Science.gov

Sample records for pig mange mites

  1. Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs: an overview.

    PubMed

    Laha, R

    2015-12-01

    Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs is caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. It is the most common mange infestation of pigs. The parasite is distributed worldwide. Pig owners are generally concerned about the internal parasitic infections and ignored the external parasitic infestations. But the external parasitic infestation with S. scabiei var. suis has economic significance as it causes morbidity, mortality, decreased fertility and feed conversion ratio in pigs. Keeping in view of importance of S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, this communication discussed about the present and past research works done on S. scabies var. suis infestation in pigs, particularly its prevalence, life cycle, pathological lesions, clinical symptoms, haematobiochemical changes, diagnosis, treatment and control, to have an idea about this infestation at a glance. It has been concluded that the research work done on sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs in India is less in comparison to other countries. It may be due to its consideration as a neglected parasite or due to it's under report. Organization of awareness programs for the farmers by extension personalities or other authorities might be able to save the farmers from economic losses due to this infestation. PMID:26688620

  2. Study on mange mite of camel in Raya-Azebo district, northern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Awol, Nesibu; Kiros, Semere; Tsegaye, Yisehak; Ali, Mohammed; Hadush, Birhanu

    2014-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence and species of camel mange mite infestation in Raya-Azebo district, Northern part of Ethiopia. Accordingly, Three hundred and eighty-four camels were examined and mange mite infestation was detected on 64 of camels. Only Sarcoptes scabiei var. cameli was identified as the only mite species in all skin scraping samples collected from the suspected mange mite lesions. There was significant difference in the prevalence of mange mite infestation between male and female camels (p < 0.05) but no significance difference was observed among the age groups and body condition score of camels (p > 0.05). The result indicated that camel mange mite infestation was a problem in northern part of Ethiopia, hence, further studies and strategic control measures are recommended to reduce the effect of mange mite infestation on camel husbandry. PMID:25568694

  3. Mange mites of sheep and goats in selected sites of Eastern Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Kibeb; Amare, Sisay; Tolossa, Yacob Hailu

    2016-03-01

    A cross sectional study of small ruminant mange mites was conducted from November 2011 to April 2012 on a total of 324 sheep and 680 goats, to determine the prevalence of mange mites in sheep and goats, identifying the major species of mite and to determine the potential risk factors significantly predicting the disease. The result showed an overall mange mite prevalence of 7.5 % (95 % CI 5.5-9.5) in goats and 1.2 % (95 % CI 0.5-1.9) in sheep. The mites identified were Sarcoptes and Demodex in goats and Sarcoptes and Psoroptes in sheep. The prevalence of mange mites was significantly higher in goats than in sheep (χ(2) = 16.636, P = 0.000). There was higher prevalence of mange mites in poor body condition than good body condition sheep and goats and the difference was statistically significant (χ(2) = 5.513, P = 0.019 in sheep and χ(2) = 141.85, P = 0.000 in goats). But age and sex of the host animals and agro climates were not statistically significant predictors of prevalence of mange mite. This study demonstrated that mange mites are among the major parasitic health problems of shoats in Eastern Amhara region that require urgent control intervention. PMID:27065612

  4. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (P<0.05) and explained 32.87% of the explainable proportion of the heterogeneity noted between studies The prevalence was found to be higher in goats in lowland agro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested. PMID:26872931

  5. Sarcoptes scabiei: The Mange Mite with Mighty Effects on the Common Wombat (Vombatus ursinus)

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Kellie; Johnson, Christopher N.; Carver, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Parasitism has both direct and indirect effects on hosts. Indirect effects (such as behavioural changes) may be common, although are often poorly described. This study examined sarcoptic mange (caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei) in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), a species that shows severe symptoms of infection and often causes mortality. Wombats showed alterations to above ground behaviours associated with mange. Infected wombats were shown to be active outside of the burrow for longer than healthy individuals. Additionally, they spent more time scratching and drinking, and less time walking as a proportion of time spent above ground when compared with healthy individuals. They did not spend a higher proportion of time feeding, but did have a slower feeding rate and were in poorer body condition. Thermal images showed that wombats with mange lost considerably more heat to the environment due to a diminished insulation layer. Infection status did not have an effect on burrow emergence time, although this was strongly dependent on maximum daily temperature. This study, through the most detailed behavioural observations of wombats to date, contributes to a broader understanding of how mange affects wombat health and abundance, and also to our understanding of the evolution of host responses to this parasite. Despite being globally dispersed and impacting over 100 species with diverse intrinsic host traits, the effects of mange on hosts are relatively poorly understood, and it is possible that similar effects of this disease are conserved in other host species. The indirect effects that we observed may extend to other pathogen types. PMID:26943790

  6. Sarcoptes scabiei: The Mange Mite with Mighty Effects on the Common Wombat (Vombatus ursinus).

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kellie; Johnson, Christopher N; Carver, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Parasitism has both direct and indirect effects on hosts. Indirect effects (such as behavioural changes) may be common, although are often poorly described. This study examined sarcoptic mange (caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei) in the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus), a species that shows severe symptoms of infection and often causes mortality. Wombats showed alterations to above ground behaviours associated with mange. Infected wombats were shown to be active outside of the burrow for longer than healthy individuals. Additionally, they spent more time scratching and drinking, and less time walking as a proportion of time spent above ground when compared with healthy individuals. They did not spend a higher proportion of time feeding, but did have a slower feeding rate and were in poorer body condition. Thermal images showed that wombats with mange lost considerably more heat to the environment due to a diminished insulation layer. Infection status did not have an effect on burrow emergence time, although this was strongly dependent on maximum daily temperature. This study, through the most detailed behavioural observations of wombats to date, contributes to a broader understanding of how mange affects wombat health and abundance, and also to our understanding of the evolution of host responses to this parasite. Despite being globally dispersed and impacting over 100 species with diverse intrinsic host traits, the effects of mange on hosts are relatively poorly understood, and it is possible that similar effects of this disease are conserved in other host species. The indirect effects that we observed may extend to other pathogen types. PMID:26943790

  7. Involvement of two genetic lineages of Sarcoptes scabiei mites in a local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan.

    PubMed

    Makouloutou, Patrice; Suzuki, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Mayumi; Takeuchi, Masahiko; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Sato, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Similar to wild mammals on the continents, mange caused by the mange mite, Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) is spreading in wild mammals in most of Japan. We collected crusted or alopetic skin from 120 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), three raccoons (Procyon lotor), six Japanese badgers (Meles anakuma), one Japanese marten (Martes melampus), one stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris), four wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), and one Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), mainly in an area where mangy wild animals have been increasingly noted in the past 4 yr. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) region of the ribosomal RNA gene and the partial 16S and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (cox-1) genes of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) were characterized in these skin samples. The ITS2 sequencing (404 base pairs [bp]) identified the causative mite for mangy skin lesions of 128 animals as S. scabiei, regardless of host origin. The cat mite (Notoedres cati) was the cause in one raccoon dog and one raccoon. Most mites had almost identical ITS2 nucleotide sequences to those recorded in a variety of mammals worldwide. Partial 16S and cox-1 fragments of mtDNA amplified and sequenced successfully (331 bp and 410 bp, respectively) showed an identical nucleotide sequence except for one site (C vs. T) for the former and four sites (G, C, C, C vs. A, T, T, T, respectively) for the latter fragment. These substitutions were always synchronized, with the two mitochondrial DNA haplotypes (i.e., C/GCCC and T/ATTT) appearing to separately colonize in geographic units. The T/ATTT haplotype fell into a clade where animal-derived mites worldwide dominated, whereas the C/GCCC haplotype formed a geographic branch unique to Japanese isolates. These results suggest that heterologous populations of monospecific S. scabiei are expanding their populations and distributions regardless of host species in an apparently local mange epizootic of wild mammals in Japan. PMID

  8. Integrated Bayesian species delimitation and morphological diagnostics of chorioptic mange mites (Acariformes: Psoroptidae: Chorioptes).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V; Klimov, Pavel B; Hestvik, Gete; Saveljev, Alexander P

    2014-07-01

    The external morphology of adult and immature stages of mange mites of the genus Chorioptes was investigated with the aid of light and scanning electron microscopy. A molecular phylogeny of this genus was inferred based on six genes (18S, 28S rDNA, EF1-α, SRP54, HSP70, and CO1). The validity of four species (Ch. bovis, Ch. panda, Ch. texanus, and Ch. sweatmani sp. nov. described from the moose from Sweden, Finland, and Russia) was confirmed based on morphology and a Bayesian species delimitation analysis incorporating both gene tree uncertainties and incomplete lineage sorting via the coalescent process model in BPP. Sequence data for Ch. crewei and Ch. mydaus was not available but their morphology strongly suggests their validity. The six valid Chorioptes species are diagnosed using type and non-type specimens, and a key to species is provided. Ch. sweatmani differs from closely related Ch. texanus by the following features: in males, the body length, including the gnathosoma, is 380-405 μm (vs. 220-295 in Ch. texanus), the idiosoma is 3-4 times longer than setae cp (vs. 1.3-1.6 times longer), legs III are approximately three times longer than setae sRIII (vs. 1.8-2 times longer), the apical spur of tarsus III is curved (vs. straight), a spur near seta fIII base is not developed (vs. small but distinct); in females, setae h2 are 1.4-1.5 times shorter than legs IV (vs. about two times longer). Hosts and distribution records of Chorioptes species are summarized. PMID:24820039

  9. Sarcoptic mange infestation in pigs in a hilly region of Meghalaya.

    PubMed

    Das, M; Laha, R; Devi, P; Bordoloi, R K; Naskar, S

    2010-06-01

    Skin lesions were collected from 15 adult crossbred pigs maintained at the pig farm of ICAR Research Complex for the North-Eastern Hill Region, Umiam, a hilly region of the state of Meghalaya, India. Skin scrapings of these 15 animals were examined by KOH digestion method. Presence of mites were detected in five animals which were indistinguishable from Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis. Infected pigs were treated with a single dose of Ivermectin at 200 ug/kg body weight, subcutaneously. No mites were recovered from treated pigs after a period of 10 days of post-treatment. The presence of S. scabiei var. suis in pigs from this part of the country has never been reported. This infestation has great significance because it affects the growth rate and feed conversion significantly, specially to the grower and weaned pigs. It can be concluded that S. scabiei var. suis infestation is prevalent in hilly region of Meghalaya. The pig producers are generally unaware about the severity of the problem of mite infestation, so precaution should be taken to prevent their valuable pigs from S. scabiei var. suis infestation. PMID:20041347

  10. Macropodicoptes mironovi n. g., n. sp. (Acariformes: Sarcoptidae), a new mange mite from Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest) (Diprotodonia: Macropodidae).

    PubMed

    Bochkov, Andre V

    2012-09-01

    A new mange mite species, Macropodicoptes mironovi n. g., n. sp. (Acariformes: Sarcoptidae), is described from Wallabia bicolor (Desmarest) (Diprotodontia: Macropodidae) from the Taronga Western Plains Zoo at Dubbo, NSW, Australia. This is the fourth species and third genus allocated to the sarcoptid subfamily Diabolicoptinae, whose representatives exclusively parasitise marsupials. The new genus differs from Diabolicoptes Fain & Domrow, 1974, in both sexes, by the proportions of the gnathosoma, the shape of many hysterosomal setae and the absence of setae e1, pRII-II, sRIII and solenidion ω3I; and, in males, by the lack of fusion of coxal apodemes I. PMID:22890378

  11. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The “high-turnover” granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. PMID:25177514

  12. A Study on the Nature of Association between Demodex Mites and Bacteria Involved in Skin and Meibomian Gland Lesions of Demodectic Mange in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Abu-Samra, Mukhtar Taha; Shuaib, Yassir Adam

    2014-01-01

    The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria involved in bovine demodectic mange lesions and the normal flora inhabiting the skin of noninfected animals was investigated. Demodex bovis and D. ghanensis mites were isolated from the infected purulent material extracted from skin and meibomian gland lesions, respectively. The mites could not be demonstrated in skin brushings or impression smears from the eyes of noninfected cattle. Pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A)) and opportunistic organisms (Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Trueperella pyogenes) were isolated from skin lesions of demodectic mange, and Moraxella bovis and Staphylococcus aureus were isolated from meibomian gland lesions. Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A) were isolated from skin brushings from noninfected cattle. The nature of association between Demodex mites and bacteria in demodectic mange lesions is synergistic and of equal significance. Pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria facilitated the establishment of Demodex mites in the lesions produced and provided an excellent microclimate for the mites to propagate and reproduce, resulting in severe and progressive disease. The "high-turnover" granulomatous reaction which characterized the histopathological changes proved that Demodex mites and associated bacteria were persistent and immunogenic. PMID:25177514

  13. Mange Caused by a Novel Micnemidocoptes Mite in a Golden Eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ).

    PubMed

    Sadar, Miranda J; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David; Mete, Asli; Foley, Janet; Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta H; Grosset, Claire; Smallwood, K Shawn; Shipman, Jessica; Wells, Amy; White, Stephen D; Bell, Douglas A; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2015-09-01

    A second-year, female golden eagle ( Aquila chrysaetos ) was live trapped in northern California because of severe feather loss and crusting of the skin on the head and legs. On physical examination, the bird was lethargic, dehydrated, and thin, with severe feather loss and diffuse hyperemia and crusting on the head, ventral wings, ventrum, dorsum, and pelvic limbs. Mites morphologically similar to Micnemidocoptes derooi were identified with scanning electron microscopy. The eagle was treated with ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg) once weekly for 7 weeks, as well as pyrethrin, meloxicam, ceftiofur crystalline free acid, and voriconazole. Although the eagle's condition improved, and live mites or eggs were not evident on skin scrapings at the time of completion of ivermectin treatment, evidence of dead mites and mite feces were present after the last dose of ivermectin. Two additional doses of ivermectin and 2 doses of topical selamectin (23 mg/kg) were administered 2 and 4 weeks apart, respectively. No mite eggs, feces, or adults were evident after treatment was completed. A second golden eagle found in the same region was also affected with this mite but died soon after presentation. This is the first report, to our knowledge, of successful treatment, as well as treatment with selamectin, of mites consistent with Micnemidocoptes species in any raptorial species. PMID:26378670

  14. Ear mange mites (Notoedres muris) in black and Norway rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus) from inner-city Vancouver, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anholt, Heather; Himsworth, Chelsea; Rothenburger, Jamie; Proctor, Heather; Patrick, David M

    2014-01-01

    The ear mange mite, Notoedres muris (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), is a parasitic burrowing mite of black and Norway rats (Rattus rattus and Rattus norvegicus), which causes a proliferative dermatitis primarily affecting the ears. We characterize the ecology of N. muris in a group of black and Norway rats trapped in an inner-city area of Vancouver, Canada. Rats (n = 725) were trapped for 1 yr (September 2011-August 2012) in 43 city blocks (0.82 km(2)) and one property (0.03 km(2)) within an international shipping port at the northern border of the study area. Mite infestation was diagnosed in 15 of 32 rats (47%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.9-53.6%) trapped in a large indoor facility at the port property. No affected animals were identified outside this facility, either within the port property or in any of the blocks under study. There was a positive relationship between infestation and both weight and nose-to-rump length (proxies for age), suggesting transmission through intraspecific social contact within colonies. This is the first report of N. muris in Canada. The focal distribution of N. muris at the port may reflect an importation event. PMID:24171578

  15. Usefulness of estimated surface area of damaged skin as a proxy of mite load in the monitoring of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging populations of Iberian wild goat, Capra pyrenaica.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Granados, José E; Sarasa, Mathieu; Serrano, Emmanuel

    2011-03-10

    In this study we examined the influence of several factors, like the surface of skin with lesions attributable to Sarcoptes scabiei, the time of year and host sex and age on variations of mite load in Iberian wild goats, Capra pyrenaica, from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space, southern Spain. As well, the surface area of skin with scabietic lesions estimated during field surveys were compared with measurements taken in the laboratory and the potential for using categories based on surface areas estimated during monitoring and management programs was analyzed. The surface area of the skin lesions measured in the laboratory and the time of year were the main factors affecting mite load. Results also revealed discrepancies between the surface area of lesions estimated in the field and those measured in the laboratory. The highest error percentages were associated with lesions ranging between 25 and 75% of host skin surface area. By reducing the number of categories of mange infestation (from 5 to 3) the proportion of cases correctly classified using data from field surveys increases. Our analyses suggest that the estimated surface areas of scabietic lesions is a useful relative index of mite abundance and/or intensity of parasitation in Iberian wild goat. Therefore, we conclude that revised classifications should be used in the monitoring of sarcoptic mange in wild populations, since data can be obtained in an inexpensive, fast and non-invasive fashion. PMID:21130576

  16. Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Elston, Carly A; Elston, Dirk M

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are normal inhabitants of human hair follicles. D folliculorum is found predominantly in the follicular infundibulum of facial skin and is typically present in small groups. D brevis, the smaller of the two species, predominates on the trunk, typically as solitarily mites within the sebaceous glands and ducts. In a wide variety of animals, Demodex mites are recognized as a cause of mange. The role of Demodex mites as agents of human disease has been more controversial, but evidence favors their involvement in acneiform eruptions, folliculitis, and a range of eruptions in immunosuppressed patients. PMID:25441466

  17. Preventing transmission of sarcoptic mange from sows to their offspring by injection of ivermectin. Effects on swine production.

    PubMed

    Mercier, P; Cargill, C F; White, C R

    2002-12-11

    A blind and controlled field study was conducted on a pig farm in Australia to evaluate the activity of 1% ivermectin solution when injected into pregnant sows that were naturally infested with mites. The study was designed to appreciate the tolerance of the product on sows (litter size, litter birth weights, litter weaning weights, pre-weaning mortality) and to show the effects of sarcoptic mange on the growth performances of their offspring. Twenty sows were selected and ranked on Day-10, prior to the start of the study, on the basis of positive mite counts and parity. Sows were randomly allocated into two groups, A and B. On Day-7, they were injected once with product A (1 ml/33 kg; yielding 300 microg ivermectin/kg BW) or product B (placebo), respectively and then moved to the farrowing unit. Mite counts, ear and body lesions were scored and recorded. The average daily weight gain (ADG) was calculated on piglets from birth to Day-45 (ADG(45)) and birth to Day-70 (ADG(70)). Ivermectin was 100% efficient in preventing the transmission of scabies mites and did not have negative effect on the pregnant sows. Growth performances (ADG(45) and ADG(70)) of piglets from treated sows were significantly higher (452 and 541.5 g per day) than that from untreated sows (433.5 and 518.4 g per day) respectively, confirming that sarcoptic mange is detrimental to the production performances of growing pigs. PMID:12446087

  18. Identification of auto-antigens in skin scrapings from scabies-infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Zalunardo, M; Cargill, C F; Sandeman, R M

    2006-09-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei continues to cause major health and economic problems in a large range of animals and humans. Although the inflammatory response to the mite and its antigens is known to cause the main pathology, little work has been carried out on this response at the site of infection. This report presents an initial analysis of the proteins found in skin scrapings and their antigenic responsiveness in pigs. Skin scrapings and mite extracts were isolated from chronically infected sows while infected and uninfected sera were isolated from pigs with confirmed infections or mange-free pigs, respectively. Electrophoresis and sequencing confirmed the main components of both the skin and mite extracts to be serum proteins. Immunoblotting then suggested that transferrin was the major antigen recognised by pooled infected sera in the skin and the mite extracts. Immunoassays confirmed that a majority of infected pigs produced antibodies to transferrin while mange-free pigs did not. A pool of IgG from infected dogs was then used to isolate another antigen from pig skin scrapings which was shown to be haptoglobin. This was also found to induce high titres of antibody in infected pigs as compared with mange-free pigs. The use of albumin as a control antigen showed no reactivity in either group of sera. The finding of two iron-binding molecules as strong auto-antigens in pig scabies has implications for the importance of iron during this infection and may help to explain the persistence and magnitude of the host inflammatory response. PMID:16842794

  19. Sarcoptic mange found in wolves in the Rocky Mountains in western United States.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Michael D; Bangs, Edward E; Sime, Carolyn; Asher, Valpa J

    2010-10-01

    We documented sarcoptic mange caused by mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) in 22 gray wolves (Canis lupus) in the northern Rocky Mountain states of Montana (n=16) and Wyoming (n=6), from 2002 through 2008. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sarcoptic mange in wolves in Montana or Wyoming in recent times. In addition to confirming sarcoptic mange, we recorded field observations of 40 wolves in Montana and 30 wolves in Wyoming displaying clinical signs of mange (i.e., alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and seborrhea). Therefore, we suspect sarcoptic mange may be more prevalent than we were able to confirm. PMID:20966263

  20. Sarcoptic mange: a zoonotic ectoparasitic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic. PMID:23450734

  1. Sarcoptic Mange: A Zoonotic Ectoparasitic Skin Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Kiran Madhusudhan; Saikumar, Chitralekha

    2013-01-01

    A 56-year old man attended the Dermatology Outpatients Department with the complaint of a localized, extremely itchy, erythematous papular lesion of acute onset on the ventral aspect of the right thigh. The patient was referred to the Microbiology Lab for the microscopic detection of the fungal elements. The KOH mount from the skin scrapings showed no fungal elements, but it showed the mites of Sarcopetes scabiei mange. The Sarcoptic Mange is noteworthy because of the fact that it is a zoonotic disease which can easily be passed on to humans. A close contact with infested pet dogs was considered as the main predisposing factor in this case. The response to the antiscabietic treatment was dramatic. PMID:23450734

  2. Mang Kung Dice Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Wai-Sum

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Mang Kung Dice Game, popular in China, which uses six special dice. Discusses the probability distribution of possible outcomes. Poses questions about the game to help students understand statistical concepts. (MKR)

  3. Sarcoptic mange in Spanish ibex from Spain.

    PubMed

    León-Vizcaíno, L; Ruíz de Ybáñez, M R; Cubero, M J; Ortíz, J M; Espinosa, J; Pérez, L; Simón, M A; Alonso, F

    1999-10-01

    The Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) population of the "Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas" Nature Park (Spain) was isolated as the result of a severe epidemic of sarcoptic mange. In this context, the dynamic characteristics of the disease were analyzed in a wild group consisting of 35 animals from the beginning of the epizootic (when the mating period started) to the extinction of the population due to mange. Monthly tracking permitted the sequential characterization of the pathology in each animal. The duration of the disease was 2 to 3 mo, evolving to severe disease and terminating in death. Incidence and prevalence rates in terms of morbidity and severity, and mortality and lethality were calculated. At the end of the mating season, 81% of the population were affected. There were no statistically significant differences in severity of the disease across sex or age categories of the animals. Most of the carcasses were found in caves used as refuge and/or near rivers or streams. Additionally, 46 of the 63 (73%) ibex captured in different areas of the nature park were naturally infected with the Sarcoptes scabiei. Infected ibex were examined for number of mites during the initial stage of the disease (n = 3), in the development stage (n = 12), in the consolidation stage (n = 17), and in the chronic stage (n = 14). The prevalence of mites in different anatomical regions was determined in each of these phases of the infection. A histological study of the skin lesions was conducted in 22 animals. Both the clinical and the pathological (macroscopic and microscopic) aspects of the sarcoptic mange in Spanish ibex corresponded to the classic description of sarcoptic mange in other wild and domestic small ruminants. PMID:10574523

  4. Knowledge of Mange among Masai Pastoralists in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gakuya, Francis; Ombui, Jackson; Heukelbach, Jorg; Maingi, Ndichu; Muchemi, Gerald; Ogara, William; Mijele, Domnic; Alasaad, Samer

    2012-01-01

    Background Pastoralists in low-income countries usually live in close proximity to their animals and thus represent an important repository of information about livestock disease. Since wild and domestic animals often mix freely whilst grazing, pastoralists are also able to observe first-hand the diseases that are present in wildlife and as such are key informants in disease outbreaks in sylvatic animals. We report here the findings of the first study of the knowledge and role of Masai pastoralists in mange in wildlife and livestock in Masai Mara, Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings In this paper we describe the knowledge of mange accrued by 56 Masai pastoralists in Kenya and how they respond to it in both wildlife and livestock. In total, 52 (93%) pastoralists had a clear idea of the clinical appearance of mange, 13 (23%) understood its aetiology and 37 (66%) knew that mites were the causal agent. Thirty-nine (69%) believed that mange cross-infection between domestic and wild animals occurs, while 48 (85%) had observed mange in domestic animals including sheep (77%), goats (57%), dogs (24%) and cattle (14%). The pastoralists had also observed wild animals infected with mange, above all lions (19%), gazelles (14%), cheetahs (12%) and wildebeests (2%). In 68% of cases Masai pastoralists treat mange infection or apply control measures, most commonly via the topical use of acaricides (29%) and/or the reporting of the outbreak to the veterinary authorities (21%). In the period 2007–2011, Kenya Wildlife Service received 24 warnings of 59 wild animals with mange-like lesions from the Masai Mara pastoralist community. The reported species were cheetah, lion, wild dog, Thomson’s gazelle and wildebeest. Conclusion Masai pastoralists have good knowledge of mange epidemiology and treatment. Their observations and the treatments they apply are valuable in the control of this disease in both wild and domestic animals. PMID:22912858

  5. Characterisation of recombinant immunoreactive antigens of the scab mite Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, C; Lucius, R; Matthes, H F; Meusel, G; Reich, B; Kalinna, B H

    2008-05-31

    Sarcoptic mange (or scabies) is an important skin disease which can affect a variety of species including humans, cattle, goats, sheep, horses, pigs, rabbits, and dogs. Approximately 300 million people are affected worldwide and in lifestock animals the infestation may lead to substantial economic losses caused by depression in growth and feed conversion rates. Diagnosis of Sarcoptes infestation is difficult and only a few serological tests have been developed using whole mite antigen for diagnosis of mange in animals. Here we describe the isolation and characterisation of cDNAs of several immunoreactive clones and their recombinant expression in Escherichia coli. Three of the proteins contain repetitive sequences which suggests that they might be involved in immune evasion. The application of these antigens in serodiagnosis and the suitability for diagnosis is discussed. PMID:18359167

  6. Autoantibodies to iron-binding proteins in pigs infested with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    PubMed

    Toet, Hayley M; Fischer, Katja; Mounsey, Kate E; Sandeman, R Mark

    2014-09-15

    Despite the availability of effective treatments, Sarcoptes scabiei remains a major health problem in the pig industry. Unsuccessful control of the disease is often due to the lack of reliable detection methods, with current tests relying on skin scrapings and crude antigen ELISAs. A previous analysis of antigens in pig skin scrapings reported that anti-transferrin antibodies were present in S. scabiei infected animals and that this finding might be considered as a useful diagnostic tool. This paper confirms IgG autoantibodies against transferrin, including the first report of IgM autoantibodies, in both naturally and experimentally infected pigs using ELISA and dot blot assays. Autoantibodies were also detected in pigs to ferritin and to a lesser extent lactoferrin. Immunoblotting confirmed the presence of IgG and IgM autoantibodies in mange positive pigs, as well as IgM antibodies to transferrin and albumin in mange negative pigs. These findings suggest the presence of natural autoantibodies to transferrin and albumin in pigs. The development of the IgG autoimmune response may either be a host mechanism for limiting iron to the mite via antibody mediated clearance, the result of host exposure to mite iron-binding homologues or because of a mite-induced antigenic change to host transferrin. Further investigation into the formation of these autoantibodies may provide insights into the importance of iron in scabies infections and the development and perseverance of S. scabiei infections in pigs. The specificity and sensitivity of the anti-transferrin response reinforces its potential in the diagnosis of scabies in pigs. PMID:25085772

  7. Immunochemical approach to indoor aeroallergen quantitation with a new volumetric air sampler: studies with mite, roach, cat, mouse, and guinea pig antigens

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M.C.; Agarwal, M.K.; Reed, C.E.

    1985-11-01

    We describe a new high-volume air sampler for determining antigen concentrations in homes and illustrate its use for quantitating airborne house dust mite, cat, cockroach, mouse, and guinea pig antigens. The concentration of house dust-mite antigen was similar from houses in Rochester, Minn. and tenement apartments in Harlem, N. Y., but cockroach and mouse urinary proteins were present only in Harlem. The amount of cat or guinea pig antigen varied as expected with the number of pets in the home. In calm air the airborne concentration of mite and cat antigen was similar throughout the house but increased greatly in a bedroom when bedding was changed. In calm air most of the cat and mite antigens were associated with respirable particles less than 5 microns mean aerodynamic mass diameter, but in air sampled after the bedding was changed, more cat antigen was found in particles greater than 5 microns. The apparatus and technique described can provide objective data concerning the magnitude and the relative distribution and duration of suspended particles of defined sizes, which contain allergen activity.

  8. Participatory epidemiology to assess sarcoptic mange in serow of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Chih; Pei, Kurtis Jai-Chyi; Lai, Yu-Ching; Mortenson, Jack A

    2012-10-01

    We used participatory epidemiology (PE) in remote areas to understand the observed distribution and prevalence of infestation by sarcoptic mange mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) on wild Formosan serow (Capricornis swinhoei) in Taiwan. A semistructured interview protocol was used for 37 interviews during June-December 2008. Serow with skin lesions consistent with sarcoptic mange were reported within a latitudinal range of approximately 24°00'N to 22°40'N on the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan. The observed prevalence was 40-80% in seven of the 19 interview districts. Clinical signs were observed mainly on serow at elevations >1,000 m and most commonly winter (December-February). Sarcoptes scabiei has been observed in the infestation area for at least 80 yr. No other wildlife species with similar skin lesions were reported except wild boar. Sarcoptic mange mites on Taiwan serow might prefer a low-temperature environment, but other factors such as physiologic differences among serow populations might be involved in the determination of the northern boundary of the enzootic range. The use of PE to collect enzootic information on sarcoptic mange in wild serow was effective and rapid. PMID:23060488

  9. New techniques for an old disease: sarcoptic mange in the Iberian wolf.

    PubMed

    Oleaga, Alvaro; Casais, Rosa; Balseiro, Ana; Espí, Alberto; Llaneza, Luis; Hartasánchez, Alfonso; Gortázar, Christian

    2011-09-27

    Sarcoptic mange, a parasitic skin infection caused by the burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei, has been reported in over 100 mammals, including humans. In endangered species, mange causes conservation concerns because it may decimate isolated populations and contribute to extinction. The Iberian Peninsula still maintains one of the largest wolf (Canis lupus) populations in Europe. In Iberia, sarcoptic mange is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and the first confirmed wolf mange cases were recently reported. However, knowledge on S. scabiei in wolves is scarce because of the sampling difficulties inherent to research on scarce species. In order to describe wolf mange epidemiology and to infer conservation implications, this study combined traditional laboratory techniques with the revision of wolf carcass pictures taken by field biologists and original information obtained by camera trapping. A total of 125 necropsies and 8783 camera-trap days allowed insights into wolf mange epidemiology between 2003 and 2010. Living Sarcoptes mites were detected in 19% of the fresh carcasses. Alopecic (delayed) type IV hypersensitive response reactions were observed, while parakeratotic lesions were infrequent. The number of mites isolated per wolf ranged from 1 to 78, and had a negative correlation with the percentage of alopecic skin. No effect by sex on mange prevalence was found. Yearlings showed a lower probability to present mange-compatible lesions than pups or adults. Wolves with mange-compatible lesions had a lower kidney fat index than apparently healthy ones. ELISA testing of 88 sera yielded an antibody prevalence of 20%. Photo-trapping recorded mange-compatible lesions since 2003 with a peak in 2008. The percentage of wolves with mange-compatible lesions registered in camera-traps during 1 year correlated with the percentage of red foxes with lesions in the previous year. This is the first large survey on sarcoptic mange in the Iberian wolf. Necropsy data, with

  10. Demodex mites: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Elston, Dirk M

    2010-01-01

    Because Demodex mites are ubiquitous, their potential as human pathogens has often been ignored. This contribution focuses on the growing body of evidence linking Demodex mites with various skin disorders. Histologically, spongiosis and lymphoid inflammation are regularly seen in follicles containing Demodex mites. In animals, they are well established as a cause of mange, and a human counterpart-demodectic alopecia-appears to exist. There is also a statistical association between Demodex mite density and rosacea, facial itching, and chronic blepharitis. Papulovesicular rosacealike lesions and spiny blepharitis often respond to agents that reduce Demodex numbers. Although these observations are not sufficient to fulfill Koch's postulates, Koch's postulates are also not fulfilled for the association between brown recluse spiders and dermal necrosis or the association between streptococci and guttate psoriasis. The evidence linking Demodex mites to human disease has implications regarding treatment. PMID:20797509

  11. Sarcoptic mange in Swedish wildlife.

    PubMed

    Mörner, T

    1992-12-01

    Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpes appeared among red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Scandinavia (south-west Finland) for the first time in this century in 1967. The disease was most probably introduced by foxes crossing the Gulf of Finland from Estonia. The mange epizootic spread northwards through Finland and reached Sweden in late 1975, when mangy foxes appeared in the northern part of the country. In 1984, mange was observed in most parts of Sweden. The disease was observed to spread rapidly in boreal areas, whereas it spread more slowly in agricultural areas. Mortality due to mange was very high. The duration of the disease before death due to emaciation has been shown experimentally to be over 90 days. An outbreak of fox mange among Arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) occurred in 1986. The local population of Arctic foxes was caught and successfully treated. The following year, treated foxes were caught again and no signs of disease were found. Sporadic cases of fox mange have also been diagnosed in lynx (Lynx lynx), pine marten (Martes martes) and domestic dogs. Single cases have been observed in other species: wolf (Canis lupus), mountain hare (Lepus timidus), domestic cat and horse. No cases of sarcoptic mange have been recorded in the badger (Meles meles). At present, although fox mange occurs as an epizootic in local populations, the number of foxes has increased again in many parts of Sweden. PMID:1305857

  12. An outbreak of Trixacarus caviae infestation in guinea pigs at an animal petting facility and an evaluation of the safety and suitable dose of selamectin treatment.

    PubMed

    Honda, M; Namikawa, K; Hirata, H; Neo, S; Maruo, T; Lynch, J; Chida, A; Morita, T

    2011-08-01

    In June 2009, 27 guinea pigs kept at an animal petting facility at a zoo in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, were observed to scratch intensely, weaken, and develop lesions. Three sarcoptiform mites were found in skin scrapings taken from affected areas of 2 guinea pigs, and they were identified as Trixacarus caviae by morphological examination. This result confirmed the presence of T. caviae in Japan. For treatment, doses of 13.6-18.75 mg/head of selamectin were administered in a topical preparation applied to a single spot on the skin on the back of the neck, and no side effects were observed. In April 2010, a second outbreak of mange occurred at the zoo, and, following investigation, 2 mite eggs were observed. It was, therefore, thought probable that the mites had survived during the winter within nonclinical carriers. Accordingly, doses of 5.0-7.5 mg/head of selamectin were applied on days 0 and 28, after which clinical symptoms disappeared and general condition improved. This dose of selamectin was thus shown to be a suitable and economical treatment for guinea pigs infested with the mites. Because the mite is not always easily observed in infested guinea pigs and the potential for human infestation exists, clinicians should not hesitate to treat when the clinical presentation suggests infestation, particularly in a setting such as an animal petting facility, where large numbers of children and adults have direct contact with the animals. PMID:21506831

  13. An exploratory study to assess the activity of the acarine growth inhibitor, fluazuron, against Sarcoptes scabei infestation in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The most common treatments for scabies in human and veterinary settings are topical 5% permethrin or systemic treatment with ivermectin. However, these treatments have very little activity against arthropod eggs, and therefore repeated treatment is frequently required. In-vitro, biochemical and molecular studies have demonstrated that human mites are becoming increasingly resistant to both acaricides. To identify alternate acaricides, we undertook a pilot study of the in vivo activity of the benzoylphenyl urea inhibitor of chitin synthesis, fluazuron, in pigs with sarcoptic mange. Findings Pigs (n = 5) were infested with S. scabei var suis, and randomised to treatment at the start of peak infestation with fluazuron at a dose of 10 mg/kg/day per os for 7 days (n = 3) or no treatment (n = 2). Clinical scores, skin scrapings for mite counts and blood sampling for pharmacokinetic analysis were undertaken. Fluazuron was well absorbed in treated pigs with measureable blood levels up to 4 weeks post treatment. No adverse effects were observed. Modest acaricidal activity of the compound was observed, with a reduction in severity of skin lesions in treated pigs, as well as a reduction in number of scabies mite's early life stages. Conclusions The moderate efficacy of fluazuron against scabies mites indicates a lead to the development of alternate treatments for scabies, such as combination therapies that maybe applicable for human use in the future. PMID:22336283

  14. Sarcoptic mange in wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Kwon, Oh-Deog; Shin, Nam-Shik; Shin, Taekyun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2008-12-01

    Infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei was diagnosed from four wild raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) accidentally captured and presented to the Animal Health Center in Seoul Grand Park Zoo, Korea. Diagnosis was done by microscopic and histologic examination from skin lesions. Sarcoptes scabiei was the only species detected from the lesions and characterized by dorsoventrally flattened and round bodies, sucker-like pulvilli borne on long nonjointed pretarsi, triangular scales and spinelike setae on the dorsum, and three epimeres that are chitinous extensions of the coxae of the legs. In addition, infiltration of mast cells in the dermis was associated with infestation of the burrowing mite. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs in Korea. Because heavy infestation with S. scabiei was found in all of the captured wild raccoon dogs, further work is necessary to develop prophylactic interventions to prevent the spread of sarcoptic mange in free-living raccoon dogs in Korea. PMID:19110717

  15. Efficacy of ivermectin against mange and gastrointestinal nematodes of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Gill, B S; Singh, J; Gill, B S; Singh, A; Khehra, S S; Rai, A; Hussain, O

    1989-05-01

    The incidence of mange in dairy buffalo in India has increased significantly in recent years. The authors record an outbreak of mange affecting a dairy herd stocking about 30,000 buffalo and 1000 cows. The mange mites were either Sarcoptes scabiei or Psoroptes ovis, or a mixed infestation of both. The morbidity rate was 5-30% varying from group to group, with 100% in a severely affected group. Signs noticed were progressive dermatitis, alopecia, keratinization, skin thickened and wrinkled, intense itching and marked loss of condition often ending in death. Great losses of young animals from mange and gastrointestinal nematodes are very common in dairy herds in India. In view of their economic importance, the activity of ivermectin against naturally occurring mange and parasitic infections of adult buffalo and buffalo calves was determined. Ivermectin was administered by subcutaneous injection (IVOMEC 1% w/v - MSD AGVET) at a dose of 200 mcg kg-1 body weight. The efficacy was ascertained from the disappearance of mites from skin scrapings and the reduction in numbers of worm eggs in the faeces. The results of the treatment were dramatic: the mites disappeared within 2 weeks of the drug being administered in the majority of animals, with marked improvement in skin lesions. Four buffalo which had their entire body surface affected with mange needed a second dose on Day 28 for complete recovery. The effect on the nematodes was equally spectacular, with infections of Neoascaris vitulorum, Trichostrongylidae, Oesophagostomum spp. and Bunostomum being eliminated within 1 week of treatment. PMID:2741301

  16. Moxidectin Efficacy in a Goat Herd with Chronic and Generalized Sarcoptic Mange

    PubMed Central

    Giadinis, Nektarios D.; Farmaki, Rania; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Elias; Karatzias, Harilaos; Koutinas, Alexander F.

    2011-01-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange affecting almost all the animals of a dairy goat herd is described. This pruritic skin disease led progressively to high mortality and dramatic drop of milk yield. The lesions of the affected goats were typical of a chronic and generalized-diffuse sarcoptic mange. Diagnosis was confirmed by skin scrapings and histopathology in which many mites were demonstrated. All surviving goats were treated with injectable moxidectin solution 1% (CYDECTIN-Fort Dodge) at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg, applied every 15 days for four times, subcutaneously. Although pruritus had decreased soon after the first treatment, a satisfactory healing of cutaneous lesions was witnessed 6 weeks after the beginning of moxidectin trial. Parasitological cure was achieved in all affected animals by the end of the trial. In the four monthly followups, no evidence of sarcoptic mange could be found. PMID:21776348

  17. Moxidectin efficacy in a goat herd with chronic and generalized sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Giadinis, Nektarios D; Farmaki, Rania; Papaioannou, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Elias; Karatzias, Harilaos; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2011-01-01

    A case of sarcoptic mange affecting almost all the animals of a dairy goat herd is described. This pruritic skin disease led progressively to high mortality and dramatic drop of milk yield. The lesions of the affected goats were typical of a chronic and generalized-diffuse sarcoptic mange. Diagnosis was confirmed by skin scrapings and histopathology in which many mites were demonstrated. All surviving goats were treated with injectable moxidectin solution 1% (CYDECTIN-Fort Dodge) at the dose of 0.2 mg/kg, applied every 15 days for four times, subcutaneously. Although pruritus had decreased soon after the first treatment, a satisfactory healing of cutaneous lesions was witnessed 6 weeks after the beginning of moxidectin trial. Parasitological cure was achieved in all affected animals by the end of the trial. In the four monthly followups, no evidence of sarcoptic mange could be found. PMID:21776348

  18. Treatment of naturally acquired demodectic mange with amitraz in two harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2015-09-01

    Two male harbour seals (Phoca vitulina; 33 and 35 years old, respectively), housed since 2002 at a zoo for exhibition purposes, developed severe, multifocal and diffuse skin lesions. Skin scrapings and microscopy for parasites as well as pure cultures for bacteria and dermatophytes were carried out to identify the aetiological agent. Skin scrapings showed that lesions appearing on the seals were caused by an infestation of Demodex mites, which is uncommon in marine mammals, and were not due to other causative agents (parasites, bacteria or dermatophytes). Treatment with amitraz (0.01%) once a week for three weeks and with ampicillin (10 mg/kg SID per os) for six days eliminated the mites and resolved the clinical signs of demodectic mange in the harbour seals. The purpose of this report is to describe the successful treatment of naturally acquired demodectic mange with amitraz in harbour seals. PMID:26551425

  19. [Sarcoptic mange: report of an outbreak in a family and their pet].

    PubMed

    Gallegos, José L; Budnik, Isolda; Peña, Anamaría; Canales, Marilena; Concha, Mónica; López, Javier

    2014-02-01

    Scabies caused by the genus Sarcoptes scabiei var canis is a prevalent infection in dogs and affects abandoned, malnourished and overcrowded animals, causing hair loss and an intensely pruritic crusting dermatitis. In humans the manifestation is a self-limiting pruritic dermatitis, but persistent cases are described. An outbreak of sarcoptic mange is reported in a family group (seven people, including a 5 month infant and his mother). The infective source was their own house dog who was taken from the street. The diagnosis was confirmed by the detection of mites and eggs in the acarotest of the dog and mites of S. scabei in the infant. Sarcoptic mange should be suspected in individuals with allergic dermatitis who have contact with dogs. Treatment in humans is usually symptomatic and may need miticides if the infection persists. The control of the disease requires an appropriate pet treatment. PMID:24740774

  20. First record of notoedric mange in ocelot (Leopardus pardalis Linnaeus, 1758) in the Amazon region, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Alessandra; dos Santos, Rafaelle Cunha; Carvalho, Nadino; Martins, Áurea Linhares; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a case of notoedric mange in an ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) in the Brazilian Amazon region. A young male of approximately four months of age that was illegally kept as a pet was apprehended in Altamira, State of Pará, northern Brazil. The animal was transported to the Mangal das Garças Park in the state's capital city of Belém. The ocelot had pruritus and lesions suggestive of scabies in the head. Skin scraping material was examined under optic microscopy. There was seen a large number of eggs, larvae, nymphs and adult mites. The mean female and male sizes were 230.2 × 200.4 μm and 137.6 × 104.9 μm. Based on the morphologic characteristics and morphometric analysis, this mite was classified as Notoedres cati. This is the first report of notoedric mange in L. pardalis from Brazilian Amazon. PMID:22166390

  1. Pathology of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes): macroscopic and histologic characterization of three disease stages.

    PubMed

    Nimmervoll, Helena; Hoby, Stefan; Robert, Nadia; Lommano, Elena; Welle, Monika; Ryser-Degiorgis, Marie-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a highly contagious skin disease that can have a devastating impact on affected wild mammal populations. There are notable variations in the clinical and pathologic picture of sarcoptic mange among species and among conspecifics. However, the origin of these variations is unclear. We propose a classification scheme for skin lesions associated with Sarcoptes scabiei infestation to provide a basis for a subsequent risk factor analysis. We conducted a case-control study focused on macroscopic and histologic examination of the skin, using 279 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) found dead or shot in Switzerland between November 2004 and February 2006. All animals were submitted to gross necropsy following a detailed protocol. Selection criteria for cases (n=147) vs. controls (n=111) were the presence or absence of mange-like lesions, mite detection by isolation or histologic examination, and serologic testing for S. scabiei antibodies. Characteristic features of mange lesions were scored macroscopically in all foxes and histologically in 67 cases and 15 controls. We classified skin lesions and associated necropsy findings into three types of mange: A) early stage (n=45): focal-extensive skin lesions, thin crusts, mild to moderate alopecia, few mites, numerous eosinophils, and mild lymph node enlargement; B) hyperkeratotic, fatal form (n=86): generalized skin lesions, thick crusts with or without alopecia, foul odor, abundance of mites, numerous bacteria and yeasts, numerous lymphocytes and mast cells, severe lymph node enlargement, and emaciation; C) alopecic, healing form (n=16): focal lesions, no crusts, severe alopecia, hyperpigmentation and lichenification, absence of mites, mixed cell infiltration, and rare mild lymph node enlargement. We hypothesize that after stage A, the animal either enters stage B and dies, or stage C and survives, depending on largely unknown extrinsic or intrinsic factors affecting the host ability to control mite infestation. PMID

  2. Efficacy of a novel formulation of metaflumizone plus amitraz for the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fourie, L J; Kok, D J; du Plessis, A; Rugg, D

    2007-12-15

    A novel spot-on formulation containing metaflumizone plus amitraz (ProMeris/ProMeris Duo for Dogs, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Overland Park, KS) was evaluated for efficacy against sarcoptic mange mites in naturally infested dogs. Sixteen dogs were allocated to two equal groups and were housed individually. Eight of the dogs were treated topically with metaflumizone plus amitraz at the proposed minimum dose rate (20mg/kg of each of metaflumizone and amitraz, at a dose volume of 0.133ml/kg) on Days 0 and 28. The other eight were treated with metaflumizone plus amitraz at the proposed minimum dose rate on Days 0, 14, 28 and 42. To enumerate Sarcoptes scabiei mites, skin scrapings were taken on each of Days 2, 14, 28, 42 and 56. Clinical signs of mange and the extent of sarcoptic lesions were evaluated on each dog when scrapings were made. Evaluation of the efficacy of the treatment was based on the absence of mites supported by the absence of clinical signs associated with canine sarcoptic mange. Treatment with metaflumizone plus amitraz at the minimum proposed dose rate at monthly (two treatments) or two-weekly (four treatments) intervals resulted in a rapid reduction of mites and improved clinical signs. The overall cure rates at Day 56, based on zero mite counts and/or resolution of clinical signs were 75% and 83% of dogs for the monthly and two-weekly regimens, respectively. PMID:17931787

  3. Histological Lesions and Cellular Response in the Skin of Alpine Chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) Spontaneously Affected by Sarcoptic Mange

    PubMed Central

    Salvadori, Claudia; Lazzarotti, Camilla; Trogu, Tiziana; Lanfranchi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Population dynamics of chamois (genus Rupicapra, subfamily Caprinae) can be influenced by infectious diseases epizootics, of which sarcoptic mange is probably the most severe in the Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra). In this study, skin lesions and cellular inflammatory infiltrates were characterized in 44 Alpine chamois affected by sarcoptic mange. Dermal cellular responses were evaluated in comparison with chamois affected by trombiculosis and controls. In both sarcoptic mange and trombiculosis, a significantly increase of eosinophils, mast cells, T and B lymphocytes, and macrophages was detected. Moreover, in sarcoptic mange significant higher numbers of T lymphocytes and macrophages compared to trombiculosis were observed. Lesions in sarcoptic mange were classified in three grades, according to crusts thickness, correlated with mite counts. Grade 3 represented the most severe form with crust thickness more than 3.5 mm, high number of mites, and severe parakeratosis with diffuse bacteria. Evidence of immediate and delayed hypersensitivity was detected in all three forms associated with diffuse severe epidermal hyperplasia. In grade 3, a significant increase of B lymphocytes was evident compared to grades 1 and 2, while eosinophil counts were significantly higher than in grade 1, but lower than in grade 2 lesions. An involvement of nonprotective Th2 immune response could in part account for severe lesions of grade 3. PMID:27403422

  4. Distribution and prevalence of knemidokoptic mange in Hawai`i `Amakihi on the island of Hawaii.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaudioso, Jacqueline; LaPointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.; Apelgren, Chloe

    2014-01-01

    Knemidokoptic mange was first observed on two Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi (Hemignathus virens) mist netted in Manuka Natural Area Reserve (NAR) on the Island of Hawai‘i in June 2007. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings from lesions of the infested individuals revealed the scaley-leg mite, Knemidokoptes jamaicensis. Continued surveillance at Manuka NAR (2007-2009) documented a 24% (15/63) prevalence of mange among Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi distributed from coastal habitat to 1,500 m above sea level (asl). From 2012-2014, we conducted an island-wide survey of wild passerine birds from several leeward sites (Manuka NAR, Kahuku Unit of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO), Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a Forest Bird Sanctuary, and Kipahoehoe NAR) and windward sites (Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, ‘Ᾱinahou Ranch of HAVO, Malama Ki Forest Reserve, and Keauohana Forest Reserve) to determine the current distribution and host range of knemidokoptic mange. We also determined the prevalence of malaria in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi populations where mange was present and treated a subset of infested Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi mange with a single, topical dose of moxidectin. We mist netted and examined a total of 1,734 passerines, including 738 Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi. Mange was present in Hawai‘i ‘Amakihi at Manuka NAR (595 and 305 m asl), Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Glover site: 1,201 m asl and Kipuka Akala site: 1,532 m asl), Malama Ki Forest Reserve and Keauohana Forest Reserve (293 m asl). No other passerine birds (n = 995) were infected. Mange prevalence ranged from a high of 69% (40/58) in Keauohana Forest Reserve to a low of 2% (1/65) in the Kahuku Ranch Unit of HAVO (Kipuka Akala). At Manuka NAR prevalence had decreased from 26% in 2010 to 10% (7/81) in 2012–2014. We found no significant relationship between the prevalence of mange and the prevalence of avian malaria in mesic habitats at Manuka NAR (P = 0.59 (FET, n = 81)), but there was a significant association between the

  5. A survey of mites on farm animals in Libya.

    PubMed

    Gabaj, M M; Beesley, W N; Awan, M A

    1992-10-01

    In 1985-1988, 2287 farm animals (cattle, camels, sheep, goats, horses, donkeys, dogs and rabbits) suspected of carrying parasitic mites were examined at 58 farms throughout Libya. Mites were identified on 1303 of these animals. The commonest parasites on cattle were Psoroptes and Chorioptes, on camels and sheep were Sarcoptes and Psoroptes, and on goats were Sarcoptes and Demodex. Infested horses carrier Psoroptes or Chorioptes, and one donkey carried Sarcoptes. Otodectes was common on dogs, but Sarcoptes was rare and no Demodex were seen. Rabbits often had psoroptic ear mange or sarcoptic body mange. Dermanyssus gallinae and Ornithonyssus bursa were seen on chickens, but no mites were found on pigeons, ducks or turkeys. PMID:1288436

  6. First detection of sarcoptic mange in free-ranging wild boar (Sus scrofa) in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Haas, C; Origgi, F C; Akdesir, E; Batista Linhares, M; Giovannini, S; Mavrot, F; Casaubon, J; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P

    2015-05-01

    In Switzerland sarcoptic mange is frequent in free-ranging wild carnivores but until recent years no cases had been recorded in wild ungulates. Since 2010, cases have been observed in wild boar in the cantons of Solothurn, Tessin and Thurgau. Here, we report the detection of mange-like skin lesions in wild boars by photo-trapping and the post-mortem findings in 6 culled animals presenting different stages of the disease. Potential sources of infection include mangy red foxes, outdoor domestic pigs and wild boars from surrounding countries. Disease spread in the wild boar population may become relevant not only for wildlife but also for domestic pig health in the future if piggeries' biosecurity is insufficient to prevent interactions with wild boar. PMID:26753342

  7. Sarcoptic mange in raccoons in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Cooley, Thomas M; Murphy, Alice; Cosgrove, Melinda K; King, Betty A

    2004-04-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a cause of pruritic skin disease in domestic dogs and a wide range of wildlife species. We describe sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoons (Procyon lotor). Three adult raccoons from upper Wayne County, Michigan (USA), were captured, killed, and submitted for diagnostic evaluation. The animals were intensely pruritic, and two had advanced alopecic and crusting lesions over their dorsum and hind limbs. Skin scrapings and skin biopsies revealed crusting and hyperkeratotic dermatitis with high numbers of Sarcoptes scabiei adults, larvae, nymphs, and eggs. These raccoons were not otherwise debilitated, with minimal internal parasites, good body condition, and no evidence of infectious bacterial or viral diseases. Because sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and affects many species, including humans, transiently, it is important that wildlife biologists and rehabilitators include sarcoptic mange in their differential list for raccoons exhibiting pruritus and alopecia. PMID:15362840

  8. Crusted scabies (sarcoptic mange) in four cats due to Sarcoptes scabiei infestation.

    PubMed

    Malik, Richard; McKellar Stewart, Keith; Sousa, Candace A; Krockenberger, Mark B; Pope, Sally; Ihrke, Peter; Beatty, Julia; Barrs, Vanessa R D; Walton, Shelley

    2006-10-01

    Four new cases of sarcoptic mange in cats are described. Two cats resided in areas known to be frequented by foxes, another cohabited with a dog recently diagnosed with sarcoptic mange, while the final cat lived with a mixed breed dog that had been treated for sarcoptic mange 7 months previously. Three cases were diagnosed on the basis of characteristic mite size and morphology in skin scraping from representative lesions, situated on the head (two cases) or head and distal hind limbs (one case). Mites were highly mobile and abundant in all instances, and easily detected also in skin biopsy specimens procured from two cases. Eosinophilic inflammation, hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis were prominent in the tissue sections. In the remaining case, the diagnosis was presumptive, based on characteristic lesions, cohabitation with a canine scabies patient and positive response to scabicide therapy. Pruritus was not a prominent clinical feature in any patient and was considered to be absent in three of the four cases. Lesions in three cats with long-standing disease were reminiscent of crusted scabies (synonym: Norwegian scabies, parakeratotic scabies) as seen in human patients. In three cases, in-contact human carriers developed itchy cutaneous papular lesions. Two cases responded promptly to therapy with systemic avermectin drugs, while one responded to topical treatment with lime sulphur and the remaining cat received both a lime sulphur rinse and ivermectin. Sarcoptic mange should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cats with non-pruritic crusting skin diseases, especially when there is contact with foxes or dogs, and when owners have itchy papular lesions. PMID:16950639

  9. Pathologic findings in Western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) from a notoedric mange epidemic in the San Bernardino Mountains, California.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pam; Villepique, Jeffrey T; Clifford, Deana L; Nyaoke, Akinyi; De la Mora, Alfonso; Moore, Janet; Foley, Janet

    2013-12-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by the contagious, burrowing mite Notoedres centrifera, has been associated with several large-scale population declines of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and has been a significant obstacle to population recovery in Washington State where the species is listed as threatened. In 2009, residents and wildlife rehabilitators in the isolated San Bernardino Mountains of southern California reported a dramatic die-off of western gray squirrels, in what had been a previously dense and robust population. Individuals were observed suffering from abnormal neurologic behaviors (ataxia and obtundation) and severe skin disease. Full necropsy of five squirrels from the epidemic showed that all had moderate to severe infestation with mange mites and severe dermatitis characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, intralesional mites, intracorneal pustules and superficial bacteria. Mites from affected squirrels were evaluated by light and electron microscopy and identified as N. centrifera based on morphologic criteria. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of the mite was cloned, sequenced and accessioned in GenBank. The cause for the abnormal neurologic behavior was not confirmed on post-mortem examination. However, we hypothesize that mange can cause incoordination and obtundation as a result of malnutrition and dehydration, and intense pruritis may induce abnormal or erratic behavior that could be mistaken for neurologic signs. While we have characterized the severe impact this disease can have on individual animals, more work is needed to understand the impact on squirrel populations, particularly in view of the anecdotal reports of dramatic population declines that may take decades to recover. PMID:24533345

  10. Pathologic findings in Western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) from a notoedric mange epidemic in the San Bernardino Mountains, California☆

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pam; Villepique, Jeffrey T.; Clifford, Deana L.; Nyaoke, Akinyi; De la Mora, Alfonso; Moore, Janet; Foley, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by the contagious, burrowing mite Notoedres centrifera, has been associated with several large-scale population declines of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and has been a significant obstacle to population recovery in Washington State where the species is listed as threatened. In 2009, residents and wildlife rehabilitators in the isolated San Bernardino Mountains of southern California reported a dramatic die-off of western gray squirrels, in what had been a previously dense and robust population. Individuals were observed suffering from abnormal neurologic behaviors (ataxia and obtundation) and severe skin disease. Full necropsy of five squirrels from the epidemic showed that all had moderate to severe infestation with mange mites and severe dermatitis characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, intralesional mites, intracorneal pustules and superficial bacteria. Mites from affected squirrels were evaluated by light and electron microscopy and identified as N. centrifera based on morphologic criteria. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of the mite was cloned, sequenced and accessioned in GenBank. The cause for the abnormal neurologic behavior was not confirmed on post-mortem examination. However, we hypothesize that mange can cause incoordination and obtundation as a result of malnutrition and dehydration, and intense pruritis may induce abnormal or erratic behavior that could be mistaken for neurologic signs. While we have characterized the severe impact this disease can have on individual animals, more work is needed to understand the impact on squirrel populations, particularly in view of the anecdotal reports of dramatic population declines that may take decades to recover. PMID:24533345

  11. Sarcoptic mange in captive maras: the first known outbreak and complete recovery with colony-wide acaricide treatment

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Kyoo-Tae; LEE, Seung-Hun; KWAK, Dongmi

    2015-01-01

    Among 16 maras housed as a colony at a zoo, 2 initially showed generalized dermal lesions on the legs, head and abdomen. Approximately 1 month later, following completion of therapy with amitraz, 6 maras in the same colony, including the 2 previously diseased animals, showed dermal lesions with severe alopecia and crusting. Sarcoptic mange was diagnosed on skin scrapings on the basis of morphological criteria. The mites were highly mobile and abundant in all cases, and no other causative agents were detected. Colony-wide treatment with ivermectin and prednisolone was administered weekly for a total of 4 treatments. After therapy was completed in all cohabitants, follow-up scrapings were negative for Sarcoptes scabiei. This report describes the first known outbreak of sarcoptic mange in captive maras and successful treatment with acaricides. PMID:25648673

  12. Sarcoptic mange in captive maras: the first known outbreak and complete recovery with colony-wide acaricide treatment.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoo-Tae; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2015-05-01

    Among 16 maras housed as a colony at a zoo, 2 initially showed generalized dermal lesions on the legs, head and abdomen. Approximately 1 month later, following completion of therapy with amitraz, 6 maras in the same colony, including the 2 previously diseased animals, showed dermal lesions with severe alopecia and crusting. Sarcoptic mange was diagnosed on skin scrapings on the basis of morphological criteria. The mites were highly mobile and abundant in all cases, and no other causative agents were detected. Colony-wide treatment with ivermectin and prednisolone was administered weekly for a total of 4 treatments. After therapy was completed in all cohabitants, follow-up scrapings were negative for Sarcoptes scabiei. This report describes the first known outbreak of sarcoptic mange in captive maras and successful treatment with acaricides. PMID:25648673

  13. Therapeutic management of sarcoptic mange in a sheep flock.

    PubMed

    Murthy, G S S; Nagesha, A M; Hemanna Gowda, K

    2013-10-01

    Sarcoptic mange infested sheep showed pruritis, excoriation, crusts, lichenification and secondary alopecia on face and ears. All the infested sheep were treated successfully with Ivermectin at 200 μg/kg body weight and complete recovery of skin was observed between 10th and 14th day post treatments. Sarcoptic mange is highly contagious and the spread of Sarcoptes scabiei is usually by close contact but in goats not same because it has natural resistance against sheep mange. PMID:24431584

  14. Ivermectin treatment of bovine psoroptic mange: effects on serum chemistry, hematology, organ weights, and leather quality.

    PubMed

    Rehbein, S; Visser, M; Meyer, M; Lindner, T

    2016-04-01

    Psoroptic mange is a skin disease which may result in serious health and welfare problems and important economic losses. Apart from the effect on weight gain, little information is available concerning other responses of the organism consequent to the successful therapy of bovine psoroptic mange. Accordingly, serum chemistry, hematology, organ weights, and leather quality of young bulls with experimentally induced clinical Psoroptes ovis mange and treated with either ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI; IVOMEC(®) GOLD, Merial) or saline (n = 16 each) were examined 8 weeks after treatment when all IVM LAI-treated bulls were free of live P. ovis mites while the saline-treated bulls maintained clinical mange. IVM LAI-treated bulls had higher (p < 0.05) alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, cholesterol, glucose, and albumin levels and lower (p < 0.01) total protein and β- and γ-globulin levels than the saline-treated bulls. Complete blood counts revealed higher leukocyte counts associated with higher eosinophil counts and higher platelet counts in the saline-treated compared to the IVM LAI-treated bulls (p < 0.01). Correlating with body weight, the warm carcass weight of the saline-treated bulls was lower than that of the IVM LAI-treated bulls (p < 0.05). Absolute and relative (organ weight divided by body weight) weights of the spleen, thymus, omental fat, and perirenal fat were higher (p < 0.01) for the IVM LAI-treated bulls than for the saline-treated bulls, while the IVM LAI-treated bulls had lower (p < 0.05) absolute and relative weights of the liver, adrenal glands, and selected lymph nodes than the saline-treated bulls. The leathers produced from the IVM LAI-treated bulls showed significantly (p < 0.001) less severe gouging or etching than leathers from the saline-treated bulls, and significantly (p < 0.05) more leather from the IVM LAI-treated bulls was of usable quality than the size of leather from the saline

  15. Efficacy and safety of a novel oral isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™), for the treatment of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Becskei, Csilla; De Bock, Filip; Illambas, Joanna; Cherni, Judith A; Fourie, Josephus J; Lane, Melanie; Mahabir, Sean P; Six, Robert H

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of the novel isoxazoline, sarolaner (Simparica™) was investigated in dogs with clinical signs consistent with sarcoptic mange and harbouring natural infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei. One placebo-controlled laboratory study and one multi-centred field study with a commercial comparator containing imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate(®) spot-on) were conducted. Oral or topical treatments were administered on Days 0 and 30. Up to 10 skin scrapings were taken for the assessment of S. scabiei infestations from each dog before treatment and on Days 14, 30, 44 and 60 in the laboratory study, and on Days 30 and 60 in the field study. In the laboratory study, efficacy was calculated based on the percent reduction of mean live mite counts compared to the placebo group. In the field study parasitological cure rate (% dogs free of mites) was determined and non-inferiority of sarolaner to the control product was assessed. In the laboratory study 44 mixed breed dogs were enrolled in four batches. Due to decreasing mite counts in the placebo treated dogs, immunosuppression with dexamethasone (0.4mg/kg three times per week for two weeks) was initiated in all dogs on study at that time (n=6) and those subsequently enrolled (n=14). In the field study, dogs were enrolled in a 2:1 ratio (sarolaner:comparator); 79 dogs were assessed for efficacy and safety, and an additional 45 dogs were assessed for safety only. There were no treatment related adverse events in either study. In the laboratory study, no mites were found on any sarolaner-treated dogs 14 days after the first treatment except for one dog that had a single mite on Day 44. In the field study, the parasitological cure rate was 88.7% and 100% in the sarolaner group and 84.6% and 96.0% in the imidacloprid/moxidectin group, on Days 30 and 60, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that sarolaner was non-inferior to imidacloprid/moxidectin at both time points. The clinical signs of sarcoptic mange, including

  16. [Epidemiological investigations of bovine Chorioptes mange in Germany].

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Pfister, Kurt; Weiland, Georg

    2005-01-01

    Chorioptic mange in cattle has long been recognised as a common external parasitosis in livestock. In order to evaluate the economic importance of Chorioptes bovis-mange, the seasonal prevalence in several types of husbandry in the states of Germany, location of clinical skin symptoms, procedure of diagnosis, influence on milk or meat production, and treatment especially in dairy farming, 1190 German large animal practicioners have been asked by questionnaires from which 367 responded. This paper gives an update on important epidemiological investigations on bovine chorioptic mange due to this inquiry. Since more than one third of the questioned veterinarians see tail mange often, it is of high importance for farm cattle. Chorioptes mange mainly occurs in dairy cattle stocks, and has especially negative effects on milk production and meat productivity. For treatment of this external parasitosis mainly macrocyclic lactons and pyrethroids are used. PMID:15803760

  17. From cuckoos to chickens: a caught-in-the-act case of host shift in feather mites (Arachnida: Acari: Psoroptoididae).

    PubMed

    Hernandes, Fabio Akashi; Pedroso, Luiz Gustavo A; Mironov, Sergey V

    2014-12-01

    Feather mites are highly specialized permanent ectosymbionts recorded from all recently recognized bird orders. These mites, specialized to live in the plumage of their hosts, rarely cause any visible damage to their specific hosts. Recently described feather mite Allopsoroptoides galli Mironov (Acariformes: Psoroptoididae) was reported to cause severe mange in chickens in Brazil, leading to unprecedented economic losses. Until now, the natural host of A. galli remained unknown. In this paper, we report its true wild host, the Guira cuckoo Guira guira (Cuculiformes: Cuculidae). In addition, a previously unknown heteromorphic form of males is described from the mite population distributed on its natural host. We also speculate a possible scenario by which this mite species could have been horizontally transferred from the wild populations of the natural host to the secondary hosts. PMID:25185669

  18. 27. STAINLESS STEEL FERMENTING CASKS MADE BY ZERO MANG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. STAINLESS STEEL FERMENTING CASKS MADE BY ZERO MANG OF WASHINGTON, MISSOURI. VIEW LOOKING NORTH TOWARD VAULT OF THE TWELVE APOSTLES - Stone Hill Winery, 401 West Twelfth Street, Hermann, Gasconade County, MO

  19. Assay of alterations in oxidative stress markers in pigs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis.

    PubMed

    Dimri, Umesh; Bandyopadhyay, S; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Ranjan, Rakesh; Mukherjee, R; Yatoo, M I; Patra, P H; De, U K; Dar, A A

    2014-09-15

    The present study aimed to examine the status of antioxidant systems of the pigs naturally suffering from sarcoptic mange. Fifty nine pigs were divided into three groups, healthy control (group I, n=15), subclinical sarcoptic mange (group II, n=22) and clinical sarcoptic mange (group III, n=22). To assess the status of antioxidant systems; lipid peroxides (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), ascorbic acid, zinc and copper concentrations in the blood samples as well as LPO, SOD, CAT and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities in the skin were measured. The GSH, SOD, GPx, ascorbic acid, zinc, copper concentrations in blood were significantly lower in the pigs suffering from clinical and subclinical sarcoptic mange, when compared with the healthy control. However, LPO content of these infested pigs was significantly higher. The CAT, SOD and GST activities in the skin of the diseased pigs were significantly lower, whereas LPO was significantly higher as compared to the healthy control. From the present study, it may be concluded that sarcoptic mange bestows remarkable alterations in the oxidative stress markers and imposes compromisation of the antioxidant status of the infested pigs. PMID:24986463

  20. Dust mite (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a magnified photograph of a dust mite. Mites are carriers (vectors) of many important diseases including typhus (scrub and murine) and rickettsialpox. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease ...

  1. The treatment of bovine sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis) using eprinomectin extended-release injection.

    PubMed

    Visser, M; Löwenstein, M; Yoon, S; Rehbein, S

    2013-03-01

    The efficacy of eprinomectin in an extended-release injection (ERI) formulation was evaluated in cattle harbouring induced infestations of Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis (sarcoptic mange) in three studies conducted in Germany (two studies) and Austria (one study). A total of 44 cattle were included in the studies, 12 in one study and 16 in each of the other two studies. Approximately eight weeks following initial induced infestation, cattle in each study were formed into replicates of two animals each on the basis of pre-treatment bodyweights. Within replicates the animals were randomly allocated to one of two treatments: ERI vehicle (control) or Eprinomectin 5% (w/v) ERI (1.0 mg eprinomectin/kg). Treatments were administered at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight by subcutaneous injection in front of the shoulder once on day 0. The number of live mites in skin scrapings was determined prior to treatment and at weekly intervals for eight weeks after treatment. Severity of skin lesions was evaluated and scored when skin scrapings were taken. In all studies, animals were weighed before infestation and again prior to and at 56 days after treatment. Mite counts for treated cattle were significantly (p<0.05) lower than counts for controls from Day 7 onwards. Cattle treated with Eprinomectin ERI were Sarcoptes mite-free from seven, 21 or 28 days post-treatment to the end of the study in the three studies, and lesions regressed accordingly. Mean weight gain over the post-treatment period was significantly higher for treated cattle than for controls in two studies. All animals accepted the treatment well. PMID:23273586

  2. Characterisation and analysis of thioredoxin peroxidase as a potential antigen for the serodiagnosis of sarcoptic mange in rabbits by dot-ELISA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Scabies caused by Sarcoptes scabiei is a widespread but a neglected tropical zoonosis. In this study, we characterised a S. scabiei thioredoxin peroxidase (SsTPx) and evaluated a recombinant SsTPx as a diagnostic antigen in rabbits. Methods The open reading frame of the gene encoding SsTPx-2 was amplified and the recombinant protein was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified. SsTPx was localized in mite tissue by immunolocalisation using the purified recombinant protein. Serodiagnosis assays were carried out in 203 New Zealand White rabbit serum samples by dot-ELISA. Result The open reading frame (489 bp) of the gene encodes an 18.11 kDa protein, which showed highly homology to that of Psoroptes cuniculi (98.77% identity) and belongs to the 2-Cys family of peroxiredoxins. SsTPx was mainly distributed in muscle tissues of mites, integument of the epidermis and the anterior end of S. scabiei. Although SsTPx cross-reactivity with psoroptic mites was observed, the SsTPx dot-ELISA showed excellent diagnostic ability, with 95.3% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity in mange-infected and uninfected groups. Conclusions This study showed that the purified SsTPx is a highly sensitive antigen for the diagnosis of mange infection by dot-ELISA. This technique is a rapid and convenient method that can be used worldwide for the clinical diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in rabbits, and is especially useful in developing regions. PMID:23875925

  3. Treatment and control of bovine sarcoptic and psoroptic mange infestation with ivermectin long-acting injectable (IVOMEC(®) GOLD).

    PubMed

    Hamel, Dietmar; Joachim, Anja; Löwenstein, Michael; Pfister, Kurt; Silaghi, Cornelia; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Yoon, Stephen; Cramer, Luiz; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    The efficacy of ivermectin long-acting injection (IVM LAI, IVOMEC® GOLD, Merial; 3.15 % ivermectin w/v) formulation was evaluated in cattle with induced Sarcoptes scabiei var. bovis or Psoroptes ovis infestations. A total of 64 cattle were included in this series of four studies, with 16 animals per study. Approximately, 8 weeks following initial induced mite infestation, cattle were allocated to treatment groups based on decreasing pre-treatment bodyweights. Treatments (saline (control) or IVM LAI (630 mcg ivermectin/kg bodyweight) at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight) were administered by a single subcutaneous injection in front of the right shoulder on Day 0. Skin scrapings were collected prior to treatment and at approximately weekly intervals for 8 weeks thereafter to establish live mite counts. Character and extent of skin lesions were evaluated at each sampling. Animals were weighed before treatment and at the end of the studies. Mite counts of the IVM LAI-treated animals were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than those of the controls in all four studies at all occasions post-treatment. In the two Sarcoptes studies, IVM LAI-treated cattle were free of mites at 14 days after treatment and in the Psoroptes studies at 13 or 28 days post-treatment. All IVM LAI-treated cattle remained free of mites to the end of the studies while all control animals remained infested. Mange lesions of the IVM LAI-treated animals improved significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those of the controls from Day 21 (Sarcoptes studies) and from Days 28 or 34 (Psoroptes studies). In all studies, mean weight gain over the 8 week post-treatment period was significantly (p < 0.05) higher for the IVM LAI-treated animals than for the controls: Sarcoptes studies, 64.1 and 68.6 kg vs. 46.9 and 48.6 kg, respectively; Psoroptes studies, 43.0 and 43.4 kg vs. 20.8 and 34.9 kg, respectively. All animals accepted the treatment well, and no treatment-related health problems and adverse events were

  4. [Experimental study of the inoculative transmission of Rickettsia typhi by gamasid mites (Gamasidae) Ornithonyssus bacoti].

    PubMed

    Grabarev, P A; Suroviatkin, A V; Tikhonova, Iu Iu; Mishchenko, O A; Potapenko, O V

    2009-01-01

    The authors' studies have established that the concentration of Rickettsia typhi may increase about 100-fold in the infected Ornithonyssus bacoti mites. At the time, when on feeding 20 to 200 adult mites on guinea-pigs and albino rats 4 to 36 days after inoculation, they did not transmit Rickettsia typhi on blood sucking. PMID:19566066

  5. Determination of oxidative status and apoptosis in peripheral blood of dogs with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Singh, S K; Dimri, U; Sharma, M C; Swarup, D; Sharma, B

    2011-06-10

    The aim of the present study was to determine the erythrocytic oxidant/antioxidant balance and apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes of dogs with natural Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis mite infestation. A total of twenty four clinically Sarcoptes-infested dogs were examined and used to execute the study. While another twenty four healthy dogs free of any ecto-parasite were used as controls. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from each infested only once on the day of dermatological examinations. Determination of oxidant/antioxidant balance was conceded by estimating the levels of lipid peroxides and antioxidants in erythrocytes. While, apoptosis of peripheral blood leukocytes was determined by estimating externalization of phosphatidylserine (PS) at the cell surface as well as by detection of depolarization mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) by flow cytometry. Sarcoptes-infested dogs had revealed significantly higher (P≤0.001) contents of erythrocytic lipid peroxides in comparison with the healthy controls. Whereas the level of reduced glutathione was found to be significantly lower (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy dogs. The activity of glutathione peroxidase was found to be significantly lower (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy dogs. The activity of glutathione-S-transferase was also found to be significantly lower (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy dogs. The dogs with sarcoptic mange had revealed significantly lower (P≤0.001) activity of superoxide dismutase in coparision with the healthy dogs. The dogs with sarcoptic mange had also revealed significantly lower (P≤0.001) activity of catalase in coparision with the healthy dogs. The percentage of apoptotic leukocytes was found to be significantly higher (P≤0.001) in Sarcoptes-infested dogs as compared to the healthy controls. Sarcoptes-infested dogs had also exhibited significantly (P≤0.001) higher

  6. Evaluation of a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of canine sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Curtis, C F

    2001-02-24

    This study was designed to assess the accuracy of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of canine scabies. Serum samples from 37 dogs were examined blind; 12 had sarcoptic mange confirmed by the identification of mites in skin scrapings, 12 were atopic (with positive intradermal reactions to one or more aeroallergens, including Dermatophagoides farinae), and 13 were healthy dogs with no history of skin disease. Optical density values of more than 0.16 were considered positive, 0.145 to 0.16 were considered questionable and less than 0.145 were considered negative. Ten of the 12 dogs with scabies were positive, all 12 atopic dogs were negative, and 11 of the 13 healthy dogs were negative and two were questionable. PMID:11289551

  7. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the serological diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lower, K S; Medleau, L M; Hnilica, K; Bigler, B

    2001-12-01

    Canine scabies is a challenging disease to diagnose because sarcoptic mites are hard to find on skin scrapings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a serologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as an aid in the diagnosis of canine scabies. In addition, serum samples were obtained post treatment to determine the duration and persistence of circulating scabies antibodies after resolution of natural infection. Nineteen dogs diagnosed with sarcoptic mange and 38 control dogs were tested. Sixteen scabies-infested dogs showed positive pretreatment ELISA results (84.2% sensitivity). Thirty-four control dogs showed negative ELISA results (89.5% specificity). In the 11 scabies dogs from which multiple post treatment serum samples were obtained, detectable antibodies were not present 1 month after treatment in four cases, but were present for 1-4.5 months post treatment in seven dogs. Our results suggest that this scabies ELISA test is useful in the diagnosis of canine scabies. PMID:11844220

  8. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  9. Morphologic and Genotypic Characterization of Psoroptes Mites from Water Buffaloes in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Said; Abd El Wahab, Taher; El Naby Metwaly, Abd; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Species delimitation of Psoroptes spp. and identity of the parasite in water buffaloes remain poorly defined. In this study, Psoroptes infestation on three water buffalo farms in Egypt was examined based on morphometric characteristics, especially the opisthosomal setae of adult male mites. Clinical investigations showed that 28% (196/700) of the sampled animals had mange infestation. Microscopic examinations of 80 skin scrapings indicated the occurrence of Psoroptes mites in 17 (21.3%) samples, Sarcoptes mites in 27 (33.7%) samples, and the concurrence of both in 36 (45.0%) samples. Morphologically, the Psoroptes parasite was identified as Psoroptes natalensis. DNA sequence analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) in 11 representative samples confirmed the diagnosis and suggested the presence of a distinct variety of Psoroptes natalensis in Egypt. PMID:26517834

  10. Sarcoptic mange in a wild swamp wallaby (Wallabia bicolor).

    PubMed

    Holz, P H; Orbell, G M B; Beveridge, I

    2011-11-01

    A wild adult male swamp wallaby from Victoria was found to be infested with Sarcoptes scabiei. Hyperkeratotic skin lesions were confined predominantly to the head and shoulders. This is the first report of sarcoptic mange in a swamp wallaby. PMID:22008126

  11. 9 CFR 311.21 - Mange or scab.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mange or scab. 311.21 Section 311.21 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DISPOSAL OF DISEASED OR...

  12. Knemidocoptic Mange in Wild Golden Eagles, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Rogers, Krysta; Hawkins, Michelle G.; Sadar, Miranda; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bell, Douglas A.; Smallwood, Kenneth S.; Wells, Amy; Shipman, Jessica; Foley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    During 2012–2013 in California, USA, 3 wild golden eagles were found with severe skin disease; 2 died. The cause was a rare mite, most closely related to Knemidocoptes derooi mites. Cautionary monitoring of eagle populations, habitats, and diseases is warranted. PMID:25271842

  13. Mites and Wee Beasties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, George H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of public health aspects of some arthropods that might be seen on a college or university campus. The diseases and infestations caused by mites, lice, bed bugs, fleas, and ticks are discussed. (JMF)

  14. An SEI model for sarcoptic mange among chamois.

    PubMed

    Lunelli, Antonella

    2010-03-01

    We consider a simple model to study the dynamics of sarcoptic mange in a population of chamois. The epidemiological patterns observed during an epidemic in Italy are reconstructed and key parameters of the model are estimated from field data. In particular, we calculate the basic reproductive ratio R (0), a threshold value for chamois density for the occurrence of an epidemic and the speed of propagation of the epidemic wave. The model is then used to obtain indications on the effect of culling as a possible control measure in a closed population and extended to analyse the spatial diffusion of the epidemic. Our results are in agreement with mange epidemiology and observations, and suggest that intervention could be efficacious in reducing the impact of an epidemic. PMID:22876983

  15. Energetic costs of mange in wolves estimated from infrared thermography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Paul C.; Almberg, Emily S.; Haase, Catherine G; Hudson, Peter J.; Maloney, Shane K; Metz, Matthew C; Munn, Adam J; Nugent, Paul; Putzeys, Olivier; Stahler, Daniel R.; Stewart, Anya C; Smith, Doug W.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites, by definition, extract energy from their hosts and thus affect trophic and food web dynamics even when the parasite may have limited effects on host population size. We studied the energetic costs of mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) in wolves (Canis lupus) using thermal cameras to estimate heat losses associated with compromised insulation during the winter. We combined the field data of known, naturally infected wolves with data set on captive wolves with shaved patches of fur as a positive control to simulate mange-induced hair loss. We predict that during the winter in Montana, more severe mange infection increases heat loss by around 5.2 to 12 MJ per night (1240 to 2850 kcal, or a 65% to 78% increase) for small and large wolves, respectively accounting for wind effects. To maintain body temperature would require a significant proportion of a healthy wolf's total daily energy demands (18-22 MJ/day). We also predict how these thermal costs may increase in colder climates by comparing our predictions in Bozeman, Montana to those from a place with lower ambient temperatures (Fairbanks, Alaska). Contrary to our expectations, the 14°C differential between these regions was not as important as the potential differences in wind speed. These large increases in energetic demands can be mitigated by either increasing consumption rates or decreasing other energy demands. Data from GPS-collared wolves indicated that healthy wolves move, on average, 17 km per day, which was reduced by 1.5, 1.8 and 6.5 km for light, medium, and severe hair loss. In addition, the wolf with the most hair loss was less active at night and more active during the day, which is the converse of the movement patterns of healthy wolves. At the individual level mange infections create significant energy demands and altered behavioral patterns, this may have cascading effects on prey consumption rates, food web dynamics, predator-prey interactions, and scavenger communities.

  16. Acute phase protein response in Alpine ibex with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Lecchi, Cristina; Fraquelli, Cristina; Sartorelli, Paola; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2010-03-25

    The acute phase proteins (APP) are a group of serum proteins that change their concentration in animals following external or internal challenges, such as infection, inflammation or stress. The concentrations of four APPs, including serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and ceruloplasmin (Cp) were determined in serum collected from healthy Alpine ibexes (Capra ibex) and ibexes with Sarcoptes scabiei mange. Primary structures of all four APPs were determined by cDNA sequencing. The concentrations of all four APPs were higher in serum of animals with clinical signs of sarcoptic mange when compared to healthy animals. Two of the APPs, including SAA and AGP, acted as major APPs, since their serum concentrations were increased more than 10-folds when compared to healthy animals (P<0.001). The other two APPs, including Hp and Cp, acted as minor acute phase proteins, as their concentrations were increased from two to five folds (P<0.001). These findings provide a remarkable potential as diagnostic markers for the early detection of sarcoptic mange in free ranging animals. PMID:20036058

  17. Field efficacy of moxidectin in dogs and rabbits naturally infested with Sarcoptes spp., Demodex spp. and Psoroptes spp. mites.

    PubMed

    Wagner, R; Wendlberger, U

    2000-11-10

    The efficacy of moxidectin 1% injectable for cattle was evaluated in dogs and rabbits with naturally acquired sarcoptic, demodectic or psoroptic mites. Twenty-two dogs with generalised demodicosis were orally treated with 0.4mg/kg moxidectin daily. Forty-one dogs suffering from sarcoptic mange were treated with 0.2-0.25mg/kg moxidectin either orally or subcutaneously every week for three to six times. Seven rabbits were treated orally with 0.2mg/kg moxidectin twice 10 days apart. Of the 22 dogs with demodicosis, 14% were stopped treatment because of side effects, 14% were lost and of the remaining 72% all were cured (mean therapy duration 2.4 months). Thirty-seven of the sarcoptic mange-infected dogs finished treatment and were cured. In 17% of dogs, side effects were noted. All seven rabbits treated for psoroptic mange were cured and did not show any side effect. Our results indicate that moxidectin is effective and a good alternative for the treatment of demodicosis and scabies in dogs and psoroptic mange in rabbits. Side effects seem to occur more frequently if applied subcutaneously, therefore the oral route should be preferred. PMID:11035233

  18. MITE INFECTION IN A MASKED PALM CIVET (PAGUMA LARVATA) TREATED BY SELAMECTIN (STRONGHOLD®, PFIZER LTD.).

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Lara; Nardini, Giordano; Leopardi, Stefania; Abramo, Francesca

    2015-09-01

    The masked palm civet (Paguma larvata) is a small Asian mammal (order Carnivora, family Viverridae) uncommon in Italy. Limited information is available about management and sanitary maintenance in captivity. A 4-mo-old masked palm civet presented with pruritus, itch, scratching, and disorexia. On physical examination, alopecia and crusts were detected on the ventral and lateral trunk, tail, legs, and lips. Skin scrapings and cytology revealed Notoedres spp. and bacterial infection. On histopathology, parasitic dermatitis was observed with the presence of a Sarcoptidae mite and Demodex spp. Selamectin spot-on (15 mg/kg every 2 wk, three applications) and marbofloxacin per os (2.5 mg/kg once daily for 2 wk) were administered, and the animal recovered in 1 mo. With the good response to this therapy, a notoedric mange was thought to be the main problem. This is the first report about the use of selamectin to treat a mite infection in masked palm civet. PMID:26352967

  19. Comparative immune responses against Psoroptes ovis in two cattle breeds with different susceptibility to mange.

    PubMed

    Sarre, Charlotte; González-Hernández, Ana; Van Coppernolle, Stefanie; Grit, Rika; Grauwet, Korneel; Van Meulder, Frederik; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Geldhof, Peter; Claerebout, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The sheep scab mite, Psoroptes ovis, is a major problem in the beef cattle industry, especially in Belgian Blue (BB) cattle. This breed is naturally more predisposed to psoroptic mange but reasons for this high susceptibility remain unknown. Different immune responses could be a potential cause; thus in this study, the cutaneous immune response and in vitro cellular immune response after antigen re-stimulation were examined in naturally infested BB. Cytokine production in the skin and in circulating re-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) demonstrated a mixed pro-inflammatory Th2/Th17 profile, with transcription of IL-4, IL-13, IL-6 and IL-17. Strong IL-17 up-regulation in the skin of BB was associated with an influx of eosinophils and other immune cells, potentially leading towards more severe symptoms. Virtually no changes in cutaneous IFN-γ transcription were detected, while there was substantial IFN-γ up-regulation in re-stimulated PBMC from infested and uninfested animals, potentially indicating a role of this pro-inflammatory cytokine in the innate immune response. In Holstein-Friesian (HF) cattle, generally more resistant to P. ovis infection, a largely similar immunologic response was observed. Differences between HF and BB were the lack of cutaneous IL-17 response in infested HF and low transcription levels of IFN-γ and high IL-10 transcription in re-stimulated PBMC from both infested and uninfested animals. Further research is needed to identify potential cell sources and biological functions for these cytokines and to fully unravel the basis of this different breed susceptibility to P. ovis. PMID:26582546

  20. Dermatoses associated with mites other than Sarcoptes.

    PubMed

    Ken, Kimberly M; Shockman, Solomon C; Sirichotiratana, Melissa; Lent, Megan P; Wilson, Morgan L

    2014-09-01

    Mites are arthropods of the subclass Acari (Acarina). Although Sarcoptes is the mite most commonly recognized as a cause of human skin disease in the United States, numerous other mite-associated dermatoses have been described, and merit familiarity on the part of physicians treating skin disease. This review discusses several non-scabies mites and their associated diseases, including Demodex, chiggers, Cheyletiella, bird mites, grain itch, oak leaf itch, grocer's itch, tropical rat mite, snake mite, and Psoroptes. PMID:25577848

  1. Evaluation of blood oxidant/antioxidant balance in dogs with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Camkerten, Ilker; Sahin, T; Borazan, G; Gokcen, A; Erel, O; Das, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate of oxidant/antioxidant balance in dogs with sarcoptic mange. The study materials consisted of totally 30 cross-breed male dogs; 15 with sarcoptic mange (study group) and 15 healthy as control. Blood samples for analyses were taken from control and study group. In study group, microscopic examination of dermal scrapings of 15 dogs revealed S. scabies. Lipid hydroperoxide level, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in dogs with sarcoptic mange were higher (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) than the control. Otherwise; sulphydril levels in dogs with sarcoptic mange were lower (P<0.05) than that of control. No significant differences were observed in total antioxidant capacity between groups. Our results suggest a possible relationship between oxidant/antioxidant imbalance and sarcoptic mange infestation in dogs. PMID:19211189

  2. Sarcoptic mange in red deer from Spain: improved surveillance or disease emergence?

    PubMed

    Oleaga, A; Casais, R; González-Quirós, P; Prieto, M; Gortázar, C

    2008-06-14

    Concern about emerging diseases has risen in recent years, and multihost situations have become increasingly relevant for wildlife management and conservation. We present data on Asturias, northern Spain, where 80 mangy red deer (Cervus elaphus) have been found since the beginning of the epizootic in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica parva) in 1993. We combine field and necropsy data with the results of a serosurvey using an in-house ELISA test to evaluate if deer mange due to Sarcoptes scabiei is an emerging disease in this area. The mean number of deer mange cases per year was 5, with a maximum of 16. No significant relationship was detected between monthly temperatures, rainfall or number of days with snow cover and the annual number of sarcoptic mange cases in red deer. Only 4 mangy red deer (5%) were detected outside the limits of scabietic chamois distribution during the same year, and all were less than 2500 m away from that limit. The longest distance reported between two consecutive mangy deer locations was 18 km. Mange cases were significantly more frequent in stags than in hinds and in adults than in juvenile deer. The time of the first mange detection in chamois in each sector, year with minimum number of chamois recorded, year with maximum chamois population decline rate and chamois density offered no significant correlation with red deer mange cases appearance moment and frequency. In the mange affected area, ELISA testing of 327 blood samples from hunter-harvested deer without obvious mange-compatible lesions revealed only 4 seropositive animals. All 83 sera from hunting preserves without clinical cases yielded negative ELISA results. According to these epidemiological data mange does not seem to threaten red deer populations in Asturias. However, continued monitoring of deer health and ELISA testing for sarcoptic mange is advisable. PMID:18430519

  3. Treatment of dairy buffaloes naturally infected with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Syed Asad Irshad; Maqbool, Azhar; Tonio, Muhammad Tariq; Naureen, Abeera; Ajmal, Adeela; Anwar, Muhammad Tanveer

    2009-12-01

    Therapeutic trials of sarcoptic mange in buffaloes were studied at local Livestock farms, Lahore (Pakistan). A total of 600 buffaloes were examined over 1 year period (August 2006 to July 2007) for prevalence study, while 60 buffaloes were selected for therapeutic trial. Sarcoptic mange was recorded in 66 (11%) animals. The highest monthly prevalence was reported during the months of January and February (18%) followed by December and March (16%) whereas lowest during the month of July (2%). Over all highest seasonally prevalence was recorded during winter (16.5%) and lowest during summer (5%). Moreover, highest infestation rate was recorded among young (<3 months) buffaloes than with age >3 months. Sex-wise prevalence indicated more prevalence in buffalo bulls (13.15%) than female buffaloes (9.28%). Therapeutic trials were carried out by using ivermectin, doramectin and trichlorphon as per manufacturer's recommendations for a period of 10 days, while one group was kept as untreated control. Negative skin scraping, disappearance of gross lesions, stoppage of itching and regrowth of normal hair were taken as the criterion to assess the efficacy of these drugs. PMID:23129889

  4. Identification and disruption of bacteria associated with sheep scab mites-novel means of control?

    PubMed

    Hall, S A; Mack, K; Blackwell, A; Evans, K A

    2015-10-01

    Psoroptes ovis mites, which cause psoroptic mange (sheep scab), were investigated to identify potential bacterial targets for endosymbiont control of sheep scab. In addition, transmission of bacteria to the sheep skin was investigated through the characterisation of bacteria present in P. ovis faecal trails and on the fleece environment by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. A diverse range of bacteria was identified in addition to a potential endosymbiont candidate, Comamonas sp, which was detected in P. ovis by both ITS PCR and endosymbiont-specific PCR. Disruption of these bacteria within P. ovis, through the use of antibiotics, was explored; with significant reduction in mean mite survival when administered antibiotic diets compared with controls (LR4 = 23.12, P < 0.001). The antibiotic treatments also significantly affected the bacterial density (CFU/mite) within P. ovis, indicating that mite survival may be linked to the bacterial communities that they harbour. Although antibiotics are not suitable for practical application, these results suggest disrupting bacteria associated with P. ovis should be further investigated for novel control. PMID:26219201

  5. Sarcoptic mange and cheetah conservation in Masai Mara (Kenya): epidemiological study in a wildlife/livestock system.

    PubMed

    Gakuya, Francis; Ombui, Jackson; Maingi, Ndichu; Muchemi, Gerald; Ogara, William; Soriguer, Ramón C; Alasaad, Samer

    2012-10-01

    The sanitary control of threatened wild animals is of pivotal interest for their conservation. This task, however, is highly complex in wildlife/livestock systems. In this paper we report findings from a 2-year cross-sectional study of the epidemiology and attempted control of a Sarcoptes mite infestation in the threatened cheetah population in Masai Mara (Kenya), and discuss its interaction with sympatric wild (lion, wildebeest and Thomson's gazelle) and domestic (dog, cattle and sheep) animals. Sarcoptes scabiei was isolated from cheetahs, Thomson's gazelles, wildebeests, lions, cattle, goats and dogs; Psoroptes ovis, on the other hand, was only isolated from sheep. The prevalence study revealed 12·77% infection rates in cheetahs, 4·7% in dogs, 0·8% in Thomson's gazelles, 0·8% in sheep, 0·09% in cattle, and 0·09% in goats, while it opportunistically affected lions and wildebeest. Our study revealed that prevalence of Sarcoptes mite in cheetah population was not associated with the studied geographical blocks, animal sex or the presence of affected domestic animals. Cheetah infection with S. scabiei was associated with the climatic conditions (dry more than wet season) and the balancing between the total number of Thomson's gazelles and the prevalence of infected individuals. Apparently the high prevalence of mangy gazelles has a negative effect on cheetah; this negative effect was reduced when the number of healthy gazelles was increased. Treatment with injectable ivermectin of the clinically affected wild and domestic animals during the first year of this study was associated with much lower incidence of sarcoptic mange during the second year. PMID:23036718

  6. Mange in alpacas, llamas and goats in the UK: incidence and risk.

    PubMed

    Lusat, J; Morgan, E R; Wall, R

    2009-07-01

    A retrospective postal questionnaire was used to obtain information about the prevalence of mange and its association with husbandry-related risk factors, in alpaca, llama and goat herds in the UK. In total 1797 questionnaires were sent out to members of the British Alpaca Society, the British Llama Society and the British Goat Society, giving response rates of 40.4%, 29.3% and 22.8% from the three groups, respectively. Between January and December 2007, mange was reported in 52.2% (151 of 292), 14% (9 of 66) and 21% (41 of 194) alpaca, llama and goat herds, respectively. However, these figures must be treated with some caution as only 37-51% of the farmers had their diagnosis of mange confirmed by a veterinarian or animal health laboratory. In herds where the causal agent was confirmed: psoroptic, sarcoptic, chorioptic and mixed infections were all reported, with chorioptic mange reported most frequently. Risk analysis showed that the prevalence of reported cases mange in alpacas was significantly associated with herd size and the country from which the animals were imported. Alpaca farmers who had larger herds were more likely to report mange and farmers who imported their animals from Peru were 1.5 times more likely to report mange than farmers who imported animals from elsewhere or who did not import. There was no significant confounding between these two risk factors. The results show that mange continues to be a major problem for camelids and goats in the UK, and suggests that inadequate control on farms and lack of control when in quarantine are two factors that contribute to ongoing problems with mange. However, given the relatively low contribution of imported animals to the national herd each year, it is likely that poor on-farm control may be of greatest importance. PMID:19446959

  7. Acute phase proteins increase with sarcoptic mange status and severity in Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838).

    PubMed

    Ráez-Bravo, Arián; Granados, José Enrique; Cerón, José Joaquín; Cano-Manuel, Francisco Javier; Fandos, Paulino; Pérez, Jesús María; Espinosa, José; Soriguer, Ramón Casimiro; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Sarcoptic mange is a contagious skin disease caused by Sarcoptes scabiei, affecting both domestic and wild mammals, including the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), a medium-sized mountain ungulate almost endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. Acute phase proteins (APPs) could be an indicator of sarcoptic mange disease and severity in Iberian ibex. Serum samples from 131 healthy and sarcoptic mange-affected Iberian ibexes were collected from 2005 to 2012 in Sierra Nevada Natural Space in southern Spain. Serum alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) concentrations were quantified, and statistically significant differences according to sarcoptic mange disease and severity were assessed. Both AGP and SAA were significantly higher in the sarcoptic mange-affected ibexes than in the healthy ones as well as in the severely affected ibexes as compared to those with less than 50 % of the body surface affected. For the first time, changes in APP are reported in relation to sarcoptic mange in Iberian ibex. It is also reported for the first time that the intensity of APP increase depends on the severity of sarcoptic mange, which could be related with the pathological secondary amyloidosis, leading to organ dysfunction in severely mange-affected animals. Species and population differences in the increase of APP in response to sarcoptic mange could indicate individual and population differences in the immune capability of each population to deal with mange, population prevalence and mortality being the last indicators of such sensitivity. PMID:26227139

  8. Acaricidal Activity of Eugenol Based Compounds against Scabies Mites

    PubMed Central

    Pasay, Cielo; Mounsey, Kate; Stevenson, Graeme; Davis, Rohan; Arlian, Larry; Morgan, Marjorie; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn; Andrews, Kathy; McCarthy, James

    2010-01-01

    Backgound Human scabies is a debilitating skin disease caused by the “itch mite” Sarcoptes scabiei. Ordinary scabies is commonly treated with topical creams such as permethrin, while crusted scabies is treated with topical creams in combination with oral ivermectin. Recent reports of acaricide tolerance in scabies endemic communities in Northern Australia have prompted efforts to better understand resistance mechanisms and to identify potential new acaricides. In this study, we screened three essential oils and four pure compounds based on eugenol for acaricidal properties. Methodology/Principal Findings Contact bioassays were performed using live permethrin-sensitive S. scabiei var suis mites harvested from pigs and permethrin-resistant S. scabiei var canis mites harvested from rabbits. Results of bioassays showed that clove oil was highly toxic against scabies mites. Nutmeg oil had moderate toxicity and ylang ylang oil was the least toxic. Eugenol, a major component of clove oil and its analogues –acetyleugenol and isoeugenol, demonstrated levels of toxicity comparable to benzyl benzoate, the positive control acaricide, killing mites within an hour of contact. Conclusions The acaricidal properties demonstrated by eugenol and its analogues show promise as leads for future development of alternative topical acaricides to treat scabies. PMID:20711455

  9. Paramyosin from the parasitic mite Sarcoptes scabiei: cDNA cloning and heterologous expression.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, J G; Ljunggren, E L; Bergström, K

    2001-05-01

    The burrowing mite Sarcoptes scabiei is the causative agent of the highly contagious disease sarcoptic mange or scabies. So far, there is no in vitro propagation system for S. scabiei available, and mites used for various purposes must be isolated from infected hosts. Lack of parasite-derived material has limited the possibilities to study several aspects of scabies, including pathogenesis and immunity. It has also hampered the development of high performance serological assays. We have now constructed an S. scabiei cDNA expression library with mRNA purified from mites isolated from red foxes. Immunoscreening of the library enabled us to clone a full-length cDNA coding for a 102.5 kDa protein. Sequence similarity searches identified the protein as a paramyosin. Recombinant S. scabiei paramyosin expressed in Escherichia coli was recognized by sera from dogs and swine infected with S. scabiei. We also designed a small paramyosin construct of about 17 kDa that included the N-terminal part, an evolutionary variable part of the helical core, and the C-terminal part of the molecule. The miniaturized protein was efficiently expressed in E. coli and was recognized by sera from immunized rabbits. These data demonstrate that the cDNA library can assist in the isolation of important S. scabiei antigens and that recombinant proteins can be useful for the study of scabies. PMID:11393829

  10. Genetic epidemiology and pathology of raccoon-derived Sarcoptes mites from urban areas of Germany.

    PubMed

    Rentería-Solís, Z; Min, A M; Alasaad, S; Müller, K; Michler, F-U; Schmäschke, R; Wittstatt, U; Rossi, L; Wibbelt, G

    2014-08-01

    The raccoon, Procyon lotor (Carnivora: Procyonidae), is an invasive species that is spreading throughout Europe, in which Germany represents its core area. Here, raccoons mostly live in rural regions, but some urban populations are already established, such as in the city of Kassel, or are starting to build up, such as in Berlin. The objective of this study was to investigate Sarcoptes (Sarcoptiformes: Sarcoptidae) infections in racoons in these two urban areas and to identify the putative origin of the parasite. Parasite morphology, and gross and histopathological examinations of diseased skin tissue were consistent with Sarcoptes scabiei infection. Using nine microsatellite markers, we genotyped individual mites from five raccoons and compared them with Sarcoptes mites derived from fox, wild boar and Northern chamois, originating from Italy and Switzerland. The raccoon-derived mites clustered together with the fox samples and were clearly differentiated from those of the wild boar and chamois samples, which suggests a fox origin for the raccoon mange infection. These results are evidence of the cross-transmission of S. scabiei among wild carnivores. Although our results cannot elucidate whether raccoons became infected by frequent interaction with endemically or epidemically infected foxes or whether these cases resulted from occasional contacts among these animal species, they do nevertheless show that pathogens can be shared among urban populations of native and invasive carnivores. PMID:25171612

  11. Sarcoptic mange in dogs: Its effect on liver, oxidative stress, trace minerals and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Beigh, S A; Soodan, J S; Bhat, A M

    2016-08-30

    The present study was aimed to determine the effect on liver, associated oxidative stress, trace element and vitamin alteration in dogs with sarcoptic mange. A total of 24 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of sarcoptic mange, divided into two groups, severely infested group (n=9) and mild/moderately infested group (n=15), according to the extent of skin lesions caused by sarcoptic mange and 6 dogs as control group were included in the present study. In comparison to healthy control hemoglobin, PCV, and TEC were significantly (P<0.05) decreased in dogs with sarcoptic mange however, significant increase in TLC along with neutrophilia and lymphopenia was observed only in severely infested dogs. The albumin, glucose and cholesterol were significantly (P<0.05) decreased and globulin, ALT, AST and bilirubin were significantly (P<0.05) increased in severely infested dogs when compared to other two groups. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly (P<0.01) higher in dogs with sarcoptic mange, with levels highest in severely infested groups. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) and catalase were significantly (P<0.01) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared with the healthy control group. Zinc and copper levels in dogs with sarcoptic mange were significantly (P<0.05) lower when compared with healthy control group with the levels lowest in severely infested group. Vitamin A and vitamin C levels were significantly (P<0.05) lower in sarcoptic infested dogs when compared to healthy control. From the present study, it was concluded that sarcoptic mange in dogs affects the liver and the infestation is associated with oxidant/anti-oxidant imbalance, significant alteration in trace elements and vitamins. PMID:27523934

  12. Scabies Mites Alter the Skin Microbiome and Promote Growth of Opportunistic Pathogens in a Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Swe, Pearl M.; Zakrzewski, Martha; Kelly, Andrew; Krause, Lutz; Fischer, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background The resident skin microbiota plays an important role in restricting pathogenic bacteria, thereby protecting the host. Scabies mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) are thought to promote bacterial infections by breaching the skin barrier and excreting molecules that inhibit host innate immune responses. Epidemiological studies in humans confirm increased incidence of impetigo, generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, secondary to the epidermal infestation with the parasitic mite. It is therefore possible that mite infestation could alter the healthy skin microbiota making way for the opportunistic pathogens. A longitudinal study to test this hypothesis in humans is near impossible due to ethical reasons. In a porcine model we generated scabies infestations closely resembling the disease manifestation in humans and investigated the scabies associated changes in the skin microbiota over the course of a mite infestation. Methodology/Principal Findings In a 21 week trial, skin scrapings were collected from pigs infected with S. scabies var. suis and scabies-free control animals. A total of 96 skin scrapings were collected before, during infection and after acaricide treatment, and analyzed by bacterial 16S rDNA tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing. We found significant changes in the epidermal microbiota, in particular a dramatic increase in Staphylococcus correlating with the onset of mite infestation in animals challenged with scabies mites. This increase persisted beyond treatment from mite infection and healing of skin. Furthermore, the staphylococci population shifted from the commensal S. hominis on the healthy skin prior to scabies mite challenge to S. chromogenes, which is increasingly recognized as being pathogenic, coinciding with scabies infection in pigs. In contrast, all animals in the scabies-free cohort remained relatively free of Staphylococcus throughout the trial. Conclusions/Significance This is the first

  13. [Eradication of Chorioptes bovis mange in a dairy herd with turn-out to graze by Eprinex Pour-On].

    PubMed

    Schönberg, J; Ilchmann, G; Schein, E

    2000-04-01

    The possibility to control or even eradicate chorioptes manage by a single herd treatment with EPRINEX Pour-On (dosage: 0.5 mg Eprinomection/kg bodyweight) during pasture season was investigated in a dairy herd of 320 dairy cows. A further aim of the study was to evaluate whether such mid-summer treatment with EPRINEX Pour-On due to its endo-ectocide action would at the same time also result in a metaphylaxis of gastro-intestinal and lung worms and in a reduction of fly infestation. Due to clinical symptoms manage prevalence in the herd prior to treatment was 11 percent. After treatment, clinical symptoms disappeared within 2 months completely and did not re-occur during the subsequent housing period. Chorioptes mites during the entire trial period no longer were detected. The final clinical and parasitological investigation shortly before turn-out the next year (April 1999) demonstrated chorioptes mange to be eradicated clinically and parasitologically. Due to the mid-summer treatment infestation with gastrointestinal helminths also was eliminated and clinical symptoms of helminth infestations during the pasture season no longer were observed. However, at housing in November, low numbers of eggs of gastrointestinal nematodes were detected in 6% of dairy cows, 32% of second-season and 63% of first-season heifers, respectively. Milk yield per cow and day on average increased by 1 litre after treatment with EPRINEX Pour-On. This increase in production is likely a result of the reduction in total parasite burden of lactating cows. PMID:10816914

  14. Efficacy of sarolaner, a novel oral isoxazoline, against two common mite infestations in dogs: Demodex spp. and Otodectes cynotis.

    PubMed

    Six, Robert H; Becskei, Csilla; Mazaleski, Mark M; Fourie, Josephus J; Mahabir, Sean P; Myers, Melanie R; Slootmans, Nathalie

    2016-05-30

    The efficacy of sarolaner (Simparica™, Zoetis) was evaluated against Demodex spp. in dogs with generalized demodicosis and against Otodectes cynotis (otodectic mange) in dogs with induced infestations. In the first study, 16 dogs with clinical signs of generalized demodicosis and positive for Demodex spp. mites were randomly assigned to treatment with either sarolaner (2mg/kg) orally on Days 0, 30 and 60, or topical imidacloprid (10mg/kg) plus moxidectin (2.5mg/kg) solution every 7 days from Day 0 to Day 81. For sarolaner-treated dogs, pretreatment mite counts were reduced by 97.1% at 14days and 99.8% by 29 days after the first dose, with no live mites detected thereafter. Weekly imidacloprid plus moxidectin resulted in 84.4 and 95.6% reduction at these two time points, respectively, with no mites detected from Day 74 on. All dogs in both groups showed marked improvement in the clinical signs of demodicosis. In the second study, 32 dogs with induced infestations of O. cynotis were randomly assigned (eight per group) to oral sarolaner (2mg/kg) as a single treatment on Day 0 or as a two dose regime (Days 0 and 30), or a placebo group for each of the dose regimes. Sarolaner administered at 2mg/kg as a single oral dose resulted in a 98.2% reduction at Day 30 and two doses of sarolaner, administered one month apart, resulted in a 99.5% reduction in ear mites at Day 60 compared to placebo controls. There were no treatment related adverse events in either study. In these studies, sarolaner at an oral dose of 2mg/kg was highly effective in reducing the live mite counts associated with a natural infestation of Demodex spp. and an induced infestation of O. cynotis. In addition, the Demodex-infested dogs showed a marked improvement in the clinical signs of generalized demodicosis. PMID:26971196

  15. Crossreacting IgG antibodies against fox mite antigens in human scabies.

    PubMed

    Haas, N; Wagemann, B; Hermes, B; Henz, B M; Heile, C; Schein, E

    2005-01-01

    Scabies continues to be an important parasitic disease of mammals. There remain, however, major gaps in the understanding of the human host immune response, and a simple diagnostic test is lacking. In contrast to human mites, red fox mites (Sarcoptes scabiei var. vulpis) can be collected easily and have been used, due to crossreactivity, for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) studies in dogs and pigs. We wanted to investigate the possibility that crossreactivity might also exist for the human mite, and determined titers against fox mite antigens by ELISA in 41 patients with scabies. Specific IgG was significantly higher in patients with scabies than in healthy controls (P=0.01). The sensitivity was, however, only 48%, although it increased slightly during treatment (P=0.86). A positive correlation was also noted between disease duration and severity of infestation (r=0.5), with specific IgG titers increasing in parallel with severity of symptoms (P=0.01). Patients with symptomatic scabies for more than 4 weeks had furthermore significantly higher IgG titers than patients with a shorter duration of disease (P=0.007). In conclusion, these findings demonstrate IgG antibodies in human scabies that crossreact with fox mite antigens, thus encouraging the search for improved ELISAs with more specific mite antigens to produce a more sensitive detection system for scabies in humans. PMID:15650895

  16. A retrospective investigation into risk factors of sarcoptic mange in dogs.

    PubMed

    Feather, Lucy; Gough, Kevin; Flynn, Robin J; Elsheikha, Hany M

    2010-07-01

    This retrospective study of sarcoptic mange in dogs aimed to identify risk factors for this disease and determine their influence on treatment outcome. Data regarding dog demographics, clinical presentation, diagnostic method, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. No statistical association was found between sex and incidence of sarcoptic mange. However, age of dogs was found to be a risk factor which could increase the chances of dogs contracting sarcoptic mange. The results indicate that the disease predominantly affects young dogs, of all breeds and both sexes, implicating age-related immunity. The most common clinical feature reported was pruritus, with the ear margins preferentially affected. Additionally, contact with other animals played an important role in occurrence of the disease indicating the highly transmissible nature of the disease. PMID:20405144

  17. Demonstrating frequency-dependent transmission of sarcoptic mange in red foxes

    PubMed Central

    Devenish-Nelson, Eleanor S.; Richards, Shane A.; Harris, Stephen; Soulsbury, Carl; Stephens, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between disease transmission and host density is essential for predicting disease spread and control. Using long-term data on sarcoptic mange in a red fox Vulpes vulpes population, we tested long-held assumptions of density- and frequency-dependent direct disease transmission. We also assessed the role of indirect transmission. Contrary to assumptions typical of epidemiological models, mange dynamics are better explained by frequency-dependent disease transmission than by density-dependent transmission in this canid. We found no support for indirect transmission. We present the first estimates of R0 and age-specific transmission coefficients for mange in foxes. These parameters are important for managing this poorly understood but highly contagious and economically damaging disease. PMID:25296930

  18. Demonstrating frequency-dependent transmission of sarcoptic mange in red foxes.

    PubMed

    Devenish-Nelson, Eleanor S; Richards, Shane A; Harris, Stephen; Soulsbury, Carl; Stephens, Philip A

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the relationship between disease transmission and host density is essential for predicting disease spread and control. Using long-term data on sarcoptic mange in a red fox Vulpes vulpes population, we tested long-held assumptions of density- and frequency-dependent direct disease transmission. We also assessed the role of indirect transmission. Contrary to assumptions typical of epidemiological models, mange dynamics are better explained by frequency-dependent disease transmission than by density-dependent transmission in this canid. We found no support for indirect transmission. We present the first estimates of R0 and age-specific transmission coefficients for mange in foxes. These parameters are important for managing this poorly understood but highly contagious and economically damaging disease. PMID:25296930

  19. Some observations on sheep sarcoptic mange in Tehran province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Bahonar, A R

    2009-03-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in 278 sheep from 12 fatling flocks. The sheep presented crusted skin lesions initially appear on the lips or nostrils, the lesion on nostrils also extend towards around the eyes, the supraorbital fossae and in some cases over entire face. The infested male lambs by mating behavior in fatling flocks caused transmitting the infection to fat tail area and scrotum. Histopathological study of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum and mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Attempts to eliminate S. scabiei var. ovis were made in 3 naturally infested sheep herds, by two dippings with two weeks interval with Amitraz, Cypermetrin and Prompetamphos. The results of this study indicate that acaricidal treatment of S. scabiei var. ovis in 3 naturally infested herds was successful, but a few cases of reinfestation were found in each treated group. PMID:18626781

  20. Serum chemistry, hematologic, and post-mortem findings in free-ranging bobcats (Lynx rufus) with notoedric mange

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Serieys, Laurel E.K.; Foley, Janet; Owens, Sean; Woods, Leslie; Boydston, Erin E.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Clifford, Deana L.; Stephenson, Nicole; Rudd, Jaime; Riley, Seth P.D.

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange was responsible for a population decline of bobcats (Lynx rufus) in 2 Southern California counties from 2002–2006 and is now reported to affect bobcats in Northern and Southern California. With this study we document clinical laboratory and necropsy findings for bobcats with mange. Bobcats in this study included free-ranging bobcats with mange (n = 34), a control group of free-ranging bobcats without mange (n = 11), and a captive control group of bobcats without mange (n = 19). We used 2 control groups to evaluate potential anomalies due to capture stress or diet. Free-ranging healthy and mange-infected bobcats were trapped or salvaged. Animals were tested by serum biochemistry, complete blood count, urine protein and creatinine, body weight, necropsy, and assessment for anticoagulant rodenticide residues in liver tissue. Bobcats with severe mange were emaciated, dehydrated, and anemic with low serum creatinine, hyperphosphatemia, hypoglycemia, hypernatremia, and hyperchloremia, and sometimes septicemic when compared to control groups. Liver enzymes and leukocyte counts were elevated in free-ranging, recently captured bobcats whether or not they were infested with mange, suggesting capture stress. Bobcats with mange had lower levels of serum cholesterol, albumin, globulin, and total protein due to protein loss likely secondary to severe dermatopathy. Renal insufficiency was unlikely in most cases, as urine protein:creatinine ratios were within normal limits. A primary gastrointestinal loss of protein or blood was possible in a few cases, as evidenced by elevated blood urea nitrogen, anemia, intestinal parasitism, colitis, gastric hemorrhage, and melena. The prevalence of exposure to anticoagulant rodenticides was 100% (n = 15) in bobcats with mange. These findings paint a picture of debilitating, multisystemic disease with infectious and toxic contributing factors that can progress to death in individuals and potential decline in populations.

  1. Ectoparasitic mite and fungus on Harmonia axyridis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ectoparasitic mites (Acarina: Podapolipidae) and ectoparasitic fungi (Laboulbeniales: Laboulbeniaceae) occur on ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) throughout the world (Riddick et al., 2009). This study documents the interaction of a coccinellid-specific mite Coccipolipus hippodamiae (McDaniel &...

  2. Human Demodex Mite: The Versatile Mite of Dermatological Importance

    PubMed Central

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  3. Human demodex mite: the versatile mite of dermatological importance.

    PubMed

    Rather, Parvaiz Anwar; Hassan, Iffat

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mite is an obligate human ecto-parasite found in or near the pilo-sebaceous units. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are two species typically found on humans. Demodex infestation usually remains asymptomatic and may have a pathogenic role only when present in high densities and also because of immune imbalance. All cutaneous diseases caused by Demodex mites are clubbed under the term demodicosis or demodicidosis, which can be an etiological factor of or resemble a variety of dermatoses. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion about the etiological role of Demodex in various dermatoses can help in early diagnosis and appropriate, timely, and cost effective management. PMID:24470662

  4. Flat mites of the world - Edition 2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Flat Mites of the World has an interactive key, fact sheets, descriptions, and images to aid in the identification of flat mites (Acari: Trombidiformes: Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae) worldwide. The tool will help identify 36 genera of flat mites, including specific diagnostics for 13 species of...

  5. Alterations in hepatic lipid peroxides and antioxidant profile in Indian water buffaloes suffering from sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Dimri, U; Sharma, M C; Swarup, D; Ranjan, R; Kataria, M

    2008-08-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the status of antioxidants in water buffaloes with sarcoptic mange. Sixty-three buffaloes were divided into three groups, healthy control (group I, n=19), subclinical sarcoptic mange (group II, n=22) and clinical sarcoptic mange (group III, n=22). Lipid peroxides (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), zinc and copper in hepatic tissues and serum alpha-tocopherol concentrations were measured. In comparison to group I, LPO was significantly (P<0.05) higher, while SOD and CAT were significantly (P<0.05) lower in group III. LPO and SOD activities were comparable between group I and II, but CAT was significantly (P<0.05) lower in group II. In group III, zinc, copper and alpha-tocopherol concentrations were significantly (P<0.05) lower than group I. Decrease in antioxidant enzyme activities and trace mineral concentrations suggested that sarcoptic mange in buffaloes is associated with compromise in antioxidant defense and oxidative stress may play important role in pathogenesis. PMID:17884119

  6. The emergence of sarcoptic mange in Australian wildlife: an unresolved debate.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Tamieka A; Charleston, Michael; Martin, Alynn; Polkinghorne, Adam; Carver, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Due to its suspected increase in host range and subsequent global diversification, Sarcoptes scabiei has important implications at a global scale for wildlife conservation and animal and human health. The introduction of this pathogen into new locations and hosts has been shown to produce high morbidity and mortality, a situation observed recently in Australian and North American wildlife.Of the seven native animal species in Australia known to be infested by S. scabiei, the bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus) suffers the greatest with significant population declines having been observed in New South Wales and Tasmania. The origins of sarcoptic mange in Australian native animals are poorly understood, with the most consistent conclusion being that mange was introduced by settlers and their dogs and subsequently becoming a major burden to native wildlife. Four studies exist addressing the origins of mange in Australia, but all Australian S. scabiei samples derive from only two of these studies. This review highlights this paucity of phylogenetic knowledge of S. scabiei within Australia, and suggests further research is needed to confidently determine the origin, or multiple origins, of this parasite.At the global scale, numerous genetic studies have attempted to reveal how the host species and host geographic location influence S. scabiei phylogenetics. This review includes an analysis of the global literature, revealing that inconsistent use of gene loci across studies significantly influences phylogenetic inference. Furthermore, by performing a contemporary analytical approach on existing data, it is apparent that (i) new S. scabiei samples, (ii) appropriate gene loci targets, and (iii) advanced phylogenetic approaches are necessary to more confidently comprehend the origins of mange in Australia. Advancing this field of research will aid in understanding the mechanisms of spillover for mange and other parasites globally. PMID:27255333

  7. KNEMIDOKOPTINID (EPIDERMOPTIDAE: KNEMIDOKOPTINAE) MITE INFESTATION IN WILD RED-CROWNED PARAKEETS (CYANORAMPHUS NOVAEZELANDIAE): CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MACROSCOPIC AND MICROSCOPIC FINDINGS.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Bethany; Heath, Allen; Harvey, Cathy; Holyoake, Carly; Jakob-Hoff, Richard; Varsani, Arvind; Robertson, Ian; Warren, Kris

    2015-07-01

    During a study on health and disease in Red-crowned Parakeets (Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae) on Tiritiri Matangi Island and Little Barrier Island (Hauturu-o-Toi) in New Zealand between 2011 and 2013, an outbreak of feather loss prompted the collection of skin biopsies (n = 135) under anesthesia from the head of captured birds. A subset of samples (n = 7) was frozen to obtain whole specimens for identification of ectoparasites. Mites (range 1-11) were observed in 79/135 (58.5%) skin biopsies, whereas feather loss was only found in 47/142 (33.1%) birds captured during the sampling period. Compact orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and acanthosis were found in association with mites. Procnemidocoptes janssensi (Acari: Epidermoptidae, Knemidokoptinae) was identified from whole mites obtained from skin biopsies. We describe the presence, pathology, and stages of infestation for knemidokoptinid mange in a wild parrot population in New Zealand. Given the clinical and pathologic changes observed and poor knowledge of the parasite's New Zealand host and geographic distribution, further work is recommended for this and sympatric parrots, to understand relationships between the host, parasite, environment, and expression of disease. Results from this study reinforce the value of including biopsy samples for the investigation of skin disease in wild birds, particularly to link etiologic agents with pathologic changes. PMID:25973626

  8. High Varroa mite abundance influences chemical profiles of worker bees and mite-host preferences.

    PubMed

    Cervo, R; Bruschini, C; Cappa, F; Meconcelli, S; Pieraccini, G; Pradella, D; Turillazzi, S

    2014-09-01

    Honeybee disappearance is one of the major environmental and economic challenges this century has to face. The ecto-parasitic mite Varroa destructor represents one of the main causes of the worldwide beehive losses. Although halting mite transmission among beehives is of primary importance to save honeybee colonies from further decline, the natural route used by mites to abandon a collapsing colony has not been extensively investigated so far. Here, we explored whether, with increasing mite abundance within the colony, mites change their behaviour to maximize the chances of leaving a highly infested colony. We show that, at low mite abundance, mites remain within the colony and promote their reproduction by riding nurses that they distinguish from foragers by different chemical cuticular signatures. When mite abundance increases, the chemical profile of nurses and foragers tends to overlap, promoting mite departure from exploited colonies by riding pollen foragers. PMID:25165133

  9. Why do Varroa mites prefer nurse bees?

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Xianbing; Huang, Zachary Y.; Zeng, Zhijiang

    2016-01-01

    The Varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is an acarine ecto-parasite on Apis mellifera. It is the worst pest of Apis mellifera, yet its reproductive biology on the host is not well understood. In particular, the significance of the phoretic stage, when mites feed on adult bees for a few days, is not clear. In addition, it is not clear whether the preference of mites for nurses observed in the laboratory also happens inside real colonies. We show that Varroa mites prefer nurses over both newly emerged bees and forgers in a colony setting. We then determined the mechanism behind this preference. We show that this preference maximizes Varroa fitness, although due to the fact that each mite must find a second host (a pupa) to reproduce, the fitness benefit to the mites is not immediate but delayed. Our results suggest that the Varroa mite is a highly adapted parasite for honey bees. PMID:27302644

  10. Honey Bees: Sweetness and Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Honey bee colony losses have been in the news lately and the potential reasons for these losses have taken up much space in the news media. In order to clarify what role mites play in the current loss (2006-2007) of bee colonies, called Colony Collapse Disorder, a better understanding of what a mit...

  11. Study of Demodex mites: Challenges and Solutions.

    PubMed

    Lacey, N; Russell-Hallinan, A; Powell, F C

    2016-05-01

    Demodex mites are the largest and most complex organisms of the skin microflora. How they interact with the innate and adaptive immune systems is unknown. Their potential to have a pathogenic role in the causation of human skin disorders causes continued speculation. With growing interest in the microflora of human skin and its relevance to cutaneous health, the role of Demodex mites needs to be better understood. The main challenges facing scientists investigating the role of these organisms and possible solutions are reviewed under the following headings: (1) Determining the mite population in skin, (2) Transporting, extracting and imaging live mites, (3) Maintaining mites viable ex vivo and (4) Establishing methods to determine the immune response to Demodex mites and their internal contents. PMID:26695086

  12. Outbreak of sarcoptic mange in alpacas (Vicugna pacos) and control with repeated subcutaneous ivermectin injections.

    PubMed

    Twomey, D F; Birch, E S; Schock, A

    2009-02-01

    An outbreak of sarcoptic mange was investigated in an alpaca herd. Clinical disease occurred 2 months after the introduction of four alpacas with dry seborrhoeic skin lesions, the cause of which was not investigated. Initially a group of females was affected, despite repeated topical treatment with ivermectin at a dose of 0.5mg/kg bodyweight. One female died and post-mortem examination indicated sarcoptic mange as the cause of death. Infection with Sarcoptes scabiei was also demonstrated on microscopic examination of skin scrapes taken from clinically affected cohorts. Later in the outbreak, a separate group of male alpacas was also affected. Treatment using subcutaneous ivermectin injections at a dose of 0.2mg/kg, administered at 14-day intervals, was evaluated. During this course of treatment, another female died. A successful response in the other alpacas was eventually reached following 12 treatments of the female group and 8 treatments of the male group. PMID:19019545

  13. [Recent experience with mites in stored products].

    PubMed

    Liguori, G; Ceccarelli, M T; Mellino, M; Marinelli, P

    1989-01-01

    The A.A. refer a recent experience about the isolation and identification of same species of storaged timber mites. They believe that these mites are responsible of dermatitis at the trunk and the arms of timber workers. Mites are the most elderly living species on the earth, they can live and grow in different environments, such as plants, flowers, animals, men, earth, lake and sea waters, organical rubles, houses, mattresses, old books etc. There are free-living, saprophitic, parasitic and predator mites. Generally, primary mites live either freely or as commensals feeding on conserved foodstuff and on what they find available. Secondary mites, i.e. parasites and predators, live off primary mites and insects infesting foodstuff. Direct damage to foodstuff are not to be considered important, whereas indirect damages are more serious, due to the contamination of bodies and stools of mites that are rich in nitrogen. Some secondary mites may attack foodstuff workers causing characteristic dermatitis: they can act either directly, by sting and bites, or indirectly, provoking on allergic hypersensitivity. In this study the A.A. used the floating method to isolate timber mites, and then, these have been photographed at the microscope to obtain an easier and more complete identification. The A.A. describe a heterogeneous fauna consisting of both adult and larval-status insects, some species of free-living mites (Oribatula Tibialis) and, in particular, of two species secondary mites, predator, belonging to the Prostigmata sub-order. The Cheyletus Eruditus (Cheylatidae family) is a whitish mite feeding mostly on insect larva and primary mites living in foodstuff. When no prey is available, the Cheyletus Eruditus eats individuals of its own species. The Pyemotes Herfsi (Pyemotidae family) is a little white mite feeding on insect larva. It lives in conserved foodstuff and may attack man causing characteristic dermatitis such as those described by the A.A. The A.A. conclude

  14. Effects and treatment of sarcoptic mange in southern hairy-nosed wombats (Lasiorhinus latifrons).

    PubMed

    Ruykys, Laura; Breed, Bill; Schultz, David; Taggart, David

    2013-04-01

    We examined the clinical and cellular effects of sarcoptic mange on southern hairy-nosed wombats (SHNW, Lasiorhinus latifrons) and the effectiveness of a single dose of ivermectin as a treatment for captive and wild animals. Wambats were caught at three sites in South Australia between April and August 2005 and blood and skin samples were collected. Hematology, biochemistry, and protein electrophoresis reference intervals were determined for healthy and diseased SHNW. Diseased SHNW had significantly higher white blood cell counts, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and total protein but lower red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and creatinine. Microscopic investigation indicated substantial hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis, and fluid infiltration into the dermis and epidermis of diseased animals. Conclusions on the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin were limited by low sample size (n=5, two captive and three wild SHNW) and are preliminary. However, ivermectin effectively treated mild, but not severe, mange in wild SHNW and severe mange in captive animals. This study has implications for the conservation and management of SHNW and the broader Vombatidae family. PMID:23568906

  15. Sarcoptic-mange detector dogs used to identify infected animals during outbreaks in wildlife

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the main aims of forensic investigation is the detection and location of people and substances of interest, such as missing people and illegal drugs. Dogs (Canis lupus var. familiaris) have had an important role in legal and forensic investigations for decades; nonetheless canines’ keen sense of smell has never been utilized in either the surveillance or control of wildlife diseases. The rapid removal and treatment of infected carcasses and/or sick animals is a key task in the management of infectious diseases, but it is usually difficult or impractical to carry out in the wild. Results In this paper we report on a study running over a period of 15 years, in which - for the first time to our knowledge - two disease-detector dogs were trained to follow the scent of Sarcoptes-infected animals and to find carcasses, even under the snow, and apparently no false positives were detected in fieldwork. Sarcoptic mange-detector dogs were used to collect the carcasses of 292 mangy wild animals and to identify, separate from their herd, and capture 63 mange-infected wild animals in the Italian Alps. Conclusions Properly trained disease-detector dogs are an efficient and straightforward tool for surveillance and control of sarcoptic mange in affected wild animal populations. PMID:22776804

  16. terMITEs: miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in the termite genome (Blattodea: Termitoidae).

    PubMed

    Luchetti, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are discrete DNA sequences which are able to replicate and jump into different genomic locations. Miniature inverted-repeats TEs (MITEs) are non-autonomous DNA elements whose origin is still poorly understood. Recently, some MITEs were found to contain core repeats that can be arranged in tandem arrays; in some instances, these arrays have even given rise to satellite DNAs in the (peri)centromeric region of the host chromosomes. I report the discovery and analysis of three new MITEs found in the genome of several termite species (hence the name terMITEs) in two different families. For two of the MITEs (terMITE1-Tc1/mariner superfamily; terMITE2-piggyBac superfamily), evidence of past mobility was retrieved. Moreover, these two MITEs contained core repeats, 16 bp and 114 bp long respectively, exhibiting copy number variation. In terMITE2, the tandem duplication appeared associated with element degeneration, in line with a recently proposed evolutionary model on MITEs and the origin of tandem arrays. Concerning their genomic distribution, terMITE1 and terMITE3 appeared more frequently inserted close to coding regions while terMITE2 was mostly associated with TEs. Although MITEs are commonly distributed in coding regions, terMITE2 distribution is in line with that of other insects' piggyBac-related elements and of other small TEs found in termite genomes. This has been explained through insertional preference rather than through selective processes. Data presented here add to the knowledge on the poorly exploited polyneopteran genomes and will provide an interesting framework in which to study TEs' evolution and host's life history traits. PMID:25711308

  17. Global Status of Honey Bee Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parasitic bee mites have become a major problem to both beekeepers and honey bees. This chapter updates the latest information we have on the three mite species, Acarapis (tracheal), Varroa and Tropilaelaps that are currently a threat to honey bees. It also updates the current information on the ...

  18. Population effects of sarcoptic mange in Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) from Sierra Espuña Regional Park, Spain.

    PubMed

    González-Candela, Mónica; León-Vizcaíno, Luis; Cubero-Pablo, María José

    2004-07-01

    The nonindigenous Barbary sheep population (Ammotragus lervia) of the Sierra Espuna Regional Park (Murcia, Spain) suffered an outbreak of sarcoptic mange between 1991 and 1995, which contributed to a population decrease of 86%. This study presents the results of two population surveys conducted in 1994 and 1999 based on the fixed point and itineraries method (FPI) and the excrement count (EC) method, as well as data from demographic estimates and clinical observations conducted by the Regional Administration of Murcia. Results of surveillance for mange are given between 1992 and 1995, because no animals were observed with sarcoptic mange in 1999. Prevalence of mange peaked in 1994 and then declined. During the regression phase of the epidemic, there was a higher infection rate in males (21.9%) than in females (16.6%) or young animals (5.1%). Males over 5 yr old were the worst affected age group, followed by subadults of both sexes. Few animals had generalized lesions of mange (7%), and most individuals (72%) had lesions of moderate severity. The most common locations of lesions were the neck, head, and back. The density of Barbary sheep in the Sierra Espuna Regional Park increased from introduction in 1972 until it peaked at 13 animals/km(2) in 1991, the year when the first case of sarcoptic mange was detected. After 2 yr of the mange epidemic, the average estimated density was 1.7 animals/km(2) in 1994, which increased to 5.0 animals/km(2) in 1999. The average group size also increased from 7.9 to 19.2 animals/group between 1994 and 1999. The sex ratio, expressed as the proportion of females in the total population observed, decreased from 0.61 in 1994 to 0.49 in 1999. The reproduction rate (kids per females per year) was essentially stable (0.59 in 1994 to 0.65 in 1999). Between 1994 and 1999 the population aged, with the number of young animals (<18 mo of age) decreasing from 45.3% to 36.6% from 1994 to 1999. In the same period, the proportion of males increased

  19. Cross-reactivity between storage and dust mites and between mites and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Arlian, Larry G; Morgan, Marjorie S; Vyszenski-Moher, DiAnn L; Sharra, Denada

    2009-02-01

    Many patients have sensitivities to multiple species of storage and house dust mites. It is not clear if this is because patients have multiple sensitivities to species-specific mite allergens or if these mites share many cross-reacting allergens. Our objective was to further define the cross-allergenicity between several species of storage and house dust mites using crossed-immunoelectrophoresis (CIE), crossed-radioimmunoelectrophoresis (CRIE), immunoblotting, and ELISA. CIE and CRIE reactions revealed that storage mites shared two cross-antigenic molecules and one of these bound IgE in a serum pool from mite allergic patients. Antibody in anti-sera built to each species of mite recognized many SDS-PAGE resolved proteins of other mite species and this suggested the potential for other cross-reactive allergens. Among patient sera, IgE bound to many different proteins but few had IgE that bound to a protein with common molecular weights across the mite species and this suggested mostly species-specific allergens. Antiserum built to each mite species precipitated one protein in shrimp extracts that bound anti-Der p 10 (tropomyosin) and IgE in the serum pool. Anti-Der p 10 showed strong binding to shrimp tropomyosin but very little to any of the mite proteins. ELISA showed the mite extracts contained very little tropomyosin. The storage and dust mites investigated contain mostly species-specific allergens and very small amounts of the pan-allergen tropomyosin compared to shrimp and snail. PMID:18850281

  20. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Scabies Mite Provides Insight into the Genetic Diversity of Individual Scabies Infections.

    PubMed

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Seemann, Torsten; Bahlo, Melanie; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-02-01

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is an obligate parasite of the skin that infects humans and other animal species, causing scabies, a contagious disease characterized by extreme itching. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where co-infection of epidermal scabies lesions by Group A Streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus is thought to be responsible for the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We collected and separately sequenced mite DNA from several pools of thousands of whole mites from a porcine model of scabies (S. scabiei var. suis) and two human patients (S. scabiei var. hominis) living in different regions of northern Australia. Our sequencing samples the mite and its metagenome, including the mite gut flora and the wound micro-environment. Here, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the scabies mite. We developed a new de novo assembly pipeline based on a bait-and-reassemble strategy, which produced a 14 kilobase mitochondrial genome sequence assembly. We also annotated 35 genes and have compared these to other Acari mites. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used these to infer the presence of six haplogroups in our samples, Remarkably, these fall into two closely-related clades with one clade including both human and pig varieties. This supports earlier findings that only limited genetic differences may separate some human and animal varieties, and raises the possibility of cross-host infections. Finally, we used these mitochondrial haplotypes to show that the genetic diversity of individual infections is typically small with 1-3 distinct haplotypes per infestation. PMID:26872064

  1. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Scabies Mite Provides Insight into the Genetic Diversity of Individual Scabies Infections

    PubMed Central

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Seemann, Torsten; Bahlo, Melanie; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart J.

    2016-01-01

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is an obligate parasite of the skin that infects humans and other animal species, causing scabies, a contagious disease characterized by extreme itching. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where co-infection of epidermal scabies lesions by Group A Streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus is thought to be responsible for the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We collected and separately sequenced mite DNA from several pools of thousands of whole mites from a porcine model of scabies (S. scabiei var. suis) and two human patients (S. scabiei var. hominis) living in different regions of northern Australia. Our sequencing samples the mite and its metagenome, including the mite gut flora and the wound micro-environment. Here, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the scabies mite. We developed a new de novo assembly pipeline based on a bait-and-reassemble strategy, which produced a 14 kilobase mitochondrial genome sequence assembly. We also annotated 35 genes and have compared these to other Acari mites. We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used these to infer the presence of six haplogroups in our samples, Remarkably, these fall into two closely-related clades with one clade including both human and pig varieties. This supports earlier findings that only limited genetic differences may separate some human and animal varieties, and raises the possibility of cross-host infections. Finally, we used these mitochondrial haplotypes to show that the genetic diversity of individual infections is typically small with 1–3 distinct haplotypes per infestation. PMID:26872064

  2. In vitro and in vivo effect of Citrus limon essential oil against sarcoptic mange in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aboelhadid, S M; Mahrous, Lilian N; Hashem, Shimaa A; Abdel-Kafy, E M; Miller, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The effect of lemon oil (Citrus limon) on Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The mite samples were collected from naturally infected rabbits. The lemon oil was prepared in six concentrations by dilution with distilled water (2.5, 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 %). In vitro application was done in five replicates for each concentration in petri dishes in the laboratory. The treated mites were observed at 1, 12, and 24 h post application (PA) for lemon oil effect. In addition, oxidative stress profile was evaluated for the treated mite. Dependent on in vitro results, 20 % lemon oil was used in vivo trial. Twenty-four naturally infected rabbits were divided into three groups of eight: 20 % lemon oil, deltamethrin, and untreated control. The infected parts of rabbits were treated topically once a week for four successive weeks. In vitro application results showed that lemon oil 10 and 20 % diluted in water caused mortality to 100 % of mites after 24 h PA. The oxidative stress profile revealed that mites treated with 20 % lemon oil had significantly (P < 0.05) higher hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde when compared with mites treated with deltamethrin or distilled water. In vivo application of 20 % lemon oil on naturally infected rabbits showed complete recovery from clinical signs, absence of mite in microscopic examination from the second week of treatment. In addition, productive performance was significantly better than infected untreated group. Also, the treated tissue showed stoppage of scale formation and hair growth faster than deltamethrin-treated rabbits. Consequently, lemon oil has remarkable miticidal activity in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:27098160

  3. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  4. Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging pampas foxes in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Deem, Sharon L; Noss, Andrew J; Cuéllar, Rosa Leny; Villarroel, Richard; Linn, Michael J; Forrester, Donald J

    2002-07-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in two freshly dead free-ranging pampas foxes (Pseudalopex gymnocercus) in the Gran Chaco, Bolivia. Diagnosis was made based on histologic evaluation of skin biopsies and identification of the parasite from skin scrapings. Characteristic gross lesions consistent with mange were noted in 19 of 94 observations of free-ranging pampas foxes in the region from December 1998 to January 2000. None of 16 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous) observed during the same time period had visible lesions consistent with scabies. These are the first case reports of S. scabiei in pampas foxes. PMID:12238385

  5. A pathological study of sepsis associated with sarcoptic mange in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, T L D R; Takai, Y; Kubo, M; Sakai, H; Masegi, T; Yanai, T

    2009-01-01

    The pathological findings in Japanese raccoon dogs with sarcoptic mange infection associated with death from sepsis are described. Microscopical lesions of the skin were consistent with those described previously in wildlife populations with Sarcoptes infection, but secondary lesions were also present in the lungs, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen and brain of these animals. This infection was therefore very similar to "crusted scabies" or "Norwegian scabies" in man and was characterized by severe pathology and high mortality, with deaths frequently occurring due to sepsis. PMID:19539304

  6. Localised sarcoptic mange in dogs: a retrospective study of 10 cases.

    PubMed

    Pin, D; Bensignor, E; Carlotti, D-N; Cadiergues, M C

    2006-10-01

    The authors report 10 cases of localised sarcoptic mange in dogs. In each case, lesions were localised to one precise area of the skin. Pruritus was present in nine cases and absent in one. Affected areas were the feet (one case), the face and/or the pinnae (six cases), the abdominal skin (one case), the flank (one case) and the lumbar area (one case). The types of lesions were erythema, papules, lichenification, scales, crusts and alopecia. Parasites were found in all cases except one, in which anti-immunoglobulin G Sarcoptes serology was positive. The acaricidal treatments given were lindane, ivermectin or selamectin and were all successful. PMID:17004955

  7. An opilioacarid mite in Cretaceous Burmese amber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, Jason A.; de Oliveira Bernardi, Leopoldo Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    A fossil opilioacarid mite (Parasitiformes: Opilioacarida) in Burmese amber is described as ? Opilioacarus groehni sp. nov. This ca. 99 Ma record (Upper Cretaceous: Cenomanian) represents only the third fossil example of this putatively basal mite lineage, the others originating from Eocene Baltic amber (ca. 44-49 Ma). Our new record is not only the oldest record of Opilioacarida, but it is also one of the oldest examples of the entire Parasitiformes clade. The presence of Opilioacarida—potentially Opiloacarus—in the Cretaceous of SE Asia suggests that some modern genus groups were formerly more widely distributed across the northern hemisphere, raising questions about previously suggested Gondwanan origins for these mites.

  8. Sarcoptes mite epidemiology and treatment in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured for translocation from the Kafue game management area to game ranches

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Zambia, translocation of wildlife from National Parks to private owned game ranches demands that only animals free of infectious diseases that could adversely affect the expansion of the wildlife industry should be translocated to game ranches. Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) has been involved in the reduction of wildlife populations in some species. Results Sarcoptes mange (Sarcoptes scarbiei) was detected and eradicated from two herds of African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) calves captured in the Kafue GMA in July 2004 and August 2005. The overall prevalence was estimated at 89.5% (77/86). Sex had no influence on the occurrence and severity of the disease. Of the 86 calves used in the study, 72.1% had good body condition scores, 20.9% were fair and 7.0% were poor. Of the 77 infected calves, 53.2% were mildly infected, 28.6% were moderately and 18.2% were severely infected. Body condition score was correlated to the severity of the infection (r = 0.72, p < 0.000, n = 86) at capture. Eradication of Sarcoptes mites from the entire herd using ivermetcin was dependant on the severity of the infection. The overall ability of ivermectin to clear the infection after the first treatment was estimated at 81.8% (n = 77). It increased to 94.8% and 100% after the second and third treatments respectively. Conclusion This is the first report on the epidemiology and treatment of Sarcoptes mange in African buffaloes in Zambia. This study improves our understanding about Sarcoptes scabiei epidemiology and treatment which will have further applications for the safe animal translocation. PMID:20515454

  9. Prevalence and zoonotic aspects of small ruminant mange in the lateritic and waterlogged zones, southern Benin.

    PubMed

    Salifou, Sahidou; Attindéhou, Sabbas; Salifou, Chakirath Folakè Arikè; Pangui, Louis-Joseph

    2013-01-01

    An epidemiological survey was undertaken from March to September 2010 to assess the prevalence and zoonotic aspects of scabies in small ruminants in two agro-ecological zones in southern Benin. Small ruminant (n = 444) smallholders and 1,807 of their animals (1,233 West African dwarf goats and 574 West African dwarf sheep) were included in the study. The animals underwent physical examination and, when scabies-like lesions were found, crusts and integument scrapings were collected for microscopic parasitological tests. The samples collected in each survey were coded in accordance with the owner-animal pairings in order to assess the degree of correlation between mange cases in humans (smallholders) and their animals. The overall prevalence of scabies was 28.33% and 9.5% in animals and smallholders (human cases) respectively. Infestations were significantly (p < 0.001) more frequent in goats (39.6%) than in sheep. The uniqueness of the etiological agent (Sarcoptes scabiei), the very high predictive value of human scabies in infected farms (83.67%) and a very high odds ratio (OR = 2,019.25) indicate that small ruminant scabies has been transmitted to smallholders by their animals. Close contact between these smallholders and their animals was a determining factor in this interspecies communicability of sarcoptic mange. PMID:23856728

  10. Scabies mite, eggs, and stool photomicrograph (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... photomicrograph of a skin scraping that contains a scabies mite, eggs, and feces. This animal burrows into the skin, depositing both eggs and feces. A scabies infestation causes intense itching (pruritus) which leads to ...

  11. Northern fowl mite (Ornithonyssus sylviarum) in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Jansson, D S; Otman, F; Lundqvist, L; Höglund, J; Engström, A; Chirico, J

    2014-12-01

    Haematophagous mites were collected from the vent region and plumage of chickens in six hobby flocks of ornamental breeds in Sweden, one of which included turkeys. Soiled vent skin and feathers, dermatitis, hyperkeratosis, skin necroses and ulcers were observed in 12 necropsied birds from two of the flocks. The mites were identified as the northern fowl mite Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Mesostigmata: Macronyssidae). This was supported by sequence analysis of a 642-bp region in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene (COI) in mites collected from five flocks, which showed 97-99% sequence similarity to O. sylviarum by blast analysis. Pairwise sequence comparisons revealed nucleotide variations in the range of 0-2.8%, whereas amino acid sequences were highly conserved. This paper represents one of very few records of O. sylviarum in European poultry, and is the first to report COI sequence data for O. sylviarum from poultry in Europe. PMID:24602037

  12. Inactivation of dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold from carpet.

    PubMed

    Ong, Kee-Hean; Lewis, Roger D; Dixit, Anupma; MacDonald, Maureen; Yang, Mingan; Qian, Zhengmin

    2014-01-01

    Carpet is known to be a reservoir for biological contaminants, such as dust mites, dust mite allergen, and mold, if it is not kept clean. The accumulation of these contaminants in carpet might trigger allergies or asthma symptoms in both children and adults. The purpose of this study is to compare methods for removal of dust mites, dust mite allergens, and mold from carpet. Carpets were artificially worn to simulate 1 to 2 years of wear in a four-person household. The worn carpets were inoculated together with a common indoor mold (Cladosporium species) and house dust mites and incubated for 6 weeks to allow time for dust mite growth on the carpet. The carpets were randomly assigned to one of the four treatment groups. Available treatment regimens for controlling carpet contaminants were evaluated through a literature review and experimentation. Four moderately low-hazard, nondestructive methods were selected as treatments: vacuuming, steam-vapor, Neem oil (a natural tree extract), and benzalkonium chloride (a quaternary ammonium compound). Steam vapor treatment demonstrated the greatest dust mite population reduction (p < 0.05) when compared to other methods. The two physical methods, steam vapor and vacuuming, have no statistically significant efficacy in inactivating dust mite allergens (p = 0.084), but have higher efficacy when compared to the chemical method on dust mite allergens (p = 0.002). There is no statistically significant difference in the efficacy for reducing mold in carpet (p > 0.05) for both physical and chemical methods. The steam-vapor treatment effectively killed dust mites and denatured dust mite allergen in the laboratory environment. PMID:24467247

  13. Characterization of smallholder pig production system: productive and reproductive performances of local and crossbred pigs in Sikkim Himalayan region.

    PubMed

    Nath, B G; Pathak, P K; Ngachan, S V; Tripathi, A K; Mohanty, A K

    2013-10-01

    The present study was conducted to know the smallholder pig production system in tribal areas of Sikkim State, India. Two hundred tribal farmers were selected randomly from the North and East District of the state. Information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers (gender, occupation, educational status, and farming experience), management practices, disease prevalence, and economics in pig production was collected. The study recorded the mean land holding as 1.2 ± 0.8 ha, and the number of pigs per farm was 5.0 ± 0.28. Pigs were mainly kept as a source of income, and 70 % of farmers reared crossbreed pigs. Ninety percent (90 %) of respondents practiced the intensive system of management whereby kitchen wastes along with cooked mixture comprising maize bhusa, mustard oil cake, pseudostem of banana, tuber, stem, and plant leaves were used to feed their animals. About 40.5 % of farmers procured their breeding stock from government farms that had good records and utilized veterinary services like timely vaccination and deworming. The diseases prevalent in the study area were swine fever, diarrhea, helminthoses, sarcoptic mange, pneumonia, etc. The litter sizes at birth (local, 4.3 ± 0.45; crossbreed, 7.2 ± 0.33), at weaning (local, 2.79 ± 0.24; crossbreed, 6.1 ± 0.21), and age at first farrowing (local, 365.39 ± 7.96 days; crossbreed, 337.24 ± 8.79 days) were recorded. Production costs of meat extracted from local and crossbred pigs were 1.08 $/kg and 0.86 $/kg, respectively. PMID:23636408

  14. Mitochondrial genome evolution and tRNA truncation in Acariformes mites: new evidence from eriophyoid mites

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Dong, Yan; Hong, Xiao-Yue; Shao, Renfu

    2016-01-01

    The subclass Acari (mites and ticks) comprises two super-orders: Acariformes and Parasitiformes. Most species of the Parasitiformes known retained the ancestral pattern of mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement of arthropods, and their mt tRNAs have the typical cloverleaf structure. All of the species of the Acariformes known, however, have rearranged mt genomes and truncated mt tRNAs. We sequenced the mt genomes of two species of Eriophyoidea: Phyllocoptes taishanensis and Epitrimerus sabinae. The mt genomes of P. taishanensis and E. sabinae are 13,475 bp and 13,531 bp, respectively, are circular and contain the 37 genes typical of animals; most mt tRNAs are highly truncated in both mites. On the other hand, these two eriophyoid mites have the least rearranged mt genomes seen in the Acariformes. Comparison between eriophyoid mites and other Aacariformes mites showed that: 1) the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites retained the ancestral pattern of mt gene arrangement of arthropods with slight modifications; 2) truncation of tRNAs for cysteine, phenylalanine and histidine occurred once in the most recent common ancestor of Acariformes mites whereas truncation of other tRNAs occurred multiple times; and 3) the placement of eriophyoid mites in the order Trombidiformes needs to be reviewed. PMID:26732998

  15. Hygienic Activity Toward Varroa Mites in Capped Brood is not Dependent on Mite Reproductive Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    - The varroa resistance of bees selectively bred for high levels of varroa sensitive hygiene (VSH) is characterized by a reduction of (1) the mite infestation rate (Harris 2007 J. Apic. Res. / Bee World 46: 134-139) and (2) the percentage of fertile mites (Harris and Harbo 1999 J. Econ. Entomol. 92:...

  16. Spectral response of spider mite infested cotton: Mite density and miticide rate study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two-spotted spider mites are important pests in many agricultural systems. Spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) have been found to cause economic damage in corn, cotton, and sorghum. Adult glass vial bioassays indicate that Temprano™ (abamectin) is the most toxic technical miticide for adult two-spot...

  17. Wheat curl mite and dry bulb mite: untangling a taxonomic conundrum through a multidisciplinary approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The taxonomy of two economically important eriophyoid species, Aceria tosichella (wheat curl mite, WCM) and A. tulipae (dry bulb mite, DBM), was confounded in the world literature until the late 20th century due to their morphological similarity and ambiguous data from plant-transfer and virus-trans...

  18. Sarcoptic mange and Pelodera dermatitis in an American black bear (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Scott D; Cooley, Thomas M; Cosgrove, Melinda K

    2008-06-01

    An adult female free-ranging American black bear (Ursus americanus) was presented in poor body condition, with advanced skin disease. Skin changes included hair loss, lichenification, crusting, and focal erosions. Skin scrapings and histopathology identified two distinct parasitic conditions that were contributing to this animal's dermatitis. Large numbers of larvae, nymphs, and adults of Sarcoptes scabiei were present in the superficial epidermis, and nematodes consistent with Pelodera strongyloides were abundant within the hair follicles. This appears to be the first reported case of Pelodera dermatitis in a bear species, adding a new differential agent to the list for dermatitis in bears. The sarcoptic mange and poor body condition of this bear may have been contributing factors to the development of the opportunistic Pelodera infestation. PMID:18634219

  19. Does the removal of mite-infested brood facilitate grooming?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relationship between the removal of mite-infested brood and mite drop was compared using Russian (RHB, n = 9) and Italian (IHB, n = 9) honey bee colonies. A cloake board was used to isolate test brood frame on the top hive body and the metal sheet served as a varroa trap. Inoculum mites were col...

  20. Distinguishing disease effects from environmental effects in a mountain ungulate: seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum chemistry among Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) affected by sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Jesús M; Serrano, Emmanuel; Soriguer, Ramón C; González, Francisco J; Sarasa, Mathieu; Granados, José E; Cano-Manuel, Francisco J; Cuenca, Rafaela; Fandos, Paulino

    2015-01-01

    Our study focuses on the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) from the Sierra Nevada Natural Space (southern Spain), where sarcoptic mange is an endemic disease and animals are affected by a highly seasonal environment. Our aim was to distinguish between disease and environmental influences on seasonal variation in body weight, hematology, and serum biochemistry in Iberian ibex. We sampled 136 chemically immobilized male ibexes. The single effect of mange influenced hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, leukocytes, band neutrophils, monocytes, cholesterol, urea, creatine, and aspartate aminotransferase. Both mange and the period of the year also affected values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, neutrophils, glucose, and serum proteins. Scabietic animals showed a marked reduction in body weight (21.4 kg on average), which was more pronounced in winter. These results reveal that 1) infested animals are anemic, 2) secondary infections likely occur, and 3) sarcoptic mange is catabolic. PMID:25380360

  1. Sarcoptic mange in free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Hiroyoshi; Ogata, Munetsugu

    2005-06-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei infestation was diagnosed in three freshly dead free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan. The dogs presented with an alopecic pruritic skin disease, with signs of alopecia on the ears, muzzle, around the eyes, elbow, thigh and the neck, and hyperpigmented and crusted skin lesions, which had a severe malodour. Skin scrapings revealed the presence of the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Histopathology of lesions demonstrated marked acanthosis, hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis and fungal elements, which were subsequently identified as Acremonium sp., Alternaria sp. and an unknown fungus. Mite segments were located mainly in the stratum corneum and also in the stratum granulosum. Tunnels could be observed in the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed the tortoise-like Sarcoptes scabiei with four long bristles, suckers and blade-like claws on legs 1 and 2, cuticular spines, prominent body striations and a terminal anus. SEM also revealed an adult female mite digging a tunnel with the head wedged into the very end of the closed burrow. Tunnels filled with eggshells, corneocyte debris and faecal pellets were also observed. PMID:15960631

  2. [Foci of the rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Mesostigmata, Macronyssidae) and rat-mite dermatitis in Moscow].

    PubMed

    Lopatina, Iu V; Sokolova, T V; Niiazova, M V

    1992-01-01

    High density of the rat population in Moscow in 1990-1991 resulted in the appearance of Ornithonyssus bacoti foci and of cases of the rat-mite dermatitis in humans. A total of 36 foci of the disease were examined and eradicated. A method for the detection of such foci has been developed. Two types of foci are distinguished, communal and industrial, and their specific features as regards the rodent and mite populations and clinical features of dermatitis in humans are described. A system of measures for liquidation of foci of rat mites is suggested, including rat and mite eradication and treatment of the patients. Specific features of these measures for various types of foci and in case of a focus reappearance are enumerated. PMID:1299760

  3. Sarcoptes scabiei: Specific immune response to sarcoptic mange in the Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica depends on previous exposure and sex.

    PubMed

    Sarasa, Mathieu; Rambozzi, Luisa; Rossi, Luca; Meneguz, Pier G; Serrano, Emmanuel; Granados, José-Enrique; González, Francisco J; Fandos, Paulino; Soriguer, Ramón C; Gonzalez, Georges; Joachim, Jean; Pérez, Jesús M

    2010-03-01

    Host acquired immunity is a critical factor that conditions the survival of parasites. Nevertheless, there is a shortage of data concerning inter-individual immunological inequalities in wild mammals. Sarcoptic mange is a widespread parasitosis that severely affects mammals such as the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Despite some work on the subject, the immune response to sarcoptic mange infestation is still a complex and poorly understood phenomenon. To improve knowledge of the host-Sarcoptes immunological interaction, 18 Iberian ibexes were experimentally infested. IgG levels were assessed using ELISA to test for potential factors determining the specific immune response to infestation. Previous exposure and sex appeared to affect the IgG response to infestation and our results suggest a sex-biased immunomodulation. We discuss the immunological pattern of host-Sarcoptes interactions and also suggest further lines of work that may improve the understanding of immunological interactions of host-Sarcoptes systems. PMID:19857492

  4. Standard methods for tracheal mite research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter, for the COLOSS Beebook from the Bee Research Center in Switzerland, summarizes all the current information about the tracheal mite (Acarapis woodi) infesting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The chapter covers the effects on bees, its life history, and its range, as well as the identifica...

  5. Tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti) - serious ectoparasites.

    PubMed

    Beck, Wieland; Fölster-Holst, Regina

    2009-08-01

    In Germany there is limited information available about the distribution of the tropical rat mite (Ornithonyssus bacoti) in rodents. A few case reports show that this hematophagous mite species may also cause dermatitis in man. Having close body contact to small rodents is an important question for patients with pruritic dermatoses. The definitive diagnosis of this ectoparasitosis requires the detection of the parasite, which is more likely to be found in the environment of its host (in the cages, in the litter or in corners or cracks of the living area) than on the hosts' skin itself. A case of infestation with tropical rat mites in a family is reported here. Three mice that had been removed from the home two months before were the reservoir. The mites were detected in a room where the cage with the mice had been placed months ago. Treatment requires the eradication of the parasites on its hosts (by a veterinarian) and in the environment (by an exterminator) with adequate acaricides such as permethrin. PMID:19508683

  6. Hold your breath beetle-Mites!

    PubMed

    Gudowska, Agnieszka; Drobniak, Szymon M; Schramm, Bartosz W; Labecka, Anna Maria; Kozlowski, Jan; Bauchinger, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory gas exchange in insects occurs via a branching tracheal system. The entrances to the air-filled tracheae are the spiracles, which are gate-like structures in the exoskeleton. The open or closed state of spiracles defines the three possible gas exchange patterns of insects. In resting insects, spiracles may open and close over time in a repeatable fashion that results in a discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) pattern characterized by periods of zero organism-to-environment gas exchange. Several adaptive hypotheses have been proposed to explain why insects engage in DGE, but none have attracted overwhelming support. We provide support for a previously untested hypothesis that posits that DGE minimizes the risk of infestation of the tracheal system by mites and other agents. Here, we analyze the respiratory patterns of 15 species of ground beetle (Carabidae), of which more than 40% of individuals harbored external mites. Compared with mite-free individuals, infested one's engaged significantly more often in DGE. Mite-free individuals predominantly employed a cyclic or continuous gas exchange pattern, which did not include complete spiracle closure. Complete spiracle closure may prevent parasites from invading, clogging, or transferring pathogens to the tracheal system or from foraging on tissue not protected by thick chitinous layers. PMID:26689423

  7. Mange caused by Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) in wild raccoon dogs, Nyctereutes procyonoides, in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, M; Nogami, S; Misumi, H; Maruyama, S; Shiibashi, T; Yamamoto, Y; Sakai, T

    2001-04-01

    Parasitological and histopathological examinations were performed in 25 raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) obtained in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan, all of which were found to be heavily infected with Sarcoptes scabiei. The mites detected on these raccoon dogs were morphologically indistinguishable from the human species, and no Demodex mites were detected. Histopathological examinations showed prominent hyperkeratosis and acanthosis with eczema, and numerous burrows containing mites were observed in the epidermis. The enzootic dermatitis of wild raccoon dogs in recent years was clearly demonstrated to be caused by S. scabiei in the present study. PMID:11346184

  8. P-MITE: a database for plant miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiongjiong; Hu, Qun; Zhang, Yu; Lu, Chen; Kuang, Hanhui

    2014-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic species including plants. MITE families vary dramatically and usually cannot be identified based on homology. In this study, we de novo identified MITEs from 41 plant species, using computer programs MITE Digger, MITE-Hunter and/or Repetitive Sequence with Precise Boundaries (RSPB). MITEs were found in all, but one (Cyanidioschyzon merolae), species. Combined with the MITEs identified previously from the rice genome, >2.3 million sequences from 3527 MITE families were obtained from 41 plant species. In general, higher plants contain more MITEs than lower plants, with a few exceptions such as papaya, with only 538 elements. The largest number of MITEs is found in apple, with 237 302 MITE sequences. The number of MITE sequences in a genome is significantly correlated with genome size. A series of databases (plant MITE databases, P-MITE), available online at http://pmite.hzau.edu.cn/django/mite/, was constructed to host all MITE sequences from the 41 plant genomes. The databases are available for sequence similarity searches (BLASTN), and MITE sequences can be downloaded by family or by genome. The databases can be used to study the origin and amplification of MITEs, MITE-derived small RNAs and roles of MITEs on gene and genome evolution. PMID:24174541

  9. Effect of a herbal compound for treatment of sarcoptic mange infestations on dogs.

    PubMed

    Das, S S

    1996-06-01

    Charmil gel, a herbal product was tried against Sarcoptes scabei var canis on dogs and its efficacy was compared with that of amitraz. Mite scrapings examined at scheduled intervals after the topical application of Charmil gel caused complete recovery after 14 days in severe infestation and 7 to 10 days in mild to moderate infestations with regrowth of hair on Day 28 post-treatment. No adverse reactions were observed except mild irritation and restlessness, which persisted for a few hours soon after application. PMID:8966996

  10. Salivary proteins of spider mites suppress defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana and promote mite reproduction.

    PubMed

    Villarroel, Carlos A; Jonckheere, Wim; Alba, Juan M; Glas, Joris J; Dermauw, Wannes; Haring, Michel A; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Schuurink, Robert C; Kant, Merijn R

    2016-04-01

    Spider mites (Tetranychidae sp.) are widely occurring arthropod pests on cultivated plants. Feeding by the two-spotted spider mite T. urticae, a generalist herbivore, induces a defense response in plants that mainly depends on the phytohormones jasmonic acid and salicylic acid (SA). On tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), however, certain genotypes of T. urticae and the specialist species T. evansi were found to suppress these defenses. This phenomenon occurs downstream of phytohormone accumulation via an unknown mechanism. We investigated if spider mites possess effector-like proteins in their saliva that can account for this defense suppression. First we performed an in silico prediction of the T. urticae and the T. evansi secretomes, and subsequently generated a short list of candidate effectors based on additional selection criteria such as life stage-specific expression and salivary gland expression via whole mount in situ hybridization. We picked the top five most promising protein families and then expressed representatives in Nicotiana benthamiana using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transient expression assays to assess their effect on plant defenses. Four proteins from two families suppressed defenses downstream of the phytohormone SA. Furthermore, T. urticae performance on N. benthamiana improved in response to transient expression of three of these proteins and this improvement was similar to that of mites feeding on the tomato SA accumulation mutant nahG. Our results suggest that both generalist and specialist plant-eating mite species are sensitive to SA defenses but secrete proteins via their saliva to reduce the negative effects of these defenses. PMID:26946468

  11. Intestinal proteases of free-living and parasitic astigmatid mites.

    PubMed

    Holt, Deborah C; Burgess, Stewart T G; Reynolds, Simone L; Mahmood, Wajahat; Fischer, Katja

    2013-02-01

    Among arthropod pests, mites are responsible for considerable damage to crops, humans and other animals. However, detailed physiological data on these organisms remain sparse, mainly because of their small size but possibly also because of their extreme diversity. Focusing on intestinal proteases, we draw together information from three distinct mite species that all feed on skin but have separately adapted to a free-living, a strictly ecto-parasitic and a parasitic lifestyle. A wide range of studies involving immunohistology, molecular biology, X-ray crystallography and enzyme biochemistry of mite gut proteases suggests that these creatures have diverged considerably as house dust mites, sheep scab mites and scabies mites. Each species has evolved a particular variation of a presumably ancestral repertoire of digestive enzymes that have become specifically adapted to their individual environmental requirements. PMID:22427061

  12. Seasonal phoresy as an overwintering strategy of a phytophagous mite.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sai; Li, Jianling; Guo, Kun; Qiao, Haili; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jianmin; Xu, Changqing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Migration by attachment to insects is common among mites that live in temporary habitats. However, because plants provide relatively stable habitats, phytophagous mites are generally not dependent on other animals for dispersal, so whether these mites can consistently be phoretic on insects through a particular life stage remains unclear and controversial. Here, we describe an obligate phoresy of a wholly phytophagous mite, Aceria pallida, in which the mites accompanied the psyllid Bactericera gobica to its winter hibernation sites, thus successfully escaping unfavourable winter conditions, and returned to reach the buds of their host plant early the following spring. This finding provides evidence of a new overwintering strategy that has contributed to the evolutionary success of these tiny phytophagous mites. PMID:27150196

  13. Seasonal phoresy as an overwintering strategy of a phytophagous mite

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sai; Li, Jianling; Guo, Kun; Qiao, Haili; Xu, Rong; Chen, Jianmin; Xu, Changqing; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Migration by attachment to insects is common among mites that live in temporary habitats. However, because plants provide relatively stable habitats, phytophagous mites are generally not dependent on other animals for dispersal, so whether these mites can consistently be phoretic on insects through a particular life stage remains unclear and controversial. Here, we describe an obligate phoresy of a wholly phytophagous mite, Aceria pallida, in which the mites accompanied the psyllid Bactericera gobica to its winter hibernation sites, thus successfully escaping unfavourable winter conditions, and returned to reach the buds of their host plant early the following spring. This finding provides evidence of a new overwintering strategy that has contributed to the evolutionary success of these tiny phytophagous mites. PMID:27150196

  14. Evidence for horizontal transfer of Wolbachia by a Drosophila mite.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy N; Lloyd, Vett K

    2015-07-01

    Mites are common ectoparasites of Drosophila and have been implicated in bacterial and mobile element invasion of Drosophila stocks. The obligate endobacterium, Wolbachia, has widespread effects on gene expression in their arthropod hosts and alters host reproduction to enhance its survival and propagation, often with deleterious effects in Drosophila hosts. To determine whether Wolbachia could be transferred between Drosophila melanogaster laboratory stocks by the mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae, mites were introduced to Wolbachia-infected Drosophila vials. These vials were kept adjacent to mite-free and Wolbachia-uninfected Drosophila stock vials. The Wolbachia infection statuses of the infected and uninfected flies were checked from generation 1 to 5. Results indicate that Wolbachia DNA could be amplified from mites infesting Wolbachia-infected fly stocks and infection in the previously uninfected stocks arose within generation 1 or 2, concomitant with invasion of mites from the Wolbachia-infected stock. A possible mechanism for the transfer of Wolbachia from flies to mites and vice versa, can be inferred from time-lapse photography of fly and mite interactions. We demonstrated that mites ingest Drosophila corpses, including Wolbachia-infected corpses, and Drosophila larva ingest mites, providing possible sources of Wolbachia infection and transfer. This research demonstrated that T. putrescentiae white mites can facilitate Wolbachia transfer between Drosophila stocks and that this may occur by ingestion of infected corpses. Mite-vectored Wolbachia transfer allows for rapid establishment of Wolbachia infection within a new population. This mode of Wolbachia introduction may be relevant in nature as well as in the laboratory, and could have a variety of biological consequences. PMID:25921489

  15. [Animal mites transmissible to humans and associated zoonosis].

    PubMed

    Jofré M, Leonor; Noemí H, Isabel; Neira O, Patricia; Saavedra U, Tirza; Díaz L, Cecilia

    2009-06-01

    Mites that affect animals (acariasis) can occasionally be transmitted to humans by incidental contact producing pruritus and dermatitis. Animals such as dogs, cats, mice, birds and reptiles, harbour several mite species. Hemophage mites and those that feed on lymph have the potential of transmitting important zoonotic agents (cuales??). The presence of lesions of unclear origin and a history of contact with pets or wild animals should alert towards the possibility of acariasis. Diagnosis is based on direct visualization of the mite,analysis of its morphology and obtaining information on the animal host. Awareness of these acarosis and the responsible care of pets and animals are the most relevant preventive measures. PMID:19621159

  16. Mites associated with stored grain commodities in Benin, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Zannou, Ignace D; Adebo, Habib O; Zannou, Elisabeth; Hell, Kerstin

    2013-12-01

    After insects, mites are the major arthropod pests that inhabit stored agricultural products worldwide. To determine the acarofauna that infests cowpea, maize, paddy rice and sorghum in Benin (West Africa), surveys were conducted in some principal markets (Dantokpa, Glazoue and Parakou) of this country. A total of 555 samples of grains and debris were collected in May and September 2011. More than 56 species belonging to 24 mite families were recorded in the four products. These mite species included predators, parasites, fungivorous, phytophagous and other groups whose feeding habits are not well known. The family Cheyletidae was the most prevalent and the most diverse predatory mite family encountered, in which Cheyletus malaccensis Oudemans was the most abundant species. Several families of mite pests and mites responsible for allergies (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Pyroglyphidae, Pyemotidae and Saproglyphidae) were also detected. The three most dominant and frequent species were C. malaccensis, Suidasia nesbitti (Hughes) and Suidasia sp. Statistical analysis showed that densities of these three mite species were higher in Parakou than in Glazoue and Dantokpa, on one hand, and higher in debris than in grains, on the other hand. The densities of S. nesbitti and Suidasia sp. decreased significantly during the dry season, whereas C. malaccensis remained stable throughout the two samplings. Of all grains, sorghum was the least infested with mites. This study shows that in Benin mites are present in stored agricultural products to which they cause serious damage, and may cause various allergies to people. PMID:23793792

  17. Scent of a mite: origin and chemical characterization of the lemon-like flavor of mite-ripened cheeses.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Adrian; Heethoff, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Cheese infested with cheese mites is usually treated as unpalatable. Nevertheless, some traditional cheese manufactories in Germany and France intentionally use mites for fermentation of special varieties (i.e. Milbenkäse and Mimolette). While their production includes different mite species, both are characterized by a "lemon-like" flavor. However, the chemical nature and origin of this flavor-component is unknown. The cheese mites possess a pair of opisthosomal glands producing blends of hydrocarbons, terpenes and aromatics. Here, we describe the chemical profiles of the astigmatid mite species Tyrolichus casei (Milbenkäse) and Acarus siro (Mimolette). Although the chemical profiles differ in several aspects, both mite species produce neral (a volatile flavor component of lemon oil), which was absent from the headspace of both cheeses without mites. We conclude that the lemon-like flavor of mite cheese is not a consequence of fermentation of the cheese itself but a component from secretions of the cheese mites. PMID:27059866

  18. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    PubMed

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers. PMID:15236495

  19. Participatory assessment of animal health and husbandry practices in smallholder pig production systems in three high poverty districts in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dione, Michel M; Ouma, Emily A; Roesel, Kristina; Kungu, Joseph; Lule, Peter; Pezo, Danilo

    2014-12-01

    While animal health constraints have been identified as a major limiting factor in smallholder pig production in Uganda, researchers and policy makers lack information on the relative incidence of diseases and their impacts on pig production. This study aimed to assess animal health and management practices, constraints and opportunities for intervention in smallholder pig value chains in three high poverty districts of Uganda. Semi-qualitative interview checklists through Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were administered to 340 pig farmers in 35 villages in Masaka, Kamuli and Mukono districts. Quantitative data was obtained during the exercise through group consensus. Results of FGDs were further triangulated with secondary data and information obtained from key informant interviews. Findings show that pig keeping systems are dominated by tethering and scavenging in rural areas. In peri-urban and urban areas, intensive production systems are more practiced, with pigs confined in pens. The main constraints identified by farmers include high disease burden such as African swine fever (ASF) and parasites, poor housing and feeding practices, poor veterinary services, ineffective drugs and a general lack of knowledge on piggery management. According to farmers, ASF is the primary cause of pig mortality with epidemics occurring mainly during the dry season. Worms and ectoparasites namely; mange, lice and flies are endemic leading to stunted growth which reduces the market value of pigs. Diarrhoea and malnutrition are common in piglets. Ninety-three percent of farmers say they practice deworming, 37% practice ectoparasite spraying and 77% castrate their boars. Indigenous curative treatments include the application of human urine and concoctions of local herbs for ASF control and use of old engine oil or tobacco extracts to control ectoparasites. There is a need for better technical services to assist farmers with these problems. PMID:25458705

  20. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  1. Red Palm Mite Situation in the Caribbean and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica Hirst Tenuipalpidae), a pest of coconuts and ornamental palms in Asia and Africa, was reported in the Caribbean in 2004. By 2008, it had spread to at least twelve islands, two counties in Florida and to Venezuela. Red palm mite causes yellowing and leaf necrosis wi...

  2. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  3. CDC-1 Enclose Continuous Rearing System for Phytoseiid Mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document describes a prototype for an enclosed and continuous rearing system for Phytoseiid mites. The document includes operation procedures and materials. Bean plants are grown in planters through a grid, which is the bottom of a tray. One-week old bean plants are infested with spider mites. ...

  4. Mite Biodiversity Under the Low Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To date, more than 55,000 mite species have been described and only a few of them have been studied. Some mites are adapted to live deep in soil, others in fresh or sea water, some are on plants, algae, fungi or animals, and others are able to survive in both extreme cold and hot temperatures. The...

  5. Eriophyoid mites from Northeast China (Acari: Eriophyoidea).

    PubMed

    Xue, Xiao-Feng; Guo, Jing-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2013-01-01

    We describe and illustrate herein one new genus and eighteen new eriophyoid mite species (Acari: Eriophyoidea) collected in northeast China. They are: Shevtchenkella huzhongiensis sp. nov. on Ulmus davidiana Planch. var. japonica (Sarg. ex Rehder) Nakai (Ulmaceae), Shevtchenkella jingboicus sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Calepitrimerus flexuosus sp. nov. on Spiraea flexuosa Fisch. ex Cambess. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus maximowiczii sp. nov. on Crataegus maximowiczii Schneid. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus pilosus sp. nov. on Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. (Rosaceae), Calepitrimerus yichunensis sp. nov. on Sorbaria sorbifolia (L.) A.Br. (Rosaceae), Cupacarus oxyphyllus sp. nov. on Euonymus oxyphyllus Miq. (Cel-astraceae), Epitrimerus sambucus sp. nov. on Sambucus williamsii Hance (Caprifoliaceae), Epitrimerus wuyingensis sp. nov. on Acer sp. (Aceraceae), Longisolenidionus amurensis gen. nov & sp. nov. on Tilia amurensis Rupr. (Tiliaceae), Phyllocoptes jiagedaqiensis sp. nov. on Cunninghamia sp. (Taxodiaceae), Aculops huzhongensis sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Sali-caceae), Aculus huzhongsalixus sp. nov. on Salix sp. (Salicaceae), Tetra angelica sp. nov. on Angelica sp. (Apiaceae), Tetra jiagedaqia sp. nov. on Lespedeza sp. (Fabaceae), Vittacus mandshurica sp. nov. on Corylus sieboldiana Blume var. mandshurica (Maxim.) C. K. Schneid. (Betulaceae), Vittacus cannabus sp. nov. on Cannabis sativa L. (Moraceae), and Peralox dentatis sp. nov. on Ulmus sp. (Ulmaceae). Two species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. abiesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) and R. fabris (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) were reassigned to Nalepella, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, and other characteristics of Nalepella. One species formerly assigned to Rhyncaphytoptus, R. fargesis (Xue, Song & Hong, 2006) was reassigned to Pentaporca, based on the presence of seta vi on the apical shield, opisthosoma with five ridges and other characteristics of Pentaporca. At the same time, four new eriophyoid

  6. Do plant mites commonly prefer the underside of leaves?

    PubMed

    Sudo, Masaaki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2011-09-01

    The adaxial (upper) and abaxial (lower) surfaces of a plant leaf provide heterogeneous habitats for small arthropods with different environmental conditions, such as light, humidity, and surface morphology. As for plant mites, some agricultural pest species and their natural enemies have been observed to favor the abaxial leaf surface, which is considered an adaptation to avoid rain or solar ultraviolet radiation. However, whether such a preference for the leaf underside is a common behavioral trait in mites on wild vegetation remains unknown. The authors conducted a 2-year survey on the foliar mite assemblage found on Viburnum erosum var. punctatum, a deciduous shrub on which several mite taxa occur throughout the seasons, and 14 sympatric tree or shrub species in secondary broadleaf-forest sites in Kyoto, west-central Japan. We compared adaxial-abaxial surface distributions of mites among mite taxa, seasons, and morphology of host leaves (presence/absence of hairs and domatia). On V. erosum var. punctatum, seven of 11 distinguished mite taxa were significantly distributed in favor of abaxial leaf surfaces and the trend was seasonally stable, except for Eriophyoidea. Mite assemblages on 15 plant species were significantly biased towards the abaxial leaf surfaces, regardless of surface morphology. Our data suggest that many mite taxa commonly prefer to stay on abaxial leaf surfaces in wild vegetation. Oribatida displayed a relatively neutral distribution, and in Tenuipalpidae, the ratio of eggs collected from the adaxial versus the abaxial side was significantly higher than the ratio of the motile individuals, implying that some mite taxa exploit adaxial leaf surfaces as habitat. PMID:21472503

  7. Sensitization to different mite species in German farmers: clinical aspects.

    PubMed

    Müsken, H; Franz, J T; Wahl, R; Paap, A; Cromwell, O; Masuch, G; Bergmann, K C

    2000-01-01

    Various mite species referred to collectively as house dust and storage mites are recognized worldwide as a cause of allergic airway disease. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency of sensitization and potential importance of mite species in farmers using a broad mite spectrum. A total of 86 German farmers with rhinitis and/or asthma were studied by skin prick testing and/or enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST) with the following mites: Blomia tjibodas, Blomia tropicalis, Blomia kulagini, Glycyphagus domesticus, Thyreophagus entomophagus, Euroglyphus maynei, Chortoglyphus arcuatus, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus farris and Cheyletus eruditus. Sensitization to at least one mite species was detected in 51 patients (59%) by skin prick testing, and in 31 patients (36%) by EAST. The most frequent sensitizations determined by skin tests were found for the three Blomia species, E. maynei and G. domesticus. Twelve patients (14%) gave a positive EAST with the predator mite C. eruditus. A total of 22 patients gave positive EAST results with the Dermatophagoides species. We were able to document sensitization to C. arcuatus, E. maynei and T. entomophagus for the first time in Germany. A considerable proportion of the German farmers tested were sensitized to storage mites. The allergological potential of various mite species has been recognized, some for the first time. It was concluded that B. tjibodas, G. domesticus, C. arcuatus and C. eruditus in particular should be included in an allergy diagnosis. Further investigations into the clinical relevance of the sensitizations and possible cross-reactivity between the mite species are necessary. PMID:11206935

  8. Geotaxis and leaf-surface preferences mitigate negative effects of a predatory mite on an herbivorous mite.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Masaaki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2013-04-01

    Reproductive success and population growth of an herbivorous mite are limited by activities of phytoseiid predators. However, occurrences on upper versus lower leaf surfaces are sometimes mismatched between these prey and predators. The mismatch potentially mitigates predation risk for the prey species. We assessed factors that affect mite distributions on leaf surfaces, testing whether the presence of the phytoseiid mite Phytoseius nipponicus alters the leaf-surface distribution and reproductive success of the herbivorous false spider mite Brevipalpus obovatus. The host plant was Viburnum erosum var. punctatum (Adoxaceae). Leaves were set in natural (TRUE) and reversed (upside down; INVERTED) orientations using experimental devices. Both surfaces were accessible to mites. We detected lower and abaxial leaf-surface preferences in P. nipponicus. In contrast, upper and adaxial surfaces were preferred by B. obovatus. Thus, prey and predatory mites accumulated on different sides of leaves. Presence of the predator also indirectly decreased egg production in B. obovatus. Brevipalpus obovatus females actively avoided leaf surfaces with elevated predator numbers; these females shifted their distributions and changed oviposition sites to leaf surfaces with fewer predators. In consequence, B. obovatus eggs on the upper sides of leaves were less frequently preyed upon than were those on lower sides. We suggest that upper leaf-surface exploitation in this particular herbivorous mite species mitigates predation risk from phytoseiid mites, which prefer lower leaf surfaces. PMID:23011108

  9. MITE ANTIGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN HOUSE DUST AND THE OCCURRENCE OF WHEEZING IN CHILDREN WITH MITE DUST ALLERGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    We studied the relationship between dust mite antigen concentrations in house dust samples and the occurrence and frequency of wheezing in 58 children with dust mite allergy (wheal > 4 mm. mean diameter in response to a prick test with either D-. farinae or D pteronyssinus antige...

  10. Pig in the Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Sophie

    2000-01-01

    Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

  11. Cysticercosis in the pig.

    PubMed

    de Aluja, A S

    2008-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is still an important parasitosis in rural pigs in many developing countries, México among them. The main causes for the persistence of this condition are lack of hygiene in the rural communities, lack of education of the animal owners, lack of control in the trade of pigs and their meat and lack of conscientious meat inspection. The pig production systems in the marginated areas of Mexico are briefly mentioned and it is stressed that among the important reasons for the persistence of the reproductive cycle of Taenia solium is the fact that appropriate toilet facilities in village dwellings are not mandatory. The diagnostic methods of cysticercosis in the living pigs and in their meat are discussed and the degenerative stages of the larvae as well as methods to test their viability are explained. The treatment of infected pigs and their meat is discussed. Recommendations for control programmes are given. PMID:18393899

  12. Tail biting in pigs.

    PubMed

    Schrøder-Petersen, D L; Simonsen, H B

    2001-11-01

    One of the costly and welfare-reducing problems in modern pig production is tail biting. Tail biting is an abnormal behaviour, characterized by one pig's dental manipulation of another pig's tail. Tail biting can be classified into two groups: the pre-injury stage, before any wound on the tail is present, and the injury stage, where the tail is wounded and bleeding. Tail biting in the injury stage will reduce welfare of the bitten pig and the possible spread of infection is a health as well as welfare problem. The pigs that become tail biters may also suffer, because they are frustrated due to living in a stressful environment. This frustration may result in an excessive motivation for biting the tails of pen mates. This review aims to summarize recent research and theories in relation to tail biting. PMID:11681870

  13. Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.

    PubMed

    Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

    2012-01-29

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed. PMID:22286142

  14. House dust mite allergy: environment evaluation and disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sheng-Jie; Liao, En-Chih

    2014-01-01

    There are two groups of dust mites, house dust mites (HDMs) and storage mites (SMs), that have been identified in the household environment. Both could induce airway inflammation through activation of innate and adaptive immunity and lead to asthma. In order to monitor environmental dust mite infestation, different methods can be used to detect their presence, such as the use of floating methods, monoclonal antibodies, and nanostructured biosensor. SM could be identified in the storage room, mainly in contaminated food such as mushrooms and corn starch. In HDM-sensitive subjects and mice that were challenged with HDM or SM after sensitization, these mites could up-regulate IgE levels, T helper 2 associated cytokine production and airway hypersensitivity. Different age groups of subjects were sensitized by different species of mites. More subjects above 70 years were sensitized by SM and more subjects below the age of 40 years were sensitized to HDM. Different allergenic components of dust mite extracts, such as Der p 1, Der p 2, could activate innate immunity through activating pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and then lead to allergic inflammation. The best modality to treat HDM allergy is immunomodulation through Treg cells and IgA production. In the recent years, many studies indicated probiotics could increase IgA secretion and the number of Treg cells. However, some studies conducted in adults have contradictory effects in reducing allergic symptoms. Therefore, probiotics confer inconclusive benefits on the allergic symptoms. PMID:25379484

  15. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    PubMed Central

    Steidle, Johannes L.M.; Barcari, Elena; Hradecky, Marc; Trefz, Simone; Tolasch, Till; Gantert, Cornelia; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897), the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME) revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z)-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z)-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z)-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z)-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies. PMID:26462831

  16. A rapid survey technique for Tropilaelaps mite (Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) detection.

    PubMed

    Pettis, Jeffery S; Rose, Robyn; Lichtenberg, Elinor M; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Buawangpong, Ninat; Somana, Weeraya; Sukumalanand, Prachaval; Vanengelsdorp, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Parasitic Tropilaelaps (Delfinado and Baker) mites are a damaging pest of European honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in Asia. These mites represent a significant threat if introduced to other regions of the world, warranting implementation of Tropilaelaps mite surveillance in uninfested regions. Current Tropilaelaps mite-detection methods are unsuitable for efficient large scale screening. We developed and tested a new bump technique that consists of firmly rapping a honey bee brood frame over a collecting pan. Our method was easier to implement than current detection tests, reduced time spent in each apiary, and minimized brood destruction. This feasibility increase overcomes the test's decreased rate of detecting infested colonies (sensitivity; 36.3% for the bump test, 54.2% and 56.7% for the two most sensitive methods currently used in Asia). Considering this sensitivity, we suggest that screening programs sample seven colonies per apiary (independent of apiary size) and 312 randomly selected apiaries in a region to be 95% sure of detecting an incipient Tropilaelaps mite invasion. Further analyses counter the currently held view that Tropilaelaps mites prefer drone bee brood cells. Tropilaelaps mite infestation rate was 3.5 +/- 0.9% in drone brood and 5.7 +/- 0.6% in worker brood. We propose the bump test as a standard tool for monitoring of Tropilaelaps mite presence in regions thought to be free from infestation. However, regulators may favor the sensitivity of the Drop test (collecting mites that fall to the bottom of a hive on sticky boards) over the less time-intensive Bump test. PMID:24020263

  17. Feather mites of Calidris fuscicollis (Aves: Scolopacidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gomes, S N; Pesenti, T C; Cirne, M P; Müller, G

    2015-11-01

    During the period 2010-2012, eighty individuals of Calidris fuscicollis (Vieillot, 1819) were collected on the southern coast of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with the objective of determining the presence of feather mites. Of the 80 birds examined, 32.5% were infested by mites, identified as Avenzoaria calidridis (Oudemans, 1904) (Avenzoariidae) (31.25%), Montchadskiana securicata (Megnin & Trouessart 1884) (Pterolichidae) (22.5%) and Alloptes limosae (Dubinin, 1951) (Alloptidae) (6.25%). This is the first report of feather mites on Calidris fuscicollis in Brazil. PMID:26675921

  18. Nasal mites (Gamasida: Rhinonyssidae) of Paroaria coronata (Miller) (Passeriformes: Emberezidae).

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, C S; Coimbra, M A A; Müller, G; Brum, J G W

    2011-01-01

    With the aim of identifying the species of nasal mites of Paroaria coronata (red-crested cardinal), the nasal cavity of 40 birds were examined. The nasal mites were identified as Ptilonyssus sairae de Castro and Sternostoma pirangae Pence, with 50% and 7.5% of prevalence, respectively. This is the first record of these mite species parasitizing P. coronata. This report also amplifies the area of occurrence of S. pirangae for Brazil and that of P. sairae for Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. PMID:21952970

  19. An ant-associated mesostigmatid mite in Baltic amber

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Walter, David E.; Perrichot, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Fossil mesostigmatid mites (Acari: Parasitiformes: Mesostigmata) are extremely rare, and specimens from only nine families, including four named species, have been described so far. A new record of Myrmozercon sp. described here from Eocene (ca 44–49 Myr) Baltic amber represents the first—and so far only—fossil example of the derived, extant family Laelapidae. Significantly, modern species of this genus are habitually myrmecophilous and the fossil mite described here is preserved attached to the head of the dolichoderine ant Ctenobethylus goepperti (Mayr, 1868). It thus offers the oldest unequivocal evidence for an ecological association between mesostigmatid mites and social insects in the order Hymenoptera. PMID:25209198

  20. Structure of Phoretic Mite Assemblages Across Subcortical Beetle Species at a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Pfammatter, Jesse A; Coyle, David R; Gandhi, Kamal J K; Hernandez, Natalie; Hofstetter, Richard W; Moser, John C; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-02-01

    Mites associated with subcortical beetles feed and reproduce within habitats transformed by tree-killing herbivores. Mites lack the ability to independently disperse among these habitats, and thus have evolved characteristics that facilitate using insects as transport between resources. Studies on associations between mites and beetles have historically been beetle-centric, where an assemblage of mite species is characterized on a single beetle species. However, available evidence suggests there may be substantial overlap among mite species on various species of beetles utilizing similar host trees. We assessed the mite communities of multiple beetle species attracted to baited funnel traps in Pinus stands in southern Wisconsin, northern Arizona, and northern Georgia to better characterize mite dispersal and the formation of mite-beetle phoretic associations at multiple scales. We identified approximately 21 mite species totaling 10,575 individuals on 36 beetle species totaling 983 beetles. Of the mites collected, 97% were represented by eight species. Many species of mites were common across beetle species, likely owing to these beetles' common association with trees in the genus Pinus. Most mite species were found on at least three beetle species. Histiostoma spp., Iponemus confusus Lindquist, Histiogaster arborsignis Woodring and Trichouropoda australis Hirschmann were each found on at least seven species of beetles. While beetles had largely similar mite membership, the abundances of individual mite species were highly variable among beetle species within each sampling region. Phoretic mite communities also varied within beetle species between regions, notably for Ips pini (Say) and Ips grandicollis (Eichhoff). PMID:26496952

  1. Susceptibilities of northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Acarina: Macronyssidae), and chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Acarina: Dermanyssidae), to selected acaricides.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, M G; Axtell, R C

    1991-12-01

    The relative toxicities of ten acaricides to northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), and the chicken mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), were determined simultaneously by holding the mites inside disposable glass Pasteur pipettes previously immersed in acetone solutions of various concentrations (w/v) of technical grade acaricides. The LC90s (parts per million) of the acaricides after 24 h exposure for the northern fowl mite and the chicken mite, respectively, were: bendiocarb (13.1, 0.18), tetrachlorvinphos (14.5, 4.07), carbaryl (15.0, 0.83), pirimiphos methyl (18.3, 2.03), permethrin (23.1, 8.46), lambda cyhalothrin (80.7, 11.4), dichlorvos (252.8, 3.75), malathion (238.4, 6.59), amitraz (6741, 9430) and fenvalerate (greater than 10,000, 60.2). After 48 h exposure there were only slight increases in mortalities of both species except for increased mortalities for the northern fowl mite with lambda cyhalothrin, amitraz and fenvalerate, and for the chicken mite with amitraz. PMID:1786744

  2. Biological control of spider mites on grape by phytoseiid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae, Phytoseiidae): emphasis on regional aspects.

    PubMed

    Prischmann, D A; Croft, B A; Luh, H K

    2002-04-01

    Leaf samples were taken from 34 (1998) and 10 (1999) vineyards in five valleys in western Oregon to assess spider mite pests and biological control by predaceous phytoseiid mites. A leaf at a coordinate of every 10 m of border, 5 m into a vineyard, was taken to minimize edge effects; 20 leaves were taken at regular intervals from vineyard centers. Variables recorded at each site included grape variety and plant age, chemicals used, and vegetation next to vineyards. Sites were rated as occurring in agricultural versus riparian settings based on surrounding vegetation types. Multiple linear regressions and a computer genetic algorithm with an information content criterion were used to assess variables that may explain mite abundances. Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten was the dominant phytoseiid mite species and Tetranychus urticae Koch the dominant tetranychid mite species. High levels of T. urticae occurred when phytoseiid levels were low, and low levels of T. urticae were present when phytoseiid levels were high to moderate. T. urticae densities were higher in vineyards surrounded by agriculture, but phytoseiid levels did not differ between agricultural and riparian sites. Phytoseiids had higher densities on vineyard edges; T. urticae densities were higher in centers. Biological control success of pest mites was rated excellent in 11 of 44 vineyards, good in 27, and poor in only six sites. Predaceous mites appeared to be the principal agents regulating spider mites at low levels in sites where pesticides nontoxic to predators were used. Effects of surrounding vegetation, grape variety, growing region, and other factors on mites are discussed. PMID:12020011

  3. Pathogenic role of Demodex mites in blepharitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbo; Sheha, Hosam; Tseng, Scheffer C.G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the key literature and our research experience regarding Demodex infestation as a potential cause of ocular inflammatory diseases with a special emphasis on Demodex blepharitis. Recent findings Two distinct Demodex species have been confirmed as a cause of blepharitis: Demodex folliculorum can cause anterior blepharitis associated with disorders of eyelashes, and D. brevis can cause posterior blepharitis with meibomian gland dysfunction and keratoconjunctivitis. Tea tree oil treatments with either 50% lid scrubs or 5% lid massages are effective in eradicating mites and reducing ocular surface inflammation. Summary Demodex blepharitis is a common but overlooked external eye disease. The pathogenesis of Demodex blepharitis in eliciting ocular surface inflammation has been further clarified. The modified eyelash sampling and counting method makes it easier and more accurate to diagnose Demodex infestation. Tea tree oil shows promising potential to treat Demodex blepharitis by reducing Demodex counts with additional antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory actions. PMID:20689407

  4. Evaluation of a serological test (indirect ELISA) for the diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Set; Frössling, Jenny; Näslund, Katarina; Zakrisson, Göran; Mörner, Torsten

    2006-12-01

    Sarcoptic mange occurs in many parts of the world and is common in populations of domestic and wild canids, including red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). In recent years, an indirect antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with higher sensitivity and specificity than traditional diagnostic methods, has been successfully applied in the diagnosis of sarcoptic mange in dogs. The same ELISA has also demonstrated specific antibodies to Sarcoptes scabiei in experimentally infected red foxes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the indirect ELISA when used to detect antibodies to S. scabiei in field sera from Swedish red foxes. One cohort of both infected and non-infected red foxes (cohort 1; n = 88), and one cohort of apparently non-infected foxes (cohort 2; n = 67) were examined for skin lesions and presence of S. scabiei by thorough visual examination at autopsy and skin scrapings. Samples of blood-tinted body liquid from the abdomen or thorax cavity were collected and analysed by the indirect ELISA. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA at different cut-offs (OD values) were estimated by comparing the test results to the infection status as determined by examination and skin scrapings. The highest combination of relative sensitivity and specificity, calculated based on cohort 1, was 95.4 and 100.0%, respectively. These estimates were constant for cut-offs 0.150-0.225, which included the cut-off based on the mean plus three standard deviations of test results from cohort 2 (0.165). It is concluded that this test can be useful in diagnosis and epidemiological studies of S. scabiei infection in red foxes. PMID:17083572

  5. Infections with cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange in red foxes from two different localities in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad N S; Halasa, Tariq; Kapel, Christian M O

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring parasitic infections in the red fox is essential for obtaining baseline knowledge on the spread of diseases of veterinary and medical importance. In this study, screening for cardiopulmonary and intestinal helminths and sarcoptic mange (Sarcoptes scabiei) was done on 118 foxes originating from two distinct localities in Denmark, (Copenhagen) greater area and southern Jutland. Fifteen parasite species were recorded in 116 foxes (98.3%), nine parasitic species are of zoonotic potential. Parasite diversity was greater in foxes of Copenhagen in terms of overall parasite species richness and species richness of all helminth groups individually: trematodes; cestodes; and nematodes. Six parasite species were recovered from foxes of Copenhagen, but not from foxes of Southern Jutland: Echinochasmus perfoliatus; Echinostoma sp.; Pseudamphistomum truncatum; Dipylidium caninum; Angiostrongylus vasorum; and Sarcoptes scabiei, but Toxascaris leonina was only recorded in foxes of southern Jutland. A high prevalence and abundance of A. vasorum in foxes of Copenhagen was observed. The prevalence of four nematode species; Eucoleus (Capillaria) aerophilus, Uncinaria stenocephala, Toxocara canis, and Crenosoma vulpis, in foxes of both localities were comparable and ranging from 22.9% to 89%. The prevalence of Mesocestoides sp. was significantly higher in foxes of Copenhagen. Taenia spp. were detected using morphological and molecular analysis, which revealed the dominance of T. polyacantha in foxes of both localities. Infections with sarcoptic mange were evident only among foxes of Copenhagen (44.9%), which significantly affected the average weight of the infected animals. Further remarks on the zoonotic and veterinary implications of the parasites recovered are given. PMID:24570055

  6. Cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey of sarcoptic mange in sheep of Western Castile and Leon, Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cadenas, F; Carbajal-González, M T; Fregeneda-Grandes, J M; Aller-Gancedo, J M; Rojo-Vázquez, F A

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Sarcoptes scabiei-infection of ovine livestock in three provinces (Leon, Zamora and Salamanca) in the Western part of the Castile and Leon region in Spain, and to determine the association between different variables and seropositivity. A total of 3730 sheep sera from 373 flocks (10 sera from each flock) collected from May to September over the course of the years 2006 and 2007 were individually analysed by an indirect antibody ELISA validated for diagnosing sarcoptic mange in sheep. The overall flock-level true prevalence was 22.6% (95% CI: 17.8-27.4), the overall individual-level true prevalence within the total flocks was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.1-8.3) and the overall individual-level true prevalence within the seropositive flocks was 31.3% (95% CI: 27.2-35.4). The apparent prevalences, at flock-level and at individual-level within the total flocks and within the seropositive flocks, were not statistically different (p > 0.05) when the primary production objective of the flock is milk vs. meat, or in smaller (< or = 276 sheep, 50th percentile) vs. larger flocks (> 276 sheep). The apparent prevalences, at flock-level and at individual-level within the seropositive flocks, were, likewise, not statistically different between the three provinces, but the individual-level apparent prevalence within the total flocks showed significant variation from one province to another (p < or = 0.05). Sheep maintained in the Provinces of Zamora and Salamanca had greater odds (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.6; OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.3-2.8, respectively) of being seropositive than those located in Leon Province (OR = 1.0). The findings of the present study clearly show the need to implement in this region effective control measures against sarcoptic mange in sheep. PMID:20691485

  7. Impeding movement of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, James; Küster, Tatiana; George, David; Sparagano, Olivier; Tomley, Fiona

    2016-07-30

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is an economically important hematophagous parasite of commercial egg laying hens, also affecting domesticated birds and companion animals. Conventional control of D. gallinae through acaricidal spraying is often ineffective, creating an urgent need to identify alternative management strategies for commercial and domestic infestations. Whilst integrated pest management is being considered for D. gallinae, the potential of impeding mite 'migration' routes, to either prevent initial infestation or manage established populations, has not been researched. Here we demonstrate that barriers of insecticidal glue, double sided sticky tape and thyme oil can contain D. gallinae within a specified area of a petri dish (78-88% of total mite population) and this level of containment was significantly greater than for negative controls (p values <0.05). Further studies in poultry houses are recommended to investigate the efficacy of these barriers in real world application and identity potential for barriers as a strategy for mite control. PMID:27369583

  8. Two new quill mite species (Prostigmata: Syringophilidae) parasitizing Australian birds.

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Laniecka, Izabella

    2013-01-01

    Two new quill mite species (Prostigmata: Cheyletoidea: Syringophilidae), Syringophilopsis philemonis sp. nov. from Philemon citreogularis (Gould) (Passeriformes: Meliphagidae) and Megasyringophilus cacatua sp. nov. from Cacatua galerita (Latham) (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) are described from Australia. PMID:26438949

  9. Feather mites of the greater sandhill crane (Grus canadensis tabida)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Atyeo, W.T.; Windingstad, Ronald M.

    1979-01-01

    New taxa are described from Grus canadensis tabida: Brephosceles petersoni sp. n. (Alloptidae); Pseudogabucinia reticulata sp. n. (Kramerellidae); Geranolichus canadensis sp. n., and Gruolichus wodashae, gen. et sp. n. (Pterolichidae). Observations on resource partitioning by these mites are given.

  10. Pig production in the Solomon Islands. I. Village pig production.

    PubMed

    de Fredrick, D F

    1977-05-01

    In 181 villages in the Solomon Islands the pig: human ratio was 1:5-8 and the annual per capita pork consumption was 4-2 kg. Some communities did not keep pigs or eat pig meat. Sows weaned an average of 5-5 piglets per year and mean liveweight at 12 months of age was 28-4 kg. Most pigs were kept on the ground but some were housed in pens over the sea and very few lived in their owner's houses. Pigs were important in the social life of the people but proportionally fewer pigs were raised than in neighbouring Pacific countries. PMID:906090

  11. Demodex (follicular mite) infesting a boy and his pet dog.

    PubMed

    Morsy, T A; el Okbi, M M; el-Said, A M; Arafa, M A; Sabry, A H

    1995-08-01

    Intense iritation and dermatitis, somewhat resembling that produced by scabies can result from various mites living as temporary ectoparasites on the skin of man. Demodex folliculorum is a worm-like mite that infests hair follicles above the level of sebaceous glands in various mammals. In this paper, Demodex folliculorum was recovered from a boy and his pet dog. Both the boy and the dog were successfully treated with permethrin. PMID:7665947

  12. Sarcoptes scabiei Mites Modulate Gene Expression in Human Skin Equivalents

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Marjorie S.; Arlian, Larry G.; Markey, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    The ectoparasitic mite, Sarcoptes scabiei that burrows in the epidermis of mammalian skin has a long co-evolution with its hosts. Phenotypic studies show that the mites have the ability to modulate cytokine secretion and expression of cell adhesion molecules in cells of the skin and other cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems that may assist the mites to survive in the skin. The purpose of this study was to identify genes in keratinocytes and fibroblasts in human skin equivalents (HSEs) that changed expression in response to the burrowing of live scabies mites. Overall, of the more than 25,800 genes measured, 189 genes were up-regulated >2-fold in response to scabies mite burrowing while 152 genes were down-regulated to the same degree. HSEs differentially expressed large numbers of genes that were related to host protective responses including those involved in immune response, defense response, cytokine activity, taxis, response to other organisms, and cell adhesion. Genes for the expression of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) precursor, IL-1β, granulocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) precursor, and G-CSF precursor were up-regulated 2.8- to 7.4-fold, paralleling cytokine secretion profiles. A large number of genes involved in epithelium development and keratinization were also differentially expressed in response to live scabies mites. Thus, these skin cells are directly responding as expected in an inflammatory response to products of the mites and the disruption of the skin’s protective barrier caused by burrowing. This suggests that in vivo the interplay among these skin cells and other cell types, including Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, lymphocytes and endothelial cells, is responsible for depressing the host’s protective response allowing these mites to survive in the skin. PMID:23940705

  13. Sensitization of Children to Storage Mites in Kutahya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Soyucen, Erdogan

    2009-01-01

    Specific IgE against Acarus siro, Glycphagus domesticus, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor have been investigated by ELISA in sera of 92 children. Of them, 41 were found to be specific IgE positive (≥ 0.35 IU/ml) against at least one of house dust mite species, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, by an immunoblot. In 65.9% of the dust mite-sensitized children, specific IgE against at least one of these mite species was found. Sensitization levels, including co-sensitization cases were found to be 35.7% against A. siro, 24.4% against T. putrescentiae, 31.7% against L. destructor, and 26.8% against G. domesticus. In non-sensitized children, dust mite sensitization level was found to be 25.5%. Breakdown of sensitization by individual species in this group was; against A. siro and T. putrescentiae at 7.8%, against L. destructor at 13.7%, and against G. domesticus at 9.8%. When all children were reckoned, 43.5% was found to be sensitized against at least one storage mite species, with sensitizations against A. siro at 18.5%, T. putrescentiae at 26.1%, L. destructor at 21.7%, and G. domesticus at 17.4%. In dust samples collected from the dwellings of children, distribution of species was found to be A. siro (17%), G. domesticus (23%), T. putrescentiae (29%), L. destructor (25%), and unidentified (6%). In Fisher's chi-square test on SPSS program, there was a relationship between dust mite sensitization and storage mite sensitization (P < 0.05), but no meaningful relationship was found on the basis of individual mite species. PMID:19967087

  14. detectMITE: A novel approach to detect miniature inverted repeat transposable elements in genomes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Congting; Ji, Guoli; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic genomes, including plants and animals. Classified as a type of non-autonomous DNA transposable elements, they play important roles in genome organization and evolution. Comprehensive and accurate genome-wide detection of MITEs in various eukaryotic genomes can improve our understanding of their origins, transposition processes, regulatory mechanisms, and biological relevance with regard to gene structures, expression, and regulation. In this paper, we present a new MATLAB-based program called detectMITE that employs a novel numeric calculation algorithm to replace conventional string matching algorithms in MITE detection, adopts the Lempel-Ziv complexity algorithm to filter out MITE candidates with low complexity, and utilizes the powerful clustering program CD-HIT to cluster similar MITEs into MITE families. Using the rice genome as test data, we found that detectMITE can more accurately, comprehensively, and efficiently detect MITEs on a genome-wide scale than other popular MITE detection tools. Through comparison with the potential MITEs annotated in Repbase, the widely used eukaryotic repeat database, detectMITE has been shown to find known and novel MITEs with a complete structure and full-length copies in the genome. detectMITE is an open source tool (https://sourceforge.net/projects/detectmite). PMID:26795595

  15. detectMITE: A novel approach to detect miniature inverted repeat transposable elements in genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Congting; Ji, Guoli; Liang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are prevalent in eukaryotic genomes, including plants and animals. Classified as a type of non-autonomous DNA transposable elements, they play important roles in genome organization and evolution. Comprehensive and accurate genome-wide detection of MITEs in various eukaryotic genomes can improve our understanding of their origins, transposition processes, regulatory mechanisms, and biological relevance with regard to gene structures, expression, and regulation. In this paper, we present a new MATLAB-based program called detectMITE that employs a novel numeric calculation algorithm to replace conventional string matching algorithms in MITE detection, adopts the Lempel-Ziv complexity algorithm to filter out MITE candidates with low complexity, and utilizes the powerful clustering program CD-HIT to cluster similar MITEs into MITE families. Using the rice genome as test data, we found that detectMITE can more accurately, comprehensively, and efficiently detect MITEs on a genome-wide scale than other popular MITE detection tools. Through comparison with the potential MITEs annotated in Repbase, the widely used eukaryotic repeat database, detectMITE has been shown to find known and novel MITEs with a complete structure and full-length copies in the genome. detectMITE is an open source tool (https://sourceforge.net/projects/detectmite). PMID:26795595

  16. New Wolbachia supergroups detected in quill mites (Acari: Syringophilidae).

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Dragun-Damian, Anna; Dabert, Miroslawa; Gerth, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Wolbachia is the most abundant intracellular bacterial genus infecting a wide range of arthropods and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia have evolved parasitic, mutualistic and commensal relationships with their hosts but in arthropods generally act as reproductive parasites, inducing a wide range of phenotypic effects such as cytoplasmic incompatibility, parthenogenesis, feminization and male-killing. Up to now, the genus has been divided into 14 supergroups successively named A-O. Here, we describe two new Wolbachia supergroups from syringophilid mites (Acari: Cheyletoidea). These obligatory ectoparasites of birds inhabit the quills of feathers in many avian groups. The species of this family reproduce in a haplodiploid mode sensu arrhenotoky and are usually strongly female-biased. Based on the sequences of four protein-coding genes (ftsZ, gltA and groEL and coxA) and the 16S rRNA we identified strains of three Wolbachia supergroups (F and two distinct, yet undescribed ones) in five quill mite species. Our results suggest that in some cases the distribution of the bacteria can be better correlated with the mite's bird host rather than with mite taxonomy as such. The discovery of two new Wolbachia supergroups not only broadens the knowledge of the diversity of this bacterium but also raises questions about potential effects induced in quill mites and transmission mechanisms of the endosymbionts in this peculiar bacteria-quill mite-bird system. PMID:25541519

  17. Dust mite allergens and asthma: a worldwide problem*

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    After the discovery of house dust mites in 1964 their association with asthma has been reported from many different parts of the world including the developing countries. Two sets of major allergens from mites of the genus Dermatophagoides are now well recognized. The Group I allergens are glycoproteins of relative molecular mass (Mr) 25 000, which show both structural homology and cross-reactivity. The allergen Der p I has been cloned and sequenced confirming the Mr and establishing its nature as a protease. The Group II allergens (Mr 15 000) show even closer homology and cross-reactivity. Specific immunoassays for Group I and Group II allergens, using monospecific antisera and monoclonal antibodies, have been standardized and are suitable for measuring allergen levels in different parts of the world. Measures for reducing the levels of mite allergens in houses include the covering of mattresses, hot washing of bedding, and removal of carpets from bedrooms as well as humidity control, vacuum cleaning, and the use of acaricides in the rest of the house. There is already evidence that these procedures can cause a major improvement in the symptoms of asthma. While provisional standards for both sensitization to mites and also mite allergen exposure can now be recommended, there is an urgent need for controlled studies using protocols demonstrated to reduce mite allergen levels by at least tenfold and for further international collaboration. PMID:3069235

  18. Spider mite web mediates anti-predator behaviour.

    PubMed

    Lemos, Felipe; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pallini, Angelo; Dias, Cleide Rosa; Sabelis, Maurice W; Janssen, Arne

    2010-09-01

    Herbivores suffer significant mortality from predation and are therefore subject to natural selection on traits promoting predator avoidance and resistance. They can employ an array of strategies to reduce predation, for example through changes in behaviour, morphology and life history. So far, the anti-predator response studied most intensively in spider mites has been the avoidance of patches with high predation risk. Less attention has been given to the dense web produced by spider mites, which is a complex structure of silken threads that is thought to hinder predators. Here, we investigate the effects of the web produced by the red spider mite, Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard, on its interactions with the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus longipes Evans. We tested whether female spider mites recognize predator cues and whether these can induce the spider mites to produce denser web. We found that the prey did not produce denser web in response to such cues, but laid more eggs suspended in the web, away from the leaf surface. These suspended eggs suffered less from predation by P. longipes than eggs that were laid on the leaf surface under the web. Thus, by altering their oviposition behaviour in response to predator cues, females of T. evansi protect their offspring. PMID:20191311

  19. Effectiveness of vacuum cleaning and wet cleaning in reducing house-dust mites, fungi and mite allergen in a cotton carpet: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wassenaar, D P

    1988-02-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of continuous, thorough vacuuming on house dust organisms and mite allergen, a cotton carpet was vacuumed every other day, six times in total. Seven weeks later, the carpet was cleaned by means of spray extraction. Samples were taken before and after this wet cleaning. In total 1150 g of dust was collected, containing approximately 174,000 arthropods (dead and alive) and 9000 X 10(6) fungal spores. In the course of the experiment, the amount of dust collected at each vacuuming decreased. The number of extracted house dust mites did not decrease significantly, but that of the predator mite Cheyletus did. The number of extracted fungal spores showed a significant decrease (from 142 to 16 X 10(6) spores/m2 per minute vacuuming), as did the extracted mite allergen per m2. After 7 weeks the number of mite eggs and complete house dust mites had increased enormously. After cleaning by spray extraction another increase in the number of complete mites and mite eggs was found, while the amount of mite allergen was diminished. The population growth of the house dust mite between the 6th and the 7th vacuuming is probably due to the decrease of their most important predator, Cheyletus. After the wet cleaning a number of extra eggs hatched, probably due to the high humidity in the carpet. The procedures used in this study to combat house dust mites may have an adverse effect in the long run. PMID:3378462

  20. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  1. Host finding behaviour of the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    PubMed

    Melo, J W S; Lima, D B; Sabelis, M W; Pallini, A; Gondim, M G C

    2014-12-01

    For the coconut mite, Aceria guerreronis Keifer, its host plant, the coconut palm, is not merely a source of food, but more generally a habitat to live in for several generations. For these minute organisms, finding a new plant is difficult and risky, especially because their main mode of dispersal is passive drifting with the wind and because they are highly specialized on their host plant. Consequently, the probability of landing on a suitable host is very low, let alone to land in their specific microhabitat within the host. How coconut mites manage to find their microhabitat within a host plant is still underexplored. We tested the hypothesis that they use volatile chemical information emanating from the plant to find a specific site within their host plants and/or use non-volatile plant chemicals to stay at a profitable site on the plant. This was investigated in a Y-tube olfactometer (i.e. under conditions of a directed wind flow) and on cross-shaped arenas (i.e. under conditions of turbulent air) that either allowed contact with odour sources or not. The mites had to choose between odours from specific parts (leaflet, spikelet or fruit) of a non-infested coconut plant and clean air as the alternative. In the olfactometer experiments, no mites were found to reach the upwind end of the Y-tube: <5 % of the mites were able to pass the bifurcation of the "Y". On the cross-shaped arenas, however, a large number of coconut mites was found only when the arm of the arena contained discs of fruit epidermis and contact with these discs was allowed. The results suggest that coconut mites on palm trees are not attracted to specific sites on the plant by volatile plant chemicals, but that they arrested once they contact the substrate of specific sites. Possibly, they perceive non-volatile chemicals, but these remain to be identified. PMID:25033768

  2. Air-conditioner filters enriching dust mites allergen

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Pengfei; Zhu, Haibin; Diao, Jidong; Li, Na; Zhao, Beibei

    2015-01-01

    We detected the concentration of dust mites allergen (Der f1 & Der p1) in the air of different places before and after the starting of air-conditioners in Wuhu City, Anhui, China, and to discuss the relation between the dust mites allergen in air-conditioner filters and the asthma attack. The dust samples were collected from the air-conditioner filters in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households respectively. Concentrations of dust mites major group allergen 1 (Der f 1, Der p1) were detected with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the dust mite immune activities were determined by dot-ELISA. The concentration of Der f1 in dining rooms, shopping malls, hotels and households was 1.52 μg/g, 1.24 μg/g, 1.31 μg/g and 1.46 μg/g respectively, and the concentration of Der p1 in above-mentioned places was 1.23 μg/g, 1.12 μg/g, 1.16 μg/g and 1.18 μg/g respectively. The concentration of Der f1 & Der p1 in air was higher after the air-conditioners starting one hours later, and the difference was significant (P<0.05, respectively). Additionally, dot-ELISA findings revealed that the allergen extracted from the dust was capable of reacting with IgE from the sera of asthma mice allergic to dust mites. The study concludes that air-conditioner filters can enrich dust mites major group allergen, and the allergens can induce asthma. The air-conditioner filters shall be cleaned or replaced regularly to prevent or reduce accumulation of the dust mites and its allergens. PMID:26064381

  3. Immunotherapy with the storage mite lepidoglyphus destructor.

    PubMed

    Armentia-Medina, A; Tapias, J A; Martín, J F; Ventas, P; Fernández, A

    1995-01-01

    We carried out a double-blind clinical trial of immunotherapy on 35 patients sensitized to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ld). Before and after 12 months of specific hyposensitization (Abelló Lab., Spain) we performed in vivo (skin tests with Ld, methacholine and challenge tests), and in vitro tests (specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to their major allergen Lep dI). We also monitored the efficacy and safety of the immunotherapy with clinical and analytical controls (symptoms and medication score, detection of immune complexes). After therapy we found a significant decrease in specific skin reactivity, dose of positive challenge tests, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Sputum eosinophilia decreased. Specific IgE to Ld was increased and we also observed an increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and Lep DI. The placebo group showed no changes in these variables. There were no severe secondary reactions after treatment with the extract. Patients-self-evaluation was favourable and their labour absence decreased. No development of circulating immune complexes was associated with this immunotherapy. PMID:8526179

  4. Phytophagous and predaceous mites associated with vegetable crops from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Atawi, Fahad J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate phytophagous and predatory mites associated with vegetable plants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Eight phytophagous and 10 predacious mites were collected from 14 species of vegetable crops covering five major production localities. Out of these 18 mite species, 13 species are new to the mite fauna of Saudi Arabia. In addition, the two species, Tenuipalpus punicae and Agistemus exsertus, are reported for the first time on vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. For each mite species found, notes on host plant association and occurrence period are given. An illustrated key for the identification of the 18 mite species reported in this study is provided and this can be used to improve the IPM programs by applying the local natural predatory mites in controlling mite pests in Saudi Arabia. PMID:23961130

  5. ENVIRONMENTAL, ECONOMIC AND ENERGY IMPACTS OF MATERIAL RECOVERY FACILITIES - A MITE PROGRAM EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents an evaluation of the environmental, economic, and energy impacts of material recovery facilities (MRFS) conducted under the Municipal Solid Waste Innovative Technology Evaluation (MITE) Program. he MITE Program is sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protecti...

  6. Checklist of the Quill mites (Acariformes: Syringophilidae) of the World.

    PubMed

    Glowska, Eliza; Chrzanowski, Mateusz; Kaszewska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Mites of the family Syringophilidae (Acariformes: Cheyletoidea) are ectoparasites inhabiting the quills of various feather types in many groups of birds. Until now, 334 valid species and 60 genera of quill mites have been described and recorded from 482 bird species (95 families and 24 orders). Currently, the family is divided into 2 subfamilies: Syringophilinae Lavoipierre, 1953 with 260 species grouped in 49 genera, and Picobinae Johnston and Kethley, 1973 with 74 species grouped in 11 genera. Mites of the subfamily Syringophilinae inhabit quills of primaries, secondaries, tertials, rectrices and wing coverts and just occasionally the body feathers; representatives of the subfamily Picobinae live predominantly inside the body feathers. The rapid increase of the knowledge on biodiversity and systematics of quill mites started in end of the 1990s; numerous new descriptions appeared since that time and taxonomic rearrangements make an urgent need to summarize all previous data. We present a complete checklist of the family Syringophilidae of the world including the following data: a species name, author(s), references, a number of first page of description, figure numbers in descriptions, depository of type and non-type materials, host spectrum and geographical distribution. The checklist is additionally provided with the table including bird hosts and associated quill mite species. PMID:26249476

  7. Dietary effects on body weight of predatory mites (Acari, Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Goleva, Irina; Rubio Cadena, Esteban C; Ranabhat, Nar B; Beckereit, Caroline; Zebitz, Claus P W

    2015-08-01

    Pollen is offered as alternative or supplementary food for predacious mites; however, it may vary in its nutritional value. Body weight appears a representative parameter to describe food quality. Thus, we assessed the body weight for adults of the generalist mites Amblyseius swirskii, Amblydromalus limonicus, and Neoseiulus cucumeris reared on 22, 12, and 6 pollen species, respectively. In addition, A. swirskii and A. limonicus was reared on codling moth eggs. In all mite species, female body weight was higher than that of males, ranging between 4.33 and 8.18 µg for A. swirskii, 2.56-6.53 µg for A. limonicus, and 4.66-5.92 µg for N. cucumeris. Male body weight ranged between 1.78 and 3.28 µg, 1.37-3.06 µg, and 2.73-3.03 µg, respectively. Nutritional quality of pollen was neither consistent among the mite species nor among sex, revealing superior quality of Quercus macranthera pollen for females of A. swirskii and Tulipa gesneriana pollen for males, Alnus incana pollen for females of A. limonicus and Aesculus hippocastanum pollen for males, and Ae. hippocastanum pollen for both sexes of N. cucumeris. The results are discussed against the background of known or putative pollen chemistry and mite's nutritional physiology. PMID:26014648

  8. Disentangling mite predator-prey relationships by multiplex PCR.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sayas, Consuelo; Pina, Tatiana; Gómez-Martínez, María A; Camañes, Gemma; Ibáñez-Gual, María V; Jaques, Josep A; Hurtado, Mónica A

    2015-11-01

    Gut content analysis using molecular techniques can help elucidate predator-prey relationships in situations in which other methodologies are not feasible, such as in the case of trophic interactions between minute species such as mites. We designed species-specific primers for a mite community occurring in Spanish citrus orchards comprising two herbivores, the Tetranychidae Tetranychus urticae and Panonychus citri, and six predatory mites belonging to the Phytoseiidae family; these predatory mites are considered to be these herbivores' main biological control agents. These primers were successfully multiplexed in a single PCR to test the range of predators feeding on each of the two prey species. We estimated prey DNA detectability success over time (DS50), which depended on the predator-prey combination and ranged from 0.2 to 18 h. These values were further used to weight prey detection in field samples to disentangle the predatory role played by the most abundant predators (i.e. Euseius stipulatus and Phytoseiulus persimilis). The corrected predation value for E. stipulatus was significantly higher than for P. persimilis. However, because this 1.5-fold difference was less than that observed regarding their sevenfold difference in abundance, we conclude that P. persimilis is the most effective predator in the system; it preyed on tetranychids almost five times more frequently than E. stipulatus did. The present results demonstrate that molecular tools are appropriate to unravel predator-prey interactions in tiny species such as mites, which include important agricultural pests and their predators. PMID:25824504

  9. A Rice Stowaway MITE for Gene Transfer in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Fattash, Isam; Bhardwaj, Priyanka; Hui, Caleb; Yang, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    Miniature inverted repeat transposable elements (MITEs) lack protein coding capacity and often share very limited sequence similarity with potential autonomous elements. Their capability of efficient transposition and dramatic amplification led to the proposition that MITEs are an untapped rich source of materials for transposable element (TE) based genetic tools. To test the concept of using MITE sequence in gene transfer, a rice Stowaway MITE previously shown to excise efficiently in yeast was engineered to carry cargo genes (neo and gfp) for delivery into the budding yeast genome. Efficient excision of the cargo gene cassettes was observed even though the excision frequency generally decreases with the increase of the cargo sizes. Excised elements insert into new genomic loci efficiently, with about 65% of the obtained insertion sites located in genes. Elements at the primary insertion sites can be remobilized, frequently resulting in copy number increase of the element. Surprisingly, the orientation of a cargo gene (neo) on a construct bearing dual reporter genes (gfp and neo) was found to have a dramatic effect on transposition frequency. These results demonstrated the concept that MITE sequences can be useful in engineering genetic tools to deliver cargo genes into eukaryotic genomes. PMID:23704977

  10. Leaf domatia mediate mutualism between mites and a tropical tree.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gustavo Q; Benson, Woodruff W

    2004-08-01

    Although associations between mites and leaf domatia have been widely reported, their consequences for plants, especially for natural tree populations, particularly in the tropics, are largely unknown. In experiments with paired Cupania vernalis (Sapindaceae) saplings in a semi-deciduous forest in south-east Brazil, we blocked leaf domatia to examine their effect: (1) on mites and other arthropods, and (2) on damage caused by fungi and herbivorous arthropods. In general, plants with resin-blocked domatia had fewer predaceous mites on leaves than control plants with unaltered domatia, but the total abundances of fungivorous and of phytophagous mites remained unchanged. However, phytophagous eriophyid mites, the most numerous inhabitants of domatia, decreased on leaf surfaces with the blocking treatment. In a second experiment, treated plants lacking functional domatia developed significantly greater numbers and areas of chlorosis, apparently due to increased eriophyid attacks, whereas fungal attack, epiphyll abundance and leaf-area loss were unaffected. This seems to be the first experimental study to demonstrate that leaf domatia can benefit plants against herbivory in a natural system. The possible stabilizing effect of leaf domatia on predator-prey interactions is discussed. PMID:15205936

  11. Are Demodex mites principal, conspirator, accomplice, witness or bystander in the cause of rosacea?

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Plewig, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    As the only permanent human ectoparasite, the role of human Demodex mites in health and diseases remains largely unclarified. In view of the ecological interaction between organisms of two different species, a type of commensalism between Demodex mites and humans (the former benefit, the latter unaffected) is most likely, while parasitism occurs temporarily and spatially in the diseased state (the former benefit, the latter harmed). As part of normal skin microbiota, the causal role of Demodex mites in the initiation of rosacea can neither fulfill the classical Henle-Koch's principal nor the advanced criteria proposed by Fredericks and Relman for molecular detection of non-cultivatable microorganisms. Epidemiological analysis using Hill's criteria fails to support the causative role of Demodex mites in rosacea regarding the strength of association, specificity and temporality of association, biological gradient and plausibility as well as clinical coherence, therapeutic experimentation and medical analogy. In application of Rothman's sufficient cause model to evaluate the contribution of Demodex mites to rosacea on a population basis, Demodex mites can be regarded as a non-necessary, non-sufficient causal factor for certain forms of rosacea. Further strategies to dissect the association between Demodex mites and rosacea may include studying the possible existence of more virulent forms of mites with a higher pathogenicity, the endosymbiotic bacteria in certain life periods of mites, the interactions between mites and human hosts or between mites and environment, and to set up ex vivo culture models for Demodex mites. PMID:25666117

  12. DURATION AND SPREAD OF AN ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGUS USED TO TREAT VARROA MITES IN HONEYBEE HIVES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A strain of Beauveria bassiana isolated from varroa mites was used to treat bees against varroa mites in southern France. Fungal treatment was associated with a considerable increase in the percentage of infected varroa mites over baseline levels in two field experiments. The percentage of infecte...

  13. Detection and Identification of the Red Palm mite Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Major infestations of the Red Palm Mite, Raoiella indica Hirst, have been reported in almost all the Caribbean islands and Venezuela. Correct identification of the mite and host associations is essential for the management and biocontrol of this invasive mite pest. This paper provides information o...

  14. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of Varroa mite in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...

  15. Mechanisms of insecticide resistance in field populations of varroa mite (Acari: Mesostigmata: Varroidae)in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destuctor is a serious threat to beekeeping and crops that rely on honey bee for pollination. The Varroa mite not only causes significant damage to honey bees by feeding on their haemolymph, but also serves as a vector of disease. In addition, the Varroa mite has develo...

  16. Ligand selectivity in tachykinin and natalisin neuropeptidergic systems of the honey bee parasitic mite Varroa destructor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The varroa mite, Varroa destructor, is a devastating ectoparasite of the honey bees Apis mellifera and A. cerana. Control of these mites in beehives is a challenge in part due to the lack of toxic agents that are specific to mites and not to the host honey bee. In searching for a specific toxic targ...

  17. A method for rapidly marking adult varroa mites for use in brood inoculation experiments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We explored a method for marking varroa mites using correction fluid (PRESTO!TM Jumbo Correction Pen, Pentel Co., Ltd., Japan). Individual mites were placed on a piece of nylon mesh (165 mesh) to prevent the mites from moving during marking. A small piece of nylon fishing line (diameter = 0.30 mm)...

  18. The presence of eriophyid mites on native and weed Cirsium species in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aceria anthocoptes is an eriophyid mite that is known to feed on Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense). While this mite species has been considered to be host specific, a detailed evaluation of its host range has yet to be determined. To assess the risks associated with using this mite as a biological ...

  19. Mobilization and evolutionary history of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) in Beta vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Menzel, Gerhard; Dechyeva, Daryna; Keller, Heiko; Lange, Cornelia; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    We have identified three families of miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (VulMITEs) in the genome of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.), evidently derived from a member of the Vulmar family of mariner transposons. While VulMITEs I are typical stowaway-like MITEs, VulMITEs II and VulMITEs III are rearranged stowaway elements of increased size. The integration of divergent moderately and highly repetitive sequences into VulMITEs II and, in particular in VulMITEs III, respectively, shows that amplification of repetitive DNA by MITEs contribute to the increase of genome size with possible implications for plant genome evolution. Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH), for the first time visualizing stowaway MITE distribution on plant chromosomes, revealed a dispersed localization of VulMITEs along all B. vulgaris chromosomes. Analysis of the flanking sequences identified a dispersed repeat as target site for the integration of the stowaway element VulMITE I. Recent transposition of VulMITE I, which most likely occurred during the domestication of cultivated beets, was concluded from insertional polymorphisms between different B. vulgaris cultivars and species. PMID:17171577

  20. Orchestrating house dust mite-associated allergy in the lung

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Lisa G.; Lloyd, Clare M.

    2012-01-01

    House dust mites (HDM; Dermatophagoides sp.) are one of the commonest aeroallergens worldwide and up to 85% of asthmatics are typically HDM allergic. Allergenicity is associated both with the mites themselves and with ligands derived from mite-associated bacterial and fungal products. Murine models of allergic airways disease for asthma research have recently switched from the use of surrogate allergen ovalbumin together with adjuvant to use of the HDM extract. This has accelerated understanding of how adaptive and innate immunity generate downstream pathology. We review the myriad ways in which HDM allergic responses are orchestrated. Understanding the molecular pathways that elicit HDM-associated pathology is likely to reveal novel targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21783420

  1. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  2. Eriophyoid mites (Acari: Prostigmata: Eriophyidae) associated with Compositae in Iran.

    PubMed

    Lotfollahi, Parisa; Irani-Nejad, Karim Haddad; Khanjani, Mohamad; Moghadam, Mohamad; De Lillo, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Five species of eriophyoid mites were identified during surveys of mite fauna associated with plant species of the family Compositae from Southwest of East Azerbaijan province during 2010 and 2011. Two of them, Aceria virgatae n. sp. from Centaurea virgata Lam. and Aceria xeranthenzis n. sp. from Xeranthemumn squarrosum Boiss., were found to be new to science. No damage symptoms were observed on their host plants. Aceria xeranthemis n. sp. is the first eriophyoid collected from the plant genus Xeranthenun. Aculops centaureae (Farkas, 1960) from Centaurea albonitens Turrill and Aceria cichorii Petanović et al. 2000 from Cichorium intybus L. are new records for Iranian mite fauna. The deutogyne female of Aceria anthocoptes (Nalepa) was recorded for the first time in Iran, too. A key to the species collected on Compositae in Iran is given. PMID:26266306

  3. Environmental Engineering Approaches toward Sustainable Management of Spider Mites

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM), which combines physical, biological, and chemical control measures to complementary effect, is one of the most important approaches to environmentally friendly sustainable agriculture. To expand IPM, we need to develop new pest control measures, reinforce existing measures, and investigate interactions between measures. Continued progress in the development of environmental control technologies and consequent price drops have facilitated their integration into plant production and pest control. Here I describe environmental control technologies for the IPM of spider mites through: (1) the disturbance of photoperiod-dependent diapause by artificial light, which may lead to death in seasonal environments; (2) the use of ultraviolet radiation to kill or repel mites; and (3) the use of water vapor control for the long-term cold storage of commercially available natural enemies. Such environmental control technologies have great potential for the efficient control of spider mites through direct physical effects and indirect effects via natural enemies. PMID:26466730

  4. Purification and crystallization of yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase subunit PIG-S (PIG-S71–467)

    PubMed Central

    Kamariah, Neelagandan; Eisenhaber, Frank; Adhikari, Sharmila; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Grüber, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    The transfer of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors onto eukaryotic proteins is catalyzed by the transamidase complex, which is composed of at least five subunits (PIG-K, PIG-S, PIG-T, PIG-U and GPAA1). Here, the recombinant protein PIG-S71–467 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including residues 71–467 of the entire 534-residue protein, was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The monodisperse protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set was collected to 3.2 Å resolution with 91.6% completeness. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.72, b = 59.33, c = 124.3 Å, β = 114.19°, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21821889

  5. Hematology and serum biochemistry in debilitated, free-ranging raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) infested with sarcoptic mange.

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Kamegaya, Chihiro; Omiya, Tomoko; Wada, Yuko; Takahashi, Maya; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2011-12-01

    Frequent outbreaks of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in raccoon dogs (Nyctereutes procyonoides) have been reported in Japan. Although many raccoon dogs are brought to Kanazawa Zoological Garden (Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan) because of S. scabiei infestation and debilitation, some of them die of asthenia. The clinical status of severely debilitated raccoon dogs must be determined to save their lives. In this study, we compared hematological and serum biochemical values between severely debilitated and nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. The total protein, albumin, glucose, and calcium values of debilitated raccoon dogs were significantly lower than those of nondebilitated raccoon dogs. On the other hand, debilitated raccoon dogs had significantly higher aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, chloride, and phosphorus values than did nondebilitated raccoon dogs. The increase in the blood urea nitrogen value was particularly dramatic. The present study revealed that debilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei exhibited abnormal hematological values compared with nondebilitated raccoon dogs infested with S. scabiei. Clinically, the raccoon dogs developed malnutrition and sepsis if the mange infestation was untreated. Moreover, dehydration associated with appetite loss may have resulted in insufficient renal perfusion. These findings suggest that chronic S. scabiei infestations debilitated the raccoon dogs and resulted in physiological changes that were detected with hematological and serum biochemical tests. PMID:21749931

  6. Sublingual Immunotherapy for Asthmatic Children Sensitized to House Dust Mite

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wei; Hu, Qi; Shen, Lei-Lei; Hu, Ying; Tao, Hai-feng; Li, Hui-fan; Fan, Wen-ting

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The house dust mite is one of the most common allergens worldwide. There is good evidence that house dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy is efficacious and has long-term benefit in children. However, the evidence of the benefit of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is less convincing. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate that efficacy and safety of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma. Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases until February 2014 were searched. The primary outcome was mean change in asthma symptom score. Secondary outcomes included mean change in serum immunoglobulin G4 (sIgG4), specific Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and medication score. Safety was also assessed. We found that SLIT significantly decreased asthma symptom score (P = 0.007) and increased sIgG4 levels (P = 0.011) greater than control in children (<18 years of age) with asthma. There was no difference between SLIT and control groups in specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels (P = 0.076) and medication score (P = 0.408). The safety profile was similar between groups. Our study indicates that dust mite SLIT therapy was effective in reducing asthma symptoms and in increasing sIgG4 but did not significantly reduce medication scores or specific D pteronyssinus IgE levels. Our findings are not enough to support the use of dust mite SLIT in children with asthma.

  7. A Simple "Pig" Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

  8. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  9. [The tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti attacks humans in Iceland.].

    PubMed

    Skírnisson, K

    2001-12-01

    In the summer of 2001 the obligate, intermittent tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti attacked humans in an Icelandic household where infected Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus), bought in a local pet shop, had been kept for few months. After a rapid proliferation the mite started attacking the humans living in the house. A boy sharing room with the pets suffered from extensive dermatitis. Optimal conditions for O. bacoti are at 24-26 degrees C and a relative humidity of 47%. Similar conditions frequently occur indoors in Icelandic premises. Therefore, if O. bacoti has been noticed indoors, necessary measures should be undertaken to immediately eliminate the pest. PMID:17019023

  10. Pipeline design essential in making pigging plans

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.

    1998-08-01

    Pigs have gotten an unfortunate reputation for getting stuck in pipelines. As a result, for many years few pigged their pipelines and consequently, many companies are paying the price to repair or replace their corroded pipelines. It is currently considered a necessary evil to run pigs to improve pipeline efficiency and prevent corrosion. Some pipelines were not designed to run pigs and occasionally the wrong type of pig is selected to run in a particular pipeline, increasing the chances of sticking a pig. A pipeline properly designed for pigging along with proper pig selection greatly reduces chances of sticking a pig.

  11. Differential Water Mite Parasitism, Phenoloxidase Activity, and Resistance to Mites Are Unrelated across Pairs of Related Damselfly Species

    PubMed Central

    Mlynarek, Julia J.; Iserbyt, Arne; Nagel, Laura; Forbes, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Related host species often demonstrate differences in prevalence and/or intensity of infection by particular parasite species, as well as different levels of resistance to those parasites. The mechanisms underlying this interspecific variation in parasitism and resistance expression are not well understood. Surprisingly, few researchers have assessed relations between actual levels of parasitism and resistance to parasites seen in nature across multiple host species. The main goal of this study was to determine whether interspecific variation in resistance against ectoparasitic larval water mites either was predictive of interspecific variation in parasitism for ten closely related species of damselflies (grouped into five “species pairs”), or was predicted by interspecific variation in a commonly used measure of innate immunity (total Phenoloxidase or potential PO activity). Two of five species pairs had interspecific differences in proportions of individuals resisting larval Arrenurus water mites, only one of five species pairs had species differences in prevalence of larval Arrenurus water mites, and another two of five species pairs showed species differences in mean PO activity. Within the two species pairs where species differed in proportion of individuals resisting mites the species with the higher proportion did not have correspondingly higher PO activity levels. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals resisting mites mirrored prevalence of parasitism in only one species pair. There was no interspecific variation in median intensity of mite infestation within any species pair. We conclude that a species’ relative ability to resist particular parasites does not explain interspecific variation in parasitism within species pairs and that neither resistance nor parasitism is reflected by interspecific variation in total PO or potential PO activity. PMID:25658982

  12. Oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of plain area of the Southern European Russia.

    PubMed

    Lebedeva, Natalia V; Poltavskaya, Marina P

    2013-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the fauna of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) mostly of a plain area of the Southern European Russia. The most updated taxonomic list of oribatid mite taxa compiled from the original authors' data collected after sam- pling soil, nests and plumage of birds, as well as published sources is presented. It includes 256 species of oribatid mites belonging to 72 families. Twenty species and one family of oribatid mites are recorded for the first time at the research territory. The abundance of mites in the soil is also provided for selected species. PMID:26240900

  13. Rickettsial pathogens in the tropical rat mite Ornithonyssus bacoti (Acari: Macronyssidae) from Egyptian rats (Rattus spp.).

    PubMed

    Reeves, Will K; Loftis, Amanda D; Szumlas, Daniel E; Abbassy, Magda M; Helmy, Ibrahim M; Hanafi, Hanafi A; Dasch, Gregory A

    2007-01-01

    We collected and tested 616 tropical rat mites (Ornithonyssus bacoti (Hirst)) from rats (Rattus norvegicus (Berkenhout) and R. rattus (Linnaeus)) throughout 14 governorates in Egypt and tested DNA extracts from pools of these mites for Bartonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Rickettsia spp. by PCR amplification and sequencing. Three different mite-associated bacterial agents, including one Bartonella and two Rickettsia spp., were detected in eight pools of mites. Further research could demonstrate the vector potential of mites and pathogenicity of these agents to humans or animals. PMID:17225079

  14. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. PMID:25665827

  15. Assessment of Bacterial Communities in Thirteen Species of Laboratory-Cultured Domestic Mites (Acari: Acaridida).

    PubMed

    Hubert, Jan; Kopecky, Jan; Sagova-Mareckova, Marketa; Nesvorna, Marta; Zurek, Ludek; Erban, Tomas

    2016-08-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) and stored-product mites (SPMs) of various species inhabit human homes and stored agricultural products. These mites are carriers and hosts of microorganisms that enable their survival. The bacteriome from 13 species of SPMs and HDMs was analyzed and compared by 454 pyrosequencing of partial 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Altogether 128,052 sequences were obtained and assigned to 71 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at the 97% identity level. The number of sequences in the OTUs between species of mites ranged from 6 to 31 in the individual mite species. We did not find any significant effect of diet or evolutionary origin of mites or their interaction on the composition of the mite bacteriome. In mite species with low bacterial diversity, the bacterial communities were dominated by potential symbiotic or parasitic bacteria, i.e., Cardinium in Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961) and Aeroglyphus robustus (Banks 1906) and the enteric bacteria Erwinia in Blomia tropicalis Van Bronswijk, de Cock & Oshima, 1974 and Xenorhabdus in Tyroborus lini (Oudemans, 1924). Among the bacterial species identified, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Kocuria, Brevibacterium, Corynebacterium, and Brachybacterium likely serve as food sources for the mites. The domestic acaridid mites carried high numbers of various bacteria that are potential threats to human health. These results contribute to the general understanding of the ecology of mite adaptation to human-made habitats. PMID:27122496

  16. Identification, Diversity and Evolution of MITEs in the Genomes of Microsporidian Nosema Parasites.

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xu, Jinshan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons, which are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. However, genome-wide identification, origin and evolution of MITEs remain largely obscure in microsporidia. In this study, we investigated structural features for de novo identification of MITEs in genomes of silkworm microsporidia Nosema bombycis and Nosema antheraeae, as well as a honeybee microsporidia Nosema ceranae. A total of 1490, 149 and 83 MITE-related sequences from 89, 17 and five families, respectively, were found in the genomes of the above-mentioned species. Species-specific MITEs are predominant in each genome of microsporidian Nosema, with the exception of three MITE families that were shared by N. bombycis and N. antheraeae. One or multiple rounds of amplification occurred for MITEs in N. bombycis after divergence between N. bombycis and the other two species, suggesting that the more abundant families in N. bombycis could be attributed to the recent amplification of new MITEs. Significantly, some MITEs that inserted into the homologous protein-coding region of N. bombycis were recruited as introns, indicating that gene expansion occurred during the evolution of microsporidia. NbS31 and NbS24 had polymorphisms in different geographical strains of N. bombycis, indicating that they could still be active. In addition, several small RNAs in the MITEs in N. bombycis are mainly produced from both ends of the MITEs sequence. PMID:25898273

  17. Potential lethal and non-lethal effects of predators on dispersal of spider mites.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, Hatsune; Yano, Shuichi

    2014-11-01

    Predators can affect prey dispersal lethally by direct consumption or non-lethally by making prey hesitate to disperse. These lethal and non-lethal effects are detectable only in systems where prey can disperse between multiple patches. However, most studies have drawn their conclusions concerning the ability of predatory mites to suppress spider mites based on observations of their interactions on a single patch or on heavily infested host plants where spider mites could hardly disperse toward intact patches. In these systems, specialist predatory mites that penetrate protective webs produced by spider mites quickly suppress the spider mites, whereas generalist predators that cannot penetrate the webs were ineffective. By using a connected patch system, we revealed that a generalist ant, Pristomyrmex punctatus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), effectively prevented dispersal of spider mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae), by directly consuming dispersing individuals. We also revealed that a generalist predatory mite, Euseius sojaensis Ehara (Acari: Phytoseiidae), prevented between-patch dispersal of T. kanzawai by making them hesitate to disperse. In contrast, a specialist phytoseiid predatory mite, Neoseiulus womersleyi Schicha, allowed spider mites to escape an initial patch, increasing the number of colonized patches within the system. Our results suggest that ants and generalist predatory mites can effectively suppress Tetranychus species under some conditions, and should receive more attention as agents for conservation biological control in agroecosystems. PMID:24867061

  18. Number of hummingbird visits determines flower mite abundance on hummingbird feeders.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Luna, Ubaldo; Vázquez González, María Magdalena; Castellanos, Ignacio; Ortiz-Pulido, Raúl

    2016-08-01

    Members of several genera of mites from the family Melicharidae (Mesostigmata) use hummingbirds as transport host to move from flower to flower, where they feed on pollen and nectar. The factors that influence hummingbird flower mite abundance on host plant flowers are not currently known. Here we tested whether hummingbird flower mite abundance on an artificial nectar source is determined by number of hummingbird visits, nectar energy content or species richness of visiting hummingbirds. We conducted experiments employing hummingbird feeders with sucrose solutions of low, medium, and high energy concentrations, placed in a xeric shrubland. In the first experiment, we recorded the number of visiting hummingbirds and the number of visiting hummingbird species, as well as the abundance of hummingbird flower mites on each feeder. Feeders with the highest sucrose concentration had the most hummingbird visits and the highest flower mite abundances; however, there was no significant effect of hummingbird species richness on mite abundance. In the second experiment, we recorded flower mite abundance on feeders after we standardized the number of hummingbird visits to them. Abundance of flower mites did not differ significantly between feeders when we controlled for hummingbird visits. Our results suggest that nectar energy concentration determines hummingbird visits, which in turn determines flower mite abundance in our feeders. Our results do not support the hypothesis that mites descend from hummingbird nostrils more on richer nectar sources; however, it does not preclude the possibility that flower mites select for nectar concentration at other spatial and temporal scales. PMID:27115500

  19. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) from Azorean passerines (Aves, Passeriformes): lower species richness compared to European mainland.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Pedro; Mironov, Sergey; Sychra, Oldrich; Resendes, Roberto; Literak, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Ten passerine species were examined on three islands of the Azores (North Atlantic) during 2013 and 2014 in order to identify their feather mite assemblages. We recorded 19 feather mite species belonging to four families of the superfamily Analgoidea (Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae and Trouessartiidae). A high prevalence of feather mite species was recorded on the majority of the examined host species. Only three passerine species (Sylvia atricapilla, Regulus regulus and Serinus canaria) presented the same full complex of mite species as commonly occurs in the plumage of their closest relatives in continental Europe. Passer domesticus presented the same limited fauna of feather mites living in the plumage as do its co-specifics in continental Europe. Carduelis carduelis bears the same feather mite species as do most of its continental populations in Europe, but it lacks one mite species occurring on this host in Egypt. Turdus merula, Pyrrhula murina and Fringilla coelebs are missing several mite species common to their continental relatives. This diminution could be explained by the founder effect, whereby a limited number of colonizing individuals did not transport the full set of feather mite species, or by the extinction of some mite species after initially having reached the Azores. The only individual of Motacilla cinerea sampled in this study presented a new host record for the mite species Trouessartia jedliczkai. PMID:25665827

  20. Response of soil mites to organic cultivation in an ultisol in southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Badejo, M Adetola; De Aquino, Adriana Maria; De-Polli, Helvecio; Correia, Maria Elizabeth Fernandes

    2004-01-01

    Soil-dwelling mites of four plots under organic management were investigated in April and December 1998 and in December 1999. Their populations were compared with mite populations in a pasture and forest in the vicinity. It was observed that there was always an initial reduction in the populations of soil mites and in the activity of the epigeic forms whenever a plot was opened up and disturbed mechanically in preparation for cultivation, irrespective of previous organic inputs. With time, the densities and activities of mites recovered under organic management. The uropodine and oribatid mites in particular benefited more from organic management than gamasine and actinedid mites. Uropodine mites increased tremendously under banana where there was fresh cow dung manure. Oribatid mite species Nothrus seropedicalensis and Archegozetes magnus were dominant in organic plots where the soil was moist and temperatures were lower than the ambient. Protoribates rioensis was dominant in organic plots where the soil was drier and temperatures were higher than the ambient. Galumna was the most active oribatid taxon on the floor of all plots, with the highest activity recorded under maracuja and in pasture plots. The results suggest that while densities and activities of soil mites increased in the organic plots, the community structure and recruitment period of oribatid mites were altered. Oribatid mite diversity was higher in the organic plots than in the pasture but lower than in the forest, where Belba sp. and many Eremobelboid brachypiline genera were present, but absent in the organic plots and pasture. PMID:15651531

  1. Identification, Diversity and Evolution of MITEs in the Genomes of Microsporidian Nosema Parasites

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiang; Ma, Zhenggang; Dang, Xiaoqun; Xu, Jinshan; Zhou, Zeyang

    2015-01-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are short, non-autonomous DNA transposons, which are widespread in most eukaryotic genomes. However, genome-wide identification, origin and evolution of MITEs remain largely obscure in microsporidia. In this study, we investigated structural features for de novo identification of MITEs in genomes of silkworm microsporidia Nosema bombycis and Nosema antheraeae, as well as a honeybee microsporidia Nosema ceranae. A total of 1490, 149 and 83 MITE-related sequences from 89, 17 and five families, respectively, were found in the genomes of the above-mentioned species. Species-specific MITEs are predominant in each genome of microsporidian Nosema, with the exception of three MITE families that were shared by N. bombycis and N. antheraeae. One or multiple rounds of amplification occurred for MITEs in N. bombycis after divergence between N. bombycis and the other two species, suggesting that the more abundant families in N. bombycis could be attributed to the recent amplification of new MITEs. Significantly, some MITEs that inserted into the homologous protein-coding region of N. bombycis were recruited as introns, indicating that gene expansion occurred during the evolution of microsporidia. NbS31 and NbS24 had polymorphisms in different geographical strains of N. bombycis, indicating that they could still be active. In addition, several small RNAs in the MITEs in N. bombycis are mainly produced from both ends of the MITEs sequence. PMID:25898273

  2. Validation of an automated mite counter for Dermanyssus gallinae in experimental laying hen cages.

    PubMed

    Mul, Monique F; van Riel, Johan W; Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Dicke, Marcel; George, David R; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W G

    2015-08-01

    For integrated pest management (IPM) programs to be maximally effective, monitoring of the growth and decline of the pest populations is essential. Here, we present the validation results of a new automated monitoring device for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), a serious pest in laying hen facilities world-wide. This monitoring device (called an "automated mite counter") was validated in experimental laying hen cages with live birds and a growing population of D. gallinae. This validation study resulted in 17 data points of 'number of mites counted' by the automated mite counter and the 'number of mites present' in the experimental laying hen cages. The study demonstrated that the automated mite counter was able to track the D. gallinae population effectively. A wider evaluation showed that this automated mite counter can become a useful tool in IPM of D. gallinae in laying hen facilities. PMID:26002308

  3. Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis control of synanthropic mites (Acari: Acaridida) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Erban, Tomas; Nesvorna, Marta; Erbanova, Michaela; Hubert, Jan

    2009-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins present a potential for control of pest mites. Information concerning the effect of Bt and its possible application to the biocontrol of synathropic mites is rare. The toxic effect of Bacillus thuringiensis var. tenebrionis producing Cry3A toxin was tested on the mites Acarus siro L., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Dermatophagoides farinae Hughes, and Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) via feeding tests. Fifty mites were reared on Bt additive diets in concentrations that ranged from 0 to 100 mg g(-1) under optimal conditions for their development. After 21 days, the mites were counted and the final populations were analyzed using a polynomial regression model. The Bt diet suppressed population growth of the four mite species. The fitted doses of Bt for 50% suppression of population growth were diets ranging from 25 to 38 mg g(-1). There were no remarkable differences among species. Possible applications of Bt for the control of synanthropic mites are discussed. PMID:19381844

  4. Ubiquity and Diversity of Human-Associated Demodex Mites

    PubMed Central

    Thoemmes, Megan S.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Urban, Julie; Trautwein, Michelle; Dunn, Robert R.

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled. PMID:25162399

  5. Ubiquity and diversity of human-associated Demodex mites.

    PubMed

    Thoemmes, Megan S; Fergus, Daniel J; Urban, Julie; Trautwein, Michelle; Dunn, Robert R

    2014-01-01

    Demodex mites are a group of hair follicle and sebaceous gland-dwelling species. The species of these mites found on humans are arguably the animals with which we have the most intimate interactions. Yet, their prevalence and diversity have been poorly explored. Here we use a new molecular method to assess the occurrence of Demodex mites on humans. In addition, we use the 18S rRNA gene (18S rDNA) to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary history of Demodex lineages. Within our samples, 100% of people over 18 years of age appear to host at least one Demodex species, suggesting that Demodex mites may be universal associates of adult humans. A phylogenetic analysis of 18S rDNA reveals intraspecific structure within one of the two named human-associated Demodex species, D. brevis. The D. brevis clade is geographically structured, suggesting that new lineages are likely to be discovered as humans from additional geographic regions are sampled. PMID:25162399

  6. COCCINELLIDAE AS PREDATORS OF MITES: STETHORINI IN BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Stethorini are unique among the Coccinellidae in specializing on mites (principally Tetranychidae) as prey. Consisting of 90 species in two genera, Stethorus and Parasthethorus, the tribe is practically cosmopolitan, and found in diverse habitats, including many agricultural systems, as well as ...

  7. Role of Predatory Mites in Persistent Nonoccupational Allergic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    Poza Guedes, Paloma; Sánchez Machín, Inmaculada; Matheu, Víctor; Iraola, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    Mites can sensitize and induce atopic disease in predisposed individuals and are an important deteriorating factor in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis. Although Pyroglyphidae mites have been extensively studied, very scarce reports are available on Cheyletidae spp. especially regarding human respiratory pathology. The main objective of the present study is to investigate the clinical role of this predator mite (Cheyletus eruditus) as a respiratory antigen in a selected sensitized human population. Fifty-two adult patients were recruited from the outpatient allergy clinic to assess their eligibility for the study. The thirty-seven subjects with persistent allergic rhinitis (PAR) who fulfilled the ARIA criteria had a positive IgE response confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) to C. eruditus. Only those individuals (37/47) with a positive SPT to C. eruditus showed a positive nasal provocation test (NPT), while 10 patients with nonallergic mild-to-moderate persistent rhinitis, control group, had a negative NPT with C. eruditus. The present paper describes a new role for the predator mite Cheyletus eruditus as a respiratory allergen in a selected subset of patients in a subtropical environment afflicted with persistent nonoccupational allergic rhinitis. PMID:27445552

  8. Incidense of spider mites in South Texas cotton fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The incidence of spider mites was evaluated· in four locations of south Texas between Progreso (Hidalgo Co.) to Bishop (Nueces Co.). This is an area with a south to north transect of 125 miles from south Progreso to north Bishop (respectively).The other two intermediate sampled locations were Harlin...

  9. Effectiveness of Eriophyid Mites for Biological Control of Weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eriophyid mites are thought to have a high potential for use as classical biological control agents of weeds. However, in the past 20 years few species have been authorized for introduction, and few have significantly reduced the target plant's population. Natural enemies, resistant plant genotype...

  10. A list of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) of Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Ermilov, Sergey G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A species list of identified oribatid mite taxa (Acari, Oribatida) in the fauna of Vietnam is provided. During 1967–2015, a total of 535 species/subspecies from 222 genera and 81 families was registered. Of these, 194 species/subspecies were described as new for science from Vietnam. PMID:26798306