in mismanaged films and delays in medical reporting. This study presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a novel picture archiving and communication system (PACS) within the pediatric radiology section of a 500-bed teaching hospital. The system is composed of an integrated network of computerized devices used to digitally acquire, store, manage, display, and process radiological images. The key PACS issues covered in this dissertation include: (a) definition of data, processing, and user requirements, (b) software and hardware integration of various radiological imaging subsystems, (c) design of an efficient database structure which manages several thousand megabytes of information, (d) system performance tuning, (e) development of an acceptable user interface to a six-monitor 512 {times} 512 line CRT workstation, and (f) clinical evaluation.

  6. Interest of including trauma photography in the picture archiving and communication system of a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Bronsard, N; Chignon Sicard, B; Amoretti, N; Rottier, H; Ertz, P; de Peretti, F

    2015-05-01

    Digital imaging is a daily practice in traumatology. Such photographs should remain confidential. However, there is a need for objectivity concerning the circumstances and clinical follow-up for trauma patients. This paper describes how to conserve these photographs within the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) safely as regards identity and confidentiality. A computer converts the photographs into DICOM files. The DICOM image is associated to a reconciliation layer, validated by the physician in charge, and then included in the hospital PACS. This improves transmission from one medical team to another, both initially and after the accident if an expert medical opinion is required. The literature has demonstrated the value of photographs in modern medicine, but the technical and legal challenges are many. They enhance the computerized medical records. Identification, confidentiality and integration in the PACS are obstacles that we have now overcome. PMID:25817905

  7. Understanding financing options for PACS implementation. Picture archiving and communication systems.

    PubMed

    Reiner, B; Siegel, E

    2000-05-01

    The acquisition of expensive equipment such as picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) becomes increasingly difficult as capital budgets become tighter. Traditional ownership financing options in the form of direct purchase or financing (loan) have several limitations including technology obsolescence, higher fixed pricing, limited options for equipment disposal, and the need to tie up valuable capital. Alternative financing options, in the form of conventional lease and risk sharing arrangements, offer several theoretical advantages including technology obsolescence protection in the form of built-in upgrades, preservation of borrowing power, multiple end-of-term options, and payment flexibility (which can be directly tied to realized productivity and operational efficiency gains). These options are discussed, with emphasis on the acquisition of PACS. PMID:10843249

  8. Picture archiving and communications systems protocol based on ISO-OSI standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Nam, Jiseung; Dallas, William J.; Osada, Masakazu; McNeill, Kevin M.; Ozeki, Takeshi; Komatsu, Ken-Ichi

    1991-07-01

    During the last decade, the concept of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) has evolved and matured to integrate digital image information in a hospital. PACS integrates various imaging devices, database archive systems, and image viewing workstations. One of the most difficult problems for integration is the standardization of communication protocols required to connect devices from different vendors. When the ACR-NEMA standard was announced for communications in digital radiology in 1985, it solved some of the problems for PACS with a hardware interface, a set of software commands, and a consistent set of data formats. However, it has been found to be inadequate for networked PACS environments, not only because of its point-to-point nature and lack of a network layer, but also because of its inflexibility to allow other services and protocols to be added in the future. Based on previous experience, the case is made for a new standard for PACS networks and a suggested approach for new protocol is presented. This paper addresses the development of a new standard for PACS protocol layers and attempts to define the protocols from a layered-systems approach. The basis for the new protocol definition is primarily the International Organization for Standardization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI) protocols and the data format portion of ACR-NEMA standard. The scope and rationale of the proposed protocol, background, and relationship to PACS technology are discussed. The proposed PACS protocol covers the protocol service definition and specification for the application, presentation, session, transport, and network layers. The proposed PACS protocol is intended to facilitate the development of PACSs by several vendors capable of interfacing with each other. The new PACS protocols will also support a global PACS environment.

  9. Picture archiving and communication system-asynchronous transfer mode network in a midsized hospital.

    PubMed

    Verma, R C; Wu, H M; Duerinckx, A J; Landowski, L; Schiepers, C; Rooholamini, S A

    1997-08-01

    This article describes the pathway to full implementation of a hospital information system-picture archiving and communication system-wide area network (HIS-PACS-WAN) in a 300-bed acute care hospital, and the linking of that system to two other off-site medical centers. The PACS included direct digital capture of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, nuclear medicine, and ultrasonography images into an Olicon archive. Plain radiographs and fluoroscopy images were digitized manually and archived into an Olicon system. The active archive included current images on each Olicon workstation and the juke box. Long-term archiving of the images on removable optical discs, which would be loaded manually by an operator every time a request for one of these studies appeared on the operator's monitor, also was implemented. Ability to store, retrieve, and display simultaneously the physician's report of each procedure along with the images was an ultimate goal. The WAN is to be used for teleradiology and teleconferencing among the three medical centers involved in this study as well as other off-site locations. Phase I included the design and installation of the local area network (LAN) in the Department of Radiology at Olive View-UCLA Medical Center. This included the clinics and the inpatient and hospital-wide fiber-optic network and its linkage to the local telephone company. Phase II involved linkage of the Olicon workstations to imaging equipment. This implementation has been delayed significantly because of inadequate needs assessment, absence of planning for forward-compatibility to imaging equipment, and incompatibilities in DICOM conformance among vendors. Every PACS project must include an in-depth needs analysis, which should be updated yearly because of rapid turnover of technology. Although this analysis should have a heavy emphasis on clinical needs, it must incorporate the hospital-wide needs for an integrated information systems network

  10. Prototype development and implementation of picture archiving and communications systems based on ISO-OSI standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Ralph; Nam, Jiseung

    1992-07-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) is an integration of digital image formation in a hospital, which encompasses various imaging equipment, image viewing workstations, image databases, and a high speed network. The integration requires a standardization of communication protocols to connect devices from different vendors. The American College of Radiology and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (ACR- NEMA) standard Version 2.0 provides a point-to-point hardware interface, a set of software commands, and a consistent set of data formats for PACS. But, it is inadequate for PACS networking environments, because of its point-to-point nature and its inflexibility to allow other services and protocols in the future. Based on previous experience of PACS developments in The University of Arizona, a new communication protocol for PACS networks and an approach were proposed to ACR-NEMA Working Group VI. The defined PACS protocol is intended to facilitate the development of PACS''s capable of interfacing with other hospital information systems. Also, it is intended to allow the creation of diagnostic information data bases which can be interrogated by a variety of distributed devices. A particularly important goal is to support communications in a multivendor environment. The new protocol specifications are defined primarily as a combination of the International Organization for Standardization/Open Systems Interconnection (ISO/OSI), TCP/IP protocols, and the data format portion of ACR-NEMA standard. This paper addresses the specification and implementation of the ISO-based protocol into a PACS prototype. The protocol specification, which covers Presentation, Session, Transport, and Network layers, is summarized briefly. The protocol implementation is discussed based on our implementation efforts in the UNIX Operating System Environment. At the same time, results of performance comparison between the ISO and TCP/IP implementations are presented

  11. Design and operation of a nuclear medicine picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Brown, P H; Krishnamurthy, G T

    1990-07-01

    Construction of a new Veterans Administration Medical Center provided a unique opportunity to design and implement a state-of-the-art nuclear medicine department in a large teaching and research hospital. The new medical center allowed the acquisition of all new gamma cameras and computer systems without any historical need to patch together a system of old and new equipment. The picture archiving and communication system (PACS) was designed to link five gamma cameras to four image viewing areas, followed by digital archive on an optical disc. The gamma cameras' computers and viewing areas' computers are linked to a central networking computer in a manner that provides nine independent but digitally communicating image computers. Each nuclear medicine computer is capable of acquiring gamma camera data while possibly also performing up to three other simultaneous tasks: analysis of image data, transfer of image data from node to node, and patient database manipulation. The nine image computers each appear to the user as a digital file cabinet, containing various folders, which in turn contain patient studies. To transfer a patient study from one location to another, the user simply queues a transfer request by selecting a file drawer-folder combination for the source and destination locations. It takes only a few seconds to queue a transfer request, and the transfer is complete about a minute later without any further user intervention. A computer genie awakens during the early morning off-hours and performs housekeeping tasks, including movement of patient studies (based on date of acquisition) from active viewing folders to inactive archive folders. All scheduling, workload data, patient image reports, etc, are handled by a patient textual information database system. Patient reports and scheduling information are transmitted to the medical center's central computer where they are made readily available throughout the medical center. The PACS, in clinical use

  12. Ergonomics evaluation of Picture Archiving and Communication System implementations in two X-ray departments.

    PubMed

    Lindbeck, L; Höglund, U

    2008-02-01

    Two large X-ray departments in the County of Stockholm have changed from traditional analogue technology to digital imaging, including the implementation of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). One of the departments was moved to a completely new purpose-built building and equipped with the latest technology, but for the other one the change merely meant rebuilding and adaptation of existing rooms on the premises. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the ergonomics effects of the new technique in the two X-ray departments and to find out whether the implementation of digital imaging technique came up to expectations of improved ergonomics and work environment. Another purpose was to compare the outcomes for the two departments, in order to learn about the importance of the different implementation approaches. Questionnaires were sent out to the two departments both before the implementation of PACS and after the transition. The questionnaires covered several aspects of work conditions, such as working time, the physical and psychosocial environment, physical work load and musculoskeletal complaints, expectations from the digital technology, etc. The changeover went better than expected and even high expectations were fulfilled and surpassed. However, there were also some unexpected and distressing results; for example, a substantial increase in headaches and musculoskeletal symptoms as well as the use of pain killers among the radiologists of one of the X-ray departments. PMID:17852369

  13. Content-based image retrieval in picture archiving and communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Jianguo; Hua, Yanqing; Zhang, Guozhen; Huang, H. K.

    2006-03-01

    Traditionally, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) use textual-based retrieval, which have their limitations. General-purposed content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems often do not perform well in medical images and are not integrated with PACS and Radiology Information System (RIS). In this presentation we design a CBIR system that is integrated with PACS and RIS, by using a user-supplied query image to retrieve similar images from PACS and get corresponding reports from RIS. We also employ ACR index for radiological diagnosis to reduce the search space and to provide meaningful results in our CBIR system. We use high resolution CT lung images as the test data. A key image is selected for each series, and after a radiologist delineates the pathology bearing region, local texture features as well as ACR indexes and series UID are stored in a CBIR server. Series UID can be used to retrieve images from PACS and to obtain corresponding reports from RIS. The system is a useful learning tool for radiology education and can provide valuable references for radiologists when a new case comes.

  14. Work practice changes caused by the introduction of a picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ping; Hilton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    We studied the acceptance of work practice changes six months after the introduction of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in New South Wales. A one-page questionnaire was developed to assess doctors' and nurses' acceptance of work practice changes. Over 100 subjects were surveyed and 76 responded. In all, 92% of participants worked in the intensive-care unit (ICU) or the emergency department (ED). The results showed that the PACS had received a high level of acceptance. The respondents would not like to return to a film-based practice. They were happy with the accessibility of images, especially when patients returned from an X-ray examination. At the time of survey, the doctors still had difficulty in remembering their user name and password. The users rarely or only sometimes used their own user names and passwords to log on the system. They were sometimes annoyed by the automatic time-out function. Nurses were happy that the PACS relieved their burden of searching for X-ray images for doctors. However, they distanced themselves from accessing the PACS, which they regarded as a doctors' tool. PMID:16375815

  15. Experience and design recommendations for picture archiving and communication systems in the surgical setting.

    PubMed

    Pomerantz, S M; Siegel, E L; Protopapas, Z; Reiner, B I; Pickar, E R

    1996-08-01

    An analysis of the efficacy of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in the surgical domain was undertaken at the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Interviews with surgeons and staff were conducted and supplemented by direct radiologist observation in the operating room (OR) and surgical outpatient clinic to determine patterns of routine clinical PACS use, levels of satisfaction both within and outside of the OR, and perceptions of the relative efficacy of the system in comparison to film. These data as well as suggestions from the surgical staff members were used to make recommendations for specific modifications in PACS design and operation to improve the current system and to help prescribe design improvements for future PAC systems. A high level of satisfaction with the system was found and the use of PACS was favored over film by a majority of surgeons and their staff. Findings of this study suggest that the design of a hospital-wide PAC system must have the flexibility to accommodate the specific requirements of a wide variety of end-users in their unique hospital environments. PMID:8854262

  16. Electronic teaching files: seven-year experience using a commercial picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Siegel, E; Reiner, B

    2001-06-01

    With the advent of electronic imaging and the internet, the ability to create, search, access, and archive digital imaging teaching files has dramatically improved. Despite the fact that a picture archival and communication system (PACS) has the potential to greatly simplify the creation of, archival, and access to a department or multifacility teaching file, this potential has not yet been satisfactorily realized in our own and most other PACS installations. Several limitations of the teaching file tools within our PACS have become apparent over time. These have, at our facility, resulted in a substantially reduced role of the teaching file tools for conferences, daily teaching, and research purposes. With the PACS at our institution, academic folders can only be created by the systems engineer, which often serves as an impediment to the teaching process. Once these folders are created, multiple steps are required to identify the appropriate folders, and subsequently save images. Difficulties exist for those attempting to search for the teaching file images. Without pre-existing knowledge of the folder name and contents, it is difficult to query the system for specific images. This is due to the fact that there is currently no fully satisfactory mechanism for categorizing, indexing, and searching cases using the PACS. There is currently no easy mechanism to save teaching, research, or clinical files onto a CD or other removable media or to automatically strip demographic or other patient information from the images. PACS vendors should provide much more sophisticated tools to create and annotate teaching file images in an easy to use but standard format (possibly Radiological Society of North America's Medical Image Resource Center [MIRC] format) that could be exchanged with other sites and other vendors' PAC systems. The privilege to create teaching or conference files should be given to the individual radiologists, technologists, and other users, and an audit

  17. Relevant priors prefetching algorithm performance for a picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Andriole, K P; Avrin, D E; Yin, L; Gould, R G; Luth, D M; Arenson, R L

    2000-05-01

    Proper prefetching of relevant prior examinations from a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) archive, when a patient is scheduled for a new imaging study, and sending the historic images to the display station where the new examination is expected to be routed and subsequently read out, can greatly facilitate interpretation and review, as well as enhance radiology departmental workflow and PACS performance. In practice, it has proven extremely difficult to implement an automatic prefetch as successful as the experienced fileroom clerk. An algorithm based on defined metagroup categories for examination type mnemonics has been designed and implemented as one possible solution to the prefetch problem. The metagroups such as gastrointestinal (GI) tract, abdomen, chest, etc, can represent, in a small number of categories, the several hundreds of examination types performed by a typical radiology department. These metagroups can be defined in a table of examination mnemonics that maps a particular mnemonic to a metagroup or groups, and vice versa. This table is used to effect the prefetch rules of relevance. A given examination may relate to several prefetch categories, and preferences are easily configurable for a particular site. The prefetch algorithm metatable was implemented in database structured query language (SQL) using a many-to-many fetch category strategy. Algorithm performance was measured by analyzing the appropriateness of the priors fetched based on the examination type of the current study. Fetched relevant priors, missed relevant priors, fetched priors that were not relevant to the current examination, and priors not fetched that were not relevant were used to calculate sensitivity and specificity for the prefetch method. The time required for real-time requesting of priors not previously prefetched was also measured. The sensitivity of the prefetch algorithm was determined to be 98.3% and the specificity 100%. Time required for on

  18. Radiology information systems, picture archiving and communication systems, teleradiology--overview and design criteria.

    PubMed

    Roberson, G H; Shieh, Y Y

    1998-11-01

    Information technology (IT), long taken for granted in commercial settings, is now being utilized for health-care applications. Medical imaging has lagged comparatively due to the extremely vast data content of each frame; thus, the requirement for expensive high-end components. Further, IT in radiology has evolved from two distinctly separate camps--information systems, known as RIS (radiology information systems) and PACS (picture archiving and communications systems). Both RIS and PACS applications have migrated to the PC environment, enabling cost-effective implementation, but from two backgrounds: RIS from vendors using conventional information systems platforms and products, and PACS from radiographic film and modality vendors. The radiology department at Texas Tech University has assembled a seamlessly integrated, enterprise-wide RIS/PACS/teleradiology intranet. The design criteria include user-friendliness, flexibility to respond to changing needs, and open modular architecture to assure interoperability, cost-effectiveness, and future-proofing of investment. Since no single venor could provide an integrated system meeting our specifications, we decided to assume the burden of constructing our own system. As the system integrator, we embrace open architecture, thus enabling the incorporation of industry-standard-compliant, COTS (commercially off the shelf) products as modules. Microsoft Windows NT operating system, Visual C++ programming language, TCP/IP (transmission control protocol/internetworking protocol), relational SQL (structured query language) database, ODBC (open database connectivity), HL-7 (health level seven) and DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine) interfaces are utilized. The usage of COTS components reduces the cost to very affordable levels. With this approach, any module in our system can be replaced when outmoded, without affecting other modules in our system, making it truly future-proof. Construction and evolution of

  19. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS.

    PubMed

    Horton, M C; Lewis, T E; Kinsey, T V

    1999-05-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new Department of Defense (DoD) contract vehicle called digital imaging networks (DIN)-PACS. The JITPO reengineered this process incorporating multiple organizations and politics. The reengineered PACS process administered through the JITPO transformed the decision process and accountability from a single office to a consultative method that increased end-user knowledge, responsibility, and ownership in PACS. The JITPO continues to provide information and services that assist multiple groups and users in rendering PACS planning and implementation decisions. Local site project managers are involved from the outset and this end-user collaboration has made the sometimes difficult transition to PACS an easier and more acceptable process for all involved. Corporately, this process saved DoD sites millions by having PACS plans developed within the government and proposed to vendors second, and then having vendors respond specifically to those plans. The integrity and efficiency of the process have reduced the opportunity for implementing nonstandard systems while sharing resources and reducing wasted government dollars. This presentation will describe the chronology of changes, encountered obstacles, and lessons learned within the reengineering of the PACS process for DIN-PACS. PMID:10342167

  20. Utilizing the Signal Interchange Format (SIGIF) standard to interface a Signal Archive and Communications System (SACS) with a Picture Archive and Communications System (PACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyes, John A.; Bretz, James F.

    1995-05-01

    Looking to the medical environment of the 21st Century, this paper describes the use of the signal interchange format (SIGIF) standard to integrate the data collected by biological signal monitoring systems with systems from other parts of a hospital or research facility. This paper covers three parts of this process. The first is the signal archive and communications system (SACS) which collects the data directly from a patient, the second part covers the signal interchange format standard which is used to communicate data from the SACS to a picture archive and communications system (PACS), and the last part covers the changes to a PACS. The concept of a signal archive and communications system was presented at the 1993 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Conference as part of a paper by Joao Paulo Cunha. This paper attempts to define a specific architecture for a SACS and describe changes to published descriptions of a PACS required to complete the PACS/SACS interface. For over 15 years the use of computerized signal collections systems have been commonly accepted as part of hospital and research environments. Each manufacture has devised a unique, and usually proprietary, method of storing that information. During that time, very little has been done to provide a common standard so this information could be communicated to another computer. This has resulted in millions of miles of hard copy printouts being stored in patient records. The radiology departments have had the same problem; however, they solved the problem with the ACR/NEMA DICOM standard. The SIGIF standard is being presented as an equivalent standard to solve the communications problem for biological signal data. This paper presents a new step in the integration of bio-signal collection systems with other hospital data processing systems. The concept being presented for the first time in this paper is to convent signal information into the DICOM image format. Each pixel of the image will

  1. Developing policies and procedures for a picture archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Gaytos, B

    2001-06-01

    Policies and procedures (P&P) constitute the mechanism for planning, standardizing, and documenting the provision of clinical services. Upon approval by hospital management, the P&P is an official statement of hospital rules and regulations. Each P&P establishes organizational responsibility for providing services. P&P are a mechanism for communicating standard operating procedures to hospital and medical staff. P&P serve as a reference document for unusual events, as well as routine procedures. P&P are often reviewed by inspection teams from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospital Organizations (JCAHO) to determine whether the hospital has documented systematic practices. A picture archival and communications system (PACS) provides a new vehicle for providing radiology services. P&P that were designed for conventional film-based imaging are often not appropriate for electronic imaging. Because PACS is new and not yet widespread, good examples of PACS P&P are not yet available. JCAHO has no official requirements for PACS: PACS is viewed only as a means for the hospital to accomplish its work. Successful P&P development is a team effort, drafted by personnel responsible for executing the procedure, assisted by staff proficient in PACS technology, and tested in the field. The P&P should be reviewed and approved by management personnel knowledgeable about hospital and imaging operations. P&P should be written in clear and concise language. Successful P&P development is an ongoing effort. P&P must be periodically reviewed and updated to reflect changes in PACS technology and changes in clinical operations. New P&P must be developed when a deficit is noted. PACS security is a good example of a topic worthy of P&P development, especially in the face of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) legislation of 1996. What are the provisions for access control? Does the system include a feature for automatic shut-off of the software? Are there

  2. Double vision: an exploration of radiologists' and general practitioners' views on using picture archiving and communication systems (PACS).

    PubMed

    Carlin, Leslie; Smith, Helen; Henwood, Flis; Flowers, Steve; Jones, Andrea; Prentice, Rebecca; Miles, Ken

    2010-06-01

    This article explores the perspectives of two user groups, general practitioners (GPs) and consultant radiologists (CRs), on the rollout of picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) within acute trusts and eventually to primary care as part of the electronic patient record. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 CRs and 31 GPs. Analysis was carried out using a grounded theory approach. Radiologists expressed positive views about the implementation of PACS in secondary care, but were wary of GPs accessing radiological images. GPs expressed concerns about the added burdens that PACS might bring to primary care, but most felt that sharing images with patients could benefit doctor-patient communication and increase patient satisfaction. This study highlights both impediments and pathways to the implementation of PACS in primary care, and illustrates the importance of regarding PACS as socially embedded and users as culturally disparate. PMID:20573641

  3. Cable modem access to picture archiving and communication system images using a web browser over the Internet.

    PubMed

    Bennett, W F; Spigos, D G; Vaswani, K V; Terrell, J E

    2000-05-01

    This presentation describes our experiences using a web-based viewing software and a browser to view our picture archiving and communication system (PACS) images at a remote site with cable modem-internet communications. Our testing shows that using a cable modem to access our radiology webserver produces acceptable transmission speeds to remote sites. The average time-to-display (TTD) for 16 computed tomography (CT) images on the web-based intranet system in our hospital was 7 to 8 seconds. Using a cable modem and comparable equipment at a remote site, the average TTD is 16 seconds over the internet. The TTD does not significantly change during various hours of the day. Security for our hospital-based PACS is provided by a firewall. Access through the firewall is accomplished using virtual private network (VPN) software, a secure ID, and encryption. We have found that this is a viable method for after-hours subspecialty radiology consultation. PMID:10847372

  4. Evaluating and Measuring the Return on Investment of an Emergency Center Health Care Professional Picture Archiving and Communication Systems Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelandt, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) workflow directly affects the quality of emergency patient care through radiology exam turn-around times and the speed of delivery of diagnostic radiology results. This study was a mixed methods training and performance improvement study that evaluated the effectiveness and value of a hospital…

  5. The National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Digital Imaging Network, Picture Archival and Communication System, and Radiology Information System.

    PubMed

    Goldszal, A F; Brown, G K; McDonald, H J; Vucich, J J; Staab, E V

    2001-06-01

    In this work, we describe the digital imaging network (DIN), picture archival and communication system (PACS), and radiology information system (RIS) currently being implemented at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (NIH). These systems are presently in clinical operation. The DIN is a redundant meshed network designed to address gigabit density and expected high bandwidth requirements for image transfer and server aggregation. The PACS projected workload is 5.0 TB of new imaging data per year. Its architecture consists of a central, high-throughput Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data repository and distributed redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) servers employing fiber-channel technology for immediate delivery of imaging data. On demand distribution of images and reports to clinicians and researchers is accomplished via a clustered web server. The RIS follows a client-server model and provides tools to order exams, schedule resources, retrieve and review results, and generate management reports. The RIS-hospital information system (HIS) interfaces include admissions, discharges, and transfers (ATDs)/demographics, orders, appointment notifications, doctors update, and results. PMID:11442088

  6. Performance enhancement of a web-based picture archiving and communication system using commercial off-the-shelf server clusters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Lin; Shih, Cheng-Ting; Chang, Yuan-Jen; Chang, Shu-Jun; Wu, Jay

    2014-01-01

    The rapid development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs) thoroughly changes the way of medical informatics communication and management. However, as the scale of a hospital's operations increases, the large amount of digital images transferred in the network inevitably decreases system efficiency. In this study, a server cluster consisting of two server nodes was constructed. Network load balancing (NLB), distributed file system (DFS), and structured query language (SQL) duplication services were installed. A total of 1 to 16 workstations were used to transfer computed radiography (CR), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) images simultaneously to simulate the clinical situation. The average transmission rate (ATR) was analyzed between the cluster and noncluster servers. In the download scenario, the ATRs of CR, CT, and MR images increased by 44.3%, 56.6%, and 100.9%, respectively, when using the server cluster, whereas the ATRs increased by 23.0%, 39.2%, and 24.9% in the upload scenario. In the mix scenario, the transmission performance increased by 45.2% when using eight computer units. The fault tolerance mechanisms of the server cluster maintained the system availability and image integrity. The server cluster can improve the transmission efficiency while maintaining high reliability and continuous availability in a healthcare environment. PMID:24701580

  7. Evolution of a filmless digital imaging and communications in medicine-conformant picture archiving and communications system: design issues and lessons learned over the last 3 years.

    PubMed

    Henri, C J; Cox, R D; Rubin, R; Bret, P M; Couch, G G

    1999-05-01

    This presentation describes our experience and lessons learned over the first 3 years of developing and operating a filmless picture archiving and communications system (PACS) for all computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), ultrasound, and nuclear medicine studies in our hospital. The PACS conforms to the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard and includes a sophisticated Worldwide Web (WWW)-based interface to complement the regular DICOM services. The PACS has undergone many design modifications from its inception, which have addressed performance, functionality, support, and maintenance issues. The lessons we have learned through making these modifications are described here and may prove to be helpful to anyone planning to deploy a PACS of their own. PMID:10342204

  8. A Socio-technical assessment of the success of picture archiving and communication systems: the radiology technologist’s perspective

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the increasing prevalence of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in healthcare institutions, there is a growing need to measure their success. However, there is a lack of published literature emphasizing the technical and social factors underlying a successful PACS. Methods An updated Information Systems Success Model was utilized by radiology technologists (RTs) to evaluate the success of PACS at a large medical center in Taiwan. A survey, consisting of 109 questionnaires, was analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling. Results Socio-technical factors (including system quality, information quality, service quality, perceived usefulness, user satisfaction, and PACS dependence) were proven to be effective measures of PACS success. Although the relationship between service quality and perceived usefulness was not significant, other proposed relationships amongst the six measurement parameters of success were all confirmed. Conclusions Managers have an obligation to improve the attributes of PACS. At the onset of its deployment, RTs will have formed their own subjective opinions with regards to its quality (system quality, information quality, and service quality). As these personal concepts are either refuted or reinforced based on personal experiences, RTs will become either satisfied or dissatisfied with PACS, based on their perception of its usefulness or lack of usefulness. A satisfied RT may play a pivotal role in the implementation of PACS in the future. PMID:24053458

  9. Changes in Tip-Apex Distance by Position and Film Distance Measured by Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Yeol; Kim, Sung Soo; Ha, Dong Ho; Yoon, Hyung Min; Do, Hyun Su

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The tip-apex distance (TAD) is used to predict the clinical outcome of intertrochanteric fracture fixation. We aimed to measure the changes in TAD by position and film distance using Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Materials and Methods We used a femur replica with a 10° femoral neck anteversion and a 130° neck shaft angle. Proximal femoral nail antirotation nail and a helical blade were inserted into the replica. Radiographs were taken at the neutral position and after applying 10°, 20°, 30°, 40° internal/external rotation, 10° abduction, and 10° and 40° adduction to the mechanical axis. Radiographs were taken at the replica-film distance of 10 cm and 20 cm under the same conditions, mimicking the differences in Focus-film distance (FFD), which reflect the patient's contour in clinical settings. A radiologist and an orthopedic surgeon measured the TAD twice using PACS. The average error was 2 mm (4.5%) and the standard error was ±3.04. TADs in the neutral position constituted the standard values to measure the relative errors. Results TADs increased with an increase in the external rotation and abduction of the replica. TADs decreased with an increase in the internal rotation and adduction of the replica. For comparable measurements, relative errors were higher at FFDs of 20 cm compared to FFDs of 10 cm. Conclusion Since the femur is internally rotated and adducted for reduction, orthopedic surgeons would assess the lag screw to be closer to the apex of femur on intraoperative radiographs. To have a correct measurement of the TAD after fixation of intertrochanteric fractures, radiographs should be taken in neutral position and measurement errors should be considered based on the patient's size.

  10. Study of Radiologic Technologists' Perceptions of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) Competence and Educational Issues in Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Daniel M; Trepp, Errol R; Ipaki, Maryam; Ng, Curtise K C

    2015-06-01

    Although the implementation of picture archiving and communication system (PACS) could increase productivity of radiology departments, this depends on factors such as the PACS competence of radiologic technologists (RTs). The purpose of this study was to investigate the RTs' perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues in Western Australia (WA). A hardcopy questionnaire was distributed to WA RTs for obtaining their perceptions of PACS competence and educational issues. Descriptive (percentage of frequency, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t test and analysis of variance) were used to analyze the responses of the multiple choice and five-point scale questions from the returned questionnaires. The questionnaire response rate was 57.7% (173 out of 300). The mean values of all PACS competence questions except questions 2e-g are in the range of 3.9-4.9, i.e., around competent to very competent. Participants indicated they received adequate PACS training (mean 3.8). Statistically significant variables influencing RTs' perceptions of their PACS competence and educational issues including the age (p < 0.01), gender (p < 0.05), years of practice (p < 0.005-0.05), primary duty (p < 0.05), medical imaging qualification (p < 0.001), general computer skills (p < 0.001), and type of PACS education received (p < 0.001-0.05). The WA RTs indicated that they were competent in using the modality workstation, PACS and radiology information system, and received adequate training. However, future PACS education programs should be tailored to different RTs' groups. For example, multiple training modules might be necessary to support the PACS competence development of older RTs and those with lower general computer literacy. PMID:25561072

  11. Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive

    Science.gov Websites

    Astronomy Picture of the Day Archive | Index | Search | Today's Picture | 2016 June 03: NGC 4631: The Whale Galaxy 2016 June 02: Three Planets from Pic du Midi 2016 June 01: Tychos ...

  12. User acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in a Saudi Arabian hospital radiology department

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Compared with the increasingly widespread use of picture archiving and communication systems (PACSs), knowledge concerning users’ acceptance of such systems is limited. Knowledge of acceptance is needed given the large (and growing) financial investment associated with the implementation of PACSs, and because the level of user acceptance influences the degree to which the benefits of the systems for healthcare can be realized. Methods A Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) was used to assess the level of acceptance of the host PACS by staff in the radiology department at King Abdulaziz Medical City (KAMC), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire survey of 89 PACS users was employed to obtain data regarding user characteristics, perceived usefulness (PU) (6 items), perceived ease of use (PEU) (4 items), a change construct (4 items), and a behavior (acceptance) construct (9 items). Respondents graded each item in each construct using five-point likert scales. Results Surveyed users reported high levels of PU (4.33/5), PEU (4.15/5), change (4.26/5), and acceptance (3.86/5). The three constructs of PU, PEU, and change explained 41 % of the variation in PACS user acceptance. PU was the most important predictor, explaining 38 % of the variation on its own. The most important single item in the explanatory constructs was that users found PACS to have improved the quality of their work in providing better patient care. Technologists had lower acceptance ratings than did clinicians/radiologists, but no influence on acceptance level was found due to gender, age, or length of experience using the PACS. Although not directly measured, there appeared to be no cultural influence on either the level of acceptance or its determinants. Conclusions User acceptance must be considered when an organization implements a PACS, in order to enhance its successful adoption. Health organizations should adopt a PACS that offers all required functions and which is likely to

  13. Communicating with Pictures and Precision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royce, Christine Anne

    2009-01-01

    From the earliest civilizations, humans have used drawings and pictures as a form of communication and to convey information--whether it was the seasons or location of good hunting grounds. In this month's column, simple alphabet picture books show students how pictures can be used to communicate information about a topic. In the first activity,…

  14. Comparison of full-field digital mammography workstation and conventional picture archiving and communication system in image quality and diagnostic performance.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Joo; Kim, Sung Hun; Choi, Byung Gil

    2011-01-01

    The object of this study was to compare of full-field digital mammography (FFDM) workstation and conventional picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in image quality and diagnostic performance. We assembled 80 masses and 80 microcalcifications. Images were displayed on workstation, 5M, and 3M PACS monitors. The image quality for mammograms on workstation was significantly better than that for mammograms on PACS monitors. The sensitivity and NPV for microcalcifications on workstation were higher than those on PACS monitors. The conventional PACS cannot substitute for a FFDM workstation for mammographic evaluation. PMID:21872121

  15. Trials and tribulations in deploying digital imaging network and picture archiving and communication system--film to filmless in 80 days.

    PubMed

    Parr, L F; Liotta, P L; Glennon, B K; Anderson, A L

    2001-06-01

    The Naval Medical Center Portsmouth (NMCP) was constructed with the intention of deploying a picture archiving and communications system (PACS). All necessary infrastructures were installed and considerable planning was done during construction with the belief that this would make the deployment of the PACS much simpler. This was true during the early deployment; however, as time passed and the system was more heavily used, significant problems arose. User/operator-related and hardware/software-related problems were encountered. Although, most have been corrected, some have persisted and will require considerable manpower and/or fiscal resources to correct. The lesson learned is that no matter how much preparation is done for deploying PACS, many significant problems will surface as the system is used that will require the continued attention of the deployment project officer. PMID:11442084

  16. A reliable, low-cost picture archiving and communications system for small and medium veterinary practices built using open-source technology.

    PubMed

    Iotti, Bryan; Valazza, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) are the most needed system in a modern hospital. As an integral part of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard, they are charged with the responsibility for secure storage and accessibility of the diagnostic imaging data. These machines need to offer high performance, stability, and security while proving reliable and ergonomic in the day-to-day and long-term storage and retrieval of the data they safeguard. This paper reports the experience of the authors in developing and installing a compact and low-cost solution based on open-source technologies in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the University of Torino, Italy, during the course of the summer of 2012. The PACS server was built on low-cost x86-based hardware and uses an open source operating system derived from Oracle OpenSolaris (Oracle Corporation, Redwood City, CA, USA) to host the DCM4CHEE PACS DICOM server (DCM4CHEE, http://www.dcm4che.org ). This solution features very high data security and an ergonomic interface to provide easy access to a large amount of imaging data. The system has been in active use for almost 2 years now and has proven to be a scalable, cost-effective solution for practices ranging from small to very large, where the use of different hardware combinations allows scaling to the different deployments, while the use of paravirtualization allows increased security and easy migrations and upgrades. PMID:24793019

  17. Integration of temporal subtraction and nodule detection system for digital chest radiographs into picture archiving and communication system (PACS): four-year experience.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Shuji; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Matsuo, Yoshio; Okafuji, Takashi; Kamitani, Takeshi; Honda, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Keiji; Fujiwara, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Naoki; Doi, Kunio

    2008-03-01

    Since May 2002, temporal subtraction and nodule detection systems for digital chest radiographs have been integrated into our hospital's picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). Image data of digital chest radiographs were stored in PACS with the digital image and communication in medicine (DICOM) protocol. Temporal subtraction and nodule detection images were produced automatically in an exclusive server and delivered with current and previous images to the work stations. The problems that we faced and the solutions that we arrived at were analyzed. We encountered four major problems. The first problem, as a result of the storage of the original images' data with the upside-down, reverse, or lying-down positioning on portable chest radiographs, was solved by postponing the original data storage for 30 min. The second problem, the variable matrix sizes of chest radiographs obtained with flat-panel detectors (FPDs), was solved by improving the computer algorithm to produce consistent temporal subtraction images. The third problem, the production of temporal subtraction images of low quality, could not be solved fundamentally when the original images were obtained with different modalities. The fourth problem, an excessive false-positive rate on the nodule detection system, was solved by adjusting this system to chest radiographs obtained in our hospital. Integration of the temporal subtraction and nodule detection system into our hospital's PACS was customized successfully; this experience may be helpful to other hospitals. PMID:17333415

  18. Bridging the gap: linking a legacy hospital information system with a filmless radiology picture archiving and communications system within a nonhomogeneous environment.

    PubMed

    Rubin, R K; Henri, C J; Cox, R D

    1999-05-01

    A health level 7 (HL7)-conformant data link to exchange information between the mainframe hospital information system (HIS) of our hospital and our home-grown picture archiving and communications system (PACS) is a result of a collaborative effort between the HIS department and the PACS development team. Based of the ability to link examination requisitions and image studies, applications have been generated to optimise workflow and to improve the reliability and distribution of radiology information. Now, images can be routed to individual radiologists and clinicians; worklists facilitate radiology reporting; applications exist to create, edit, and view reports and images via the internet; and automated quality control now limits the incidence of "lost" cases and errors in image routing. By following the HL7 standard to develop the gateway to the legacy system, the development of a radiology information system for booking, reading, reporting, and billing remains universal and does not preclude the option to integrate off-the-shelf commercial products. PMID:10342179

  19. The picture exchange communication system.

    PubMed

    Bondy, A S; Frost, L A

    1998-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) was developed as a means to teach children with autism and related developmental disabilities a rapidly acquired, self-initiating, functional communication system. Its theoretical roots combine principles from applied behavior analysis and guidelines established within the field of alternative and augmentative communication. This approach has several potential advantages relative to imitation-based strategies (both vocal and gestural) and symbol selection strategies. The system begins with the exchange of simple icons but rapidly builds "sentence" structure. The system also emphasizes developing the request function prior to developing responding to simple questions and commenting. The development of requesting with a sentence structure also permits the rapid development of attributes more traditionally taught within a receptive mode. The relationship between the introduction of PECS and various other behavioral issues (i.e., social approach and behavior management) as well as its relationship to the codevelopment of speech are reviewed. PMID:9857393

  20. University of California San Francisco automated radiology department system-without picture archival and communication system (PACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintin, June A.; Simborg, Donald W.

    1982-01-01

    A fully automated and comprehensive Radiology Department system was implemented in the Fall of 1980, which highly integrates the multiple functions of a large Radiology Department in a major medical center. The major components include patient registration, film tracking, management statistics, patient flow control, radiologist reporting, pathology coding and billing. The highly integrated design allows sharing of critical files to reduce redundancy and errors in communication and allows rapid dissemination of information throughout the department. As one node of an integrated distributed hospital system, information from central hospital functions such as patient identification are incorporated into the system and reports and other information are available to other hospital systems. The system is implemented on a Data General Eclipse S/250 using the MIIS operating system. The management of a radiology department has become sufficiently complex that the application of computer techniques to the smooth operation of the department has become almost a necessity. This system provides statistics on room utilization, technologist productivity, and radiologist activity. Room utilization graphs are a valuable aid for staffing and scheduling of technologists, as well as analyzing appropriateness of radiologic equipment in a department. Daily reports summarize by radiology section exams not dictated. File room reports indicate which film borrowers are delinquent in returning films for 24 hours, 48 hours and one week. Letters to the offenders are automatically generated on the high speed line printer. Although all radiology departments have similar needs, customization is likely to be required to meet specific priorities and needs at any individual department. It is important in choosing a system vendor that such flexibility be available. If appropriately designed, a system will provide considerable improvements in efficiency and effectiveness.

  1. Effect of Picture Archiving and Communication System Image Manipulation on the Agreement of Chest Radiograph Interpretation in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Denise A.; Naqvi, Asad Ahmed; Vandenkerkhof, Elizabeth; Flavin, Michael P.; Manson, David; Soboleski, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Variability in image interpretation has been attributed to differences in the interpreters’ knowledge base, experience level, and access to the clinical scenario. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) has allowed the user to manipulate the images while developing their impression of the radiograph. The aim of this study was to determine the agreement of chest radiograph (CXR) impressions among radiologists and neonatologists and help determine the effect of image manipulation with PACS on report impression. Materials and Methods: Prospective cohort study included 60 patients from the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit undergoing CXRs. Three radiologists and three neonatologists reviewed two consecutive frontal CXRs of each patient. Each physician was allowed manipulation of images as needed to provide a decision of “improved,” “unchanged,” or “disease progression” lung disease for each patient. Each physician repeated the process once more; this time, they were not allowed to individually manipulate the images, but an independent radiologist presets the image brightness and contrast to best optimize the CXR appearance. Percent agreement and opposing reporting views were calculated between all six physicians for each of the two methods (allowing and not allowing image manipulation). Results: One hundred percent agreement in image impression between all six observers was only seen in 5% of cases when allowing image manipulation; 100% agreement was seen in 13% of the cases when there was no manipulation of the images. Conclusion: Agreement in CXR interpretation is poor; the ability to manipulate the images on PACS results in a decrease in agreement in the interpretation of these studies. New methods to standardize image appearance and allow improved comparison with previous studies should be sought to improve clinician agreement in interpretation consistency and advance patient care. PMID:27274414

  2. Users’ Perspectives on a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS): An In-Depth Study in a Teaching Hospital in Kuwait

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shamali, Dawood Ameer; Sharma, Prem; Haidar, Salwa; Al-Shawaf, Hamza

    2016-01-01

    Background Picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is a well-known imaging informatics application in health care organizations, specifically designed for the radiology department. Health care providers have exhibited willingness toward evaluating PACS in hospitals to ascertain the critical success and failure of the technology, considering that evaluation is a basic requirement. Objective This study aimed at evaluating the success of a PACS in a regional teaching hospital of Kuwait, from users’ perspectives, using information systems success criteria. Methods An in-depth study was conducted by using quantitative and qualitative methods. This mixed-method study was based on: (1) questionnaires, distributed to all radiologists and technologists and (2) interviews, conducted with PACS administrators. Results In all, 60 questionnaires were received from the respondents. These included 39 radiologists (75% response rate) and 21 technologists (62% response rate), with the results showing almost three-quarters (74%, 44 of 59) of the respondents rating PACS positively and as user friendly. This study’s findings revealed that the demographic data, including computer experience, was an insignificant factor, having no influence on the users’ responses. The findings were further substantiated by the administrators’ interview responses, which supported the benefits of PACS, indicating the need for developing a unified policy aimed at streamlining and improving the departmental workflow. Conclusions The PACS had a positive and productive impact on the radiologists’ and technologists’ work performance. They were endeavoring to resolve current problems while keeping abreast of advances in PACS technology, including teleradiology and mobile image viewer, which is steadily increasing in usage in the Kuwaiti health system. PMID:27307046

  3. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  4. Pictorial communication: Pictures and the synthetic universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.

  5. A Background to Motion Picture Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, James E.; Bolen, Donald L., Jr.

    The emphasis of archives is on the maintenance and preservation of materials for scholarly research and professional reference. Archives may be established as separate entities or as part of a library or museum. Film archives may include camera originals (positive and negative), sound recordings, outtakes, scripts, contracts, advertising…

  6. Communicating with Pictures. P-8A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    In early 1976, the National Development Service of Nepal and UNICEF conducted a study designed to determine whether it would be possible to communicate ideas and information to Nepalese villagers who cannot read by using pictures only, the kinds of pictures that are most meaningful for villagers, and whether different colors have special meanings…

  7. Transmittal Letters: Communicating the Financial Picture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piotrowski, Craig L.

    1987-01-01

    The transmittal letter, part of a school district's comprehensive annual financial report, provides a creative opportunity to communicate the financial picture of a district to readers. After the introduction, the letter should include sections on (1) mission, services, and environment; (2) financial highlights; (3) systems and controls; and (4)…

  8. Impact of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system integrated into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) on reader sensitivity and efficiency for the detection of lung nodules in thoracic CT exams.

    PubMed

    Bogoni, Luca; Ko, Jane P; Alpert, Jeffrey; Anand, Vikram; Fantauzzi, John; Florin, Charles H; Koo, Chi Wan; Mason, Derek; Rom, William; Shiau, Maria; Salganicoff, Marcos; Naidich, David P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the impact on nodule detection and efficiency using a computer-aided detection (CAD) device seamlessly integrated into a commercially available picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Forty-eight consecutive low-dose thoracic computed tomography studies were retrospectively included from an ongoing multi-institutional screening study. CAD results were sent to PACS as a separate image series for each study. Five fellowship-trained thoracic radiologists interpreted each case first on contiguous 5 mm sections, then evaluated the CAD output series (with CAD marks on corresponding axial sections). The standard of reference was based on three-reader agreement with expert adjudication. The time to interpret CAD marking was automatically recorded. A total of 134 true-positive nodules, measuring 3 mm and larger were included in our study; with 85 ≥ 4 and 50 ≥ 5 mm in size. Readers detection improved significantly in each size category when using CAD, respectively, from 44 to 57 % for ≥3 mm, 48 to 61 % for ≥4 mm, and 44 to 60 % for ≥5 mm. CAD stand-alone sensitivity was 65, 68, and 66 % for nodules ≥3, ≥4, and ≥5 mm, respectively, with CAD significantly increasing the false positives for two readers only. The average time to interpret and annotate a CAD mark was 15.1 s, after localizing it in the original image series. The integration of CAD into PACS increases reader sensitivity with minimal impact on interpretation time and supports such implementation into daily clinical practice. PMID:22710985

  9. The Picture Book and Visual Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polette, Nancy

    1986-01-01

    Discusses importance of the ability to visualize images evoked by the written word in the development of children's skills in both reading and creative writing. Specific skills involved are noted, examples from picture books are given, and 48 picture books that would be useful to developing such skills are listed. (EM)

  10. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  11. PICTURE TAKING--ONE METHOD OF DISCOVERING COMMUNICATION CHANNELS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SKINNER, MARY LOU

    PICTURE TAKING WAS UTILIZED TO OBTAIN SOCIOMETRIC DATA AMONG AMERICAN INDIANS IN AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF EDUCATIONAL FACTORS IN HEALTH PROGRAM PLANNING. THE AUTHOR CAPITALIZED ON THE INDIANS' INTEREST IN A PERSONAL PHOTOGRAPH AS A STARTING POINT FOR CREATING AN OPEN COMMUNICATION CHANNEL AND A FEELING OF GOOD WILL. NORMALLY WITHHELD INFORMATION…

  12. Training Paraprofessionals to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloman, Glenn Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Based on Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" (1957), the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was designed to teach children with autism functional verbal behavior. Much research has demonstrated the effectiveness and efficiency of PECS in building verbal behavior. However, because PECS training is typically presented in a group format and later…

  13. Social-Communicative Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerna, Anna; Esposito, Dalila; Conson, Massimiliano; Russo, Luigi; Massagli, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a common treatment choice for non-verbal children with autism. However, little empirical evidence is available on the usefulness of PECS in treating social-communication impairments in autism. Aims: To test the effects of PECS on social-communicative skills in children with autism,…

  14. Does a picture tell a thousand words? The uses of digitally produced, multimodal pictures for communicating information about Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dobos, Amy R; Orthia, Lindy A; Lamberts, Rod

    2015-08-01

    This study explored the science communication potential of visual imagery by gauging an audience's interpretations of digitally enhanced, multimodal pictures depicting topics from recent Alzheimer's disease research. Guided by social semiotic theory, we created four pictures intended to communicate information about Alzheimer's disease unidirectionally, for an audience who had expressed interest in receiving such information (subscribers to an Alzheimer's disease research newsletter). We then disseminated the pictures to that audience via an online survey, to determine whether respondents received the messages we intended to convey. Our results demonstrated that, without accompanying explanatory text, pictures are most useful for evoking emotions or making loose connections between major concepts, rather than for communicating specific messages based on Alzheimer's research. In addition, participants more often expressed anger and frustration when the meaning of scientific imagery was unclear than when the meaning of emotional-social imagery was unclear. PMID:24867131

  15. Teaching Children with Autism to Ask "What's That?" Using a Picture Communication with Vocal Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostryn, Cheryl; Wolfe, Pamela S.

    2011-01-01

    Being a competent communicator is complex and goes beyond expressing simple needs and wants to include having the ability to ask and respond to wh-questions. For individuals with autism spectrum disorders who use pictures to communicate, initiating communications such as questions can be difficult and it has been shown that some picture systems do…

  16. Effects of picture exchange communication system on communication and behavioral anomalies in autism.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Bhatia, Manjeet S; Singh, Tej B

    2010-07-01

    Communication skills deficits and stereotyped behaviors are frequently found among people with pervasive developmental disabilities like autism. These communication and behavioral oddities of autism are often considered to be difficult to treat and are challenging. Picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a six-phase picture system based on applied behavior analysis and is specially designed to overcome these communication difficulties in children with autism by encouraging the child to be the communication initiator. The present paper throws light on the process of using PECS along with other traditional behavioral approaches in managing communication deficits and behavioral stereotypies in a seven-year-old male child diagnosed as having childhood autism. The identified target behaviors of repeated head turning, flapping his hands, poor communication skills were assessed using various rating scales including visual analogue scale as per clinician observation and parental reports and managed using PECS as an adjunct to traditional behavioral techniques of contingency management, differential reinforcement, task direction and reprimand. Outcome was assessed using same tools after thirty-two sessions of interventions spread over three months. Significant improvements of around 60% were observed in the target behaviors. PMID:21716776

  17. Picture archiving and computing systems: the key to enterprise digital imaging.

    PubMed

    Krohn, Richard

    2002-09-01

    The utopian view of the electronic medical record includes the digital transformation of all aspects of patient information. Historically, imagery from the radiology, cardiology, ophthalmology, and pathology departments, as well as the emergency room, has been a morass of paper, film, and other media, isolated within each department's system architecture. In answer to this dilemma, picture archiving and computing systems have become the focal point of efforts to create a single platform for the collection, storage, and distribution of clinical imagery throughout the health care enterprise. PMID:12244648

  18. Training and Maintenance of a Picture-Based Communication Response in Older Adults with Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trahan, Maranda A.; Donaldson, Jeanne M.; McNabney, Matthew K.; Kahng, SungWoo

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether adults with dementia could learn to emit a picture-based communication response and if this skill would maintain over time. Three women with moderate to severe dementia were taught to exchange a picture card for a highly preferred activity. All participants quickly learned to exchange the picture card and maintained this…

  19. Picture archiving and communication system (PACS): medical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Osteaux, M; Van den Broeck, R; Verhelle, F; de Mey, J

    1997-06-01

    PACS represents the natural evolution from the digital new modalities (US, CT, MRI,...) to a global digital environment, where the film based activities are progressively replaced by their digital counterpart. The advantages of the technique, as well as the drawbacks of the first implementations, are described. The "second generation" PACS concept is presented (modular architecture, progressive implementation, multivendor environment, integration with the Hospital Information System, standardization,...). As "case study", the example of the A.Z.-V.U.B. Hospital Implementation is described. PMID:9260397

  20. Picture archiving and communications systems for integrated healthcare information solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldburgh, Mitchell M.; Glicksman, Robert A.; Wilson, Dennis L.

    1997-05-01

    The rapid and dramatic shifts within the US healthcare industry have created unprecedented needs to implement changes in the delivery systems. These changes must not only address the access to healthcare, but the costs of delivery, and outcomes reporting. The resulting vision to address these needs has been called the Integrated Healthcare Solution whose core is the Electronic Patient Record. The integration of information by itself is not the issue, nor will it address the challenges in front of the healthcare providers. The process and business of healthcare delivery must adopt, apply and expand its use of technology which can assist in re-engineering the tools for healthcare. Imaging is becoming a larger part of the practice of healthcare both as a recorder of health status and as a defensive record for gatekeepers of healthcare. It is thus imperative that imaging specialists adopt technology which competitively integrates them into the process, reduces the risk, and positively effects the outcome.

  1. Experimental Evaluation of the Training Structure of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne R.; Carr, James E.; LeBlanc, Linda A.

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based alternative communication method that is widely accepted and utilized with individuals with disabilities. Although prior studies have examined the clinical efficacy of PECS, none have experimentally evaluated its manualized training structure. We experimentally evaluated the…

  2. Brief Report: Randomized Test of the Efficacy of Picture Exchange Communication System on Highly Generalized Picture Exchanges in Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul J.; Lieberman, Rebecca G.

    2010-01-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social-communication interventions in young children with autism examined far-transfer of the use of picture exchange to communicate. Thirty-six children were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, one of which was the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). All children had access to…

  3. The Effectiveness of the "Picture Exchange Communication System" with Nonspeaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoner, Julia B.; Beck, Ann R.; Bock, Stacey Jones; Hickey, Katherine; Kosuwan, Kullaya; Thompson, James R.

    2006-01-01

    "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training was implemented with 5 nonspeaking adults with mental retardation who were not currently using any type of functional communication system. A modified ABAB, single-subject design was used to assess the effectiveness of PECS in enhancing the functional communication skills of these…

  4. Understanding the Picture Exchange Communication System and Its Application in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Amanda; Sandt, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and its applications in physical education. The PECS is an appropriate communication intervention for students with autism who lack functional communication skills. It is often confused with other visual support strategies, so the authors delineate the six phases of PECS and…

  5. Integrating nTMS Data into a Radiology Picture Archiving System.

    PubMed

    Mäkelä, Teemu; Vitikainen, Anne-Mari; Laakso, Aki; Mäkelä, Jyrki P

    2015-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is employed in eloquent brain area localization prior to intraoperative direct cortical electrical stimulations and neurosurgery. No commercial archiving or file transfer protocol existed for these studies. The aim of our project was to establish a standardized protocol for the transfer of nTMS results and medical assessments to the end users in pursuance of improving data security and facilitating presurgical planning. The existing infrastructure of the hospital's Radiology Department was used. Hospital information systems and networks were configured to allow communications and archiving of the study results, and in-house software was written for file manipulations and transfers. Graphical user interface with description suggestions and user-defined text legends enabled an easy and straightforward workflow for annotations and archiving of the results. The software and configurations were implemented and have been applied in studies of ten patients. The creation of the study protocol required the involvement of various professionals and interdepartmental cooperation. The introduction of the protocol has ended previously recurrent involvement of staff in the file transfer phase and improved cost-effectiveness. PMID:25617092

  6. A Preliminary Analysis of Teaching Improvisation with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marckel, Julie M.; Neef, Nancy A.; Ferreri, Summer J.

    2006-01-01

    Two young boys with autism who used the picture exchange communication system were taught to solve problems (improvise) by using descriptors (functions, colors, and shapes) to request desired items for which specific pictures were unavailable. The results of a multiple baseline across descriptors showed that training increased the number of…

  7. Multiply Controlled Verbal Operants: An Analysis and Extension to the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, A.; Tincani, M.; Frost, L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal behavior as a framework for understanding language acquisition in children with autism. We describe Skinner's analysis of pure and impure verbal operants and illustrate how this analysis may be applied to the design of communication training programs. The picture exchange communication system…

  8. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): What Do the Data Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth; Hoffman, Anne O.; Horton, Catherine B.; Bondy, Andrew; Frost, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Originally designed to enable young children with autism lacking functional communication to initiate requests and to describe what they observed, the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) has been the subject of an ever-expanding body of research and development. Thirty-four peer-reviewed published reports on PECS are analyzed in this…

  9. A Review of the Efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Deborah; Carter, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a communication program that has become widely used, especially with children with autism. This paper reports the results of a review of the empirical literature on PECS. A descriptive review is provided of the 27 studies identified, which included randomized controlled trials (RCTs), other group…

  10. Quantitative Synthesis and Component Analysis of Single-Participant Studies on the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Devis, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) has emerged as the augmentative communication intervention of choice for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a supporting body of single-participant studies. This report describes a meta-analysis of 16 single-participant studies on PECS with percentage of nonoverlapping data…

  11. The Effects of Behavioral Skills Training on Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosales, Rocio; Stone, Karen; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was evaluated with 3 adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness…

  12. Video Feedforward for Rapid Learning of a Picture-Based Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jemma; Hand, Linda; Dowrick, Peter W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of video self modeling (VSM) using feedforward, to teach various goals of a picture exchange communication system (PECS). The participants were two boys with autism and one man with Down syndrome. All three participants were non-verbal with no current functional system of communication; the two children had long…

  13. An Evaluation of Strategies for Training Staff to Implement the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Clarissa S.; Dunning, Johnna L.; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2011-01-01

    The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is a functional communication system frequently used with individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders who experience severe language delays (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Few empirical investigations have evaluated strategies for training direct care staff how to effectively implement PECS with…

  14. Effects of Implementing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with Adults with Developmental Disabilities and Severe Communication Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conklin, Carl G.; Mayer, G. Roy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of "Picture Exchange Communication System" (PECS) training, using a multiple baseline design on the independent initiations of three adults with developmental disabilities and severe communication deficits. All participants increased their independent initiations, although at different levels of…

  15. Augmentative and Alternative Communication in Autism: A Comparison of the Picture Exchange Communication System and Speech-Output Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Miriam Chacon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this comparative efficacy study was to investigate the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills, social-communicative behavior, and speech for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Requesting was selected as the…

  16. Picture Exchange Communication System with Individuals with Developmental Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Single Subject Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Stephanie L.; Banda, Devender R.

    2010-01-01

    Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a picture-based communication strategy used to teach communication skills to persons with developmental disabilities including autism. This article systematically reviews 13 published single-subject studies to examine the effectiveness of PECS, the effects of PECS on speech and problem behaviors,…

  17. Brief Report: Randomized Test of the Efficacy of Picture Exchange Communication System on Highly Generalized Picture Exchanges in Children with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    A randomized control trial comparing two social-communication interventions in young children with autism examined far-transfer of the use of picture exchange to communicate. Thirty-six children were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions, one of which was the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). All children had access to picture symbols during assessments. Post-treatment measurement of the number of picture exchanges in a far-transfer, assessment context favored the PECS intervention. These findings were interpreted as support for the hypothesis that the PECS curriculum can successfully teach a generalized means of showing coordinated attention to object and person without requiring eye contact to children with ASD. PMID:19904596

  18. Compairing Picture Exchange and Voice Output Communication Aids in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorah, Elizabeth R.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Disease Control estimates that one in 88 births result in a diagnosis of autism (CDC, 2012). Of those individuals diagnosed with autism approximately 25-61% fail to develop vocal output capabilities (Weitxz, Dexter, & Moore, 1997). The use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) systems, such as Picture Exchange (PE)…

  19. A Further Evaluation of Behavioral Skills Training for Implementation of the Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homlitas, Christa; Rosales, Rocío; Candel, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package to teach implementation of Phases 1, 2, and 3A of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to teachers employed at a therapeutic center for children with autism. Probes in the natural environment and follow-up were conducted with children who were assigned to work with…

  20. Using the Picture Exchange Communication System with Students with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivy, Sarah E.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Hooper, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Students with visual impairment (VI) were taught to request using the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and tangible symbols. Participants were four males with additional disabilities, 5 to 11 years old, who had little to no functional vision. A functional relation between PECS Phase 1 and requesting was established using a multiple…

  1. Audiovisual Materials in Archives--A General Picture of Their Role and Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booms, Hans

    Delivered on behalf of the International Council of Archives (ICA), this paper briefly discusses the challenge inherent in the processing and preservation of audiovisual materials, the types of media included in the term audiovisual, the concerns of professional archivists, the development and services of archival institutions, the utilization of…

  2. A further evaluation of behavioral skills training for implementation of the picture exchange communication system.

    PubMed

    Homlitas, Christa; Rosales, Rocío; Candel, Lindsay

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training package to teach implementation of Phases 1, 2, and 3A of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to teachers employed at a therapeutic center for children with autism. Probes in the natural environment and follow-up were conducted with children who were assigned to work with the teachers in their own classrooms. Results provide additional support for the efficacy of behavioral skills training to teach implementation of PECS. PMID:24435619

  3. THE EFFECTS OF BEHAVIORAL SKILLS TRAINING ON IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PICTURE EXCHANGE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Rosales, Rocio; Stone, Karen; Rehfeldt, Ruth Anne

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) package to teach the implementation of the first three phases of the picture exchange communication system (PECS) was evaluated with 3 adults who had no history teaching any functional communication system. A multiple baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the training package, which consisted of a video, written and verbal instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Results showed significant improvements relative to baseline in a short amount of training time and that skills generalized to a learner with a severe developmental disability. Skills were maintained at 1 month follow-up for 1 participant. PMID:20190917

  4. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Communication and Speech for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flippin, Michelle; Reszka, Stephanie; Watson, Linda R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a popular communication-training program for young children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This meta-analysis reviews the current empirical evidence for PECS in affecting communication and speech outcomes for children with ASD. Method: A systematic review of the literature on PECS…

  5. The Use of Video Modeling with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Increase Independent Communicative Initiations in Preschoolers with Autism and Developmental Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.; Smith, Catherine C.; Cornett, Ashlee; Coleman, Mari Beth

    2012-01-01

    The use of video modeling (VM) procedures in conjunction with the picture exchange communication system (PECS) to increase independent communicative initiations in preschool-age students was evaluated in this study. The four participants were 3-year-old children with limited communication skills prior to the intervention. Two of the students had…

  6. A Review and Analysis of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorders Using a Paradigm of Communication Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostryn, Cheryl; Wolfe, Pamela S.; Rusch, Frank R.

    2008-01-01

    Research related to the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) with individuals having autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) was examined using a communication competence paradigm detailed by J. C. Light (1988, 1989, 2003). Communication components were operationalized based on skills identified in ASD research. A review was conducted…

  7. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Attend Typically to Faces and Objects Presented within Their Picture Communication Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie-Smith, K.; Riby, D. M.; Hancock, P. J. B.; Doherty-Sneddon, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may require interventions for communication difficulties. One type of intervention is picture communication symbols which are proposed to improve comprehension of linguistic input for children with ASD. However, atypical attention to faces and objects is widely reported across the autism…

  8. Archives, Libraries and Museums as Communicators of Memory in the European Union Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzuch, Zinaida

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Explores the approach to communication of memory in archives, libraries and museums in European Union research projects in 2000-2005. The main objectives were: to identify predominant aspects of heritage communication; to determine whether and how heritage communication was related to memory; to establish patterns of participation in…

  9. Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System as a Functional Communication Intervention for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Practice-Based Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tien, Kai-Chien

    2008-01-01

    This research synthesis verifies the effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for improving the functional communication skills of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The research synthesis was focused on the degree to which variations in PECS training are associated with variations in functional…

  10. Effects of Mother-Implemented Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) Training on Independent Communicative Behaviors of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ju Hee; Alber-Morgan, Sheila R.; Cannella-Malone, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of mother-implemented Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) training on the independent communication of three young children with autism spectrum disorders. Three mothers were trained to teach their child PECS Phases 1 through 3B, which they did with high integrity. Moreover, all three children successfully…

  11. Comparing the Picture Exchange Communication System and the iPad™ for Communication of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret M.

    2014-01-01

    Both picture exchange, a low-tech picturebased communication system, and technologybased interventions, such as the iPad™ with communication application, are emerging treatments for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), according to the National Autism Center (2009). Recently, investigations regarding the use of the Apple iPad™ to…

  12. Comparative Efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a Speech-Generating Device: Effects on Requesting Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boesch, Miriam C.; Wendt, Oliver; Subramanian, Anu; Hsu, Ning

    2013-01-01

    An experimental, single-subject research study investigated the comparative efficacy of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) versus a speech-generating device (SGD) in developing requesting skills for three elementary-age children with severe autism and little to no functional speech. Results demonstrated increases in requesting…

  13. Teaching Children with Autism to Engage in Peer-Directed Mands Using a Picture Exchange Communication System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paden, Amber R.; Kodak, Tiffany; Fisher, Wayne W.; Gawley-Bullington, Elizabeth M.; Bouxsein, Kelly J.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) plus prompting to increase peer-directed mands for preferred items using a picture exchange communication system (PECS). Two nonvocal individuals with autism participated. Independent mands with a peer increased with the implementation of DRA plus prompting for both…

  14. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Effects on Manding and Speech Development for School-Aged Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tincani, Matt; Crozier, Shannon; Alazett, Shannon

    2006-01-01

    We examined the effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS; Frost & Bondy, 2002) on the manding (requesting) and speech development of school-aged children with autism. In study 1, two participants, Damian and Bob, were taught PECS within a delayed multiple baseline design. Both participants demonstrated increased levels of manding…

  15. Physician Perceptions of Singleview: A Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) Federation Solution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolowitz, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    Information Technology is changing the face of medicine. Prior research has shown many physicians believe access to the complete Personal Health Record (PHR) would be beneficial to patient care. Many times these medical records are distributed across system and organizational boundaries. International standards committees, healthcare…

  16. Design and implementation of picture archiving and communication system in Huadong Hospital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianguo; Zhou, Zheng; Zhuang, Jun; Han, Ruolin; Zhang, Guozhen; Feng, Jie; Wang, Mingpeng; Wang, Chuanfu

    2001-08-01

    Huadong hospital in Shanghai with 700 beds provides health care services for inpatients and outpatients, as well as special senior and VIP patients. In order to move to digital imaging based radiology practice, and also provide better intra-hospital clinical services for senior and VIP patients, we started designing and planning PACS implementation from September of 1999. Based on the radiology service model and current workflow in Huadong hospital, we implemented PACS in three steps.

  17. Workstation Modelling and Development: Clinical Definition of a Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) User Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braudes, Robert E.; Mun, Seong K.; Sibert, John L.; Schnizlein, John; Horii, Steven C.

    1989-05-01

    A PACS must provide a user interface which is acceptable to all potential users of the system. Observations and interviews have been conducted with six radiology services at the Georgetown University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, in order to evaluate user interface requirements for a PACS system. Based on these observations, a conceptual model of radiology has been developed. These discussions have also revealed some significant differences in the user interface requirements between the various services. Several underlying factors have been identified which may be used as initial predictors of individual user interface styles. A user model has been developed which incorporates these factors into the specification of a tailored PACS user interface.

  18. Detection of interstitial lung abnormalities on picture archive and communication system video monitors.

    PubMed

    Washowich, T L; Williams, S C; Richardson, L A; Simmons, G E; Dao, N V; Allen, T W; Hammet, G C; Morris, M J

    1997-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities on video display workstation monitors between radiologists experienced with video image interpretation and radiologists who lack this experience. Twenty-four patients with interstitial lung abnormalities documented by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and lung biopsy, and 26 control patients with no history of pulmonary disease or a normal HRCT and normal chest radiographs were studied. Images were acquired using storage phosphor digital radiography and displayed on 1,640 x 2,048 pixel resolution video monitors. Five board-certified radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded and randomized manner by using a six-point presence of abnormality grading scale. Three radiologists were from 1 to 4 years out of residency and considered to be experienced workstation monitor readers with between 1 to 3 years of video monitor image interpretation. For the inexperienced readers, one radiologist had no prior experience with reading images from a video monitor and was direct out of residency, and the other radiologist had less than 4 months of intermittent exposure and was 1 year out of residency. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for individual readers. Positive predictive values, negative predictive values, accuracy, and receiver-operating curves were also generated. A comparison was made between experienced and inexperienced readers. For readers experienced with video monitor image interpretation, the sensitivity ranged from 87.5% to 92%, specificity from 69% to 92%, positive predictive value (PPV) from 73% to 87.5%, negative predictive value (NPV) from 87% to 90%, and accuracy from 80% to 88%. For inexperienced readers, these values were sensitivity 58%, specificity 50% to 65%, PPV 52% to 61%, NPV 56.5% to 63%, and accuracy 54% to 62%. Comparing image interpretation between experienced and inexperienced readers, there were statistically significant differences for sensitivity (P < .01), specificity (P < .01), PPV (P < .05), NPV (P < .05), accuracy (P < .05), and area under the receiver operator curve (Az) (P < .01). Within the respective experienced and inexperienced groups, no statistical significant differences were present. Our results show that digitally acquired chest radiographs displayed on high-resolution workstation monitors are adequate for the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities when the images are interpreted by radiologists experienced with video image interpretation. Radiologists inexperienced with video monitor image interpretation, however, cannot reliably interpret images for the detection of interstitial lung abnormalities. PMID:9147526

  19. Task allocation chart: quality control of a picture archive and communication system (PACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Gary S.; Romlein, John R.; Lyche, David K.; Richardson, Ronald R., Jr.

    1999-07-01

    With radiology departments moving into a digital environment, Quality Control (QC) has shifted from film processor monitoring, and film-screen contact tests to computed radiography (CR) calibrations, soft copy display evaluations, and thread test of the imaging chain and the supporting data flow. An analog QC plan encompasses each piece of equipment and everyone in radiology, from the radiologists providing image quality feedback and the technologists performing film processor checks, to the biomedical maintenance technicians calibrating exposure rooms, everyone has input to a good analog QC plan. The digital radiology environment is no different; it requires user and maintainer involvement at all levels. This paper will explain the Task Allocation Chart and how it fits into the QC, warranty, and maintenance continuum that must be in place for an effective installation, implementation, and operation of a PACS.

  20. The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS): A Promising Method for Improving Communication Skills of Learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.; Lund, Emily M.

    2012-01-01

    Children and youth with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and other developmental delays frequently experience deficits in functional communication. Identifying and using suitable communication enhancement and augmentative and alternative communication supports is essential to achievement of positive outcomes for these learners. This article…

  1. Using the picture exchange communication system (PECS) with children with autism: assessment of PECS acquisition, speech, social-communicative behavior, and problem behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Charlop-Christy, Marjorie H; Carpenter, Michael; Le, Loc; LeBlanc, Linda A; Kellet, Kristen

    2002-01-01

    The picture exchange communication system (PECS) is an augmentative communication system frequently used with children with autism (Bondy & Frost, 1994; Siegel, 2000; Yamall, 2000). Despite its common clinical use, no well-controlled empirical investigations have been conducted to test the effectiveness of PECS. Using a multiple baseline design, the present study examined the acquisition of PECS with 3 children with autism. In addition, the study examined the effects of PECS training on the emergence of speech in play and academic settings. Ancillary measures of social-communicative behaviors and problem behaviors were recorded. Results indicated that all 3 children met the learning criterion for PECS and showed concomitant increases in verbal speech. Ancillary gains were associated with increases in social-communicative behaviors and decreases in problem behaviors. The results are discussed in terms of the provision of empirical support for PECS as well as the concomitant positive side effects of its use. PMID:12365736

  2. The Impact of the Picture Exchange Communication System on Requesting and Speech Development in Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Similar Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Simpson, Richard L.; Corbin-Newsome, Jawanda

    2008-01-01

    By definition children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) experience difficulty understanding and using language. Accordingly, visual and picture-based strategies such as the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) show promise in ameliorating speech and language deficits. This study reports the results of a multiple baseline across…

  3. Issues surrounding PACS archiving to external, third-party DICOM archives.

    PubMed

    Langer, Steve

    2009-03-01

    In larger health care imaging institutions, it is becoming increasingly obvious that separate image archives for every department are not cost effective or scalable. The solution is to have each department's picture archiving communication system (PACS) have only a local cache, and archive to an enterprise archive that drives a universal clinical viewer. It sounds simple, but how many PACS can truly work with a third-party Integration of the Health Care Enterprise Compliant Image Archive? The answer is somewhat disappointing. PMID:18449605

  4. An evaluation of multiple-schedule variations to reduce high-rate requests in the picture exchange communication system.

    PubMed

    Landa, Robin; Hanley, Gregory P

    2016-06-01

    Using procedures similar to those of Tiger, Hanley, and Heal (2006), we compared two multiple-schedule variations (S+/S- and S+ only) to treat high-rate requests for edible items in the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). Two individuals with autism participated, after they showed persistent requests for edible items after PECS training. Stimulus control was achieved only with the multiple schedule that involved presentation of a discriminative stimulus during reinforcement components and its removal during extinction components (S+ only). Discriminated requests were maintained for the 1 participant who experienced schedule thinning. PMID:26814152

  5. Communication: A difference density picture for the self-consistent field ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Robert M.; Liu, Fang; Martínez, Todd J.

    2016-04-01

    We formulate self-consistent field (SCF) theory in terms of an interaction picture where the working variable is the difference density matrix between the true system and a corresponding superposition of atomic densities. As the difference density matrix directly represents the electronic deformations inherent in chemical bonding, this "difference self-consistent field (dSCF)" picture provides a number of significant conceptual and computational advantages. We show that this allows for a stable and efficient dSCF iterative procedure with wholly single-precision Coulomb and exchange matrix builds. We also show that the dSCF iterative procedure can be performed with aggressive screening of the pair space. These approximations are tested and found to be accurate for systems with up to 1860 atoms and >10 000 basis functions, providing for immediate overall speedups of up to 70% in the heavily optimized TeraChem SCF implementation.

  6. More than a Picture: Helping Undergraduates Learn to Communicate through Scientific Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Fiona L.; Lom, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Images are powerful means of communicating scientific results; a strong image can underscore an experimental result more effectively than any words, whereas a poor image can readily undermine a result or conclusion. Developmental biologists rely extensively on images to compare normal versus abnormal development and communicate their results. Most…

  7. The Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Emad

    2009-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication program (Frost & Bondy, 2002). Although PECS has been effectively used to teach functional requesting skills for children with autism, mental retardation, visual impairment, and physical disabilities (e.g., Anderson, Moore, & Bourne, 2007; Chambers &…

  8. Effectiveness of Combining Tangible Symbols with the Picture Exchange Communication System to Teach Requesting Skills to Children with Multiple Disabilities Including Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Emad; MacFarland, Stephanie Z.; Umbreit, John

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) program used to teach functional requesting and commenting skills to people with disabilities (Bondy & Frost, 1993; Frost & Bondy, 2002). In this study, tangible symbols were added to PECS in teaching requesting to four students (ages 7-14) with…

  9. The Effectiveness of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A South African Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travis, Julia; Geiger, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of introducing the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the frequency of requesting and commenting and the length of verbal utterances of two children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presented with some spoken language, but limited use of language in communicative exchanges. A mixed research…

  10. Radiologic image communication and archive service: a secure, scalable, shared approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellingham, Linda L.; Kohli, Jagdish C.

    1995-11-01

    The Radiologic Image Communication and Archive (RICA) service is designed to provide a shared archive for medical images to the widest possible audience of customers. Images are acquired from a number of different modalities, each available from many different vendors. Images are acquired digitally from those modalities which support direct digital output and by digitizing films for projection x-ray exams. The RICA Central Archive receives standard DICOM 3.0 messages and data streams from the medical imaging devices at customer institutions over the public telecommunication network. RICA represents a completely scalable resource. The user pays only for what he is using today with the full assurance that as the volume of image data that he wishes to send to the archive increases, the capacity will be there to accept it. To provide this seamless scalability imposes several requirements on the RICA architecture: (1) RICA must support the full array of transport services. (2) The Archive Interface must scale cost-effectively to support local networks that range from the very small (one x-ray digitizer in a medical clinic) to the very large and complex (a large hospital with several CTs, MRs, Nuclear medicine devices, ultrasound machines, CRs, and x-ray digitizers). (3) The Archive Server must scale cost-effectively to support rapidly increasing demands for service providing storage for and access to millions of patients and hundreds of millions of images. The architecture must support the incorporation of improved technology as it becomes available to maintain performance and remain cost-effective as demand rises.

  11. Teaching Young People Who Are Blind and Have Autism to Make Requests Using a Variation on the Picture Exchange Communication System with Tactile Symbols: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lund, Shelley K.; Troha, Jeanette M.

    2008-01-01

    This study used a single-subject multiple baseline across participants design to evaluate the effectiveness of a modified picture exchange communication system (PECS) teaching protocol with tactile symbols. Three students (two male, one female) aged 12-17 years who had autism and were blind participated in the study. The instructional program…

  12. A Further Comparison of Manual Signing, Picture Exchange, and Speech-Generating Devices as Communication Modes for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Meer, Larah; Sutherland, Dean; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Sigafoos, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    We compared acquisition of, and preference for, manual signing (MS), picture exchange (PE), and speech-generating devices (SGDs) in four children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Intervention was introduced across participants in a non-concurrent multiple-baseline design and acquisition of the three communication modes was compared in an…

  13. EIR: enterprise imaging repository, an alternative imaging archiving and communication system.

    PubMed

    Bian, Jiang; Topaloglu, Umit; Lane, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    The enormous number of studies performed at the Nuclear Medicine Department of University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) generates a huge amount PET/CT images daily. A DICOM workstation had been used as "mini-PACS" to route all studies, which is historically proven to be slow due to various reasons. However, replacing the workstation with a commercial PACS server is not only cost inefficient; and more often, the PACS vendors are reluctant to take responsibility for the final integration of these components. Therefore, in this paper, we propose an alternative imaging archiving and communication system called Enterprise Imaging Repository (EIR). EIR consists of two distinguished components: an image processing daemon and a user friendly web interface. EIR not only reduces the overall waiting time of transferring a study from the modalities to radiologists' workstations, but also provides a more preferable presentation. PMID:19963537

  14. Adoption and resistance: reflections on human, organizational, and information technologies in picture archive and communication systems (PACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappington, Rodney W.

    2005-04-01

    In research conducted at academic and community hospitals in the United States since 2001, this paper examines complex human and technological relationships employed to renegotiate behavior within hospital administrative and clinical cultures. In the planning and implementation of PACS in a four-facility hospital we will enter into what can be described as processes of "adoption" and "resistance", seemingly opposite approaches to system implementation, which I argue are in fact key responses to planning, design, and customization of imaging and information systems in a context of convergence. In a larger context of convergence known as NBIC tools (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences) it has become increasingly clear to leaders in the field that it is essential to redesign organizational technologies. A novel system has little chance of being fully utilized by conventional organizational structures in an era of system convergence. The challenge of embracing a larger systems perspective lies in opening untapped potential within the healthcare enterprise by preparing the ground for reflection on new approaches to training, and bridging specialized knowledge across computer engineering, clinical decision making, and organizational perspectives for the benefit of patient care. Case studies will demonstrate how organizational and system design technologies are crucial in insuring that PACS implementation strategies can encourage the emergence of new levels of quality for patient care. The goal is to provide successful design-build models that are true to organizational specificity, persons, and clinical practices undergoing change and uncertainty.

  15. Enabling a Prelinguistic Communicator with Autism to Use Picture Card as a Strategy for Repairing Listener Misunderstandings: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohtake, Yoshihisa; Wehmeyer, Michael; Uchida, Naomi; Nakaya, Akitaka; Yanagihara, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine the effects of a time-delay prompting procedure on the acquisition of skills for repairing multiple listener misunderstandings. A prelinguistic student with autism was taught to use picture cards as a strategy to repair listener misunderstandings in a setting where the student had to ask the listener…

  16. Cover Picture.

    PubMed

    Krömer; Rios-Carreras; Fuhrmann; Musch; Wunderlin; Debaerdemaeker; Mena-Osteritz; Bäuerle

    2000-10-01

    The cover picture shows the synthesis of novel conjugated macrocycles assembled from oligothiophenes bearing terminal acetylene groups. Under pseudo-high-dilution conditions the oxidative cyclooligomerization first gives the oligothiophenediynes, the precursors to the new class of alpha-cyclo[n]thiophenes. The detailed structure of macrocycles with up to 76 ring members and cavities of up to 3 nm could be investigated by means of X-ray structure analysis, scanning tunneling microscopy, and quantum chemical calculations (see the molecular model top right). The novel rings combine the excellent electronic properties of the corresponding linearly conjugated oligomers with the possibility of complexing large organic guest molecules or other objects (the tower of the Cathedral at Ulm represents a nanometer-sized, rodlike entity), which should have new fundamental properties and applications. The background shows the image obtained by scanning electron microscopy of a self-assembled and perfectly ordered monolayer of macrocycles on a graphite surface. More on these fascinating nanometer-sized rings can be found in the communication by P. Bäuerle et al. on p. 3481 ff. PMID:11091367

  17. The Effect of Picture Communication Symbols on the Verbal Comprehension of Commands by Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preis, Janet

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of autism, although a source of discussion and occasional controversy, has consistently included poor communication as an essential component. Both the text revision of the fourth edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (American Psychiatric Association, 2000) and the 10th edition of the "International…

  18. Picture Postage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterer, Irv

    2009-01-01

    With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for businesses to…

  19. Pacs: Part Of An Integrated Communications System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, B. G.; Brenton, Bradley C.; Staab, Edward V.; Perry, J. Randolph; Parrish, Denise; Johnston, R. Eugene; Creasy, Jeffrey L.

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Radiology at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill (UNC) has developed the concept for an integrated picture archiving and communications system. A communications network has been installed, and computer facilities are being interfaced within radiology areas. Other projects include the establishment of a computer simulation model of departmental operations and assembly of a limited picture archival and communication system (PACS) beginning with the CT and NMR Modalities. While this approach may provide immediate clinical benefits, the initial thrust has been towards evaluation of prototype systems with flexibility for modifications. PACS operational parameters are being studied for their acceptability in support of radiology clinical services. The goal is to provide objective operational data as a basis for planning system improvements.

  20. Proposed Standard For Variable Format Picture Processing And A Codec Approach To Match Diverse Imaging Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendler, Th.; Meyer-Ebrecht, D.

    1982-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems, especially those for medical applications, will offer the potential to integrate the various image sources of different nature. A major problem, however, is the incompatibility of the different matrix sizes and data formats. This may be overcome by a novel hierarchical coding process, which could lead to a unified picture format standard. A picture coding scheme is described, which decomposites a given (2n)2 picture matrix into a basic (2m)2 coarse information matrix (representing lower spatial frequencies) and a set of n-m detail matrices, containing information of increasing spatial resolution. Thus, the picture is described by an ordered set of data blocks rather than by a full resolution matrix of pixels. The blocks of data are transferred and stored using data formats, which have to be standardized throughout the system. Picture sources, which produce pictures of different resolution, will provide the coarse-matrix datablock and additionally only those detail matrices that correspond to their required resolution. Correspondingly, only those detail-matrix blocks need to be retrieved from the picture base, that are actually required for softcopy or hardcopy output. Thus, picture sources and retrieval terminals of diverse nature and retrieval processes for diverse purposes are easily made compatible. Furthermore this approach will yield an economic use of storage space and transmission capacity: In contrast to fixed formats, redundand data blocks are always skipped. The user will get a coarse representation even of a high-resolution picture almost instantaneously with gradually added details, and may abort transmission at any desired detail level. The coding scheme applies the S-transform, which is a simple add/substract algorithm basically derived from the Hadamard Transform. Thus, an additional data compression can easily be achieved especially for high-resolution pictures by applying appropriate non-linear and

  1. Usage experience with the document archiving and communication system for the storage and retrieval of medical records.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshihiro; Ueda, Kanayo; Manabe, Shiro; Teramoto, Kei; Mihara, Naoki; Matsumura, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    Standard Japanese electronic medical record (EMR) systems are associated with major shortcomings. For example, they do not assure lifelong readability of records because each document requires its own viewing software program, a system that is difficult to maintain over long periods of time. It can also be difficult for users to comprehend a patient's clinical history because different classes of documents can only be accessed from their own window. To address these problems, we developed a document-based electronic medical record that aggregates all documents for a patient in a PDF or DocuWorks format. We call this system the Document Archiving and Communication System (DACS). There are two types of viewers in the DACS: the Matrix View, which provides a time line of a patient's history, and the Tree View, which stores the documents in hierarchical document classes. We placed 2,734 document classes into 11 categories. A total of 22,3972 documents were entered per month. The frequency of use of the DACS viewer was 268,644 instances per month. The DACS viewer was used to assess a patient's clinical history. PMID:23920795

  2. Enterprise-class Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) image infrastructure.

    PubMed

    York, G; Wortmann, J; Atanasiu, R

    2001-06-01

    Most current picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) are designed for a single department or a single modality. Few PACS installations have been deployed that support the needs of the hospital or the entire Integrated Delivery Network (IDN). The authors propose a new image management architecture that can support a large, distributed enterprise. PMID:11442125

  3. Project VITA: Graphic Arts Communication. A Picture Dictionary for Resource Room Instruction. Module II, Lessons 10-12. Teacher's Manual [and] Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David C.; Kurtz, Margaret A.

    This document contains module 2 of a picture dictionary for resource room instruction. The dictionary accompanies a phototypesetting curriculum designed to provide supplemental instruction to handicapped students who are mainstreamed in a regular vocational graphic arts program. Module 2 contains three vocabulary lessons. Each lesson provides…

  4. Project VITA: Graphic Arts Communication. A Picture Dictionary for Resource Room Instruction. Module I, Lessons 1-9. Teacher's Manual [and] Student Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David C.; Kurtz, Margaret A.

    This document contains module 1 of a picture dictionary for resource room instruction. The dictionary accompanies a phototypesetting curriculum designed to provide supplemental instruction to handicapped students who are mainstreamed in a regular vocational graphic arts program. Module 1 contains nine vocabulary lessons. Each lesson provides…

  5. Sweat equity: a team approach to designing a new technology:customer-driven design of a picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) that works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelish, Anthony; Wright, Linda C.

    1994-05-01

    This paper defines the roles of customers and suppliers, customer variables, and customer contributions to the system creation process, discusses expected outcomes for a customer- driven system development process, and illustrates how this approach was used in the development of digital radiology.

  6. Examining Lateralized Semantic Access Using Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-01-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs.…

  7. Software considerations in the design of an image archive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadri, Sridhar B.; Kishore, Sheel; Khalsa, Satjeet S.; Stevens, John F.; Arenson, Ronald L.

    1990-08-01

    The Radiology Department at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania is currently expanding its prototype Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS) into a fully functional clinical system. The first phase of this expansion involves three major efforts: the upgrade of the 10-Mbit token-ring to an 80-Mbit backbone with associated sub-nets, the implementation of a large-scale image archive, and, an interface between the PACS and the Department's Radiology Information System. Upon the completion of this phase, the PACS will serve the storage and display needs of four MRI scanners and four of the Hospital's Intensive Care Units. This paper addresses the implementation of a software suite designed to duplicate and enhance conventional Film Library functions on a PACS. The structure of an electronic 'folder' based upon the ACR/NEMA Digital Imaging and Communication Standard is also introduced.

  8. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Andre

    The following essays on communication are presented: communication as a condition of survival, communication for special purposes, the means of transmission of communication, communication within social and economic structures, the teaching of communication through the press, the teaching of modern languages, communication as a point of departure,…

  9. Researching with Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Diane

    1990-01-01

    Describes a class activity in which students gathered pictures and wrote and recorded narration relating to the first successful flight by the Wright brothers at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina. Notes that, in the process of gathering pictures, the students were motivated to read the information accompanying the pictures. (RS)

  10. Maximizing ESY Services: Teaching Pre-Service Teachers to Assess Communication Skills and Implement Picture Exchange with Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Doris Adams; Flores, Margaret M.; Kearley, Regina F.

    2014-01-01

    The authors supervised and trained pre-service teachers while conducting extended school year (ESY) services for pre-kindergarten and elementary students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities (DD). Each classroom was responsible for conducting communication assessments and developing interventions focused on…

  11. The Palladiolibrary Geo-Models AN Open 3d Archive to Manage and Visualize Information-Communication Resources about Palladio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apollonio, F. I.; Baldissini, S.; Clini, P.; Gaiani, M.; Palestini, C.; Trevisan, C.

    2013-07-01

    The paper describes objectives, methods, procedures and outcomes of the development of the digital archive of Palladio works and documentation: the PALLADIOLibrary of Centro Internazionale di Studi di Architettura Andrea Palladio di Vicenza (CISAAP). The core of the application consists of fifty-one reality-based 3D models usable and navigable within a system grounded on GoogleEarth. This information system, a collaboration of four universities bearers of specific skills returns a comprehensive, structured and coherent semantic interpretation of Palladian landscape through shapes realistically reconstructed from historical sources and surveys and treated for GE with Ambient Occlusion techniques, overcoming the traditional display mode.

  12. Fault tolerance techniques to assure data integrity in high-volume PACS image archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yutao; Huang, Lu J.; Valentino, Daniel J.; Wingate, W. Keith; Avizienis, Algirdas

    1995-05-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) perform the systematic acquisition, archiving, and presentation of large quantities of radiological image and text data. In the UCLA Radiology PACS, for example, the volume of image data archived currently exceeds 2500 gigabytes. Furthermore, the distributed heterogeneous PACS is expected to have near real-time response, be continuously available, and assure the integrity and privacy of patient data. The off-the-shelf subsystems that compose the current PACS cannot meet these expectations; therefore fault tolerance techniques had to be incorporated into the system. This paper is to report our first-step efforts towards the goal and is organized as follows: First we discuss data integrity and identify fault classes under the PACS operational environment, then we describe auditing and accounting schemes developed for error-detection and analyze operational data collected. Finally, we outline plans for future research.

  13. Can Pictures Be Arguments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, David

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that widening the study of argumentation to include the visual unjustifiably expands common understandings of argument, particularly those that define argument as a two-part, two-sided act. Contends that by calling pictures "arguments," it is possible that attention will be diverted away from the rhetorical functions pictures can and do…

  14. Picturing Iowa's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruth, Amy, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This issue focuses on how advancements in photography affected Iowans and the pictures they took of their communities. Five famous and not so famous photographers who have taken pictures of Iowa's history are featured: (1) John Plumbe, Jr.; (2) Isaac A. Wetherby; (3) D. C. Hale; (4) Duluth Pieper; and (5) E. M. Clark. Instructions for making…

  15. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Donald D.

    1990-01-01

    Communication in its many forms is a critical component for an effective Space Grant Program. Good communication is needed within individual Space Grant College/Consortia, for example between consortium affiliates and the consortium program office. Effective communication between the several programs, NASA Headquarters, and NASA field centers also is required. Further, communication among the above program elements, industry, local and state government, and the public also are necessary for meeting program objectives.

  16. Digital archives and communication highways in health care require a second look at the legal framework of the seventies.

    PubMed

    Rienhoff, O

    1994-02-01

    The present state of the art and the state of practice regarding legal aspects of medical informatics are reported. Examples are taken from networking, archiving, and virtual reality. It is derived that the data protection concepts of the seventies are covering only some legal aspects of the application scene today and in the future. Thus a far wider legal approach is necessary. It can only be mastered if engineers and lawyers discuss future trends and derive together a new legal framework for medical computer systems in the late nineties. As computers will be everywhere from childhood to death the key issue is not to just protect an individual but to positively frame an information society. PMID:8188406

  17. Metaphor in pictures.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference. PMID:6193482

  18. Application service provider (ASP) financial models for off-site PACS archiving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Liu, Brent J.; McCoy, J. Michael; Enzmann, Dieter R.

    2003-05-01

    For the replacement of its legacy Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (approx. annual workload of 300,000 procedures), UCLA Medical Center has evaluated and adopted an off-site data-warehousing solution based on an ASP financial with a one-time single payment per study archived. Different financial models for long-term data archive services were compared to the traditional capital/operational costs of on-site digital archives. Total cost of ownership (TCO), including direct and indirect expenses and savings, were compared for each model. Financial parameters were considered: logistic/operational advantages and disadvantages of ASP models versus traditional archiving systems. Our initial analysis demonstrated that the traditional linear ASP business model for data storage was unsuitable for large institutions. The overall cost markedly exceeds the TCO of an in-house archive infrastructure (when support and maintenance costs are included.) We demonstrated, however, that non-linear ASP pricing models can be cost-effective alternatives for large-scale data storage, particularly if they are based on a scalable off-site data-warehousing service and the prices are adapted to the specific size of a given institution. The added value of ASP is that it does not require iterative data migrations from legacy media to new storage media at regular intervals.

  19. Vision and Motion Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambo, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Presents activities on persistence of vision that involve students in a hands-on approach to the study of early methods of creating motion pictures. Students construct flip books, a Zoetrope, and an early movie machine. (DDR)

  20. Picturing the Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information You are here Home » SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ... Links for Students Glossary Picturing the Heart SCIENCE EDUCATION Science Topics Resource Links for General Public Resource ...

  1. Picture Perfect: Document What You Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothe, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Incorporating photographs into reports or promotional materials is an effective means of communicating needs and activities of the library media center. Provides techniques on how to improve picture taking with a standard camera. Discusses photo composition, positioning subjects, photographing reflective objects, lighting and focus tips,…

  2. Teaching Students with Autism to Read Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cihak, David F.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the use of teaching three students with autism how to comprehend pictures. Students were elementary-aged, did not speak, and needed communication training. Students were provided systematic visual literacy instruction. Visual literacy instruction consisted of comprehending familiar people, objects, actions, and sequences…

  3. Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue on communication includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROM and computer software, videos, books, and professional resources that deal with various methods of communication. Sidebars discuss mythology, photojournalism, sharing ideas on the Web, and songs of protest. Suggestions for class activities are also included. (LRW)

  4. Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griner, James

    2010-01-01

    NASA s communication work for the UAS Command and Control area will build upon work currently being conducted under NASA Recovery Act funds. Communication portions of UAS NextGen ConOps, Stateof- the-Art assessment, and Gap Analysis. Preliminary simulations for UAS CNPC link scalability assessment. Surrogate UAS aircraft upgrades. This work will also leverage FY10 in-guide funding for communication link model development. UAS are currently managed through exceptions and are operating using DoD frequencies for line-of-sight (LOS) and satellite-based communications links, low-power LOS links in amateur bands, or unlicensed Instrument/Scientific/Medical (ISM) frequencies. None of these frequency bands are designated for Safety and Regularity of Flight. No radio-frequency (RF) spectrum has been allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) specifically for UAS command and control links, for either LOS or Beyond LOS (BLOS) communication.

  5. Reconceptualizing Academic Libraries and Archives in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulus, Michael J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the concept of "the archive" in the digital age and the situation of libraries and archives within the lifecycle of information. After discussing the changing nature of books, records, scholarly communication, and the concept of "the archive," this paper merges book and record lifecycle models into a new archival cycle. To…

  6. Classic Classroom Activities: The Oxford Picture Dictionary Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Renee; Adelson-Goldstein, Jayme; Shapiro, Norma

    This teacher resource book offers over 100 reproducible communicative practice activities and 768 picture cards based on the vocabulary of the Oxford Picture Dictionary. Teacher's notes and instructions, including adaptations for multilevel classes, are provided. The activities book has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700 words. The…

  7. What Are the Boundaries of Archival Context? The SIASFI Project and the Online Guide to the Florence State Archives, Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitali, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Creating archival descriptions in a digital environment and communicating across the Internet is not the same as traditional paper-based communication. As in other cultural domains, in archival description the medium influences the structure and content of information. The SIASFI Project and the Online Guide to the State Archives of Florence are…

  8. Cassini Archive Tracking System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conner, Diane; Sayfi, Elias; Tinio, Adrian

    2006-01-01

    The Cassini Archive Tracking System (CATS) is a computer program that enables tracking of scientific data transfers from originators to the Planetary Data System (PDS) archives. Without CATS, there is no systematic means of locating products in the archive process or ensuring their completeness. By keeping a database of transfer communications and status, CATS enables the Cassini Project and the PDS to efficiently and accurately report on archive status. More importantly, problem areas are easily identified through customized reports that can be generated on the fly from any Web-enabled computer. A Web-browser interface and clearly defined authorization scheme provide safe distributed access to the system, where users can perform functions such as create customized reports, record a transfer, and respond to a transfer. CATS ensures that Cassini provides complete science archives to the PDS on schedule and that those archives are available to the science community by the PDS. The three-tier architecture is loosely coupled and designed for simple adaptation to multimission use. Written in the Java programming language, it is portable and can be run on any Java-enabled Web server.

  9. Simulation And Communication Aspects Of PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijns, G. L.; Bakker, A. R.; de Valk, J. P. J.

    1988-06-01

    The storage of large amounts of digital image data and the communication of the images within a hospital are major problems in the development of a Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS). Image compression reduces both the problems of storage capacity and of the image transmission rate by approximately a factor 12. It is shown that the use of memory buffers at different hierarchical system levels provides for an additional reduction in the required transmission rate. In order to determine the communication rates and number and size of the buffers, the PACS has been modelled by a system of queues and servers. Queueing models can be analysed by means of computer simulation but also mathematically. Examples of mathematical analysis are given and a simplified model of the department of radiology is evaluated.

  10. Science's Big Picture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    The state of science is a moving target, and its ever-shifting horizons can best be gleaned by the contents of scientific journals. However, the bigger picture of the scientific enterprise, which also encompasses its past, its future, and its overarching philosophies, can often be better represented through the more reflective pace of popular…

  11. Picture Books for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Kat

    2002-01-01

    Discusses picture books that are suitable for teens, particularly middle school readers, and provides detailed reviews for five titles that have appealing story themes and illustrations including: Tony Millionaires' Sock Monkey: A Children's Book; Mick Foley's Christmas Chaos; Mick Foley's Halloween Hijinx; The Book of Jack; and Moby Dick. (LRW)

  12. Voyager picture of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Voyager 1 took this picture of the planet Jupiter on Saturday, Jan. 6, the first in its three-month-long, close-up investigation of the largest planet. The spacecraft, flying toward a March 5 closest approach, was 35.8 million miles (57.6 million kilometers) from Jupiter and 371.7 million miles (598.2 million kilometers) from Earth when the picture was taken. As the Voyager cameras begin their meteorological surveillance of Jupiter, they reveal a dynamic atmosphere with more convective structure than had previously been thought. While the smallest atmospheric features seen in this picture are still as large as 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) across, Voyager will be able to detect individual storm systems as small as 3 miles (5 kilometers) at closest approach. The Great Red Spot can be seen near the limb at the far right. Most of the other features are too small to be seen in terrestrial telescopes. This picture was transmitted to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the Deep Space Network's tracking station at Madrid, Spain. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  13. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  14. Knowledge From Pictures (KFP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walt; Paterra, Frank; Bailin, Sidney

    1993-01-01

    The old maxim goes: 'A picture is worth a thousand words'. The objective of the research reported in this paper is to demonstrate this idea as it relates to the knowledge acquisition process and the automated development of an expert system's rule base. A prototype tool, the Knowledge From Pictures (KFP) tool, has been developed which configures an expert system's rule base by an automated analysis of and reasoning about a 'picture', i.e., a graphical representation of some target system to be supported by the diagnostic capabilities of the expert system under development. This rule base, when refined, could then be used by the expert system for target system monitoring and fault analysis in an operational setting. Most people, when faced with the problem of understanding the behavior of a complicated system, resort to the use of some picture or graphical representation of the system as an aid in thinking about it. This depiction provides a means of helping the individual to visualize the bahavior and dynamics of the system under study. An analysis of the picture augmented with the individual's background information, allows the problem solver to codify knowledge about the system. This knowledge can, in turn, be used to develop computer programs to automatically monitor the system's performance. The approach taken is this research was to mimic this knowledge acquisition paradigm. A prototype tool was developed which provides the user: (1) a mechanism for graphically representing sample system-configurations appropriate for the domain, and (2) a linguistic device for annotating the graphical representation with the behaviors and mutual influences of the components depicted in the graphic. The KFP tool, reasoning from the graphical depiction along with user-supplied annotations of component behaviors and inter-component influences, generates a rule base that could be used in automating the fault detection, isolation, and repair of the system.

  15. Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathorn, S.

    1985-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Thin Route satellite telecommunication project is presented. Thin Route employs applications technology satellites (ATS) in place of more costly commercial multi- transponder telecommunications satellites. This system allows remote and underdeveloped areas to communicate with the outside world for purposes of obtaining medical assistance among other things. The system represents a substantial cost saving over commercial systems.

  16. Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailenson, Jeremy; Buzzanell, Patrice; Deetz, Stanley; Tewksbury, David; Thompson, Robert J.; Turow, Joseph; Bichelmeyer, Barbara; Bishop, M. J.; Gayeski, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of communications were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Jeremy Bailenson, Patrice Buzzanell, Stanley Deetz, David Tewksbury, Robert J. Thompson, and…

  17. Getting the Picture | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer Recently, I attended the annual meeting of the BioCommunications Association in Asilomar, Calif. Not surprisingly, the speakers, all professional communicators, were very good and spoke knowledgeably on their various topics. But something else impressed me during the informal times between presentations, and at mealtimes. These folks not only tended to speak well, but they also tended to listen well. And there’s a very strong case to be made for the importance of listening in effective communication.

  18. 36 CFR 1254.88 - What are the rules for the Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Research Room at the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Archives at College Park. (h) You may reserve a NARA-furnished video copying station and 120... Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Research Room at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.88 Section 1254.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...

  19. 36 CFR 1254.88 - What are the rules for the Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Research Room at the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Archives at College Park. (h) You may reserve a NARA-furnished video copying station and 120... Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Research Room at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.88 Section 1254.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...

  20. 36 CFR 1254.88 - What are the rules for the Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Research Room at the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Archives at College Park. (h) You may reserve a NARA-furnished video copying station and 120... Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Research Room at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.88 Section 1254.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...

  1. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  2. Archiving Derrida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Marla

    2003-01-01

    Derrida's archive, broadly speaking, is brilliantly mad, for he digs exegetically into the most difficult textual material and combines the most unlikely texts--from Socrates to Freud, from postcards to encyclopedias, from madness(es) to the archive, from primal scenes to death. In this paper, the author would like to do a brief study of the…

  3. Medical image archive node simulation and architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Ted T.; Tang, Yau-Kuo

    1996-05-01

    access time, number of drives, number of exams per patient, number of Central Processing Units, patient grouping, and priority impacts. The MIADS, which could be a key component of a broader data repository system, will be able to communicate with and obtain data from existing hospital information systems. We will discuss the external interfaces enabling MIADS to communicate with and obtain data from existing Radiology Information Systems such as the Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). Our system design encompasses the broader aspects of the archive node, which could include multimedia data such as image, audio, video, and free text data. This system is designed to be integrated with current hospital PACS through a Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine interface. However, the system can also be accessed through the Internet using Hypertext Transport Protocol or Simple File Transport Protocol. Our design and simulation work will be key to implementing a successful, scalable medical image archive and distribution system.

  4. Nation's water picture mixed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The nation's water picture for April showed mixed trends: More than half of the index gaging stations reported normal streamflow conditions during the month, while the spring snowmelt boosted streamflow in the Northeast and Northwest to well above normal levels. Parts of the Southeast, however, from West Virginia south to the Carolinas, reported well-below normal streamflow conditions, according to a month-end check on water resources conditions by the U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior.After nearly 2 years of drought conditions the three major reservoirs supplying New York City reached full storage capacity and were spilling during April. Combined contents of the three reservoirs on May 1, 1982, was 272 billion gallons, 101% of their full usable capacity. The full reservoirs and the generally good surface and groundwater conditions throughout the Delaware River basin allowed the Delaware River Basin Commission to lift its drought emergency warning on April 27.

  5. Chandelier: Picturing Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebbs, Trevor J.

    2014-01-01

    The author--artist, scientist, educator, and visual-spatial thinker--describes the genesis of, and provides insight into, an innovative, strength-based, visually dynamic computer-aided communication system called Chandelier©. This system is the powerful combination of a sophisticated, user-friendly software program and an organizational…

  6. The Storyboard's Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malloy, Cheryl A.; Cooley, William

    2003-01-01

    At Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Cape Canaveral Office, we're using a project management tool that facilitates team communication, keeps our project team focused, streamlines work and identifies potential issues. What did it cost us to install the tool? Almost nothing.

  7. Data archiving

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, David

    1991-01-01

    The viewgraphs of a discussion on data archiving presented at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) Mass Storage Workshop is included. The mass storage system at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is described. Topics covered in the presentation include product goals, data library systems (DLS), client system commands, networks, archival devices, DLS features, client application systems, multiple mass storage devices, and system growth.

  8. Painting Pictures with Whisky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoungsoo; Boulogne, François; Um, Eujin; Jacobi, Ian; Stone, Howard

    2014-11-01

    Have you ever looked at the dried mark of whisky on the glass? While the whisky evaporates, various solid components inside the whisky are deposited with a peculiar pattern, which creates a beautiful picture. This particle patterning is induced by the solutal Marangoni effect. We investigate this effect on both the flow behavior and the particle deposition patterns in binary-mixture droplet evaporation by varying the concentration ratio between ethanol and water. To visualize the particle and fluid motion, we perform Particle Image Velocimetry. We observe that at the beginning stage complex circulating flow patterns occurred, which are triggered by the surface tension gradient, i.e. Marangoni effect. Ethanol first evaporates due to the lower vapor pressure compared to water. When the ethanol has vanished, a radial flow pattern is observed. Furthermore, we find that as the initial ethanol concentration increases, the mobility of the receding contact line increased. At high ethanol concentrations, the contact line kept receding so as to draw groups of particles that deposited in an annular pattern. We thank Ernie Button for sharing with us many beautiful images of whisky after it had dried.

  9. PICTURE PERFECT: IN DEPTH LOOK AT THE PICTURE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS picture format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a picture format one can create a series of templates for displ...

  10. PICTURE PERFECT: IN DEPTH LOOK AT THE PICTURE FORMAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    SAS PICTURE format is a very powerful tool. The different options allow the display of data in a more picturesque manner adding symbols, qualifiers, and comments to the data points without modifying the data. With a PICTURE format one can create a series of templates for displa...

  11. How a Picture Book Happens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonners, Susan

    1994-01-01

    The author and illustrator of a picture book about the life cycle of the lynx describes the research and development process she used to create the book. Contacts with wildlife biologists, presenting the predator/prey relationship, creating pictures and text, drawing from life, and creating the book jacket are among the topics covered. (KRN)

  12. Multicolor well-composed pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latecki, Longin J.

    1995-01-01

    As was noted early in the history of computer vision, using the same adjacency relation for the entire digital picture leads to so-called `paradoxes' related to the Jordan Curve Theorem. The most popular idea to avoid these paradoxes in binary images was using different adjacency relations for the foreground and the background: 8-adjacency for black points and 4-adjacency for white points, or vice versa. This idea cannot be extended in a straightforward way to multicolor pictures. In this paper a solution is presented which guarantees avoidance of the connectivity paradoxes related to the Jordan Curve Theorem for all multicolor pictures. Only one connectedness relation is used for the entire digital picture, i.e., for every component of every color. The idea is not to allow a certain `critical configuration' which can be detected locally to occur in digital pictures; such pictures are called `well-composed.' Well-composed pictures have very nice topological properties. For example, the Jordan Curve Theorem holds and the Euler characteristic is locally computable. This implies that properties of algorithms used in computer vision can be stated and proved in a clear way, and that the algorithms themselves become simpler and faster. Moreover, if a digitization process is guaranteed to preserve topology, then the obtained digital pictures must be well-composed.

  13. Recovering Spirit Sends a New Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took and returned this image on January 28, 2004, the first picture from Spirit since problems with communications began a week earlier. The image from the rover's front hazard identification camera shows the robotic arm extended to the rock called Adirondack. As it had been instructed a week earlier, the Moessbauer spectrometer, an instrument for identifying the minerals in rocks and soils, is still placed against the rock. Engineers are working to restore Spirit to working order so that the rover can resume the scientific exploration of its landing area.

  14. Development and Evaluation of a Compartmental Picture Archiving and Communications System Model for Integration and Visualization of Multidisciplinary Biomedical Data to Facilitate Student Learning in an Integrative Health Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Meyrick; Chan, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Information technology (IT) has the potential to improve the clinical learning environment. The extent to which IT enhances or detracts from healthcare professionals' role performance can be expected to affect both student learning and patient outcomes. This study evaluated nursing students' satisfaction with a novel compartmental Picture…

  15. PACS image archive server implementation in the developing countries such as China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Shu, Yunhong; Zhuang, Tian-ge

    2000-05-01

    While Picture Archiving and Communicating System project is underway through out the western countries, China is making a revolutionary advance in digital medical record. Hospitals in China have made their first steps toward implementation of PACS. Due to the ever-increasing amount of medical image data, a completed archive server is of great need as the base of filmless radiology, a cost effective, high performance digital archive system will remain as the most essential and challenging part of PACS. However there is an inevitable and inherent dilemma in those hospitals in the developing countries like China -- limited amount of development funds. So we are urged to design a low cost but efficient image archive system to cater to the expectation of the hospital. This paper describes a high capacity PACS image archive system model that is developed with rather low cost. To build a reliable and flexible image archive system involves a number of factors such as system capacity requirement, storage and retrieval performance and cost saving etc. We have undertaken the hierarchy image storage mechanism. Judicious image dispatch is employed to meet the goal of timely image retrieval. The whole design can be divided into two parts, one is Scheduled Image Flow Service (SIFS) whose purpose is to periodically backup, archive and pre-fetch image, the other one is Online Image Retrieval Service (OIRS) to provide quick access to the online and nearline images through the network interface. Automatic image transfer is realized between different storage tiers with high level of control. All the procedure is highly automatic except the manually depositing and undepositing off-line optical disks. System evaluations on random retrieval time are presented to show the effect of image location. The concept of image tiered storage will largely reduce the cost of storage. Real-time response to the retrieval demand can send wanted images to a radiologist in a reasonable time. We have done

  16. Meeting Students Where They Are: Advancing a Theory and Practice of Archives in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidy, Christina; Hannah, Mark; Sura, Tom

    2011-01-01

    This article uses theories of technical communication and archives to advance a pedagogy that includes archival production in the technical communication classroom. By developing and maintaining local classroom archives, students directly engage in valuable processes of appraisal, selection, collaboration, and retention. The anticipated outcomes…

  17. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yohlin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…

  18. Communication Games in Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)

  19. How Do You Picture Electricity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibble, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Describes an action-research project conducted by student teachers in Edinburgh designed to explore ways in which children picture what happens inside an electric circuit. The student teachers also explored their own understanding of electricity. (Author/WRM)

  20. Pictures, images, and recollective experience.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

    1994-09-01

    Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding. PMID:7931096

  1. Archiving tools for EOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sindrilaru, Elvin-Alin; Peters, Andreas-Joachim; Duellmann, Dirk

    2015-12-01

    Archiving data to tape is a critical operation for any storage system, especially for the EOS system at CERN which holds production data for all major LHC experiments. Each collaboration has an allocated quota it can use at any given time therefore, a mechanism for archiving "stale" data is needed so that storage space is reclaimed for online analysis operations. The archiving tool that we propose for EOS aims to provide a robust client interface for moving data between EOS and CASTOR (tape backed storage system) while enforcing best practices when it comes to data integrity and verification. All data transfers are done using a third-party copy mechanism which ensures point-to- point communication between the source and destination, thus providing maximum aggregate throughput. Using ZMQ message-passing paradigm and a process-based approach enabled us to achieve optimal utilisation of the resources and a stateless architecture which can easily be tuned during operation. The modular design and the implementation done in a high-level language like Python, has enabled us to easily extended the code base to address new demands like offering full and incremental backup capabilities.

  2. English for Everyday Activities: A Picture Process Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwier, Lawrence J.

    These books are designed to help English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) students learn the skills they need to communicate the step-by-step aspects of daily activities. Unlike most picture dictionaries, this is a verb-based multi-skills program that uses a student text with a clear and colorful pictorial detail as a starting point and focuses on the…

  3. Pictures & Words Together: Children Illustrating and Writing Their Own Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Paul

    Based on the premise that teachers everywhere have found that bookmaking has the power to motivate even the most reluctant writers, this book suggests that by combining illustrations and texts, children engage in a kind of communication that transcends the sum of its parts--their pictures and words interact to convey a new level of meaning. The…

  4. Managing an Archive of Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Vince; Walter, David; Hallal, Charles; Jones, Helene; Callac, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The SSC Multimedia Archive is an automated electronic system to manage images, acquired both by film and digital cameras, for the Public Affairs Office (PAO) at Stennis Space Center (SSC). Previously, the image archive was based on film photography and utilized a manual system that, by today s standards, had become inefficient and expensive. Now, the SSC Multimedia Archive, based on a server at SSC, contains both catalogs and images for pictures taken both digitally and with a traditional, film-based camera, along with metadata about each image. After a "shoot," a photographer downloads the images into the database. Members of the PAO can use a Web-based application to search, view and retrieve images, approve images for publication, and view and edit metadata associated with the images. Approved images are archived and cross-referenced with appropriate descriptions and information. Security is provided by allowing administrators to explicitly grant access privileges to personnel to only access components of the system that they need to (i.e., allow only photographers to upload images, only PAO designated employees may approve images).

  5. [California State Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rea, Jay W.

    The first paper on the California State Archives treats the administrative status, legal basis of the archives program, and organization of the archives program. The problem areas in this States' archival program are discussed at length. The second paper gives a crude sketch of the legal and administrative history of the California State Archives,…

  6. Using applet-servlet communication for optimizing window, level and crop for DICOM to JPEG conversion.

    PubMed

    Kamauu, Aaron W C; DuVall, Scott L; Wiggins, Richard H; Avrin, David E

    2008-09-01

    In the creation of interesting radiological cases in a digital teaching file, it is necessary to adjust the window and level settings of an image to effectively display the educational focus. The web-based applet described in this paper presents an effective solution for real-time window and level adjustments without leaving the picture archiving and communications system workstation. Optimized images are created, as user-defined parameters are passed between the applet and a servlet on the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act-compliant teaching file server. PMID:17534682

  7. A Picture Is Not Always Worth a Thousand Words: Pictures as Distractors in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willows, Dale M.

    1978-01-01

    Children read sets of words under three conditions: with no pictures, with related pictures, and with unrelated pictures. Results indicated that words were read more slowly whenever pictures were present; that unrelated pictures produced more interference than related pictures; and that both effects were inversely related to reading ability.…

  8. 36 CFR 1254.88 - What are the rules for the Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Research Room at the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the rules for the Motion Picture, Sound, and Video Research Room at the National Archives at College Park? 1254.88 Section 1254.88 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION...

  9. Multiple communication networks for a radiological PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Albert W. K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Lou, Shyhliang A.; Chan, Kelby K.; Huang, H. K.

    1991-07-01

    The authors have implemented a communication network connecting multiple buildings for their picture archiving and communication system (PACS) in the Radiology Department at UCLA. The network consists of three types of local area networks (LANs) and a 1.0-km fiber-optic link connecting the outpatient and inpatient facilities. Images from radiologic imaging devices (4 CT scanners, 5 MR scanners, 4 CR units and 5 film digitizers) are transmitted to the acquisition computers via the Ethernet LAN. The fiber distributed data interface (FDDI) LAN then provides data communication among the cluster controllers, the acquisition computers, and the database servers. A 1-gigabit UltraNet LAN is used to route images from the cluster controllers to remote display workstations. All inter-building connections are through fiber-optic cables. Among these multiple networks, Ethernet offers multi-access to the multimodal PACS in image acquisition, FDDI controls a fast data flow so that all acquired images have a shorter residence time on local disks, and UltraNet provides high-speed transfer of images from the cluster controllers to the display workstations. The three-tiered functionality of Ethernet, FDDI, and UltraNet eliminates network traffic bottlenecks and hence provides high performance in image communication. The delay time of a 2K X 2K X 8-bit CR image (4 MBytes) from acquisition to display is less than 5 minutes. In addition, the standard Ethernet serves as a backup to guarantee network connectivity of the entire PACS.

  10. [Sleep and dreams in pictures].

    PubMed

    Stoll, R T

    1995-04-11

    Human life is divided into two thirds wakefulness and one third sleep. A newborn child sleeps to strengthen, the adult for regeneration. At the end of life man sinks down into the sleep of death: Hypnos and Thanatos are twin sons of the Queen of Night. Myths from different cultures are influenced by the experience of sleep and its inner world of pictures, the dreams. Artists, painters and sculptors let their visions float steadily into new pictures, and creatures of sleep formed out of diverse materials. Devine sleep, sleep for new life, sleep of health, creative sleep, prophetic sleep, sleep for revelation and for decisions. PMID:7732243

  11. Using Pictures as a Vehicle to Personalize the Collaborative Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackie, Brian; Gutierrez, Charletta F.

    2005-01-01

    Business organizations are increasingly adopting collaboration tools to increase communication within the firm. CAMS is a home-grown online collaborative environment which makes heavy use of participant's pictures. Participants, both faculty and students, were asked questions about the benefits and usefulness of pictures in the CAMS collaborative…

  12. Children's Picture Interpretation: Appearance or Intention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armitage, Emma; Allen, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    Pictures are defined by their creator's intentions and resemblance to their real world referents. Here we examine whether young children follow a realist route (e.g., focusing on how closely pictures resemble their referents) or intentional route (e.g., focusing on what a picture is intended to represent by its artist) when identifying a picture's…

  13. Sex Stereotype Effects in Children's Picture Recognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cann, Arnie; Newbern, Sara R.

    1984-01-01

    Reports an experiment in which 80 male and female six and eight year olds were presented with pictures consistent or inconsistent with sex stereotypes and pictures of neutral activities. Later, subjects performed a picture-recognition task. Among the variables investigated were subjects' labeling of pictures and sex-stereotype consistency. (CB)

  14. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not…

  15. Pikchul Nioki Chulda (Picture Dictionary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Joan; And Others

    Developed for students in kindergarten through second grade, this alphabet book is one in a series of picture dictionaries in the Pima language developed to instill pride in Pima students by presenting their language in print and to increase their vocabularies in both Pima and English. Introductory sections provide a brief history of the project…

  16. Archives in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haider, Syed Jalaluddin

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the origins and development of archives in Pakistan. The focus is on the National Archives of Pakistan, but also includes a discussion of the archival collections at the provincial and district levels. This study further examines the state of training facilities available to Pakistani archivists. Archival development has been…

  17. Reference Services in Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, Lucille; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This 16-article issue focuses on history, policy, services, users, organization, evaluation, and automation of the archival reference process. Collections at academic research libraries, a technical university, Board of Education, business archives, a bank, labor and urban archives, a manuscript repository, religious archives, and regional history…

  18. Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Mather, Mara; Nesmith, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture’s content to its location without interfering with picture-location binding for nearby pictures. In addition, arousal-enhanced picture-location memory binding is not just a side effect of enhanced memory for the picture itself, as it occurs both when recognition memory is good and when it is poor. PMID:19190722

  19. Discussion of medical x ray picture normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dezong; Xiong, Yingen; Cheng, Liping

    1996-01-01

    There is great significance in comparing medical x-ray pictures, which are taken in different periods. For the orthopaedics surgeon comparing the density of bone is one important way of clinical diagnosis. Some persons think that if these orthopaedics pictures are processed by histogram normalization their gray level and pseudo color can be compared directly. But for one picture we know that the gray distribution is different between the original picture and the processed picture. Comparing these pictures is not authentic. In this paper we discuss that subject and describe the basis of histogram normalization. The distribution on original x-ray pictures and processed pictures is provided. The methods to compare different pictures are mentioned.

  20. Development of NATO's recognized environmental picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teufert, John F.; Trabelsi, Mourad

    2006-05-01

    An important element for the fielding of a viable, effective NATO Response Force (NRF) is access to meteorological, oceanographic, geospatial data (GEOMETOC) and imagery. Currently, the available GEOMETOC information suffers from being very fragmented. NATO defines the Recognised Environmental Picture as controlled information base for GEOMETOC data. The NATO REP proposes an architecture that is both flexible and open. The focus lies on enabling a network-centric approach. The key into achieving this is relying on using open, well recognized standards that apply to both the data exchange protocols and the data formats. Communication and information exchange based on open standards enables system interoperability. Diverse systems, each with unique, specialized contributions to an increased understanding of the battlespace, can now cooperate to a manageable information sphere. By clearly defining responsibilities in the generation of information, a reduction in data transfer overhead is achieved . REP identifies three main stages in the dissemination of GEOMETOC data. These are Collection, Fusion (and Analysis) and Publication. A REP architecture has been successfully deployed during the NATO Coalition Warrior Interoperability Demonstration (CWID) in Lillehammer, Norway during June 2005. CWID is an annual event to validate and improve the interoperability of NATO and national Consultation and command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (C4ISR) systems. With a test case success rate of 84%, it was able to provide relevant GEOMETOC support to the main NRF component headquarters. In 2006, the REP architecture will be deployed and validated during the NATO NRF Steadfast live exercises.

  1. Managing an archive of weather satellite images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaman, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    The author's experiences of building and maintaining an archive of hourly weather satellite pictures at NOAO are described. This archive has proven very popular with visiting and staff astronomers - especially on windy days and cloudy nights. Given access to a source of such pictures, a suite of simple shell and IRAF CL scripts can provide a great deal of robust functionality with little effort. These pictures and associated data products such as surface analysis (radar) maps and National Weather Service forecasts are updated hourly at anonymous ftp sites on the Internet, although your local Atsmospheric Sciences Department may prove to be a more reliable source. The raw image formats are unfamiliar to most astronomers, but reading them into IRAF is straightforward. Techniques for performing this format conversion at the host computer level are described which may prove useful for other chores. Pointers are given to sources of data and of software, including a package of example tools. These tools include shell and Perl scripts for downloading pictures, maps, and forecasts, as well as IRAF scripts and host level programs for translating the images into IRAF and GIF formats and for slicing & dicing the resulting images. Hints for displaying the images and for making hardcopies are given.

  2. [Study on pictures in Waike Xinfa Yaojue].

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Hong-Xiao

    2011-07-01

    Collecting 265 pictures, Waike Xinfa Yaojue (written in Qing Dynasty) is the extant ancient surgical book with most pictures. Pictures could be divided into four kinds, i.e. disease and symptoms, meridians, pulse taking and taboos. Pictures on disease and symptoms account for the largest number and appeared most often and those pictures are also with special subject characteristics and of great importance to the diagnosis of surgical diseases. Pictures in ancient medical books played an important role in academic heritage. PMID:22169494

  3. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. PMID:20384417

  4. Contrast control for sonar pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Francoise; Bonnaud, Laurent; Collet, Christophe

    1996-11-01

    During the sonar image acquisition, several physical phenomena degrade the final picture a lot. We examine particularly two damages: the energy loss function of the distance covered by the acoustical wave and the speckle noise. For the first phenomenon, we suggest a corrective post processing which takes some acquisition parameters into account. For the second phenomenon, we apply filtering algorithms like the maximum a posteriori filter, a modified version of the Lee algorithm or an adaptive weighted median filter. The results are shown on real sonar images.

  5. Better Living Through Metadata: Examining Archive Usage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, G.; Winkelman, S.; Rots, A.

    2013-10-01

    The primary purpose of an observatory's archive is to provide access to the data through various interfaces. User interactions with the archive are recorded in server logs, which can be used to answer basic questions like: Who has downloaded dataset X? When did she do this? Which tools did she use? The answers to questions like these fill in patterns of data access (e.g., how many times dataset X has been downloaded in the past three years). Analysis of server logs provides metrics of archive usage and provides feedback on interface use which can be used to guide future interface development. The Chandra X-ray Observatory is fortunate in that a database to track data access and downloads has been continuously recording such transactions for years; however, it is overdue for an update. We will detail changes we hope to effect and the differences the changes may make to our usage metadata picture. We plan to gather more information about the geographic location of users without compromising privacy; create improved archive statistics; and track and assess the impact of web “crawlers” and other scripted access methods on the archive. With the improvements to our download tracking we hope to gain a better understanding of the dissemination of Chandra's data; how effectively it is being done; and perhaps discover ideas for new services.

  6. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…

  7. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in... Navy assists in the production of commercial, privately financed, nontheatrical motion pictures...

  8. Using Picture Books Kindergarten through High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Maurine V.; Miller, Margaret B.

    A picture book is defined as a book in which the illustrations are as important as the text or written story. Picture books published today seem appropriate and exciting for anyone from 1 to 100 years old. Among the many kinds of picture books are Mother Goose books; toy books (board books, pop-up books, concept books, flap books, cloth books, and…

  9. The Role of Decorative Pictures in Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenzner, Alwine; Schnotz, Wolfgang; Müller, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Three experiments with students from 7th and 8th grade were performed to investigate the effects of decorative pictures in learning as compared to instructional pictures. Pictures were considered as instructional, when they were primarily informative, and as decorative, when they were primarily aesthetically appealing. The experiments…

  10. Pictures in United States History Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan

    1988-01-01

    Surveys twenty-two U.S. history textbooks for pictures which suggest possible heroes and role models. Results show a domination of pictures of male political leaders with several minority members and women scattered throughout. Includes list of books reviewed and a chart showing the number of pictures per person for junior high and high school…

  11. Cognitive Style Influence in Reacting to Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Darlene H.

    Free verbal responses to pictures as an indication of cognitive style were studied for 199 college students, at Eastern Kentucky University. The Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) was administered following presentation of the pictures, a series of colored pictures of simple, medium and complex configuration. Responses given to three graduate…

  12. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motion pictures. 705.8 Section 705.8 National... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in the preceding for TV will also apply to cooperation with commercial motion picture producers. (b)...

  13. Control point measurements on Mariner 9 pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements are given of the control points on the Mariner 9 pictures which were used in the computation of the June 1973 control net of Mars. The method of making the measurements is discussed along with the picture coordinate system and the removal of distortions. Table are presented of the 9804 measurements of 1645 points on 660 pictures.

  14. More Than Pretty Pictures: How Translating Science Concepts into Pictures Advances Scientific Thinking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Felice

    2010-02-01

    The judgment and decision-making required to render science visual clarifies thinking. One must decide on a hierarchy of information--what must be included and what might be left out? What is the main point of the visual? Just as in writing an article or responding to an essay question, we must understand and then plan what we want to ``say'' in a drawing or other forms of representation. And since a visual representation of a scientific concept (or data) is a re-presentation, and not the thing itself, interpretation or translation is involved. The process tends to transcend barriers of linguistic facility and educational background; it attracts and communicates students and teachers of all backgrounds, where other methods intimidate. The rendered images are, in essence More Than Pretty Pictures. )

  15. Cascaded Processing in Written Naming: Evidence from the Picture-Picture Interference Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of a "bed").…

  16. Picture recognition improves with subsequent verbal information.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, S; MacLeod, C M; Lootsteen, P J

    1985-07-01

    In three experiments, subjects studied photographs presented alone or followed by a descriptive sentence. The sentence provided additional information not available in the picture. Subsequent yes-no recognition tests for the pictures demonstrated better memory for those pictures that had been followed by descriptive sentences. Experiment 1 showed that described pictures were remembered better regardless of whether comparison was to undescribed pictures presented in immediate succession or to undescribed pictures followed by a blank period equal in duration to the descriptive sentence. Experiment 2 demonstrated that although both unrelated and related sentences aided picture recognition, related sentences were significantly more helpful. Experiment 3 revealed that increasing the amount of related information (low, medium, and high) had no differential effect on picture recognition. Three explanations of these results are considered: integration of the sentence with the picture, formation of a semantic representation in addition to the pictorial one, and elaboration of the pictorial representation initiated by the sentence. Taken together, the findings seem most consistent with the elaboration account--A post-picture sentence improves attention to and perhaps rehearsal of the representation of the picture following its display. PMID:3160818

  17. General consumer communication tools for improved image management and communication in medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratib, Osman M.; Rosset, Antoine; McCoy, J. Michael

    2005-04-01

    We elected to explore emerging consumer technologies that can be adopted to improve and facilitate image and data communication in medical and clinical environment. The wide adoption of new communication paradigm such as instant messaging, chatting and direct emailing can be integrated in specific applications. The increasing capacity of portable and hand held devices such as iPod music players offer an attractive alternative for data storage that exceeds the capabilities of traditional offline storage media such as CD or even DVD. We adapted medical image display and manipulation software called OSIRIX to integrate different innovative technologies facilitating the communication and data transfer between remote users. We integrated email and instant messaging features to the program allowing users to instantaneously email an image or a set of images that are displayed on the screen. Using iChat instant messaging application from Apple a user can share the content of his screen with a remote correspondent and communicate in real time using voice and video. To provide convenient mechanism for exchange of large data sets the program can store the data in DICOM format on CD or DVD, but was also extended to use the large storage capacity of iPod hard disks as well as Apple"s online storage service "dot Mac" that users can subscribe to benefit from scalable secure storage that accessible from anywhere on the internet. The adoption of these innovative technologies is likely to change the architecture of traditional picture archiving and communication systems and provide more flexible and efficient means of communication.

  18. My Dream Archive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares his experience as he traveled from island to island with a single objective--to reach the archives. He found out that not all archives are the same. In recent months, his daydreaming in various facilities has yielded a recurrent question on what would constitute the Ideal Archive. What follows, in no particular…

  19. Researching Television News Archives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhoit, Frances Goins

    To demonstrate the uses and efficiency of major television news archives, a study was conducted to describe major archival programs and to compare the Vanderbilt University Television News Archives and the CBS News Index. Network coverage of an annual news event, the 1983 State of the Union address, is traced through entries in both. The findings…

  20. Astronomy Picture of the Day on Social Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemiroff, Robert J.; Bonnell, J.; Lowe, S. R.; Connelly, P.; Haring, R.

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) website has been developing a presence on social media. As with APOD's ~20 foreign language mirror sites, these social media pages have been created and are maintained by volunteers. As of this writing in 2012 October 1, the APOD Twitter feed has over 520,000 followers, the APOD Facebook page has over 28,000 Likes, and the APOD Google Plus mirror has been circled over 8,700 times. In addition three new social media sites -- APOD Sky and Universo (in Spanish) on Facebook and APOD River on Google Plus -- have been added that update more often than once daily, many times featuring unique image submissions or classic APODs from the 17+ year archive. Preliminary indications indicate that the doubling time for readers of most of these social media pages is typically less than a year. Volunteering opportunities exist to develop and contribute to APOD-related social media.

  1. Using Object Storage Technology vs Vendor Neutral Archives for an Image Data Repository Infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Bialecki, Brian; Park, James; Tilkin, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The intent of this project was to use object storage and its database, which has the ability to add custom extensible metadata to an imaging object being stored within the system, to harness the power of its search capabilities, and to close the technology gap that healthcare faces. This creates a non-disruptive tool that can be used natively by both legacy systems and the healthcare systems of today which leverage more advanced storage technologies. The base infrastructure can be populated alongside current workflows without any interruption to the delivery of services. In certain use cases, this technology can be seen as a true alternative to the VNA (Vendor Neutral Archive) systems implemented by healthcare today. The scalability, security, and ability to process complex objects makes this more than just storage for image data and a commodity to be consumed by PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System) and workstations. Object storage is a smart technology that can be leveraged to create vendor independence, standards compliance, and a data repository that can be mined for truly relevant content by adding additional context to search capabilities. This functionality can lead to efficiencies in workflow and a wealth of minable data to improve outcomes into the future. PMID:26872657

  2. Introduction: Consider the Archive.

    PubMed

    Yale, Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, historians of archives have paid increasingly careful attention to the development of state, colonial, religious, and corporate archives in the early modern period, arguing that power (of various kinds) was mediated and extended through material writing practices in and around archives. The history of early modern science, likewise, has tracked the production of scientific knowledge through the inscription and circulation of written records within and between laboratories, libraries, homes, and public spaces, such as coffeehouses and bookshops. This Focus section interrogates these two bodies of scholarship against each other. The contributors ask how archival digitization is transforming historical practice; how awareness of archival histories can help us to reconceptualize our work as historians of science; how an archive's layered purposes, built up over centuries of record keeping, can shape the historical narratives we write; and how scientific knowledge emerging from archives gained authority and authenticity. PMID:27197412

  3. An ultrafast network for communication of radiologic images.

    PubMed

    Stewart, B K; Lou, S L; Wong, W K; Huang, H K

    1991-04-01

    The three most difficult problems in making picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) a clinical reality in radiology are image archiving, very high-resolution display stations, and high-speed networking. This article considers high-speed image transmission through a high-capacity network. Our laboratory has tested several commercially available high-speed networks over the past year. Only one of these networks (UltraNet) has adequate throughput and capacity potential necessary for our PACS. The focus of this experiment is to determine the throughput and capacity characteristics of this star topology networking scheme as they relate to the operation of a PACS in the clinical environment. A large-scale test was done to gauge network performance for three networking configurations modeling those in a PACS: duplex, parallel, and relay. Ten computers used in our PACS (Sun 3 and 4 computers) were connected with UltraNet. For point-to-point throughput (half-duplex model), the network delivers up to 3.1 megabytes/sec for Sun 3 computers and 6.8 megabytes/sec for the Sun Sparcserver 490. As regards capacity considerations (parallel model), five parallel image transfer processes generated a maximum of 13.9 megabytes/sec through the network. Only a slight degradation in individual process throughput was observed (1.4%). With regard to shared access to high-contention resources on the PACS network (e.g., archive servers), this network demonstrated equal sharing of server networking capacity between the various client computers. With the encouraging results of this experiment, we believe that the UltraNet network will be sufficient for the image communication requirements of our PACS. We are proceeding with the implementation of UltraNet as the high-speed backbone of our extended PACS network. PMID:2003451

  4. Ariel - Highest Resolution Color Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The complex terrain of Ariel is viewed in this image, the best Voyager 2 color picture of the Uranian moon. The individual photos used to construct this composite were taken Jan. 24, 1986, from a distance of 170,000 kilometers (105,000 miles. Voyager captured this view of Ariel's southern hemisphere through the green, blue and violet filters of the narrow-angle camera; the resolution is about 3 km (2 mi). Most of the visible surface consists of relatively intensely cratered terrain transected by fault scarps and fault-bounded valleys (graben). Some of the largest valleys, which can be seen near the terminator (at right), are partly filled with younger deposits that are less heavily cratered. Bright spots near the limb and toward the left are chiefly the rims of small craters. Most of the brightly rimmed craters are too small to be resolved here, although one about 30 km (20 mi) in diameter can be easily distinguished near the center. These bright-rim craters, though the youngest features on Ariel, probably have formed over a long span of geological time. Although Ariel has a diameter of only about 1,200 km (750 mi), it has clearly experienced a great deal of geological activity in the past. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  5. High throughput tools to access images from clinical archives for research.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Shawn N; Herrick, Christopher; Wang, Yanbing; Wang, Taowei David; Sack, Darren; Andriole, Katherine P; Wei, Jesse; Reynolds, Nathaniel; Plesniak, Wendy; Rosen, Bruce R; Pieper, Steven; Gollub, Randy L

    2015-04-01

    Historically, medical images collected in the course of clinical care have been difficult to access for secondary research studies. While there is a tremendous potential value in the large volume of studies contained in clinical image archives, Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) are designed to optimize clinical operations and workflow. Search capabilities in PACS are basic, limiting their use for population studies, and duplication of archives for research is costly. To address this need, we augment the Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) open source software, providing investigators with the tools necessary to query and integrate medical record and clinical research data. Over 100 healthcare institutions have installed this suite of software tools that allows investigators to search medical record metadata including images for specific types of patients. In this report, we describe a new Medical Imaging Informatics Bench to Bedside (mi2b2) module ( www.mi2b2.org ), available now as an open source addition to the i2b2 software platform that allows medical imaging examinations collected during routine clinical care to be made available to translational investigators directly from their institution's clinical PACS for research and educational use in compliance with the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Omnibus Rule. Access governance within the mi2b2 module is customizable per institution and PACS minimizing impact on clinical systems. Currently in active use at our institutions, this new technology has already been used to facilitate access to thousands of clinical MRI brain studies representing specific patient phenotypes for use in research. PMID:25316195

  6. An innovative technique for recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2013-08-01

    Many ultrasound educational products and ultrasound researchers present diagnostic and interventional ultrasound information using picture-in-picture videos, which simultaneously show the ultrasound image and transducer and patient positions. Traditional techniques for creating picture-in-picture videos are expensive, nonportable, or time-consuming. This article describes an inexpensive, simple, and portable way of creating picture-in-picture ultrasound videos. This technique uses a laptop computer with a video capture device to acquire the ultrasound feed. Simultaneously, a webcam captures a live video feed of the transducer and patient position and live audio. Both sources are streamed onto the computer screen and recorded by screen capture software. This technique makes the process of recording picture-in-picture ultrasound videos more accessible for ultrasound educators and researchers for use in their presentations or publications. PMID:23887962

  7. Free Space Laser Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesh, James

    2000-01-01

    This presentation concerns the use of Laser communication for deep space applications. The presentation reviews the problems with electromagnetic beams and then the advantages and disadvantages of the use of optical communication. The presentation then reviews some of the spacecraft technology with pictures of some of the devices. The ground reception systems and the simplified link calculation are also reviewed. Recent and planned demonstration projects are also reviewed.

  8. Postmodern Picture Books in the Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Laurie

    In this lesson plan, middle school students analyze the structure of a postmodern picture book to uncover how authors form relationships between words and illustrations. An online teacher resource explains the intent of the picture book "Black and White" and provides background information and suggestions for classroom discussion. During one…

  9. The Untapped Potential of Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…

  10. Real-time computerized annotation of pictures.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Wang, James Z

    2008-06-01

    Developing effective methods for automated annotation of digital pictures continues to challenge computer scientists. The capability of annotating pictures by computers can lead to breakthroughs in a wide range of applications, including Web image search, online picture-sharing communities, and scientific experiments. In this work, the authors developed new optimization and estimation techniques to address two fundamental problems in machine learning. These new techniques serve as the basis for the Automatic Linguistic Indexing of Pictures - Real Time (ALIPR) system of fully automatic and high speed annotation for online pictures. In particular, the D2-clustering method, in the same spirit as k-means for vectors, is developed to group objects represented by bags of weighted vectors. Moreover, a generalized mixture modeling technique (kernel smoothing as a special case) for non-vector data is developed using the novel concept of Hypothetical Local Mapping (HLM). ALIPR has been tested by thousands of pictures from an Internet photo-sharing site, unrelated to the source of those pictures used in the training process. Its performance has also been studied at an online demo site where arbitrary users provide pictures of their choices and indicate the correctness of each annotation word. The experimental results show that a single computer processor can suggest annotation terms in real-time and with good accuracy. PMID:18421105