) .......................................................................................... 4? Figure 4: US Army Corp of Engineers Experiment ......................................................... 17? Figure 5: Wave Flume Diagram with Gage Locations (vertical lines) ............................ 18? Figure 6: HRMS of TG83 vs. Directly... total dissipation and dissipation at specific frequency ranges. 7 CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW Prior methods of determining energy dissipation, such as Thornton and Guza (1983; hereafter TG83), are based on empirical data from gently sloping...
Goertz, John 1985-
Seven parametric models for wave height transformation across the surf zone [e.g., Thornton and Guza, 1983] are tested with observations collected between the shoreline and about 5-m water depth during 2 experiments on a barred beach near Duck, NC, and between the shoreline and about 3.5-m water depth during 2 experiments on unbarred beaches near La Jolla, CA. Offshore wave heights ranged from about 0.1 to 3.0 m. Beach profiles were surveyed approximately every other day. The models predict the observations well. Root-mean-square errors between observed and simulated wave heights are small in water depths h > 2 m (average rms errors < 10%), and increase with decreasing depth for h < 2 m (average rms errors > 20%). The lowest rms errors (i.e., the most accurate predictions) are achieved by tuning a free parameter, ?, in each model. To tune the models accurately to the data considered here, observations are required at 3 to 5 locations, and must span the surf zone. No tuned or untuned model provides the best predictions for all data records in any one experiment. The best fit ?'s for each model-experiment pair are represented well with an empirical hyperbolic tangent curve based on the inverse Iribarren number. In 3 of the 4 data sets, estimating ? for each model using an average curve based on the predictions and observations from all 4 experiments typically improves model-data agreement relative to using a constant or previously determined empirical ?. The best fit ?'s at the 4th experiment (conducted off La Jolla, CA) are roughly 20% smaller than the ?'s for the other 3 experiments, and thus using the experiment-averaged curve increases prediction errors. Possible causes for the smaller ?'s at the 4th experiment will be discussed. Funded by ONR and NSF.
Apotsos, A. A.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Guza, R. T.
Long waves may cause significant disturbances for port operations. This paper is concerned with the long wave problems at Ferrol, a port in NW Spain. Long wave periods range between a few tens of seconds to several hours. In shallow water their wavelengths are on the order of hundreds of meters to kilometres. As a result, these waves can match the natural periods of oscillation of semi-enclosed bodies of water like gulfs, bays, fiords, or harbours, resulting in resonant oscillations. During resonance, the vertical displacement of the free surface increases until the energy input is balanced by losses due to friction, flow separation, boundary absorption, and radiation from the mouth (Okihiro et al., 1993). The induced horizontal displacements of the water mass are responsible for the large movements on ships. The non-linear interaction of long and wind waves and the direct atmospheric forcing are the main sources of long waves in the ocean. In the first case, the long waves are also known as infragravity waves and tend to have relatively small periods. In the second case, the atmospheric forced long waves, different mechanisms have been used to explain their generation. Atmospheric disturbances passing over the continental shelf (Sepic et al., 2008) or wind convection cells (de Jong and Battjes, 2004) are two of the causes for these 'meteorological' waves. Whatever their cause, they tend to have relatively large periods and, therefore, a significant potential to excite the first modes of oscillation of harbours. In addition, other different forcing mechanisms can generate long waves, including submerged landslides (Cecioni and Bellotti, 2010) and seisms (Candella et al., 2008). Disturbances to load and unload operations have been reported from 2005 at the Exterior Port of Ferrol (NW Spain). On-site measurements of sea-level oscillations revealed energy peaks possibly related to resonant processes (López et al., 2012; López and Iglesias, 2013). This work is focused on the long waves at the Port of Ferrol and their implications for the operations at the port. References Candella, R.N., Rabinovich, A.B., Thomson, R.E., 2008. The 2004 Sumatra tsunami as recorded on the Atlantic coast of South America. Adv. Geosci. 14, 117-128. Cecioni, C., Bellotti, G., 2010. Modeling tsunamis generated by submerged landslides using depth integrated equations. Appl. Ocean Res. 32(3), 343-350. de Jong, M.P.C., Battjes, J.A., 2004. Low-frequency sea waves generated by atmospheric convection cells. Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans 109(C1), C01011. López, M., Iglesias, G., 2013. Artificial Intelligence for estimating infragravity energy in a harbour. Ocean Eng. 57(0), 56-63. López, M., Iglesias, G., Kobayashi, N., 2012. Long period oscillations and tidal level in the Port of Ferrol. Appl. Ocean Res. 38(0), 126-134. Okihiro, M., Guza, R.T., Seymour, R.J., 1993. Excitation of Seiche Observed in a Small Harbor. J. Geophys. Res. 98(C10), 18201-18211. Sepic, J., Orlic, M., Vilibic, I., 2008. The Bakar Bay seiches and their relationship with atmospheric processes. Acta Adriat. 49(2).
Lopez, Mario; Iglesias, Gregorio