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1

Residual effects of pig slurry and mineral nitrogen fertilizer on irrigated wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The residual effects of pig slurry beyond the year of application have yet to be clearly quantified to determine if it is possible to reduce N fertilizer rates for the subsequent crops. The objective of this study was to assess the residual effects of pig slurry (PSRE) and mineral N fertilizer (MRE) applied to maize (Zea mays L.) with respect

Sebastián Cela; Francisca Santiveri; Jaime Lloveras

2011-01-01

2

Sorption of 17?-estradiol to pig slurry separates and soil in the soil-slurry environment.  

PubMed

Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM) by separation technologies, which may also remove parts of the estrogens and enhance infiltration of the slurry on field application and hence the interaction between estrogens and the soil matrix. This study investigated how 17?-estradiol (E2), a natural estrogen commonly found in pig manure, sorbs to agricultural soils, to different size fractions of pig slurry separates, and to soils amended with each size fraction to simulate conditions in the soil-slurry environment. A crude fiber fraction (SS1) was prepared by sieving (<500 ?m) the solids removed by an on-farm separation process. Three other size fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used. Sorption of E2 to soil increased with its organic carbon content for both liquid phases. The solid-liquid partition coefficients of slurry separates were 10 to 30 times higher than those of soils, but the organoic carbon normalized partition coefficient values, reflecting sorption per unit organic carbon, were lower for slurry separates. Mixing slurry separates with soil increased the sorption of E2 to the solid phase significantly in the order: SS1 < SS3 < SS2 for both liquid phases. In contrast, SS4 reduced the sorption of E2 to the solid phase by increasing the sorption to suspended or dissolved organic matter. The study suggested that potentially 50 to 75% of E2 in slurry can be removed from the liquid fraction of slurry by physical separation. PMID:22218186

Amin, M G Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

3

Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the relationships between earthworm activity, microbial biomass and the activation and dynamics of several enzyme activities. We carried out an experiment in which low and high rates (1.5 and 3 kg respectively) of pig slurry were applied to small scale reactors with and without earthworms. We found that extracellular enzyme activity increased with rate of pig slurry. In both

Manuel Aira; Fernando Monroy; Jorge Domínguez

2007-01-01

4

Estimation of nutrient values of pig slurries in Southeast Spain using easily determined properties.  

PubMed

The contents of available nutrients in pig slurries are not easy to quantify in situ without laboratory facilities, but chemical analyses using standard laboratory methods also take time and are costly and not practical for most farms. Thus, when animal slurries are applied to land, their fertiliser potential is often unknown. In addition, in the last years, the changes in the management of industrial piggeries has changed the nature of the pig slurries vg. decrease of the dry matter content, and consequently the methods and equations used for estimating the nutrient contents in these residues must be checked. In our study, slurry samples were collected from the storage tanks of 36 commercial farms in Southeast Spain. Samples were analysed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (RP), specific density (D), total solids (TS), sedimentable solids (SS), biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TKN), ammonium nitrogen (AN), organic nitrogen (ON), and total contents of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. Relationships between major nutrient levels of pig slurries and a range of physical and chemical properties were investigated. We also analysed the variability of pig slurries according to the production stage. TKN, AN and K were closely related to EC. The P content in slurries was related more closely to solids-derived parameters such as D. The use of multiple properties to estimate nutrient contents in pig slurries, especially for AN and K, seemed unnecessary due to the limited improvement achieved with an additional property. Therefore, electrical conductivity seemed to be the most appropriate single, easily determined parameter for estimation of total and ammonium nitrogen and potassium in pig slurries, with more than 83% of the variance explained. P seemed to be the worst key nutrient for estimation using any easily determined parameter. PMID:16009306

Moral, R; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Moreno-Caselles, J; Paredes, C

2004-11-21

5

Nitrate leaching through the unsaturated zone following pig slurry applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the increase of nitrate concentration in groundwater has often been ascribed to an inappropriate use of liquid manure, the main purpose of this study was to better understand the factors controlling nitrate dynamics in the unsaturated zone of soils subjected to characteristic agronomic practices, and to contribute to improving Action Programmes, with reference to EU Directive 91/676, for nitrate vulnerable zones (NVZ). Water infiltration and nitrate leaching have been studied in experimental fields located inside nitrate vulnerable zones of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), characterized by different pedological and hydrogeological properties and equipped with meteorological station, tensiometers, ceramic-cup samplers and piezometers. This article describes the results obtained from one of these sites, monitored over a 6-year period, which was cereal cropped and treated with pig slurry. MACRO and SOILN field-scale models have been used in order to verify the reliability of simulated water flow and nitrogen transport. The results demonstrate how nitrogen inputs from slurry, substantially higher than crop uptake, cause nitrate accumulation in the surface layer of the soil especially in warm periods (concentrations of up to 300 mg NO3 N l-1 were found in soil water). Even if the soil texture was fine, the shrinking swelling properties of clay minerals determined fast drainage conditions (related to macroporosity), so that during the early rainy periods nitrates leached through the first meters of the unsaturated zone, at least down to 4 m. This shows that nitrate accumulation should be limited before these periods, i.e. by reducing manure application rates, especially if the soil is to be left uncultivated. The model results confirm the observed role of macroporosity in accelerating the breakthrough of surface applied soluble compounds and provide evidence that MACRO and SOILN may be suitable tools for predicting such phenomena, even though their calibration requires some further refinements.

Mantovi, Paolo; Fumagalli, Letizia; Beretta, Giovanni Pietro; Guermandi, Marina

2006-01-01

6

BACTERIAL RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE DURING AERATION OF PIG SLURRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature effect on total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial growth in pig slurry was studied using low level batch aeration treatments. Five bioreactors were built using Plexiglas tubes to perform five temperature treatments (5 °C, 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, and 25 °C). An airflow rate of 0.129 L\\/min\\/L manure was used to aerate manure contained in all reactors.

Jun Zhu; Pius M. Ndegwa; Ancheng Luo

2002-01-01

7

Phosphorus, copper and zinc in solid and liquid fractions from full-scale and laboratory-separated pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pig slurry separation is a slurry treatment technique that can reduce excess loads of P, Cu and Zn to the arable land. This study investigated the effects of different commercial and laboratory separation treatments for pig slurry on P, Cu and Zn distribution into solid and liquid fractions. Solid and liquid separation fractions were collected from two commercial separators installed

Olga Popovic; Maibritt Hjorth; Lars Stoumann Jensen

2012-01-01

8

Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and ?-galactosidase activity showed the biggest increment comparing to control. No pattern was observed among fertilizer doses, without big differences among them in most properties. We can conclude that the use of pig slurry as organic fertilizer incorporates great amounts of organic matter to the soil in its different forms, including soluble and microorganisms biomass, which has a positive effect encouraging the application of this agricultural management so that soil can act as C sink, in order to mitigate global warming. Thus, this procedure can be included in the strategies to increase the soil carbon sequestration. According to carbon dynamics, doses are not important, without risks of soluble carbon leaching.

Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

2010-05-01

9

Pig slurry application and irrigation effects on nitrate leaching in Mediterranean soil lysimeters.  

PubMed

Land application of animal manures, such as pig slurry (PS), is a common practice in intensive-farming agriculture. However, this practice has a pitfall consisting of the loss of nutrients, in particular nitrate, toward water courses. The objective of this study was to evaluate nitrate leaching for three application rates of pig slurry (50, 100, and 200 Mg ha(-1)) and a control treatment of mineral fertilizer (275 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn grown in 10 drainage lysimeters. The effects of two irrigation regimes (low vs. high irrigation efficiency) were also analyzed. In the first two irrigation events, drainage NO(3)-N concentrations as high as 145 and 69 mg L(-1) were measured in the high and moderate PS rate treatments, respectively, in the low irrigation efficiency treatments. This indicates the fast transformation of the PS ammonium into nitrate and the subsequent leaching of the transformed nitrate. Drainage NO(3)-N concentration and load increased linearly by 0.69 mg NO(3)-N L(-1) and 4.6 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1), respectively, for each 10 kg N ha(-1) applied over the minimum of 275 kg N ha(-1). An increase in irrigation efficiency did not induce a significant increase of leachate concentration and the amount of nitrate leached decreased about 65%. Application of low PS doses before sowing complemented with sidedressing N application and a good irrigation management are the key factors to reduce nitrate contamination of water courses. PMID:15537952

Daudén, A; Quílez, D; Vera, M V

10

Nitrogen mineralization and CO 2 and N 2 O emissions in a sandy soil amended with original or acidified pig slurries or with the relative fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The following six pig slurries obtained after acidification and\\/or solid\\/liquid separation were used in the research: original\\u000a (S) and acidified (AS) pig slurry, nonacidified (LF) and acidified (ALF) pig slurry liquid fraction, and nonacidified (SF)\\u000a and acidified (ASF) pig slurry solid fraction. Laboratory incubations were performed to assess the effect of the application\\u000a of these slurries on N mineralization and

David Fangueiro; Henrique Ribeiro; João Coutinho; Laura Cardenas; Henrique Trindade; Cristina Cunha-Queda; Ernesto Vasconcelos; Fernanda Cabral

2010-01-01

11

The effects of certain antibiotics on biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pig waste slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of pigs – amoxicillin trihydrate, oxytetracycline hydrochloride and thiamphenicol – were added at different concentrations to aliquots of pig waste slurry plus anaerobic sludge in serum bottles. The biogas production and methane concentration in the headspace were monitored to determine the effect of the antibiotics on the anaerobic process. With thiamphenicol significant differences in

A Lallai; G Mura; N Onnis

2002-01-01

12

Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and ?-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and ?-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment, whereas, black and soluble C was decreased with PS addition. There may have been a transient positive effect of the RPS treatments on the soil biochemical parameters. However, the effect could not be detected because of less labile C content during the experiment. The beneficial effects of the PS additions were less pronounced in the 0-30 cm. soil layer. In this monoculture barley production system and under these Mediterranean climate conditions, applications of TPS should be avoided, so they were associated with a decline in microbial counts and a leveling of almost all the enzymatic activities and microbial biomass C. Keywords: Pig slurry, Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C, ?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzyme activities.

Halil Yanarda?, Ibrahim

2013-04-01

13

Chemical amendment of pig slurry: control of runoff related risks due to episodic rainfall events up to 48 h after application.  

PubMed

Losses of phosphorus (P) from soil and slurry during episodic rainfall events can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. However, chemical amendments have the potential to decrease P and suspended solids (SS) losses from land application of slurry. Current legislation attempts to avoid losses to a water body by prohibiting slurry spreading when heavy rainfall is forecast within 48 h. Therefore, in some climatic regions, slurry spreading opportunities may be limited. The current study examined the impact of three time intervals (TIs; 12, 24 and 48 h) between pig slurry application and simulated rainfall with an intensity of 11.0?±?0.59 mm h(-1). Intact grassed soil samples, 1 m long, 0.225 m wide and 0.05 m deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial-grade liquid alum (8 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al/ total phosphorus (TP)], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38 % FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe/TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (10 % Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al/TP]. Results showed that an increased TI between slurry application and rainfall led to decreased P and SS losses in runoff, confirming that the prohibition of land-spreading slurry if heavy rain is forecast in the next 48 h is justified. Averaged over the three TIs, the addition of amendment reduced all types of P losses to concentrations significantly different (p?slurry, with no significant difference between treatments. Losses from amended slurry with a TI of 12 h were less than from unamended slurry with a TI of 48 h, indicating that chemical amendment of slurry may be more effective at ameliorating P loss in runoff than current TI-based legislation. Due to the high cost of amendments, their incorporation into existing management practices can only be justified on a targeted basis where inherent soil characteristics deem their usage suitable to receive amended slurry. PMID:23526311

O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Wilson, Paul; Hoekstra, Nyncke J; Troy, Shane M; Fenton, Owen

2013-03-26

14

Dietary protein affects nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing–finishing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of dietary protein on nitrogen excretion and ammonia emission from slurry of growing–finishing pigs were studied both in vitro and in a pig house. The three diets had similar contents of NE, minerals, vitamins and ileal digestible lysine, methionine+cystine, threonine and tryptophan, but differed in CP content (16.5, 14.5 and 12.5%). In the balance experiment, 18 castrated males

T. T. Canh; A. J. A. Aarnink; J. B. Schutte; A. L. Sutton; D. J. Langhout; M. W. A. Verstegen

1998-01-01

15

Response of maize yield, nitrate leaching, and soil nitrogen to pig slurry combined with mineral nitrogen.  

PubMed

The application of pig (Sus scrofa) slurry (PS) is a common fertilization practice that may affect nitrate concentrations and loads in drainage and receiving water bodies. To protect water resources, many agricultural areas are being designated as vulnerable to nitrate contamination, and there is a need for scientific data aiming at reducing nitrate exports from these vulnerable zones by optimizing N fertilization strategies. The objective of this work, conducted in drainage lysimeters in a 4-yr monoculture maize (Zea mays L.) crop, is to assess the effects of four fertilization strategies combining PS (30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha(-1)) and mineral N on yield, changes in soil mineral N, and concentration and mass of nitrate in drainage waters. Grain yield was not affected by treatments in the four experimental years, nor was the soil mineral N at the end of the experiment. Effects of fertilization strategies on nitrate concentration and mass in drainage waters were detected only after 3 yr of repeated PS applications. The mass of nitrate leached over the 4 yr was positively related to the total amount of N applied, either organic or mineral. In year 2003, precipitation in spring reduced N availability for the crop in treatments with rates > or = 60 t PS ha(-1). The N-budget revealed that the transport pathways for 25% of N inputs to the system are unknown. The presowing application of pig slurry at 30 t ha(-1) complemented with mineral N at side-dressing, was the most efficient from an environmental standpoint (4-yr average of 145 kg grain yield kg(-1) N leached). PMID:20176841

Yagüe, María R; Quílez, Dolores

2010-02-19

16

Dynamics of a Pig Slurry Microbial Community during Anaerobic Storage and Management  

PubMed Central

The microbial community of a pig slurry on a farm was monitored for 6 months using both molecular and cultural approaches. Sampling was carried out at all the different stages of effluent handling, from the rearing build-up to slurry spreading. Total DNA of each sample was extracted and analyzed by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using primers targeting the 16S rRNA genes from the archaeal and bacterial domains and also the Eubacterium-Clostridium, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides-Prevotella groups. A comparison of the SSCP profiles showed that there were rapid changes in the dominant bacterial community during the first 2 weeks of anaerobic storage and that the community was relatively stable thereafter. Several bacterial populations, identified as populations closely related to uncultured Clostridium and Porphyromonas and to Lactobacillus and Streptococcus cultured species commonly isolated from pig feces, remained present and dominant from the rearing build-up to the time of spreading. Enumeration of fecal indicators (enterococci and Escherichia coli) performed in parallel using cultural methods revealed the same trends. On the other hand, the archaeal community adapted slowly during pig slurry storage, and its diversity increased. A shift between two hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Methanobrevibacter populations from the storage pit to the pond was observed. Microorganisms present in pig slurry at the time of spreading could not be detected in soil after spreading by either molecular or cultural techniques, probably because of the detection limit inherent in the two techniques.

Peu, Pascal; Brugere, Hubert; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Kerouredan, Monique; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe; Dabert, Patrick

2006-01-01

17

Evaluation of the Application of Pig Slurry to an Experimental Crop Using Agronomic and Ecotoxicological Approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

has been acknowledged (MAPA, 1997) that approxi- mately 50% of this manure is spread on agricultural The agronomic and ecotoxicological effects of the application of land. Current European Environmental Council Direc- pig (Sus scrofa ) slurry during a maize (Zea mays L.) crop cycle under conditions of forced irrigation were evaluated. The 0.2-ha experimen- tives (CD) such as the Waste

J. A. Diez; A. I. de la Torre; M. C. Cartagena; M. Carballo; A. Vallejo; M. J. Muñoz

2001-01-01

18

Earthworm effects on gaseous emissions during vermifiltration of pig fresh slurry.  

PubMed

Treatment of liquid manure can result in the production of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane. Earthworms mix and transform nitrogen and carbon without consuming additional energy. The objective of this paper is to analyse whether earthworms modify the emissions of NH(3), N(2)O, CH(4) and CO(2) during vermifiltration of pig slurry. The experiment used mesocosms of around 50 L, made from a vermifilter treating the diluted manure of a swine house. Three levels of slurry were added to the mesocosms, with or without earthworms, during one month, in triplicate. Earthworm abundance and gas emissions were measured three and five times, respectively. There was a decrease in emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide and a sink of methane in treatments with earthworms. We suggest that earthworm abundance can be used as a bioindicator of low energy input, and low greenhouse gas and ammonia output in systems using fresh slurry with water recycling. PMID:21185175

Luth; Robin, Paul; Germain, Philippe; Lecomte, Marcel; Landrain, Brigitte; Li, Yinsheng; Cluzeau, Daniel

2010-11-12

19

On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.  

PubMed

Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC <1.9 dS m(-1) for dilution. This method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use. PMID:22565270

Yagüe, M R; Quílez, D

20

Developmental toxicity of Clarified Slurry Oil applied dermally to rats  

SciTech Connect

Clarified Slurry Oil (CSO), the heavy residual fraction from the fluidized catalytic cracker, was applied to the shaven backs of groups of 10 pregnant rats at doses of 0, 4, 8, 30, 125, and 250 mg/kg/day. All groups received the test material on gestation days 0-19. CSO was applied undiluted and left uncovered on the skin; collars were placed on the rats to minimize ingestion of the test material. Signs of maternal toxicity, some of which were seen at dose levels as low as 8 mg/kg/day, included vaginal bleeding, decreased body weight gain, reduced food consumption, death, increased relative liver weights, atrophy of the thymus, and aberrant serum chemistry. The number of fetal resorptions/deaths was markedly increased and the number of viable offspring decreased by CSO at dosages of 30 mg/kg/day and above. The group receiving 250 mg/kg/day carried no viable offspring. Fetuses from pregnant females exposed to CSO at dose levels in excess of 8 mg/kg/day were smaller than those from control and 4 mg/kg/day groups, and their skeletons showed decreased ossification. Abnormal external development and visceral development were observed in living and dead fetuses exposed in utero to CSO at dose levels as low as 8 mg/kg/day. Based on these data, 4 mg/kg/day represents the No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level for both maternal and developmental toxicity.

Feuston, M.H.; Kerstetter, S.L.; Singer, E.J.; Mehlman, M.A. (Mobil Oil Corporation, Princeton, NJ (USA))

1989-05-01

21

Degradation of ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution using electron beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of degradation of antibiotic ampicillin in pig manure slurry and an aqueous ampicillin solution with the use of electron beam irradiation as a function of the absorbed dose. The degradation efficiency of ampicillin was close to 95% at an absorbed dose of 10 kGy. The degradation of ampicillin followed a “first-order” reaction rate with respect to absorbed dose. The results demonstrate that the electron beam irradiation technology is an effective means to remove antibiotics in manure and bodies of water.

Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jae-Sung; Lee, Min Hee; Lee, Kang Soo; Hwang, Seon Ah; Cho, Jae Young

2009-07-01

22

Dietary Carbohydrates Alter the Fecal Composition and pH and the Ammonia Emission from Slurry of Growing Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of dietary carbohydrates on the composition and pH of fecal material and on the ammonia emission from the slurry of growing pigs. Thirty-four barrows (BW approximately 40 kg) were randomly allotted to 1 of 10 diets. A basal diet was formulated to meet all requirements for protein, amino acids, minerals, and vitamins. The control diet was

T. T. Canh; A. L. Sutton; A. J. A. Aarnink; M. W. A. Verstegen; J. W. Schrama; G. C. M. Bakker

2010-01-01

23

Changes in microbial community structure and function during vermicomposting of pig slurry.  

PubMed

Most studies investigating the effects of earthworms on microorganisms have focused on the changes before and after vermicomposting rather than those that occur throughout the process. In the present study, we designed continuous feeding reactors in which new layers of pig slurry (1.5 and 3 kg) were added sequentially to form an age gradient inside the reactors in order to evaluate the impact of the earthworm species Eisenia fetida on microbial community structure and function. The activity of earthworms greatly reduced the bacterial and fungal biomass and microbial diversity relative to the control values. However, the pronounced presence of earthworms in the younger layers stimulated microbial activity and as such increased carbon mineralization probably due to the fact that the microorganisms may have been less resource-limited as a result of earthworm activity, as indicated by the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated PLFAs. PMID:21220200

Gómez-Brandón, María; Aira, Manuel; Lores, Marta; Domínguez, Jorge

2010-12-22

24

Triggered antioxidant defense mechanism in maize grown in soil with accumulation of Cu and Zn due to intensive application of pig slurry.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in both the growth parameters and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of maize (Zea may L.) plants grown in Typic Hapludalf soil containing an accumulation of Cu and Zn. This accumulation developed because the soil received nineteen applications of pig slurry in no-tillage system over seven years. In this study, the maize plants were grown for fifteen and 25 days after emergence (DAE) in pots containing undisturbed and disturbed soil samples collected from a field experiment that received the rates 0, 20, 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry, which totalized the amount of 0, 380, 760 and 1520m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry in seven years, respectively, and phosphorus (P)+potassium (K) treatment (in disturbed soil samples). The maize plants grown in the undisturbed soil samples with an accumulation of Cu and Zn did not indicate an apparent decrease in growth. However, when compared to the treatment with PK fertilization, the maize plants grown in the disturbed soil with pig slurry treatments indicated higher lipid peroxidation and a number of senescent leaves, as well as a significant decrease in plant height. Additionally, when compared to the PK treatment, the leaf superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased and increased, respectively, with the addition of pig slurry treatments in the disturbed soil at 25 DAE. In general, when compared to the treatments with 20m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry and PK at fifteen and 25 DAE, the leaf ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups concentrations decreased with the addition of 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry. This result suggests that the excess of Cu and Zn in the pig slurry significantly changed the antioxidant system of the maize plants. PMID:23669342

Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Tiecher, Tadeu L; De Conti, Lessandro; Schmatz, Roberta; Brunetto, Gustavo; Schetinger, Maria R C; Nicoloso, Fernando T

2013-05-11

25

Combination of batch experiments with continuous reactor data for ADM1 calibration: application to anaerobic digestion of pig slurry.  

PubMed

Modelling anaerobic digestion processes is a key aspect of studying and optimizing digesters and related waste streams. However, for the satisfactory prediction of biogas production and effluent characteristics, some parameters have to be calibrated according to the characteristics of the substrates. This article describes a calibration procedure for the IWA 'Anaerobic Digestion Model no. 1' applied to the modelling of a digester for treatment of pig slurry. The most sensitive parameters were selected and calibrated combining results from a continuous digester and from batch trials run with the sludge sampled from the digester and the addition of specific substrates. According to the sensitivity analysis, acetoclastic methanogenesis, acetogenesis of propionate and acidogenesis of sugars were identified as the main sensitive steps in our case. The calibration procedure led us to modify slightly acetogenesis of propionate kinetic. However, acetoclastic methanogenesis and acidogenesis of sugars kinetics were significantly reduced by decreasing km and increasing Ks. Indeed, for instance, a decrease of km_ac from 8 to 7 day(-1) combined with an increase of Ks_ac from 0.15 to 1.5 kgCOD/m3 was necessary. After calibration, ADM1 provides an accurate simulation of the continuous reactor results. PMID:22049751

Girault, R; Rousseau, P; Steyer, J P; Bernet, N; Béline, F

2011-01-01

26

Influence of the concentrated pig slurry on soil and corn fodder yield and chemical composition in presence of N top dressing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was carried out using corn plants (Zea mays L.), in order to define the possible utilization of the concentrated pig slurry as an organic fertilizer, avoiding soil pollution caused by its chemical composition. Results obtained showed that on a slightly loamy coarse sand soil an amount of 40 t ha-1 on fresh weight basis of concentrated pig

E. Vasconcelos; F. Cabral

1995-01-01

27

Methane fluxes following slurry applications to grassland soils: laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of soil and slurry type on methane (CH4) emissions were investigated under laboratory conditions. CH4 emissions were influenced by soil type only when the slurries applied had low dry matter contents.Pig and dairy slurries were applied at 25 m3 ha?1 to intact soil cores of a sandy loam and a silty clay. CH4 emissions were immediate from all

D. R. Chadwick; B. F. Pain

1997-01-01

28

Oxidation of C-labeled methane in surface crusts of pig- and cattle slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage tanks for slurry from animal production constitute important point sources for emission of CH4 into the atmosphere. Recent investigations have demonstrated that surface crust formed on top of animal slurry provides a habitat for CH4 oxidation activity, a finding which may open for new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during storage of animal wastes. In this work, C-labeled

Per Ambus; Søren O. Petersen

2005-01-01

29

Determination of Total Ammonium Nitrogen in Pig and Cattle Slurry: Sample Preparation and Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to supply the correct amount of ammonium to the crop when slurry is spread on the field, it is necessary to know the ammonium concentration. Slurry is a heterogeneous substance and there is a risk that organic N-compounds and the ionic strength will interfere with the determination of ammonium. The usability of five different methods for the determination

Sven G. Sommer; Viggo Kjellerup; Ole Kristjansen

1992-01-01

30

Effects of Composted and Non?composted Solid Phase of Pig Slurry on N, P, and K Contents in Two Mediterranean Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Improvement of organic matter content in Mediterranean soils is a main concern in soil management, especially in highly intensive agricultural areas and in degraded burned soils. Solid pig slurry is a good soil amendment, not only for its high organic matter content but also for the nutrient it can supply. The objective of this study was to estimate the influence

Felipe Rodriguez; Cesar Guerrero; Raul Moral; Hugo Ayguade

2005-01-01

31

ISTA 14--impact of antibiotics from pig slurry on soil microbial communities, including the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor.  

PubMed

Livestock slurry containing antibiotics is a source of contamination of agricultural soils, with possible effects on soil function and micro-organisms. Extracellular oxido-reductases and hydrolases from the fungus T. versicolor and fungal growth were monitored in liquid cultures in the presence of tetracycline, lincomycine, sulfadiazine and ciprofloxacin for 10 days, in order to assess the suitability of these enzymes as biomarkers. Among the conditions of treatment, statistical analysis demonstrated an increase in manganese-dependent peroxidase after exposure to sulfadiazine at 1 mg/L when compared with the control. Acid phosphatase activity was decreased by lincomycine at 1 or 10 mg/L. Conversely, ?-glucosidase activity increased in the presence of this antibiotic at 10 mg/L. In Terrestrial Model Ecosystems spiked with contaminated pig slurry, lincomycine at the concentration of 8 or 80 ?g/kg dry soil, and ciprofloxacin at 250 ng/kg dry soil decreased the activity of soil dehydrogenase, when compared with a green slurry treatment, over 28-day incubations. Laccase activity was similarly decreased in the presence of the highest concentration of antibiotics. We determined bacterial and fungal biomasses using Q-PCR. Bacterial biomass was increased in the presence of lincomycine at 80 ?g/kg whatever the time of exposure, and to a lesser extent in the presence of ciprofloxacin at 250 ng/kg, but only at day 28. In contrast, both antibiotics, whatever their concentrations, did not modify fungal biomass in soil. In conclusion, we were unable to demonstrate important effects of antibiotics at concentrations found in the agricultural environment. PMID:21702076

Igel-Egalon, Angélique; Cheviron, Nathalie; Hedde, Mickael; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina; Mougin, Christian

2011-06-23

32

Sulphur fate and anaerobic biodegradation potential during co-digestion of seaweed biomass (Ulva sp.) with pig slurry.  

PubMed

Seaweed (Ulva sp.) stranded on beaches were utilized as co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in three-month co-digestion tests in pilot scale anaerobic digesters in the laboratory. The methanogenic potential of Ulva sp. was low compared to that of other potential co-substrates available for use by farmers: 148 N m3CH4/t of volatile solids or 19 N m3CH4/t of crude product. When used as a co-substrate with pig manure (48%/52% w/w), Ulva sp. seaweed did not notably disrupt the process of digestion; however, after pilot stabilisation, biogas produced contained 3.5% H2S, making it unsuitable for energy recovery without treatment. Sequentially addition of the sulphate reduction inhibitor, potassium molybdate, to a final concentration of 3mM, temporarily reduced H2S emissions, but was unable to sustain this reduction over the three-month period. According to these pilot tests, the use of seaweed stranded on beaches as co-substrate in farm-based biogas plants shows some limitations. PMID:21982451

Peu, P; Sassi, J-F; Girault, R; Picard, S; Saint-Cast, Patricia; Béline, F; Dabert, P

2011-08-27

33

Degradation of Sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus Strain SDZm4, Isolated from Lysimeters Previously Manured with Slurry from Sulfadiazine-Medicated Pigs  

PubMed Central

Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with 14C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no 14CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as 14CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified 14C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms.

Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Bjorn; Groeneweg, Joost

2013-01-01

34

Degradation of sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus strain SDZm4, isolated from lysimeters previously manured with slurry from sulfadiazine-medicated pigs.  

PubMed

Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with (14)C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no (14)CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as (14)CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified (14)C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms. PMID:23396336

Tappe, Wolfgang; Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Björn; Groeneweg, Joost

2013-02-08

35

Reduction of total coliform numbers during vermicomposting is caused by short-term direct effects of earthworms on microorganisms and depends on the dose of application of pig slurry.  

PubMed

During vermicomposting of organic waste, the interactions between epigeic earthworms and the detrital microbial community lead to decreases in the abundance of some potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Despite its importance, little is known about the mechanisms involved and the factors that affect the intensity of this effect. In the present study, we carried out three experiments to test the effect of the earthworm Eisenia fetida on total coliform numbers in pig slurry. We firstly applied low and high doses (1.5 and 3 kg, respectively) of pig slurry to small scale vermireactors with and without earthworms. We found that E. fetida significantly reduced total coliform numbers after 2 weeks, but only in the low dose vermireactors. In a subsequent feeding experiment in mesocosms, we observed that the coliform population was reduced by 98% after passage through the earthworms' guts, which suggests that digestive processes in the gut of E. fetida are the main factors involved in the decrease in total coliforms observed in the low dose vermireactors. Decreases in total coliform numbers were not related to decreases in bacterial biomass, which indicates a specific negative effect of earthworms on the coliforms. In the third experiment, we tested the indirect effect of earthworms on total coliforms by inoculating pig slurry with either 2 or 10% vermicompost. The addition of vermicompost did not affect the number of coliforms either after 15, 30 or 60 days, which supports the idea that this bacterial group is more affected by the passage through the gut of E. fetida than by interactions with the earthworm-shaped microbial community. PMID:19640567

Monroy, Fernando; Aira, Manuel; Domínguez, Jorge

2009-07-28

36

Changes in microbial biomass and microbial activity of pig slurry after the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg, 1867)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we studied the effects of gut transit through the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, on the physicochemical, biochemical, and microbial characteristics of pig slurry, by analyzing fresh casts. The reduction\\u000a in the dissolved organic C contents in casts we recorded suggests that during digestion, earthworms assimilated labile organic\\u000a C preferentially, which is a limiting growth factor for them. Furthermore, both microbial

Manuel Aira; Fernando Monroy; Jorge Domínguez

2006-01-01

37

A mechanistic model for estimating ammonia volatilization from slurry applied to bare soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loss of ammonia by volatilization after slurry application may lead to large losses of soil-plant nitrogen. It is also a major source of atmospheric ammonia. These fluxes must therefore be accurately measured. However, volatilization depends on many features of the soil, climate and slurry, so that it is difficult to predict, or even to interpret and compare data from

S. Génermont; P. Cellier

1997-01-01

38

Effect of dietary crude protein levels in a commercial range, on the nitrogen balance, ammonia emission and pollutant characteristics of slurry in fattening pigs.  

PubMed

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary levels of crude protein (CP), close to the range used commercially and to the European Commission recommended values, on the nitrogen (N) balance, ammonia (NH(3)) emission and pollutant characteristics of the slurry from growing and finishing pigs. Three feeding programmes with different CP levels were compared during the growing and the finishing periods of fattening. Diets were formulated to be isoenergetic and for the digestible lysine : metabolisable energy ratio to be similar in all the diets for each phase, but differed in CP concentration (160, 150 and 140 g CP/kg for the growing phase and 155, 145 and 135 g CP/kg for the finishing phase). Faeces and urine from barrows (eight replicates per diet) allocated in metabolism cages were collected separately for 5 days to calculate the N balance and for 2 days to measure NH(3) emission in a laboratory system for 240 h. Excreta were analysed for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), total N, electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD(5)), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH(4)-N reduction of dietary CP content led to a linear decrease of urinary (P < 0.05) and total (P < 0.05) N excretion, and N excretion/feed intake (P < 0.001). The emission of NH3 was similar in all diets (P > 0.05) during the 240 h of study. However, in the growing phase, the NH(3)-N level in slurry was lower (P < 0.05) for the low-CP diet. In addition, the CP level had no significant effect (P > 0.05) on total VFA, EC, TS, VS, COD or BOD(5) contents of excreta. These parameters were higher (P < 0.05) in slurry from the finishing phase than from the growing phase. However, NH(4)-N in the slurry decreased (P < 0.05) by 20.3% and 28.4% when the CP level was decreased by 9.30 or 21.40 g/kg, respectively. It is concluded that lowering dietary CP levels even by small amounts and using CP levels close to these used in commercial diets and close to the European Commission recommended values will decrease urinary and total N excretion in the slurry of growing-finishing pigs. The slurry from finishing pigs is more concentrated than that from growing pigs. PMID:22440182

Hernández, F; Martínez, S; López, C; Megías, M D; López, M; Madrid, J

2011-06-01

39

Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.  

PubMed

Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils. PMID:23141380

Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Sim?nek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

2012-10-23

40

Relationship between N immobilization and volatile fatty acids in soil after application of pig and cattle slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A laboratory study was performed to determine decomposition of fatty acids and mineralization of C and N from slurries in soil. Fatty acids present in slurries decomposed within 1–2 days at 25°C in soil. Parallel to the fatty acid decomposition, immobilization of N was measured in soil. The correlation between the initial fatty acid concentrations in the slurries and the

Holger Kirchmann; Anders Lundvall

1993-01-01

41

Fate of phosphorus applied in slurry and mineral fertilizer: accumulation in soil and release into surface runoff water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) accumulation on the soil surface and its effect on the concentration of dissolved orthophosphate P (PO4-P) in surface runoff water were studied after three years of surface application of slurry and mineral fertilizer to grass ley on a sandy soil, poor in P. The total amount of P applied was 107–143 kg ha-1>, of which 72–119 kg ha-1>

E. Turtola; M. Yli-Halla

1999-01-01

42

Feasibility study of the anaerobic digestion of dewatered pig slurry by means of polyacrylamide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid livestock waste can be managed by separating liquid and solid fractions then treating each separately by applying best available technology, such as anaerobic digestion for the solid fraction. There is an increasing use of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a flocculant agent to improve solid–liquid separation. In the present work, the anaerobic toxicity of PAM residues and the optimal range of

E. Campos; M. Almirall; J. Mtnez-Almela; J. Palatsi; X. Flotats

2008-01-01

43

Utilization of wasted sardine oil as co-substrate with pig slurry for biogas production--a pilot experience of decentralized industrial organic waste management in a Portuguese pig farm.  

PubMed

This work aimed to demonstrate in a pig farm and in real conditions, the possibilities to co-digest wasted sardine oil (WSO) and pig slurry (PS) at farm scale. A biogas mobile pilot plant, was set up in the farm and operated in real conditions during 4 months. Dynamic mesophilic (35-37 °C) continuous pilot trials were performed during four different periods of time. In each period a different organic loading rate (OLR) based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) was operated sequentially, with pig slurry (PS) (OLR = 1.6 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and with mixtures of WSO:PS with a volumetric composition (% v/v) of 2:98 (OLR = 3.0 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)), 3:97 (OLR = 3.7 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)) and 5:95 (OLR = 5.2 kg COD/m(3) d(-1)). Biomass adapted very fast in metabolise the WSO and biogas productivity was raised substantially for different compositions of WSO:PS. Process stability indicators pH and Total volatile fatty acids/bicarbonate alkalinity (T-VFA/BA) ratio, suggests that the co-digestion process was robust. It was concluded that WSO could be easily co-digested in farm scale biogas plants. PMID:22525261

Ferreira, L; Duarte, E; Figueiredo, D

2012-04-05

44

Leaching and Crop Uptake of Nitrogen and Phosphorus from Pig Slurry as Affected by Different Application Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

(F100), 93 (S50), 120 (S100), and 128 (S150). The loads of slurry- derived N in the S100, S150, and S200 treatments were significantly larger (P , 0.05) than those of fertilizer-derived N. In contrast, P leaching tended to decrease with increasing input of slurry, and it was lower in all treatments that received P at or above 50 kg P

Lars Bergström; Holger Kirchmann

2006-01-01

45

Methane Oxidation in Pig and Cattle Slurry Storages, and Effects of Surface Crust Moisture and Methane Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storages with liquid manure (slurry) may develop a surface crust of particulate organic matter, or an artificial crust can\\u000a be established. Slurry storages are net sources of atmospheric methane (CH4), but a potential for bacterial oxidation of CH4 in surface crusts was recently suggested in a study of experimental storages. The present study was conducted to investigate\\u000a methanotrophic activity under

Søren O. Petersen; Per Ambus

2006-01-01

46

Changes in mineral nitrogen, soil organic matter fractions and microbial community level physiological profiles after application of digested pig slurry and compost from municipal organic wastes to burned soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, mineralization of digested pig slurry and compost from municipal organic wastes in burned soils was followed for 60 days. The effects of amendments on organic matter fractions and microbial community level physiological profiles (CLPP) were also investigated at the end of the incubation period. Soil from a forest 10 days after a fire had a greater basal

C. M. d. S. Cordovil; A. de Varennes; R. Pinto; R. C. Fernandes

2011-01-01

47

Nitrogen transformations under different conditions in open ponds by means of microalgae-bacteria consortium treating pig slurry.  

PubMed

Four open ponds inoculated with microalgae-bacteria consortium treating different swine slurries (fresh and anaerobically digested) were evaluated in terms of nitrogen transformation under optimal and real conditions of temperature and illumination. Ammonium complete depletion was not achieved. Ponds operated under real conditions presented lower ammonium removal. Elimination capacities were around 26 mg N/Ld and were subsequently increased with increasing inlet ammonium loading rate. Different nitrogen transformation was observed depending on substrate source. When anaerobically digested slurry was fed to the ponds, nitrification followed by biomass uptake and denitrification were the main nitrogen transformation taking place depending on inlet ammonium loading rate and operational conditions. Ponds fed with fresh slurry exhibited denitrification as the main nitrogen removal mechanism for the pond operated under real conditions while under optimal conditions stripping, denitrification and biomass uptake contributed similarly. Therefore, this study confirmed that the so-claimed nitrogen recovery by microalgae biomass is frequently overestimated. PMID:20943377

González-Fernández, Cristina; Molinuevo-Salces, Beatriz; García-González, Maria Cruz

2010-09-19

48

SLURRY BIODEGRADATION  

EPA Science Inventory

In a slurry biodegradation system, an aqueous slurry is created by combining soil or sludge with water. his slurry is then biodegraded aerobically using a self-contained reactor or in a lined lagoon. hus, slurry biodegradation can be compared to an activated sludge process or an ...

49

Soil N and P availability for field applied slurry from swine fed traditional and low phytate corn diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine (Sus scrofa) slurry contains nutrients essential for crop production but usually contains more P relative to N than is required by most crops. Land application at rates to meet the crop N needs results in accumulation of excess P creating the potential for negative environmental impacts. Diet ...

50

Lapping slurry  

DOEpatents

Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina workpieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Upchurch, Victor S. (Powell, TN); Leitten, Michael E. (Frederick, MD)

1999-01-01

51

Lapping slurry  

DOEpatents

Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina work pieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid. 1 fig.

Simandl, R.F.; Upchurch, V.S.; Leitten, M.E.

1999-01-05

52

The effect of probiotic BioPlus 2B ® on growth performance, dry matter and nitrogen digestibility and slurry noxious gas emission in growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

For this study, 2 experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary BioPlus 2B® supplements on growing pigs. In experiment 1, 64 crossbred pigs (26.70 ± 0.50 kg) were subjected to a 35-day feeding trial (2 pigs\\/pen, 8 pens\\/treatment) in which the effects of the following four corn-soybean meal based dietary treatments were compared: 1) CON (basal diet); 2) B0.05

Y. Wang; J. H. Cho; Y. J. Chen; J. S. Yoo; Y. Huang; H. J. Kim; I. H. Kim

2009-01-01

53

Designing and signal processing of intelligent inspection pig applying magnetic flux leakage methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abshacf-Aiming at the pipeline safety evaluation, this paper describer a magnetic flux leakage(MFL) model of pipeline defects inspection, designs a MFL intelligent inspection pig to inspect different pipelines. The intelligent Pig includes driver mbof system contmUer, data pmcssor and etc. It can be used for multi-radius pipelines and various work conditions It has high sensitivity for adopting multi-sensor data fusion.

Tao Jin; Peiwen Que; Zhengsu Tao

2004-01-01

54

Rotary cup slurry atomization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

1983-06-01

55

Effects of trolox, locally applied on round windows, on cisplatin-induced ototoxicity in guinea pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Cisplatin (CDDP), an antitumor agent widely used in the treatment of pediatric solid tumors, has dose-limiting side effects such as ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Recently, evidence has been accumulated to demonstrate that these side effects are closely related to oxidative stress. In the present study, we attempted to suppress CDDP-induced ototoxicity in guinea pigs by administering trolox, a water-soluble analogue

Masa-aki Teranishi; Tsutomu Nakashima

2003-01-01

56

Emissions of ammonia, methane and nitrous oxide from pig houses and slurry: Effects of rooting material, animal activity and ventilation flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal production is subjected to frequent public debate, because of environmental problems and increasing concern on animal welfare. European Union regulations about animal welfare stipulate that pigs must have permanent access to a sufficient quantity of material to enable proper investigation and manipulation activities. However, the use of rooting materials, such as straw or maize silage, in slatted systems may

V. Blanes-Vidal; M. N. Hansen; S. Pedersen; H. B. Rom

2008-01-01

57

Slurry Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

An estimated 72% of U.S. coal is found in seven Western States, but costs of transport to power stations outside these states (the main consumers) are high. The article examines the economic and practical advantages of a slurry pipeline for this purpose. The history of pipeline transportation of coal is outlined and the case histories of several long-distance pipelines in

Edward J. Wasp

1983-01-01

58

Seasonal variation in methane emission from stored slurry and solid manures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane (CHâ) is an important greenhouse gas and recent inventories have suggested that livestock manure makes a significant contribution to global CHâ emissions. The emission of CHâ from stored pig slurry, cattle slurry, pig solid manure, and cattle solid manure was followed during a 1-yr period. Methane emission was determined by dynamic chambers. Emission rates followed a ln-normal distribution for

Søren Husted

1994-01-01

59

Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied KP-103 against Experimental Tinea Unguium in Guinea Pigs in Comparison with Amorolfine and Terbinafine  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic efficacy of KP-103, a novel topical triazole, in a guinea pig tinea unguium model was investigated. Experimental tinea unguium and tinea pedis were produced by inoculation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes SM-110 between the toes of the hind paw of guinea pigs. One percent solution (0.1 ml) of KP-103, amorolfine, or terbinafine was topically applied to the nails and whole sole of an infected foot once daily for 30 consecutive days, and terbinafine was also orally administered at a daily dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight for 30 consecutive days, starting on day 60 postinfection. The fungal burdens of nails and plantar skin were assessed using a new method, which makes it possible to recover infecting fungi by removing a carryover of the drug remaining in the treated tissues into the culture medium. Topically applied KP-103 inhibited the development of nail collapse, significantly reduced the fungal burden of the nails, and sterilized the infected plantar skin. On the other hand, topical amorolfine and topical or oral terbinafine were ineffective for tinea unguium, although these drugs eradicated or reduced the fungal burden of plantar skin. The in vitro activities of amorolfine and terbinafine against T. mentagrophytes SM-110 were 8- and 32-fold, respectively, decreased by the addition of 5% keratin to Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. In contrast, the activity of KP-103 was not affected by keratin because its keratin affinity is lower than those of the reference drugs, suggesting that KP-103 largely exists in the nails as an active form that was not bound to keratin and diffuses in the nail without being trapped by keratin. The effectiveness of KP-103 against tinea unguium is probably due to its favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the nails together with its potent antifungal activity.

Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoo, Mamoru; Senda, Hisato; Kakehi, Kazuaki

2002-01-01

60

Monitoring the diffusion of topically applied drugs through human and pig skin using fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy (FEWS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to examine if the diffusion process of topically applied drugs can reliably be monitored using FEWS in respect to timely distribution of the drug and chemical alterations of the drug during the diffusion process. In order to do this, recently excised human and pig skin was cut into slices of different thickness while also taking into account the different layers skin is composed of (e.g. Dermis, Stratum Corneum). These layers were first characterized spectroscopically and optically using a microscope before the drug itself was applied topically. The diffusion process was monitored by placing the sample on an ATR (attenuated total reflection) element. Time series from 1 - 4 hours were taken and the characteristic absorption bands of the drug were analyzed in the mid-infrared. By using a first order approach on Fick's diffusion equations (skin assumed to be homogeneous) we were able to fit these experimental values and to obtain diffusion constants, e.g. for water at 3376 cm-1 in the order of 10-5 cm2/s, which compare well with previously published values. The results indicate that this technique can be applied to the prediction of transdermal drug delivery.

Spielvogel, Juergen; Reuter, Susanne; Hibst, Raimund; Katzir, Abraham

1999-04-01

61

Transforming information into applied knowledge in smallholder pig husbandry in Son La province - what are the challenges ahead?  

Microsoft Academic Search

As increasing land pressure hampers crop production in the mountainous regions of Northern Vietnam and off-farm income opportunities are limited, the importance of pig husbandry is further increasing. The Vietnamese vertical and linear model of research, education and extension has contributed tremendously to pig husbandry development since its foundation in 1993. The current transition to a more pluralistic approach with

Iven Schad; Andreas Neef; Volker Hoffmann

62

Slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

An estimated 72% of U.S. coal is found in seven Western States, but costs of transport to power stations outside these states (the main consumers) are high. The article examines the economic and practical advantages of a slurry pipeline for this purpose. The history of pipeline transportation of coal is outlined and the case histories of several long-distance pipelines in the U.S. are described, including the Black Mesa line, which at 273 miles is currently the longest. Plans for exploiting the Western coal (which has the environmental and economic advantages of being low in sulphur) via such a pipeline are presented. Energy Transportation Systems, Inc. (ETSI) will be responsible for the development of the next pipeline and hopes to institute a continuous system of coal preparation, pipeline transportation and dewatering.

Wasp, E.J.

1983-11-01

63

Matrix control cementing slurry  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of cementing a well bore. The method consists of 1.) mixing together at ambient temperatures at the well surface a hydraulic cement, water, in an effective amount to produce a pumpable slurry, and a polyvinyl acetate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer, which is insoluble in the slurry at ambient temperatures. The polymer has a greater than about 95 percent acetate groups converted to hydroxyl groups. The polymer is heated to actuable solubilization in the cement slurry at temperatures above about 120/sup 0/F. The solubilizing of the polyvinyl acetate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer in the slurry prior to the setting of the slurry by pumping the cement slurry to a desired location in the well bore. This action increases the temperature of the slurry; and 2.) allows the cement slurry to harden to a solid mass.

Arpenter, R.B.

1986-02-11

64

Dewatering of mineral slurries  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Mineral slurries are effectively dewatered by a process employing an aminofunctional silicone emulsion as a dewatering aid. The process provides for mixing the dewatering aid with the aqueous mineral slurry and thereafter separating the treated slurry into a mineral portion and an aqueous portion. The use of the aminofunctional silicones provide for reduced moisture content and/or increased production rate in a mineral slurry dewatering process.

Cooper; Ian V. (Georgetown, CA)

1985-06-25

65

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied Dianhydrogalactitol-14C (NSC 132313) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution and elimination of intravenously administered Dianhydrogalactitol-14C (NSC 132313) was studied in female, weanling Yorkshire White Pigs. After 7 days an average of 53.87% was excreted via the urine and 3.10% via the feces. The urinary eli...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy P. W. Wirth T. J. Miller M. S. Frick

1979-01-01

66

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied Guanazole-14C (NSC-1895) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elimination of intravenously administered Guanazole-14C was studied in female, weanling, Yorkshire white pigs to determine the total percentage of such a dose eliminated in the urine. Ninety-six percent of the dose was eliminated after 72 hours. This ...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy E. S. Watson R. M. Folk K. L. Pavkov

1978-01-01

67

Multiple change-point analysis applied to the monitoring of salmonella prevalence in Danish pigs and pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the nation-wide Salmonella Control Program in Denmark, the occurrence of Salmonella enterica in pork, pigs at slaughter and herds is monitored. The objective of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate changes in sero-prevalence of meat juice samples and in the occurrence of Salmonella enterica in pork in 1995 and 1996. Three sets of data were used in this

Jette Christensen; Mats Rudemo

1998-01-01

68

Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry.  

PubMed

Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7.9-22.4 mM in raw slurry and 7.3-23.2 mM in liquid slurry compared to 3.2-9.5 mM in raw slurry and 2.6-9.5 mM in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops. PMID:23127297

Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan; Popovic, Olga; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders

2012-11-06

69

Sizing pumps for slurries  

SciTech Connect

Slurry characteristics have a significant impact on centrifugal pump performance. For instance, as particle size increases or the percent solids concentration increases, pump head and efficiency decrease. Therefore, before a slurry pump is selected, it is important to define the slurry characteristics as accurately as possible. The effect of the slurry characteristics on the head and efficiency of the centrifugal pump will be emphasized (the effect on flowrate is less significant). The effect of slurry characteristics is more predominant in smaller pumps (with smaller diameter impellers) than in larger pumps. The data and relationship between the various slurry parameters have been developed from correlations and nomographs published by pump vendors from their field data and test results. The information helps to avoid specifying an undersized pump/motor assembly for slurry service.

Akhtar, S.Z. [BE and K Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

1996-11-01

70

Elemental analysis of slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Direct analysis of wet slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is challenging due to problems of sedimentation, splashing, and surface turbulence. Also, water can quench the laser plasma and suppress the LIBS signal, resulting in poor sensitivity. The effect of water on LIBS spectra from slurries was investigated. As the water content decreased, the LIBS signal was enhanced and the standard deviation was reduced. To improve LIBS slurry analysis, dried slurry samples prepared by applying slurry on PVC coated slides were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate calibration was performed on the LIBS spectra of the dried slurry samples for elemental analysis of Mg, Si, and Fe. Calibration results show that the dried slurry samples give a good correlation between spectral intensity and elemental concentration.

Eseller, Kemal E.; Tripathi, Markandey M.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

2010-05-01

71

Ultrasound Analysis Of Slurries  

DOEpatents

An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N.sub.2 gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Blackwell, Arthur G. (Duquesne, PA)

2005-11-01

72

Ultrasound Analysis of Slurries  

DOEpatents

An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N, gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

Soong, Yee and Blackwell, Arthur G.

2005-11-01

73

Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Proceedings on a symposium of coal slurry fuels is presented. Research is discussed in the following areas: Coal Slurryability; Slurry Fuel Rheology; Slurry Fuel Atomization; Beneficiated Coal Slurry Fuels; Coal-Based Fuel Options; Fundamentals of Slurry ...

1986-01-01

74

Coal-water slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal slurries using oil, methanol, or water could reduce the transportation costs that are one of the barriers to industrial and power-plant coal conversion. New coal-water slurry (CWS) technology eliminates the need for oil and the need to dewater before burning. Studies show that a CWS pipeline would be increasingly competitive with rail transport in the Southeast because pipelines are

Dunlop

2009-01-01

75

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SLURRY WALLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Slurry walls are used at Superfund sites to contain the waste or contamination and to reduce the potential of future migration of waste constituents. n many cases slurry walls are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as covers and ground water pump-an...

76

CHARACTERIZING PULSATING MIXING OF SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the physical properties for defining the operation of a pulse jet mixing system. Pulse jet mixing operates with no moving parts located in the vessel to be mixed. Pulse tubes submerged in the vessel provide a pulsating flow due to a controlled combination of applied pressure to expel the fluid from the pulse tube nozzle followed by suction to refill the pulse tube through the same nozzle. For mixing slurries nondimensional parameters to define mixing operation include slurry properties, geometric properties and operational parameters. Primary parameters include jet Reynolds number and Froude number; alternate parameters may include particle Galileo number, particle Reynolds number, settling velocity ratio, and hindered settling velocity ratio. Rating metrics for system performance include just suspended velocity, concentration distribution as a function of elevation, and blend time.

Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

2007-12-01

77

ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.  

PubMed

The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

2010-12-01

78

Rheological properties of slurries  

SciTech Connect

The flow behavior of slurry fuels was studied by investigating their rheological properties experimentally and theoretically. Four carbon black-JP10 slurries were studied. The concentration of carbon black ranged from 50 to 60 wt %. Both steady state and transient shear viscosities were obtained over the shear rate range of 0.00348 to 1100 sec/sup -1/ and temperature range of 25/sup 0/C to -26/sup 0/C. The slurries showed plasticity, viscosity, and elasticity. They were shear thinning and thixotropic over most of the shear rate and temperature ranges. Dilatancy was observed for two slurries at low temperatures and high shear rates. Those slurries also showed yield stresses. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurries was described by using a structure formation concept. A kinetic-elastic model was used to explain and to predict the flow behavior of slurries. The kinetic model, based on the chemical reaction rate concept, was used to explain the change of structure with time and shear rate. The elastic model, based on the particle interactions, was used to account for the delay in transient response due to the elasticity. A structural parameter, that is used to relate the structural level in the slurry to viscosity, was defined based on the Richardson-Zaki equation. Three elastic equation models were proposed to describe the elasticity in the slurry. In this work, the experimental study provided a picture of the flow characteristics of slurry fuels, and the kinetic-elastic model gave a reasonably good prediction of the flow behavior both in steady state and transient response.

Lin, S.F.

1983-01-01

79

The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid–liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS)

Dezhao Liu; Anders Feilberg; Anders P. S. Adamsen; Kristoffer E. N. Jonassen

2011-01-01

80

The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS)

Dezhao Liu; Anders Feilberg; Anders P. S. Adamsen; Kristoffer E. N. Jonassen

2011-01-01

81

From physical properties of ice slurries to industrial ice slurry applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of ice slurries dates back many millenniums, e.g. the ancient Romans applied the cooling of snow-water and ice-water mixtures. Approximately two decades ago a breakthrough of the new technology of producing ice slurries has set in the refrigeration domain for the cooling of shops and supermarkets. After some difficulties at the beginning, it is now possible to build

Peter W. Egolf; Michael Kauffeld

2005-01-01

82

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of coal in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present a salt of naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and at least one water soluble polymer selected from the group consisting of gum karaya, mixtures of gum karaya and polyacrylamide and polysaccaride modified with polyacrylate. For example, a mixture of 61.5% by weight of ammonium naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and 38.5% by weight of gum karaya can be added to an aqueous coal slurry in an amount of 0.13% by weight of the slurry.

Schick, M.J.; Knitter, K.A.

1983-11-15

83

Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

Pound, C.R.

2001-09-17

84

Coal slurry fuels preparation and utilization: Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Proceedings on a symposium of coal slurry fuels is presented. Research is discussed in the following areas: Coal Slurryability; Slurry Fuel Rheology; Slurry Fuel Atomization; Beneficiated Coal Slurry Fuels; Coal-Based Fuel Options; Fundamentals of Slurry Fuel Combustion; Small Scale Combustion Tests; Large Scale Combustion Tests; Ultrafine Coals and Heat Engines; Slurry Fuel Burners and Combustors; Slurry Fuel Retrofit Engineering; Demonstration Projects; Slurry Preparation Processes; Slurry Fuel Transportation and Handling; and Commercial Ventures. Individual projects are processed separately for the databases. (CBS)

Not Available

1986-01-01

85

Co-composting of spent pig litter and sludge with forced-aeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co-composting spent pig (Sus scrofa L.) litter (a mixture of partially decomposed pig manure and sawdust) with pig sludge (the sludge that settled at the bottom of the primary sedimentation tank in treating slurries) was evaluated as a means to reduce the volume of wastes and to produce a stable organic soil amendment. Three piles with forced-aeration were established by

S. M. Tiquia; N. F. Y. Tam

2000-01-01

86

Effects of different treatments of cattle slurry manure on water-extractable phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cattle slurry manure applied to land increases the risk of phosphorus (P) movement to surface waters, which may lead to eutrophication. The water-extractable fraction of P in slurry manure is correlated with P concentration in runoff from soils amended with slurry smanure, and thus is an effective indicator of environmental P loss. We evaluated the water-extractable P (WEP) and readily

L. Chapuis-Lardy; E. J. M. Temminghoff; R. G. M. De Goede

2003-01-01

87

Nonwater slurry lines considered  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal\\/crude oil slurries have not been used in the past because separation of coal from crude oil is expensive, but the development of hydro-petroleum refinery\\/coal liquefaction facilities that could maximize production of liquid products from the combined feedstock would make use of coal\\/crude oil slurries attractive; provide a cheap means of transporting coal, since crude oil pipelines already pass through

C. J. Santhanam; S. E. Dale; R. M. Nadkarni

1980-01-01

88

Combinatorial study of ceramic tape-casting slurries.  

PubMed

Ceramic tape-casting slurries are complex systems composed of ceramic powder, solvent, and a number of organic components. Conventionally, the development of ceramic tape-casting slurries is time-consuming and of low efficiency. In this work, combinatorial approaches were applied to screen the ethanol and ethyl-acetate binary solvent based slurry for ceramic green tape-casting. The combinatorial libraries were designed considering the variation of the amount of PVB (Poly vinyl-butyral) binder, polyethylene-400, and butyl-benzyl-phthalate plasticizers, and glyceryl triacetate dispersant. A parallel magnetic stirring process was used to make the combinatorial slurry library. The properties mapping of the slurry library was obtained by investigating the sedimentation and rheological characteristics of the slurries. The slurry composition was refined by scaling up the experiments and comparing the microstructure, mechanical property, and sintering behavior of green tapes made from the selected slurries. Finally, a kind of ethanol-ethyl acetate binary solvent based slurry system suitable for making X7R dielectric ceramic green tapes was achieved. PMID:22283488

Liu, Zhifu; Wang, Yiling; Li, Yongxiang

2012-02-09

89

Slurry transport medium  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides for an improvement in slurry transport systems, especially coal slurry lines. Instead of the usual use of fresh water resources which, in some geographic areas, are scarce for slurry transport, concentrated brine is used which is prepared from abundant salt water resources. Because of the higher density of this concentrated brine, it is a superior carrier of pulverized material. It diminishes the separation and settling tendency of slurry components during transport and particularly during shutdown. Other advantages in the use of concentrated brine include: freezing point depression which permits ease of transport during winter and at lower temperatures; dust suppression of stored coal; avoidance of spontaneous combustion of stored coal; inhibit freeze packing of dewatered pipeline coal; and diminished extent of corrosion in ferrous metal pipelines as compared to that which might occur with lower concentration brines. Important in the economy of the process is that the concentrated brine can be recycled. An inexpensive method for producing the concentrated brine is given.

Rosenthal, W.; Schiffman, L.

1980-06-03

90

Slurry reactor design studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

1990-06-01

91

Characterization of limestone-water slurry droplets generated by electrohydrodynamic atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

High voltage DC electrohydrodynamic atomization characteristics of limestone-water slurries have been investigated experimentally using a hollow needle electrode nozzle. The results show that both the spray angle and the dispersion of the slurry droplets increases with increasing applied voltage. The mean diameter of the droplets decreases with increasing applied voltage. The results also seem to indicate that the applied voltage

J. S. Chang; V. Lau; S. Howe; K. Jogan; P. C. Looy; T. G. Beuthe; T. G. Berezin; D. Galicki

1991-01-01

92

Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.  

PubMed

The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (<1%). Soil columns with injected liquid slurry leached 73 and 90% more oocysts compared to columns with injected and surface-applied raw slurries, respectively. Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI [4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole]/propidium iodide) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r = 0.63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry. PMID:22706058

Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

2012-06-15

93

Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Soil Columns following Applications of Raw and Separated Liquid Slurries  

PubMed Central

The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (<1%). Soil columns with injected liquid slurry leached 73 and 90% more oocysts compared to columns with injected and surface-applied raw slurries, respectively. Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI [4?,6?-diamidino-2-phenylindole]/propidium iodide) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r = 0.63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

Petersen, Heidi H.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M. G. Mostofa

2012-01-01

94

Coal-slurry combustion  

SciTech Connect

The proceedings of this conference are contained in four volumes. This fourth volume deals with the rheological characteristics and the factors affecting the rheology of coal-oil mixtures, coal-water mixtures, coal-oil-ethanol mixtures, and charcoal-oil mixtures, and the equipment required for the handling, transport, storage, grinding, monitoring, atomization, and air pollution control of coal slurries. Separate abstracts were prepared for most of the papers presented at the conference. (CKK)

Not Available

1982-01-01

95

Using ultrasonic attenuation to monitor slurry mixing in real time  

SciTech Connect

Staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed and applied a simple ultrasonic attenuation measurement to measure slurry concentration in real time during suspension of solids settled in a large tank. This paper presents a simple single frequency ultrasonic measurement technique that demonstrates the ability of ultrasonic sensors to measure slurry concentration. Sensor calibration data show that in this attenuation regime ultrasonic signal attenuation is proportional to the applied frequency and to the slurry volume fraction. Real-time measurements of ultrasonic signal attenuation were used to track the process of slurry mixing using single sensors and sensor arrays. Results from two experiments show the use of real-time measurements of ultrasonic signal attenuation to track the process of slurry mixing in situ and to track the ability to maintain a well-mixed steady state condition. Comparison of concentration means of the ultrasonic measurements with concentration means obtained from discrete extractive measurements show that the distributions overlap and cannot be statistically distinguished. The real-time ultrasonic sensor can be used as a primary measurement method or to reduce reliance upon extractive methods to measure slurry density and solids concentration.

Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

2004-04-01

96

Slurry hydroprocessing process  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for hydrotreating a mid-distillate of a hydrocarbonaceous material. It comprises passing the mid-distillate in admixture with a hydrogen containing gas through a hydrotreating zone in contact with a hydrotreating catalyst slurry such that substantial nitrogen removal, hydrodesulfurization and aromatics hydrogenation is carried out and wherein the catalyst comprises catalyst particles 1 micron to 1/8 inch in average diameter and are characterized by a value of about 5 to 125 on an index defined as the excess catalyst index (ECI).

Sawyer, W.H.; Bearden, R. Jr.; Chianelli, R.R.; Winter, W.E. Jr.

1990-08-28

97

Slurry Atomization - a Brief Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review provides an update on the work related to slurry atomization that has been uncovered in a search of the published literature. In contrast to that on liquid atomization, the slurry literature is naturally not very extensive. Also, as different ...

C. R. Krishna

1982-01-01

98

Additives for Coal Water Slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of coal slurries with a solids-content of more than 60% by wt. is impossible in practice without using chemical additives. The choice of additive will depend on the desired properties of the coal slurry. The following compounds are used as ...

1986-01-01

99

Reactor for hydrogenating coal slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A multi-stage reactor for hydrogenating coal slurry in a pressure vessel for pressures of up to 700 bar, preferably of up to 350 bar, with inlets for gas and coal slurry through the reactor bottom, an outlet for sludge, gases and vapors in the reactor top, and dividing trays in the pressure vessel, by means of which trays the individual

R. Schulz; H. Kuerten; H. Puestel; G. Weber

1984-01-01

100

Rheometry of natural sediment slurries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent experimental analyses of natural sediment slurries yield diverse results yet exhibit broad commonality of rheological responses under a range of conditions and shear rates. Results show that the relation between shear stress and shear rate is primarily nonlinear, that the relation can display marked hysteresis, that minimum shear stress can occur following yield, that physical properties of slurries are extremely sensitive to sediment concentration, and the concept of slurry yield strength is still debated. New rheometric analyses have probed viscoelastic behavior of sediment slurries. Results show that slurries composed of particles ??? 125 ?? m exhibit viscoelastic responses, and that shear stresses are relaxed over a range of time scales rather than by a single response time.

Major, Jon, J.

1993-01-01

101

Aqueous slurries of carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of carbonaceous material in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present a salt of naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and at least one water soluble polymer selected from the group consisting of sodium alginate, guar gum, locust bean gum, carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar gum, hydroxypropyl guar gum and guarpak guar gum. For example, a mixture of 96.8% by weight of ammonium naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and 3.2% by weight of sodium alginate can be added to an aqueous coal slurry in an amount of 0.31% by weight of the slurry.

Schick, M.J.; Knitter, K.A.

1984-03-13

102

DSC study and computer modelling of the melting process in ice slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to understand the non-isothermal melting kinetics in the ice slurry, a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used. Experimental results were compared to those obtained by a numerical simulation in which a general enthalpy method was applied. In this work the ice slurry studied consists of ice particles uniformly dispersed within a water–antifreeze liquid mixture. The effects of the

T. Kousksou; A. Jamil; Y. Zeraouli; J.-P. Dumas

2006-01-01

103

Comparative testing of slurry monitors  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1998-05-01

104

Medical ice slurry production device  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL); Oras, John (Des Plaines, IL); Son, HyunJin (Naperville, IL)

2008-06-24

105

Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs: Housing and manure storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare and environmental protection are increasingly important. Housing systems must be found that offer animal welfare while minimizing the overall emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. The straw flow system is an animal friendly housing system for fattening pigs, which can be operated economically on commercial farms. Emissions from conventional slurry based pig houses have been intensively studied, but

Barbara Amon; Vitaliy Kryvoruchko; Martina Fröhlich; Thomas Amon; Alfred Pöllinger; Irene Mösenbacher; Anton Hausleitner

2007-01-01

106

Determination of lead in biological samples by use of slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

Slurry-sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry has been applied to the determination of lead in several biological samples (fish and marine algae). The slurries were prepared both by magnetic shaking and microwave-heating and the effect of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation conditions on the signal were examined. In addition, results from slurry sampling were compared with those obtained by microwave-assisted acid digestion of the same samples and no significant differences were found between them when the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The between-batch precision of the slurry techniques employed was similar to that for the microwave-assisted digestion procedure; values were always below 6.7%, except for the Dicentrarchus labrax sample for which the value obtained was 9.5% when using slurry magnetic shaking and 7.6% when using the slurry microwave heating. The accuracy of the slurry methodology employed was also evaluated by analysis of two biological reference materials (NIST-1577b and IAEA-V10); percentage recoveries obtained were between 95.6 and 98.5% of the values certified for lead. PMID:12373397

Cid, B Pérez; Silva, C; Boia, C

2002-09-14

107

Characterization of Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Slurries with Low Solid Fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-solid slurry casting is a metal-forming process that involves transforming liquid metal into slurry having a low solid fraction and then forming the slurry into solid parts. To successfully apply this slurry-forming process, it is necessary to fully understand the flow behavior of semi-solid slurries. This present work applied the rapid quenching method and the modified gravity fluidity casting to investigate the flow behavior, which involves characterizations of the initial solid fraction, fluidity, and microstructure of semi-solid slurries. Three commercial aluminum alloys were used in this study: 383 (Al-Si11Cu), 356 (Al-Si7MgFe), and 7075 (Al-Zn6MgCu) alloys. The results show that the initial solid fractions can be controlled by varying the rheocasting time. The rapid quenching mold can be used to determine the initial solid fractions. In this method, it is important to apply the correcting procedure to account for growth during quenching and to include all the solid phases. Results from the fluidity study of semi-solid slurries show that the fluidity decreases as the initial solid fraction increases. The decrease is relatively rapid near the low end of the initial solid fraction curves, but is quite slow near the high end of the curves. All the three alloys follow this trend. The results also demonstrate that the slurries that contain high solid fractions of up to 30 pct can still flow well. The microstructure characterization results show that the solid particles in the slurries flow uniformly in the channel. A uniform and fine microstructure with limited phase segregation is observed in the slurry cast samples.

Chucheep, Thiensak; Wannasin, Jessada; Canyook, Rungsinee; Rattanochaikul, Tanate; Janudom, Somjai; Wisutmethangoon, Sirikul; Flemings, Merton C.

2013-10-01

108

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

109

Integrated coal cleaning and slurry preparation process  

SciTech Connect

A process is disclosed for producing a coal slurry from a raw coal feedstock which contains coal and gangues. The process optimizes coal recovery, coal quality and the hydraulic characteristics of the pipeline slurry.

Halvorsen, W.J.

1981-01-13

110

Coal Slurry Pipelines: Impact on Coal Markets.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This analysis indicates that: Coal slurry pipelines could be competitive with railroads, if the projected pipeline and rail rates actually prevailed; coal users could realize savings of between $200 million and $1 billion in 1995, if the four coal slurry ...

B. D. Hong J. G. Hickman R. M. Schnapp

1985-01-01

111

A Technology Assessment of Coal Slurry Pipelines.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The assessment analyzes the costs and potential economic, social, and environmental impacts of coal slurry pipelines. The report includes a discussion of the possible effects on society of coal slurry pipeline development, a comparison of pipeline and uni...

1978-01-01

112

Microparticulate ICE slurry for renal hypothermia: laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.  

SciTech Connect

Previously, we described the feasibility of renal hypothermia using microparticulate ice slurry during laparoscopy. In the present study, we compared surface cooling with the ice slurry versus near-frozen saline or warm ischemia (WI) during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a porcine model. We used a single-kidney porcine model. Animals in 5 equal groups (n = 6 each) underwent right laparoscopic complete nephrectomy. In Phase I, left LPN was performed under 90 minutes of ischemia and 90-minute renal cooling with either slurry (Slurry group 1) or saline (Saline group 1). No cooling was applied in the WI group. In Phase II, to simulate more extreme condition, ischemia time was extended to 120 minutes and cooling shortened to 10 minutes (Slurry group 2 and Saline group 2). The study endpoints were renal and core temperature during the surgery and serum creatinine at baseline and days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure. The ice slurry was easily produced and delivered. Nadir renal temperature (mean {+-} SD) was 8 {+-} 4 C in Slurry group 1 vs. 22.5 {+-} 3 C in Saline group 1 (P < .0001). Renal rewarming to 30 C occurred after 61 {+-} 7 minutes in Slurry group 2 vs. 24 {+-} 6 minutes in Saline group 2 (P < .0001). Core temperature decreased on average to 35 C in the Saline groups compared with 37 C in the Slurry groups (P < .0001). Serum creatinine did not differ between the Saline and Slurry groups in Phases I and II at any time point. Ice slurry provides superior renal cooling compared with near-frozen saline during LPN without associated core hypothermia.

Shikanov, S; Wille, M; Large, M; Razmaria, A; Lifshitz, D; Chang, A; Wu, Y; Kasza, K; Shalhav, A (Nuclear Engineering Division); (University of Chicago Medical Center)

2010-10-01

113

Turbulence in slurry pipe flow  

SciTech Connect

The present state of knowledge of liquid-solid flows (slurries) is far behind than that for single phase flows. Very few geometries have been examined with a slurry and only with a limited variation of system parameters i.e. fluid viscosity, particle diameter, etc. This paper presents the first part of a study which examines the effects of the addition of a solid to the flow through a confined coaxial jet. Presented here will be the initial conditions for the jet which correspond to fully developed pipe flow. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Gore, R.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Crowe, C.T. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)

1990-01-01

114

Process for dewatering coal slurries  

SciTech Connect

The invention concerns a method for optimization of the coal slurry dewatering process. Through a regulation of the fine grain content, it is possible to keep the filter cake at a constant level and thus to maximize the dewatering process. A separation of the slurry into a predominantly relatively fine grain fraction and a relatively coarse grain fraction, with the division point being between about 0.03 and 0.15 mm, is carried out, with a formation of a coal agglomerate from the fine grain fraction, and a dehydration of both the coarse grain fraction and the coal agglomerate from the fine grain fraction.

Blankmeister, W.; Bogenschneider, B.; Kohling, R.; Kubitza, H.; Leininger, D.

1981-03-24

115

RPP-WTP Slurry Wear Evaluation: Slurry Abrasivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the task of evaluating wear in the cross-flow ultrafiltration system and specifically the need to define a representative slurry in order to obtain prototypic wear rates. The filtration system will treat many different wastes, but i...

M. R. Duignan

2002-01-01

116

Reciprocating pumps for slurry service - An update  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of important advancements and practices observed in recent years in the slurry pumping industry. The origin of reciprocating pumps for slurry service is mentioned and the Section on Advancements briefly describes some unique methods, practices, and equipment advances in the years after the successful completion of the Consolidation Coal pipeline in Ohio and the Black Mesa Coal Slurry

1988-01-01

117

Apparatus and method for transferring slurries  

DOEpatents

Slurry is transferred to a high pressure region by pushing the slurry from the bottom of a transfer vessel with a pressurizing liquid admitted into the top of the vessel. While the pressurizing liquid is being introduced into the transfer vessel, pressurizing liquid which has mixed with slurry is drawn off from the transfer vessel at a point between its upper and lower ends.

Horton, Joel R. (Maryville, TN)

1984-01-01

118

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging\\/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to

F. E. Becker; L. S. Smolensky; J. Balsavich

1989-01-01

119

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging\\/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to

Frederick E. Becker; Leo A. Smolensky; John Balsavich

1991-01-01

120

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

SciTech Connect

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Balsavich, J.

1991-09-03

121

Coal-water slurry combustion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the testing of slurries of different coals prepared by various vendors in order to establish typical ranges of physical and chemical properties and to determine the effect of these and rheological properties on atomization and combustion behavior. Six slurries provided by five vendors were tested to establish typical viscosity and solids levels of currently produced slurries.

R. K. Manfred; R. W. Borio; S. J. Vecci

1983-01-01

122

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SLURRY BIODEGRADATION, International Technology Corporation  

EPA Science Inventory

This technology uses a slurry-phase bioreactor in which the soil is mixed with water to form a slurry. Microorganisms and nutrients are added to the slurry to enhance the biodegradation process, which converts organic wastes into relatively harmless byproducts of microbial metabo...

123

The secondary slurry-zinc/air battery  

SciTech Connect

The rechargeability of the slurry-Zn/air battery was demonstrated with a practical recharge cell that requires minimal hydraulic and mechanical energy for operation. A dendritic Zn was deposited on a Mg plate substrate from which it was easily, periodically and automatically scraped to regenerate dendritic Zn slurries. Excellent discharge results were obtained with the regenerated dendritic Zn slurry, comparable to those obtained with slurries made with mixtures of Zn powder. The dendritic Zn slurry allowed, however, twice the utilization of Zn. 13 refs., 24 figs., 2 tabs.

Sierra Alcazar, H.B.; Nguyen, P.D.; Mason, G.E.; Pinoli, A.A. (Pinnacle Research Inst., Cupertino, CA (USA))

1989-07-01

124

Stereotaxic atlas of the pig brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stereotaxic atlas of the pig brain has been established. It consists of 60 frontal and 18 sagittal drawings illustrating Nissl stained sections. A stereotaxic apparatus adapted for the Pig was used to determine the brain coordinates. Radiographic techniques were applied to verify the correct position of the central nervous structures in the apparatus. The zero horizontal plane contains the

Bernadette Félix; Marie-Eva Léger; Denise Albe-Fessard; J.-C Marcilloux; O Rampin; J.-P Laplace; A Duclos; F Fort; S Gougis; M Costa; N Duclos

1999-01-01

125

Leaching of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts, Escherichia coli, and a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Bacteriophage through Intact Soil Cores following Surface Application and Injection of Slurry?  

PubMed Central

Increasing amounts of livestock manure are being applied to agricultural soil, but it is unknown to what extent this may be associated with contamination of aquatic recipients and groundwater if microorganisms are transported through the soil under natural weather conditions. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate how injection and surface application of pig slurry on intact sandy clay loam soil cores influenced the leaching of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All three microbial tracers were detected in the leachate on day 1, and the highest relative concentration was detected on the fourth day (0.1 pore volume). Although the concentration of the phage 28B declined over time, the phage was still found in leachate at day 148. C. parvum oocysts and chloride had an additional rise in the relative concentration at a 0.5 pore volume, corresponding to the exchange of the total pore volume. The leaching of E. coli was delayed compared with that of the added microbial tracers, indicating a stronger attachment to slurry particles, but E. coli could be detected up to 3 months. Significantly enhanced leaching of phage 28B and oocysts by the injection method was seen, whereas leaching of the indigenous E. coli was not affected by the application method. Preferential flow was the primary transport vehicle, and the diameter of the fractures in the intact soil cores facilitated transport of all sizes of microbial tracers under natural weather conditions.

Forslund, Anita; Markussen, Bo; Toenner-Klank, Lise; Bech, Tina B.; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Dalsgaard, Anders

2011-01-01

126

Crop N and P utilization following application of slurry from swine fed traditional or low phytate corn diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field application of swine (Sus scrofa) slurry provides essential nutrients for crop production. The N:P ratio for slurry is lower than needed by most crops resulting in P accumulation when applied at N rates required for crop growth. Low phytate corn (Zea mays L.) (LPC) contains similar amounts of ...

127

GPR measurements for the distribution of thixotropic slurry behind segments in large diameter and long distance pipe-jacking construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to form an integrated ring of thixotropic slurry around the pipe segments to reduce resistance during large diameter and long distance pipe jacking. Furthermore, the integrated slurry ring between the pipe and the excavated soil can effectively reduce the soil disturbance caused by the pipes, and minimize ground settlement. It is necessary to real-time monitor the spatial distribution of the thixotripic slurry during jacking process. The traditional solution to estimate the outlines of slurry ring is the jacking load and the injecting pressure. If the jacking load increases, which means more slurry should be injected to reduce the jacking load. However, this solution couldn't provide the distribution of the slurry beneath pipe segments, and locate the zones which need to be injected enough slurry. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been successfully used to detect the thickness of the grouting behind the shield tunnel segments in last several years. An important factor is the dielectric difference between grouting and soil. Similarly, the interface between the liquid slurry with high relative electric permittivity and surrounding soil, should be recognized from GPR image due to the distinct dielectric difference. Here, GPR experiment has been conducted on a sewage pipe jacking engineering. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the distribution of the thixotropic slurry through GPR image. In this sewage jacking engineering, the width and the thickness of each pipe segments is 200 cm and 30 cm, respectively. Considering the resolution and propagation range of radar wave, ground coupled bowtie antenna of 900 MHz frequency has been selected for GPR data acquisition. A series of circular GPR data have been collected along the inner surface of pipe segments. In addition, sampling of slurry has been performed on four different segments. The relative electric permittivity and conductivity of the thixotropic slurry have been measured by using time domain reflectometer (TDR). The velocity of propagation in slurry is calculated by dielectric characteristics, which extremely improves the resolution of time-depth conversion. Some process methods, including moving average, AGC and migration, have been applied to improve the quality of each GPR images. It's possible to recognize the reflection wave from the slurry-soil interface from the processed images. Combined the exact velocity estimation, the two-way travel time between pipe-slurry and slurry-soil interfaces can be converted to the thickness of the slurry ring. The experiment results show that GPR is able to evaluate the distribution of the liquid thixotropic slurry behind pipe segments in large diameter and long distance jacking. The velocity measured by TDR can significantly reduce the error caused by the time-depth conversion.

Zhao, Yonghui; Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Xiongyao; Zeng, Chenchao

2013-04-01

128

Coal-water slurry compositions  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes coal-water slurry compositions consisting of: (a) from about 50% to about 85% of finely divided coal particles having a particle size such that substantially none of the particles has a size greater than 4 Tyler mesh; (b) from about 0.01% to about 5.0% of sulfated O-glycosides having the formula RO(R'O)\\/sub t\\/-(Z)\\/sub x\\/-(SOâM)\\/sub n\\/ wherein R is selected

J. T. Forand; J. A. Hellyer

1986-01-01

129

Coal slurries: An environmental bonus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are

N. Basta; S. Moore; G. Ondrey

1994-01-01

130

Effect of temperature and water on gaseous emissions from soils treated with animal slurry  

SciTech Connect

Microbial respiration and denitrification are greatly affected by abiotic factors, but they are difficult to assess in natural environments. Under controlled conditions the interactions between temperature and soil water content on microbial respiration, N{sub 2}O production, and denitrification in soil amended with animal slurries were studied. The effects of the abiotic factors on the biological processes were monitored for 8 wk in repacked soil cores amended with pig or cattle slurry. The soil cores were incubated at 43, 57, and 72% water-filled pore space (WFPS) and at 10, 15, and 20 C with or without addition of 10% acetylene. The amount of N{sub 2}O lost at 72% WFPS corresponded to 8 to 22% of the slurry's NH{sub 4}{sup +} content, but for only 0.01 to 1.2% at 43 to 57% WFPS. The amount of available C accounted for by denitrification was 8 to 16% of total respiration at 72% WFPS, but only 0.03 to 0.4% at 43 to 57% WFPS. Both N{sub 2}O production and denitrification peaked earlier in the cattle-slurry treated soil than in the pig-slurry treated soil, whereas the total N loss was greatest from the latter. Neither amendments nor soil water contents seemed to affect the Q{sub 10}-values for the CO{sub 2} production, resulting in values between 1.6 and 2.6. At 72% WFPS, N{sub 2}O production and denitrification had Q{sub 10}-values ranging between 3.3 and 5.4. High temperatures enhanced both aerobic respiration and denitrification, and aerobic respiration further enhanced denitrification by consuming oxygen, resulting in strong sensitivity of denitrification to temperature.

Maag, M.; Vinther, F.P.

1999-08-01

131

Microstructures of thin and thick slurry aluminide coatings on Inconel 690  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two slurry aluminide coatings are produced on the Ni-base super alloy Inconel 690 by applying two different thicknesses of the same slurry on to the 690 substrate, followed by a two-step heat-treatment. The resulting thin aluminide coating consists of a single layer of Ni-rich ?-NiAl matrix containing few large Cr precipitates with a high P content. The thick aluminide coating

Anders Juul Rasmussen; Alina Agüero; Marcos Gutierrez; María José Landeira Østergård

2008-01-01

132

Coal slurries: An environmental bonus  

SciTech Connect

Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference.

Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

1994-05-01

133

Assessment of natural fluorescence as a tracer of diffuse agricultural pollution from slurry spreading on intensely-farmed grasslands.  

PubMed

The value of natural fluorescence in tracing diffuse pollution, in liquid phase, following slurry application to land was assessed by field experiment using twelve one hectare lysimeters on a heavy clay soil in Devon, UK, during autumn 2007. A strong linear relationship was found between natural fluorescence intensity and slurry concentration. The ratio of indices of tryptophan-like and fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (TI:FI) varied between 2 and 5 for a range of slurries sampled from Devon farms and allowed slurry to be distinguished from uncontaminated drainage waters (TI:FI<1). Incidental losses of slurry, indicated by significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios, high TI and high ammonium levels, occurred via the drain flow pathway of the drained lysimeters during the first small event following slurry-spreading. The maximum estimated loss from a single lysimeter was 2-8kg or 0.004-0.016% of the applied slurry. In the second larger storm event, some five weeks later, significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios in the drain flows were not associated with high TI but with high nitrate levels and, compared to the earlier storm, an increase in the humification index. This implies the loss of slurry decomposition products during this event but further work is needed to validate this. There was no significant enhancement of TI:FI in the surface/throughflow pathways of the drained or undrained lysimeters in either of the events. The observed change over a period of weeks in the strength and nature of the fluorescence signal from spread slurry restricts quantification of slurry losses to those immediately after slurry spreading. Nonetheless, this study demonstrates the utility of fluorescence as an indicator of slurry in drainage waters and the importance of field drains in diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:20018337

Naden, Pamela S; Old, Gareth H; Eliot-Laize, Caroline; Granger, Steve J; Hawkins, Jane M B; Bol, Roland; Haygarth, Phil

2009-11-26

134

Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: determination of trace metals in mineral coal.  

PubMed

A procedure for lead, cadmium and copper determination in coal samples based on slurry sampling using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer is proposed. The slurries were prepared by weighing the samples directly into autosampler cups (5-30 mg) and adding a 1.5 ml aliquot of a diluent mixture of 5% v/v HNO(3), 0.05% Triton X-100 and 10% ethanol. The slurry was homogenized by manual stirring before measurement. Slurry homogenization using ultrasonic agitation was also investigated for comparison. The effect of particle size and the use of different diluent compositions on the slurry preparation were investigated. The temperature programmes were optimized on the basis of pyrolysis and atomization curves. Absorbance characteristics with and without the addition of a palladium-magnesium modifier were compared. The use of 0.05% m/v Pd and 0.03% m/v Mg was found satisfactory for stabilizing Cd and Pb. The calibration was performed with aqueous standards. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling. Better recoveries of the analytes were obtained when the particle size was reduced to <37 mum. Several certified coal reference materials (BCR Nos. 40, 180, and 181) were analyzed, and good agreement was obtained between the results from the proposed slurry sampling method and the certificate values. PMID:18967798

Silva, M M; Goreti, M; Vale, R; Caramão, E B

1999-12-01

135

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOEpatents

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the nonabrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Wang, Chi-Sheng

1991-12-31

136

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOEpatents

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities. 3 figs.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.S.; Balsavich, J.

1989-11-01

137

Effects of nitrification inhibitors and time and rate of slurry and fertilizer N application on silage maize yield and losses to the environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field experiments with silage maize during eight years on a sandy soil in The Netherlands, showed that dicyandiamide (DCD) addition to autumn-applied cattle slurry retarded nitrification, thus reducing nitrate losses during winter. Spring-applied slurry without DCD, however, was on average associated with even lower losses and higher maize dry matter yields.

J. J. Schröder; L. Holte; H. Keulen; J. H. A. M. Steenvoorden

1993-01-01

138

Lithium batteries with organic slurry cathodes  

SciTech Connect

Electrical cells and batteries having lithium anodes and cathodes comprising an organic slurry of MnO/sub 2/ and carbon particles in an organic solvent in contact with a conductive plastic current collector, and a method of making the cathodes comprising the steps of heating MnO/sub 2/ to remove absorbed and adsorbed water and water of crystallization, cooling the dehydrated MnO/sub 2/, dispersing the cooled and dehydrated MnO/sub 2/ in an anhydrous solvent to form a slurry, depositing the slurry in discrete cathode patches on cell component substrates, and sealing the slurry patches into cells having substantially gas impervious cell enveloping boundaries.

Bruder, A.H.

1984-08-21

139

Coal slurry combustion and technology: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Sixth international symposium on Coal Slurry Combustion was held at the Hyatt Orlando, Kissimmee, Florida, June 25-27, 1984. Papers were presented at sessions involving: pilot testing, commercial and industrial applications, combustion technology, slurry rheology and characterization, commercialization and economics, additive considerations, demonstration projects, fuel clean-up (beneficiation), bench-scale and pilot testing, slurry handling, slurry preparation, and equipment. Seventy-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; 22 manuscripts of papers were unavailable at the time of publication. (LTN)

Not Available

1984-01-01

140

Electrochemistry of Coal Slurries; II: studies on various experimental parameters affecting oxidation of coal slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anodic oxidation of coal slurries has been studied under various experimental conditions. Results obtained from various experiments support the mechanism of the catalytic oxidation of coal slurries by iron (III in solution, followed by the oxidation of reduced iron (II) to iron (III) at the electrode. The oxidation of coal slurries by iron (III) in solution is found to

P. M. Dhooge; Su-Moon Park

1983-01-01

141

Nitric oxide and greenhouse gases emissions following the application of different cattle slurry particle size fractions to soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (>2000 ?m, 2000-500 ?m, 500-100 ?m, <100 ?m) was compared to other experimental treatments, including whole slurry (WS), ammonium sulphate (AS) and an unamended control (CON). The highest value of cumulated NO emissions (6.3 mg NO-N kg-1 dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted (˜1 mg NO-N kg-1 dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (>2000 ?m) induced significantly higher N2O emissions (1.8 mg N2O-N kg-1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N2O-N kg-1 dry soil). The >2000 ?m, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N2O emissions. Hence, for N2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the >2000 ?m, fraction. Low CH4 emissions (<200 ?g CH4-C kg-1 dry soil d-1) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH4 emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO2 emissions relative to whole slurry application.Overall, N2O contributed 10-30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions have to be used for other purposes as anaerobic digestion rather than applied to soil.

Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, João; Cabral, Fernanda; Fidalgo, Paula; Bol, Roland; Trindade, Henrique

2012-02-01

142

Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours to weeks. The unusual shape of the slurry flow curves was not an artifact of the rheometric measurement. Adjusting the user-specified parameters in the rheometer measurement jobs can alter the shape of the flow curve of these time dependent samples, but this was not causing the unusual behavior. Variations in the measurement parameters caused the time dependence of a given slurry to manifest at different rates. The premise of the controlled shear rate flow curve measurement is that the dynamic response of the sample to a change in shear rate is nearly instantaneous. When this is the case, the data can be fitted to a time independent rheological equation, such as the Bingham plastic model. In those cases where this does not happen, interpretation of the data is difficult. Fitting time dependent data to time independent rheological equations, such as the Bingham plastic model, is also not appropriate.

Koopman, D. C.

2005-09-01

143

Determination of Ge, As, Se, Cd and Pb in plant materials by slurry sampling–electrothermal vaporization–inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic slurry sampling–electrothermal vaporization–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (USS–ETV–ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of Ge, As, Se, Cd and Pb in plant samples. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the signals were reported. Since the sensitivities of the elements in various plant slurries were quite different, standard addition was used. Detection limits of Ge, As,

Yi-Ching Li; Shiuh-Jen Jiang; Shu-Feng Chen

1998-01-01

144

Effect of cow slurry amendment on atrazine dissipation and bacterial community structure in an agricultural Andisol.  

PubMed

Atrazine is a commonly used herbicide for maize production in Chile, but it has recently been shown to be ineffective in soils that receive applications of cow slurries generated from the dairy industry. This effect may be caused either by the sorption of the pesticide to organic matter or more rapid degradation in slurry-amended soils. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of cow slurry on atrazine dissipation, the formation of atrazine metabolites and the modification of bacterial community in Andisol. The cow slurry was applied at doses of 100,000-300,000 Lha(-1). After 4 weeks, atrazine was applied to the slurry-amended soils at concentrations of 1-3 mg kg(-1). The amounts of atrazine and its metabolites were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The soil microbial community was monitored by measurement of CO(2) evolution and changes in bacterial community using PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA genes. The results show that cow slurry applications had no effect on atrazine dissipation, which had a half-life of 15-19 days. The atrazine metabolites were detected after 20 days and were significantly higher in soils amended with the slurry at both 20 and 40 days after application of the herbicide. Respiration rates were elevated after 10 days in all soils with atrazine addition. Both the atrazine and slurry amendments altered the bacterial community structures, indicated by the appearance of specific bands in the DGGE gels after 10 days. Cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA genes from the DGGE gels showed that the bands represented various genera of beta-proteobacteria that appeared in response to atrazine. According to our results, further field studies are required to explain the lower effectiveness of atrazine in weed control. These studies may include the effect of dissolved organic carbon on the atrazine mobility. PMID:20388570

Briceño, G; Jorquera, M A; Demanet, R; Mora, M L; Durán, N; Palma, G

2010-04-13

145

Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Daniel, Arnold D. (Alameda, CA)

1984-03-27

146

Heat transfer measurements with ice slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order not to increase energy consumption by introducing a secondary refrigerant, the use of ice slurry may be very interesting. Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop for ice slurry flowing in a horizontal pipe have been measured. The stainless st...

K. G. Christensen M. Kauffeld

1997-01-01

147

Shaker speeds for aerobic soil slurry incubations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rates of soil microbial activity are frequently assayed using shaken slurries of soil. Soil slurries are typically shaken at speeds of 120 to 200 revolutions min in an effort to maintain uniform concentrations of oxygen (O2) and other substrates. Few studies have examined whether or not the shaking speeds were sufficient to achieve adequate aeration and mixing. In this study,

J. M. Stark

1996-01-01

148

Aerated Atomization of Coal-Water Slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The first phase of this project requires that a coal-water slurry (CWS) simulants be used in the experiments instead of a coal-water slurry since optical techniques will be incorporated to measure air bubble size and velocity. These optical measurements r...

H. N. Buckner P. E. Sojka A. H. Lefebvre

1988-01-01

149

Initial study on copper CMP slurry chemistries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of copper has been investigated with suspended silica and alumina abrasives using various slurry chemistries. The characteristics of these chemistries were studied by electrochemical d.c. polarization and a.c. impedance measurements. Problems and directions related to the formulation of copper CMP slurries are discussed.

Ronald Carpio; Janos Farkas; Rahul Jairath

1995-01-01

150

Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride  

SciTech Connect

A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

Sanders, W.A.; Kiser, J.D.; Freedman, M.R.

1988-11-01

151

Coal slurry rheology and chemistry  

SciTech Connect

Three well-characterized, generic surfactants (nonionic, anionic and cationic) were used to modify coal/water mixtures by changing the interaction between several coals of different rank and the slurry liquor. Each experiment involved one coal and one surfactant per experiment. The analytical and rheological results from these experiments have been previously reported. The thrust of the current program is to extend the work to shear rates expected during atomization. The program consists of the following elements: (1) design, fabricate and test a helical screw rheometer capable of developing shear rates to 10,000 sec/sup -1/; (2) establish a capability to atomize slurries and monitor the spray using high speed photography; and (3) initiate a collaborative program with the Combustion Research Facility at Sandia National Laboratories Livermore for the purpose of analyzing particulates in atomized and burned sprays. The helical screw rheometer was designed using technology developed for polymer processing. The rheometer acts as an extrusion pump when there is discharge of fluid, but when flow is interrupted a differential pressure develops across the length of the screw. Using the mathematical analysis developed for screw pumps, the rotation rate of the screw may be translated to shear rate and the differential pressure translated to shear stress. 9 refs., 11 figs.

Lynch, A.W.; Cook, D.W.

1987-09-01

152

Effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on treatment technologies.  

PubMed

Differences in biodegradability can affect the treatment of slurry before its use in spraying. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the generation and physical-chemical characterization of swine and dairy cattle slurries on different biological treatment technologies. This research involved monthly sampling (number/composition) for 1 year of 24 swine farms (16%), cattle farms (38%), and mixed swine and cattle farms (46%). The results obtained showed differences in feeding (3 l water kg(-1) food for cattle and 5 l water kg(-1) food for swine) and assimilation (0.6 kg food kg (-1) milk produced and 3 kg kg(-1) weight gain), which may influence the generation of slurry (57 l animal(-1)d(-1) in cattle and 31 l animal(-1) d(-1) in swine) and its composition. In addition, the composition of swine slurry [23 g chemical oxygen demand (COD) l(-1), 3 g total nitrogen (TN) l(-1)] is significantly different (P < 0.01) to cattle slurry (4 g COD l(-1), 0.3 g TN l(-1)). Finally, the composition and the S index applied to swine slurry [COD N(-1) = 8, biological oxygen demand (BOD)5 COD(-1) = 0.3, S index > 0] and cattle slurry (COD N(-1) = 16, BOD5 COD(-1) = 0.6, S index < 0) show a difference on the biodegradability of both slurries. Suitability of anaerobic and aerobic treatment was assessed based on the findings. PMID:23524995

Villamar, Cristina-Alejandra; Rodríguez, Diana-Catalina; López, Daniela; Peñuela, Gustavo; Vidal, Gladys

2013-03-22

153

Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

154

The importance of the solids loading on confirming the dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO? powders by slurry method.  

PubMed

The dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO? powders was investigated by the slurry method, where two series of BaTiO? slurries with 10 vol% and 30 vol% solids loadings were prepared as model samples. Applying the Bruggeman-Hanai equation, the high-frequency limiting permittivity (?(h)) of the slurries was extracted from the dielectric spectra. The ?(h) of the 10 vol% slurry showed abnormal size independence in the range from 100 nm to 700 nm, and the ?(h) of the 30 vol% slurry exhibited good agreement with the previous prediction. Through analysing quantitatively the response of ?(h) to the changing permittivity of the powders under different solids loading, it was found that the ? h of the slurry with lower solids loading is more inclined to be interfered by the systematic and random errors. Furthermore, a high permittivity value was found in the BaTiO? powders with 50 nm particle size. PMID:23844376

Zhou, Wei; Nie, Yi Mei; Li, Shu Jing; Liang, Hai Yan

2013-06-06

155

Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig

Kipin

1985-01-01

156

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03

157

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03

158

Polydisperse coal slurry rheology. Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the program is to develop a theory to predict the rheological characteristics (viscosity) of highly loaded, stabilized coal-water slurries over a wide range of shear rates from those typical for pumping (100 sec/sup -1/) to those typical of atomization (20,000 sec/sup -1/) in order to enable the optimum design of systems employing such slurries as alternate fuels. The scope of work is to perform an analysis in which a stabilized polydisperse pulverized coal slurry is modeled as made up of two relatively distinct particle fractions - a coarse fraction and a smaller fine fraction. Accomplishments to date are: Relative bimodal character of dense coal-water slurries is borne out. Simplified purely bimodal model shows that the particle sizes separating coarse and fine volume fractions in six different slurries are between 2 and 8 microns, even though the particle diameters in the slurries range from 0.5 to 300 microns. Large particles govern level of slurry viscosity at low shear rates. If the maximum packing fraction is modified to account for a continuous particle size distribution, indications are that the separating diameter range is likely to be narrower. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Probstein, R.F.

1985-07-01

159

Preparation of Coal Slurry with Alcohol Fermentation Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of substituting alcohol fermentation wastewater of maize and cassava for water to prepare coal slurries was explored. The rheological and stability properties of coal alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries were studied and compared with that of coal water slurry. The results showed that both coal maize and cassava alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Because of the oxygen-containing

S. Shao; X. Chen; H. Liu; F. Wang

2012-01-01

160

Design of PLC Control System for Manufacturing Coal Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal slurry is a new kind of fluid fuel, and Coal slurry manufacturing with PLC control is needed for its unique property. This paper focuses on Design of PLC Control System for Manufacturing Coal Slurry, and present some design schemes. It includes how to design Coal slurry manufacturing with PLC control system. In addition, it introduces main blocks of Coal

Liu Yan; Ji Zheng-biao

2010-01-01

161

Reciprocating pumps for slurry service - An update  

SciTech Connect

A review of important advancements and practices observed in recent years in the slurry pumping industry. The origin of reciprocating pumps for slurry service is mentioned and the Section on Advancements briefly describes some unique methods, practices, and equipment advances in the years after the successful completion of the Consolidation Coal pipeline in Ohio and the Black Mesa Coal Slurry pipeline in Arizona. In the Section on The Future some interesting proposals and practices give an insight as to what may be in store through continued work being carried on in the industry.

Miller, J.E.

1988-01-01

162

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOEpatents

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

1993-03-16

163

Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.  

PubMed

Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end. PMID:21520745

Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H

164

Improving Feed Slurry Rheology by Colloidal Techniques.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocc...

W. O. Heath R. L. Ternes

1984-01-01

165

Asphalt Emulsion Slurry Seals Modified with Additives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eighteen different materials, including 14 water emulsions, three sizes of ground rubber tread, and portland cement, were tested as additives to a standard slurry seal formulation. Most of the additives increased the cohesive strength, the resistance to a...

R. W. Drisko

1973-01-01

166

Aeroated atomization of coal-water slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first phase of this project requires that a coal-water slurry (CWS) simulants be used in the experiments instead of a coal-water slurry since optical techniques will be incorporated to measure air bubble size and velocity. These optical measurements require that the simulants be translucent or transport and imitate the rheological characteristics of the CWS. Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMS) polyacrylamide and poly-ethylene-oxide

H. N. Buckner; P. E. Sojka; A. H. Lefebvre

1988-01-01

167

Method and apparatus for slurry borehole mining  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus is provided for recovering deep subterranean ore deposits using conventional dual conduit pipe in the tool string. The drill cuttings and ore are returned to the surface by reverse circulation. A combination drilling and mining head is disclosed which permits the outer casing to be driven by the power swivel during both the drilling and mining operations. A hydraulic eductor pump located at the suction entrance to the inner conduit is used to raise drill cuttings to the surface; a separate slurry eductor pump within the inner conduit located only sufficiently below the slurry discharge of the tool to prevent cavitation at the jet is used to pump the ore slurry to the surface. Another embodiment of this invention employs both eductors to raise the drill cuttings and ore slurry to the surface. Valves controlling the flow of fluid to the drill bit, the mining jet and the slurry discharge eductor pump are located within the inner conduit and a novel valve actuating means is disclosed which employs the pressure within the annular space between the conduits to convert the tool from the drilling to the mining mode. Surface mounted flow control valves and flowmeters in the fluid feed line and in the slurry discharge line control the volume of fluid entering and discharging from the tool. These valves may be controlled by instrumentation to balance the flows, adjusted to control the mining cavity pressure or to compensate for the influx of ground water.

Coakley, J.E.; Nolan, J.J.

1982-09-07

168

The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission reduction.

Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

2011-07-01

169

Determination of cadmium, mercury and lead in coal fly ash by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of Cd, Hg and Pb in coal fly ash samples. Thioacetamide (TAC) was used as the modifier. Since the sensitivities of the elements studied in coal fly ash slurry and aqueous solution were quite different, isotope dilution method was used for

Hsien-Chung Liao; Shiuh-Jen Jiang

1999-01-01

170

Uncertainty analysis of hygrometer-obtained water activity measurements of saturated salt slurries and food materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water activity is a critical food stability parameter. Thus, assessment of the uncertainty associated with the instruments and measurement procedures used to obtain aw data is critical and can be accomplished using uncertainty analysis. Uncertainty analysis was applied to aw data obtained for two saturated salt slurries (potassium acetate and potassium chloride) and two food materials (corn flakes and grape

Xin Yu; Arthur R. Schmidt; Shelly J. Schmidt

2009-01-01

171

Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management  

PubMed Central

The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed.

Cickova, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozanek, Milan; Martinez-Sanchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Takac, Peter

2012-01-01

172

Capsule transport in coal slurry medium  

SciTech Connect

The use of coal slurry instead of water in a coal log pipeline (CLP) is investigated for the first time. This investigation reveals significant differences and possible benefits by using coal slurry instead of water in CLPs. The lift-off velocity, and capsule and total pressure gradients are presented for a 51 mm pipeline using two capsule geometries. The fluid velocity was tested from 1 to 3 m/s, which includes the lift-off velocity of the capsule train. The diameter ratio (k) and specific gravity (S) are held constant at 0.75 and 1.3, respectively. Two capsule lengths were studied corresponding to aspect ratios (a) of 2 and 4. Aluminum-Plexiglas capsules are used to simulate the coal logs. The coal slurry significantly lowered the lift-off velocity, and transported more coal per total pressure gradient than coal logs in water. The capsule pressure gradient was nearly constant over the velocity range investigated. This indicates that the optimal operation velocity range may be much larger for coal slurry compared to water. Further tests and abrasion studies are required to fully assess the potential benefits of using coal slurry.

Seaba, J.; Xu, G. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

1995-12-01

173

Rheological properties of defense waste slurries  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01

174

Coal-water slurry combustion tests  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on the testing of slurries of different coals prepared by various vendors in order to establish typical ranges of physical and chemical properties and to determine the effect of these and rheological properties on atomization and combustion behavior. Six slurries provided by five vendors were tested to establish typical viscosity and solids levels of currently produced slurries. A key task of this project was the correlation of performance to the physical properties of a coal-water slurry (CWS). Topics considered include the 80 million Btu per hour burner test, atomizer/burner development, burner register development (cold flow modeling), a combustion performance comparison of CWS to parent coal, and combustion tests with an industrial boiler. Preliminary results indicate that slurry additives must be chosen carefully and with consideration of the slagging behavior of coal ash. It is demonstrated that, with the proper combination of burner and atomizer design, CWS can be successfully burned with carbon conversion efficiencies within 1 to 2% of that of the base coal fired under similar conditions. Includes 3 tables and 2 drawings.

Manfred, R.K.; Borio, R.W.; Vecci, S.J.

1983-01-01

175

Direct determination of Cd, Pb and Cr in honey by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

Slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was used for direct determination of Cr, Pb and Cd in honey without sample pretreatment. The honey slurries were prepared in aqueous solution containing hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid. The slurries were directly introduced in the pyrolytic graphite tubes. Pd-Mg was used as a chemical modifier only for Cd determination. Analytical curves were performed with aqueous standards for Pb and Cr and with addition of fructose for Cd. The quantification limits for Cd, Pb and Cr were 2.0, 5.4 and 9.4ngg(-1), respectively. Acceptable precision of the methodology was obtained through repeatability and intermediate precision. In the accuracy study, recoveries were satisfactory (94-101%) for the three elements. The methodology was applied in honey from Paraná (Brazil). The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr ranged from 141 to 228ngg(-1), <2.0 to 8ngg(-1) and 83 to 94ngg(-1), respectively. PMID:24176328

de Andrade, Camila Kulek; Dos Anjos, Vanessa Egéa; Felsner, Maria Lurdes; Torres, Yohandra Reyes; Quináia, Sueli Pércio

2013-09-18

176

Fundamental Researches and Developments on Fine Criystalline Ice Slurries in Japan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a brief review for fundamental researches and developments on fine crystalline ice slurries in Japan has been made. The present paper essentially consists of two parts. In the former part of the present paper, the fundamental studies on the basic components, namely, the production, the transportation, and the melting of ice slurry were presented. Furthermore, as an example for the application of these basic researches, the computer simulation on the cold thermal storage system has been performed to study the effects of such as the operation mode on the system performance. In the latter part, the state of the art of ice slurries, which is applied to development of ice storage systems for air conditioning uses in Japan, has been described. The types of ice storage system were categorized into five groups by the way of ice manufacturing. Furthermore, the performance of ice storage system was also discussed.

Fukusako, Shoichiro; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Masahiko; Tanino, Masayuki

177

Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

2011-07-05

178

Slurry composition and method of use  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides an aqueous slurry composition that comprises cerium oxide and/or cerium oxide-containing mixed rare earth oxide abrasive particles, a polyacrylate, and an agent that retards hard settling. The agent that retards hard settling is preferably a polysaccharide such as xanthan gum, microcrystalline cellulose and/or sodium alginate, the latter of which may be treated with a divalent metal salt such as calcium carbonate. The slurry composition according to the invention can be used to polish glass and glass ceramics at a high removal rate, but does not hard settle upon extended static conditions and can be easily resuspended. The present invention also provides a method of polishing a glass or glass ceramic substrate using the slurry composition.

Ferranti; Steven A. (Rochester, NY); Zagari; Dana L. (Bloomfield, NY); Burm, Jr.; LeVern G. (Waterloo, NY); Goff; Karla Marie (Waterloo, NY)

2007-11-27

179

Biotechnological Slurry Process for the Decontamination of Excavated Polluted Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the thesis the development of a new biotechnological slurry process for the decontamination of excavated polluted soils is described. The slurry process is especially designed to decontaminate soils polluted with organic compounds (e.g. oil). Crucial i...

R. Kleijntjens

1991-01-01

180

Task Reports: Slurry Coal Pipelines. Volume II, Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This assessment analyzes the costs and potential economic, social, and environmental impacts of coal slurry pipelines. The report includes a discussion of the possible effects on society of coal slurry pipeline development, a comparison of pipeline and un...

1978-01-01

181

Effect of microstructure on slurry abrasion response of En31 steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wear by slurry abrasion occurs in extruders, slurry pumps, and pipes carrying slurry of minerals and ores in mineral processing industries. The wear life of components used under slurry abrasion conditions is governed by the process parameters, properties of abrasive particles in slurry and material properties. In the present work slurry abrasion response of heat treated En-31 steel was studied.

S. G. Sapate; A. D. Chopde; P. M. Nimbalkar; D. K. Chandrakar

2008-01-01

182

Results of sludge slurry pipeline pluggage tests. [Simulation of Radioactive Slurry Flow  

SciTech Connect

Test results of sludge slurry transport through the Interarea Transfer Line (IAL) Mock-up Facility showed little risk of plugging the interarea pipelines with sludge slurry. Plug-free operation of the pipeline was successfully demonstrated by worst case IAL operating scenarios. Pipeline pressure gradients were measured vs. flow rate for comparison with a computer model over a range of sludge slurry rheological properties. A mathematical computer model developed by L. M. Lee is included in this report which will predict pressure drop for Bingham plastic fluid flow in a pipeline. IAL pluggage situations and pumping requirements may be realized from this model. 4 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

Fazio, J.M.

1987-02-06

183

Effects of slurry rheology on industrial grinding performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of slurry rheology on industrial grinding performance, 45 surveys were conducted on 16 full-scale grinding mills in five sites. Four operating variables—mill throughput, slurry density, slurry viscosity and feed fines content—were investigated. The rheology of the mill discharge slurries was measured either on-line or off-line, and the data were processed using a standard procedure to obtain

F. N Shi; T. J Napier-Munn

2002-01-01

184

Polishing Using ER Slurry on One-Sided Patterned Electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ER slurry, which is composed of an ER fluid and abrasive grains, is available for efficient polishing or finishing. In this study, we propose a final process with the ER slurry and one-sided patterned electrodes. Characteristics of the ER slurry were investigated. And, ER polishing, which is a polishing using the ER slurry, was carried out. Results showed that the impression of the electric field can accelerate the polishing.

Kikuchi, Takehito; Fujiwara, Junsuke; Furusho, Junji; Inoue, Akio

185

Lithium batteries with organic slurry cathodes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a laminar electrical cell. This cell consists of a sheet of conductive plastic, a separator, a cathode consisting essentially of a slurry of dewatered MnO/sub 2/ and carbon particles in a solution of a lithium salt in a substantially anhydrous organic solvent between and in contact with the conductive plastic sheet and the separator with the solution permeating the separator. The slurry is free of any binder material, and a thin sheet of lithium is in contact with the separator. The separator being interposed between the cathode and the lithium sheet.

Bruder, A.H.

1986-04-01

186

Aeroated atomization of coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of this project requires that a coal-water slurry (CWS) simulants be used in the experiments instead of a coal-water slurry since optical techniques will be incorporated to measure air bubble size and velocity. These optical measurements require that the simulants be translucent or transport and imitate the rheological characteristics of the CWS. Carboxy-Methyl-Cellulose (CMS) polyacrylamide and poly-ethylene-oxide show promise as simulants. Results on these simulants and descriptions of improvement to the test equipment are presented. (CBS)

Buckner, H.N.; Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

1988-01-05

187

How to Reduce Pipe Friction in Slurry Flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes three main methods for reducing the frictional pressure loss, and therefore the pump discharge pressure requirement, when transporting viscous, often non- Newtonian, slurries and pastes in pipelines. The first method reduces the degree of flocculation of the particles in the slurry using suitable chemical additives, and thereby reduces the slurry viscosity. The second method makes use of

Nigel Heywood

188

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the

F. W. Staub; S. G. Kimura; C. L. Spiro; M. W. Horner

1988-01-01

189

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the

F. W. Staub; S. G. Kimura; C. L. Spiro; M. W. Horner

1989-01-01

190

SEPARATING LIQUID MODERATOR FROM A SLURRY TYPE REACTOR  

DOEpatents

A system for evaporating moderator such as D/sub 2/O from an irradiated slurry or sloution characterized by two successive evaproators is described. In the first of these the most troublesome radioactivity dissipates before the slurry becomes too thick to be pumped out; in the second the slurry, now easier to handle, can be safely reduced to a sludge.

Vernon, H.C.

1961-07-01

191

The correlation between thermal and noxious gas environments, pig productivity and behavioral responses of growing pigs.  

PubMed

Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare. PMID:22016700

Choi, Hong Lim; Han, Sang Hwa; Albright, Louis D; Chang, Won Kyung

2011-08-25

192

Explaining the Bay of Pigs and Vietnam, 1965 Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The alternative conceptual frameworks for analyzing governmental behavior developed by Graham T. Allison in his book, Essence of Division, Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, are applied to the questions of why the Bay of Pigs operation of 1961 was appro...

F. P. Keough

1984-01-01

193

Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient

K. Hayashi; K. Kasza

2000-01-01

194

Pig in the Middle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)|

Mills, Sophie

2000-01-01

195

Dispersant for aqueous slurry of coal powder  

SciTech Connect

A dispersant for forming an aqueous slurry of coal powder having a good flowability, which comprises as the active ingredient at least one member selected from sulfonation products of polycyclic aromatic compounds which may have a hydrocarbon group as a substituent, salts thereof and formaldehyde condensates thereof.

Moriyama, N.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamura, M.

1982-05-18

196

Hydraulic transportation of coarse coal slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal from the mining machines at the mining face is crushed to 4 in. max combined with water to make a slurry, and injected into a flexible rubber hose. From that point to the preparation plant, the coal is continuously entrained in water. Coal dust and gas will not escape to the mine environment. The rubber hose section of the

W. N. Poundstone; H. D. Dahl

1977-01-01

197

Load directly from railcar to slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many process plants must unload soluble, granular chemicals from railcars and trucks and then dissolve or slurry them before use. Material handling problems such as agglomeration, plugging, spillage, dusting and noise can make these efforts inefficient and drive up capital, maintenance and labor costs. Pneumatic and gravity flow technologies are beset with these problems. To solve them, General Chemical Corp.

Shepard

1997-01-01

198

Congress holds key to coal slurry pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of coal slurry pipelines in the United States creates exciting probabilities for many long-length, large-diameter projects. The anticipated large increase in coal production during the next two decades will come principally from surface mines located in western states with relatively low population. Major markets for this coal are the populous industrialized areas located hundreds of miles from the

Hale

1976-01-01

199

Well cement slurries and dispersants therefor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a cement slurry dispersant. It comprises: a water soluble sulfoalkylated naphthol in which the naphthol molecule is alkylated with at least one group having the formula {bond}C(R){sub 2}{bond}SO{sub 3}M wherein R is selected from hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to 5 carbon atoms and M is an alkali metal.

Patel, B.B.; Stephens, M.

1990-05-08

200

Organic Solvent Dispersed Nano-Talc Slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides high surface area talc compositions by a novel hybrid milling method or soaking method. The hybrid milling method comprises dry milling talc powder followed by mixing with water and wet milling to provide a nano-talc slurry with hig...

J. He Q. Zhong

2004-01-01

201

Adsorption of Cationic Flocculants to Paper Slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymers of varying molecular weights and charges are extensively used for diverse papermaking operations such as retention, drainage, and waste treatment\\/recovery. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of both the polymer and the paper slurry and to the high shear environment in which paper is made, it is a challenging task to study polymer adsorption in this system and, more importantly,

Wesley L. Whipple; C. Maltesh

2002-01-01

202

Wear analysis of centrifugal slurry pump impellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – To design and fabricate a wear testing rig for a water pump impeller and to select a parameter that can be used to determine the wear rates of slurry pump impeller. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A wear equipment was designed and fabricated in this study that of main rotating shaft, supported by two ball bearings, and main electric motor bully

Y. A. Khalid; S. M. Sapuan

2007-01-01

203

Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW

W. O. Heath; R. L. Ternes

1984-01-01

204

H-Coal Process: Slurry Oil System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent describes an improved manner of operating a coal hydrogenation in an ebullated bed reactor wherein the composition of the liquid slurry within the reactor is controlled so as to cantain a liquid residuum content of from about 30 to 45 weight pe...

R. H. Wolk E. Johanson

1970-01-01

205

Aerated atomization of coal water slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to better understand the process of slurry atomization, it is important to observe the influence of fluid non-Newtonian rheological behavior on the spray formation process. As a first step, glycerin-water solutions have been atomized. This report...

H. N. Buckner P. E. Sojka A. H. Lefebvre

1989-01-01

206

Coal/Water Slurry Rheology and Atomization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The initial Sandia program in coal/water mixtures consisted of adapting helical screw rheometer technology for use in determining the flow behavior of coal/water slurries. The program required the development of a variety of experimental and analytical te...

A. W. Lynch D. W. Cook D. Dunn-Rankin

1988-01-01

207

Combustion of coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

A method of burning a coal-water slurry capable of being retrofitted to oil and gas fired industrial and utility steam boilers or as original equipment in new units using essentially pure oxygen, oxygen-enriched air or hydrogen-oxygen mixtures as the atomizing fluid in a burner atomizer.

Downs, W.; Rackley, J.M.

1985-12-17

208

Combustion of coal-water slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of burning a coal-water slurry capable of being retrofitted to oil and gas fired industrial and utility steam boilers or as original equipment in new units using essentially pure oxygen, oxygen-enriched air or hydrogen-oxygen mixtures as the atomizing fluid in a burner atomizer.

W. Downs; J. M. Rackley

1985-01-01

209

Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of

Hui Zhao; Hai-Feng Liu; Jian-Liang Xu; Wei-Feng Li

2011-01-01

210

Aerated atomization of coal water slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to better understand the process of slurry atomization, it is important to observe the influence of fluid non-Newtonian rheological behavior on the spray formation process. As a first step, glycerin-water solutions have been atomized. This report describes findings of photographs taken during atomization. 19 figs.

H. N. Buckner; P. E. Sojka; A. H. Lefebvre

1989-01-01

211

Watch out guinea pigs, here I come.  

PubMed

We live in an age of increasing emphasis of do-it-yourself, as a mere glance at the TV schedule will prove. Why not apply this same principle to your research? By becoming the guinea pig of your own experimentation you will be following a noble precedent--though maybe not a sane one! PMID:11313542

Norton, T

2001-04-01

212

Heat stress in growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared to other species of farm animals, pigs are more sensitive to high environmental temperatures, because they cannot sweat and do not pant so well. Furthermore, fast-growing lean pigs generate more heat than their congeners living in the wild. This, in combination with confined housing, makes it difficult for these pigs to regulate their heat balance. Heat stressed pigs have

Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy

2005-01-01

213

Effects of a reduced calcium, phosphorus and protein intake and of benzoic acid on calcium and phosphorus metabolism of growing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimise environmental pollution, many pig feeds contain low phosphorus and protein concentrations as well as benzoic acid (BA), an additive which reduces ammonia formation in the slurry. Since both a low P intake and metabolic acidosis compromise bone mineralisation, the effect of a diet with a low concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and crude protein (CP)

A. Gutzwiller; H. D. Hess; A. Adam; D. Guggisberg; A. Liesegang; P. Stoll

2011-01-01

214

Infectious Swine Hepatitis E Virus Is Present in Pig Manure Storage Facilities on United States Farms, but Evidence of Water Contamination Is Lacking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh feces, manure slurry (from earthen lagoons and\\/or concrete pits), and drinking and surface water samples were collected from 28 pig farms in the Midwestern United States. All samples were tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. Seven of 28 farms had fecal samples that contained HEV. Of 22 farms where pit samples were accessible, 15 contained

C. Kasorndorkbua; T. Opriessnig; F. F. Huang; D. K. Guenette; P. J. Thomas; X.-J. Meng; P. G. Halbur

2005-01-01

215

Smart pigs assess reliability of corroded pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline operating companies are relying more and more on high-resolution, magnetic pigs to inspect onshore and offshore pipelines for corrosion. Data derived from these corrosion surveys can be used to develop a safe future operating strategy. British Gas has successfully developed and applied a realistic deterministic analysis for corroded pipelines. It involves identification and calculation of failure pressure and time to failure of corroded pipe spools with the highest risk of failure. High-resolution, intelligent pigs (smart pigs) can accurately detect, size, and locate corrosion in pipelines. Once corrosion is detected, the operator needs to known if the corrosion will affect the integrity of the pipeline and when it could fail from further corrosion growth. This information can be used to develop a pipeline de-rating schedule, implement a repair or replacement program, determine if re-inspection is necessary, and evaluate effectiveness of a corrosion inhibitor program. Such methods are described.

Jones, D.G. [British Gas plc, Northumberland (United Kingdom); Dawson, S.J.; Brown, M. [British Gas plc, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

1995-03-01

216

CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF) is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM) and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF) containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone). It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

Azimian, Mehdi; Bart, Hans-Jörg

2013-04-01

217

Evaluation of Euthymic Hairless Guinea Pigs (Crl:IAF(HA)BR) as an Animal Model for Vesicant Injury.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Euthymic hairless guinea pigs were compared to normal haired guinea pigs to determine whether the hairless guinea pig is a suitable animal model for studying sulfur mustard (HD) induced vesication of skin. Neat HD was applied to the skin for 30 minutes, a...

D. D. Marlow M. M. Mershon L. W. Mitcheltree J. P. Petrali G. P. Jaax

1989-01-01

218

Cementing steamflood and fireflood wells - slurry design  

SciTech Connect

Steamflood and fireflood wells present special challenges when designing a cement slurry. In most cases, the cement slurry is subjected to relatively low temperature during the cement job and early curing. However, after the cement sets, it must be able to withstand the thermal shock associated with the initiation of steamflooding or fireflooding. In addition, the cement must be able to preserve adequate compressive strength and low permeability despite the potentially disruptive crystalline changes that occur at high temperatures. Another complicating factor is the weak or incompetent formations often encountered with thermal recovery wells. This work discusses the chemical and phase equilibria relationships which prevail when cements are exposed to the high temperatures associated with fireflood and steamflood wells.

Nelson, E.B.; Eilers, L.H.

1983-01-01

219

RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NUCLEAR WASTE SLURRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using concentric-cylinder, blade-vane, and parallel-plate viscometers, reliable quantitative rheological results (yield stress, apparent viscosity, etc.) of simulated nuclear waste slurry are obtained. Concentric-cylinder and parallel-plate geometries were used to measure shear stress versus shear rate. Precautions required to avoid Taylor vortices and the correction of wall slip were addressed. The blade-vane geometry was used for direct measurement of yield stress

CHINGYI CHANG; PETER A. SMITH

1996-01-01

220

Coal\\/water slurry rheology and atomization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The initial Sandia program in coal\\/water mixtures consisted of adapting helical screw rheometer technology for use in determining the flow behavior of coal\\/water slurries. The program required the development of a variety of experimental and analytical techniques and initially focused on determining rheology in the low-intermediate (50--250 sec\\/sup \\/minus\\/1\\/) shear rate range. The thrust of the current program is to

A. W. Lynch; D. W. Cook; D. Dunn-Rankin

1988-01-01

221

Biodegradation of coal slurry transport wastewater organics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Activated sludge was successful in reducing the levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in coal slurry wastewaters. DOC removal by the activated sludge ranged from 61% to 97% with a large percentage (21–41%) of this DOC being completely metabolized to CO2. Second order kinetic constants (k2) developed for DOC removal ranged from 1.39·10-4 to 2.30·10-1 liter·day-1·(mg of sludge)-1, providing

J. W. Davis; M. C. Reid; Gary S. Sayler; R. A. Minear

1987-01-01

222

PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated

K. T. Klasson; B. S. Evans

1993-01-01

223

Prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use in Belgian fattening pig herds.  

PubMed

The monitoring of antimicrobial use is an essential step to control the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Between January and October 2010 data on prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use were collected retrospectively on 50 closed or semi-closed pig herds. Ninety-three percent of the group treatments were prophylactic whereas only 7% were methaphylactic. The most frequently used antimicrobials orally applied at group level were colistin (30.7%), amoxicillin (30.0%), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (13.1%), doxycycline (9.9%) and tylosin (8.1%). The most frequently applied injectable antimicrobials were tulathromycin (45.0%), long acting ceftiofur (40.1%) and long acting amoxicillin (8.4%). The treatment incidences (TI) based on the used daily dose pig (UDD(pig) or the actually administered dose per day per kg pig of a drug) for all oral and injectable antimicrobial drugs was on average 200.7 per 1000 pigs at risk per day (min=0, max=699.0), while the TI based on the animal daily dose pig (ADD(pig) or the national defined average maintenance dose per day per kg pig of a drug used for its main indication) was slightly higher (average=235.8, min=0, max=1322.1). This indicates that in reality fewer pigs were treated with the same amount of antimicrobials than theoretically possible. Injectable products were generally overdosed (79.5%), whereas oral treatments were often underdosed (47.3%). In conclusion, this study shows that prophylactic group treatment was applied in 98% of the visited herds and often includes the use of critically important and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. In Belgium, the guidelines for prudent use of antimicrobials are not yet implemented. PMID:22494905

Callens, Bénédicte; Persoons, Davy; Maes, Dominiek; Laanen, Maria; Postma, Merel; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Butaye, Patrick; Catry, Boudewijn; Dewulf, Jeroen

2012-04-09

224

Water-quality characterization of an eastern coal slurry  

SciTech Connect

Current and projected used of coal have resulted in several proposals for coal-slurry pipelines in the United States. A typical eastern coal has a greater sulfur content and a smaller percentage of alkaline minerals in the ash than a typical western coal. Thus, eastern coal slurries likely will yield different quality wastewaters from western coal slurries. An experimental program was conducted to characterize the wastewater resulting from a 50% eastern Kentucky coal slurry. Twenty-nine water-quality parameters were measured as a function of pumping time in the pilot-scale pipeline. Tests were conducted with and without a nitrite-based corrosion inhibitor added directly to the slurry. The treatability of the 10-day slurry wastewater was assessed using both lime and alum addition.

Cooper, C.D.; Dietz, J.D.; Flint, M.J.; Todd, M.R.

1987-03-01

225

Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

Major, J. J.; Iverson, R. M.; McTigue, D. F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B. K.

1997-01-01

226

A whole-farm assessment of the efficacy of slurry acidification in reducing ammonia emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock slurry in animal houses, in manure stores and applied on fields is in Denmark the most important source of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. The emitted NH3 is a source of NH3 and ammonium (NH4+) deposition, which causes eutrophication of N-deficient ecosystems and may form NH4+-based particles in the air, which are a risk to health. This study examines

P. Kai; P. Pedersen; J. E. Jensen; M. N. Hansen; S. G. Sommer

2008-01-01

227

Evolution of microstructure in semi-solid slurries of rheocast aluminum alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-solid metal processing is being developed in die casting applications to give several cost benefits. To efficiently apply this emerging technology, it is important to understand the evolution of microstructure in semi-solid slurries for the control of the rheological behavior in semi-solid state. An experimental apparatus was developed which can capture the grain structure at different times at early stages

R. CANYOOK; S. PETSUT; S. WISUTMETHANGOON; M. C. FLEMINGS; J. WANNASIN

2010-01-01

228

Influence of environmental composition and electrochemical potential on the slurry erosion-corrosion of aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of applied electrochemical potential on the erosion-corrosion of aluminium in aqueous silica slurries containing phosphate buffer, 0.5 M NaCl, 0.1 M Na2CO3 and acetic acid was studied over a wide range of potential (from -2.7 to + 2.7 V\\/SCE) with a modified jet impingement apparatus. The results showed that the erosion-corrosion (EC) rate and resulting surface morphologies can

Y. Li; G. T. Burstein; I. M. Hutchings

1995-01-01

229

A new fluidization–suspension combustion technology for coal water slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slagging is a major operating problem in application of the atomization–suspension combustion technology for burning coal water slurry (CWS) fuel in small and low height industrial boilers. The fluidization–suspension combustion is a new alternative for replacement of oil, which is capable of solving the slagging problems. In addition, it can be successfully applied to CWS-fired boilers with capacity smaller than

Hui Wang; Xiumin Jiang; Minxiao Zhang; Yufeng Ma; Hui Liu; Shaohua Wu

2010-01-01

230

Long-distance slurry transport: finally in the pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of the 273-mile coal-slurry pipeline that crosses the Black Mesa desert of Arizona has proved that slurry pipelining can work. Coal arteries stretching for 1,000 miles or more represent a leap in the length of slurry lines. At least four such long-distance U.S. conduits, as well as another running 180 miles, have been proposed; data on these are

1976-01-01

231

Slurry erosion behaviors of basalt filled low density polyethylene composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, slurry erosion behaviors of basalt filled low density polyethylene composites were investigated. Pure low density polyethylene and four different compositions of the composites 10wt.%, 30wt.%, 50wt.% and 70wt.% basalt were used in the study. Slurry wear, tensile strain, hardness and fracture toughness tests were performed on the samples. Samples turns in the abraded slurry media including 50wt.%

Akin Akinci; Ediz Ercenk; Senol Yilmaz; Ugur Sen

2011-01-01

232

The birth of corrosion pits as stimulated by slurry erosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique has been developed to examine the details of the slurry erosion–corrosion behaviour of stainless steel in aqueous silica slurry using a modified slurry erosion rig with a two-electrode system. Measurement of current transients of 304L stainless steel in chloride solution shows the propagation of metastable pits immediately after a short duration of erosive particle impingement below the

G. T. Burstein; K. Sasaki

2000-01-01

233

Atomization characteristics of coal-water slurry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwindling supplies of oil have led to increasing interest in alternative fuels which can be used to replace petroleum-derived liquid fuels. One such fuel is coal-water slurry. This study presents the atomization behavior of coal-water slurries at conditions typical of a gas turbine combustor. Slurry spray characteristics were determined using five different types of atomizer. The five nozzle types included

A. H. Lefebvre; P. E. Sojka

1986-01-01

234

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the extent where elimination of a supplementary pilot fuel can now be projected.

Staub, F.W.; Kimura, S.G.; Spiro, C.L. (Corporate Research and Development, General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (US)); Horner, M.W. (Dept. General Electric Co., Springdale, OH (US))

1989-01-01

235

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the extent where elimination of a supplementary pilot fuel can now be projected.

Staub, F.W.; Kimura, S.G.; Spiro, C.L. (General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY (USA). Corporate Research and Development Center); Horner, M.W. (Marine and Industrial Engines Projects Dept., General Electric Co., Springdale, OH (US))

1988-01-01

236

The control of erosion-corrosion in slurry pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of erosion-corrosion testing in pilot plant slurry pipelines are related to the behaviour of operating slurry pipelines and the control of erosion-corrosion in such systems by use of inhibitors, solution conditioning and adjustment of slurry parameters. The erosion-corrosion component of the total wear is oxygen-mass-transfer controlled and the magnitude of the erosion-corrosion can be estimated using well established

Postlethwaite

1987-01-01

237

Mass transfer in gas-liquid slurry reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical review is presented on the mass transfer characteristics of gas¿liquid slurry reactors. The recent findings on the influence of the presence of solid particles on the following mass transfer parameters in slurry reactors are discussed: volumetric gas¿liquid mass transfer coefficients (kLa, kGa), liquid-side mass transfer coefficients (kL and kS) and specific gas¿slurry contact area (a). The second part

A. A. C. M. Beenackers; Swaaij van W. P. M

1993-01-01

238

Debris Flow Rheology: Experimental Analysis of Fine-Grained Slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheology of slurries consisting of <=2-mm sediment from a natural debris flow deposit was measured using a wide-gap concentric-cylinder viscometer. The influence of sediment concentration and size and distribution of grains on the bulk rheological behavior of the slurries was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 0.44 to 0.66. The slurries exhibit diverse rheological behavior. At shear rates above 5

Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson

1992-01-01

239

Polishing slurry induced surface haze on phosphate laser glasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of residual polishing slurry on the surface topology of highly-polished, Nd-doped metaphosphate laser glasses are reported. Glass samples were pitched polished using cerium oxide or zirconium oxide slurry at different pHs and then washed by different methods that allowed varying amounts of residual slurry to ''dry'' on the surface. Upon re-washing with water, some of the samples showed

T I Suratwala; P E Miller; P R Ehrmann; R A Steele

2004-01-01

240

Tape casting of aqueous Al 2O 3 slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-dispersed aqueous Al2O3 slurries suitable for tape casting were prepared, the effects of the concentration of dispersant, of the pH value, of solid content etc. on the properties of slurries were investigated, and the results indicated that the rheological of slurries was effected greatly by pH value and organic additives. After cutting, laminating and binder removal, the laminated Al2O3

Zeng Yuping; Jiang Dongliang; Peter Greil

2000-01-01

241

Slurry Supplying Method for Large Quartz Glass Substrate Polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been used in polishing a photomask substrate in flat-panel display (FPD) manufacture. Moreover, the quadrilateral geometry of quartz glass used as the photomask substrate has been enlarged. However, the slurry cannot flow throughout the glass surface evenly owing to the enlarged substrate covering the center of the platen in the polishing process. In this work, we verified the beneficial of spreading slurry into a non-inflow region by the reinforced suction of the slurry supplied to the polishing pad through a hole at center of the platen. A fluorescent agent was used instead of the slurry for flow visualization.

Khajornrungruang, Panart; Kimura, Keiichi; Yui, Ryuji; Wada, Nagisa; Suzuki, Keisuke

2011-05-01

242

Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction  

SciTech Connect

A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1999-08-01

243

Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal LIquefaction.  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the fourth six month period of this three year grant under the University Coal Research program. During this period, we have begun the synthesis of precipitated catalysts using a bench-top spray dryer. The influence of binders on particle strength was also studied using the ultrasonic fragmentation approach to derive particle breaking stress. A similar approach was used to derive particle strength of catalysts obtained from Mr. Robert Gormley at FETC. Over the next six month period, this work will be continued while the catalysts prepared here will be examined by TPR to determine reducibility and the extent of adverse iron-silica interactions. A fundamental study of Fe/silica interactions has been performed using temperature programmed reaction and TEM to provide understanding of how the silica binders influence the activity of Fe catalysts. To understand differences in the reducibility of the iron phase caused by silica, we have set up a temperature programmed reduction facility. TPR in H, as well as in CO was performed of Fe/ SiO, catalysts prepared by impregnation as well as by precipitation. What is unique about these studies is that high resolution TEM was performed on samples removed from the reactor at various stages of reduction. This helps provide direct evidence for the phase changes that are detected by TPR. We have continued the analysis of catalysts received from slurry reactor runs at Texas A&M university (TAMU) and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) by x-ray diffraction. The purpose of the XRD analysis was to determine the phase composition of catalysts derived from a slurry reaction run using Fe Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. We had previously described how catalyst removed in the hot wax may oxidize to magnetite if the wax is air-exposed. We have now received catalysts from CAER that were removed under a protective inert blanket, and we are in the process of analyzing them, but preliminary work presented here shows very little oxide by XRD. However, the catalyst that was used in these runs at CAER was a different composition than that used in previous runs, so the protective effect of an inert blanket will need further study. Finally, we point out how the interference by the wax can make it difficult in some cases to analyze the phases in a Fe catalyst. Several approaches have been used to remove the interference from the wax and we come to the surprising conclusion that Fe may be present in a working slurry reactor despite the high CO/ H{sub 2} ratio. Further work is underway to corroborate this finding.

Datye, A.K.

1997-08-08

244

Tolerability of inhaled N-chlorotaurine in the pig model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: N-chlorotaurine, a long-lived oxidant produced by human leukocytes, can be applied in human medicine as an endogenous antiseptic. Its antimicrobial activity can be enhanced by ammonium chloride. This study was designed to evaluate the tolerability of inhaled N-chlorotaurine (NCT) in the pig model. METHODS: Anesthetized pigs inhaled test solutions of 1% (55 mM) NCT (n = 7), 5% NCT

Ralf Geiger; Benedikt Treml; Anna Pinna; Linn Barnickel; Harald Prossliner; Hannes Reinstadler; Michael Pilch; Maria Hauer; Christoph Walther; Hans-Jörg Steiner; Thomas Giese; Andreas Wemhöner; Sabine Scholl-Bürgi; Waldemar Gottardi; Roland Arnitz; Consolato Sergi; Markus Nagl; Alexander Löckinger

2009-01-01

245

Methane, nitrous oxide and ammonia emissions during storage and after application of dairy cattle slurry and influence of slurry treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurries are a significant source of CH4, NH3 and N2O emissions to the atmosphere. The research project aimed at quantifying CH4, NH3 and N2O emissions from liquid manure stores and after manure application under field conditions. The influence of the manure treatment options “no treatment”, “slurry separation”, “anaerobic digestion”, “slurry aeration” and “straw cover” on the emission level was investigated.

B. Amon; V. Kryvoruchko; T. Amon; S. Zechmeister-Boltenstern

2006-01-01

246

Percolation and Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Soil Amended with Contaminated Dairy Manure or Slurry?  

PubMed Central

The effect of cattle manure and slurry application on percolation and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was investigated for different soil depths after the addition of water. Four treatments were chosen for the first set of experiments: (i) addition of inoculated farmyard manure on the soil surface, (ii) mixing of inoculated farmyard manure with the top 10 cm of soil, (iii) addition of inoculated slurry on the soil surface, and (iv) injection of inoculated slurry into the top 10 cm of the soil. Homogeneity of water distribution in the soil profile was confirmed by a nondestructive nuclear magnetic resonance method. Survival data were fitted to a modified logistic model, and estimated survival times were compared. In the second set of experiments, pathogen-inoculated farmyard manure or slurry was applied to soil columns with 1-month-old lettuce plants. More pathogen cells percolated to greater depths after slurry than after manure application. Survival of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly longer in soil with slurry than in that with manure, while survival of Salmonella serovar Typhimurium was equally high with manure and slurry. The densities of the pathogens were not different in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil with manure, while the densities were higher by 0.88 ± 0.11 and 0.71 ± 0.23 log CFU per g (dry weight), respectively, in the rhizosphere than in bulk soil after slurry application. Our results suggest that surface application of manure may decrease the risk of contamination of groundwater and lettuce roots compared to injection of slurry.

Semenov, Alexander V.; van Overbeek, Leo; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2009-01-01

247

Enhanced Reuse Potential of Coal Slurry Transport Water: Toxic Organics Assessment and Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The qualitative and quantitative occurrence and fate of organic matter leaching into coal slurry transport water was examined for laboratory generated coal slurries and wastewater from the Black Mesa coal slurry pipeline. Factors which may influence both ...

G. S. Sayler R. A. Minear M. C. Reid J. W. Davis

1983-01-01

248

Seventh International Symposium on Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Seventh International Symposium on ''Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization'' consisted of the following fifteen sessions: (1) fundamentals of coal slurryability; (2) slurry fuel rheology; (3) slurry fuel rheology and fuel specifications; (4) c...

1985-01-01

249

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...or controlling a water, sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding...

2009-07-01

250

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-1 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...immediately adjacent to each water, sediment or slurry impounding structure within the...

2009-07-01

251

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-1 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...immediately adjacent to each water, sediment or slurry impounding structure within the...

2013-07-01

252

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments that meet the...

2013-07-01

253

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...or controlling a water, sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding...

2013-07-01

254

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-1 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...immediately adjacent to each water, sediment or slurry impounding structure within the...

2010-07-01

255

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments that meet the...

2010-07-01

256

30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-5 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...abandonment of any water, sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding...

2009-07-01

257

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...or controlling a water, sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding...

2010-07-01

258

Pig shipping container test report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Waste Tank Sampling Engineering (WTSE) uses a packaging known as the Sample Pig Transport System. This system contains a Pig Shipping Container (PSC) and an inner spacer which surrounds the PSC. These items were redesigned, fabricated, and then drop teste...

H. E. Adkins

1995-01-01

259

Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

McClaine, Andrew W.

2008-09-30

260

Chlamydiaceae infections in pig  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs.

2011-01-01

261

Experimental characterization of slurry bubble-column reactor hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) at industrially relevant conditions is discussed. Gas liquid flow experiments are performed on an industrial scale. Gamma densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to measure radial variations in gas holdup at one axial location. Differential pressure (DP) measurements are used to calculate volume averaged gas holdups along the axis of the vessel. The holdups obtained from DP show negligible axial variation for water but significant variations for oil, suggesting that the air water flow is fully developed (minimal flow variations in the axial direction) but that the air oil flow is still developing at the GDT measurement location. The GDT and DP gas holdup results are in good agreement for the air water flow but not for the air oil flow. Strong flow variations in the axial direction may be impacting the accuracy of one or both of these techniques. DP measurements are also acquired at high sampling frequencies (250 Hz) and are interpreted using statistical analyses to determine the physical mechanism producing each frequency component in the flow. This approach did not yield the information needed to determine the flow regime in these experiments. As a first step toward three phase material distribution measurements, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and GDT are applied to a liquid solid flow to measure solids holdup. Good agreement is observed between both techniques and known values.

Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R.; Jackson, N.B.; O`Hern, T.J.

1997-09-01

262

Reduction of Large Particles in Ceria Slurry by Aging and Selective Sedimentation and its Effect on Shallow Trench Isolation Chemical Mechanical Planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of aging and selective sedimentation of ceria slurry on the slurry characteristics, such as the particle size distribution, the large-particle count, and the dispersion stability, and on the number of defects on the wafer surface during the shallow trench isolation (STI) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process was investigated. The aging time and temperature were considered as important variables giving great influence on the slurry characteristics and STI-CMP. By applying aging and selective sedimentation, the number of large particles produced by either strong agglomeration or soft flocculation in ceria slurry was successfully reduced, and the dispersion stability of the ceria particles was also improved. A CMP evaluation demonstrated that the number of defects on the wafer surface was significantly reduced, while maintaining the reasonable oxide removal rate and oxide-nitride selectivity.

Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Kang, Hyun-Goo; Kim, Sang-Kyun; Paik, Ungyu; Park, Jea-Gun

2006-09-01

263

Effects of airflow on odorants' emissions in a model pig house - A laboratory study using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS).  

PubMed

Identification of different factors that affect emissions of gasses, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is necessary to develop emission abatement technology. The objectives of this research were to quantify and study temporal variation of gas emissions from a model pig house under varying ventilation rates. The used model was a 1:12.5 scale of a section of a commercial finishing pig house. The VOC concentrations at inlet, outlet, and slurry pit of the model space were measured using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). PTR-MS can measure the temporal variations of odor compounds' emission from the slurry pit in real time. The emissions of H(2)S and 14 VOCs were lower compared to real pig buildings except for ammonia, which indicated possible other sources of those compounds than the slurry in the slurry pit. The ventilation rate affected significantly on ammonia and trimethylamine emission (p<0.05). The hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emission was independent of the ventilation rate. VFAs' emission dependency on ventilation rate increased with the increase of carbon chain. Phenols, indoles and ketones showed the positive correlation with ventilation rate to some extent. Generally, compounds with high solubility (low Henry's constant) showed stronger correlation with ventilation rates than the compounds with high Henry's constant. PMID:21978617

Saha, Chayan Kumer; Feilberg, Anders; Zhang, Guoqiang; Adamsen, Anders Peter S

2011-10-05

264

CST/Water Slurry Mixing and Resuspension  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) was selected as one of the alternatives to the In-Tank Precipitation Process (ITP) for removal of cesium from the salt waste at Savannah River Site. The proposed salt waste treatment process using CST would involve passing a filtered salt waste through a fixed bed of CST. The CST would remove the cesium from the salt waste by ion exchange and the decontaminated salt would be incorporated into the Saltstone Process. This report documents the results of investigations into the mixing and re-suspension characteristics of two 10 wt percent CST slurries.

Baich, M.A.

2001-02-13

265

Well cement slurries and dispersants therefor  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of preparing a water soluble sulfoalkylated naphthol compound useful as a cement slurry dispersant. It comprises reacting {alpha}-naphthol, in an alkaline aqueous medium under reaction conditions, with the product formed by reacting a carbonyl compound selected from aldehyde and ketones containing from 2 to 6 carbon atoms with a sulfur compound selected from sulfurous acid and water soluble salts thereof; and then adding a sufficient quantity of alkali metal hydroxide to the resulting reaction mixture at reaction conditions to condense a sulfoalkylated naphthol reaction product therewith and impart water solubility to the sulfoalkylated naphthol reaction product.

Patel, B.; Stephens, M.

1991-08-20

266

Low phytate corn feed reduces swine slurry P content without affecting crop P availability in slurry applied soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional corn feed contains phosphorus (P) in a form that monogastric animals such as swine and poultry can not use efficiently. Poor use efficiency of feed P requires P supplements be added to the diet and results in manure having a high P content. Land application of this manure, at rates to me...

267

When Pigs Fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore probability. Learners brainstorm activities that are possible and impossible, make a flap book, and read and discuss the book, "Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs." Learners also investigate the probability of selecting a pink "pig" (pink cotton ball) from a bag containing varying amounts of pink and white "pigs" (cotton balls). Learners make predictions, record data, and graph the results. This activity is written as a four day lesson, but can be shortened into a one-time activity.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

268

Characterization of slurry infiltrated SiCf/SiC prepared by electrophoretic deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid process of SiC slurry impregnation (SI) and hot pressing (HP) has an advantage for the fabrication of dense SiCf/SiC (silicon carbide fiber reinforced/silicon carbide matrix) composite. An effective impregnation of the SiC slurry into the voids of a fiber preform is important to fill the dense matrix phase in the SI and HP processes. An electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was applied to effectively increase the densification of the matrix phases by a fast, simple, and efficient impregnation of the SiC slurry. An EPD was performed using a dual electrode system under an applied voltage of 10 V for 30 min with/without ultrasonification. The maximum density of SiCf/SiC composite fabricated by an EPD with ultrasonification was 3.14 ± 0.04 g/cm3. The flexural strength was 531 ± 26 MPa for a composite with a single interlayer of (200 nm PyC (pyrolytic carbon) + 600 nm SiC).

Park, Ji Yeon; Jeong, Myung Hoon; Kim, Weon-Ju

2013-11-01

269

Coal-Water Slurries: A Seam-to-Steam Strategy.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Moderately loaded coal-water fuels (CWF) and coal-water transportation slurries are similar in design philosophy, and an integrated coal-water slurry system has been demonstrated with a coal-designed boiler. The primary emphasis in highly loaded coal-wate...

P. Marnell W. N. Poundstone W. Halvorsen

1983-01-01

270

Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition

Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan

2010-01-01

271

Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

Rice, L.E. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Hughes, R.W. [Professional Services Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Baggett, G. [Genex/Praxair, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-01

272

Organic Compounds in Coal-Slurry-Pipeline Waters. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Organic compounds in the water separated from coal pipeline slurry has been investigated on a laboratory basis for the slurry with each of three subbituminous coals: Wyodak, Illinois No. 6 and Black Mesa. The results are compare with results from the Blac...

A. S. Newton H. Villarreal P. J. Fox R. Raval W. Walker

1982-01-01

273

Performance of cooled-ceiling operating with MPCM slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurry is advantageous for thermal storage systems to use as a heat transfer and storage medium. In this paper, a new design of air-conditioning system is proposed, which is a combination of CC and a MPCM slurry storage tank. The mathematical model of the combined system is provided and used to predict the system performance

Xichun Wang; Jianlei Niu

2009-01-01

274

Potential of domestic biogas digester slurry in vermitechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work illustrates the potential of domestic biogas digester slurry in vermicompost production. To achieve the objectives biogas plant slurry (BGS) was mixed with crop residues (CR) in different ratios to produce seven different feed mixtures for earthworm Eisenia fetida. After 15weeks vermicomposted material was analyzed for different chemical parameters. In all waste mixtures, a decrease in pH, organic C

Surindra Suthar

2010-01-01

275

Improved cement slurry designed for thermal EOR wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing a cement slurry for wells in a thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project has always presented special challenges; however, improved technology in recent years offers method for further reducing slurry density while still preserving adequate compressive strength and low cement permeability. Thermal EOR includes in situ combustion (fireflood), hot water injection, and steam injection. In most cases, the cement

1986-01-01

276

EVALUATION OF CARBON BLACK SLURRIES AS CLEAN BURNING FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed to examine the pumpability, atomization and combustion characteristics of slurries made of mixtures of carbon black with No. 2 fuel oil and methanol. Carbon black-No. 2 fuel oil and carbon black-methanol slurries, with carbon black contents of up to 50 ...

277

H-coal slurry oil composition and process performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of a study to determine the relationship between slurry oil composition and process performance in 8 areas were carried out for the H-coal process. These 8 areas are: (1) changes in slurry recycle stream composition during startup, (2) the manner in which the process reaches steady state operation during stable operation, (4) the changes in recycle composition in response

F. P. Burke; R. A. Winschel

1981-01-01

278

Coal water slurry loop tests, Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the work conducted in the second phase of the Coal Water Slurry Loop Testing Program. Four highly loaded coal water slurries approx. 70 wt% solids) and one moderately loaded additive-free slurry )approx. 53 wt% solids) were tested in the fuel characterization laboratory and test loop facility of the Adelphi Center for Energy Studies (ACES), located at Adelphi University, Garden City, New York. The rheology (flow), handling properties, stability characteristics, and agitation requirements were determined and compared. the performance of various pumps, flow meters, and valves was assessed. Both low and high shear regions were investigated; high shear behavior and viscoelasticity were correlated with atomization properties. The results of this test program have led to several important conclusions. Moderately loaded slurries are much less sensitive to prolonged or intense shearing action than highly loaded slurries when a Hazleton centrifugal pump is used. The Delaval screw pump could be utilized to recirculate slurries effectively. It performs similarly to the Moyno progressing cavity pump, which is known from previous studies conducted at ACES to be very suitable for slurry handling. The low shear characteristics of a given slurry cannot be used as a basis for predicting its behavior under high shear conditions. A relationship was indicated between atomization properties and measurements of viscoelastic structure: the more elastic the CWS, the poorer the atomization quality. 105 figs., 30 tabs.

Not Available

1986-08-01

279

Combustion tests of coal-water slurry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of an experimental test program to determine the combustion characteristics of coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels (65 to 75 percent dry coal by weight and exhibiting room temperature viscosities of about 1000 cp) are presented. The slurry tested contained 66 percent solids by weight and was produced from a beneficiated high volatile eastern bituminous coal. The CWS and its

G. A. Jr. Farthing; S. A. Johnson; S. J. Vecci

1982-01-01

280

Current progress in coal-water slurry burner development  

Microsoft Academic Search

A burner\\/atomizer combination has been developed by Combustion Engineering which will burn coal-water slurries (CWS) with satisfactory combustion efficiency over a wide load range. A detailed description of the atomizer design was included. In an attempt to reduce viscosity, the temperature of the slurry was raised and the temperature of the atomizing air was raised. Neither had a significant effect

R. K. Manfred; R. W. Borio; D. A. Smith; M. J. Rini; R. C. LaFlesh; J. L. Marion

1983-01-01

281

A receding interface model for the drying of slurry droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A receding interface model of the drying of single drops of slurries of sodium sulfate decahydrate has been developed to describe the drying characteristics of this material and to estimate the drying rates of particulate slurries. The simultaneous heat and mass transfer rate equations have been solved numerically, and the results obtained have been compared with those obtained experimentally by

H. W. Cheong; G. V. Jeffreys; C. J. Mumford

1986-01-01

282

Mixed total diet slurry as a prospective reference material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total diet composite based on foods from the U.S. FDA Total Diet Study was investigated to assess its suitability as a slurry material as a candidate reference material in the form of a slurry. Results for the distribution of chlorine and sodium (overall variation 2% for Na and 3% for Cl) indicated no serious problems of sedimentation. Similarly determination

G. V. Iyengar; W. R. Wolf; R. Greenberg; R. Demiralp

1994-01-01

283

Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

1984-06-01

284

Filtration behavior of slurries with varying compressibilities  

SciTech Connect

A novel filtration apparatus allows simultaneous measurements of filtrate volume, hydraulic pressure and cake thickness using slurry volumes on the order of 100 cm/sup 3/. Differences in interparticle interactions were studied by varying the barium chloride concentration of 0.38-..mu..m polystyrene latex and filtering at pressures between 2 and 100 psi. Cakes formed from these slurries are highly compressible for concentrations between 0.01M and 0.10M, moderately compressible for the 0.005M concentration, and incompressible for the 0.001M concentration. Plots of filtrate volume versus cake thickness were linear for the incompressible cakes, whereas the compressible cakes showed significant deviations, which were pressure dependent. The pressure distribution for the incompressible cake was found to be essentially linear as predicted from the resistance plots assuming constant ..cap alpha.. and epsilon. For the highly compressible cakes, most of the pressure drop appears to occur near the cake/medium interface with only small changes occurring at the top of the cake.

Massuda, M.; Bridger, K.; Harvey, M.; Tiller, F.M.

1988-10-01

285

Coal/water slurry rheology and atomization  

SciTech Connect

The initial Sandia program in coal/water mixtures consisted of adapting helical screw rheometer technology for use in determining the flow behavior of coal/water slurries. The program required the development of a variety of experimental and analytical techniques and initially focused on determining rheology in the low-intermediate (50--250 sec/sup /minus/1/) shear rate range. The thrust of the current program is to extend the investigations from shear rates in the transportation and pumping range to those expected during atomization. The program consisted of the following elements: (1) design, fabricate and test a helical screw rheometer capable of developing shear rates to 10,000 sec/sup /minus/1/; (2) develop a capability to atomize slurries and monitor the spray using high speed photography; and (3) establish a collaborative program with the Combustion Research Facility at Sandia National Laboratories Livermore for the purpose of analyzing particulates in atomized and burned spray. 11 refs., 10 figs.

Lynch, A.W.; Cook, D.W.; Dunn-Rankin, D.

1988-07-01

286

Seventh international symposium on coal slurry fuels preparation and utilization: proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Seventh International Symposium on ''Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization'' consisted of the following fifteen sessions: (1) fundamentals of coal slurryability; (2) slurry fuel rheology; (3) slurry fuel rheology and fuel specifications; (4) cleaned coal and other slurry fuel forms; (5) slurry fuel atomization; (6) fundamentals of coal slurry fuel combustion; (7) small-scale combustion tests (corrosion, erosion and deposits); (8) slurry fuel burners/combustors; (9) ultrafine coal slurries and heat engine applications; (10) large-scale combustion tests; (11) demonstration projects; (12) slurry fuel retrofit engineering; (13) slurry preparation processes/commercial ventures; (14) slurry fuel delivery/transportation; and (15) fuel switching economics. All papers in this proceedings have been processed for inclusion the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1985-01-01

287

St. Paul's Pig Pack.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)|

Miller, Penny Folley

1982-01-01

288

Sokosi Aliah = Little Pigs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Written in Choctaw and English, the illustrated booklet presents a Choctaw version of "This Little Pig Went to Market." The finger play activity emphasizes Choctaw values and cultural information such as generosity, humor, traditional clothing, designs, food, sports and art. The last page provides a teacher's guide with objectives and six…

Boykin, Deborah; And Others

289

A Simple "Pig" Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

Johnson, Roger W.

2008-01-01

290

Minerals and Trace Elements Low Zinc Intake Affects Maintenance of Pregnancy in Guinea Pigs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zinc deficiency during pregnancy has severe effects in animals. To what extent the effects in animals apply to human pregnancy is not known. Be cause the pregnant guinea pig shares characteristics with pregnant women that make it a useful model, three experiments were done with guinea pigs in which Zn intake was reduced beginning on the 30th d of gestation.

J. APGAR; ANDG. A. EVERETT

291

Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

1999-08-01

292

Interaction analysis between binder and particles in multiphase slurries.  

PubMed

A multiphase slurry for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries is prepared using an active material, a carbon conductive, a polymeric binder and a solvent, and its physicochemical characteristics is evaluated in this study. The polymer binder interacting with particles in the slurry plays a crucial role in constructing the internal configuration of slurry components. The internal structure and dispersion states of the slurry components, which affect battery fabrication processes such as coating and even determine the final performance of battery cells, are changed over time. Experimental measurements such as spectroscopic, rheological, morphological, and electrical tests are carried out. Morphological specimens are freeze-dried to fix the locations of the slurry components. The existence of a network structure (or flocculation) is verified by viscoelastic property measurements and morphological observations. Electrical properties of the slurry vary mainly depending on the dispersion state of the carbon conductive. In addition, the dispersity index is introduced as a new quantity representing the dispersion state of the slurry components. PMID:23392111

Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

2013-02-08

293

Effects of coal slurry on wastewater bacteria and bacteriophage  

SciTech Connect

Coal slurry was only mildly toxic to coliform bacteria, which serve as indicators of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater, and the fecal streptococci concentration appeared to remain essentially unchanged with respect to the wastewater control. Thus the results do not support the supposition that wastewater would be naturally disinfected in a coal slurry pipeline. On the other hand, at least 99.8% of the E. coli C-specific phage present in the wastewater became noninfective in the coal slurry. Should water-borne pathogenic viruses lose infectivity to a similar extent, use of wastewater as the slurry medium would indeed result in upgrading of the water. Depending on the method of disposing of the slurry wastewater at the terminus of the pipeline, disinfection may be required. The possibility exists that future regulations would require disinfection of viruses in addition to indicator bacteria. Under such regulations, the task of disinfecting the slurry wastewater should be greatly facilitated because viruses are generally more resistent to disinfection than are bacteria. The important question remaining and requiring further study, however, is what effect would coal slurry have on pathogenic enteric viruses.

Margler, L.W.; Rogozen, M.B.

1980-01-01

294

Electrochemistry of Coal Slurries; II: studies on various experimental parameters affecting oxidation of coal slurries  

SciTech Connect

The anodic oxidation of coal slurries has been studied under various experimental conditions. Results obtained from various experiments support the mechanism of the catalytic oxidation of coal slurries by iron (III in solution, followed by the oxidation of reduced iron (II) to iron (III) at the electrode. The oxidation of coal slurries by iron (III) in solution is found to be a first-order process with respect to both reactants, i.e., coal and iron (III), from concentration dependency studies, indicating that the overall reaction may consist of a sequence of one-election transfers. It may also be concluded from various experimental results that the electrolysis reaction proceeds through the sequential formation, first of carbon oxides on the coal surface, and then of carbon dioxide as a final product. Of various catalyst oxidants studied, bromine and cerium (IV) appear to have the largest pseudo first-order catalytic rate constants with 1.1 X 10/sup -3/sec/sup -1/ and 4.1 X 10/sup -4/sec/sup -1/, respectively. Redox potentials of the catalyst pairs appear to be the most important parameter in determining catalytic reaction rates.

Dhooge, P.M.; Su-Moon Park

1983-05-01

295

Load directly from railcar to slurry  

SciTech Connect

Many process plants must unload soluble, granular chemicals from railcars and trucks and then dissolve or slurry them before use. Material handling problems such as agglomeration, plugging, spillage, dusting and noise can make these efforts inefficient and drive up capital, maintenance and labor costs. Pneumatic and gravity flow technologies are beset with these problems. To solve them, General Chemical Corp. has developed a device called the GCH Hydrator that unloads directly into water. The apparatus and associated process is adaptable to many chemicals. The Hydrator has been successfully used in paper making, chemical processing, petroleum refining, metals recovery and water treatment. Specific sites include: white liquor makeup in paper making; sulfur dioxide scrubbing in chemical processing and refining; acid neutralization in metals recovery, paper making, and sulfuric acid manufacture; and pH and alkalinity control in water treatment facilities.

Shepard, J.M. [General Chemical Corp., Claymont, DE (United States)

1997-07-01

296

PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

1993-11-29

297

Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of breakup modes are also obtained. The conventional Weber number and Ohnesorge number are found to be insufficient to classify all breakup modes of CWS drops, so two other non-dimensional numbers based on rheology of CWS are suggested to use in the deformation and breakup regime map. Finally, total breakup time is studied and correlated, which increases with Ohnesorge number.

Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

2011-11-01

298

Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the basic parameters which directly influence the behavior of a coal slurry pipeline transportation system and determine the limitations of the system performance. The purpose of this technology assessment is to provide an identification and understanding of the critical factors which must be given consideration in the design and evaluation of such a slurry haulage system intended for use in an underground coal mine. The slurry haulage system will be utilized to satisfy the transportation requirements of conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location near the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located on the surface. Coal-water slurries, particularly those consisting of homogeneous suspensions of small particles, frequently behave as non-Newtonian, Bingham-plastic fluids. For successful operation, slurry transport systems should be designed to operate in the turbulent flow regime and at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity. The deposition velocity is defined as the slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe. Due to the importance of accurately determining the deposition velocity and the uncertainties of current methods for predicting the deposition velocity of coarse particle slurries, it is recommended that experimental efforts be performed as a part of the system design. The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the mine's projected coal output in order to avoid operational delays and the necessity for in-mine coal storage. The slurry pumps must generate sufficient discharge pressure to overcome the resultant friction losses in horizontal and vertical pipe sections and to satisfy the slurry hoisting requirements.

Maynard, D.P.

1981-02-15

299

Shear-induced structures and thickening in fumed silica slurries.  

PubMed

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is an essential technology used in the semiconductor industry to polish and planarize a variety of materials for the fabrication of microelectronic devices (e.g., computer chips). During the high shear (?1,000,000 s(-1)) CMP process, it is hypothesized that individual slurry particles are driven together to form large agglomerates (?0.5 ?m), triggering a shear thickening effect. These shear-induced agglomerates are believed to cause defects during polishing. In this study, we examined the shear thickening of a 25 wt % fumed silica slurry with 0.17 M added KCl using in situ small-angle light scattering during rheological characterization (rheo-SALS). The salt-adjusted slurry displays a ?3-fold increase in viscosity at a critical shear rate of 20,000 s(-1) during a stepped shear rate ramp from 100 to 25,000 s(-1). As the shear rate is reduced back to 100 s(-1), the slurry displays irreversible thickening behavior with a final viscosity that is 100-times greater than the initial viscosity. Corresponding rheo-SALS images indicate the formation of micrometer scale structures (2-3 ?m) that directly correlate with the discontinuous and irreversible shear thickening behavior of the fumed silica slurry; these micrometer scale structures are 10-times the nominal particle diameter (?0.2 ?m). The scattering patterns from the 25 wt % slurry were corroborated through rheo-SALS examination of 27 and 29 wt % slurries (CKCl = 0.1 M). All slurries, regardless of ionic strength and solids loading, display scattering patterns that are directly associated with the observed thickening behavior. Scattering was only observable during and after thickening (i.e., no scattering was detected in the absence of thickening). This work serves as the first in situ observation of micrometer scale structures within the fumed silica CMP slurry while under shear. PMID:24063640

Crawford, Nathan C; Williams, S Kim R; Boldridge, David; Liberatore, Matthew W

2013-10-10

300

Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species

Fadel F. Erian; Daniel J. Furfari; Michael I. Kellogg; Walter R. Park

2001-01-01

301

Effect of Particle Size Distribution and Concentration on Flow Behavior of Dense Slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flow behavior of concentrated slurry depends on particle size distribution, shape, density, and concentration. The slurry flow behavior can change from Newtonian to non-Newtonian depending on the concentration, slurry composition, and content of fine and especially colloidal particles, which evoke a complex rheological behavior of the slurry. The present article deals with experimental investigation of the flow behavior and

Pavel Vlasak; Zdenek Chara

2011-01-01

302

Experimental investigation of an applicator of liquid slurry, from biogas production, for crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unit for the application of liquid digested slurry in the field was designed and developed. The developed slurry applicator had a capacity of 1500 L and was pulled by a 35 h.p. tractor. The liquid digested slurry of a biogas plant was pumped in to the tank with the help of a slurry pump. The necessary power transmission system,

A. K. Kurchania; N. L. Panwar

2011-01-01

303

Modeling the influence of slurry concentration on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cake porosity and resistance during microfiltration.  

PubMed

Filtration of an isotonic suspension of baker's yeast through a 0.45-?m membrane was studied at two different pressures, 40 and 80 kPa, for yeast concentrations ranging from 0.14 to 51 kg/m(3) (dry weight). For a yeast volume fraction above 0.06 (~21.8 kg/m(3) ), the porosity of the yeast cake is less dependent on the suspension concentration. For highly diluted suspensions, the specific cake resistance approaches a minimum that depends on the filtration pressure. Correlation functions of cake porosity and specific cake resistance were obtained for the concentration range investigated showing that the Kozeny-Carman coefficient increases when the applied pressure increases. Both filtration pressure and slurry concentration can be process controlled. In the range of moderate yeast concentration, the filtrate flux may be increased by manipulating the filtration pressure and the slurry concentration, thereby improving the overall process efficiency. The complex behavior of yeast cakes at high slurry concentration can be described by a conventional model as long as part of yeast cells are assumed to form aggregates, which behave as single bigger particles. The aggregation effect may be accounted for using a binary mixture model. PMID:23011664

Mota, Manuel; Flickinger, Michael C

2012-11-01

304

A Process for Composite Fabrication by Silicon Slurry Coating of Continuous Fiber Tows  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for coating continuous small-diameter fiber tows with silicon-filled polymer slurries. This can enable fabrication of complex shaped ceramic matrix composites such as those based on reaction-bonded silicon-nitride matrices. The coating process sequence includes sizing removal, drying, spreading, dip-coating, drying, and die consolidation to infiltrate a silicon-filled polymer slurry into interstices of the fiber tows. Sizing removal from the as-received fibers was accomplished by using an ultrasonic cleaner with water-isopropyl alcohol solutions at elevated temperatures (30 to 60 C). Measurements of surface tension, viscosity, and density of various slurry concentrations are listed. The coating thickness applied on the fiber surface can be correlated with the modified small wire theory. Optical microscopy of cross-sections of coated samples showed the degree of infiltration achieved. The overall diameters of the coated tows depended primarily on the drying (die) temperatures used in the drying furnace, which in turn appears related to the vapor pressure of the solvent evaporating at those temperatures. Finally, the effect of the coating process on the tensile strength of Nicalon fiber is also examined.

Chan, R.C.

1996-01-01

305

Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries  

SciTech Connect

A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

Coleman, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-01-08

306

Char-water slurry fuel and method of making  

DOEpatents

A method of producing a slurry usable as a fuel source is provided which comprises combining the char obtained from the pyrolysis of coal or other feedstocks under mild temperatures with water to produce a char-water slurry. The char-water slurry fuel source can be utilized by combustion or gasification with a high efficiency, and can be prepared using previously underutilized low-rank coals which have a high moisture content. The present invention maximizes efficiency in the overall processing of coal and other feedstocks and provides an alternative method of utilizing indigenous coal resources in the United States and other countries. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Khan, M.R.

1990-01-29

307

Fiber-related digestive processes in three different breeds of pigs.  

PubMed

The hypothesis examined in this experiment was that, because of intensive selection for greater daily BW gains and efficient utilization of concentrated low-fiber diets, modern pig breeds differ from old local breeds in their physiological ability to respond to soluble dietary fiber. Thus, the old local breeds, Schwaebisch Haellisches Schwein (SH) and Bunte Bentheimer (BB), and a modern crossbred pig (CB) were used in metabolism trials to study fiber-related digestion, including microbial hindgut fermentation, by applying a colon simulation technique (Cositec) and measuring intestinal glucose transport in Ussing chambers. A basal diet or basal plus 20% dried sugar beet pulp (SBP) as a soluble fiber source was fed to 6 pigs/breed in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Four pigs of each breed per treatment were used for intestinal anatomical measurements at the end of the metabolism trials. The pigs had an initial average BW of 33.9 +/- 3.7 kg. The basal diet was formulated to meet 80% of energy and 100% of nutrient requirements for pigs with 700 g of ADG. Feeding the SBP diet reduced total intestinal tract, but it increased colon length, water-holding capacity of the digesta, and fecal bulk (P < 0.01). The digestibility of OM, CP, and ether extract decreased, whereas that of NDF and ADF increased, by SBP (P = 0.001). Pigs receiving SBP excreted less urinary N and retained more N (P = 0.001). The fecal proportions of undigested dietary and water soluble N increased and those of bacterial and endogenous debris N decreased (P < 0.05) in SBP-fed pigs. The SH pigs had lighter empty cecum weight, shorter colons, and less NDF digestibility than BB and CB pigs (P < 0.05). Fecal N excretion did not differ (P = 0.659) among breeds, but SH pigs excreted more urinary N (P = 0.001) than the other breeds. In Cositec, OM, NDF, and ADF disappearance rates from cecal chyme of SBP-fed pigs increased (P < 0.05) irrespective of pig breed. Cecal chyme of SBP-fed BB pigs produced more VFA with a smaller proportion of propionate and a larger acetate to propionate ratio than chyme of SBP-fed SH and CB pigs. The intestinal epithelial glucose transport was greater for ileal than for jejunal tissues (P < 0.001) but was not influenced by diet and pig breed. In conclusion, the modern and intensely selected pig breed can utilize SBP fiber as efficiently as the old pig breeds under the present experimental conditions. PMID:19933429

von Heimendahl, E; Breves, G; Abel, H J

2009-11-20

308

Dust in pig buildings.  

PubMed

It is well documented in the international scientific literature that airborne dust in pig houses can cause serious health problems for humans as well as for animals. Extensive research has been carried out in different countries during the last few decades to improve the scientific understanding of air quality issues related to intensive animal production. Research and review papers were presented at the international symposium on Dust Control in Animal Production Facilities, held in Denmark in 1999. Different techniques have been used in order to reduce dust burdens in pig confinement buildings, but up to date only the procedure of spraying oil or a mixture of oil and water has contributed to reducing the indoor dust concentrations significantly. This article summarizes the current level of understanding of dust issues in intensive animal production buildings, mainly on the basis of papers presented at the above-mentioned symposium. PMID:11217691

Pedersen, S; Nonnenmann, M; Rautiainen, R; Demmers, T G; Banhazi, T; Lyngbye, M

2000-11-01

309

Guinea pigs in hypersensitivity testing.  

PubMed

The aim of the present paper is to mention steps of development of predictive guinea pig animal models for contact sensitization evaluation in parallel with the development of understanding the mechanism of contact sensitization. The guinea pigs methods are reviewed and the presently accepted methods (Buehler test, Maximization test) are discussed in details. Influences on the outcome of guinea pig sensitization assays are mentioned too. The predictability of the guinea pig methods is compared with predictive methods in mice, with human tests (human repeated insult patch test, HRIPT) and epidemiological data. In the last part, a testing strategy and steps for risk assessment of contact sensitizing potential is proposed. PMID:17161301

Maurer, Thomas

2007-01-01

310

Cost estimate for a coal slurry pipeline in western Sumatra  

SciTech Connect

Contents: Introduction to pipeline slurry transport; Calculation of pressure drop due to friction; Calculation of the total pressure drop; Determination of the type of pumps; Wall thickness and the cost of the pipe; Storage capacity; Dewatering; Grinding; Cost evaluation.

Kappelle, H.J.

1982-08-01

311

Design and Construction Techniques for SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report documents the first part of a three-part program to develop information and techniques necessary to consider SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete) as a conventional building material. The report presents a discussion of preliminary design...

B. Schneider R. R. Mondragon

1989-01-01

312

Hydrodynamic behavior of graphite powder slurries in journal bearings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increasingly severe requirements imposed on rotating machinery in terms of speeds, loads, and temperature impose severe operating conditions on journal bearings. An approach of using solid lubricant slurry would advance the capabilities of the existing rotating machinery related to gas turbine engines. In this study, the behavior of graphite-ethylene glycol slurry is evaluated in a hydrodynamic journal bearing operating at ambient temperatures. The evaluation is based on laboratory testing and provides some insight on the lubrication capabilities of the non-Newtonian slurry. A laboratory test rig was designed and fabricated and the effects evaluated in terms of the difference in fluid film pressure between the pure carrier fluid and the powder slurry. It is observed that the addition of graphite increases the effective viscosity of the carrier fluid, causing not only an increase in pressure, but also an increase in fluid temperature.

Batra, Anup; Dareing, Don W.

1995-01-01

313

Aerated atomization of coal-water slurry fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This programs was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomiz...

H. N. Buckner P. E. Sojka A. H. Lefebvre

1989-01-01

314

View of south slurry wall in Section A, looking southeast, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south slurry wall in Section A, looking southeast, substation in foreground. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

315

Dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulose for whole slurry ethanol fermentation.  

PubMed

Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) followed by the whole slurry fermentation of the pretreated EFB slurry was investigated. The optimized pretreatment conditions were at 1% (w/v) sulfuric acid with 3 min ramping to 190 °C in a microwave digester. Pretreated and washed EFB exhibited enzymatic digestibility of 88.5% of theoretical glucose yield after 48 h of hydrolysis. When the whole slurry of pretreated and neutralized EFB was used in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, sulfuric acid-pretreated EFB resulted in 52.5% of theoretical ethanol yield based on total glucan in the untreated initial EFB after 72 h of SSF. When pretreated EFB slurry was treated with activated carbon before subjecting to SSF, the SSF furnished 87.5% ethanol yield based on the initial glucan content in untreated EFB (after 48 h of SSF). PMID:23395763

Jung, Young Hoon; Kim, In Jung; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2013-01-03

316

Treatment of food wastes using slurry-phase decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioreactor incorporating a slurry-phase reaction was developed for high-rate decomposition of food wastes with an ultimate goal of complete decomposition leaving minimal residue of food wastes when compared to conventional food waste treatment producing composts. In this slurry-phase decomposition, suspended solids in the reactor disappeared with a maximum rate of 7.9 g dry weight dm?3 day?1. The changes in

Yeoung-Sang Yun; Jong Ik Park; Min Seok Suh; Jong Moon Park

2000-01-01

317

Coal-water slurries are ready for utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-water mixture (CWM) made of 30% water, run-of-the-mine coal, and a 1% secret ingredient may be a viable alternative to oil and gas. A joint effort on the part of utilities, DOE, boiler manufacturers and vendors, and slurry vendors has advanced slurry technology through the large demonstration levels. Boiler efficiency was comparable to natural-gas units, while emissions were comparable to

1984-01-01

318

Automated injection of slurry samples in flow-injection analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of injectors are described for introducing solid samples as slurries in flow analysis systems. A time-based and a volume-based injector based on multitube solenoid pinch valves were built, both can be characterized as hydrodynamic injectors. Reproducibility of the injections of dispersed solids (? 150 ?m) was tested with several concentrations of slurry samples up to 30 mg\\/ml; the

M. Hulsman; M. Bos; W. E. van der Linden

1996-01-01

319

Development of a coal-water slurry burner  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the development and testing of a large scale (80 MMBTU\\/Hr) burner for coal-water slurry. The development path included atomizer and burner register performance evaluations in a non-combustion environment. This was followed by extensive combustion testing. The program was successful in developing a burner for coal-water slurry which would permit ignition in a cold furnace, operate stably

R. K. Manfred; R. W. Borio; R. C. LaFlesh; J. L. Marion; M. J. Rini; D. A. Smith

1983-01-01

320

Macsizut : un modèle d'aide au choix de techniques de traitement des lisiers de porc  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macsizut: a model for aid in the choice of pig slurry treatment techniques. Effluents from animal breeding and especially pig slurry are rich in minerals and metals that can cause risks for the environment if excess quantities are applied to crops. Treatment is then required to reduce the levels. The regulations have evolved and many existing slurry treatment techniques combine

Jean-Luc FARINET; Yvan HURVOIS; Jean-Marie PAILLAT

321

Influence of Bovine Slurry Deposition on the Structure of Nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Soil Populations in a Natural Habitat  

PubMed Central

The population of nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae in soil from a grass-covered valley area which had been used for bovine slurry deposition over a period of 5 years was analyzed. For these studies, a rapid and reproducible method based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to identify Rhizobium strains which had infected pea nodules. Soil samples were taken from different areas and further analyzed in plant tests to determine the impact of the application of slurry (polluted or nonpolluted), the slope position (summit or toe), and exposure (north or south). After comparison of all PCR fingerprint patterns, 24 strain groups were defined. Some strain groups from the nonpolluted soil were suppressed in the polluted samples, and new strain groups were detected in the slurry-polluted soil. After analyzing relationships between the strain groups, we determined the influences of local factors on the nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population. We show that one of those local parameters, slope position, had significantly greater impact on the composition of the Rhizobium population than the presence of slurry.

Labes, G.; Ulrich, A.; Lentzsch, P.

1996-01-01

322

Design, maintenance extend FGD system slurry valve life  

SciTech Connect

This article describes how power plants in Florida, Oklahoma and Texas adopted improved maintenance techniques and sought better design criteria to gain greater slurry valve reliability. Slurry valves, a vital part of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system, are critical to a power plant`s ability to meet or exceed acid rain emission requirements. The performance and reliability of these valves can significantly affect unit operation and load capacity. For example, slurry valves installed on the suction and discharge ends of scrubber tower pumps are a main point of isolation. When these valves malfunction, the scrubber tower must be shut down. Problems with valves that control the feed system and reaction tank alter slurry pH and density, and also affect unit load. In addition, a single valve that serves dual-pumping systems from the slurry storage tank to the reaction tank can cause a system outage. Because of their key role in system operation, specific maintenance approaches were developed at several power plants to improve slurry valve reliability and run times.

LeMay, B. [St. John`s River Power Park, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Willyard, B. [Grand River Dam Authority, Chouteau, OK (United States); Polasek, S. [Lower Colorado River Authority, Austin, TX (United States); Clarkson, C.W. [Clarkson Co., Sparks, NV (United States)

1995-08-01

323

Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization  

SciTech Connect

This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25[degrees]C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

Tsai, S.C.

1992-01-01

324

Effects of adding fiber sources to reduced-crude protein, amino acid- supplemented diets on nitrogen excretion, growth performance, and carcass traits of finishing pigs1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding fiber sources to reduced- crude protein (CP), amino acid-supplemented diets on N excretion, growth performance, and carcass traits of growing-finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, six sets of four littermate barrows (initial weight = 36.3 kg) were allot- ted randomly to four dietary treatments to determine N balance and slurry composition.

J. A. Shriver; S. D. Carter; A. L. Sutton; B. T. Richert; B. W. Senne; L. A. Pettey

2010-01-01

325

Mechanics of Bubbles in Sludges and Slurries  

SciTech Connect

This project is focusing on key issues associated with the flammable gas safety hazard and its role in safe storage and in future waste operations such as salt-well pumping, waste transfers, and sluicing and retrieval of tank waste. The purpose of this project is to develop a basic understanding of how single bubbles (of flammable gases) behave in representative waste simulants and then develop a framework for predicting macroscopic full-tank behavior from the underlying single-bubble behavior. The specific objectives of this research are as follows: 1. quantitatively describe the interaction of bubbles with waste materials (both sludges and slurries) to understand the physical mechanisms by which barometric pressure changes give rise to a hysteresis between level and pressure 2. develop improved methods for estimating retained gas by properly accounting for the interactions of bubbles with the waste 3. determine how to estimate waste physical properties from the observed hysteresis and the limitations of these estimates 4. determine how barometric pressure fluctuations induce slow upward migration and release of gas bubbles.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Denn, Morton M.; Rossen, William R.

1999-06-01

326

Strengthening of solidified dilute tailings slurry  

SciTech Connect

Tailings produced during mineral processing contain up to 75% or more water and are pumped into settling ponds for disposal. They often become a pollution source due to acid generation. While tailings have been used in underground backfill, the use is very limited at present. This paper presents research results on direct solidification and strengthening of the dilute tailings slurry without dewatering. Two types of tailings were tested at water/binder ratios of up to 4.5 using a special high-water binder. Adequate strength was achieved by solidifying the tailings as is. To further improve the strength, sands and fly ash were used as reinforcement materials or partial replacement of the binder. For oil sands tailings, the 3-day strength was increased by up to 114% with 10--15% additives. For hard rock tailings, up to 30% strength gain was achieved with 15% fly ash addition, and the strength was increased by up to 36% at 10% binder replacement and no strength reduction was observed at 20--25% replacement. These results indicate that higher strength can be achieved with the proper amount of additives and that the backfill process can be simplified and the operation cost reduced.

Zou, D.H.; Li, L.P. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering

1999-01-01

327

Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-06-21

328

Slurry sample introduction with fluorinating electrothermal vaporization for the direct ICP-AES determination of boron in plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slurry sample introduction with fluorinating electrothermal vaporization has been applied to ICP-AES for the determination of boron in plant leaves. The main working parameters for ETV-ICP-AES, such as r.f. power, gas flow rate, drying temperature and atomization temperature have been studied. The concentration of the fluorinating agent polytetrafluoro-ethylene was examined for the boron determination. The matrix concentrations of Na,

Bin Hu; Zucheng Jiang; Yun'e Zeng

1991-01-01

329

Redox Potential as a Means to Control the Treatment of Slurry to Lower H2S Emissions  

PubMed Central

Slurry can be oxidized to eliminate undesirable emissions, including malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, it is difficult to assess the optimal amount of oxidizing agent required. In this study, one cow and one pig manure, each in three particle size ranges were oxidized with 0–350 mg ozone/L manure. Redox and H2S concentration were measured continuously. During ozonation the manures gave equivalent redox potential curves. A relatively rapid rise in redox potential was observed within a range of ?275 mV to ?10 mV, with all manures changing as a minimum from ?200 mV to ?80 mV. The gaseous H2S emissions were decreased by 99.5% during the redox increase (?200 mV to ?80 mV). This is attributed to H2S oxidation by ozone and oxygen, and is not due to H2S deprotonation or gas flushing. By identifying the initiation of the final redox level following the rise, the amount of ozone required to remove H2S from the manure samples was estimated to be in the range of 6–24 mg O3/L manure, depending on the type of manure. Hence, continuous monitoring of redox potential (termination of the redox rise) during the oxidation treatment is a simple method of achieving cost-effective minimization of H2S emissions from slurry.

Hjorth, Maibritt; Pedersen, Christina ?; Feilberg, Anders

2012-01-01

330

Thermal pre-treatment of solid fraction from mechanically-separated raw and digested slurry to increase methane yield.  

PubMed

Anaerobic digestion plants rely on large-capacity storage tanks to manage the agronomic utilisation of the digestate. As a consequence, many Italian A.D. plants have introduced mechanical separation of the digested slurry to simplify process requirements. This study evaluated the possibility of reusing mechanically-separated solid fraction as a further biomass input anaerobic digestion plants. The effects of storage and thermal pre-treatment on digested solid fraction were assessed through biogas and methane yield measures, and then compared to the yields associated with undigested solid fraction of raw pig slurry. The specific CH4 yields of digested solid fractions ranged between 71.4 and 156.9 lN/kg VS, whereas the biogas yield from undigested solid fractions was 78.7 lN/kg VS. Solid fraction storage showed no significant effect on specific CH4 yields in any of the examined samples. However, in the case of the undigested solid fraction, thermal pre-treatment proved to be an effective method to increase CH4. PMID:20934328

Menardo, S; Balsari, P; Dinuccio, E; Gioelli, F

2010-09-21

331

The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)|

Arnold, Arthur

1988-01-01

332

Advertising and Australian Pig Producers Welfare  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pig meat market in Australia is characterized by generic (fresh pork, bacon etc.) advertising. These advertising expenditures are funded from collective levies from pig producers. At the same time, there are extensive brand advertising activities in the pig market. Impact of advertising on pig meat consumption has been a long-standing argument. So far, there have been several studies done

Lin Zhang; Ellen W. Goddard

2000-01-01

333

Applications of a laser assisted defect detection system for chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) slurry development in rigid disk polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A laser assisted optical surface analyser (OSA) was applied for inspecting scratch defects on rigid disks used for hard disk drives (HDDs). The disk samples were polished with a chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) technique beforehand. Since it has been recognized that the CMP slurry formulation highly affects the scratch performance of rigid disks, a reliable defect evaluation system is required for efficient slurry development. In this paper, the capability of the OSA tool (Candela C10, KLA-Tencor Corp.) for scratch evaluation is discussed with reference to the scratch data acquired with a conventional dark field microscope (DFM) technique. A gauge repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) study revealed that the Candela had more than three times better R&R performance than the DFM. Scratch counts measured using the two tools were correlated, but not matched, due to the differences in the detection systems. The linear regression correlation coefficient (R2) was found to be 71% for the relatively larger size (>1 mm) of scratch categories. Another study was conducted using a scratch control additive in CMP slurry. The results showed that the effect of the additive was readily detected by the Candela, but was not obvious for the DFM detection. Based on the findings, the similarities and differences of the Candela and the DFM techniques are discussed. It was also found that the tuning capability of the Candela analysis recipe allowed consistent scratch counts with another type of laser assisted defect evaluation tool. This flexibility of the Candela system is a main characteristic which can be effectively used for CMP slurry development. An approach to targeted slurry designs is suggested in conjunction with the advantages and opportunities of the Candela method.

Kasai, Toshi; Dowell, Charles; Somanchi, Anoop

2007-05-01

334

Investigating Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Reflection Techniques for Characterizing Slurry Properties  

SciTech Connect

The particle size of a slurry and the viscosity of a liquid or slurry are both difficult to measure on-line and in real time. The objectives of this research are to develop the following methods for such measurements: (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) to measure the particle size of a slurry, (2) UDGS to measure the velocity of sound in a slurry using reflection from a grating as opposed to ultrasound traveling through a possibly dense slurry, and (3) shear wave reflection techniques to measure the viscosity of a slurry.

Greenwood, Margaret S.; Burgess, Lloyd

2004-06-01

335

Determination of extractable arsenic in soils using slurry sampling-on-line microwave extraction-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow injection procedure has been developed for the determination of acid-extractable arsenic in soils by hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry. Several parameters, including acid and borohydride concentrations, exposure time to microwave energy, and the microwave power applied, were optimized. The on-line microwave extraction increased the recovery of the adsorbed arsenic significantly; whereas, preparation of the slurry in 10% hydrochloric

Hakan Gürleyük; Julian F. Tyson; Peter C Uden

2000-01-01

336

Foam pigs solve pipe cleaning problems offshore Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.

Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-10-02

337

Electrophoretic Deposition Applied to Thick Metal-Ceramic Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Electrophoretic deposition was used to fabricate thick (4 mm) metal–ceramic deposits from a non-aqueous slurry of nickel and alumina particles. A high solid volume in the slurry was identified as the primary parameter for depositing thick cermet coatings rather than the applied electric potential or ionic additive concentration. Ionic additives (MgCl2, AlCl3, etc.) were found to adequately suspend the alumina particles and provide rapid deposition rates. The nickel particles proved to be more difficult to suspend in solution, thereby sacrificing control of the deposition composition. The use of small (3.0 µm) particles and continuously pumping the slurry alleviated the suspension problems but small electric potentials (100 V/cm) were required to avoid the formation of rough, columnar deposits on the depositing electrode.

Windes, William Enoch; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Reimanis, Ivar E.

2002-08-01

338

30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...design storm conditions, sediment or slurry level, water level and other...

2010-07-01

339

30 CFR 77.216-2 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; minimum plan requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...77.216-2 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...design storm conditions, sediment or slurry level, water level and other...

2009-07-01

340

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. Work conducted during the second quarter has concentrated in two specific areas: (1) the construction of a laboratory-scale bubble column slurry reactor (BCSR) for use in the study of each of the three routes defined above, and (2) initial selection, characterization and screening of zeolite catalysts for schemes 1 and 2 above. The design of the reactor was completed in the last quarter and its design described in Quarterly Report No. 1. Various catalysts suitable for reaction schemes 1 and 2 have been identified. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Marcelin, G.

1991-05-22

341

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction. The three routes to be investigated are: addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. Work conducted during the first quarter has concentrated in the design of a laboratory-scale bubble column slurry reactor (BCSR) capable of operating at suitable temperatures and pressures for each of the three routes defined above. For design purposes the reactor has been configured as a one-inch diameter bubble column reactor for conversion of synthesis gas and operating with a wax paraffin (C{sub 30}{sup +}) liquid medium. This design has been finalized, thereby reaching milestone M1. The paper discusses the important design parameters (hydrodynamics, mass transfer, kinetics, and heat transfer) as well as the relationship of lab scale to industrial scale BCSR, parameter estimations, and the design of the bench-scale BCSR. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Marcelin, G.

1991-02-28

342

Loss coefficients of ice slurry in sudden pipe contractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as contractions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the ice slurry flow in which the flow behaviour depends mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the loss coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the sudden pipe contraction. The mass fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common contractions of copper pipes: 28/22 mm, 28/18 mm, 28/15 mm, 22/18 mm, 22/15 mm and 18/15 mm. The recommended (with respect to minimal flow resistance) range of the Reynolds number (Re about 3000-4000) for the ice slurry flow through sudden contractions was presented in this paper.

Mika, ?ukasz

2010-09-01

343

Slurry blankets for D-T fusion reactors  

SciTech Connect

A brief overview of the blanket design problem is followed by a general model for fusion power plants based on tritium material balances. This model is used to determine the relationships between important design parameters including doubling time, plant tritium inventory, tritium breeding ratio, and tritium burn rate. A novel concept, the Poor Blanket is then described along with the results of neutron transport calculations that indicate that slurries of Li/sub 2/O particles in molten flibe (LiF-BeF/sub 2/) would provide adequate tritium breeding rates. A preliminary design study of a Pool Blanket is reported for a spheromak reactor in which a Li/sub 2/O slurry is both a breeder and the heat transfer medium. Laboratory experiments indicate that the tritium would exist primarily in the molten salt phase. The results of these studies indicate that the Pool Blanket with a slurry breeder would be an attractive choice for first generation fusion reactors. Calculations of the tritium breeding ratios for slurries of Li/sub 2/O in molten LiF-NaF (a salt that is less toxic than those that contain Be) indicate that such systems merit further investigation. A brief study of neutron multipliers for fusion reactor blankets indicates that Be is by far the best material in that respect. Finally, the results of some density and viscosity measurements for slurries of Li/sub 2/O in molten flibe are reported.

Kasturirangan, T.M.

1985-01-01

344

Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs  

PubMed Central

Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology.

Kvetina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kunes, Martin; Bures, Jan; Tacheci, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopacova, Marcela

2010-01-01

345

Applying pesticides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fertilizer is one way to provide crops with the nutrients they need. Pesticides can also be applied to crops to keep them healthy and free of insects. However, applying too much fertilizer or pesticide protection could harm the environment and organisms.

Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS;Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory)

2006-05-23

346

Applied Mathematics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Applied Mathematics is a lesson plan which will help students gain proficiency in applied mathematics. After completing this module, students should be able to demonstrate the ability to perform various mathematical conversions. Note: This module is part of a modularized manufacturing technology curriculum created by the PSCME, found at www.pscme.org/educators.html.

2010-07-22

347

Application of bimetallic iron (BioCAT slurry) for pentachlorophenol removal from sandy soil.  

PubMed

Bimetallic iron nanoparticles have mostly been applied to the degradation of chlorinated compounds in the aqueous phase. In this study, the degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) spiked into sandy soil is considered as a first exploratory step for remediating PCP in real contaminated soil using a commercial preparation of bimetallic iron (Trade name BioCAT). After 21 days of treatment a PCP removal efficiency of 90% was achieved, along with 70% dechlorination efficiency, for a dosage of 600 mg BioCAT slurry/kg soil. Degradation of PCP by BioCAT follows first order kinetics in PCP. Stepwise dechlorination is the main pathway of PCP elimination from soil slurries contacted with BioCAT. Such dechlorination is confirmed by the appearance of intermediate products, as well as by release of chlorides. Additionally, the increasing pH value and the rapid decrease of the oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) also attest to the reductive dechlorination of PCP. The reaction products comprehend lower chlorinated phenols, including three TeCP isomers, four TrCP isomers, four DCP isomers, two MCP isomers and phenol. These findings indicate that BioCAT could be applied for field treatment of PCP-contaminated soil under ambient conditions. PMID:23500793

Dien, Nguyen Thanh; De Windt, Wim; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo Been

2013-02-21

348

Functionalized bio-artifact fabricated via selective slurry extrusion. Part 1: Preparation of slurry containing tourmaline superfine powders.  

PubMed

The far infrared dental porcelain slurry for fabricating artificial tooth via selective slurry extrusion (SSE) of solid freeform fabrication (also known as rapid prototyping) techniques was prepared by using tourmaline as additive and employing ball-milling approach. After characterization by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, it was found that the far infrared emission properties of the dental porcelain were apparently improved in the ranges of 2000-1201 cm(-1) and 881-600 cm(-1). This is due to the increase of the number of infrared active bonds that are from the tourmaline superfine powders. Moreover, it was also found that the tourmaline superfine powders can improve the pseudo-plastic properties of dental porcelain slurries, which results from the increase of the absolute value of zeta potential of the suspensions. Slurries with pseudo-plastic behavior are highly desirable in controlling the shape of the extrudate during solid freeform fabrication. With the functionalized material, a variety of bio-artifacts beneficial to body health can be built by using selective slurry extrusion machine. PMID:22409019

Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Qu, Yunxia; Liu, Yushan

2011-12-01

349

Holdup correlations in slurry-solid fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

The use of slurry-solids fluid beds plays an important role in the development of synthetic fuels and the hydrogen processing of petroleum resids. In the H-Coal process in particular, coal oil slurries are processed over extrudates of hydrodesulfurization catalyst. The objective of this note is to present a model which describes the volume fraction occupied by the slurry phase. The accurate prediction of the liquid holdup is important not only for the calculation of the bed height in liquid solid fluidized beds, but also is required for the development of a model predicting the holdup in three-phase fluidized beds. In the present publication, the application of two different correlations is considered: (1) the Richardson and Zaki; and (2) Ramamurthy and Sabbaraju.

Vasalos, I.A.; Rundell, D.N.; Megiris, K.E.; Tjatjopoulos, G.J.

1980-01-01

350

Improved cement slurry designed for thermal EOR wells  

SciTech Connect

Designing a cement slurry for wells in a thermal enhanced oil recovery (EOR) project has always presented special challenges; however, improved technology in recent years offers method for further reducing slurry density while still preserving adequate compressive strength and low cement permeability. Thermal EOR includes in situ combustion (fireflood), hot water injection, and steam injection. In most cases, the cement slurry is subjected to relatively low temperatures during the primary cement job and early curing. After the cement sets, however, it must be capable of withstanding the thermal shock associated with the initiation of EOR. The cement must also be stabilized to preserve adequate compressive strength and low permeability despite the potentially disruptive crystalline changes which begin to occur at temperatures exceeding about 230/sup 0/F (110/sup 0/C). Another complicating factor is that weak or incompetent formations are frequently associated with thermal EOR wells.

Nelson, E.B.

1986-12-01

351

Economic evaluation of microfine coal-water slurry: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The replacement of No. 6 oil with coal in oil/gas design boilers results in problems due to coal ash impacts of deposition and erosion. This necessitates increased boiler conversion costs and/or extensive capacity derating. An approach to minimize such penalties is to micropulverize the coal to a top size of 325 mesh for use in a coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel form. These benefits could not be realized in the past because inadequate atomization of the slurry caused the fine coal particles to agglomerate. However, recent tests have shown that heating such micronized CWS (MCWS) fuel can yield a higher carbon burnout and a finer flyash particle size than obtained with ''normal'' grind or conventional pulverized CWS (CCWS) fuel. This approach will minimize capacity derating. The report assesses potential user cost savings for converting an oil/gas design power plant is micronized versus conventional pulverized grind coal-water slurry fuel.

Margulies, A.E.

1986-12-01

352

Ultrasonic techniques for coal-slurry flow and viscosity measurement  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the development of an active ultrasonic cross-correlation flowmeter for coal slurry flows and the evaluation of ultrasonic techniques for coal slurry viscosity measurement. The flowmeter development comprises evaluation of design parameter, development of signal-conditioning electronics and an IBM-PC/AT-based signal processing system, and results of SRC-I pilot plant tests. The developed flowmeter, with a standoff arrangement, can be used in a high-temperature hostile environment for measuring solid-liquid mixed-phase flows in either a laminar or turbulent flow regime. The accuracy of the flow measurement and limitations of the flowmeter are discussed. The meter response time is typically around 40 s. Approaches for improving this response time are also discussed. Potential ultrasonic techniques for coal slurry viscosity measurement are examined theoretically. Sound wave attenuation in fluids is measured and related to the apparent viscosity of the fluid. 12 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

Sheen, S.H.; Raptis, A.C.; Lee, S.; Simpson, T.; Bobis, J.P.

1987-05-01

353

Potential of domestic biogas digester slurry in vermitechnology.  

PubMed

This work illustrates the potential of domestic biogas digester slurry in vermicompost production. To achieve the objectives biogas plant slurry (BGS) was mixed with crop residues (CR) in different ratios to produce seven different feed mixtures for earthworm Eisenia fetida. After 15weeks vermicomposted material was analyzed for different chemical parameters. In all waste mixtures, a decrease in pH, organic C and C:N ratio, but increase total N, available P and exchangeable K was recorded. C:N ratio of end material (vermicompost) was within the agronomic acceptable limit (<20). The reproduction biology of E. fetida in different waste mixture was also monitored and they showed excellent biomass gain as well as cocoon production in all waste mixtures. The results clearly suggested that vermitechnology could be a potential technology to convert byproducts of domestic biogas plant slurry into some value-added products. PMID:20189381

Suthar, Surindra

2010-02-26

354

Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe2O4 thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe2O4 particles with average size of ˜800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe2O4 ceramic films sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of ˜324 emu/cm3.

Jian, Gang; Zhou, Dongxiang; Yang, Junyou; Fu, Qiuyun

2012-12-01

355

Determination of Particle Size Distribution of Salt Crystals in Aqueous Slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A method for determining particle size distribution of water-soluble crystals in aqueous slurries is described. The salt slurries, containing sodium salts of predominantly nitrate, but also nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, aluminates, carbonate, and hydroxide...

A. G. Miller

1977-01-01

356

Metal Production by Electrolysis of Molten Salt-Metal Sulfide Slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A laboratory-scale study is reported of a slurry electrolysis process for producing zinc and sulfur from sphalerite concentrate, and lead and sulfur from galena concentrate. The process involves the electrolysis of a molten metal chloride slurry containin...

H. T. Fullam J. N. Hartley

1981-01-01

357

Experimental module for removal of radioactive slurry from Lrw storage tanks  

SciTech Connect

This report gives information on elaboration and creation of an experimental module for removal radioactive slurry from LRW storage tanks. The main functional features of this experimental module are to suspend radioactive slurry packed in the bottom of a storage tank subjected to cleaning up, to suck the suspended radioactive slurry, to concentrate and separate radioactive slurry in a settling apparatus. The resulting flows from the module are concentrated and preconditioned radioactive slurry and LRW freed from solids. The concentrated and preconditioned radioactive slurry can be further directed for solidification by appropriate methods and LRW freed from solids can be cleaned by commonly used purification methods. The experimental module is supplied with a video-controlling system, which allows supervising the process of slurry removal. The experimental module is currently under testing with non-radioactive slurry therefore, there are no results of its application for real radioactive waste. (authors)

Ilin, V.A.; Laurson, A.V.; Volkov, E.S.; Karlin, Y.V.; Dmitriev, S.A. [Moscow Scientific and Industrial Association -Radon- (Moscow SIA -Radon), Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-07-01

358

Investigation of Diesel Engine Fuel Injector Response to Coal Slurry Fuels. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the research evaluation of various fuel injection systems and equipment operating with coal slurry fuels for use in open chamber direct injection medium-speed diesel engines. Research centered on the pumpability aspect of coal slurry...

R. Phatak

1983-01-01

359

Quarterly report: Pumps-status of slurry pumps in coal liquefaction processes. Third quarter - CY 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper summarizes recent slurry pumps (centrifugal and reciprocal) operating experience in the liquefaction pilot plants. In addition, the activities concerning slurry pumps conducted in supporting research facilities are also noted. The purpose of th...

1996-01-01

360

Physics of coal liquid slurry atomization. Quarterly technical report, January 1995--March 1995.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this reporting period, the major objective of the research was to develop a technique for measuring the extensional viscosity of coal-water slurries. The Extensional properties of the suspending solutions (water + additives) and the slurries (coal + wa...

1995-01-01

361

Development and Analysis of Slurry Transport Systems in Longwall Mining of Coal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A preliminary systems analysis of coarse-particle coal slurry pipelines as a haulage method for longwall mining systems was performed. Two exhaustive literature surveys on state-of-the-art longwall mining and slurry transport technologies were prepared. T...

T. M. Yegulalp R. C. Knight N. Marchi

1982-01-01

362

Use of Coagulant Spray Glue (Glubran 2®) for Aerostatic Purposes in Pulmonary Parenchyma Resections in Pigs: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of our study was to test the aerostatic validity of a cyan-acrylic glue (Glubran 2®), applied by means of a spray catheter, on an experimental pig model. Materials and Methods: 15 young pigs were divided into three study groups of 5 based on surgical techniques: (1) atypical pulmonary resection with mechanical suturing and reinforcement with continuous suturing;

F. Davoli; F. Sellitri; J. Brandolini; G. Dolci; A. Castagnoli; B. Bedetti; F. Stella

2009-01-01

363

Effect of graded doses and a high dose of microbial phytase on the digestibility of various minerals in weaner pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment with 224 weaner pigs (initial BW of 7.8 kg) was conducted to determine the effect of dose of dietary phytase supplementation on apparent fecal digestibility of minerals (P, Ca, Mg, Na, K, and Cu) and on performance. Four blocks, each with 8 pens of 7 pigs, were formed. Eight dietary treatments were applied to each block in the

A. K. Kies; P. A. Kemme; L. B. J. Sebek; Diepen van J. T. M; A. W. Jongbloed

2006-01-01

364

Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)  

SciTech Connect

Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman (2004b), was drafted in addition to the companion technical report to this document.

Koopman, D. c.

2005-09-01

365

Research engine test of coal slurry fuels. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The program discussed in this report involved evaluation of the combustion characteristics of several coal slurry fuels in a single cylinder test engine operating under conditions simulating medium size and speed commercial diesel engines. Baseline performance was established using a reference DF-2 test fuel. Slurry fuels tested included: (1) 45% of a low volatile coal in diesel fuel; (2) 40% of cleaned of a cleaned high-volatile coal in a carrier containing 91% methanol and 9% water; and (3) 41% cleaned, high volatile coal in methanol. The testing program demonstrated the importance of several engine operating and fuel composition parameters on engine and ancillary system performance: (1) coal particle top size of 38 microns was identified as the limiting value for the test equipment utilized in this study; coal volatility affects burnout, but ignition is unaffected as long as the slurry carrier provides the ignition source; coal ash content affects the wear rate, but wear rate is not linear with ash content or total ash throughput; and engine components may require modifications in order to handle fuels containing abrasive solid materials. These tests demonstrated that slurry fuels are a viable alternative to highly refined petroleum fuels in medium speed diesel engine applications. However, additional research is required before widespread application of these fuels can occur. The study demonstrated the lack of available information on the microscale mechanisms of slurry fuel atomization, ignition, and combustion in the diesel engine combustion chamber environment. Also, the problems of burning a coal/water slurry in the engine were not addressed. 12 references, 51 figures, 14 tables.

Not Available

1985-02-01

366

Determination of Pd, Rh, Pt, Au in road dust by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling.  

PubMed

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine Pd, Rh, Pt and Au in 0.5% m/v slurries of several road dust samples. 2% m/v ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was used as the modifier to enhance the ion count. The influence of instrument operating conditions, slurry preparation and interferences on the ion count was reported. This method has been applied to the determination of Pd, Rh, Pt and Au in BCR 723 Road Dust and NIST SRM 2709 San Joaquin Soil reference materials and two road dust samples collected locally. The analysis results of the standard reference materials agreed with the certified values. Precision between sample replicates was better than 10% for all the determinations. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were 0.9, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.4ngg(-1) for Pd, Rh, Pt and Au, respectively, in original dust samples. PMID:23972970

Hsu, Wan-Hsuan; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

2013-08-06

367

Aspergillosis of Pigs (Aspergillotoksikoz Svinei).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1961 there was an outbreak of disease in pigs. The following clinical symptoms were observed among the affected stock: anorexia; the affected animals were dull and depressed; diarrhea often mixed with blood, changing in course of time to constipation. ...

V. V. Zhuravlev

1971-01-01

368

Solanum malacoxylon toxicity to pigs.  

PubMed

Newly weaned pigs were given Solanum malacoxylon at dose rates of 0.2 and 1.0 g per kg body-weight per week for eight weeks. The Solanum malacoxylon was given either as an aqueous extract (SM) or as an aqueous extract incubated with fresh rumen liquor (SMLR). Tubulonephrosis, dose related in severity, was evident in all treated pigs and focal calcification in kidney and lung occurred in pigs receiving the higher dose rate. There was a marked hypercalcaemia and hypophosphataemia over the trial period; the latter feature was in contrast with the hyperphosphataemia produced in sheep. Incubation of SM with rumen liquor enhanced hypophosphataemia at both dose levels in the pig but its effect on serum calcium was equivocal. PMID:695263

Rucksan, B E; Wells, G A; Lewis, G

1978-08-19

369

Filling ability of semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy slurry in rheo-diecasting  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of slurry temperature, injection pressure, and piston velocity on the rheo-filling ability of semisolid A356 alloys were studied by the reho-diecasting methods. The results show that the slurry temperature of the semi-solid A356 aluminum alloy has an important effect on the filling ability; the higher the slurry temperature, the better is the filling ability, and the appropriate slurry

Yuelong Bai; Weimin Mao; Songfu Gao; Guoxing Tang; Jun Xu

2008-01-01

370

Development of a coal-water slurry burner  

SciTech Connect

This paper focuses on the development and testing of a large scale (80 MMBTU/Hr) burner for coal-water slurry. The development path included atomizer and burner register performance evaluations in a non-combustion environment. This was followed by extensive combustion testing. The program was successful in developing a burner for coal-water slurry which would permit ignition in a cold furnace, operate stably over a 4 to 1 turndown range, employ atomizing conditions (pressure and flow) similar to oil, and produce carbon conversion efficiency comparable to oil.

Manfred, R.K.; Borio, R.W.; LaFlesh, R.C.; Marion, J.L.; Rini, M.J.; Smith, D.A.

1983-01-01

371

Test plan for a control valve for slurry letdown service  

SciTech Connect

METC has initiated new valve test and development projects. This test plan covers a valve for slurry letdown service in a coal liquefaction plant. Since large scale (commercial size) testing facilities do not exist, and would be very expensive and time consuming to construct, this test plan assumes that valves will be tested at an existing pilot plant facility or in special, small scale test loops. The purpose of this document is to define the objectives, tests, methods, measurements, evaluation criteria and data requirements for the slurry letdown valve tests.

Gardner, J.F.

1979-06-01

372

Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

Gidaspow, D.

1996-04-01

373

Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in pigs.  

PubMed

Solanum malacoxylon was given orally to four pigs. The animals were examined clinically and subjected to post mortem examination. Macroscopic lesions were not seen with the exception of a small calcified plaque in the endocardium of one animal. Microscopic examinations revealed slight calcification of elastic fibres in the soft tissues. The pathological changes in the bones were extensive and are described in detail. The pigs showed minimal lesions at dose levels which cause considerable systemic calcification in cattle and sheep. PMID:1265362

Done, S H; Tokarina, C H; Dämmrich, K; Döbereiner, J

1976-03-01

374

Excess dietary cobalt in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were conducted, in which 240 growing finishing pigs were used, to determine the level of Cobalt (Co) which is toxic. Pigs tolerated up to 200 mg\\/kg of Co when added to corn-soybean meal diets containing 82 to 178 mg\\/kg of iron. The addition of 400 or 600 mg\\/kg of Co caused anorexia, growth depression, stiff-leggedness, humped back, incoordination

D. W. Huck; A. J. Clawson

1976-01-01

375

Reducing Nitrogen loadings to estuaries in Denmark, 1990-2010. Results and costs of measures applied in catchments to 10 Danish estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nitrogen loading to 10 Danish estuaries has since 1990 been reduced by on average 42%. Thirty percent of this reduction is due to a reduction in Nitrogen loss from diffuse sources. Nitrogen surplus and the change in this surplus is shown to be a strong overall indicator for the trends in Nitrogen loading to most estuaries. The Nitrogen surplus has been reduced due to general national regulations and mitigation measures applied leading to an increased efficiency of Nitrogen use in cattle slurry (30%) and in pig slurry (ca. 40%). These improvements are paralleled by a reduced application of commercial N-fertilizer. Mean flow-weighted total Nitrogen concentrations in inlet fresh waters to estuaries have been reduced by 18-56% resulting in reductions of total Nitrogen concentrations (24-62%) in the inner and middle parts of the estuaries. The large variations in total Nitrogen loadings and concentrations in estuaries are due to both attenuation and time delays of Nitrogen in groundwater aquifers depending on catchment soil type and geology. This also implies varying costs of reducing the Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land (24-94 Euro/kg N reduced). Knowledge of the outcome of responses in the form of national regulations of agricultural N management for the N cycling from field to estuaries is important for decision makers and catchment managers working with the implementation of EU Directives such as the Water Framework Directive. Based on our findings we suggest that further reductions of Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land should be based on targeted and catchment specific measures leading to the most cost efficient way to achieve good ecological quality in the individual estuaries.

Windolf, J.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Carstensen, N. J.; Kronvang, B.

2012-04-01

376

SYNTHESIS OF NON-RADIOACTIVE SLURRIES TO SIMULATE THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLURRIES 626-G  

SciTech Connect

Process development using non-radioactive analogs to high-level radioactive waste slurries is an established cost effective alternative to working with actual samples of the real waste. Current simulated waste slurries, however, do not capture all of the physical behavior of real waste. New methods of preparing simulants are under investigation along with mechanisms for altering certain properties of finished simulants. These methods have achieved several notable successes recently in the areas of rheology and foaminess. Particle size is also being manipulated more effectively than in the past, though not independently of the rheological properties. The interaction between rheology and foaminess has exhibited counter-intuitive behavior with more viscous slurries being less foamy even though drainage of liquid from the foam lamellae should be inhibited by higher viscosities.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Eibling, R.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

2009-09-03

377

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive donor cell type for production of cloned pigs as well as genetically modified cloned pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

Abstract The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique has been widely applied to clone pigs or to produce genetically modified pigs. Currently, this technique relies mainly on using terminally differentiated fibroblasts as donor cells. To improve cloning efficiency, only partially differentiated multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thought to be more easily reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, have been used as nuclear donors in pig SCNT. Although in vitro-cultured embryos cloned from porcine MSCs (MSCs-embryos) were shown to have higher preimplantation developmental ability than cloned embryos reconstructed from fibroblasts (Fs-embryos), the difference in in vivo full-term developmental rate between porcine MSCs-embryos and Fs-embryos has not been investigated so far. In this study, we demonstrated that blastocyst total cell number and full-term survival abilities of MSCs-embryos were significantly higher than those of Fs-embryos cloned from the same donor pig. The enhanced developmental potential of MSCs-embryos may be associated with their nuclear donors' DNA methylation profile, because we found that the methylation level of imprinting genes and repeat sequences differed between MSCs and fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that use of transgenic porcine MSCs generated from transgene plasmid transfection as donor cells for SCNT can produce live transgenic cloned pigs. These results strongly suggest that porcine bone marrow MSCs are a desirable donor cell type for production of cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs via SCNT. PMID:24033142

Li, Zicong; He, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liwen; Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Weihua; Liu, Dewu; Wu, Zhenfang

2013-09-13

378

The resource utilization of algae—Preparing coal slurry with algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, the methods of resource utilization of algae are very few. In this study, we propose a new way to dispose algae, which is gasification of coal–algae slurry. Coal slurries prepared with algae were investigated, and gasification reactivity of coal–algae slurry was compared with that of

Weidong Li; Weifeng Li; Haifeng Liu

2010-01-01

379

Water quality aspects of coal transportation by slurry pipeline. Project completion report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research program was designed to: (1) identify and characterize water quality changes during movement of western coal by slurry pipeline; (2) determine feasibility for using impaired quality water (such as municipal industrial effluents) as slurry medium; and (3) determine treatment measures for restoring water quality of the slurry waste water if needed. Water quality parameters measured included alkalinity, BOD,

1980-01-01

380

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing. (Project status).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows; and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without s...

P. J. Winters

1990-01-01

381

A novel ice slurry producing system: Producing ice by utilizing inner waste heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice storage is a potential energy saving method for air conditioning systems. An ice slurry is an ideal material for ice storage. The conventional ice slurry producing method using supercooled water suffers from the instability of ice block and depends heavily on electric power. A novel ice slurry producing system utilizing inner waste heat was proposed to improve this situation.

Xiu-Wei Li; Xiao-Song Zhang; Rong-Quan Cao; Xiu-Zhang Fu

2009-01-01

382

Slurry Atomizer for a Coal-Feeder and Dryer Used to Provide Coal at Gasifier Pressure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use in a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry in...

G. R. Friggens J. L. Loth W. C. Smith

1979-01-01

383

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an...

2013-07-01

384

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an...

2010-07-01

385

Investigating Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Reflection Techniques for Characterizing Slurry Properties  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of the project are to investigate the use of (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) to measure the velocity of sound in a liquid or slurry and the particle size of a slurry and (2) shear wave reflection techniques to measure the viscosity of a slurry.

Greenwood, Margaret S.; Bond, Leonard J.; Burgess, Lloyd; Brodsky, Anatol

2003-06-01

386

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an...

2009-07-01

387

Viscosity and yield stress of alumina slurries containing large concentrations of electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscosity and yield stress measurements of AlâOâ slurries containing high concentrations of electrolyte are reported. Contrary to what is expected from DLVO theory, the particles in coagulated slurries produced in this way are held together by weaker forces than particles in slurries brought to the isoelectric point by changing the pH. In both cases an attractive, connective particle network is

Jeanne C. Chang; Fred F. Lange; Dale S. Pearson

1994-01-01

388

Rheological characterization of water-based slurries for the tape casting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rheological properties of aqueous tape casting slurries have been investigated as they strongly affect the tape casting process and the quality of the final product. The aqueous slurries consist of yttria stabilized zirconia and a polymeric latex emulsion as the binder. The viscosity, its time dependent behavior and the strength of the internal structure of the slurry were characterized by

Bernd Bitterlich; Christiane Lutz; Andreas Roosen

2002-01-01

389

Groundwater contamination due to cattle slurry: modelling infiltration on the basis of soil column experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration into soil of contaminants present in cattle slurry was studied. Column experiments were performed in order to characterize the release of contaminants at the slurry-soil interface after surface application of slurry, with subsequent rainfall or irrigation. A gradual decrease of contaminant concentrations was observed at this interface. The shape of the release curves suggests that the release of substances

E. López Periago; A. Núñez Delgado; F Diaz-Fierros

2000-01-01

390

DWPF DECON FRIT: SUMP AND SLURRY SOLIDS ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. In this report, the physical and chemical characterization results of the slurry solids and sump solids are reported. Crawford et al. (2010) provide the results of the supernate analysis. The results of the sump solids are reported on a mass basis given the samples were essentially dry upon receipt. The results of the slurry solids were converted to a volume basis given approximately 2.4 grams of slurry solids were obtained from the {approx}4 liters of liquid slurry sample. Although there were slight differences in the analytical results between the sump solids and slurry solids the following general summary statements can be made. Slight differences in the results are also captured for specific analysis. (1) Physical characterization - (a) SEM/EDS analysis suggested that the samples were enriched in Li and Si (B and Na not detectable using the current EDS system) which is consistent with two of the four principle oxides of Frit 418 (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}). (b) SEM/EDS analysis also identified impurities which were elementally consistent with stainless steel (i.e., Fe, Ni, Cr contamination). (c) XRD results indicated that the sump solids samples were amorphous which is consistent with XRD results expected for a Frit 418 based sample. (d) For the sump solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size of the sump solids were consistent with that of an as received Frit 418 sample from a current DWPF vendor. (e) For the slurry solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size range of the slurry solids was much broader than compared to the sump solids. More specifically, there were significantly more fines in the slurry solids as compared to the sump solids. (f) PSD results indicated that > 99% of both the sump and slurry solids were less than 350 microns. The PSD results also supported SEM/EDS analysis that there were significantly more fines in the slurry solids as compared to the sump solids. (2) Weight Percent Solids - Based on the measured supernate density and mass of insoluble solids (2.388 grams) filtered from the four liters of liquid slurry samples, the weight percent insoluble solids was estimated to be 0.060 wt%. This level of insoluble solids is higher than the ETP WAC limit of 100 mg/L, or 0.01 wt% which suggests a separation technology of some type would be required. (3) Chemical Analysis - (a) Elemental results from ICP-ES analysis indicated that the sump solids and slurry were very consistent with the nominal composition of Frit 418. There were other elements identified by ICP analysis which were either consistent with the presence of stainless steel (as identified by SEM/EDS analysis) or impurities that have been observed in 'as received' Frit 418 from the vendor. (b) IC anion analysis of the sump solids and slurry solids indicated all of the species were less than detection limits. (c) Radionuclide analysis of the sump solids also indicated that most of the analytes were either at or below the detection limits. (d) Organic analysis of the sump solids and slurry solids indicated all of the species were less than detection limits. It should be noted that the results of this study may not be representative of future decon frit solutions or sump/slurry solids samples. Therefore, future DWPF decisions regarding the possible disposal pathways for either the aqueous or solid portions of the Decon Frit system need to factor in the potential differences. More specifically, introduction of a different frit or changes to other DWPF flowsheet unit operations (e.g., different sludge batch or coupling with other process streams) ma

Crawford, C.; Peeler, D.; Click, D.

2010-10-20

391

Hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble-column reactors for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

In the Fischer-Tropsch approach to indirect liquefaction, slurry bubble-column reactors (SBCRs) are used to convert coal syngas into the desired product. Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of SBCRs at industrially relevant conditions is discussed.Gas-liquid flow experiments are performed in an industrial-scale stainless steel vessel. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to make spatially resolved gas holdup measurements. Both water and Drakeol 10 with air sparging are examined at ambient and elevated pressures. Gas holdup increases with gas superficial velocity and pressure, and the GDT values are in good agreement with values from differential pressure (DP) measurements.

Jackson, N.B.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.

1996-08-01

392

Sandia support for PETC Fischer-Tropsch research: Experimental characterization of slurry-phase bubble-column reactor hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble-column reactors (SBCRs) at industrially relevant conditions is discussed. Gas-liquid flow experiments are performed in an industrial-scale 48 cm ID stainless steel vessel. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to make spatially resolved gas holdup measurements. Both water and Drakeol 10 with air sparging are examined at ambient and elevated pressures. Gas holdup increases with gas superficial velocity and pressure, and the GDT values are in good agreement with values from differential pressure measurements. Other diagnostic techniques are also discussed.

Jackson, N.B.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.

1996-06-01

393

Fundamental combustion studies of hot water-dried low-rank coal slurries: Final report, March 1984-August 1986. [Comparison of lignite and bituminous coal slurry combustion  

SciTech Connect

This contract for fundamental combustion studies of low-rank coal slurries was initiated March 1, 1984 and ended August 31, 1986. Slurries which were studied were primarily those produced from hot water-dried lignite coal provided by the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center through the Grand Forks Project Office of the United States Department of Energy. Contract work included virgin coal and slurry characterization, slurry spray and atomization measurements, parametric combustion optimization tests, laboratory reactor mapping combustion firings, and model computations. Included in the detailed map are space-resolved measurements of combustion products and pollutants for lignite coal slurries, and comparison of results with computer model predictions and with data obtained in an earlier study of the combustion of bituminous coal-water slurry under similar conditions in the same reactor. 46 refs., 60 figs., 9 tabs.

Germane, G.J.; Smoot, L.D.

1986-09-01

394

Aerobic thermophilic treatment of farm slurry and food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review discusses the aerobic treatments for farm slurry and food wastes and concentrates in particular on the thermophilic aerobic treatments. Methods are discussed under the heading of chemical, physical and other treatments. From those methods considered, the most suitable physical–microbiological treatment are aerobic thermophilic treatments. The main problem faced in aerobic thermophilic treatments could be the foaming formation during

Mohammed Mohaibes; Helvi Heinonen-Tanski

2004-01-01

395

Attenuation of Ultrasonic Waves in Coal-Water Slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Attenuation of ultrasonic waves in coal-water slurries was investigated in the frequency range of 200 kHz to 1 MNZ (up to 30% by weight). The coal used in this study was West Kentucky number nine coal with particle size ranging from 90 to 30 mu m. Attenua...

S. H. Sheen A. C. Raptis

1979-01-01

396

Apparatus for converting biomass to a pumpable slurry  

DOEpatents

An apparatus used in the pretreatment of wood chips in a process for converting biomass to a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. The apparatus functions to break down the wood chips to a size distribution that can be readily handled in a slurry form. Low maintenance operation is obtained by hydrolyzing the chips in a pressure vessel having no moving parts.

Ergun, Sabri (Hillsborough, CA); Schaleger, Larry L. (Oakland, CA); Wrathall, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Yaghoubzadeh, Nasser (El Cerrito, CA)

1986-01-01

397

Airfield Marking Paints. Ii. Effect on Lifting of Slurry Seal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study was made to determine the basic causes of lifting of slurry seal from asphaltic subgrade under stripes of reflectorized airfield marking paint. Lifting was greater for double-thickness than for single-thickness stripes, especially for those with p...

R. W. Drisko

1966-01-01

398

Melting of ice slurry under forced convection conditions in tubes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents the results of experimental research on heat transfer of ice slurry during its flow through tubes of circular, rectangular and slit cross-sections. Moreover, the work discusses the influence of solid particles, type of motion and cross-section on the changes in the heat transfer coefficient. The analysis presented in the paper allows for an identification of the criterial

Beata Niezgoda-?elasko; Jerzy ?elasko

2008-01-01

399

Application of fuzzy cognitive maps to factors affecting slurry rheology  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose fuzzy cognitive maps, a branch of fuzzy logic, to study interaction of factors affecting processes and details of the approach are discussed. Application of the technique to discriminate between factors affecting slurry rheology is demonstrated. It has been shown that hydrodynamic interaction, effective particle concentration, shape and size, temperature and shear rate have a significant influence on the

G. A. Banini; R. A. Bearman

1998-01-01

400

WATER QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EASTERN COAL SLURRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Current and projected used of coal have resulted in several proposals for coal slurry pipelines in the United States. A typical eastern coal has a greater sulfur content and a smaller percentage of alkaline minerals in the ash than a typical western coal. Thus, eastern coal slurr...

401

Coal-slurry pipeline bill shot down by Congress  

SciTech Connect

Heavy lobbying by the railroads killed legislation that would have enabled slurry pipelines to compete for coal freight after a 20-year effort to acquire eminent domain rights for pipelines owners. The defeat shocked the National Coal Association, which backed the bill. Political pressure from agricultural as well as rail labor and management was too strong for the pipelines to overcome. (DCK)

Minner, D.

1983-11-01

402

The economics of a Virginia coal slurry pipeline  

SciTech Connect

The paper presents the results of a detailed analysis of a coal slurry pipeline originating in the coal fields of southwest Virginia and terminating at the port area of Hampton Roads, Virginia. Comparative rail and pipeline costs for transporting coal are examined as well as rail tariffs. A brief market share analysis is also provided.

Souder, P.S.

1984-08-01

403

Coal slurry transportation alternatives. Volume 1. Decision methodology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Using the decision methodology developed by this work, a utility fuels planner or decision maker can analyze the risks associated with the costs of transporting coal by rail, slurry, or barge under uncertain conditions. Volumes 1 and 2 of this report describe the methodology step by step and demonstrate its use through specific case studies.

Mann, C.E.; Manning, S.H.

1986-08-01

404

Rheokinetic Analysis of Hydroxy Terminated Polybutadiene Based Solid Propellant Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cure kinetics of propellant slurry based on hydroxy-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) polyurethane reaction has been studied by viscosity build up method. The viscosity (?)-time (t) plots conform to the exponential function ? = ae bt , where a & b are empirical constants. The rate constants (k) for viscosity build up at various shear rate (rpm),

ABHAY K MAHANTA; MONIKA GOYAL; DEVENDRA D PATHAK

405

Discussion of terminal facilities for western coal slurry pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discussion is presented of terminal facilities of western coal slurry pipelines, based on experience with the Ohio and Black Mesa pipelines as well as detailed planning and testing for a proposed 1000 mile system from Wyoming to the mid-south area, covers factors affecting the economics of the pipeline terminal processes; the feed terminal, the product that it must produce,

E. J. Wasp; T. C. Aude; F. B. Raymer

1977-01-01

406

METHOD OF MAKING UO$sub 2$-Bi SLURRIES  

DOEpatents

A process is given of preparing an easily dispersible slurry of uranium dioxide in bismuth. A mixture of bismuth oxide, uranium, and bismuth are heated in a capsule to a temperature over the melting point of bismuth oxide. The amount of bismuth oxide used is less than that stoichiometrically required because the oxygen in the capsule also enters into the reaction.

Hahn, H.T.

1960-05-24

407

Dynamic surface tension of coal-water slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to measure the dynamic surface tension of coal-water slurry (CWS) mixtures containing various types of surfactants and with different coal loadings. A maximum air bubble pressure technique measured the dynamic surface tension. The coal used for the CWS had 55 ?m volume mean diameter (VMD) and was mined from the Upper Elkhorn seam, Virginia. Five surfactants were

Ken D. Kihm; Paul Deignan

1995-01-01

408

Fluid Slurry Pump and Control Apparatus - Development. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The description of the design and construction of a liquid slurry pump is presented with a summary of construction and testing of the prototype pump. Bio-mass materials consisting of high fiber wood particles and burnable oil mixtures were used in the pro...

R. G. Bowman

1981-01-01

409

Physiochemical principles of coal-water-slurry gasifier feedstocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This interim report presents the results of the first phase of a program to identify the relationship between the slurryability of a coal and its physical and chemical characteristics. Central to this program was the development of a definition of slurryability based on fundamental properties of dense suspension which was relatively insensitive to specific properties of coal slurries such as

J. Dooher; N. Malicki; J. Trudden

1990-01-01

410

Breakup of evaporating/burning slurry drops by additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single drops of silicon carbide-cumene slurry were suspended from a quartz fiber and ignited. An inert material such as silicon carbide was chosen so that the droplets can be burned until all the fuel is consumed and only the inert residue is left on the quartz fiber. Benzoyl peroxide was added to cumene and the time to disruption of the liquid drop was measured. In the case of benzoyl peroxide, the breaking up of the drop resulting from its thermal decomposition produced CO 2. Both the drop disruption time and the burning of the slurry to dryness were predicted theoretically. Radiation absorption was found to be an important factor in the case of the slurry. Benzoyl peroxide and carbamide peroxide were investigated as additives to a boron slurry to determine if effective drop break-up could be achieved. Both additives produced drop shattering. The carbamide peroxide was particularly effective due to the production of O 2. The green flame associated with boron burning was clearly evident.

Choudhury, P. Roy; Gerstein, M.

411

STUDY ON CASING PERFORMANCES IN CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMPS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pump casing is the most expensive wear component of a centrifugal slurry pump. It determines to a large extent the hydraulic performance of the pump and plays a major role in the overall wear life of the unit.This paper suggests a new approach to compute the mixture velocity and solid particle dynamics in the casing, and on this basis

M. C. ROCO; G. R. ADDIE; R. VISINTAINER

1985-01-01

412

Effective use of fly ash slurry as fill material  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lot of effort has been put into increasing coal ash utilization; however, 50% of total amount is disposed of on land and in the sea. Several attempts have been reported recently concerning slurried coal fly ash use for civil engineering materials, such as for structural fill and backfill. The authors have studied this issue for more than 15 years

Sumio Horiuchi; Masato Kawaguchi; Kazuya Yasuhara

2000-01-01

413

A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50μm; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays;

P. E. Sojka; A. H. Lefebvre

1990-01-01

414

Current progress in coal-water slurry burner development  

SciTech Connect

A burner/atomizer combination has been developed by Combustion Engineering which will burn coal-water slurries (CWS) with satisfactory combustion efficiency over a wide load range. A detailed description of the atomizer design was included. In an attempt to reduce viscosity, the temperature of the slurry was raised and the temperature of the atomizing air was raised. Neither had a significant effect on the atomizing of CWS. The preliminary combustion testing results indicate that, with the proper combination of burner and atomizer design, coal-water slurry can be successfully burned with carbon conversion efficiencies in the range of 96 to 99%. This compares with a consistent 99/sup +/% carbon conversion efficiency for the base coal fired under similar conditions. Additional improvements in CWS combustion efficiency may be possible through further firing system development and refinement. This project has also successfully demonstrated that coal-water slurry could be reliably ignited in a cold furnace using conventional ignitors and low air preheat temperatures (250/sup 0/F). There were 23 illustrations and six tables of data also included.

Manfred, R.K.; Borio, R.W.; Smith, D.A.; Rini, M.J.; LaFlesh, R.C.; Marion, J.L.

1983-01-01

415

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air

Krishna

1984-01-01

416

Coal-water slurry (CWS) dispenser: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This thesis addressed some of the problems associated with using Coal-Water Slurry as a fuel in gas turbine combustors. A technique has been developed which reduces the velocity and average droplet size distribution needed for good atomization to achieve high combustion efficiency. Finely atomized droplets are desired to minimize the number of coal particles which fuse together in the high

J. L. Loth; B. M. Kulkarni

1987-01-01

417

Atomization characteristics of coal-water slurry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Dwindling supplies of oil have led to increasing interest in alternative fuels which can be used to replace petroleum-derived liquid fuels. One such fuel is coal-water slurry. This study presents the atomization behavior of coal-water slurries at conditions typical of a gas turbine combustor. Slurry spray characteristics were determined using five different types of atomizer. The five nozzle types included were: (1) plain-orifice, (2) pressure-swirl, (3) plain-jet airblast, (4) air-assist and (5) prefilming airblast. The effects of airblast air velocity, chamber pressure and air-to-fuel mass ratio (AFR) on SMD were investigated for the latter three nozzle types. Values of SMD were determined for levels of tank pressure between 1 and 2.0 MPa, air-to-fuel mass ratios (AFR) between 0.5 and 6.0, and airblast air velocities between 30 and 100 m/sec. Several slurries with loadings between 50 and 70% (by weight) were used. The Sauter mean diameter and drop size distribution parameter were measured using the forward light-scattering technique in the form of a commercially available Malvern 2600 particle size analyzer. Droplet microstructure was determined using the liquid nitrogen-freezing technique and spray radial and circumferential patternation data were obtained through the use of a patternator. 39 refs., 64 figs., 4 tabs.

Lefebvre, A.H.; Sojka, P.E.

1986-02-01

418

Aerated atomization of coal-water slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This programs was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50 μm; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS

H. N. Buckner; P. E. Sojka; A. H. Lefebvre

1989-01-01

419

Open mesh device for improved in-car slurrying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for improved in-car slurrying of dry bulk powder contained in hopper compartments in a hopper car, each compartment having means for admitting air under pressure and water into the compartment at the bottom thereof comprising the steps of: providing a porous obstruction across the upper portion of the compartment at about the level of the

R. L. Younger; J. S. Coulter

1988-01-01

420

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

2001-01-07

421

Phenanthrene Contaminated Soil Biotreatment Using Slurry Phase Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Problem Statement: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected toxins that accumulate in soils and sediments due to their inso lubility in water and lack of volatility. Slurry-ph ase biological treatment is one of the innovative techn ologies that involve the controlled treatment of excavated soil in a bioreactor. Due to highly soil contamination from petroleum compounds in crude oil extraction

M. Arbabi; M. Sadeghi; Ch. Anyakora

2009-01-01

422

Section A, view at parking structure of the slurry wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, view at parking structure of the slurry wall tiebacks with rods exposed from level B2, looking east/northeast. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

423

REMOVAL OF EBWR FUEL ELEMENT SCALE BY SLURRY HONING  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale deposit on the Experimental Boiling Water Reactor fuel plates ; can be removed by slurry honing the plates with an abrasive-water mixture. ; Problems inherent in any production operation of this type are discussed. Areas ; of continued investigation of the method are suggested. (auth);

Charak

1960-01-01

424

Flow of and heat transfer in turbulent slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, flow of and heat transfer in turbulent slurries having a yield stress are discussed. A Bingham plastic model is used to describe their rheological properties. A universal velocity distribution for turbulent flow of the Bingham plastic fluid is derived. The velocity distributions obtained using Prandtl's mixing length theory are in satisfactory agreement with the available data for

Y. Kawase; M. Moo-Young

1992-01-01

425

MEASURING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DAIRY MANURE SLURRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: A monitoring system to continuously measure methane and carbon dioxide emissions from dairy cattle manure slurry stored in a 296,000 litre farm manure storage and in 20, 30 and 200 litre laboratory manure storages is described. Results obtained over a 120-day summer period are presented.

H. A. Jackson; N. K. Patni; D. I. Massé; R. G. Kinsman; M. S. Wolynetz; D. J. Buckley; J. A. Munroe; F. D. Sauer; R. Desjardins; E. Pattey; Atlanta Hilton; Towers Hotel

1994-01-01

426

Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-31

427

Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-01-01

428

Combustion characterization of coal-water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

As a result of coal cleaning operations, a substantial amount of coal is disposed as waste into the ponds, effecting and endangering the environment. This study includes a technique to recover and utilize the waste coal fines from the preparation plant effluent streams and tailing ponds. Due to the large moisture content of the recovered coal fines, this investigation is focused on the utilization of coal fines in the coal-water slurry fuel. It is our belief that a blend of plant coal and waste coal fines can be used to produce a coal-water slurry fuel with the desired combustion characteristics required by the industry. The coal blend is composed of 85% clean coal and 15% recovered coal fines. The coal-water slurry is prepared at 60% solids with a viscosity less than 500 centipose and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. This paper contains analysis of clean coal, recovered coal fines, and coal-water slurry fuel as well as combustion characteristics.

Masudi, Houshang; Samudrala, S.

1996-12-31

429

Applied Cryptography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to give a comprehensive introduction to applied cryptography with an engineer or computer scientist in mind. The emphasis is on the knowledge needed to create practical systems which supports integrity, confidentiality, or authenticity. Topics covered includes an introduction to the concepts in cryptogra- phy, attacks against cryptographic systems, key use and handling, random bit

Christian Boesgaard

430

Applied oceanography  

SciTech Connect

This book combines oceanography principles and applications such as marine pollution, resources, and transportation. It is divided into two main parts treating the basic principles of physical oceanography, and presenting a unique systems framework showing how physical oceanography, marine ecology, economics, and government policy may be combined to define the newly developing field of applied oceanography.

Bishop, J.M.

1984-01-01

431

Model slurries for chemical mechanical planarization of copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical-Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is the most widely accepted method to achieve global planarization for fabrication of integrated circuits. A major drawback of CMP is that post-CMP wafers may have various contaminants. Since removal of particles from a dried surface is much more difficult, reduction of particulate contamination during the CMP process is desirable to alleviate post-CMP cleaning requirements. Model slurries containing different alumina abrasives, oxidizers and surfactants for the CMP of copper are investigated, using various slurry characteristics, CMP removal rate, and surface contamination as metrics. Surface tension of slurries and zeta potential of abrasive and abraded materials (CuO and Cu 2O) are measured. Alumina abrasives with the same nominal size, from different manufactures, showed appreciably different removal rates, attributed to differences in phase, size, and shape of the abrasives. CMP of Cu films with alumina, but without any chemical in the slurry, always results in a high density of particulate defects, because of the attraction between abrasive and the surface of Cu film. The influence of different oxidizers was studied by using electrochemical measurements together with CMP removal rates and static etch rates. An effective passivation layer on the surface of copper was formed with potassium dichromate. The use of potassium dichromate not only increases removal rate of copper but also decreases particulate defect density, due to the like charge developed on the surfaces of the abrasive, Cu film, and abraded material. The CMP removal rate of Cu film decreases with either nonionic or anionic surfactant in the slurry, due to the adsorbed surfactant layer which reduces the efficiency of abrasion by cushioning effect. A nonionic surfactant, Triton X, does not reduce the particulate defect density on the post-CMP copper film, even with appreciably decreased surface tension of the slurry. However, the use of an anionic surfactants, DOWFAX, not only decrease the surface tension of the slurry but also greatly decrease particulate contamination on the post-CMP copper surface by developing repulsive forces between abrasive, Cu film, and abraded material. The post-CMP surfaces of damascene patterned copper lines are in agreement with the copper CMP process concepts developed in this research.

Lee, Byung-Chan

432

Vitrification of SRP Waste by a Slurry-fed Ceramic Melter  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is testing the slurry feeding of a ceramic melter as a possible method to vitrify its high-level radioactive waste. Feeding a liquid slurry requires simpler and less expensive equipment than feeding a powdered calcine. Experiments have progressed from manual feeding, to a semiautomatic system, to the present slurry-feed system, which is completely automatic. All experiments to date indicate that slurry feeding is a promising way of vitrifying waste. No safety hazards associated with feeding the slurry onto molten glass at 1150 degrees Centigrade have been observed experimentally, even when the melter chamber was purposely flooded.

Wicks, G.G.

2001-03-15

433

Determination of lead in fine particulates by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple method for determining lead in fine particulates (PM2.5) by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been developed. Particulates collected on Nuclepore filter by using a dichotomous sampler were suspended in diluted nitric acid after ultrasonic agitation. The dislodging efficiency is nearly 100% after agitation for 5 min. In order to study the suspension behavior of PM2.5 in solvents, a Brookhaven ZetaPlus Particle Size Analyzer was used to determine the particle size distribution and suspension behavior of air particulates in the solvent. The pre-digestion and modification effect of nitric acid would be discussed. Palladium was added as a chemical modifier and the temperature program of ETAAS was changed in order to improve the recovery. The slurry was introduced directly into a graphite tube for atomization. The metal content in the sample was determined by the standard addition method. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling method. It offers a quick and efficient alternative method for heavy metal characterization in fine particulates. PMID:11225361

Yu, J C; Ho, K F; Lee, S C

2001-01-01

434

On line multielement determination of coal slurries using a direct current plasma  

SciTech Connect

In this fourth quarter of research, we feel that we have established a preliminary mechanism for chemical reactions that may occur in the direct current plasma (DCP) relative to organic species. Briefly, the organic species created by dissociation of propane (or any organic compound) in the plasma cause a depression in the emission signal seen with most elements under normal plasma conditions. By reducing the argon flow to the sleeves, the organic species is better entrained within a plasma ''plume'', and the desirable organic/metal oxide reactions can occur, with a consequent enhancement of signal. This first year's work will be detailed in a paper to be submitted to Applied Spectroscopy for publication; a preliminary copy of this paper is attached. Coal samples are being prepared for analysis using the DCP. Unfortunately, the Babington nebulizer which was constructed for this work did not provide a signal-to-noise ratio that was suitable for slurry work. We have ordered a Babington nebulizer which was specifically designed for the direct current plasma; this nebulizer should arrive in early November, at which time the slurry studies will begin.

McCreary, T.W.; Yoon, R.; Long, G.L.

1986-10-30

435

Pretreatment of coal by anodic electrolysis of acidified coal-water slurries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Preteatment of Pittsburg seam B coals to decrease its ash content and increase its solvent extractable material was investigated by anodically electrolysing acidified coal-water slurries at potentials around 1.0V SCE. The effects of the pretreatment were examined as functions of coal particle size, acid strength of the slurry, time of electrolysis and applied potential. The coal electrolysis was found to be most efficient at low acid strengths and short electrolysis times. The morphology of the coal surface changed with the conditions of the electrolysis and related to the percentage ash removal and the amount of solvent extractable material present in the coal. The anodic oxidation of the coal is suspected to occur via an electrocatalytic (EC) mechanism, whereby ferrous ions in the coal are first oxidized at the anode to the ferric state. The ferric ions migrate into the coal and accept electrons from accessible bonds in the coal micelle thereby reducing themselves back to ferrous ions and return to the anode for re-oxidation to the ferric state. The acceptance of electrons from certain bonds in the coal micelle results in the break-up of the micelle into simpler compounds. Accordingly, the solubility of the coal in an organic solvent should increase and this was found to be so when ferrous ions were externally added to the electrolyte. The electrolytic process was also found to transfer metallic ions present in the coal into solution in the electrolyte. 57 references, 26 figures, 1 table.

Paul, D.

1984-10-01

436

Genetically modified pigs for biomedical research.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, pigs have been used to develop some of the most important large animal models for biomedical research. Advances in pig genome research, genetic modification (GM) of primary pig cells and pig cloning by nuclear transfer, have facilitated the generation of GM pigs for xenotransplantation and various human diseases. This review summarizes the key technologies used for generating GM pigs, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, somatic cell nuclear transfer by traditional cloning, and somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Broadly used genetic engineering tools for porcine cells are also discussed. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated for xenotransplantation and human disease processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, bone diseases, cancers and epidermal skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and inherited metabolic diseases. Thus, this review provides an overview of the progress in GM pig research over the last two decades and perspectives for future development. PMID:22453682

Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Bolund, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt

2012-03-28

437

Fibrinolytic Deficit in Oxygen Intoxicated Guinea Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In guniea pigs, 72 hours of 100 percent isobaric oxygen therapy produces pulmonary hyaline membranes. Coagulation profiles were performed upon guinea pigs after 48 hours of 100 percent oxygen therapy to determine whether hyaline membrane formation is prec...

L. L. Phillips S. R. Wyte D. B. Weeks H. B. Soloway

1969-01-01

438

Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure  

SciTech Connect

The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use in a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

Friggens, G.R.; Loth, J.L.; Smith, W.C.

1982-07-27

439

Blast furnace slag slurries may have limits for oil field use  

SciTech Connect

Thorough testing, economic evaluations, and environmental evaluations of blast furnace slag slurries revealed that replacing Portland cement with slag slurries may compromise essential properties in a cementing operation. The use of blast furnace slag (BFS) slurries should be analyzed on a per case basis for oil well cementing operations. BFS slurry technology may be a viable mud solidification process, but the slurries are not cement and should not be considered as such. Several slurries using field and laboratory prepared drilling fluids solidified with blast furnace slag were investigated to determine thickening time, compressive strength, free water, and other pertinent properties. The tests included an evaluation of the expansion of the set material and shear bond, as well as rheological compatibility studies of the finished slurries with the base muds. These additional tests are critical in the potential application of this process under field conditions.

Benge, O.G.; Webster, W.W. (Mobil Exploration Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

1994-07-18

440

Plugging nuclear waste pipelines: impact of high level waste slurry characteristics and pipe diameter  

SciTech Connect

The work presented here focuses on experiments carried out in 22-mm ID and 45-mm ID pipelines utilizing slurries composed of spherical glass beads having particle size distribution following the Rosin-Rammler distribution and mean size of 50 {mu}m. The spreads of the distribution were 1.7 and 7, corresponding to wide and narrow distributions, respectively. The slurries utilized in this study had concentrations ranging from 5% to 25% by volume. Results obtained in the same pipeline diameter indicated that the slurry of the narrower distribution experienced higher pressure drops and lower critical deposition velocities than those for the slurry of wider distribution. Pressure drop increased markedly with increasing slurry concentration regardless of the pipe diameter and slurry PSD. However, the pipe diameter was found to have more significant influence on the pressure drop than the slurry concentration does. (authors)

Daas, M.; Srivastava, R.; Skudarnov, P. [Florida International Univ., Applied Research Center, Miami, FL (United States)

2007-07-01

441

Surfactant in Newborn Compared with Adolescent Pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surfactant composition and function differ between vertebrates, depending on pulmonary anatomy and respiratory physiology. Be- cause pulmonary development in pigs is similar to that in humans, we investigated surface tension function, composition of phospho- lipid molecular species, and concentrations of surfactant protein (SP)-A to -D in term newborn pigs (NP) compared with adolescent pigs (AP), using the pulsating bubble surfactometer,

Gunnar A. Rau; Gertrud Vieten; Jack J. Haitsma; Joachim Freihorst; Christian Poets; Benno M. Ure; Wolfgang Bernhard

442

Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in a packed bed scrubber. Before entering the scrubber,

H. C. Willers; P. J. Hobbs; N. W. M. Ogink

2004-01-01

443

Slurry erosion characteristics of TiN coatings on ?-Ti and plasma-nitrided Ti alloy substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slurry erosion behavior of TiN coatings on ?-Ti and plasma-nitrided Ti alloy substrates in aqueous silica slurry has been investigated using a jet-in-slit rig. Erosion tests were performed with slurry jet velocities between 6.4 and 15.2ms?1. At the lower slurry velocity, pitting was caused by the slurry impact, and there was little volume loss for each of the coatings.

J. P. Tu; L. P. Zhu; H. X. Zhao

1999-01-01

444

Comparative evaluation of the abrasive slurry wear behavior of alloy surfaces produced by a Plasma Transferred Arc hardfacing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive slurry wear is generally defined as a mechanical interaction in which the material becomes lost in a surface that\\u000a is in contact with moving particles, such as laden liquid. Slurry wear abrasion occurs in extruders, slurry pumps, and pipes\\u000a that carry the slurry of minerals and ores in mineral processing industries. The life of the components used under slurry

C. S. Ramachandran; V. Balasubramanian; R. Varahamoorthy

2010-01-01

445

ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

In the first year of the project, solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Progress was also made in analyzing the gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is being developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian particle tracking procedure to analyze the particle motions. Progress was also made in developing a rate dependent thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows in a state of turbulent motion. The new model includes the effect of phasic interactions and leads to anisotropic effective phasic stress tensors. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The formulation of a thermodynamically consistent model for chemically active multiphase solid-fluid flows in a turbulent state of motion was also initiated. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also to establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and nonreacting slurry flows, and to solve a number of technologically important problems related to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel production processes. (4) To verify the validity of the developed model by comparing the predicted results with the performed and the available experimental data under idealized conditions.

Goodarz Ahmadi

2000-11-01

446

ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and nonreacting slurry flows, and to solve a number of technologically important problems related to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel production processes. (4) To verify the validity of the developed model by comparing the predicted results with the performed and the available experimental data under idealized conditions.

Goodarz Ahmadi

2001-10-01

447

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important. 29 references, 2 figures.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.

1984-08-01

448

PROPERTIES OF GUINEA PIG 7S ANTIBODIES  

PubMed Central

Guinea pig 7S?1 antibodies were demonstrated to mediate passive systemic or cutaneous anaphylaxis; guinea pig 7S?2 antibodies were unable to mediate these reactions. Gamma-2 antibodies specifically inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylactic reactions provoked by gamma-1 antibodies by competing for antigen. However, gamma-2 antibodies were unable to inhibit passive cutaneous sensitization of guinea pigs by a heterologous antibody system. Guinea pig 7S?2 antibodies appear to lack receptors for fixation to guinea pig tissues and do not compete with sensitizing antibody for receptor sites.

Ovary, Zoltan; Benacerraf, Baruj; Bloch, Kurt J.

1963-01-01

449

Applied geodesy  

SciTech Connect

This volume is based on the proceedings of the CERN Accelerator School's course on Applied Geodesy for Particle Accelerators held in April 1986. The purpose was to record and disseminate the knowledge gained in recent years on the geodesy of accelerators and other large systems. The latest methods for positioning equipment to sub-millimetric accuracy in deep underground tunnels several tens of kilometers long are described, as well as such sophisticated techniques as the Navstar Global Positioning System and the Terrameter. Automation of better known instruments such as the gyroscope and Distinvar is also treated along with the highly evolved treatment of components in a modern accelerator. Use of the methods described can be of great benefit in many areas of research and industrial geodesy such as surveying, nautical and aeronautical engineering, astronomical radio-interferometry, metrology of large components, deformation studies, etc.

Turner, S.

1987-01-01

450

Experiments on densely-loaded non-Newtonian slurries in laminar and turbulent pipe flows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental description of the flow structure of non-Newtonian slurries in the laminar, transitional, and fully-developed turbulent pipe flow regimes was the primary objective of this research. Experiments were conducted in a large-scale pipe slurry flow facility with an inside diameter of 51 mm (2 inches). Approximately, 550 liters (145 gal) of slurry were necessary in the operation of the loop. Detailed velocity profile measurements by a two-color, two-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) were accomplished in a transparent test section with an optically transparent slurry. These velocity measurements were apparently the first ever reported for a non-Newtonian slurry with a yield value. The transparent slurry was formulated for these experiments from silica with a particle size of one to two microns, mineral oil, and Stoddard solvent. From linear regression analysis of concentric-cylinder viscometer data, the slurry exhibited yield-power-law behavior with a yield stress of 100 dynes/cm(sup 2), and an exponent of 0.630 for a solids concentration of 5.65 percent by weight. Good agreement was attained with rheological data derived from the pressure drop data in the flow loop under laminar flow conditions. The rheological properties of the transparent slurry were similar to many industrial slurries, including coal slurries, which have a yield value.

Park, Joel T.; Mannheimer, Richard J.; Grimley, Terrence A.; Morrow, Thomas B.

1989-06-01

451

RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

Fernandez, A.

2010-02-08

452

Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications  

SciTech Connect

This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-01

453

Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport  

SciTech Connect

The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

1980-03-31

454

Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 12, June 1, 1995--August 31, 1995  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. This should be of major importance to the United States in its efforts to reduce dependence on imported oil and to rely more on its enormous low-cost coal resources. In accordance with this objective, in the first stage of this project, considerable work was conducted to standardize experimental procedures for sample preparation, coal grinding, and Theological measurements to assure reproducibility of the experimental results. Since a Haake RV-12 viscometer with an MV-DIN sensor system was found to give the most reproducible results for measurement of slurry viscosities, it has subsequently been used for all of our Theological measurements. Methods were developed for applying the acoustophoresis technique for studying the electrokinetic behavior of concentrated coal-water suspensions. These measurements were carried out using this technique to identify the potential of chemical additives for functioning as reagents for effective dispersion. Detailed investigations of the effect of solids content and chemical additives on the rheology of coal-water slurries, prepared with fines produced by the ball milling of Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, were conducted during the first phase of our research program. These experiments were to provide a baseline against which the rheological behavior of slurries prepared with fines produced by high-pressure roll milling or hybrid high-pressure roll mill/ball mill grinding could be compared.

Fuerstenau, D.W.

1995-09-01

455

Aerobic thermophilic treatment of farm slurry and food wastes.  

PubMed

The review discusses the aerobic treatments for farm slurry and food wastes and concentrates in particular on the thermophilic aerobic treatments. Methods are discussed under the heading of chemical, physical and other treatments. From those methods considered, the most suitable physical-microbiological treatment are aerobic thermophilic treatments. The main problem faced in aerobic thermophilic treatments could be the foaming formation during the process, and this could be solved by using different methods, mainly mechanical control method. Aerobic thermophilic treatments are also simple, economical and environmentally accepted. This method is known to have effects, and could be used to assist decontaminations on farms, as such technologies are already used in routine slurry treatment in many farms. PMID:15288266

Mohaibes, Mohammed; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

2004-12-01

456

Fluidized bed incineration of a slurry waste from caprolactam production  

SciTech Connect

Caprolactam tails are a slurry waste produced in the SNIA process for the synthesis of caprolactam. They contain about 65% water, 25% ash and 10% combustible matter. The ashes are low melting, due to the presence of sodium compounds. The incineration of this waste is carried out at temperatures below 600/sup 0/C in beds of silica sand, using a laboratory scale apparatus with a 40 mm ID fluidization column. Variables investigated include sand particle size, slurry flow rate, bed temperature, bed height. The concentrations of CO/sub 2/ and CO are determined continuously in the flue gases. Bed solids are sampled periodically to determine the carbon content. Results of experiments show that the low temperature incineration on a bed of inert solids is a useful technique for the disposal of caprolactam tails. 8 refs.

Cammarota, A.; D'Amore, M.; Donsi, G.; Massimilla, L.

1980-08-01

457

Summary of rheological studies related to HWVP slurries  

SciTech Connect

Numerous studies (Section 8) have,addressed the Theological properties of simulated process slurries at the Savannah River Laboratory for the Defense Waste Processing Facility and at Pacific Northwest Laboratory`(PNL) for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). These studies were reviewed to summarize existing data applicable to HWVP design. The reviewers determined that the existing data provide important information on the effects of feed variability, solids loading, temperature, formating, pH, and scale-up. However, these data cannot serve as a basis for fundamental slurry transport calculations because data are not reported in sufficient detail over a range of shear rates and in appropriate terms to be sufficient for transport calculations.

Lanning, D.D.; Smith, P.A.; Terrones, G.; Larson, D.E.

1996-02-01

458

Specific mixing energy: A key factor for cement slurry quality  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the relationships between cement mixing and cement slurry quality are investigated. Laboratory mixing conditions, using a high shear mixer, are compared to field mixing conditions, including conventional jet mixer, recirculating type mixer and batch mixer. All the mixing conditions can be reduced according to a single parameter, the specific mixing energy, that allows the comparison of laboratory and field mixing with confidence. Typical cement slurry properties, like rheology, free water, fluid loss, thickening time and compressive strength, are measured as a function of the specific mixing energy. All these properties improve when the specific mixing energy increases. The efficiency of cement additives, like dispersants and fluid-loss agents, is also found to vary significantly with the energy. A tentative explanation is proposed through a mechanism of particle deflocculation and dissolution, leading to an increase in the available specific surface area.

Orban, J.A.; Parcevaux, P.A.; Guillot, D.J.

1986-01-01

459

Development of a Phenomenological Model for Coal Slurry Atomization  

SciTech Connect

Task I - Extensional Viscometer - A contracting flow extensional viscometer was designed and constructed at Adelphi University. Calibration was conducted using a variety of fluids and suspensions. Task 2 - Testing using the extensional viscometer was performed using simulated fluids. Testing was performed using coal water slurries with dispersant and/ or stabilizer to determine the concentration and shear dependence and the effect of additives. Viscoelastic effects were evaluated using simulated fluids. Testing with coal at three coal concentrations to determine dependence will begin shortly. Task 3 - Extension of the Phenomenological Model - The phenomenological model is being extended to include extensional and viscoelastic properties. Task 4 - Development of Active Model for Atomization - A bench scale atomization study is being conducted using simulated fluids and coal water slurries to determine the parameters on which the model is dependent. Based on these results, a model is being developed for the Sauter mean diameter. A statistical analysis of atomization data will relate the PSD to the dimensionless parameters.

Dooher, J.P.

1997-04-30

460

Feasibility of amending slurry walls with zero-valent iron  

SciTech Connect

Rapid degradation of aqueous trichloroethylene (TCE) was observed in batch experiments conducted with soil/bentonite slurry wall materials amended with the addition of zero-valent iron. The first-order TCE decay constants for soil/bentonite/iron mixtures, when normalized to the available iron surface area, were approximately 1--2 orders of magnitude higher than observed in batch experiments with pure iron systems. Permeability tests indicated an increase in SB hydraulic conductivity roughly proportional to the amount of iron added. Based on the observed reaction rates and the assumption of sustained long-term performance, significantly less than one percent added iron would be required to reduce the diffusive flux of TCE across an installed slurry wall by over 10 orders of magnitude. However, the release of hydrogen gas was noted as a potential problem for low permeability systems containing zero-valent iron.

Rabideau, A.J. [State Univ. of New York, Buffalo, NY (United States). Dept. of Civil, Structural, and Environmental Engineering; Shen, P. [Chopra Lee, Inc., Grand Island, NY (United States); Khandelwal, A. [S.S. Papadopulos and Associates, Bethesda, MD (United States)

1999-04-01

461

Multichannel reflectance spectral assaying of zinc and copper flotation slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article extends the earlier work (Haavisto et al. 2008. Optical spectrum based measurement of flotation slurry contents. Int. J. Miner. Process. 88 (3–4), 80–88), where visible and near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectroscopy was used together with an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzer to improve the assaying of zinc flotation concentrate. Especially the sampling interval of the assay could be drastically reduced

Olli Haavisto; Jani Kaartinen

2009-01-01

462

Modeling Erosion Wear Rates in Slurry Flotation Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In processes using slurry as the working fluid, wear due to solid particles impinging on elements of the process units is\\u000a a serious reliability issue. This study considers modeling wear damage in flotation cells, which are widely used in mineral\\u000a processing. Flotation cells are typically cylindrical vessels where an impeller is used to agitate the fluid, enabling the\\u000a liberation of

M. G. Lipsett; V. Bhushan

463

Ice slurry on outdoor running performance in heat.  

PubMed

The efficacy of ingestion of ice slurry on actual outdoor endurance performance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate ice slurry ingestion as a cooling intervention before a 10 km outdoor running time-trial. Twelve participants ingested 8?g?·?kg?(-?1) of either ice slurry (?-?1.4°C; ICE) or ambient temperature drink (30.9°C; CON) and performed a 15-min warm-up prior to a 10 km outdoor running time-trial (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature: 28.2 ± 0.8°C). Mean performance time was faster with ICE (2?715 ± 396 s) than CON (2?730 ± 385 s; P=0.023). Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) reduced by 0.5 ± 0.2°C after ICE ingestion compared with 0.1 ± 0.1°C (P<0.001) with CON. During the run, the rate of rise in Tgi was greater (P=0.01) with ICE than with CON for the first 15 min. At the end of time-trial, Tgi was higher with ICE (40.2 ± 0.6°C) than CON (39.8 ± 0.4°C, P=0.005). Ratings of thermal sensation were lower during the cooling phase and for the first kilometre of the run (?-?1.2 ± 0.8; P<0.001). Although ingestion of ice slurry resulted in a transient increase in heat strain following a warm up routine, it is a practical and effective pre-competition cooling manoeuvre to improve performance in warm and humid environments. PMID:22730052

Yeo, Z W; Fan, P W P; Nio, A Q X; Byrne, C; Lee, J K W

2012-06-22

464

PREPARATION OF HYDROTHERMALLY TREATED LRC\\/WATER FUEL SLURRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot-water coal drying process is a means of thermally beneficiating and dewatering lignite and subbituminous coal for the purpose of preparing dense low-rank coal\\/water fuel. In hot-water coal drying, which is a form of hydrothermal treatment, low-rank coal in a water slurry is treated at elevated temperatures of 513 to 623? K and at pressures in excess of the

TODD A. POTAS; RODNEY E. SEARS; DANA J. MAAS; GENE G. BAKER; WARRACK G. WILLSON

1986-01-01

465

Solid–liquid separation of livestock slurry: efficiency and cost  

Microsoft Academic Search

Environmental problems may arise on specialized livestock farms, which produce a surplus of nutrients in relation to crop requirements. Separation of this slurry into a liquid fraction and a dry-matter and nutrient-rich fraction, followed by transporting the nutrient-rich fraction to farms with fewer animals, may alleviate the problem. This study showed that the most informative index of separation is the

H. B Møller; I Lund; S. G Sommer

2000-01-01

466

Steady?State Behavior of Slurry and Bulk Propylene Polymerization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the steady?state behavior of two typical processes to produce poly(propylene): the single?reactor bulk polymerization process and the slurry polymerization process in a train of continuous stirred tank reactors. The investigation is performed using a commercial process simulator—SIMULPOL 3.0®, and aims at elucidating the general behavior of both processes when subject to perturbations of the input operation variables.

André G. Oliveira; Patrícia M. Candreva; Príamo A. Melo; José Carlos Pinto

2003-01-01

467

Micro Machine Parts Fabricated from Aqueous Based Stainless Steel Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A fabrication process of stainless steel micro components from metallic powder is reported. The process consists of two stages.\\u000a In the first stage, high quality SU-8 master moulds and their negative replicas from soft moulds are produced using photolithography\\u000a and soft moulding techniques respectively. The second stage includes preparation of stainless steel slurry, filling the soft\\u000a mould, obtaining the green

Mohamed Imbaby; Isaac Chang; Kyle Jiang

468

Color removal from aqueous solution by biogas residual slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Acid Brilliant Blue on biogas residual slurry has been investigated. The parameters studied include dye concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH. The equilibrium data fit well with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption isotherm. Maximum removal of 99% was observed at pH 2.56. Desorption studies indicate that the dye is solubilised in 50%(v\\/v) acetic

R. T. Yamuna; C. Namasivayam

1993-01-01

469

Sonically Enhanced Combustion of Coal Water Slurry Fuel  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation was performed to demonstrate that a high intensity acoustic field can enhance the convective transfer processes occurring during CWSF (coal water slurry fuel) combustion. It was carried out in a 300,000 Btu\\/h sonic combustor. For the runs conducted, SPLs of 156 dB and 145 dB, respectively, were measured below the fuel injection point and before the exit to

Prakash Ramachandran

1990-01-01

470

Oil's new rival - coal-water slurry for utility boilers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-water slurries (CWS), composed of about 70-75% coal, 24-29% water, and 1% chemical additives, offer utilities an alternative to burning oil for power generation. The CWS process has advanced through the pilot plant stage in a little over five years, and now needs a utility demonstration to show that stable combustion flame can be maintained at full and partial loads,

T. Moore; R. Manfred

2009-01-01

471

Economic evaluation of microfine coal-water slurry: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The replacement of No. 6 oil with coal in oil\\/gas design boilers results in problems due to coal ash impacts of deposition and erosion. This necessitates increased boiler conversion costs and\\/or extensive capacity derating. An approach to minimize such penalties is to micropulverize the coal to a top size of 325 mesh for use in a coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel

Margulies

1986-01-01

472

Hydraulic calculation of gravity transportation pipeline system for backfill slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Taking cemented coal gangue pipeline transportation system in Suncun Coal Mine, Xinwen Mining Group, Shandong Province, China,\\u000a as an example, the hydraulic calculation approaches and process about gravity pipeline transportation of backfill slurry were\\u000a investigated. The results show that the backfill capability of the backfill system should be higher than 74.4 m3\\/h according to the mining production and backfill times

Qin-li Zhang; Guan-yu Hu; Xin-min Wang

2008-01-01

473

GREENHOUSE GAS RELEASE FROM STORED DAIRY-CATTLE MANURE SLURRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from 8 to 9% dry matter content dairy cattle manure slurry, stored in a below-grade 296 m3 covered concrete storage tank (7.2 x 14.7 x 2.8 m deep) was determined during winter ('93-'94) and summer ('94) seasons. Mean daily temperature of ambient air at the site ranged from -28º to 15ºC and

N. Patni; H. Jackson; D. Massé; M. Wolynetz; R. Kinsman

474

Effects of ultraviolet irradiation on the acquisition and expression of tick resistance in guinea-pigs.  

PubMed Central

In guinea-pigs it has been shown that resistance to ticks is an acquired, immunologically mediated phenomenon. It has been suggested recently that epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) may play roles in the mechanisms of resistance to ticks. The ATPase-positive epidermal LC of guinea-pigs have been shown to be depleted for a period of several days following u.v. irradiations. In this study, u.v. treatment of guinea-pigs' ears before primary tick infestations resulted in a significant reduction of acquired resistance to ticks. When u.v. treatments were applied to resistant animals prior to the challenge infestations, a marked reduction in expression of resistance to ticks was demonstrated. These results can be interpreted to imply that functional LC in the epidermis are required for both the normal acquisition and the expression of the guinea-pig's immune responses to D. andersoni infestations.

Nithiuthai, S; Allen, J R

1984-01-01

475

Coal-water slurries: a seam-to-steam strategy  

SciTech Connect

Moderately loaded coal-water fuels (CWF) and coal-water transportation slurries are similar in design philosophy, and an integrated coal-water slurry system has been demonstrated with a coal-designed boiler. The primary emphasis in highly loaded coal-water fuels is achieving maximum coal content, a strategy which requires careful grinding and the use of expansive additives. Detailed technical and economic comparisons of the two CWF technologies have not been made, and it is not clear that the intensive emphasis on proprietary, highly loaded coal-water fuels is justified. In any event, the question, How clean is clean., must be answered and efficient mineral removal processes must be developed and/or existing ones modified to remove the ash constraints that prevent the use of coal-water fuels in many retrofit applications. This step will enhance the seam-to-steam strategy by providing a key element in an integrated clean coal-water slurry system. 6 figures, 10 tables.

Marnell, P.; Poundstone, W.N.; Halvorsen, W.

1983-06-01