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1

Environmental vulnerability and phosphorus fractions of areas with pig slurry applied to the soil.  

PubMed

The application of pig slurry as a fertilizer can cause soil and water contamination. Intrinsic characteristics of the environment may enhance this effect and influence the vulnerability of the agricultural system. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of soil P fractions in areas treated with pig slurry and in forest areas and to propose an evaluation of the areas' vulnerability to P contamination. Soil samples were collected from 10 areas with pig slurry applied to the soil and one in forest without a history of pig slurry application, all located in the Coruja and Bonito rivers microbasin at Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Samples were prepared and subjected to P chemical fractionation. Two versions of the P index method, based on soil P forms or only on P extracted by Mehlich-1, were used to evaluate the environmental risk of the studied areas. Estimated soil losses were lower for the forest and natural pasture and highest in areas with black oat ( Schreb.)-corn ( L.) crop cultivation. Concentrations of P fractions, especially of organic and inorganic P extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L NaOH and NaHCO and of inorganic P extracted by anion exchange resin and HCl, were higher in areas with a longer history and higher frequency of pig slurry applications. Vulnerability to P contamination was mainly influenced by soil P concentrations and soil losses in the studied areas. The P index based on Hedley's fractionation P forms resulted in a more accurate risk scoring of the studied areas than the P index based on the concentration of available P extracted by Mehlich-1. PMID:25602331

da Rosa Couto, Rafael; Santos, Matheus Dos; Comin, Jucinei José; Pittol Martini, Luíz Carlos; Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo; Martins, Sérgio Roberto; Filho, Paulo Belli; Brunetto, Gustavo

2015-01-01

2

Agronomic recycling of pig slurry and pig sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling pig slurry as organic fertilizer is a convenient and suitable way of waste elimination due to its low cost and high agronomic benefits. The objectives of this two year study are focused on improving and recycling pig slurry appropriately, and monitoring the soil-plant system at the same time. The evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of different types of pig slurry (raw, solid, treated and depurated) in different doses (170 kg N ha-1 (legislated dose), 340 and 510 kg N ha-1) is innovative because the fertilizer value of each amendment can be balanced. Furthermore environmental issues such us volatilisation, leaching and salinisation have been considered for each treatment in order to set the viability of the study and to justify the treatments applied. Electrical conductivity, Kjeldhal nitrogen, sodium and potassium are the physico-chemical parameters most influenced in soils treated with doses 340 and 510 kg N ha-1. Additionally plant samples, especially halophyte, have shown the highest major and minor nutrients contents. Finally, pig slurry application in legislated doses could be considered a useful environmental practice; however, the development of the crop will be very influenced by the type of dose and amendment selected.

Gómez Garrido, Melisa; Sánchez García, Pablo; Faz Cano, Ángel; Büyükk?l?ç Yanardag, Asuman; Yanardag, Ibrahim; Kabas, Sebla; Ángeles Múñoz García, María; María Rosales Aranda, Rosa; Segura Ruíz, Juan Carlos

2013-04-01

3

Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

2014-01-01

4

Toxicity evaluation of pig slurry using luminescent bacteria and zebrafish.  

PubMed

Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

2014-07-01

5

Sorption of 17?-estradiol to pig slurry separates and soil in the soil-slurry environment.  

PubMed

Contamination of freshwater by estrogens from manure applied to agricultural land is of grave concern because of the potentially harmful effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent developments in liquid manure (slurry) management include partial removal of particulate slurry dry matter (PSDM) by separation technologies, which may also remove parts of the estrogens and enhance infiltration of the slurry on field application and hence the interaction between estrogens and the soil matrix. This study investigated how 17?-estradiol (E2), a natural estrogen commonly found in pig manure, sorbs to agricultural soils, to different size fractions of pig slurry separates, and to soils amended with each size fraction to simulate conditions in the soil-slurry environment. A crude fiber fraction (SS1) was prepared by sieving (<500 ?m) the solids removed by an on-farm separation process. Three other size fractions (SS2 > SS3 > SS4) were prepared from the liquid fraction of the separated slurry by sedimentation and centrifugation. Sorption experiments were conducted in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) and in natural pig urine matrix. Sorption in 0.01 mol L(-1) CaCl(2) was higher than that in pig urine for all solids used. Sorption of E2 to soil increased with its organic carbon content for both liquid phases. The solid-liquid partition coefficients of slurry separates were 10 to 30 times higher than those of soils, but the organoic carbon normalized partition coefficient values, reflecting sorption per unit organic carbon, were lower for slurry separates. Mixing slurry separates with soil increased the sorption of E2 to the solid phase significantly in the order: SS1 < SS3 < SS2 for both liquid phases. In contrast, SS4 reduced the sorption of E2 to the solid phase by increasing the sorption to suspended or dissolved organic matter. The study suggested that potentially 50 to 75% of E2 in slurry can be removed from the liquid fraction of slurry by physical separation. PMID:22218186

Amin, M G Mostofa; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

2012-01-01

6

Clinoptilolite as an ammonia binder in pig slurry.  

PubMed

Six gilts and six barrows are used in a 2 x 2 experiment with two phase feeding versus multiphase feeding and celite addition versus clinoptilolite addition. Nitrogen and ammonia concentration in the slurry on dry matter basis was reduced by 30% and 35% respectively by multiphase feeding, together with a decreased ratio of ammonia over nitrogen. Ammonia fixation in pig slurry by clinoptilolite increased from 21% after 14 days of supplementation upto 35% at 8 weeks after the supplementation period. PMID:15954581

Janssens, G P; Debal, V; Hesta, M; Millet, S; De Wilde, R O

2001-01-01

7

Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and Chernozem had higher volatile compounds than Regosol, with no significant differences among treatments. Changes in total weight loss of soil among treatments were small, although endothermic and exothermic calorimetric peaks were different depending on the treatment, mainly in Regosol and Luvisol, being higher in biochar amended samples. The proportion of C containing gas species below 550 ºC was higher in Luvisol and Kastanozem with no differences among treatments. As a general pattern, FTIR absorbance intensity followed the pattern Kastanozem > Luvisol > Regosol due to the different amount of organic matter. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkenes moieties at 3286 cm-1 and 3340 cm-1 in Luvisol and Kastanozem. Chemically refractory aromatic moieties at 1580 cm-1 and 1594 cm-1 in Luvisol and Chernozem, and at 729 cm-1 and 754 cm-1 in the three types of soils. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkane moieties at 1359 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1, alkenyl moieties at 962 cm-1 and 975 cm-1, and alkynes at 636 cm-1 and 663 cm-1 in all types of soils. The soil samples measured before incubation presented higher absorbance intensity than at the end of incubation, indicating mineralization of organic matter with incubation. No significant alterations in the functional groups were observed with the application of the amendments in any soil. This study suggested that the application of 5 g C kg-1 soil was not sufficient to modify organic functional groups at short term. Thus, different soil types behave differently in terms of amendments applications, being the Regosol more prone to alter SOC content and stability after applications. The application of biochar promoted higher SOC concentrations and stability at the end of the incubation. Keywords: Pig slurry, Pig Manure, Biochar, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, soil respiration, soil mineralization.

Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanarda?, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

2014-05-01

8

Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In conclusion, the use of pig slurry to reclaim bare contaminated soils by heavy metals brings indirect positive effects by triggering a vegetation cover which can stabilize metals and increase soil quality (phytostabilization). Keywords: heavy metals, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phytoremediation.

Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

2013-04-01

9

Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.  

PubMed

Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application. PMID:24821206

Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

2014-07-01

10

Survival of Salmonella spp. and fecal indicator bacteria in Vietnamese biogas digesters receiving pig slurry.  

PubMed

Small-scale biogas digesters are widely promoted worldwide as a sustainable technology to manage livestock manure. In Vietnam, pig slurry is commonly applied to biogas digesters for production of gas for electricity and cooking with the effluent being used to fertilize field crops, vegetables and fish ponds. Slurry may contain a variety of zoonotic pathogens, e.g. Salmonella spp., which are able to cause disease in humans either through direct contact with slurry or by fecal contamination of water and foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the survival of Salmonella spp. and the fecal indicator bacteria, enterococci, E. coli, and spores of Clostridium perfringens in biogas digesters operated by small-scale Vietnamese pig farmers. The serovar and antimicrobial susceptibility of the Salmonella spp. isolated were also established. The study was conducted in 12 farms (6 farms with and 6 farms without toilet connected) located in Hanam province, Vietnam. Sampling of pig slurry and biogas effluent was done during two seasons. Results showed that the concentration of enterococci, E. coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores was overall reduced by only 1-2 log10-units in the biogas digesters when comparing raw slurry and biogas effluent. Salmonella spp. was found in both raw slurry and biogas effluent. A total of 19 Salmonella serovars were identified, with the main serovars being Salmonella Typhimurium (55/138), Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (19/138), Salmonella Weltevreden (9/138) and Salmonella Rissen (9/138). The Salmonella serovars showed similar antimicrobial resistance patterns to those previously reported from Vietnam. When promoting biogas, farmers should be made aware that effluent should only be used as fertilizer for crops not consumed raw and that indiscriminate discharge of effluent are likely to contaminate water recipients, e.g. drinking water sources, with pathogens. Relevant authorities should promote safe animal manure management practices to farmers and regulations be updated to ensure food safety and public health. PMID:24933419

Huong, Luu Quynh; Forslund, Anita; Madsen, Henry; Dalsgaard, Anders

2014-09-01

11

Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark.  

PubMed

Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000 kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient redistribution before land application: (a) separation by mechanical screw press, (b) screw press separation with composting of the solid fraction, (c) separation by decanter centrifuge, and (d) decanter centrifuge separation with ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction. Emissions were determined based on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus storage. In all separation scenarios, the liquid fraction was applied to land on the pig-producing (donor) farm and the solid fraction transported to a recipient farm and utilised for crop production. Separation, especially by centrifuge, was found to result in a lower environmental impact potential than application of untreated slurry to adjacent land. Composting and ammonia stripping either slightly increased or slightly decreased the environmental impact potential, depending on the impact category considered. The relative ranking of scenarios did not change after a sensitivity analysis in which coefficients for field emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and phosphorus were varied within the range cited in the literature. Therefore, the best technology to implement in a given situation depends on the environmental problem in question, local policy, cost and practicality. PMID:24291578

ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas J; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

2014-01-01

12

Phosphorus, copper and zinc in solid and liquid fractions from full-scale and laboratory-separated pig slurry.  

PubMed

Pig slurry separation is a slurry treatment technique that can reduce excess loads of P, Cu and Zn to the arable land. This study investigated the effects of different commercial and laboratory separation treatments for pig slurry on P, Cu and Zn distribution into solid and liquid fractions. Solid and liquid separation fractions were collected from two commercial separators installed on the farm. Five different separation treatments were performed (polymer flocculation and drainage; coagulation with iron sulphate addition and polymer flocculation and drainage; ozonation and centrifugation; centrifugation only; and natural sedimentation) on sow and suckling piglet raw slurry. Particle size fractionation was performed on raw slurry and all separation fractions by sequential wet sieving and P, Cu and Zn concentrations were then measured in the particle size classes. Dry matter and total P, Cu and Zn were separated with higher efficiency when chemical pretreatments with flocculants and coagulants were introduced before mechanical separation at both commercial and laboratory scale. When solid fractions are utilized as crop fertilizer (primarily as P fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn to the soils are not markedly different than the loads applied with raw slurry. When liquid fractions are used as crop fertilizer (primarily as N fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn are markedly lower than those supplied with raw slurry. The loads of Cu and Zn introduced to the soil were lowest on application of the liquid fraction produced by optimized separation treatments that included flocculation and coagulation. PMID:23240207

Popovic, Olga; Hjorth, Maibritt; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

2012-09-01

13

Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and ?-galactosidase activity showed the biggest increment comparing to control. No pattern was observed among fertilizer doses, without big differences among them in most properties. We can conclude that the use of pig slurry as organic fertilizer incorporates great amounts of organic matter to the soil in its different forms, including soluble and microorganisms biomass, which has a positive effect encouraging the application of this agricultural management so that soil can act as C sink, in order to mitigate global warming. Thus, this procedure can be included in the strategies to increase the soil carbon sequestration. According to carbon dynamics, doses are not important, without risks of soluble carbon leaching.

Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

2010-05-01

14

Behaviour of molecular weight distribution for the liquid fraction of pig slurry treated by anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Pig slurry was treated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. To maintain a stable operation, the organic loading rate (OLR) applied to the system was increased stepwise by decreasing the dilution ratio of the pig slurry. Finally, during the last operational stage, no dilution was applied to the influent. The reactor maintained a soluble chemical oxygen demand (CODs) removal efficiency of 82% when OLRs lower than 1.73 g CODs l(-1) d(-1) were applied, although its efficiency fell to 55% when operated at 2.48 g CODs l(-1) d(-1). System performance was not affected by the presence of free ammonia (concentrations up to 375 mg NH3 l(-1)). The distribution of the different molecular weight fractions changed significantly during anaerobic digestion. Proteins contained in the fractions higher than 10,000 Daltons are less degraded than those belonging to the lower fractions. An important percentage of both COD and BOD5 in the effluent were observed in the lowest fraction, probably caused by the presence of volatile fatty acids (VFA). PMID:21780709

Rodríguez, D C; Belmonte, M; Peñuela, G; Campos, J L; Vidal, G

2011-01-01

15

A full-scale study of treatment of pig slurry by composting: Kinetic changes in chemical and microbial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the indiscriminate disposal of pig slurry can cause not only air pollution and bad odours but also nutrient pollution of ground waters and superficial waters, composting is sometimes used as one environmentally acceptable method for recycling pig manure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of composting pig slurry on its sanitation (evaluated by ecotoxicity assays

M. Ros; C. García; T. Hernández

2006-01-01

16

Pig slurry application and irrigation effects on nitrate leaching in Mediterranean soil lysimeters.  

PubMed

Land application of animal manures, such as pig slurry (PS), is a common practice in intensive-farming agriculture. However, this practice has a pitfall consisting of the loss of nutrients, in particular nitrate, toward water courses. The objective of this study was to evaluate nitrate leaching for three application rates of pig slurry (50, 100, and 200 Mg ha(-1)) and a control treatment of mineral fertilizer (275 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn grown in 10 drainage lysimeters. The effects of two irrigation regimes (low vs. high irrigation efficiency) were also analyzed. In the first two irrigation events, drainage NO(3)-N concentrations as high as 145 and 69 mg L(-1) were measured in the high and moderate PS rate treatments, respectively, in the low irrigation efficiency treatments. This indicates the fast transformation of the PS ammonium into nitrate and the subsequent leaching of the transformed nitrate. Drainage NO(3)-N concentration and load increased linearly by 0.69 mg NO(3)-N L(-1) and 4.6 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1), respectively, for each 10 kg N ha(-1) applied over the minimum of 275 kg N ha(-1). An increase in irrigation efficiency did not induce a significant increase of leachate concentration and the amount of nitrate leached decreased about 65%. Application of low PS doses before sowing complemented with sidedressing N application and a good irrigation management are the key factors to reduce nitrate contamination of water courses. PMID:15537952

Daudén, A; Quílez, D; Vera, M V

2004-01-01

17

Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and ?-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and ?-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment, whereas, black and soluble C was decreased with PS addition. There may have been a transient positive effect of the RPS treatments on the soil biochemical parameters. However, the effect could not be detected because of less labile C content during the experiment. The beneficial effects of the PS additions were less pronounced in the 0-30 cm. soil layer. In this monoculture barley production system and under these Mediterranean climate conditions, applications of TPS should be avoided, so they were associated with a decline in microbial counts and a leveling of almost all the enzymatic activities and microbial biomass C. Keywords: Pig slurry, Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C, ?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzyme activities.

Halil Yanarda?, Ibrahim

2013-04-01

18

Response of maize yield, nitrate leaching, and soil nitrogen to pig slurry combined with mineral nitrogen.  

PubMed

The application of pig (Sus scrofa) slurry (PS) is a common fertilization practice that may affect nitrate concentrations and loads in drainage and receiving water bodies. To protect water resources, many agricultural areas are being designated as vulnerable to nitrate contamination, and there is a need for scientific data aiming at reducing nitrate exports from these vulnerable zones by optimizing N fertilization strategies. The objective of this work, conducted in drainage lysimeters in a 4-yr monoculture maize (Zea mays L.) crop, is to assess the effects of four fertilization strategies combining PS (30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha(-1)) and mineral N on yield, changes in soil mineral N, and concentration and mass of nitrate in drainage waters. Grain yield was not affected by treatments in the four experimental years, nor was the soil mineral N at the end of the experiment. Effects of fertilization strategies on nitrate concentration and mass in drainage waters were detected only after 3 yr of repeated PS applications. The mass of nitrate leached over the 4 yr was positively related to the total amount of N applied, either organic or mineral. In year 2003, precipitation in spring reduced N availability for the crop in treatments with rates > or = 60 t PS ha(-1). The N-budget revealed that the transport pathways for 25% of N inputs to the system are unknown. The presowing application of pig slurry at 30 t ha(-1) complemented with mineral N at side-dressing, was the most efficient from an environmental standpoint (4-yr average of 145 kg grain yield kg(-1) N leached). PMID:20176841

Yagüe, María R; Quílez, Dolores

2010-01-01

19

Phosphorus leaching from loamy sand and clay loam topsoils after application of pig slurry.  

PubMed

Appropriate management of animal waste is essential for guaranteeing good water quality. A laboratory leaching study with intact soil columns was performed to investigate the risk of phosphorus (P) leaching from a clay loam and a loamy sand. The columns (0.2 m deep) were irrigated before and after application of pig slurry on the surface or after incorporation, or application of mineral P, each at a rate of 30 kg P ha(-1). The two soils had different initial P contents (i.e. the ammonium lactate-extractable P was 65 and 142 mg kg(-1) for the clay loam and loamy sand, respectively), but had similar P sorption characteristics (P sorption index 3.0) and degree of P saturation (17-21%). Concentrations of dissolved reactive P (DRP) and total P (TP) before P application were significantly higher in leachate from the loamy sand (TP 0.21 mg L(-1)) than from the clay loam (TP 0.13 mg L(-1)), but only increased significantly after P application to the clay loam. The highest concentrations were found when slurry was surface-applied (DRP 1.77 mg L(-1)), while incorporation decreased the DRP concentration by 64% in the clay loam. Thus moderate slurry application to a sandy soil with low P saturation did not pose a major risk of P leaching. However, application of P increased the risk of P leaching from the clay loam, irrespective of application method and despite low P saturation. The results show the importance of considering soil texture and structure in addition to soil chemical characteristics in risk assessments of P leaching. Structured soils such as the clay loam used in this study are high risk soils and application of P to bare soil during wet periods, e.g. in autumn or spring, should be followed by incorporation or avoided completely. PMID:23487521

Liu, Jian; Aronsson, Helena; Bergström, Lars; Sharpley, Andrew

2012-12-01

20

Dietary effects on the composition of pig slurry and on the plant utilization of pig slurry nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The composition of animal manure is influenced by the diet fed. Efforts are made to decrease nitrogen emission from pig production by optimizing diet composition. This normally results in a lower pro- portion of N excreted in urine relative to faeces, and may also influence the turnover and utilization of manure N after field application. The effects of pig

J. A. F ERNANDEZ

21

On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.  

PubMed

Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC <1.9 dS m(-1) for dilution. This method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use. PMID:22565270

Yagüe, M R; Quílez, D

2012-01-01

22

Slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

2014-11-01

23

Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry: effects of dietary methionine and benzoic acid.  

PubMed

Supplementation of benzoic acid to pig diets reduces the pH of urine and may thereby affect emissions of ammonia and other gases from slurry, including sulfur-containing compounds that are expected to play a role in odor emission. Over a period of 112 d, we investigated hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as well as ammonia and methane emissions from stored pig slurry. The slurry was derived from a feeding experiment with four pig diets in a factorial design with 2% (w/w) benzoic acid and 1% (w/w) methionine supplementation as treatments. Benzoic acid reduced slurry pH by 1 to 1.5 units and ammonia emissions by 60 to 70% for up to 2 mo of storage, and a considerable, but transitory reduction of methane emissions was also observed after 4 to 5 wk. All five volatile sulfur (S) compounds were identified in gas emitted from the slurry of the control treatment, which came from pigs fed according to Danish recommendations for amino acids and minerals. The emission patterns of volatile S compounds suggested an intense cycling between pools of organic S in the slurries, with urinary sulfate as the main source. Diet supplementation with methionine significantly increased all S emissions. Diet supplementation with benzoic acid reduced emissions of H(2)S and DMTS compared with the control slurry and moderately increased the concentrations of MT. Sulfur gas emissions were influenced by a strong interaction between methionine and benzoic acid treatments, which caused a significant increase in emissions of especially MT, but also of DMDS. In conclusion, addition of 2% benzoic acid to pig diets effectively reduced ammonia volatilization, but interactions with dietary S may increase odor problems. PMID:20400605

Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Nørgaard, Jan V; Poulsen, Hanne D; Jensen, Bent Borg; Petersen, Søren O

2010-01-01

24

Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of organic matter during the anaerobic digestion and successive composting of pig slurry.  

PubMed

In this work, anaerobic digestion of pig slurry and successive composting of the digestate after centrifugation were studied by means of chemical analysis, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy as excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Chemical analysis highlighted the organic matter transformation occurring during the processes. A decrease of volatile solids and total organic carbon were observed in the digestate with respect to the fresh pig slurry as a consequence of the consumption of sugars, proteins, amino acids and fatty acids used by microorganisms as a C source. Water Extractable Organic Matter (WEOM) was obtained for all samples and fractionated into a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic fraction. The highest WEOM value was found in the pig slurry indicating a high content of labile organic C. The digestate centrifuged and the digestate composted showed lower hydrophilic and higher hydrophobic contents because of the decrease of labile C. Total phenolic content was lower in the digestate with respect to fresh pig slurry sample (36.7%) as a consequence of phenolic compounds degradation. The strong decrease of total reducing sugars in the digestate (76.6%) as compared to pig slurry confirmed that anaerobic process proceed mainly through consumption of sugars which represent a readily available energy source for microbial activity. FTIR spectra of pig slurry showed bands indicative of proteins and carbohydrates. A drop of aliphatic structures and a decrease of polysaccharides was observed after the anaerobic process along with the increase of the peak in the aromatic region. The composted substrate showed an increase of aromatic and a relative decrease of polysaccharides. EEM spectra provided tryptophan:fulvic-like fluorescence ratios which increased from fresh substrate to digestate because of the OM decompostion. Composted substrate presented the lowest ratio due to the humification process. PMID:24411986

Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Malerba, Anna D; Pezzolla, Daniela; Gigliotti, Giovanni

2014-03-01

25

Deodorization of pig slurry and characterization of bacterial diversity using 16S rDNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

The concentration of major odor-causing compounds including phenols, indoles, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in response to the addition of powdered horse radish (PHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was compared with control non-treated slurry (CNS) samples. A total of 97,465 rDNAs sequence reads were generated from three different samples (CNS, n = 2; PHR, n = 3; SMC, n = 3) using bar-coded pyrosequencing. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was lower in the PHR slurry compared with the other samples. A total of 11 phyla were observed in the slurry samples, while the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the slurry microbiome predominantly comprised members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla. The rarefaction analysis showed the bacterial species richness varied among the treated samples. Overall, at the OTU level, 2,558 individual genera were classified, 276 genera were found among the three samples, and 1,832 additional genera were identified in the individual samples. A principal component analysis revealed the differences in microbial communities among the CNS, PHR, and SMC pig slurries. Correlation of the bacterial community structure with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) predicted pathways showed that the treatments altered the metabolic capabilities of the slurry microbiota. Overall, these results demonstrated that the PHR and S MC treatments significantly reduced the malodor compounds in pig slurry (P < 0.05). PMID:25359269

Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Raveendar, Sebastian; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Ji-Hun; Choi, Jung-Woo; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Dong-Yoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Cho, Sung-Back; Lee, Kyung-Tai

2014-11-01

26

Long-term Effect of Pig Slurry Application on Soil Carbon Storage, Quality and Yield Sustainability in Murcia Region, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability of agriculture is now a major global concern, especially since the 1980s. Soil organic matter is very important in the proper functions of the soil, which is also a good indicator of soil quality. This is due to its influence on many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that control the capacity of a soil to perform properly. Understanding of nutrient supply through organic matter mineralization in agricultural systems is essential for maintaining long-term quality and productivity. The composition of pig manure will have a profound impact on soil properties, quality and crop yield when used in agriculture. We studied the effects of pig slurry (PS) application as an organic fertilizer, trying to determine the optimum amount that can be added to the soil, and the effect on soil properties, quality, and productivity. We applied 3 different doses on silty loam soils: Single (D1), Double (D2), Triple (D3) and unfertilized plots (C) served as controls. Samples were collected at two different levels, surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (30-60 cm). D1 application dose, which is the agronomic rate of N-requirement (170 kg N/ha/yr) (European Directive 91/676/CEE), is very appropriate in term of sustainable agriculture and also can improve physical, chemical and biological soil properties. Therefore that the long-term use of PS with low dose may necessarily enhance soil quality in the long term. There are many factors to be considered when attempting to assess the overall net impact of a management practice on productivity. Additions of pig manure to soils at agronomic rates (170 kg N ha-1 yr-1) to match crop nutrient requirements are expected to have a positive impact on soil productivity. Therefore, the benefits from the use of application depend on the management of PS, carbon and environmental quality. However, PS have high micronutrient contents, and for this reason the application of high doses can pollute soils and damage human, animal and plant health, which is not suitable in term of sustainable agriculture. Keywords: Management, Pig slurry, Productivity, Quality, Soil.

Büyükk?l?ç Yanarda?, Asuman

2013-04-01

27

Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.  

PubMed

The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms. PMID:25089896

Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

2014-10-01

28

Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). PMID:25458767

Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

2015-01-01

29

Modelling of a slurry bubble column reactor applied to the hydroconversion of heavy oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work uses a computational fluid dynamics approach for the simulation of a slurry bubble column reactor, applied in the hydroconversion of heavy oils under severe temperature and pressure operating conditions. Simulations are carried out in two steps: first, the fluid dynamics is determined by the calculation of the pressure drop in the bed and the radial distribution of gas

Montserrat Motas Carbonell; Reginaldo Guirardello

1997-01-01

30

Carbon mineralization, microbial activity and metal dynamics in tailing ponds amended with pig slurry and marble waste.  

PubMed

A field experiment was set up in Cartagena-La Unión Mining District, SE Spain, aimed at evaluating the short-term effects of pig slurry (PS) amendment alone and together with marble waste (MW) on organic matter mineralization, microbial activity and stabilization of heavy metals in two tailing ponds. These structures pose environmental risk owing to high metals contents, low organic matter and nutrients, and null vegetation. Carbon mineralization, exchangeable metals and microbiological properties were monitored during 67 d. The application of amendments led to a rapid decrease of exchangeable metals concentrations, except for Cu, with decreases up to 98%, 75% and 97% for Cd, Pb and Zn, respectively. The combined addition of MW+PS was the treatment with greater reduction in metals concentrations. The addition of PS caused a significant increase in respiration rates, although in MW+PS plots respiration was lower than in PS plots. The mineralized C from the pig slurry was low, approximately 25-30% and 4-12% for PS and MW+PS treatments, respectively. Soluble carbon (Csol), microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase activities increased after the application of the organic amendment. However, after 3d these parameters started a decreasing trend reaching similar values than control from approximately day 25 for Csol and MBC. The PS treatment promoted highest values in enzyme activities, which remained high upon time. Arylesterase activity increased in the MW+PS treatment. Thus, the remediation techniques used improved soil microbiological status and reduced metal availability. The combined application of PS+MW reduced the degradability of the organic compounds. PMID:23260248

Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Carmona, Dora M; Acosta, Jose A; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; de Vreng, Arno

2013-03-01

31

Degradation of Sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus Strain SDZm4, Isolated from Lysimeters Previously Manured with Slurry from Sulfadiazine-Medicated Pigs  

PubMed Central

Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with 14C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no 14CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as 14CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified 14C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms. PMID:23396336

Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Björn; Groeneweg, Joost

2013-01-01

32

Changes in microbial biomass and microbial activity of pig slurry after the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg, 1867)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we studied the effects of gut transit through the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, on the physicochemical, biochemical, and microbial characteristics of pig slurry, by analyzing fresh casts. The reduction\\u000a in the dissolved organic C contents in casts we recorded suggests that during digestion, earthworms assimilated labile organic\\u000a C preferentially, which is a limiting growth factor for them. Furthermore, both microbial

Manuel Aira; Fernando Monroy; Jorge Domínguez

2006-01-01

33

Inactivation of Murine Norovirus 1 and Bacteroides fragilis Phage B40-8 by Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Pig Slurry ?  

PubMed Central

Mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (52°C) anaerobic digestion of pig slurry induced at least a 4-log decrease in murine norovirus 1, used as a surrogate virus for porcine norovirus, after 13 and 7 days, respectively. Bacteroides fragilis phage B40-8, employed as a universal viral model, was lowered by 2.5 log after 7 days. The viral titer declined due to temperature and matrix effects. PMID:20080994

Baert, Leen; De Gusseme, Bart; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy; Debevere, Johan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2010-01-01

34

Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.  

PubMed

Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils. PMID:23141380

Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Sim?nek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

2012-12-01

35

Characteristics and composition of fouling caused by pig slurry in a tubular heat exchanger--recommended cleaning systems.  

PubMed

The structure and composition of the fouling deposits caused by pig slurry heated in a tubular heat exchanger were characterized to understand their formation and thus be able to minimize fouling and define effective routine cleaning methods. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. Two types of fouling were identified: organic/mineral and biofilm. The first only formed at temperatures above 50 °C, often during the heating phase, and was the main problem encountered in treatments at 80 °C. Organic/mineral deposits formed a thin compact sub-layer and a thick porous top layer composed of 67-76% minerals, 9-15% proteins, 8-20% carbohydrates and 0-5% fats. Biofilms formed at temperatures between 25 °C and 70 °C in both the cooling and heating sections of the exchanger. This type of fouling predominated at temperatures below 55 °C. The biofilm covered a thin mineral base layer. Strongly acidic or alkaline washing cycle are recommended to clean Type I deposits, while in-line gas-rumbling is recommended for Type II fouling. PMID:23334456

Cunault, C; Coquinot, Y; Burton, C H; Picard, S; Pourcher, A M

2013-03-15

36

Impact of raw pig slurry and pig farming practices on physicochemical parameters and on atmospheric N2O and CH 4 emissions of tropical soils, Uvéa Island (South Pacific).  

PubMed

Emissions of CH4 and N2O related to private pig farming under a tropical climate in Uvéa Island were studied in this paper. Physicochemical soil parameters such as nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, Kjeldahl nitrogen, total organic carbon, pH and moisture were measured. Gaseous soil emissions as well as physicochemical parameters were compared in two private pig farming strategies encountered on this island on two different soils (calcareous and ferralitic) in order to determine the best pig farming management: in small concrete pens or in large land pens. Ammonium levels were higher in control areas while nitrate and nitrite levels were higher in soils with pig slurry inputs, indicating that nitrification was the predominant process related to N2O emissions. Nitrate contents in soils near concrete pens were important (? 55 ?g N/g) and can thus be a threat for the groundwater. For both pig farming strategies, N2O and CH4 fluxes can reach high levels up to 1 mg N/m(2)/h and 1 mg C/m(2)/h, respectively. CH4 emissions near concrete pens were very high (? 10.4 mg C/m(2)/h). Former land pens converted into agricultural land recover low N2O emission rates (? 0.03 mg N/m(2)/h), and methane uptake dominates. N2O emissions were related to nitrate content whereas CH4 emissions were found to be moisture dependent. As a result relating to the physicochemical parameters as well as to the gaseous emissions, we demonstrate that pig farming in large land pens is the best strategy for sustainable family pig breeding in Uvéa Islands and therefore in similar small tropical islands. PMID:24862486

Roth, E; Gunkel-Grillon, P; Joly, L; Thomas, X; Decarpenterie, T; Mappe-Fogaing, I; Laporte-Magoni, C; Dumelié, N; Durry, G

2014-09-01

37

Strength properties of cement slurries with lightweights applied in oil and gas wells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The article is focused on the cement stone strength properties resulted from lightweight cement slurries that meet GOST-1581-96 (state Standards) requirements. Exfoliated vermiculite, hollow aluminosilicate microspheres (HAMs), diatomite and perlite were used as lightweighting additives.

Bubnov, A. S.; Boyko, I. A.; Khorev, V. S.

2015-02-01

38

Fate of phosphorus applied in slurry and mineral fertilizer: accumulation in soil and release into surface runoff water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphorus (P) accumulation on the soil surface and its effect on the concentration of dissolved orthophosphate P (PO4-P) in surface runoff water were studied after three years of surface application of slurry and mineral fertilizer to grass ley on a sandy soil, poor in P. The total amount of P applied was 107–143 kg ha-1>, of which 72–119 kg ha-1>

E. Turtola; M. Yli-Halla

1999-01-01

39

Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.  

PubMed

In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens. PMID:16971105

Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

2007-01-01

40

Behavioral recovery induced by applied electric fields after spinal cord hemisection in guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Applied electric fields were used to promote axonal regeneration in spinal cords of adult guinea pigs. A propriospinal intersegmental reflex (the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex) was used to test lateral tract function after hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord. An electrical field (200 microvolts per millimeter, cathode rostral) applied across the lesion led to functional recovery of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex in 25 percent of experimental animals, whereas the functional deficit remained in control animals, which were implanted with inactive stimulators.

Borgens, R.B.; Blight, A.R.; McGinnis, M.E.

1987-10-16

41

Slurry erosion  

SciTech Connect

This book focuses on the abrasion and corrosion effects of different slurries - primarily coal - on pipelines and pumping equipment. They review wear and corrosion resistant materials and detail a wide variety of tests to measure slurry effects.

Schmidt, M.

1987-01-01

42

Lapping slurry  

DOEpatents

Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina workpieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Upchurch, Victor S. (Powell, TN); Leitten, Michael E. (Frederick, MD)

1999-01-01

43

Slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

Wasp, E.J.

1983-11-01

44

Soil N and P availability for field applied slurry from swine fed traditional and low phytate corn diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Swine (Sus scrofa) slurry contains nutrients essential for crop production but usually contains more P relative to N than is required by most crops. Land application at rates to meet the crop N needs results in accumulation of excess P creating the potential for negative environmental impacts. Diet ...

45

Application of PTR-MS for Measuring Odorant Emissions from Soil Application of Manure Slurry  

PubMed Central

Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed. PMID:25585103

Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

2015-01-01

46

Application of PTR-MS for measuring odorant emissions from soil application of manure slurry.  

PubMed

Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed. PMID:25585103

Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

2015-01-01

47

The fluid dynamics of ice slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of research work of fluid dynamics of fine-crystalline ice slurry is presented. Different rheological models which are applied are presented. Numerous models for the friction factor, obtained by empirical and semi-empirical approximation, are discussed. An overview of existing pressure drop experiments is given and problematic issues of respective measurements and experimental results are outlined. Because ice slurry is

Andrej Kitanovski; Didier Vuarnoz; Derrick Ata-Caesar; Peter W. Egolf; Torben M. Hansen; Christian Doetsch

2005-01-01

48

Comparison of raw dairy manure slurry and anaerobically digested slurry as N sources for grass forage production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our study was conducted to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste) applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR), and soil nitrate...

49

Pressure drop of flowing ice slurries in industrial heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted to determine the characteristics of ice flows through industrial heat exchangers (a Tetra Plex® C6-SR and a Tetra Spiraflo® MTC70\\/W-3). This type of equipment presents many problems with respect to cleaning and is therefore of particular interest when considering a pigging system using ice slurry. Moderately thick ice slurries (in the range 15–60% solids) were successfully pumped

G. S. F. Shire; G. L. Quarini; T. S. Evans

2009-01-01

50

Slurry-Mixing Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paddles and water jets create uniform, continuous flow. Slurry-mixing chamber on hydrojet-jaw mining machine ensures uniform, continuously flowing slurry of coal particles in water. By mixing coal and water at high speed and keeping resulting slurry in constant motion, chamber prevents slurry from becoming dry semisolid that blocks flow. Also prevents coal particles from settling and caking in bends, corners, and other locations where flow changes in direction or speed.

Lewis, E. V.

1985-01-01

51

Elemental analysis of slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Direct analysis of wet slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is challenging due to problems of sedimentation, splashing, and surface turbulence. Also, water can quench the laser plasma and suppress the LIBS signal, resulting in poor sensitivity. The effect of water on LIBS spectra from slurries was investigated. As the water content decreased, the LIBS signal was enhanced and the standard deviation was reduced. To improve LIBS slurry analysis, dried slurry samples prepared by applying slurry on PVC coated slides were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate calibration was performed on the LIBS spectra of the dried slurry samples for elemental analysis of Mg, Si, and Fe. Calibration results show that the dried slurry samples give a good correlation between spectral intensity and elemental concentration.

Eseller, Kemal E.; Tripathi, Markandey M.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

2010-05-01

52

Ultrasound Analysis of Slurries  

DOEpatents

An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N, gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

Soong, Yee and Blackwell, Arthur G.

2005-11-01

53

Ultrasound Analysis Of Slurries  

DOEpatents

An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N.sub.2 gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Blackwell, Arthur G. (Duquesne, PA)

2005-11-01

54

Mn2O3 Slurry Achieving Reduction of Slurry Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fumed silica is widely used for SiO2 chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In semiconductor processes, only fresh slurry is used, the used slurry being disposed of. We have demonstrated that Mn2O3 abrasive slurry polishes dielectric SiO2 film, giving 4 times the removal rate of conventional fumed silica slurry. The higher removal rate reduces the total amount of slurry used, consequently reducing the amount of used slurry waste. The removal rate of Mn2O3 slurry remains constant for solid concentrations between l and 10 wt %, and stays constant without pad conditioning. These characteristics are very useful for slurry reuse. Remanufacture of Mn2O3 slurry from used slurry has been demonstrated, and the removal rates of the remanufactured and fresh slurries are the same. Reuse and remanufacturing drastically reduce the amount of waste.

Kishii, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Ko; Hanawa, Kenzo; Watanabe, Satoru; Arimoto, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro K.

2012-04-01

55

Rheology Modifiers Applied to Kaolin-Bentonite Slurries for SRNL WTP Pulse Jets Tank Pilot Work in Support of RPP at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to find and characterize the impact of rheological modifiers to a clay (Kaolin-Bentonite) slurry having 23.1 total wt percent solids, 1.165 g/ml, and Bingham Plastic yield stress of 13 Pa and plastic viscosity of 24 mPa-sec. The primary objective was to find rheological modifiers when blended with this clay slurry that would provide a vane yield stress of 300 Pa when the slurry was undisturbed for 24 hours. A secondary objective was to find a modifier that after shearing would produce a Bingham Plastic yield stress of 30 Pa and plastic viscosity of 30 mPa-sec. Two parallel paths were chosen with one examining a variety of organic/inorganic modifiers and another using just the inorganic modifier Laponite (R). The addition of organic modifiers hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and hydroxypropylcellulose at a target 0.50 wt percent dramatically increased the vane yield stress over the range 311 - 724 Pa, and also increased the Bingham plastic yield stress and plastic viscosities over the range 33-112 Pa and 27-166 mPa-sec, respectively. The organic modifiers also showed elastic behavior, yielding a very unpredictable up flow curve. The 0.50 wt percent addition of inorganic modifiers magnesium aluminum silicate and hydrate magnesium aluminum silicate only increased the vane yield stress to 36-46 Pa and had little impact on the Bingham Plastic parameters. A range of an inorganic (2-4 wt percent magnesium aluminum silicate) and combination of a range of an inorganic (2-3 wt percent magnesium aluminum silicate) and organic (0.03-0.05 wt percent sodium carboxymethylcellulose) modifiers were then tested. These results showed that the target vane yield stress could be obtained but the Bingham Plastic yield stress and plastic viscosity were 3 times too high. Reducing the organic modifier weight percent by a few hundredths, the Bingham Plastic yield stress could be obtained, but then the vane yield stress would be too low. The addition of Laponite (R) (synthetic lithium aluminum silicate) increased the vane yield stress of the clay slurry to values as high as 1500 Pa. However, the flow curve behavior for the laponite samples was not predictable and the secondary objective was dropped based on customer needs and time constraints. Ultimately a 3-wt percent addition of Laponite (R) was chosen to produce a 600 Pa vane yield stress mixture.

WILLIAM, DANIEL

2005-02-09

56

ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS  

PubMed Central

The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

2011-01-01

57

CHARACTERIZING PULSATING MIXING OF SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the physical properties for defining the operation of a pulse jet mixing system. Pulse jet mixing operates with no moving parts located in the vessel to be mixed. Pulse tubes submerged in the vessel provide a pulsating flow due to a controlled combination of applied pressure to expel the fluid from the pulse tube nozzle followed by suction to refill the pulse tube through the same nozzle. For mixing slurries nondimensional parameters to define mixing operation include slurry properties, geometric properties and operational parameters. Primary parameters include jet Reynolds number and Froude number; alternate parameters may include particle Galileo number, particle Reynolds number, settling velocity ratio, and hindered settling velocity ratio. Rating metrics for system performance include just suspended velocity, concentration distribution as a function of elevation, and blend time.

Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

2007-12-01

58

CLONING: Pigs Is Pigs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation.

Randall S. Prather (University of Missouri-Columbia; Department of Animal Sciences)

2000-09-15

59

Anaerobic digestion of acidified slurry fractions derived from different solid-liquid separation methods.  

PubMed

Batch assays investigating the ultimate methane yields (B(0)) of acidified slurry fractions produced with different solid-liquid slurry separation techniques were done. The result showed that the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was inhibited when raw and liquid fractions of sow, pig and dairy cow acidified slurry are digested, but AD treating solid fractions (SF) acidified slurry showed no sulphide inhibition. The B(0) of SF acidified sow slurry increased significantly with increasing screen size in the screw press. No significant effect of acidification processes on B(0) of SF dairy cow slurry (DCS) was observed. The ultimate methane yields of SF acidified DCS and SF non acidified DCS were 278±13 and 289±1LkgVS(-1), while in term of fresh weigh substrate were 59±2.8 and 59±0.3Lkgsubstrate(-1), respectively. PMID:23313767

Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Ward, Alastair James; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

2013-02-01

60

The influence of additives on rheological properties of limestone slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limestone slurry appears in the lime production process as the result of rinsing the processed material. It consists of particles with diameter smaller than 2 mm and the water that is a carrier of solid fraction. Slurry is directed to the settling tank, where the solid phase sediments and the excess water through the transfer system is recovered for re-circulation. Collected at the bottom of the tank sludge is deposited in a landfill located on the premises. Rheological properties of limestone slurry hinder its further free transport in the pipeline due to generated flow resistance. To improve this state of affairs, chemical treatment of drilling fluid, could be applied, of which the main task is to give the slurry properties suitable for the conditions encountered in hydrotransport. This treatment consists of applying chemical additives to slurry in sufficient quantity. Such additives are called as deflocculants or thinners or dispersants, and are chemical compounds which added to aqueous solution are intended to push away suspended particles from each other. The paper presents the results of research allowing reduction of shear stress in limestone slurry. Results demonstrate rheological properties of limestone slurry with and without the addition of modified substances which causes decrease of slurry viscosity, and as a consequence slurry shear stress for adopted shear rate. Achieving the desired effects increases the degree of dispersion of the solid phase suspended in the carrier liquid and improving its ability to smooth flow with decreased friction.

Jaworska, B.; Bartosik, A.

2014-08-01

61

The sedimentation-dispersion model for slurry bubble columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry bubble columns have been widely used in petrochemical and coal conversion industries, and increasingly applied in fermentation and wastewater treatment fields. A slurry bubble column operated under the expanded bed regime is characterized by an axial solids concentration distribution in the column. Quantitative description of this distribution has been based mainly on the sedimentation-dispersion (S-D) model. In this paper,

Rong-Her Jean; Wen-Tzung Tang; Liang-Shih Fan

1989-01-01

62

Slurry bubble column hydrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slurry bubble column reactors are presently used for a wide range of reactions in both chemical and biochemical industry. The successful design and scale up of slurry bubble column reactors require a complete understanding of multiphase fluid dynamics, i.e. phase mixing, heat and mass transport characteristics. The primary objective of this thesis is to improve presently limited understanding of the gas-liquid-solid slurry bubble column hydrodynamics. The effect of superficial gas velocity (8 to 45 cm/s), pressure (0.1 to 1.0 MPa) and solids loading (20 and 35 wt.%) on the time-averaged solids velocity and turbulent parameter profiles has been studied using Computer Automated Radioactive Particle Tracking (CARPT). To accomplish this, CARPT technique has been significantly improved for the measurements in highly attenuating systems, such as high pressure, high solids loading stainless steel slurry bubble column. At a similar set of operational conditions time-averaged gas and solids holdup profiles have been evaluated using the developed Computed Tomography (CT)/Overall gas holdup procedure. This procedure is based on the combination of the CT scans and the overall gas holdup measurements. The procedure assumes constant solids loading in the radial direction and axially invariant cross-sectionally averaged gas holdup. The obtained experimental holdup, velocity and turbulent parameters data are correlated and compared with the existing low superficial gas velocities and atmospheric pressure CARPT/CT gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid slurry data. The obtained solids axial velocity radial profiles are compared with the predictions of the one dimensional (1-D) liquid/slurry recirculation phenomenological model. The obtained solids loading axial profiles are compared with the predictions of the Sedimentation and Dispersion Model (SDM). The overall gas holdup values, gas holdup radial profiles, solids loading axial profiles, solids axial velocity radial profiles and solids shear stress radial profiles are correlated using several widely used empirical correlations that are modified and improved to better represent present data.

Rados, Novica

63

Slurry reactor design studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

1990-06-01

64

Protective effect of topically applied polypeptide from Chlamys farreri against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in guinea pig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF), a topical polypeptide isolated from Chlamys farreri, was used in this experiment aimed to investigate the photoprotective effect of PCF against chronic skin damage induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The chronic ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig model was established, and visible changes in the skin including wrinkling, sagging and erythema were observed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in the dorsal skin were determined using biochemical methods. The results showed: (1) PCF (5 % and 20%) could greatly protect the dorsal skin of guinea pig against wrinkling, sagging and erythema induced by UV radiation in a concentration-dependent manner. (2) PCF could reduce MDA formation in the dorsal skin caused by UV irradiation, while increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-px. (3) The differences among the PCF groups and UV model group were significant ( P<0.05, P<0.01). These results indicated that topical application, of PCF provided broad solar UV spectrum photoprotection; and that the antioxidant property of PCF might play a role in photoprotection.

Chi, Mingliang; Cao, Pengli; Yu, Guoying; Zhu, Li; Wang, Yuejun; Wang, Chunbo

2003-12-01

65

Flow Injector Would Keep Slurry From Settling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ring nozzle helps to prevent choking of coal-slurry pipelines. Intended originally for use in coal mines, nozzle concept generally applicable to short-haul slurry pipelines where high-pressure water (or other slurry fluid) available. Extra water injected into flow near wall of slurry pipe to keep slurry particles from setting and blocking pipe.

Lewis, E. V.

1986-01-01

66

MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF FISCHER TROPSCH SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three-phase slurry bubble column reactors are used in a wide variety of biological and chemical operations. This work is a comprehensive review of the mathematical modeling of such reactors for the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T)synthesis as applied to indirect coal liquefaction. The salient features of the F-T slurry bubble column reactors are described, and the fundamental mass transfer and kinetic rate processes

S. C. SAXENA; M. ROSEN; D. N. SMITH; J. A. RUETHER

1986-01-01

67

Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

68

A single topical dose of erythropoietin applied on a collagen carrier enhances calvarial bone healing in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The osteogenic potency of erythropoietin (EPO) has been documented. However, its efficacy in a large-animal model has not yet been investigated; nor has a clinically safe dosage. The purpose of this study was to overcome such limitations of previous studies and thereby pave the way for possible clinical application. Our hypothesis was that EPO increases calvarial bone healing compared to a saline control in the same subject. Methods We used a porcine calvarial defect model. In each of 18 pigs, 6 cylindrical defects (diameter: 1 cm; height: 1 cm) were drilled, allowing 3 pairwise comparisons. Treatment consisted of either 900 IU/mL EPO or an equal volume of saline in combination with either autograft, a collagen carrier, or a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. After an observation time of 5 weeks, the primary outcome (bone volume fraction (BV/TV)) was assessed with high-resolution quantitative computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were histomorphometry and blood samples. Results The median BV/TV ratio of the EPO-treated collagen group was 1.06 (CI: 1.02–1.11) relative to the saline-treated collagen group. Histomorphometry showed a similar median effect size, but it did not reach statistical significance. Autograft treatment had excellent healing potential and was able to completely regenerate the bone defect independently of EPO treatment. Bony ingrowth into the PCL scaffold was sparse, both with and without EPO. Neither a substantial systemic effect nor adverse events were observed. The number of blood vessels was similar in EPO-treated defects and saline-treated defects. Interpretation Topical administration of EPO on a collagen carrier moderately increased bone healing. The dosing regime was safe, and could have possible application in the clinical setting. However, in order to increase the clinical relevance, a more potent but still clinically safe dose should be investigated. PMID:24564750

2014-01-01

69

Subterranean drilling and slurry mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A description is given of subterranean slurry mining with one or more mining nozzles which, during mining, directs a high pressure jet of liquid into a granular ore matrix to reduce the ore to a slurry which is thereafter pumped to the surface by an eductor pump including a high pressure eductor nozzle. The drilling and mining apparatus includes several

Bunnelle

1978-01-01

70

INEZ, KENTUCKY COAL SLURRY SPILL  

EPA Science Inventory

On October 11th, 2000, a breach of a coal slurry impoundment released approximately 210 million gallons of coal slurry ( a mixture of fine coal particles, silt, clay, sand and water) into the Big Andy Branch, Wolf Creek, and Coldwater Fork. Approximately 75 river miles were affec...

71

Aqueous coal slurry composition  

SciTech Connect

An aqueous coal slurry composition is provided which comprises: (a) at least one compound selected from (a-1) a polyether polyol compound prepared by adding ethylene oxide and/or propylene oxide to an active hydrogen-containing compound, (a-2) a compound prepared by esterifying compound (a-1), (a-3) a compound prepared by phosphating, sulfating or carboxyalkylating compound (a-1) or a salt thereof, (a-4) a compound prepared by crosslinking compound (a-1) with a crosslinking agent, (a-5) a compound prepared by reacting compound (a-1) with epihalohydrin and (a-6) an isocyanate-erminated compound prepared by reacting compound (a-1) with a polyvalent isocyanate, (b) at least one surface active agent selected from (b-1) a sulfonation product of naphthalene or its salt or an aliphatic aldehyde addition condensate thereof, (b-2) an aliphatic aldehyde condensate of a sulfonic acid group-containing aminotriazine or its salt and (b-3) a sulfonation product of creosote oil or its salt or an aliphatic aldehyde addition condensate thereof, (c) water and (d) a coal powder. The aqueous coal slurry has good fluidity and static stability.

Yamamura, M.; Fujii, N.; Kiyonaga, Y.; Watanabe, Sh.

1984-09-11

72

A Novel Type of Environmentally Friendly Slurry Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of commercial slurries are available to aluminize the surfaces of nickel-based superalloys; however, they have three main disadvantages. First, the phosphates and chromates or halides used as binders or to activate the diffusion species are environmentally harmful and toxic; second, the slurry coatings can only produce high-aluminum-activity coatings which form precipitate-rich coatings that are detrimental to adherence. Finally, these coatings are limited to the incorporation of aluminum and silicon, whereas the co-deposition of other elements such as chromium or cobalt has not been achieved so far. In this work, the limitations of slurry coatings have been overcome by carefully designing the powder composition and controlling the process to produce co-deposition coatings with chromium, cobalt, or nickel by using nontoxic water-based slurries. This also opens an effective way to control Al activity and to produce low-activity aluminized coatings for the first time when using the slurry technique. These results expand the application range of slurry coatings so they can also be applied under ambient atmosphere, making it possible to fully coat aero engine pieces or large-scale industrial components, providing all properties that are usually only achieved by using more complex and expensive methods such as chemical vapor deposition. Furthermore, these new coatings offer unique advantages that can be very favorable especially as a repairing technique.

Montero, Xabier; Galetz, Mathias C.; Schütze, Michael

2015-01-01

73

Manifold Coal-Slurry Transport System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feeding several slurry pipes into main pipeline reduces congestion in coal mines. System based on manifold concept: feeder pipelines from each working entry joined to main pipeline that carries coal slurry out of panel and onto surface. Manifold concept makes coal-slurry haulage much simpler than existing slurry systems.

Liddle, S. G.; Estus, J. M.; Lavin, M. L.

1986-01-01

74

Development of ice slurry for cold storage of foods in wide temperature range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to popularize use of ice slurry, authors have been proposed application of ice slurry to cold storage of foods in place of an air conditioning. For use of the ice slurry in the wide temperature range a new harmless ice slurry to human being was developed by cooling a W/O emulsion made from tap water-edible oil mixture with small amounts of edible emulsifier and food additive. The edible emulsifier is essential to form W/O emulsion, and the food additive is used to dissolve in tap water. In this paper the optimal concentrations of emulsifiers were determined, and the fundamental characteristics such as viscosity, effective latent heat of fusion and usable temperature of ice slurry were clarified. Finally, it was concluded that new ice slurry could be fully applied to cold storage of foods in the wide temperature range because its lower limit usable temperature was about -18°C.

Matsumoto, Koji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Yoshito

75

Tribological Properties Of Coal Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes study of tribological properties of coal/methanol slurries with pin-on-disk tribometer. Coefficients of friction, rates of wear of steel pin, and morphological studies of worn surfaces conducted on pins and disks of AISI 440C HT stainless steel and M-50 tool steel, both used as bearing steels. Coal slurries considered as replacement fuels in terrestrial oil-burning facilities and possible fuels for future aircraft turbine engines. Rates of wear of metallic components through which slurries flow limit such practical applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

1988-01-01

76

NACA Research on Slurry Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors. Small ramjet vehicles fueled with magnesium slurry were flown successfully, but the test flights indicated that further improvement of combustors and fuel systems was needed.

Pinns, M L; Olson, W T; Barnett, H C; Breitwieser, R

1958-01-01

77

Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

2013-08-19

78

Streamline coal slurry letdown valve  

DOEpatents

A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

Platt, Robert J. (Dover, NJ); Shadbolt, Edward A. (Basking Ridge, NJ)

1983-01-01

79

Streamline coal slurry letdown valve  

DOEpatents

A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

1983-11-08

80

Medical ice slurry production device  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL); Oras, John (Des Plaines, IL); Son, HyunJin (Naperville, IL)

2008-06-24

81

Slurry bubble column dynamics  

SciTech Connect

A novel approach utilizing an electrical conductivity twin-probe technique is described for obtaining important gas-phase characteristics such as: bubble size, velocity ad holdup fraction. A 10 cm internal diameter by 310 cm height glass column is employed to investigate the bubble dynamics measured with this probe. The liquid phase is composed of a mixture of ethanol and water that may have substantial ''surface activity'' which results in a dynamic surface tension effect on the rate of bubble coalescence. Measurements of gas holdup, bubble size,and velocity indicate the influence of surface activity onthe gas phase characteristics. Possible implications of these results on the hydrodynamics of Fischer-Tropsch reactors are given. An experimental technique and subsequent analysis have been developed to determine the bubble size and velocity distributions in a slurry bubble column cold model. Dynamic surface tension effects have been observed for a two component liquid mixture. The maximum frothing ability of a ''surface-active'' species qualitatively agrees with a dynamic surface tension model. Increased gas holdup and interfacial area are observed with the addition of a ''surface-active'' component. In addition, increased gas holdup and interfacial area are observed with a sintered plate distributor compared to a perforated plate. The presence of solids reduces the gas holdup and increases the bubble size. 11 refs., 11 figs.

Smith, D.N.; Ruether, J.A.; Stiegel, G.J.

1983-01-01

82

Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system  

SciTech Connect

A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

1994-01-01

83

Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa.  

PubMed

Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy slurry was applied to 0.17-ha plots of alfalfa; applications were made to the second (HARV1) and third (HARV2) cuttings during June and July of 2012, respectively, at mean rates of 42,400 ± 5271 and 41,700 ± 2397 L/ha, respectively. Application strategies included (1) no slurry, (2) slurry applied directly to stubble immediately after the preceding harvest, (3) slurry applied after 1 wk of post-ensiled regrowth, or (4) slurry applied after 2 wk of regrowth. All harvested forage was packaged in large, rectangular bales that were ensiled as wrapped balage. Yields of DM harvested from HARV1 (2,477 kg/ha) and HARV2 (781 kg/ha) were not affected by slurry application treatment. By May 2013, all silages appeared to be well preserved, with no indication of undesirable odors characteristic of clostridial fermentations. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, which is known to negatively affect cheese production, was not detected in any forage on either a pre- or post-ensiled basis. On a pre-ensiled basis, counts for Clostridium cluster 1 were greater for slurry-applied plots than for those receiving no slurry, and this response was consistent for HARV1 (4.44 vs. 3.29 log10 genomic copies/g) and HARV2 (4.99 vs. 3.88 log10 genomic copies/g). Similar responses were observed on a post-ensiled basis; however, post-ensiled counts also were greater for HARV1 (5.51 vs. 5.17 log10 genomic copies/g) and HARV2 (5.84 vs. 5.28 log10 genomic copies/g) when slurry was applied to regrowth compared with stubble. For HARV2, counts also were greater following a 2-wk application delay compared with a 1-wk delay (6.23 vs. 5.45 log10 genomic copies/g). These results suggest that the risk of clostridial fermentations in alfalfa silages is greater following applications of slurry. Based on pre- and post-ensiled clostridial counts, applications of dairy slurry on stubble are preferred (and less risky) compared with delayed applications on growing alfalfa. PMID:25242431

Coblentz, W K; Muck, R E; Borchardt, M A; Spencer, S K; Jokela, W E; Bertram, M G; Coffey, K P

2014-11-01

84

Emission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from pig fattening farms to surrounding areas.  

PubMed

The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock such as pigs has been known for some time. However, to date there is little information about the transmission of these resistant bacteria between pig farms and their surroundings. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore this topic by investigating seven German pig fattening farms. Samples from outside (including ground surfaces, ambient air, slurry and digestate from biogas plants) and, in parallel, from inside the pig barns (including pig feces, dust, barn air, flies and mice feces) were examined for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli and selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. 14/17 (82.4%) slurry samples and three of four samples of digestate from biogas plants tested positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. In the vicinity of the pig barns these resistant bacteria were detected in 14/87 (16.1%) boot swabs taken from various ground surfaces and in 2/36 (6%) ambient air samples. Inside the pig barns, 6/63 (9.5%) barn air samples and a small proportion of flies and mice feces samples were ESBL/AmpC-positive. PFGE analysis proved fecal emission as well as a possible spread via flies, as identical ESBL-E. coli isolates were detected in slurry and on fertilized fields, as well as in flies and pooled feces from inside the barn and slurry. Contaminated slurry presented the major emission source for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the pig fattening farms, but a spread via the airborne route or via different vectors also seems possible. PMID:25465658

von Salviati, Christina; Laube, Henriette; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

2015-01-30

85

The sedimentation-dispersion model for slurry bubble columns  

SciTech Connect

Slurry bubble columns have been widely used in petrochemical and coal conversion industries, and increasingly applied in fermentation and wastewater treatment fields. A slurry bubble column operated under the expanded bed regime is characterized by an axial solids concentration distribution in the column. Quantitative description of this distribution has been based mainly on the sedimentation-dispersion (S-D) model. In this paper, the physical nature of the S-D model in the literature is discussed in light of a rigorous analysis of the axial solids concentration distribution based on a macroscopic balance of the solid phase. General validity of the model for various modes of operation of slurry bubble column systems is also discussed.

Jean, R.H.; Tang, W.T.; Fan, L.S. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1989-04-01

86

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

87

Characterization of Flow Behavior of Semi-Solid Slurries with Low Solid Fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semi-solid slurry casting is a metal-forming process that involves transforming liquid metal into slurry having a low solid fraction and then forming the slurry into solid parts. To successfully apply this slurry-forming process, it is necessary to fully understand the flow behavior of semi-solid slurries. This present work applied the rapid quenching method and the modified gravity fluidity casting to investigate the flow behavior, which involves characterizations of the initial solid fraction, fluidity, and microstructure of semi-solid slurries. Three commercial aluminum alloys were used in this study: 383 (Al-Si11Cu), 356 (Al-Si7MgFe), and 7075 (Al-Zn6MgCu) alloys. The results show that the initial solid fractions can be controlled by varying the rheocasting time. The rapid quenching mold can be used to determine the initial solid fractions. In this method, it is important to apply the correcting procedure to account for growth during quenching and to include all the solid phases. Results from the fluidity study of semi-solid slurries show that the fluidity decreases as the initial solid fraction increases. The decrease is relatively rapid near the low end of the initial solid fraction curves, but is quite slow near the high end of the curves. All the three alloys follow this trend. The results also demonstrate that the slurries that contain high solid fractions of up to 30 pct can still flow well. The microstructure characterization results show that the solid particles in the slurries flow uniformly in the channel. A uniform and fine microstructure with limited phase segregation is observed in the slurry cast samples.

Chucheep, Thiensak; Wannasin, Jessada; Canyook, Rungsinee; Rattanochaikul, Tanate; Janudom, Somjai; Wisutmethangoon, Sirikul; Flemings, Merton C.

2013-10-01

88

Loose abrasive slurries for optical glass lapping  

SciTech Connect

Loose abrasive lapping is widely used to prepare optical glass before its final polishing. We carried out a comparison of 20 different slurries from four different vendors. Slurry particle sizes and morphologies were measured. Fused silica samples were lapped with these different slurries on a single side polishing machine and characterized in terms of surface roughness and depth of subsurface damage (SSD). Effects of load, rotation speed, and slurry concentration during lapping on roughness, material removal rate, and SSD were investigated.

Neauport, Jerome; Destribats, Julie; Maunier, Cedric; Ambard, Chrystel; Cormont, Philippe; Pintault, B.; Rondeau, Olivier

2010-10-20

89

Microparticulate ICE slurry for renal hypothermia: laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.  

SciTech Connect

Previously, we described the feasibility of renal hypothermia using microparticulate ice slurry during laparoscopy. In the present study, we compared surface cooling with the ice slurry versus near-frozen saline or warm ischemia (WI) during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a porcine model. We used a single-kidney porcine model. Animals in 5 equal groups (n = 6 each) underwent right laparoscopic complete nephrectomy. In Phase I, left LPN was performed under 90 minutes of ischemia and 90-minute renal cooling with either slurry (Slurry group 1) or saline (Saline group 1). No cooling was applied in the WI group. In Phase II, to simulate more extreme condition, ischemia time was extended to 120 minutes and cooling shortened to 10 minutes (Slurry group 2 and Saline group 2). The study endpoints were renal and core temperature during the surgery and serum creatinine at baseline and days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure. The ice slurry was easily produced and delivered. Nadir renal temperature (mean {+-} SD) was 8 {+-} 4 C in Slurry group 1 vs. 22.5 {+-} 3 C in Saline group 1 (P < .0001). Renal rewarming to 30 C occurred after 61 {+-} 7 minutes in Slurry group 2 vs. 24 {+-} 6 minutes in Saline group 2 (P < .0001). Core temperature decreased on average to 35 C in the Saline groups compared with 37 C in the Slurry groups (P < .0001). Serum creatinine did not differ between the Saline and Slurry groups in Phases I and II at any time point. Ice slurry provides superior renal cooling compared with near-frozen saline during LPN without associated core hypothermia.

Shikanov, S; Wille, M; Large, M; Razmaria, A; Lifshitz, D; Chang, A; Wu, Y; Kasza, K; Shalhav, A (Nuclear Engineering Division); (University of Chicago Medical Center)

2010-10-01

90

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOEpatents

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

1991-01-01

91

Planarization properties of an alkaline slurry without an inhibitor on copper patterned wafer CMP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP) performance of an inhibitor-free alkaline copper slurry is investigated. The results of the Cu dissolution rate (DR) and the polish rate (PR) show that the alkaline slurry without inhibitors has a relatively high copper removal rate and considerable dissolution rate. Although the slurry with inhibitors has a somewhat low DR, the copper removal rate was significantly reduced due to the addition of inhibitors (Benzotriazole, BTA). The results obtained from pattern wafers show that the alkaline slurry without inhibitors has a better planarization efficacy; it can planarize the uneven patterned surface during the excess copper removal. These results indicate that the proposed inhibitor-free copper slurry has a considerable planarization capability for CMP of Cu pattern wafers, it can be applied in the first step of Cu CMP for copper bulk removal.

Chenwei, Wang; Yuling, Liu; Jianying, Tian; Xinhuan, Niu; Weiyan, Zheng; Hongwei, Yue

2012-11-01

92

Tribological properties of coal slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to study the tribological properties of methyl alcohol-coal slurries. Friction coefficients, steel pin wear rates and wear surface morphological studies were conducted on AISI 440C HT and M-50 bearing steels which were slid dry and in solutions of methyl alcohol, methyl alcohol-fine coal particles, and methyl alcohol-fine coal particles-flocking additive. The latter was an oil derived from coal and originally intended to be added to the coal slurry to improve the sedimentation and rheology properties. The results of this study indicated that the addition of the flocking additive to the coal slurry markedly improved the tribological properties, especially wear. In addition, the type of steel was found to be very important in determining the type of wear that took place. Cracks and pits were found on the M-50 steel pin wear surfaces that slid in the coal slurries while 440C HT steel pins showed none.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

1987-01-01

93

Subterranean drilling and slurry mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is described for drilling and mining one or more layers of granular ore without withdrawing the apparatus from the well cavity between the drilling and mining phases. One or more mining nozzles direct a high pressure jet of liquid into a granular ore matrix to reduce the ore to a slurry which is thereafter pumped to the surface

Bunnelle

1977-01-01

94

Ammonia and odour emissions from UK pig farms and nitrogen leaching from outdoor pig production. A review.  

PubMed

We reviewed specific literature for emissions of ammonia (NH3) and odours from all stages of pig production together with nitrogen (N) leaching from raising pigs outdoors. Emissions of NH3 decrease with decreases in the crude protein (CP) content of pig diets, at all stages of manure management. The CPs of pig diets have been greatly reduced by matching the CP content to the protein required at each stage of the animals' growth and by using synthetic essential amino acids to minimise total CP intake. The CP contents of the dietary ingredients needed to provide energy for the animals impose further limits to reductions in dietary CP. Housing systems have been designed and evaluated which offer potential for reducing NH3 emissions. However such designs may not be applicable at all stages of the pigs' development and the careful management needed to ensure their effective working may be costly and difficult to implement on commercial farms. The factors behind odour emissions are less well characterised. Reducing diet CP to 160 g CP kg(-1) has been shown to reduce odour emissions but further CP reductions may increase them. Some reductions in odour emissions from buildings can be achieved by careful management of the ventilation rate but the most effective measures to reduce emissions of NH3 and odours are to cover slurry stores and to inject slurry into soil. Changes in the feeding and management of outdoor pigs mean that N leaching losses may be up to 50% less than previously reported. No studies have been undertaken that compare the N leached from pigs raised outdoors, versus that arising from the application of pig manure from an equal number of housed pigs. As a precursor to any field study, current models could be used to provide a first estimate of any systematic differences. PMID:24211346

Webb, J; Broomfield, Mark; Jones, Stephanie; Donovan, Brian

2014-02-01

95

Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases  

PubMed Central

Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton). PMID:18047690

Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

2007-01-01

96

Leaching of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts, Escherichia coli, and a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Bacteriophage through Intact Soil Cores following Surface Application and Injection of Slurry?  

PubMed Central

Increasing amounts of livestock manure are being applied to agricultural soil, but it is unknown to what extent this may be associated with contamination of aquatic recipients and groundwater if microorganisms are transported through the soil under natural weather conditions. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate how injection and surface application of pig slurry on intact sandy clay loam soil cores influenced the leaching of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All three microbial tracers were detected in the leachate on day 1, and the highest relative concentration was detected on the fourth day (0.1 pore volume). Although the concentration of the phage 28B declined over time, the phage was still found in leachate at day 148. C. parvum oocysts and chloride had an additional rise in the relative concentration at a 0.5 pore volume, corresponding to the exchange of the total pore volume. The leaching of E. coli was delayed compared with that of the added microbial tracers, indicating a stronger attachment to slurry particles, but E. coli could be detected up to 3 months. Significantly enhanced leaching of phage 28B and oocysts by the injection method was seen, whereas leaching of the indigenous E. coli was not affected by the application method. Preferential flow was the primary transport vehicle, and the diameter of the fractures in the intact soil cores facilitated transport of all sizes of microbial tracers under natural weather conditions. PMID:21948848

Forslund, Anita; Markussen, Bo; Toenner-Klank, Lise; Bech, Tina B.; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Dalsgaard, Anders

2011-01-01

97

Crop N and P utilization following application of slurry from swine fed traditional or low phytate corn diets  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Field application of swine (Sus scrofa) slurry provides essential nutrients for crop production. The N:P ratio for slurry is lower than needed by most crops resulting in P accumulation when applied at N rates required for crop growth. Low phytate corn (Zea mays L.) (LPC) contains similar amounts of ...

98

Using Ultrasound to Characterize Pulp Slurries with Entrained Air  

SciTech Connect

The development of fast and practical methods for inspecting fiber suspensions is of great interest in the paper making industry. For process control and paper quality prediction, several elements of the refining process during paper making must be accurately monitored, including specific fiber properties, weight percent fiber (composition), degree of refining, amount of solids, and entrained air content. The results of previous ultrasonic studies applied to wood pulp provide guidance that ultrasound attenuation is information rich, and it does potentially provide a tool for consistency measurement. Ultrasound has the ability to penetrate dense suspensions such as wood pulp slurries. It is has been shown, in some studies, that ultrasound is sensitive to degree of refining. The effects of entrained air, additives, the origin and treatment of the fibers do however all influence the measured data. A series of measurements were made with hardwood and softwood slurries to evaluate the ability of measuring pulp consistency, solids, and entrained air. The attenuation through the slurry was measured as the ultrasound travels from one transducer through the slurry to the other. The measurements identified the presence of entrained air in the pulp samples. To better understand the effects of air, measurements were made at increasing pressures to show how increased pressure reduced the amount of air observed in the spectrum.

Bamberger, Judith A.

2006-08-06

99

GPR measurements for the distribution of thixotropic slurry behind segments in large diameter and long distance pipe-jacking construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to form an integrated ring of thixotropic slurry around the pipe segments to reduce resistance during large diameter and long distance pipe jacking. Furthermore, the integrated slurry ring between the pipe and the excavated soil can effectively reduce the soil disturbance caused by the pipes, and minimize ground settlement. It is necessary to real-time monitor the spatial distribution of the thixotripic slurry during jacking process. The traditional solution to estimate the outlines of slurry ring is the jacking load and the injecting pressure. If the jacking load increases, which means more slurry should be injected to reduce the jacking load. However, this solution couldn't provide the distribution of the slurry beneath pipe segments, and locate the zones which need to be injected enough slurry. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been successfully used to detect the thickness of the grouting behind the shield tunnel segments in last several years. An important factor is the dielectric difference between grouting and soil. Similarly, the interface between the liquid slurry with high relative electric permittivity and surrounding soil, should be recognized from GPR image due to the distinct dielectric difference. Here, GPR experiment has been conducted on a sewage pipe jacking engineering. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the distribution of the thixotropic slurry through GPR image. In this sewage jacking engineering, the width and the thickness of each pipe segments is 200 cm and 30 cm, respectively. Considering the resolution and propagation range of radar wave, ground coupled bowtie antenna of 900 MHz frequency has been selected for GPR data acquisition. A series of circular GPR data have been collected along the inner surface of pipe segments. In addition, sampling of slurry has been performed on four different segments. The relative electric permittivity and conductivity of the thixotropic slurry have been measured by using time domain reflectometer (TDR). The velocity of propagation in slurry is calculated by dielectric characteristics, which extremely improves the resolution of time-depth conversion. Some process methods, including moving average, AGC and migration, have been applied to improve the quality of each GPR images. It's possible to recognize the reflection wave from the slurry-soil interface from the processed images. Combined the exact velocity estimation, the two-way travel time between pipe-slurry and slurry-soil interfaces can be converted to the thickness of the slurry ring. The experiment results show that GPR is able to evaluate the distribution of the liquid thixotropic slurry behind pipe segments in large diameter and long distance jacking. The velocity measured by TDR can significantly reduce the error caused by the time-depth conversion.

Zhao, Yonghui; Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Xiongyao; Zeng, Chenchao

2013-04-01

100

Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics  

E-print Network

Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. ...

Botero, Cristina

101

Coal slurry pipelines in the 1980's  

SciTech Connect

New coal slurry pipelines are expected in China, the USSR, South Africa, Canada, Poland, Brazil, Australia, and the United States, which shows the biggest potential with at least six specific coal pipelines in the planning stages. The crude oil problem in the United States combined with the fact that most of the US 30% of the world's coal reserves are 200-1000 miles from the market, make coal slurry pipeline transportation particularly important in the Unites States. Alternative carrier liquids for coal, including methanol, crude oil, and fuel oil are technically feasible, but will require equipment modification. The historical development of slurry pipelines; required equipment, including coal grinding and slurrying, agitated tanks for slurry storage, pumps and valves, and recent improvements in such equipment; and obstacles to coal slurry pipelines in the United States, including right-of-way across railroad lines and water availability are discussed.

Hill, R.A.; Pitts, J.D.

1980-01-01

102

Assessment of natural fluorescence as a tracer of diffuse agricultural pollution from slurry spreading on intensely-farmed grasslands.  

PubMed

The value of natural fluorescence in tracing diffuse pollution, in liquid phase, following slurry application to land was assessed by field experiment using twelve one hectare lysimeters on a heavy clay soil in Devon, UK, during autumn 2007. A strong linear relationship was found between natural fluorescence intensity and slurry concentration. The ratio of indices of tryptophan-like and fulvic/humic-like fluorescence (TI:FI) varied between 2 and 5 for a range of slurries sampled from Devon farms and allowed slurry to be distinguished from uncontaminated drainage waters (TI:FI<1). Incidental losses of slurry, indicated by significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios, high TI and high ammonium levels, occurred via the drain flow pathway of the drained lysimeters during the first small event following slurry-spreading. The maximum estimated loss from a single lysimeter was 2-8kg or 0.004-0.016% of the applied slurry. In the second larger storm event, some five weeks later, significantly enhanced TI:FI ratios in the drain flows were not associated with high TI but with high nitrate levels and, compared to the earlier storm, an increase in the humification index. This implies the loss of slurry decomposition products during this event but further work is needed to validate this. There was no significant enhancement of TI:FI in the surface/throughflow pathways of the drained or undrained lysimeters in either of the events. The observed change over a period of weeks in the strength and nature of the fluorescence signal from spread slurry restricts quantification of slurry losses to those immediately after slurry spreading. Nonetheless, this study demonstrates the utility of fluorescence as an indicator of slurry in drainage waters and the importance of field drains in diffuse agricultural pollution. PMID:20018337

Naden, Pamela S; Old, Gareth H; Eliot-Laize, Caroline; Granger, Steve J; Hawkins, Jane M B; Bol, Roland; Haygarth, Phil

2010-03-01

103

Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: determination of trace metals in mineral coal.  

PubMed

A procedure for lead, cadmium and copper determination in coal samples based on slurry sampling using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer is proposed. The slurries were prepared by weighing the samples directly into autosampler cups (5-30 mg) and adding a 1.5 ml aliquot of a diluent mixture of 5% v/v HNO(3), 0.05% Triton X-100 and 10% ethanol. The slurry was homogenized by manual stirring before measurement. Slurry homogenization using ultrasonic agitation was also investigated for comparison. The effect of particle size and the use of different diluent compositions on the slurry preparation were investigated. The temperature programmes were optimized on the basis of pyrolysis and atomization curves. Absorbance characteristics with and without the addition of a palladium-magnesium modifier were compared. The use of 0.05% m/v Pd and 0.03% m/v Mg was found satisfactory for stabilizing Cd and Pb. The calibration was performed with aqueous standards. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling. Better recoveries of the analytes were obtained when the particle size was reduced to <37 mum. Several certified coal reference materials (BCR Nos. 40, 180, and 181) were analyzed, and good agreement was obtained between the results from the proposed slurry sampling method and the certificate values. PMID:18967798

Silva, M M; Goreti, M; Vale, R; Caramão, E B

1999-12-01

104

Comparison of topically applied 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine and acyclovir in the treatment of cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection in guinea pigs.  

PubMed Central

Three percent 5-ethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) in an aqueous cream base was compared with 5% acyclovir (ACV) in polyethylene glycol ointment and 3% EdU in 95% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) for efficacy in the topical treatment of an experimental dorsal cutaneous herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in guinea pigs. Topical ACV treatment reduced the mean lesion number by 15%, the lesion area by 32%, and the lesion virus titer by 60% when compared with measurements at contralateral sites treated with the vehicle alone. Application of 3% EdU cream was more beneficial, effecting reductions of 29, 44, and 68% in the same measurements. EdU in DMSO was even more effective, reducing the lesion measurements by 39, 60, and 90%, respectively. The penetration of EdU and ACV through guinea pig skin was compared in single-chamber diffusion cells. In the aqueous cream, EdU readily penetrated excised skin and exhibited rates of flux 10-fold greater than those shown by ACV in ointment formulation (0.56 versus 0.05 microgram/cm2 per h; P = 0.05). The flux of EdU in DMSO was 3.39 micrograms/cm2 per h, six times higher than the flux in the cream vehicle. EdU was more effective than ACV in this experimental animal model, most likely due to better percutaneous drug delivery of EdU from the cream and DMSO vehicles. PMID:4037770

Spruance, S L; Freeman, D J; Sheth, N V

1985-01-01

105

Interactions between soil texture and placement of dairy slurry application: I. Flow characteristics and leaching of nonreactive components.  

PubMed

Land application of manure can exacerbate nutrient and contaminant transfers to the aquatic environment. This study examined the effect of injecting a dairy cattle (Bostaurus L.) manure slurry on mobilization and leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components across a range of agricultural soils. We compared leaching of slurry-applied bromide through intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) of differing textures following surface application or injection of slurry. The volumetric fraction of soil pores >30 microm ranged from 43% in a loamy sand to 28% in a sandy loam and 15% in a loam-textured soil. Smaller active flow volumes and higher proportions of preferential flow were observed with increasing soil clay content. Injection of slurry in the loam soil significantly enhanced diffusion of applied bromide into the large fraction of small pores compared with surface application. The resulting physical protection against leaching of bromide was reflected by 60.2% of the bromide tracer was recovered in the effluent after injection, compared with 80.6% recovery after surface application. No effect of slurry injection was observed in the loamy sand and sandy loam soils. Our findings point to soil texture as an important factor influencing leaching of dissolved, nonreactive slurry components in soils amended with manure slurry. PMID:21520740

Glaesner, Nadia; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Rubaek, Gitte H; Magid, Jakob

2011-01-01

106

Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours to weeks. The unusual shape of the slurry flow curves was not an artifact of the rheometric measurement. Adjusting the user-specified parameters in the rheometer measurement jobs can alter the shape of the flow curve of these time dependent samples, but this was not causing the unusual behavior. Variations in the measurement parameters caused the time dependence of a given slurry to manifest at different rates. The premise of the controlled shear rate flow curve measurement is that the dynamic response of the sample to a change in shear rate is nearly instantaneous. When this is the case, the data can be fitted to a time independent rheological equation, such as the Bingham plastic model. In those cases where this does not happen, interpretation of the data is difficult. Fitting time dependent data to time independent rheological equations, such as the Bingham plastic model, is also not appropriate.

Koopman, D. C.

2005-09-01

107

Keeping Show Pigs Healthy  

E-print Network

within a well-managed farm ? Vaccinating to prevent serious diseases ? Deworming the pigs routinely ? Having sick pigs promptly diagnosed and treated ? Using prescribed drugs properly Starting with healthy PigS To prevent disease outbreaks in show... of disease problems. Antibiotics are totally ineffective in preventing common viral diseases such as transmissible gas- troenteritis and swine influenza. Also, vaccines are not available for all swine diseases and must be giv- en long before the pigs...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2006-10-13

108

Using burnt stone slurry in mortar mixes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of stone slurry waste resulting from quarries forms a serious environmental problem in many countries around the globe. The use of Jordanian burnt stone slurry (BSS) waste in concrete mixtures had been investigated throughout this study. The properties that were studied include setting time, workability, compressive and flexural strength, alkali-silica reaction, and micro-structure of mortar. The BSS was

Nabil M. Al-Akhras; Ayman Ababneh; Wail A. Alaraji

2010-01-01

109

Apparent Benzene Solubility in Tetraphenylborate Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Personnel conducted testing to determine the apparent solubility of benzene in potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries. The lack of benzene vapor pressure suppression in these tests indicate that for a 6.5 wt percent solids KTPB slurry in 4.65 M Na+ salt solution at approximately 25 degrees Celsius, no significant difference exists between the solubility of benzene in the slurry and the solubility of benzene in salt solution without KTPB solids. The work showed similar results in slurry with 6,000 mg/L sludge and 2,000 mg/L monosodium titanate added. Slurries containing tetraphenylborate decomposition intermediates (i.e., 4,200 mg/L triphenylboron (3PB), 510 mg/L diphenylborinic acid (2PB) and 1,500 mg/L phenylboric acid (1PB) or 100 mg/L tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)) also showed no significant difference in benzene solubility form filtrate containing no KTPB solids. Slurry containing 2,000 mg/L Surfynol 420 did exhibit significant additional benzene solubility, as did irradiated slurries. The vapor pressure depression in the irradiated slurries presumably results from dissolution of biphenyl and other tetraphenylborate irradiation products in the benzene.

Swingle, R.F.; Peterson, R.A.; Crawford, C.L.

1997-11-01

110

Optimizing slurry separation in coal preparation  

SciTech Connect

In processing slurry with cationic polyelectrolytes, the final concentration of the suspended particulates in the water beyond the slurry tank in the coal-preparation shop is no more than 10 mg/l. Consequently, this water may be reused in industrial systems.

V.S. Shved; V.H. Fritsler; V.V. Bukhtiyarov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15

111

Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride  

SciTech Connect

A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

Sanders, W.A.; Kiser, J.D.; Freedman, M.R.

1988-11-01

112

Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

1988-01-01

113

The effect of long or chopped straw on pig behaviour.  

PubMed

In the EU, pigs must have permanent access to manipulable materials such as straw, rope, wood, etc. Long straw can fulfil this function, but can increase labour requirements for cleaning pens, and result in problems with blocked slatted floors and slurry systems. Chopped straw might be more practical, but what is the effect on pigs' behaviour of using chopped straw instead of long straw? Commercial pigs in 1/3 slatted, 2/3 solid pens of 15 pigs were provided with either 100 g/pig per day of long straw (20 pens) or of chopped straw (19 pens). Behavioural observations were made of three focal pigs per pen (one from each of small, medium and large weight tertiles) for one full day between 0600 and 2300 h at each of ~40 and ~80 kg. The time spent rooting/investigating overall (709 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 533 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), or directed to the straw/solid floor (497 s/pig per hour at 40 kg to 343 s/pig per hour at 80 kg), was not affected by straw length but reduced with age. Time spent investigating other pigs (83 s/pig per hour at 40 kg), the slatted floor (57 s/pig per hour) or pen fixtures (21 s/pig per hour) was not affected by age or straw length. Aggressive behaviour was infrequent, but lasted about twice as long in pens with chopped straw (2.3 s/pig per hour at 40 kg) compared with pens with long straw (1.0 s/pig per hour at 40 kg, P=0.060). There were no significant effects of straw length on tail or ear lesions, but shoulders were significantly more likely to have minor scratches with chopped straw (P=0.031), which may reflect the higher levels of aggression. Smaller pigs showed more rooting/investigatory behaviour, and in particular directed towards the straw/solid floor and the slatted floor than their larger pen-mates. Females exhibited more straw and pen fixture-directed behaviour than males. There were no effects of pig size or sex on behaviour directed towards other pigs. In summary, pigs spent similar amounts of time interacting with straw/solid floor when long and chopped straw were provided, and most aspects of pig-directed behaviour and injuries were not affected by straw length. There was an increase in pigs with minor shoulder lesions with chopped straw, perhaps because of increased aggression. The use of chopped straw as an enrichment material for pigs warrants further investigation in larger and more detailed studies. PMID:25496522

Lahrmann, H P; Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H; Nielsen, M B F; D'Eath, R B

2015-05-01

114

Verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli in animal faeces, manures and slurries.  

PubMed

Animal wastes and effluents from farming operations, including manures and slurries, are frequently applied as fertilizer to land used for crop or silage production and cattle grazing. It is well documented that potentially harmful pathogens including verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are shed in animal faeces and there is growing concern in many countries about the number of sporadic and outbreak cases of VTEC attributable to direct contact with faecal material either as a result of handling contaminated mud in fields or ingestion of produce grown in contaminated manures or slurries. VTEC has been detected in the faeces of ruminant and non-ruminant farmed animals, wild animals, domestic pets and birds and the pathogen appears to be well adapted to survive in animal faeces and can persist for extended periods ranging from several weeks to many months. Because of this persistence these materials are important as potential vehicles for transmission within herds, farms, the fresh food chain and the wider environment. Appropriate handling of bovine faeces is necessary to control spread of this pathogen and to limit the significant risks of human infection. It may be necessary to hold manure/slurry for extended periods prior to spreading on farmland, or for use in the production of food crops, particularly foods that are to be consumed in the raw or minimally processed state. Alternatively, it may be necessary to apply processes such as composting, heat drying or digestion which can expedite the decline of pathogens including VTEC in manures. However, there is a need for research work to develop economical and practical systems for treatment of manures and slurries. The risk from direct contact with faecal material at farms and petting zoos is also recognized and many public health authorities have put forward measures for strict practices to limit the risk of infection, particularly for young children visiting these environments. PMID:12675941

Duffy, G

2003-01-01

115

Acidification of animal slurry--a review.  

PubMed

Ammonia emissions are a major problem associated with animal slurry management, and solutions to overcome this problem are required worldwide by farmers and stakeholders. An obvious way to minimize ammonia emissions from slurry is to decrease slurry pH by addition of acids or other substances. This solution has been used commonly since 2010 in countries such as Denmark, and its efficiency with regard to the minimization of NH3 emissions has been documented in many studies. Nevertheless, the impact of such treatment on other gaseous emissions during storage is not clear, since the studies performed so far have provided different scenarios. Similarly, the impact of the soil application of acidified slurry on plant production and diffuse pollution has been considered in several studies. Also, the impact of acidification upon combination with other slurry treatment technologies (e.g. mechanical separation, anaerobic digestion …) is important to consider. Here, a compilation and critical review of all these studies has been performed in order to fully understand the global impact of slurry acidification and assess the applicability of this treatment for slurry management. PMID:25463570

Fangueiro, David; Hjorth, Maibritt; Gioelli, Fabrizio

2015-02-01

116

Retreatment of silicon slurry by membrane processes.  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study is to develop a process to regenerate the polish liquid used in Chemical and Mechanical Polishing (CMP), called "slurry", and more specifically Silicon CMP slurry. Physico-chemical analyses show a considerable dilution of slurry through washing waters used in polishing. Thus, this effluent has been characterised for a better identification of the deviations from the slurry of reference (Point Of Use). Hence, the principle is to regenerate this effluent by membrane processes. The ultrafiltration results obtained at laboratory scale have led to the development of an industrial prototype. An optimal utilisation of this treatment allows completing a two-step process: the reconcentration by ultrafiltration and a chemical adjustment by addition of concentrated slurry. A stable behaviour of the slurry at the different steps of the process has been observed. Polishing results are similar with retreated and POU slurries. Furthermore, the functioning at industrial scale permits to maintain the performances obtained on the laboratory pilot. PMID:21724320

Testa, F; Coetsier, C; Carretier, E; Ennahali, M; Laborie, B; Serafino, C; Bulgarelli, F; Moulin, P

2011-08-30

117

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03

118

Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

119

Preparation of Coal Slurry with Alcohol Fermentation Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of substituting alcohol fermentation wastewater of maize and cassava for water to prepare coal slurries was explored. The rheological and stability properties of coal alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries were studied and compared with that of coal water slurry. The results showed that both coal maize and cassava alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Because of the oxygen-containing

S. Shao; X. Chen; H. Liu; F. Wang

2012-01-01

120

Break-up and droplet formation of slurry jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the desirability of using slurry fuels for aerospace applications has long been recognized, the problems of slurry combustion have yet to be adequately resolved. It is pointed out that slurry fuels will not be fully utilized until the break-up, atomization, and mixing of slurries into combustion air are understood and controlled. The potential of boron containing solid fuels is

J. C. Ogg; J. A. Schetz

1983-01-01

121

Hydrodynamic behavior of slurry bubble column at high solids concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrodynamics of a slurry bubble column have been investigated up to slurry concentrations of 40 vol.% and gas velocities of 0.26 m\\/s. High slurry concentrations represent high catalyst loading to increase reactor productivity, while high gas velocities would be required to increase reactor throughputs. The solid particles used are 35 ?m glass beads representing typical particle size for catalytic slurry

B. Gandhi; A. Prakash; M. A. Bergougnou

1999-01-01

122

The Importance of the Solids Loading on Confirming the Dielectric Nanosize Dependence of BaTiO3 Powders by Slurry Method  

PubMed Central

The dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO3 powders was investigated by the slurry method, where two series of BaTiO3 slurries with 10?vol% and 30?vol% solids loadings were prepared as model samples. Applying the Bruggeman-Hanai equation, the high-frequency limiting permittivity (?h) of the slurries was extracted from the dielectric spectra. The ?h of the 10?vol% slurry showed abnormal size independence in the range from 100?nm to 700?nm, and the ?h of the 30?vol% slurry exhibited good agreement with the previous prediction. Through analysing quantitatively the response of ?h to the changing permittivity of the powders under different solids loading, it was found that the ?h of the slurry with lower solids loading is more inclined to be interfered by the systematic and random errors. Furthermore, a high permittivity value was found in the BaTiO3 powders with 50?nm particle size. PMID:23844376

Zhou, Wei; Nie, Yi Mei; Li, Shu Jing; Liang, Hai Yan

2013-01-01

123

The importance of the solids loading on confirming the dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO? powders by slurry method.  

PubMed

The dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO? powders was investigated by the slurry method, where two series of BaTiO? slurries with 10 vol% and 30 vol% solids loadings were prepared as model samples. Applying the Bruggeman-Hanai equation, the high-frequency limiting permittivity (?(h)) of the slurries was extracted from the dielectric spectra. The ?(h) of the 10 vol% slurry showed abnormal size independence in the range from 100 nm to 700 nm, and the ?(h) of the 30 vol% slurry exhibited good agreement with the previous prediction. Through analysing quantitatively the response of ?(h) to the changing permittivity of the powders under different solids loading, it was found that the ? h of the slurry with lower solids loading is more inclined to be interfered by the systematic and random errors. Furthermore, a high permittivity value was found in the BaTiO? powders with 50 nm particle size. PMID:23844376

Zhou, Wei; Nie, Yi Mei; Li, Shu Jing; Liang, Hai Yan

2013-01-01

124

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOEpatents

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Lyczkowski, Robert W. (Darien, IL); Wang, Chi-Sheng (Woodridge, IL)

1993-01-01

125

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOEpatents

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

1993-03-16

126

Improved design practices for slurry piping systems  

SciTech Connect

Although there are numerous articles and several good books on the hydrodynamic aspects of slurry handling and piping design, there is little information in the open technical literature on practical layout and mechanical-design practices. This article corrects that situation for slurry piping systems. Much of what is presented here was gathered from the technical literature and from design manuals produced by several engineering contractors and engineering departments of chemical manufacturers. The focus is on aboveground slurry piping systems, which are the most common type found in chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical plants.

Grossel, S.S. [Process Safety and Design, Inc., Clifton, NJ (United States)

1998-04-01

127

Surface Modification of Nickel Foams by a Slurry Aluminizing Process  

SciTech Connect

A novel slurry-based process for aluminizing nickel foams while improving the mechanical properties and conserving the excellent ductility is reported. Cellular unalloyed nickel foams with 92% porosity and uniform pore size and distribution were used as a starting material. Several slurries of different compositions were examined to investigate the possibility of developing an aluminide-nickel intermetallic coating on a Ni foam without considerably degrading the original ductile properties of the foam. The process temperature was varying from 400 to 850 deg. C and the process holding time was ranging between 2h to 6h. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-Ray diffraction were applied to assess the effectiveness of the aluminizing process and determine both the optimum parameters of the procedure (slurry composition, holding temperature and time) and the concentration profiles across the coating cross-section. The mechanical behavior of the aluminized Ni-foams was evaluated by the conduction of micro-tension tests. The resulting Ni-foams after aluminization retain the pore structure of original Ni-foams and present a thick outer surface layer which consists of a range of aluminide phases. The mechanical properties of the Ni-foams aluminized in low process temperature were insignificantly affected.

Omar, H.; Papanastasiou, N.; Psyllaki, P.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsipas, D. N. [Physical Metallurgy Laboratory (PML), Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsipas, S. A. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales e Ingenieria Quimica Escuela Politecnica Superior Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda de la Universidad, 30 28911 Leganes (Spain); Michailidis, N. [Physical Metallurgy Laboratory (PML), Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Physical Metallurgy Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2010-01-21

128

Pig Poop Power  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: What could be more fitting in the Year of the Pig than to turn to the pig for power? And that's what is happening here in South Korea. In an effort to develop environmentally friendly, renewable energy ...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-04-11

129

Axial solid distribution in slurry bubble columns  

SciTech Connect

The axial sold concentration distribution in a slurry bubbly column was studied in both batch and continuous operation. Air and water were used as the gas and liquid phases, respectively. The gas velocity ranged from 0.016 to 0.173 m/s, and the slurry velocity ranged from 0.0 to 0.031 m/s. Glass beads of diameters 163,97, and 49 {mu}m were used as the solid phase. The holdup distribution of each solid in binary mixtures was also studied. The effects of gas velocity, slurry velocity, and particle size on the axial solid concentration distribution were examined. A mechanistic model is developed to describe the solid distribution in the slurry bubble columns. The model accounts for the solid distribution for both batch and continuous operation involving monodispersed and binary mixtures of solid particles.

Murray, P.; Fan, L.-S. (Dept of Chemical Engineering, The Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH (US))

1989-11-01

130

Pumping characteristics of chopped sorghum slurries  

E-print Network

PUMPING CHARACTERISTICS OF CHOPPED SORGHUM SLURRIES A Thesis by SHICHUAN OU Approved as to style and content by: Charlie G. Cable (Chairman) Donald A. Bender (Member ) Sai C. Lan (Member) Edward A. Hiler (Head of Department! December... 1986 ABSTRACT Pumping Characteristics of Chopped Sorghum Slurries. (December 1986) Shichuan Ou, B. S. , National Taiwan University, Taiwan, R. O. C. Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Charlie G. Coble Recent research has investigated the use...

Ou, Shichuan

1986-01-01

131

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction  

SciTech Connect

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32[degrees]C by absorbing water at 25[degrees]C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33[degrees]C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng.

1990-01-01

132

Multicompartment hydrodynamic model for slurry bubble columns  

Microsoft Academic Search

A core-annulus multicompartment two-dimensional two-bubble class model accounting for slurry recirculation and coupled with catalyst transport was developed as a part and parcel of the analysis of the behavior of slurry bubble column reactors at high gas throughputs corresponding to the churn turbulent flow regime. The model analyzed the contributions of bubble-induced turbulence closures, bubble coalescence and breakup phenomena, and

Ion Iliuta; Damien Desvigne; Jérôme Anfray; Nicolas Dromard; Daniel Schweich

2008-01-01

133

Method and apparatus for slurry borehole mining  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus is provided for recovering deep subterranean ore deposits using conventional dual conduit pipe in the tool string. The drill cuttings and ore are returned to the surface by reverse circulation. A combination drilling and mining head is disclosed which permits the outer casing to be driven by the power swivel during both the drilling and mining operations. A hydraulic eductor pump located at the suction entrance to the inner conduit is used to raise drill cuttings to the surface; a separate slurry eductor pump within the inner conduit located only sufficiently below the slurry discharge of the tool to prevent cavitation at the jet is used to pump the ore slurry to the surface. Another embodiment of this invention employs both eductors to raise the drill cuttings and ore slurry to the surface. Valves controlling the flow of fluid to the drill bit, the mining jet and the slurry discharge eductor pump are located within the inner conduit and a novel valve actuating means is disclosed which employs the pressure within the annular space between the conduits to convert the tool from the drilling to the mining mode. Surface mounted flow control valves and flowmeters in the fluid feed line and in the slurry discharge line control the volume of fluid entering and discharging from the tool. These valves may be controlled by instrumentation to balance the flows, adjusted to control the mining cavity pressure or to compensate for the influx of ground water.

Coakley, J.E.; Nolan, J.J.

1982-09-07

134

The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission reduction.

Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

2011-07-01

135

Analysis of bubble dynamics and local hydrodynamics based on instantaneous heat transfer measurements in a slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fast response heat transfer probe was designed to measure local instantaneous heat transfer coefficients at various gas velocities and slurry concentrations in a slurry bubble column. The enhancement of heat transfer due to turbulent bubble-wake region has been analyzed to understand bubble-wake dynamics. To quantitatively describe instantaneous heat transfer coefficient due to bubble-wake enhancement, a peak-fitting method was applied

H. Li; A. Prakash

1999-01-01

136

The Impact of Using Alternative Forages on the Nutrient Value within Slurry and Its Implications for Forage Productivity in Agricultural Systems  

PubMed Central

Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha?1) with 100 kg N ha?1 inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha?1 year?1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha?1 yr?1). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P?=?0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks. PMID:24830777

Crotty, Felicity V.; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J.; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R.; Marley, Christina L.

2014-01-01

137

The impact of using alternative forages on the nutrient value within slurry and its implications for forage productivity in agricultural systems.  

PubMed

Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha?¹) with 100 kg N ha?¹ inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha?¹ year-1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha?¹ yr?¹). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P?=?0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks. PMID:24830777

Crotty, Felicity V; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R; Marley, Christina L

2014-01-01

138

Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management  

E-print Network

The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7632.0 ml of eggs in a 15day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.962.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8611.9 % in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types.

Helena ?i?ková; Berta Pastor; Milan Kozánek; Anabel Martínez-sánchez; Santos Rojo

2012-01-01

139

Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management  

PubMed Central

The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

?i?ková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Taká?, Peter

2012-01-01

140

Gas disengagement technique in a slurry bubble column operated in the coalesced bubble regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas disengagement technique is discussed in detail and is applied in a two-dimensional bubble column and slurry bubble column to obtain the bubble size distribution. Flow characteristics including velocities of each phase and dispersed phase size distribution during the gas disengagement process are obtained by using an advanced image analysis tool including a particle image velocimetry technique. It is

D. J. Lee; X. Luo; L.-S. Fan

1999-01-01

141

Neoscardovia arbecensis gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from porcine slurries.  

PubMed

Three Gram-positive, anaerobic, pleomorphic strains (PG10(T), PG18 and PG22), were selected among five strains isolated from pig slurries while searching for host specific bifidobacteria to track the source of fecal pollution in water. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed a maximum identity of 94% to various species of the family Bifidobacteriaceae. However, phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA and HSP60 gene sequences revealed a closer relationship of these strains to members of the recently described Aeriscardovia, Parascardovia and Scardovia genera, than to other Bifidobacterium species. The names Neoscardovia gen. nov. and Neoscardovia arbecensis sp. nov. are proposed for a new genus and for the first species belonging to this genus, respectively, and for which PG10(T) (CECT 8111(T), DSM 25737(T)) was designated as the type strain. This new species should be placed in the Bifidobacteriaceae family within the class Actinobacteria, with Aeriscardovia aeriphila being the closest relative. The prevailing cellular fatty acids were C(16:0) and C(18:1)?9c, and the major polar lipids consisted of a variety of glycolipids, diphosphatidyl glycerol, two unidentified phospholipids, and phosphatidyl glycerol. The peptidoglycan structure was A1?meso-Dpm-direct. The GenBank accession numbers for the 16S rRNA gene and HSP60 gene sequences of strains PG10(T), PG18 and PG22 are JF519691, JF519693, JQ767128 and JQ767130, JQ767131, JQ767133, respectively. PMID:22824582

García-Aljaro, Cristina; Ballesté, Elisenda; Rosselló-Móra, Ramon; Cifuentes, Ana; Richter, Michael; Blanch, Anicet R

2012-09-01

142

Monitoring Plan for the Pig-nosed Turtle  

E-print Network

Monitoring Plan for the Pig-nosed Turtle in the Daly River, Northern Territory Unpublished report Commission of the Northern Territory, June 2000. #12;2 Monitoring Plan for the Pig-nosed Turtle in the Daly River, Northern Territory J. Sean Doody, Arthur Georges and Jeanne E. Young Applied Ecology Research

Canberra, University of

143

The Handmade Cloning (HMC) system for production of transgenic pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handmade cloning (HMC) is now an established procedure used in a number of species for somatic cell nuclear transfer, but only applied in two related laboratories for pigs. The aim of this review is to facilitate widespread application by summarizing the process of establishment, and explaining the background of the incorporated special approaches. Optimized steps of traditional cloning in pigs

Gábor Vajta; Henrik Callesen

144

Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Slurry Rheology: Nuclear Waste Simulant Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Controlling the rheological properties of slurries has been of great interest in various industries such as cosmetics, ceramic processing, and nuclear waste treatment. Many physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, ionic strength, and mass/volume fraction of particles, can influence the rheological properties of slurry. Among such parameters, the particle size distribution of slurry would be especially important for nuclear waste treatment because most nuclear waste slurries show a broad particle size distribution. We studied the rheological properties of several different low activity waste nuclear simulant slurries having different particle size distributions under high salt and high pH conditions. Using rheological and particle size analysis, it was found that the percentage of colloid-sized particles in slurry appears to be a key factor for rheological characteristics and the efficiency of rheological modifiers. This behavior was shown to be coupled with an existing electrostatic interaction between particles under a low salt concentration. Our study suggests that one may need to implement the particle size distribution as a critical factor to understand and control rheological properties in nuclear waste treatment plants, such as the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford and Savannah River sites, because the particle size distributions significantly vary over different types of nuclear waste slurries.

Chun, Jaehun; Oh, Takkeun; Luna, Maria L.; Schweiger, Michael J.

2011-07-05

145

Fifth international technical conference on slurry transportation. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The fifth international technical conference on slurry transportation was held March 26-28, 1980, at the Sahara Tahoe, Lake Tahoe, Nevada. The papers deal with the transport of slurries (mostly coal and iron ores) in slurry pipelines. Planned slurry pipelines in the USA are described and the legal problems in getting rights-of-way and water rights. The economics of slurry pipelines and railways are considered in some detail. Finally, technical aspects of such pipelines are considered: design, engineering, pumps, maintenance, etc. Other topics discussed are: marine transport (moorings, terminal facilities and tanker ship design, other slurry media than water (fuel oils, methanol, CO/sub 2/), coarse slurry transport, slurry preparation, water removal and pumps (pulsations and dampering). Thirty-two papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; one had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

Linderman, C.W. (ed.)

1980-01-01

146

Escherichia coli contamination of lettuce grown in soils amended with animal slurry.  

PubMed

A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agricultural fields prior to the planting of lettuce seedlings. At harvest, leaves (25 g) of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit (n = 147). Soil samples (100 g) were collected from one field before slurry application and four times during the growth period (n = 75). E. coli was enumerated in slurry, soil, and lettuce on 3M Petrifilm Select E. coli Count Plates containing 16 mg/liter streptomycin, 16 mg/liter ampicillin, or no antimicrobial agent. Selected E. coli isolates (n = 83) originating from the slurry, soil, and lettuce were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the similarity of isolates. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g E. coli. E. coli was found in 36 to 54% of the lettuce samples, streptomycin-resistant E. coli was found in 10.0 to 18.0% of the lettuce samples, and ampicillin-resistant E. coli in 0 to 2.0% of the lettuce samples (the detection limit was 1 log CFU/g). The concentration of E. coli exceeded 2 log CFU/g in 19.0% of the lettuce samples. No E. coli was detected in the soil before the slurry was applied, but after, E. coli was present until the last sampling day (harvest), when 10 of 15 soil samples contained E. coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and represent food safety hazards. PMID:23834787

Jensen, A N; Storm, C; Forslund, A; Baggesen, D L; Dalsgaard, A

2013-07-01

147

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, R.G.

1984-08-31

148

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, Ramkrishna G. (San Antonio, TX)

1986-01-01

149

SCOPING STUDIES TO DEVELOP A METHOD TO DETERMINE PARTICLE SIZE IN SIMULANT SLUDGE SLURRIES BY SIEVING  

SciTech Connect

A physical separation method (i.e. sieving) was investigated to determine particle size distribution in non-radioactive sludge slurry simulants with the goal of implementation into the SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) shielded cells for use with radioactive sludge slurries. The investigation included obtaining the necessary experimental equipment, developing accessory equipment for use with the sieve shaker (to be able to sieve simulant slurries with aqueous solutions), sieving three different simulant slurries through a number of sieves and determining the particle size distribution gravimetrically, and developing a sufficient cleaning protocol of the sieves for re-use. The experimental protocol involved successive sieving of a NIST standard (to check the particle size retention of the sieves) and three non-radioactive slurry simulants (Batch 3 Tank 40 Test 3, Tank 40 Drum 3 and CETL Sludge Batch 2, which had been previously characterized by Microtrac analysis) through smaller and smaller sieves (150 microns x 5 microns) via use of the wet sieving system or by hand. For each of the three slurries, duplicate experiments were carried out using filtered supernate and DI water (to check the accuracy of the method versus Microtrac data) to sieve the slurry. Particle size determinations using the wet sieving system with DI water agree well with Microtrac data on a volume basis and in some cases the sieving data may be more accurate particularly if the material sieved had large particles. A correction factor had to be applied to data obtained from experiments done with supernate due to the dissolved solids which dried upon the sieves in the drying stage of the experiments. Upon subtraction of the correction factors, the experimental results were very similar to those obtained with DI water. It should be noted that approximately 250 mL of each of three simulant slurries was necessary to have enough filtered supernate available to carry out the experiments. The experimental results for the slurries are below with Microtrac data. The design of the experimental equipment was sufficient initially, but some pieces of the equipment began failing over time due to the caustic nature of the supernate and the vibrations from the sieve shaker. It is therefore recommended that upgrades to the experimental equipment be done before implementation into the SRNL shielded cells. Theses upgrades include using manipulator friendly connections, changing brass parts for stainless steel parts, using Teflon rather than polycarbonate, and possibly a change of pumps used to re-circulate the sieving fluid.

DAMON, CLICK

2005-02-07

150

Process for producing high-concentration slurry of coal  

SciTech Connect

High concentrated coal-water slurry is produced by coarsely crushing coal, thereafter pulverizing the coarsely crushed coal, together with water and a slurry dispersant, according to necessity, in a wet-type ball mill, and feeding back one portion of the finely pulverized coal slurry thus obtained into the inlet of the wet-type ball mill.

Nakaoji, K.; Itoh, H.; Kamao, M.; Takao, Sh.; Tatsumi, Sh.

1985-02-19

151

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in pigs from different farming systems in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Sporadic nontravel-related hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been reported in industrialized countries. These infections are caused by zoonotic HEV genotypes 3 and 4 that circulate in swine, wild boar, and deer. In The Netherlands, HEV RNA has been detected in >50% of the pig farms, and HEV-specific antibodies were detected in ?70% of the slaughter pigs. In the current study, HEV seroprevalences were investigated in pigs raised on conventional, free-range, and organic farms in The Netherlands. Differences in seroprevalence may indicate different exposure routes or transmission dynamics within pig herds for HEV. In 2004, serum samples of 846 fattening pigs were obtained from farms that applied conventional (265 pigs at 24 farms), organic (417 pigs at 42 farms), and free-range (164 pigs at 12 farms) farming. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in samples from all conventional and free-range pig farms and in 41 of 42 organic pig farms, indicating that the probability of introducing HEV on a farm appeared to be equal for the different farming types. The estimated average within-herd seroprevalence was significantly higher for pigs raised on organic farms (89%) than for pigs raised on conventional farms (72%, P = 0.04) and nearly significant for pigs raised on free-range farms (76%, P = 0.06). Six of ten organic farms were estimated to have a withinherd seroprevalence of >95%, compared with 1 of 10 and 4 of 10 of the free-range and conventional pig farms, respectively. This suggests a higher force of infection with HEV for pigs reared on organic farms compared with pigs reared on conventional or free-range farms. This may be due to repetitive exposure to HEV caused by farming system-specific housing conditions, such as a greater contact frequency between pigs and more exposure to pig manure, increasing the transmission rate. PMID:24680077

Rutjes, S A; Bouwknegt, M; van der Giessen, J W; de Roda Husman, A M; Reusken, C B E M

2014-04-01

152

Gas holdup in slurry bubble columns: Effect of column diameter and slurry concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In processes for converting natural gas to liquid fuels, bubble-column reactors are finding increasing application. To study the influence of particle concentration on the hydrodynamics of bubble-column slurry reactors operating in the heterogeneous flow regime, experiments were carried out in 0.10, 0.19, and 0.38-m-dia. columns using paraffinic oil as the liquid phase and slurry concentrations of up to 36 vol.

Rajamani Krishna; Jeroen W. A. De Swart; Jürg Ellenberger; Gilbert B. Martina; Cristina Maretto

1997-01-01

153

Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01

154

Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

1993-01-01

155

Thermodynamics and heat transfer of ice slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamics and heat transfer of ice slurries is reviewed. It starts with a collection of models to calculate the effective thermal conductivity. These relations were derived for suspensions with solid particles that do not change its phase. Therefore, they can only be first approximations. Then dimensionless numbers are introduced, once based on the physical properties of the carrier fluid

Peter W. Egolf; Andrej Kitanovski; Derrick Ata-Caesar; Evangelos Stamatiou; Masahiro Kawaji; Jean-Pierre Bedecarrats; Francoise Strub

2005-01-01

156

SLURRY TRENCH CONSTRUCTION FOR POLLUTION MIGRATION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The handbook provides in-depth guidance on the use of slurry walls for the control of subsurface pollutants. It describes how these barriers can be employed for waste site remediation and presents the theory of their function and use. The handbook describes the essential elements...

157

Survival of Rhizobium inoculum in hydroseeding slurries  

SciTech Connect

Disturbed lands such as surface mined areas generally require fertilizer, lime, mulch, and seed for revegetation. Hydroseeding is the most widely used seeding method for mountainous terrain. Where legumes are included in the mixture, Rhizobium inoculum is recommended since disturbed areas are likely to lack indigenous rhizobia. The pH and viability of rhizobia cells in hydroseeder mix slurries were determined in order to establish recommendations for hydroseeding conditions. Of the fertilizer components commonly used for hydroseeding only those containing phosphorus influenced slurry pH. Varying concentrations of triple superphosphate (TSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) resulted in hydroseeder mixture pH values ranging from 2.9 to 7.7, respectively. Significant loss of viability of rhizobia occurred at pH values of less than 6.0. In practice, a hydroseeding slurry should contain enough DAP in the fertilizer blend to have a pH of 6.0 or greater which is equivalent to a ratio of DAP to TSP of 4 to 6. Thus, at least 40 of each 100 kg of phosphate should be supplied by DAP. Pulverized agriculture lime did not correct slurry acidity; however, hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) if added in sufficient amounts could be used to increase the pH to a level that does not significantly alter the viability of the rhizobia.

Brown, M.B.; Wolf, D.D.; Morse, R.D.; Neal, J.L.

1982-12-01

158

Effective Compressibility of a Bubbly Slurry.  

PubMed

Bubbles trapped within the slurry at the bottom of waste tanks at the Hanford Site expand and contract in response to ambient pressure changes. These bubbles contain hydrogen and other flammable gases that can pose a safety hazard. Determining the effective compressibility of bubbles in the slurry could allow one to make improved estimates of the quantity of gas trapped in the slurry from changes in slurry volume with ambient pressure changes. More broadly, the diffusive growth and mechanical properties of bubbles in a porous medium are important issues in a number of applications. Numerical calculations based on a one-dimensional biconical-pore-network model show that the effective compressibility of a population of bubbles shows hysteresis with pressure increase and decrease. This hysteresis is caused by the sudden jumps of interfaces from pore throat to throat during a pressure decrease and from pore body to body during a pressure increase. Snap-off may occur during these jumps but does not significantly alter the effective compressibility of the population of bubbles. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11502127

Kam, S. I.; Gauglitz, P. A.; Rossen, W. R.

2001-09-01

159

Pig in the Middle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

Mills, Sophie

2000-01-01

160

Infectious Swine Hepatitis E Virus Is Present in Pig Manure Storage Facilities on United States Farms, but Evidence of Water Contamination Is Lacking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh feces, manure slurry (from earthen lagoons and\\/or concrete pits), and drinking and surface water samples were collected from 28 pig farms in the Midwestern United States. All samples were tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. Seven of 28 farms had fecal samples that contained HEV. Of 22 farms where pit samples were accessible, 15 contained

C. Kasorndorkbua; T. Opriessnig; F. F. Huang; D. K. Guenette; P. J. Thomas; X.-J. Meng; P. G. Halbur

2005-01-01

161

Ammonia volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on a volcanic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere. Within the agricultural sector, the application of slurry to grasslands as fertilizer is one of the main emission sources. This is a common practice in southern Chile, where most dairy production systems are grazing-based. In Chile, there are few published data of gaseous emissions following slurry application to grassland. The aim of this study was to evaluate NH3 volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on an Andosol soil. Ammonia volatilization was measured in four field experiments (winters of 2009 and 2011 and early and late springs of 2011) using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers following dairy slurry application at a target rate of 100 kg total N ha-1. The accumulated N loss was equivalent to 7, 8, 16 and 21% of the total N applied and 22, 34, 88 and 74% of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied for winters 2009 and 2011, and early and late spring 2011, respectively. Ammonia emission rates were high immediately after application and declined rapidly with time, with more than 50% of the total emissions within the first 24 h. Losses were highly influenced by environmental conditions, increasing with temperature and lack of rainfall. Taking into consideration the low N losses via leaching and nitrous oxide emissions reported for the study area, results indicate that NH3 volatilization is the main pathway of N loss in fertilized grasslands of southern Chile. However, dairy slurry application could be an important source of nutrients, if applied at a suitable time, rate and using an appropriate technique, and if soil and climate conditions are taken into consideration. This could improve N use efficiency and reduce N losses to the wider environment.

Martínez-Lagos, J.; Salazar, F.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

2013-12-01

162

CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF) is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM) and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF) containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone). It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

Azimian, Mehdi; Bart, Hans-Jörg

2013-04-01

163

System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries  

DOEpatents

A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

Kasper, Stanley (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-01-01

164

Rheology of coal slurries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigations of suspensions of three size distributions of glass spheres in a solution of tetralin and tetrabromoethane were made using a Haake viscometer. The values of viscosity were determined over a range of shear rates from 1 to 1000 sec/sup -1/. The suspending medium is Newtonian with a viscosity of about 9.66 centipoise at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C. At phi less than or equal to 20%, the suspension exhibited Newtonian behavior but at phi greater than or equal to 30%, the suspension exhibited pronounced non-Newtonian behavior. Experimental studies of these three size distributions were also conducted in aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone using a pipe loop apparatus. Viscosity was measured over the shear rate range from 600 to 6000 sec./sup -1/. These suspensions having non-Newtonian suspending media, exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at all concentration levels of the solid particles. In the limit of very high shear rates, the suspension viscosity was found to be independent of tube diameter over the range of shear rates and concentrations studied. The rheological behavior of slurries of irregularly-shaped anthracite coal particles was also systematically investigated. The suspending medium consisted of a mixture of anthracene oil and tetrabromoethane. The shear rate was varied from 0.01 to 1000 sec./sup -1/. Volume concentrations range from 0 to 34%. At volume concentrations greater than 29% the slurries exhibited a yield stress and pronounced thixotropic behavior. The relative viscosities of both the model and the coal slurries were found to be dependent on both the shear rate and the particle size. In the case of the coal slurries caution must be exercised with regard to the proper interpretation of the rheological data due to the influences of the measured apparent density of the coal particles, viscometric flow geometry, and time dependent effects.

Ulbrecht, J.J.; Ryan, M.E.

1982-01-01

165

Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide  

DOEpatents

An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

Duran, E.L.

1984-11-29

166

Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide  

DOEpatents

An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM)

1985-01-01

167

Determination of field scale ammonia emissions for common slurry spreading practice with two independent methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a cropland and a grassland site field scale ammonia (NH3) emissions from slurry application were determined simultaneously by two approaches based on (i) eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using high temperature Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (HT-CIMS) and on (ii) backward Lagrangian Stochastic (bLS) dispersion modelling using concentration measurements by three optical open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) systems. Slurry was spread on the fields in sequential tracks over a period of one to two hours. In order to calculate field emissions, measured EC/HT-CIMS fluxes were combined with flux footprint analysis of individual slurry spreading tracks to parameterise the NH3 volatilisation with a bi-exponential time dependence. Accordingly, track-resolved concentration footprints for the FTIR measurements were calculated using bLS. A consistency test with concentrations measured by impingers showed very low systematic deviations for the EC/HT-CIMS results (<8%) but larger deviations for the bLS/FTIR results. For both slurry application events, the period during fertilisation and the subsequent two hours contributed by more than 80% to the total field emissions. Averaged over the two measurement methods, the cumulated emissions of the first day amounted to 17 ± 3% loss of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen over the cropland and 16 ± 3% over the grassland field.

Sintermann, J.; Ammann, C.; Kuhn, U.; Spirig, C.; Hirschberger, R.; Gärtner, A.; Neftel, A.

2011-09-01

168

Modeling of dual emission laser induced fluorescence for slurry thickness measurements in chemical mechanical polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dual emission laser induced fluorescence (DELIF) is a technique for measuring the instantaneous thin fluid film thickness in dynamic systems. Two fluorophores within the system produce laser induced emissions that are filtered and captured by two cameras. The ratio of the images from these cameras is used to cancel the effect of the laser beam profile on the image intensity. The resultant intensity ratio can be calibrated to a fluid film thickness. The utilization of a 2-dye system when applied to Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) is complicated by the fluorescence of the polymeric polishing pad and the light scattering particles in the polishing slurry. We have developed a model of DELIF for CMP with 1-dye employing the polishing pad as the second fluorophore. While scattering particles in the slurry decrease the overall intensity of the individual images, the contrast in the image ratio increases. Using the 1-dye DELIF system to measure thin slurry films, our model results indicate that a cubic calibration may be needed. However, experimental results suggest a linear calibration is achieved for slurry films between 0 and 133 ?m thick with scattering coefficients as high as 8.66 mm-1 at a wavelength equal to 410 nm.

Gray, Caprice; Rogers, Chris B.; Manno, Vincent P.; White, Robert D.

2011-07-01

169

Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

Major, J.J.; Iverson, R.M.; McTigue, D.F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B.K.

1997-01-01

170

ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H  

SciTech Connect

Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron within 3.1 hours, and three rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron within 2.5 hours. (6) If the Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets are drawn through the pump, they will be further reduced in size, with a maximum drop size less than 15 micron.

Poirier, M.

2011-06-15

171

Atomization characteristics of coal-water slurry. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dwindling supplies of oil have led to increasing interest in alternative fuels which can be used to replace petroleum-derived liquid fuels. One such fuel is coal-water slurry. This study presents the atomization behavior of coal-water slurries at conditions typical of a gas turbine combustor. Slurry spray characteristics were determined using five different types of atomizer. The five nozzle types included

A. H. Lefebvre; P. E. Sojka

1986-01-01

172

Heat transfer and pressure drop in ice-water slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer and pressure drop were experimentally investigated for ice-water slurries flowing turbulently in a 24.0 mm internal diameter, 4.596 m long, horizontal, stainless steel tube. The slurry velocity of the experiments was varied from 2.8 to 5.0 m\\/s which encompassed the range of applicability to ice-water slurry-based district cooling systems. The previously reported phenomenon of flow relaminarization in ice-water

B. D. Knodel; D. M. France; M. W. Wambsganss

2000-01-01

173

Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries  

SciTech Connect

SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

Siler, J.L.

1999-12-08

174

Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

Rogozen, M.B.

1980-11-01

175

Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels  

DOEpatents

Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

Anderson, Chris M. (Shakopee, MN); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND); Mann, Michael D. (Thompson, ND); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Richter, John J. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); Willson, Warrack G. (Fairbanks, AK)

2000-01-01

176

Slurry Supplying Method for Large Quartz Glass Substrate Polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) has been used in polishing a photomask substrate in flat-panel display (FPD) manufacture. Moreover, the quadrilateral geometry of quartz glass used as the photomask substrate has been enlarged. However, the slurry cannot flow throughout the glass surface evenly owing to the enlarged substrate covering the center of the platen in the polishing process. In this work, we verified the beneficial of spreading slurry into a non-inflow region by the reinforced suction of the slurry supplied to the polishing pad through a hole at center of the platen. A fluorescent agent was used instead of the slurry for flow visualization.

Khajornrungruang, Panart; Kimura, Keiichi; Yui, Ryuji; Wada, Nagisa; Suzuki, Keisuke

2011-05-01

177

Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity  

SciTech Connect

The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

2000-05-03

178

Theoretical Prediction of Mass Transfer Coefficients in a Slurry Bubble Column Operated in the Homogeneous Regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

The classical penetration theory was corrected and then applied for the semi-theo- retical prediction of mass transfer coefficients kLa in a slurry bubble column operated in the homogeneous regime. The gas-liquid contact time was expressed as a ratio of bubble surface to the rate of surface formation. These terms were defined for the case of oblate ellipsoidal bubbles formed under

S. Nedeltchev; A. Schumpe

179

Elimination Of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In Defense Waste Processing Facility Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Based on lab-scale simulations of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) slurry chemistry, the addition of sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide to waste slurries at concentrations sufficient to take the aqueous phase into the alkaline region (pH > 7) with approximately 500 mg nitrite ion/kg slurry (assuming <25 wt% total solids, or equivalently 2,000 mg nitrite/kg total solids) is sufficient to effectively deactivate the noble metal catalysts at temperatures between room temperature and boiling. This is a potential strategy for eliminating catalytic hydrogen generation from the list of concerns for sludge carried over into the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) or Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). These conclusions are drawn in large part from the various phases of the DWPF catalytic hydrogen generation program conducted between 2005 and 2009. The findings could apply to various situations, including a solids carry-over from either the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) into the SMECT with subsequent transfer to the RCT, as well as a spill of formic acid into the sump system and transfer into an RCT that already contains sludge solids. There are other potential mitigating factors for the SMECT and RCT, since these vessels are typically operated at temperatures close to the minimum temperatures that catalytic hydrogen has been observed to occur in either the SRAT or SME (pure slurry case), and these vessels are also likely to be considerably more dilute in both noble metals and formate ion (the two essential components to catalytic hydrogen generation) than the two primary process vessels. Rhodium certainly, and ruthenium likely, are present as metal-ligand complexes that are favored under certain concentrations of the surrounding species. Therefore, in the SMECT or RCT, where a small volume of SRAT or SME material would be significantly diluted, conditions would be less optimal for forming or sustaining the catalytic ligand species. Such conditions are likely to adversely impact the ability of the transferred mass to produce hydrogen at the same rate (per unit mass SRAT or SME slurry) as in the SRAT or SME vessels.

Koopman, D. C.

2013-01-22

180

30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. 77.216-5 Section 77.216-5 Mineral...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. (a) Prior to abandonment of any water, sediment, or slurry...

2010-07-01

181

Mn2O3 Slurry Reuse by Circulation Achieving High Constant Removal Rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fumed silica is widely used in SiO2 chemical mechanical polishing (CMP). In semiconductor processes, only fresh slurry is used, and used slurry is disposed. Sustainable development demands a reduction in waste. Since reuse of slurry is effective for reducing the amount of used slurry generated, we investigated the reuse of Mn2O3 slurry and conventional fumed silica slurry. In both cases, abrasive concentration decreases as reuse time increases. The removal rate for Mn2O3 slurry maintains a value 4 times that of the conventional fumed silica slurry during slurry reuse, because the removal rate for Mn2O3 slurry is almost constant for solid concentrations between 1.0 and 10 wt %. Pad conditioning was not performed for Mn2O3 slurry. The removal rate for conventional slurry decreases as the number of times of reuse increases, even when pad conditioning is appropriately performed.

Kishii, Sadahiro; Nakamura, Ko; Hanawa, Kenzo; Watanabe, Satoru; Arimoto, Yoshihiro; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Doi, Toshiro K.

2012-04-01

182

By-pass pigs for two-phase flow pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Pigging two-phase pipelines normally leads to the generation of large liquid slug volumes in front of the pig requiring excessively large separators or slug catchers. The concept of using a high by-pass pig to disperse the liquid and reduce the maximum liquid production rate prior to pig arrival is under investigation by Shell Exploration and Production companies. A simulation model of the dynamics of the pig and related two-phase flow behavior in the pipeline was used to predict the performance of by-pass pigs. Field trials in a dry gas pipeline were carried out to provide friction data and to validate the model. It was then used to explore operating possibilities in a two-phase lie which led to the follow-up trial in a 15.6 km, 20 inch OD two-phase offshore interfield pipeline with risers. Whereas the volume of liquid swept in front of the pig would be 179 m{sup 3} if the by-pass fraction were zero, a reduction of 70% to 53m{sup 3} was achieved in the field with a by-pass fraction of 10%. The predicted mobility of the high by-pass pig in the pipeline and risers was verified and the beneficial effects due to the by-pass concept exceeded the prediction of the simplified model. The significant gains of using a by-pass pig in modifying gas and liquid production rates during pigging operation have been demonstrated. The method can widen the possibility of applying two-phase flow pipeline transportation to cases where separator or slug catcher capacity are limited for reasons of practicality or cost.

Wu, H.L.; Spronsen, G. van; Klaus, E.H.; Stewart, D.M.

1996-12-31

183

Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

McClaine, Andrew W.

2008-09-30

184

A slurry sampling method for the determination of iron and zinc in baby food by flame atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A slurry sampling method is proposed for the determination of iron and zinc in baby food by flame atomic absorption spectrometry without sample digestion prior to analysis. The effect of slurry concentration (the ratio of solid sample to total slurry volume), different acids at various concentrations as diluent and the addition of dispersant on accuracy and precision were investigated. The samples were dried at 105 °C overnight and ground using an agate mortar. To obtain quantitative recoveries, 500 mg of sample was slurried in 20 ml of 0.05% Triton X-114 containing 0.1 M HNO(3), homogenised using a high-performance overhead disperser at 15,000 rpm for 5 min and directly aspirated into the flame. The accuracy of the method was tested by determination of analytes in various certified reference materials. The limits of detection of the method (N = 10; 3?) for iron and zinc were 5.5 and 3.4 µg g(-1), respectively, using a very dilute slurry of baby food, which gave a very low background signal. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the determination of iron and zinc in different baby food samples obtained from markets in Turkey. The range of iron and zinc content for the samples were 33-76 and 15-73 µg g(-1), respectively. PMID:22103756

Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

2012-01-01

185

Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.  

PubMed

For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in WSI or WSS. In conclusion, none of the strategies generally used to minimize ammonia emissions impact positively on leaching potential relative to the traditional surface application of CS. Furthermore, some treatments, such as separation, might increase significantly the risk of leaching. PMID:25173728

Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

2014-12-15

186

Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts  

SciTech Connect

A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

McDaniel, E. W.

1980-10-01

187

Chlamydiaceae infections in pig  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

2011-01-01

188

A methodology to predict the uniformity of double-shell waste slurries based on mixer pump operation  

SciTech Connect

Dimensional analysis is used to determine the similarity parameters that describe the uniformity of radioactive slurry wastes to be suspended by mixer pumps. The results of this analysis are applied to the design of scaled experiments that will determine the operating parameters that will ensure an adequately uniform feed stream during waste retrieval from Hanford double-shell tanks. Ten dimensionless parameters describing the slurry mixing process were identified. Of these, three describe purely geometric features, three describe slurry properties only, one is a dimensionless time scale, and three describe important dynamic factors. The three parameters describing the dynamic features are the Reynolds number, which describes the degree of turbulence in the tank; the Froude number, which describes the effects of stratification on the circulation patterns; and the gravitational settling number, which describes the balance between the work done by gravity to cause settling and the work done by the pump to resuspend particles.

Liljegren, L.M.; Bamberger, J.A.

1992-08-01

189

Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials  

DOEpatents

A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

Hed, P. Paul (San Ramon, CA); Fuchs, Baruch A. (Aventura, FL)

2001-01-01

190

Effects of airflow on odorants' emissions in a model pig house - A laboratory study using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS).  

PubMed

Identification of different factors that affect emissions of gasses, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is necessary to develop emission abatement technology. The objectives of this research were to quantify and study temporal variation of gas emissions from a model pig house under varying ventilation rates. The used model was a 1:12.5 scale of a section of a commercial finishing pig house. The VOC concentrations at inlet, outlet, and slurry pit of the model space were measured using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). PTR-MS can measure the temporal variations of odor compounds' emission from the slurry pit in real time. The emissions of H(2)S and 14 VOCs were lower compared to real pig buildings except for ammonia, which indicated possible other sources of those compounds than the slurry in the slurry pit. The ventilation rate affected significantly on ammonia and trimethylamine emission (p<0.05). The hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emission was independent of the ventilation rate. VFAs' emission dependency on ventilation rate increased with the increase of carbon chain. Phenols, indoles and ketones showed the positive correlation with ventilation rate to some extent. Generally, compounds with high solubility (low Henry's constant) showed stronger correlation with ventilation rates than the compounds with high Henry's constant. PMID:21978617

Saha, Chayan Kumer; Feilberg, Anders; Zhang, Guoqiang; Adamsen, Anders Peter S

2011-12-01

191

Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

2014-10-01

192

Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

Rice, L.E. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Hughes, R.W. [Professional Services Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Baggett, G. [Genex/Praxair, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-01

193

Effects of coal slurry on wastewater bacteria and bacteriophage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal slurry was only mildly toxic to coliform bacteria, which serve as indicators of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater, and the fecal streptococci concentration appeared to remain essentially unchanged with respect to the wastewater control. Thus the results do not support the supposition that wastewater would be naturally disinfected in a coal slurry pipeline. On the other hand, at least 99.8%

L. W. Margler; M. B. Rogozen

1980-01-01

194

Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition

Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan

2010-01-01

195

Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry  

DOEpatents

A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

Costantini, Michael A. (Hudson, NH); Talbott, Jonathan A. (Amherst, NH); Chandra, Mohan (Merrimack, NH); Prasad, Vishwanath (East Setauket, NY); Caster, Allison (Nashua, NH); Gupta, Kedar P. (Merrimack, NH); Leyvraz, Philippe (Nashua, NH)

2000-09-05

196

Thermal and hydrodynamic considerations of ice slurry in heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article focuses on the behavior in heat exchangers of an ice slurry composed of fine ice particles inside an ethanol–water solution. The heat transfer and friction characteristics were studied in two double pipe heat exchangers, one with a smooth surface and another with an improved surface. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops were experimentally investigated for the slurry flowing

Jean-Pierre Bédécarrats; Françoise Strub; Christophe Peuvrel

2009-01-01

197

Flow structure and phase distributions in a slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the axial and radial distributions of the gas and solid concentrations in a slurry bubble column are measured by an ultrasonic penetration technique, which provides a method capable of monitoring simultaneously the concentrations of the gas bubbles and the solid particles in the system. The macroscopic flow structure of the slurry bubble column is analyzed based on

Warsito M. Ohkawa; A. Maezawa; S. Uchida

1997-01-01

198

EVALUATION OF CARBON BLACK SLURRIES AS CLEAN BURNING FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed to examine the pumpability, atomization and combustion characteristics of slurries made of mixtures of carbon black with No. 2 fuel oil and methanol. Carbon black-No. 2 fuel oil and carbon black-methanol slurries, with carbon black contents of up to 50 ...

199

Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 ± 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems. PMID:24140681

Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

2014-02-01

200

Virtual Pig Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dissection can be an aspect of scientific education that can make some parties queasy, but it is a fascinating way to learn more about the different body systems, their operations, and basic animal anatomy. Entering the world of pig dissection can make budding scientists even more squeamish, but they need never fear, as this site allows these individuals the opportunity to engage in a bit of virtual pig dissection. Originally created by Professor Earl W. Fleck of Whitman Collegeâ??s biology department, the site lets users go inside the pig to learn about its various systems, via a set of high-quality color photographs, which can be viewed at different angles and perspectives. Of course, what would a lab be without a quiz? Rounding out the site, visitors can take short quizzes on the pigâ??s anatomy and such.

Fleck, Earl W.

201

Heat transfer and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns for Fischer-Tropsch clean alternative energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing demand for alternative energy resources, the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process that converts synthesis gas into clean liquid fuels has attracted more interest from the industry. Slurry bubble columns are the most promising reactors for FT synthesis due to their advantages over other reactors. Successful operation, design, and scale-up of such reactors require detailed knowledge of hydrodynamics, bubble dynamics, and transport characteristics. However, most previous studies have been conducted at ambient pressure or covered only low superficial gas velocities. The objectives of this study were to experimentally investigate the heat transfer coefficient and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns at conditions that can mimic FT conditions. The air-C9C 11-FT catalysts/glass beads systems were selected to mimic the physical properties of the gas, liquid, and solid phases at commercial FT operating conditions. A heat transfer coefficient measurement technique was developed, and for the first time, this technique was applied in a pilot scale (6-inch diameter) high pressure slurry bubble column. The effects of superficial gas velocity, pressure, solids loading, and liquid properties on the heat transfer coefficients were investigated. Since the heat transfer coefficient can be affected by the bubble properties (Kumar et al., 1992), in this work bubble dynamics (local gas holdup, bubble chord length, apparent bubble frequency, specific interfacial area, and bubble velocity) were studied using the improved four-point optical probe technique (Xue et al., 2003; Xue, 2004). Because the four-point optical technique had only been successfully applied in a churn turbulent flow bubble column (Xue, 2004), this technique was first assessed in a small scale slurry bubble column in this study. Then the bubble dynamics were studied at the same conditions as the heat transfer coefficient investigation in the same pilot scale column. The results from four-point probe bubble dynamics study advanced the understanding of heat transfer in the slurry bubble column. This study also provides important benchmark information for the slurry bubble column design and the evaluation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

Wu, Chengtian

202

When Pigs Fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore probability. Learners brainstorm activities that are possible and impossible, make a flap book, and read and discuss the book, "Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs." Learners also investigate the probability of selecting a pink "pig" (pink cotton ball) from a bag containing varying amounts of pink and white "pigs" (cotton balls). Learners make predictions, record data, and graph the results. This activity is written as a four day lesson, but can be shortened into a one-time activity.

Utah LessonPlans

2012-10-22

203

Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

1984-06-01

204

Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries  

SciTech Connect

Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

1993-09-01

205

Effective Compressibility of a Bubbly Slurry.  

PubMed

The goal of this study is to fit model parameters to changes in waste level in response to barometric pressure changes in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. This waste compressibility is a measure of the quantity of gas, typically hydrogen and other flammable gases, that can pose a safety hazard, retained in the waste. A one-dimensional biconical-pore-network model for compressibility of a bubbly slurry is presented in a companion paper. Fitting these results to actual waste level changes in the tanks implies that bubbles in the slurry layer are long and the ratio of pore-body radius to pore-throat radius is close to 1; unfortunately, compressibility can not be quantified unambiguously from the data without additional information on pore geometry. Therefore, determining the quantity of gas in the tanks requires more than just waste-level data. The non-uniqueness of the fit is also found with two other simple models: a capillary-tube model with contact angle hysteresis and a spherical-pore model. Copyright 2001 Academic Press. PMID:11502128

Kam, S. I.; Gauglitz, P. A.; Rossen, W. R.

2001-09-01

206

By-pass pig passes test for two-phase pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model of the dynamics of a by-pass pig and related two-phase flow behavior along with field trials of the pig in a dry-gas pipeline have revealed significant gains in use of a by-pass pig in modifying gas and liquid production rates. The method can widen the possibility of applying two-phase flow pipeline transportation to cases in which separator

H. L. Wu; G. van Spronsen; E. H. Klaus; D. M. Stewart

1996-01-01

207

Effects of surface chemical and electrochemical factors on the dewatering characteristics of fine particle slurry.  

PubMed

Coal suspension was employed in vacuum filtration process to observe the dewatering characteristics of fine particle slurry. Generally, as the size of coal particle decreased, the specific resistance was increased and dewatering efficiency was reduced. Slurries containing the particles with a broad size range had a higher compressibility and could not filter easily if modified process was not applied. This study also investigated the effects of an anionic and a cationic surfactants on filterability by examining the surface property of coal particles. Dewatering was observed to be more efficient when cationic surfactant was used. To improve dewatering rate and to reduce the final moisture content of slurry, electrodewatering combined with vacuum filtration was applied. The effects of some different variables were examined, such as the type of surfactants, electrode (arrangements and materials), and the electrical parameters (voltage and current). By application of electrodewatering, dewatering efficiency was found to be enhanced compared to conventional vacuum filtration. The specific resistance was represented to be 0.3815 at 0 V, whereas it was shown to be 0.2113 and 0.1631 at 20 V under direct current and alternative current, respectively. PMID:15332676

Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su

2004-01-01

208

Topical skin targeting effect of penetration modifiers on hairless mouse skin, pig abdominal skin and pig ear skin.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study was to investigate the topical skin targeting effects and mechanism of combination penetration modifiers of 1,2-hexanediol (or 1,2-heptanediol) and 1,4-cyclohexanediol on transdermal absorption of metronidazole (MTZ) in different skin models. Methods: Six formulations were applied to pig abdominal skin and pig ear skin models, respectively, and the results were compared with the previous data on hairless mouse skin worked out by our laboratory. Four parameters (flux, Tlag, Q24 and targeting ratio) were used to evaluate permeability and targeting effect in skin. Results: The combined penetration modifiers played a general role on decreasing permeability without reducing skin retention. The most significant skin permeability decrement to MTZ was pig abdominal skin (permeability decrement was ?20% for hairless mouse skin, 60% for pig abdominal skin and 40% for pig ear skin, respectively) while the strongest skin targeting effect appeared in hairless mouse skin (targeting ratios were 1.79 for hairless mouse skin, 1.24 for pig abdominal skin and 1.05 for pig ear skin, respectively) under the role of penetration modifiers. Conclusions: Thickness of stratum corneum (SC) was the major factor impact on skin targeting effect. Selection criteria of skin models also have been discussed in this study. PMID:24329579

Yu, Meng; Guo, Fang; Ling, Ying; Li, Nan; Tan, Fengping

2013-12-13

209

A Simple "Pig" Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

Johnson, Roger W.

2008-01-01

210

Sokosi Aliah = Little Pigs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Written in Choctaw and English, the illustrated booklet presents a Choctaw version of "This Little Pig Went to Market." The finger play activity emphasizes Choctaw values and cultural information such as generosity, humor, traditional clothing, designs, food, sports and art. The last page provides a teacher's guide with objectives and six…

Boykin, Deborah; And Others

211

Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

1999-08-01

212

Coal-water slurry and method for its preparation  

SciTech Connect

A pipeline pumpable coal-water slurry having a novel combination of coal particles and carrier water is prepared by a method wherein the particle sizes and their distribution are controlled in accordance with a particle size distribution formula which is especially beneficial for providing a novel coal compact with a minimum amount of void space between particles and a maximum amount of particle surface area with an advantageous amount of colloidal sized particles present. These features combine to enhance the dispersing effects generated by electrolytes and/or dispersing agents selected and added to the coal compact and/or slurry to provide a near maximum zeta potential to the particles in the slurry and to provide low viscosity to the resulting yield pseudoplastic coal-water slurry. Brookfield viscosities obtained, e.g., 1000 cps, or less, at 60 rpm with 75 wt. % coal, dry basis, make the coal-water slurry especially advantageous for transport by pipeline over long distances. The coal-water slurry can be provided at a high coal content so that the slurry can be burned directly without need for dewatering at its destination.

Funk, J.E.

1981-08-04

213

Ice slurry cooling development and field testing  

SciTech Connect

A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

Kasza, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hietala, J. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Wendland, R.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Collins, F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

214

Ice slurry cooling development and field testing  

SciTech Connect

A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-07-01

215

Slurry Bubble Column Reactor Optimization (book chapter)  

SciTech Connect

Slurry bubble column reactors (SBCR) are the preferred contactors for the conversion of syngas to fules and chemicals partially due to their superior heat and mass transfer characteristics. The multiphase fluid dynamics in these systems greatly affect the reactor volumetric productivity. Here, we have developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assisted design methodology for searching the optimum particle size for maximum production in a SBCR. Reactor optimization due to heat exchanger configuration was also investigated. We have rearranged the heat exchangers in a SBCR and constructed a CFD model for a baffled reactor. The novel arrangement of the exchangers prevents the unfavorable high catalysts concentration at the lower stage of the reactor. Thus an optimum catalyst concentration is maintained during the course of the production of liquid fuels.

Gamwo, I.K.; Gidaspow, D. (Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL); Jung, J. (ANL)

2007-03-01

216

Abundance and distribution of feral pigs at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, 2010-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 2010–2013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (±105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (±88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.

Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steve J.

2013-01-01

217

By-pass pig passes test for two-phase pipelines  

SciTech Connect

A simulation model of the dynamics of a by-pass pig and related two-phase flow behavior along with field trials of the pig in a dry-gas pipeline have revealed significant gains in use of a by-pass pig in modifying gas and liquid production rates. The method can widen the possibility of applying two-phase flow pipeline transportation to cases in which separator or slug-catcher capacity is limited by practicality or cost. Pigging two-phase pipelines normally generates large liquid slug volumes in front of the pig. These require large separators or slug catchers. Using a high by-pass pig to disperse the liquid and reduce the maximum liquid production rate before pig arrival has been investigated by Shell Exploration and Production companies. A simulation model of the dynamics of the pig and related two-phase flow behavior in the pipeline was used to predict the performance of by-pass pigs. Field trials in a dry-gas pipeline were carried out to provide friction data and to validate the model. The predicted mobility of the high by-pass pig in the pipeline and risers was verified and the beneficial effects due to the by-pass concept exceeded the prediction of the simplified model.

Wu, H.L.; Spronsen, G. van; Klaus, E.H.; Stewart, D.M.

1996-10-14

218

Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the basic parameters which directly influence the behavior of a coal slurry pipeline transportation system and determine the limitations of the system performance. The purpose of this technology assessment is to provide an identification and understanding of the critical factors which must be given consideration in the design and evaluation of such a slurry haulage system intended for use in an underground coal mine. The slurry haulage system will be utilized to satisfy the transportation requirements of conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location near the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located on the surface. Coal-water slurries, particularly those consisting of homogeneous suspensions of small particles, frequently behave as non-Newtonian, Bingham-plastic fluids. For successful operation, slurry transport systems should be designed to operate in the turbulent flow regime and at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity. The deposition velocity is defined as the slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe. Due to the importance of accurately determining the deposition velocity and the uncertainties of current methods for predicting the deposition velocity of coarse particle slurries, it is recommended that experimental efforts be performed as a part of the system design. The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the mine's projected coal output in order to avoid operational delays and the necessity for in-mine coal storage. The slurry pumps must generate sufficient discharge pressure to overcome the resultant friction losses in horizontal and vertical pipe sections and to satisfy the slurry hoisting requirements.

Maynard, D.P.

1981-02-15

219

Shear-induced structures and thickening in fumed silica slurries.  

PubMed

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is an essential technology used in the semiconductor industry to polish and planarize a variety of materials for the fabrication of microelectronic devices (e.g., computer chips). During the high shear (~1,000,000 s(-1)) CMP process, it is hypothesized that individual slurry particles are driven together to form large agglomerates (?0.5 ?m), triggering a shear thickening effect. These shear-induced agglomerates are believed to cause defects during polishing. In this study, we examined the shear thickening of a 25 wt % fumed silica slurry with 0.17 M added KCl using in situ small-angle light scattering during rheological characterization (rheo-SALS). The salt-adjusted slurry displays a ~3-fold increase in viscosity at a critical shear rate of 20,000 s(-1) during a stepped shear rate ramp from 100 to 25,000 s(-1). As the shear rate is reduced back to 100 s(-1), the slurry displays irreversible thickening behavior with a final viscosity that is 100-times greater than the initial viscosity. Corresponding rheo-SALS images indicate the formation of micrometer scale structures (2-3 ?m) that directly correlate with the discontinuous and irreversible shear thickening behavior of the fumed silica slurry; these micrometer scale structures are 10-times the nominal particle diameter (~0.2 ?m). The scattering patterns from the 25 wt % slurry were corroborated through rheo-SALS examination of 27 and 29 wt % slurries (C(KCl) = 0.1 M). All slurries, regardless of ionic strength and solids loading, display scattering patterns that are directly associated with the observed thickening behavior. Scattering was only observable during and after thickening (i.e., no scattering was detected in the absence of thickening). This work serves as the first in situ observation of micrometer scale structures within the fumed silica CMP slurry while under shear. PMID:24063640

Crawford, Nathan C; Williams, S Kim R; Boldridge, David; Liberatore, Matthew W

2013-10-22

220

Experimental investigation of an applicator of liquid slurry, from biogas production, for crop production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A unit for the application of liquid digested slurry in the field was designed and developed. The developed slurry applicator had a capacity of 1500 L and was pulled by a 35 h.p. tractor. The liquid digested slurry of a biogas plant was pumped in to the tank with the help of a slurry pump. The necessary power transmission system,

A. K. Kurchania; N. L. Panwar

2011-01-01

221

Response of Maize Yield, Nitrate Leaching, and Soil Nitrogen to Pig Slurry Combined with Mineral Nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

ect nitrate concentrations and loads in drainage and receiving water bodies. To protect water resources, many agricultural areas are being designated as vulnerable to nitrate contamination, and there is a need for scientifi c data aiming at reducing nitrate exports from these vulnerable zones by optimizing N fertilization strategies. Th e objective of this work, conducted in drainage lysimeters in

María R. Yagüe; Dolores Quílez; Tecnología Agroalimentaria

222

ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY  

SciTech Connect

A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

2012-03-27

223

Char-water slurry fuel and method of making  

SciTech Connect

A method of producing a slurry usable as a fuel source is provided which comprises combining the char obtained from the pyrolysis of coal or other feedstocks under mild temperatures with water to produce a char-water slurry. The char-water slurry fuel source can be utilized by combustion or gasification with a high efficiency, and can be prepared using previously underutilized low-rank coals which have a high moisture content. The present invention maximizes efficiency in the overall processing of coal and other feedstocks and provides an alternative method of utilizing indigenous coal resources in the United States and other countries. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Khan, M.R.

1990-01-29

224

Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries  

SciTech Connect

A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

Coleman, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-01-08

225

Risk factors for Salmonella seroconversion of fattening pigs in farrow-to-finish herds  

E-print Network

the effects of explanatory variables on the time to Salmonella seroconversion of pigs. Applying group level for human Salmonella infections and pose potential threats to consumers. Positive Salmonella status1 Risk factors for Salmonella seroconversion of fattening pigs in farrow-to-finish herds Pierre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

226

Forced convection heat transfer with phase-change-material slurries: Turbulent flow in circular tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates the increase in the convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the increase in the thermal capacity of a working fluid by using the latent heat from a solid-liquid phase change of particles. A long heating test section (627 diameters) with a uniform heat flux boundary condition is constructed in order to study the effects of the phase-change phenomenon produced by a phase-change-material (PCM) -- water slurry on the convective heat transfer coefficient in a turbulent flow. The study introduces a method to generate very fine PCM particles inside a flow loop using an emulsifier. With such fine PCM particles, the flow loop did not clog. Local pressure drops and local heat transfer coefficients are measured along the test section. The pressure drop significantly decreased at the point where the PCM particles in the slurry melted. The local convective heat transfer coefficient was found to vary significantly when the particles melted. This made it difficult to apply the log-mean-temperature-difference (LMTD) method to the analysis of the PCM slurry flow heat transfer. The study proposes a new three-region melting model, and provides an explanation of the physical mechanism of the convective heat transfer enhancement due to the PCM particles.

Choi, Eunsoo; Cho, Young I.; Lorsch, Harold G.

1994-01-01

227

Determination of field scale ammonia emissions for common slurry spreading practice with two independent methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At a cropland and a grassland site field scale ammonia (NH3) emissions from slurry application were determined simultaneously by two approaches based on (i) eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using high temperature Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (HT-CIMS) and on (ii) backward Lagrangian Stochastic (bLS) dispersion modelling using concentration measurements by three optical open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) systems. Slurry was spread on the fields in sequential tracks over a period of one to two hours. In order to calculate field emissions, measured EC/HT-CIMS fluxes were combined with flux footprint analysis of individual slurry spreading tracks to parameterise the NH3 volatilisation with a bi-exponential time dependence. Accordingly, track-resolved concentration footprints for the FTIR measurements were calculated using bLS. Comparison of concentrations calculated from the parameterised fluxes with concentrations measured by impingers showed that the EC/HT-CIMS emissions on the two fertilisations corresponded to the impinger concentrations within 10 % while the bLS/FTIR results showed larger deviations. For both events, the period during fertilisation and the subsequent two hours contributed by more than 80 % to the total field emissions. Averaged over the two measurement methods, the cumulated emissions of the first day amounted to 17 ± 3 % loss of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen over the cropland and 16 ± 3 % over the grassland field.

Sintermann, J.; Ammann, C.; Kuhn, U.; Spirig, C.; Hirschberger, R.; Gärtner, A.; Neftel, A.

2011-05-01

228

Identification of flow regime in a slurry bubble column by Hilbert-Huang transform analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional (2-D) slurry bubble column, which had a length of 0.1m, a width of 0.01m and a total height of 0.8m. The gas phase was oil-free air, tap water was used as the liquid phase, glass powders with particle diameter of 58?m-75?m constituted the solid phase, which belonged to the Geldart A particles. Time-domain analysis and the Hilbert-Huang transform methods were employed to analyze the differential pressure signals obtained and to identify the transition points of the flow regimes in the slurry bubble column. Useful qualitative and quantitative information about the changes in flow structure and particle distributions were extracted. Changes in the standard deviation, skewness and flatness of measured pressure time series with superficial gas velocity are proposed. Hilbert-Huang transform was applied to extract information from signals, and flow structures of the slurry bubble column were characterized by the energy distribution of the multi-resolution signals and the EMD energy entropy. Particle distributions were obtained and analyzed from flow pattern images.

Li, Weiling; Zhong, Wenqi; Jin, Baosheng; Xiao, Rui

2013-06-01

229

Effect of Livestock Slurry Ozonation and Separation on pH, Particles, and Phosphate.  

PubMed

Applying slurry to arable land as fertilizer increases the risk of phosphorus (P) runoff and thereby increases the risk of eutrophication. Solid-liquid separation can reduce the excess application of P, and this study focused on the use of ozonation as an alternative chemical pretreatment for separation to improve P separation efficiency. Sow and cattle slurries were separated by screw press and flocculation+filtration. The screw press and flocculation liquid fractions and raw slurries were treated with no ozone or with low-, medium-, or high-ozone doses and then separated by centrifugation. The pH, particle size distribution, dry matter, and dissolved phosphate (PO) concentrations were measured. For separations without ozonation, pH increased by 0.15 to 0.87 pH units, and correlation analysis showed that the dissolved PO concentration decreased with increasing pH and particle removal efficiency. During ozonation, pH increased, and a shift in particle size distribution in the liquid fraction combined with an improved dry matter separation indicated particle aggregation. Ozonation thus affected the parameters found to affect dissolved PO separation, and at the highest ozone dose, dissolved PO separation efficiency increased by 7 to 81%. An ozonation pretreatment may therefore promote removal of dissolved PO from the liquid fraction during separation. PMID:25602833

Pedersen, Christina Ø; Hjorth, Maibritt; Hutchings, Nicholas J

2014-05-01

230

Fiber-related digestive processes in three different breeds of pigs.  

PubMed

The hypothesis examined in this experiment was that, because of intensive selection for greater daily BW gains and efficient utilization of concentrated low-fiber diets, modern pig breeds differ from old local breeds in their physiological ability to respond to soluble dietary fiber. Thus, the old local breeds, Schwaebisch Haellisches Schwein (SH) and Bunte Bentheimer (BB), and a modern crossbred pig (CB) were used in metabolism trials to study fiber-related digestion, including microbial hindgut fermentation, by applying a colon simulation technique (Cositec) and measuring intestinal glucose transport in Ussing chambers. A basal diet or basal plus 20% dried sugar beet pulp (SBP) as a soluble fiber source was fed to 6 pigs/breed in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Four pigs of each breed per treatment were used for intestinal anatomical measurements at the end of the metabolism trials. The pigs had an initial average BW of 33.9 +/- 3.7 kg. The basal diet was formulated to meet 80% of energy and 100% of nutrient requirements for pigs with 700 g of ADG. Feeding the SBP diet reduced total intestinal tract, but it increased colon length, water-holding capacity of the digesta, and fecal bulk (P < 0.01). The digestibility of OM, CP, and ether extract decreased, whereas that of NDF and ADF increased, by SBP (P = 0.001). Pigs receiving SBP excreted less urinary N and retained more N (P = 0.001). The fecal proportions of undigested dietary and water soluble N increased and those of bacterial and endogenous debris N decreased (P < 0.05) in SBP-fed pigs. The SH pigs had lighter empty cecum weight, shorter colons, and less NDF digestibility than BB and CB pigs (P < 0.05). Fecal N excretion did not differ (P = 0.659) among breeds, but SH pigs excreted more urinary N (P = 0.001) than the other breeds. In Cositec, OM, NDF, and ADF disappearance rates from cecal chyme of SBP-fed pigs increased (P < 0.05) irrespective of pig breed. Cecal chyme of SBP-fed BB pigs produced more VFA with a smaller proportion of propionate and a larger acetate to propionate ratio than chyme of SBP-fed SH and CB pigs. The intestinal epithelial glucose transport was greater for ileal than for jejunal tissues (P < 0.001) but was not influenced by diet and pig breed. In conclusion, the modern and intensely selected pig breed can utilize SBP fiber as efficiently as the old pig breeds under the present experimental conditions. PMID:19933429

von Heimendahl, E; Breves, G; Abel, H J

2010-03-01

231

Modeling the structure of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a model of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays and presents new experimental data for CWS viscosities. The model is based on the aerodynamic theory of spray atomization which has been successfully used for Diesel sprays. However...

Prithiviraj, Manikandan

1993-01-01

232

Slurry F-T reactor hydrodynamics and scale-up  

SciTech Connect

The Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of hydrocarbons by the hydrogenation of carbon monoxide over a catalyst via the indirect liquefaction route has only been demonstrated on a commercial scale in fixed-bed and entrained-bed reactors. The slurry reactor has been found to offer important advantages, such as low H/sub 2//CO feed ratios and isothermal stability on the laboratory and pilot-plant scale. Recent findings concerning slurry bubble column hydrodynamics are presented, and their relevance to slurry F-T reactor design and scale-up are discussed. The need for optimization of a slurry F-T reactor is apparent owing in large part to the nonselective formation of products on the catalyst, and the influence of hydrodynamics on the overall conversion of reactants. In this regard, the important transport resistances in the formation of products, and the influence of reactor dimensions on reactor performance are discussed. 9 refs., 14 figs., 1 tab.

Smith, D.N.; O'Dowd, W.; Ruether, J.A.; Stiegel, G.J.; Shah, Y.T.

1984-01-01

233

Heat transfer investigations in a slurry bubble column  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discussed are the fabrication and installation of the 10.8 cm internal diameter Plexiglas slurry bubble column as well as of the associated gas and slurry flow loops. The heat transfer probes together with its power supply system, and temperature measurement circuit as well as details of this facility and the results of some of the preliminary test runs completed to date are described. Substantial design and partial fabrication of the 30.5 cm diameter pyrex glass slurry bubble column has been completed, and many components required to complete the remaining parts of the system are under order. Review and collection of the literature dealing with the hydrodynamics and heat transfer in two- and three-phase slurry bubble columns has been initiated.

Saxena, S. C.; Vadivel, R.; Zhou, S.

234

Supercritical extraction of organic mixtures from soil-water slurries  

E-print Network

Supercritical C02was used to extract orgamc rruxtures from soil-water slurries. The extent of extraction and the equilibrium distribution of the mixture and of the individual components were determined. A single stage batch vessel was used...

Green, Lynda Ann

1994-01-01

235

KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter ({alpha}) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number. Predicted molar flow rates of inorganic species, n-paraffins and total olefins were generally not in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. In the future we'll use kinetic models based on non-constant value of {alpha}.

Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

2005-09-29

236

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32{degrees}C by absorbing water at 25{degrees}C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33{degrees}C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng

1990-12-31

237

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

Nodd, Dennis G. (West Mifflin, PA); Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

238

Solids flow mapping in a high pressure slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful design and scale-up of Slurry Bubble Column Reactors (SBCRs) require proper understanding of how operating conditions affect their flow behavior. Presently, there is little information on the flow dynamics of solids (e.g., distribution of velocities and turbulent parameters) in slurry systems that are operated at industrially relevant conditions of high pressure, high superficial gas velocities, and high solids loading.Computer

Novica Rados; Ashfaq Shaikh; Muthanna H. Al-Dahhan

2005-01-01

239

Effective use of fly ash slurry as fill material.  

PubMed

A lot of effort has been put into increasing coal ash utilization; however, 50% of total amount is disposed of on land and in the sea. Several attempts have been reported recently concerning slurried coal fly ash use for civil engineering materials, such as for structural fill and backfill. The authors have studied this issue for more than 15 years and reported its potential for (1) underwater fills, (2) light weight backfills, and (3) light weight structural fills, through both laboratory tests and construction works. This paper is an overview of the results obtained for slurry, focusing on the following. (1) Coal fly ash reclaimed by slurry placement shows lower compressibility, higher ground density, and higher strength than by the other methods. This higher strength increases stability against liquefaction during earthquake. (2) Higher stability of the fly ash ground formed by slurry placement is caused by higher density and its self-hardening property. (3) Stability of fly ash reclaimed ground can be increased by increasing density and also by strength enhancement by cement addition. (4) Technical data obtained through a man-made island construction project shows the advantages of fly ash slurry in terms of mechanical properties such as higher stability against sliding failure, sufficient ground strength, and also in terms of cost saving. (5) Concentration in leachates from the placed slurry is lower than the Japanese environmental law. (6) In order to enlarge the fly ash slurry application toward a lightweight fill, mixtures of air foam, cement and fly ash were examined. Test results shows sufficient durability of this material against creep failure. This material was then used as lightweight structural fill around a high-rise building, and showed sufficient quality. From the above data, it can be concluded that coal fly ash slurry can be effectively utilized in civil engineering projects. PMID:10936540

Horiuchi, S; Kawaguchi, M; Yasuhara, K

2000-09-15

240

Influence of Bovine Slurry Deposition on the Structure of Nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Soil Populations in a Natural Habitat  

PubMed Central

The population of nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae in soil from a grass-covered valley area which had been used for bovine slurry deposition over a period of 5 years was analyzed. For these studies, a rapid and reproducible method based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to identify Rhizobium strains which had infected pea nodules. Soil samples were taken from different areas and further analyzed in plant tests to determine the impact of the application of slurry (polluted or nonpolluted), the slope position (summit or toe), and exposure (north or south). After comparison of all PCR fingerprint patterns, 24 strain groups were defined. Some strain groups from the nonpolluted soil were suppressed in the polluted samples, and new strain groups were detected in the slurry-polluted soil. After analyzing relationships between the strain groups, we determined the influences of local factors on the nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population. We show that one of those local parameters, slope position, had significantly greater impact on the composition of the Rhizobium population than the presence of slurry. PMID:16535318

Labes, G.; Ulrich, A.; Lentzsch, P.

1996-01-01

241

Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the different stages of pig manure composting plants  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in pig manure composting plants located in Spain. For this purpose, a total of 594 samples were taken in 54 sampling sessions from the different stages of composting treatment in these plants as follows: slurry reception ponds, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, fermentation zone and composting final products. HEV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in four (80%) of five plants studied, mainly in the first stages of the process. HEV was not detected in any final product (compost) sample, destined to be commercialized as a soil fertilizer, suggesting that composting is a suitable method to eliminate HEV and thus, to reduce the transmission of HEV from pigs to humans. PMID:24206540

García, M; Fernández-Barredo, S; Pérez-Gracia, M T

2014-01-01

242

Exporting Colorado water in coal slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

The San Marco Pipeline Company has proposed a 1000 mile (1610 km) pipeline system to move coal slurry from southeastern Colorado to several electrical generating plants in the Texas Gulf Coast area. This area of Colorado is experiencing severe water shortage problems due to the large amount of water used for irrigation. Colorado statutes restrict the diversion of both surface and ground water for out-of-state use unless such water is credited to interstate compacts. Water has been found by the courts to be a commodity or article of commerce, therefore subject to federal constitutional scrutiny under the commerce clause. The constitutionality of Colorado's statutes, depends upon the nature of the restrictions imposed, the severity of the burden created, and the local purposes served by the statutes. Statutes will be upheld only where they incidentally burden or discriminate against interstate commerce. States may impose severe restrictions on diverting water for out-of-state uses provide the same type of restrictions are imposed on in state use.

Massey, D.T.

1985-04-01

243

Low phytate corn feed reduces swine slurry P content without affecting crop P availability in slurry applied soils  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional corn feed contains phosphorus (P) in a form that monogastric animals such as swine and poultry can not use efficiently. Poor use efficiency of feed P requires P supplements be added to the diet and results in manure having a high P content. Land application of this manure, at rates to me...

244

Technology And Pregnant Pigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

1978-01-01

245

Determination of chromium by GFAAS in slurries of fish feces to estimate the apparent digestibility of nutrients in feed used in pisciculture.  

PubMed

This paper presents a simple, fast and sensitive method to determine chromic oxide (used as a biological marker of fish feed) in samples of fish feces by GFAAS through the direct introduction of slurries of the samples into the spectrometer's graphite tube. The standard samples of feces and of fish feed containing 0.10-1.00mgkg(-1) of Cr(2)O(3) were pre-frozen for 1min in liquid nitrogen and then ground a cryogenic mill for 2min, which reduced the samples' grain size to less than 60mum. The standard slurries were prepared by mixing 20mg of standard samples of fish feed or feces with 1mL of a solution containing 0.05% (v/v) of Triton X-100 and 0.50% (v/v) of suprapure HNO(3) directly in the spectrometer's automatic sampling glass. The final concentrations of Cr(2)O(3) present in the standard slurries were 2, 4, 8, 16 and 20mugL(-1). After sonicating the mixture for 20s, 10muL of standard slurries were injected into the graphite tube, whose internal wall was lined with a metallic palladium film that acted as a permanent chemical modifier. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) calculated for 20 readings of the blank of the standard slurries (2%, m/v of feces or feed devoid of minerals) were 0.81 and 2.70mugL(-1) of Cr(2)O(3) for the standard feces slurries, 0.84 and 2.83mugL(-1) of Cr(2)O(3) for the standard feed slurries. The proposed method was applied in studies of nutrient digestibility of different fish feeds and its results proved compatible with the results obtained from samples pre-mineralized by acid digestion. PMID:18970675

Silva, Fabio Arlindo; Padilha, Cilene C Federici; Pezzato, Luis Edvaldo; Barros, Margarida Maria; Padilha, Pedro M

2006-06-15

246

Effect of Groove Pattern of Chemical Mechanical Polishing Pad on Slurry Flow Behavior  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In chemical mechanical polishing (CMP), the slurry flow behavior on the polishing pad is very important both for improving polishing effectiveness and for reducing the slurry consumption. In this study, we aim to evaluate two types of CMP pad that have unique special groove patterns, slurry outflow and inflow pads, for controlling the slurry flow behavior. We describe the effect of the groove patterns on the slurry flow behavior observed using images recorded using a high-speed digital camera. The results of the study indicate several advantages of the proposed pads over the conventional pads from the viewpoint of slurry flow behavior.

Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Doi, Toshiro K.; Uneda, Michio; Kurokawa, Syuhei; Ohnishi, Osamu; Seshimo, Kiyoshi; Aida, Hideo

2012-05-01

247

Slurry sampling for electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometric determination of chromium, nickel, lead and cadmium in sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slurry technique was applied for determination of chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in sewage sludge by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The graphite furnace temperature programme was optimised. Suspensions prepared in a medium containing 0.5 and 5.0% (v\\/v) HNO3 and 0.5 and 5.0 HNO3 with 0.5% (m\\/v) glycerol were introduced directly into the furnace. The reliability

Danuta Bara?kiewicz; Jerzy Siepak

2001-01-01

248

Analysis of distributions of gas and TiO 2 particles in slurry bubble column using ultrasonic computed tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrasonic computed tomography (UCT) as a coupling of the ultrasonic transmission method and the image reconstruction technique based on the iterative filtered back-projection was applied to investigate the cross-sectional distributions of gas and particle holdups in a slurry bubble column. The dispersion system of air–water–TiO2 was used in this study. The loading of the titanium dioxide particle has affected

M. B. Utomo; W. Warsito; T. Sakai; S. Uchida

2001-01-01

249

The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

Arnold, Arthur

1988-01-01

250

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hotcathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application

Ian G. Brown; B. F. Galvin; J. E. Galvin; Robert A. MacGill

1985-01-01

251

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode Penning ionization gauge (PIG) ion source was investigated. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may

I. G. Brown; J. E. Galvin; B. F. Gavin; R. A. MacGill

1984-01-01

252

Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

Dudukovic, M.P.

1999-05-14

253

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction. The three routes to be investigated are: addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. Work conducted during the first quarter has concentrated in the design of a laboratory-scale bubble column slurry reactor (BCSR) capable of operating at suitable temperatures and pressures for each of the three routes defined above. For design purposes the reactor has been configured as a one-inch diameter bubble column reactor for conversion of synthesis gas and operating with a wax paraffin (C{sub 30}{sup +}) liquid medium. This design has been finalized, thereby reaching milestone M1. The paper discusses the important design parameters (hydrodynamics, mass transfer, kinetics, and heat transfer) as well as the relationship of lab scale to industrial scale BCSR, parameter estimations, and the design of the bench-scale BCSR. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Marcelin, G.

1991-02-28

254

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins. Work conducted during the second quarter has concentrated in two specific areas: (1) the construction of a laboratory-scale bubble column slurry reactor (BCSR) for use in the study of each of the three routes defined above, and (2) initial selection, characterization and screening of zeolite catalysts for schemes 1 and 2 above. The design of the reactor was completed in the last quarter and its design described in Quarterly Report No. 1. Various catalysts suitable for reaction schemes 1 and 2 have been identified. 4 figs., 9 tabs.

Marcelin, G.

1991-05-22

255

Coal-water slurry operation in an EMD diesel engine  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center has assumed a leadership role in the development of coal-burning diesel engines. The motivation for this work is obvious when one considers the magnitude of the domestic reserves of coal and the wide-spread use of diesel engines. The work reported in this paper represents the preliminary engine experiments leading to the development of a coal-burning, medium-speed diesel engine. The basis of this development effort is a two-stroke, 900 rpm, 216-mm (8.5-inch) bore engine manufactured by Electro-Motive Division of General Motors Corporation. The engine, in a minimally modified form, has been operated for several hours on a slurry of 50 percent (by mass) coal in water. Engine operation was achieved in this configuration using a pilot injection of diesel fuel to ignite the main charge of slurry. A standard unit injector, slightly modified by increasing diametrical clearances in the injector pump and nozzle tip, was used to inject the slurry. Under the engine operating conditions evaluated, the combustion efficiency of the coal and the NO/sub x/ emissions were lower than, and the particulate emissions were higher than, corresponding diesel fuel results. These initial results, achieved without optimizing the system on the coal slurry, demonstrate the potential for utilizing coal slurry fuels.

Urban, C.M.; Mecredy, H.E.; Ryan, T.W. III; Ingalls, M.N.

1988-01-01

256

Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices  

DOEpatents

An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

2014-11-18

257

Foam pigs solve pipe cleaning problems offshore Brazil  

SciTech Connect

Pipeline systems in which conventional pigs cannot be run are common in such complex offshore installations as are found in Brazil`s Campos basin. These systems may contain changing pipe diameters or wet christmas trees and manifolds. A new concept for using low cost, low-density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase pipelines has been successfully tested offshore Brazil. Although the present discussion focuses on condensate and paraffin removal in pipelines, the principles can be applied to several kinds of operations including general pipeline cleaning, product removal or separation in pipeline, corrosion evaluation, and chemical product application.

Lima, P.C.R.; Neto, S.J.A. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-10-02

258

Applied Rheology Volume 19 Issue 3  

E-print Network

34288-1 Applied Rheology Volume 19 · Issue 3 Converting torque measurements in a Cou- ette stress, due to the possi- ble existence of an unsheared region at the fixed cylinder [9]. In the past paste and fresh concrete [5], and semisolid metal slurries [6]. An interesting arti- cle discussing

Georgiou, Georgios

259

Functionalized bio-artifact fabricated via selective slurry extrusion. Part 1: Preparation of slurry containing tourmaline superfine powders.  

PubMed

The far infrared dental porcelain slurry for fabricating artificial tooth via selective slurry extrusion (SSE) of solid freeform fabrication (also known as rapid prototyping) techniques was prepared by using tourmaline as additive and employing ball-milling approach. After characterization by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, it was found that the far infrared emission properties of the dental porcelain were apparently improved in the ranges of 2000-1201 cm(-1) and 881-600 cm(-1). This is due to the increase of the number of infrared active bonds that are from the tourmaline superfine powders. Moreover, it was also found that the tourmaline superfine powders can improve the pseudo-plastic properties of dental porcelain slurries, which results from the increase of the absolute value of zeta potential of the suspensions. Slurries with pseudo-plastic behavior are highly desirable in controlling the shape of the extrudate during solid freeform fabrication. With the functionalized material, a variety of bio-artifacts beneficial to body health can be built by using selective slurry extrusion machine. PMID:22409019

Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Qu, Yunxia; Liu, Yushan

2011-12-01

260

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

1985-11-05

261

Commerce clause and water availability issues concerning coal slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

As is the case with nearly every major energy development proposal today, the coal slurry pipeline debate is tremendously complex, impacting many traditional legal concepts of water rights, land ownership, and industrial/environmental regulation. And, as with too many of those issues, wherein lies both short and long-term solutions to the national energy problem, this debate may well outlast the usefulness of the technology. The regulation of the use of water in the coal slurry pipeline under a significant limitation, the commerce clause of the federal constitution, is examined in depth. The Wyoming regulatory approach will be used as a case study because of Wyoming's potential development of coal resources using the slurry pipeline to transport the coal and because of Wyoming's recent involvement in addressing the pipeline issues.

McDaniel, R.

1980-01-01

262

Pharmacologically Stimulated Pupil and Accommodative Changes in Guinea Pigs  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The guinea pig is being used increasingly as a model of human myopia. As accommodation may influence the effects of manipulations used in experimental myopia models, understanding the accommodative ability of guinea pigs is important. Here, nonselective muscarinic agonists were used as pharmacological tools to study guinea pig accommodation. Methods. Measurements were made on 15 pigmented guinea pigs. For in vivo testing, animals were anesthetized and, following baseline measurements, 2% pilocarpine was applied topically. Measurements included A-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, corneal topography, and refraction. In vitro lens scanning experiments were performed using anterior segment preparations, with measurements before and during exposure to carbachol. Anterior segment structures were examined histologically and immunohistochemistry was done to characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes present. Results. In vivo, pilocarpine induced a myopic shift in refractive error coupled to a small, but consistent decrease in anterior chamber depth (ACD), a smaller and more variable increase in lens thickness, and a decrease in pupil size. Lens thickness increases were short-lived (10 minutes), while ACD and pupil size decreased over 20 minutes. Corneal curvature was not significantly affected. Carbachol tested on anterior segment preparations in vitro was without effect on lens back vertex distance, but did stimulate pupil constriction. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of muscarinic receptor subtypes 1 to 5 in the iris and ciliary body. Conclusions. The observed pilocarpine-induced changes in ACD, lens thickness, and refraction are consistent with active accommodation in the guinea pig, through cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. PMID:25097245

Ostrin, Lisa A.; Garcia, Mariana B.; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

2014-01-01

263

Application of bimetallic iron (BioCAT slurry) for pentachlorophenol removal from sandy soil.  

PubMed

Bimetallic iron nanoparticles have mostly been applied to the degradation of chlorinated compounds in the aqueous phase. In this study, the degradation of pentachlorophenol (PCP) spiked into sandy soil is considered as a first exploratory step for remediating PCP in real contaminated soil using a commercial preparation of bimetallic iron (Trade name BioCAT). After 21 days of treatment a PCP removal efficiency of 90% was achieved, along with 70% dechlorination efficiency, for a dosage of 600 mg BioCAT slurry/kg soil. Degradation of PCP by BioCAT follows first order kinetics in PCP. Stepwise dechlorination is the main pathway of PCP elimination from soil slurries contacted with BioCAT. Such dechlorination is confirmed by the appearance of intermediate products, as well as by release of chlorides. Additionally, the increasing pH value and the rapid decrease of the oxidation/reduction potential (ORP) also attest to the reductive dechlorination of PCP. The reaction products comprehend lower chlorinated phenols, including three TeCP isomers, four TrCP isomers, four DCP isomers, two MCP isomers and phenol. These findings indicate that BioCAT could be applied for field treatment of PCP-contaminated soil under ambient conditions. PMID:23500793

Dien, Nguyen Thanh; De Windt, Wim; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo Been

2013-05-15

264

Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)  

SciTech Connect

Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman (2004b), was drafted in addition to the companion technical report to this document.

Koopman, D. c.

2005-09-01

265

Gas holdup in slurry bubble columns: Effect of column diameter and slurry concentrations  

SciTech Connect

In processes for converting natural gas to liquid fuels, bubble-column reactors are finding increasing application. To study the influence of particle concentration on the hydrodynamics of bubble-column slurry reactors operating in the heterogeneous flow regime, experiments were carried out in 0.10, 0.19, and 0.38-m-dia. columns using paraffinic oil as the liquid phase and slurry concentrations of up to 36 vol. %. To interpret experimental results a generalization of the two-phase model for gas-solid fluid beds was used to describe bubble hydrodynamics. The two phases identified are: a dilute phase consisting of fast-rising large bubbles that traverse the column virtually in plug flow and a dense phase that is identified with the liquid phase along with solid particles and entrained small bubbles. The dense phase suffers backmixing considerably. Dynamic gas disengagement was experimented in the heterogeneous flow regime to determine the gas voidage in dilute and dense phases. Experimental data show that increasing the solid concentration decreases the total gas holdup significantly, but the influence on the dilute-phase gas holdup is small. The dense-phase gas voidage significantly decreases gas holdup due to enhanced coalescence of small bubbles resulting from introduction of particles. The dense-phase gas voidage is practically independent of the column diameter. The dilute-phase gas holdup, on the other hand, decreases with increasing column diameter, and this dependence could be described adequately with a slight modification of the correlation of Krishna and Ellenberger developed for gas-liquid systems.

Krishna, R.; Swart, J.W.A. de; Ellenberger, J.; Martina, G.B.; Maretto, C. [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1997-02-01

266

In Situ Investigation of Slurry Flow Fields during CMP N. Mueller,a  

E-print Network

of the pads, wafers, and slurry during polish. In most cases, CMP data are gathered ex situ or ob- tained from of the art in CMP.1,3,9 The slurry velocity flow fields at the wafer­slurry­pad interface have not yet beenIn Situ Investigation of Slurry Flow Fields during CMP N. Mueller,a C. Rogers,a V. P. Manno,a R

White, Robert D.

267

A Computational Study on Slurry Flow between a Wafer and CMP Pad with Grooves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry flow in CMP (Chemical Mechanical Polishing) process between the wafer and the polishing pad was studied using CFD (Computational\\u000a Fluid Dynamics). Simulations were carried out for several pads, such as without groove, with circular grooves, and with radial\\u000a grooves. One role of grooves is to replace old slurry to new slurry quickly by transporting the slurry. Another is to

Katsuya Nagayama; Hirofumi Morishita; Keiichi Kimura; Kazuhiro Tanaka; Panart Khajornrungruang; Yousuke Inatsu

268

Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

Carter, J.T.

2001-03-28

269

Bay of Pigs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The 40th anniversary of the Bay of Pigs invasion was marked by an extraordinary conference in Havana involving former officials of the Kennedy Administration, the CIA, members of Brigade 2506, and Cuban government and military officials. The anniversary has also saw the release of numerous documents related to the ill-fated expedition. This offering consists of two volumes: the first contains the CIA Inspector General's (IG) report on the invasion, and the second consists of commentary on the IG report written by the Directorate of Plans (DP), now known as the Directorate of Operations (DO). As the site notes, "these two volumes are a rare side-by-side compilation of high-level government self-evaluation of its own performance in an historic and controversial event." In addition, the site includes over 750 related documents, many of them multi-page. All of these are offered as digitized page images of varying quality.

270

SYNTHESIS OF NON-RADIOACTIVE SLURRIES TO SIMULATE THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLURRIES 626-G  

SciTech Connect

Process development using non-radioactive analogs to high-level radioactive waste slurries is an established cost effective alternative to working with actual samples of the real waste. Current simulated waste slurries, however, do not capture all of the physical behavior of real waste. New methods of preparing simulants are under investigation along with mechanisms for altering certain properties of finished simulants. These methods have achieved several notable successes recently in the areas of rheology and foaminess. Particle size is also being manipulated more effectively than in the past, though not independently of the rheological properties. The interaction between rheology and foaminess has exhibited counter-intuitive behavior with more viscous slurries being less foamy even though drainage of liquid from the foam lamellae should be inhibited by higher viscosities.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Eibling, R.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

2009-09-03

271

Determination of bismuth in environmental samples by slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using combined chemical modifiers.  

PubMed

Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry technique was applied for the determination of Bi in environmental samples. The study focused on the effect of Zr, Ti, Nb and W carbides, as permanent modifiers, on the Bi signal. Because of its highest thermal and chemical stability and ability to substantially increase Bi signal, NbC was chosen as the most effective modifier. The temperature programme applied for Bi determination was optimized based on the pyrolysis and atomization curves obtained for slurries prepared from certified reference materials (CRMs) of the soil and sediments. To overcome interferences caused by sulfur compounds, Ba(NO?)? was used as a chemical modifier. Calibration was performed using the aqueous standard solutions. The analysis of the CRMs confirmed the reliability of the proposed analytical method. The characteristic mass for Bi was determined to be 16 pg with the detection limit of 50 ng/g for the optimized procedure at the 5% (w/v) slurry concentration. PMID:25384374

Dobrowolski, Ryszard; Dobrzy?ska, Joanna; Gawro?ska, Barbara

2015-01-01

272

Risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing swine. A longitudinal study was conducted in 18 cohorts of pigs from three finishing sites of one swine production company. Among the 446 Salmonella isolates (isolated from 187 pigs), there were 18 distinct serovars. The six most common serovars were S. enterica serovar Derby (47.3%), S. Agona (27.4%), S. Johannesburg (10.5%), S. Schwarzengrund (2.7%), S. Litchfield (2.5%) and S. Mbandaka (2.2%). Survival analysis techniques, Kaplan-Meier methods and Log-rank test were used to estimate the duration of Salmonella shedding in days and to evaluate differences in shedding associated with risk factors at different organizational levels: isolate (serovar), pig, cohort and site. The risk factors at the pig-level were: sex, age and individual health status; and the risk factors at the cohort-level were: health risk, treatment and "at risk pigs" proportions, nursery and barn environment Salmonella status and prior exposure to the same serovar in the nursery or barn environment. Survival analysis using acceleration failure time models, with a log-normal distribution, was applied to investigate risk factors associated with Salmonella persistence (175 pigs) and serovar-specific persistence (151 pigs) during the study period. Pigs detected Salmonella positive for the first time at 10 weeks of age had a longer duration of shedding, than pigs first detected at an older age. The duration of shedding was shorter among pigs infected with S. Derby, S. Johannesburg and other serovars as compared to pigs infected with S. Agona. A significant difference was observed among sites. Cohorts with pig treatment proportions greater than the median were more likely to have a shorter duration of Salmonella shedding. Pigs from cohorts with nursery positive pools greater than the overall mean had a longer duration of Salmonella shedding as compared to pigs from cohorts with nursery pools less than or equal to the mean. These results suggest that the duration of Salmonella shedding may depend on Salmonella serovar, pig age at the time of infection, farm site and cohort-level risk factors. Identification of risk factors associated with the duration of shedding may allow more targeted interventions for the control Salmonella by evaluation of control measures not only for prevalence reduction, but also to decrease the duration of shedding. Such measures may decrease the risk of contamination of pork and subsequent risk of foodborne illness. PMID:25005468

Pires, A F A; Funk, J A; Bolin, C

2014-09-01

273

BINDING OF RECOMBINANT NOROVIRUS LIKE PARTICLE TO HISTO-BLOOD GROUP ANTIGEN ON CELLS IN THE LUMEN OF PIG DUODENUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A set of HBGA specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used to determine the presence of corresponding HBGA in pig gastro-intestine tissue (PGIT) washings and on epithelial cells. . rNWs were applied to plate coated with pig gastro-intestine tissue (PGIT) washings , and measured by ELISA assay us...

274

Analysis of the tube-sheet cracking in slurry oil steam , L.J. Qiao a,  

E-print Network

and increased costs. In this study, the mechanisms of the tube- sheet cracking in slurry oil steam generatorsAnalysis of the tube-sheet cracking in slurry oil steam generators L.K. Zhu a , L.J. Qiao a, , X: Heat exchanger Tube sheet Stress corrosion cracking Cooling water Slurry oil a b s t r a c t Tube

Volinsky, Alex A.

275

Oxide slurries stability and powders dispersion: optimization with zeta potential and rheological measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurries stability and powder dispersion are highly dependent on both the pH and their density. The analysis of these parameters allows us to keep the slurries defloculated, leading to an optimum mix of powders before calcination and reaction. The present work is devoted to the mixing of the different oxide and carbonate components in slurries to be synthesized by solid

S. Vallar; D. Houivet; J. El Fallah; D. Kervadec; J.-M. Haussonne

1999-01-01

276

Production of Paving Asphalt by Blending RFCC Slurry in Deoiled Asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment of producing paving asphalt was performed by blending the deoiled asphalt and the residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) slurry according to the uniform design method. The experiment scheme was designed by choosing the full-fraction FCC, above 400°C slurry, above 445°C slurry, and deoiled asphalt as factors. The mathematical model of blending components and asphalt properties was established by

H.-P. Li; J. Shen

2009-01-01

277

A new system for the delivery and combustion control of coal slurries in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new system which has the capacity to inject and control the combustion of coal slurries in diesel engines is described. The system eliminates the negative impact of coal slurries on the injection process, improves combustion of coal slurries, eliminates or greatly reduces the wear of the fuel delivery hardware, and prevents the nozzle clogging.

Baranescu

1989-01-01

278

Squeeze flow of semi-solid slurries Andreas N. Alexandrou a  

E-print Network

of semi-solid slurries is due to particle welding, dry fric- tion, and hydrodynamic forces. Semi-solidSqueeze flow of semi-solid slurries Andreas N. Alexandrou a , Georgios C. Florides a , Georgios C s t r a c t A standard method used to determine material properties of semi-solid slurries

Georgiou, Georgios

279

Occurrence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in cattle slurry and fresh forage grasses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparative, numerical, taxonomic analysis was carried out on 24 selected strains of Clostridium spp. isolated from cattle slurries and fresh forage grasses fertilized with slurries, as well as on 10 culture-collection Clostridium tyrobutyricum strains for reference. The results showed an unexpectedly low occurrence of the Clostridium tyrobutyricum, with only one of the 24 strains isolated from slurry belonging to

Zsuzsanna Langó; Helvi Heinonen-Tanski

1995-01-01

280

Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

Gidaspow, D.

1996-04-01

281

Three Little Pigs Construction Company  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about problem-solving, learners build a house for the Three Little Pigs using twenty straws and two index cards. Learners then use a fan to simulate a tornado and shake the table three times to simulate an earthquake. Learners must alter their house design to make it sturdy enough to withstand the elements and house the pigs. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Children's Museum of Houston

2014-09-19

282

DWPF DECON FRIT: SUMP AND SLURRY SOLIDS ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. In this report, the physical and chemical characterization results of the slurry solids and sump solids are reported. Crawford et al. (2010) provide the results of the supernate analysis. The results of the sump solids are reported on a mass basis given the samples were essentially dry upon receipt. The results of the slurry solids were converted to a volume basis given approximately 2.4 grams of slurry solids were obtained from the {approx}4 liters of liquid slurry sample. Although there were slight differences in the analytical results between the sump solids and slurry solids the following general summary statements can be made. Slight differences in the results are also captured for specific analysis. (1) Physical characterization - (a) SEM/EDS analysis suggested that the samples were enriched in Li and Si (B and Na not detectable using the current EDS system) which is consistent with two of the four principle oxides of Frit 418 (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}). (b) SEM/EDS analysis also identified impurities which were elementally consistent with stainless steel (i.e., Fe, Ni, Cr contamination). (c) XRD results indicated that the sump solids samples were amorphous which is consistent with XRD results expected for a Frit 418 based sample. (d) For the sump solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size of the sump solids were consistent with that of an as received Frit 418 sample from a current DWPF vendor. (e) For the slurry solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size range of the slurry solids was much broader than compared to the sump solids. More specifically, there were significantly more fines in the slurry solids as compared to the sump solids. (f) PSD results indicated that > 99% of both the sump and slurry solids were less than 350 microns. The PSD results also supported SEM/EDS analysis that there were significantly more fines in the slurry solids as compared to the sump solids. (2) Weight Percent Solids - Based on the measured supernate density and mass of insoluble solids (2.388 grams) filtered from the four liters of liquid slurry samples, the weight percent insoluble solids was estimated to be 0.060 wt%. This level of insoluble solids is higher than the ETP WAC limit of 100 mg/L, or 0.01 wt% which suggests a separation technology of some type would be required. (3) Chemical Analysis - (a) Elemental results from ICP-ES analysis indicated that the sump solids and slurry were very consistent with the nominal composition of Frit 418. There were other elements identified by ICP analysis which were either consistent with the presence of stainless steel (as identified by SEM/EDS analysis) or impurities that have been observed in 'as received' Frit 418 from the vendor. (b) IC anion analysis of the sump solids and slurry solids indicated all of the species were less than detection limits. (c) Radionuclide analysis of the sump solids also indicated that most of the analytes were either at or below the detection limits. (d) Organic analysis of the sump solids and slurry solids indicated all of the species were less than detection limits. It should be noted that the results of this study may not be representative of future decon frit solutions or sump/slurry solids samples. Therefore, future DWPF decisions regarding the possible disposal pathways for either the aqueous or solid portions of the Decon Frit system need to factor in the potential differences. More specifically, introduction of a different frit or changes to other DWPF flowsheet unit operations (e.g., different sludge batch or coupling with other process streams) ma

Crawford, C.; Peeler, D.; Click, D.

2010-10-20

283

Review: influenza virus in pigs.  

PubMed

Influenza virus disease still remains one of the major threats to human health, involving a wide range of animal species and pigs play an important role in influenza ecology. Pigs were labeled as "mixing vessels" since they are susceptible to infection with avian, human and swine influenza viruses and genetic reassortment between these viruses can occur. After the H1N1 influenza pandemic of 2009 with a swine origin virus, the most recent research in "influenzology" is directed at improving knowledge of porcine influenza virus infection. This tendency is probably due to the fact that domestic pigs are closely related to humans and represent an excellent animal model to study various microbial infectious diseases. In spite of the role of the pig in influenza virus ecology, swine immune responses against influenza viruses are not fully understood. Considering these premises, the aim of this review is to focus on the in vitro studies performed with porcine cells and influenza virus and on the immune responses of pigs against human, avian and swine influenza viruses in vivo. The increased acceptance of pigs as suitable and valuable models in the scientific community may stimulate the development of new tools to assess porcine immune responses, paving the way for their consideration as the future "gold standard" large-animal model in immunology. PMID:23523121

Crisci, Elisa; Mussá, Tufária; Fraile, Lorenzo; Montoya, Maria

2013-10-01

284

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are an Attractive Donor Cell Type for Production of Cloned Pigs As Well As Genetically Modified Cloned Pigs by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer  

PubMed Central

Abstract The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique has been widely applied to clone pigs or to produce genetically modified pigs. Currently, this technique relies mainly on using terminally differentiated fibroblasts as donor cells. To improve cloning efficiency, only partially differentiated multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thought to be more easily reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, have been used as nuclear donors in pig SCNT. Although in vitro–cultured embryos cloned from porcine MSCs (MSCs-embryos) were shown to have higher preimplantation developmental ability than cloned embryos reconstructed from fibroblasts (Fs-embryos), the difference in in vivo full-term developmental rate between porcine MSCs-embryos and Fs-embryos has not been investigated so far. In this study, we demonstrated that blastocyst total cell number and full-term survival abilities of MSCs-embryos were significantly higher than those of Fs-embryos cloned from the same donor pig. The enhanced developmental potential of MSCs-embryos may be associated with their nuclear donors' DNA methylation profile, because we found that the methylation level of imprinting genes and repeat sequences differed between MSCs and fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that use of transgenic porcine MSCs generated from transgene plasmid transfection as donor cells for SCNT can produce live transgenic cloned pigs. These results strongly suggest that porcine bone marrow MSCs are a desirable donor cell type for production of cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs via SCNT. PMID:24033142

Li, Zicong; He, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liwen; Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Weihua

2013-01-01

285

Coal-water slurry and method for its preparation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pipeline pumpable coal-water slurry having a novel combination of coal particles and carrier water is prepared by a method wherein the particle sizes and their distribution are controlled in accordance with a particle size distribution formula which is especially beneficial for providing a novel coal compact with a minimum amount of void space between particles and a maximum amount

Funk

1981-01-01

286

SAMPLE COMMINUTION FOR MYCOTOXIN ANALYSIS: DRY MILLING OR SLURRY MIXING?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A comparison was made between dry milling and slurry mixing as a comminuting step preceding mycotoxin analysis. Sample schemes of up to 30 kg are mandated by EC legislation. Cacao, green coffee, almonds and pistachio samples of 10 kg were milled by a Romer Analytical Sampling mill and all three samp...

287

8 Ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene from slurry Insite TM technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) homopolymer was prepared with the slurry INSITE™ technology and a Tebbe reagent. The molecular weight of the homopolymer was controlled from 2 million to 10 million of Mv by the concentration of the Tebbe reagent in the polymerization process. UHMWPE copolymer of ethylene and 1-hexene was also prepared. The molecular weight of the copolymer was

Koichi Hasebe; Akio Fujiwara; Takashi Nozaki; Koichi Miyamoto; Harumi Watanabe

2006-01-01

288

Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength,  

E-print Network

Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength, and Shrinkage K.R. Backe oilwell cements. The results show that the curing characteristics are a function of temperature and that there is a correlation between shrinkage and cement content. The paper also introduces a new mechanism for gas migration

Backe, Knut

289

A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50μm; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays;

P. E. Sojka; A. H. Lefebvre

1990-01-01

290

Aerated atomization of coal-water slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This programs was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50 μm; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS

H. N. Buckner; P. E. Sojka; A. H. Lefebvre

1989-01-01

291

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

2001-01-07

292

Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-01-01

293

Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction  

E-print Network

Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction Onno Bokhove o, Twente #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction Outline · 1. Introduction · 2. Experiments · 3. Conclusions · References ISSF 2008 University of Twente Page 2 #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

294

Commerce Clause and Water Availability Issues Concerning Coal Slurry Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical politics are identified as one of the reasons why state legislatures have singled out coal-slurry pipelines in their regulation of water resources. The western states face a complex problem in establishing water-appropriation systems that can meet future as well as present needs. Wyoming's Water Export Law and the Commerce Clause are examined as a potential model for other states

RODGER McDANIEL

1979-01-01

295

Attrition assessment for slurry bubble column reactor catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Significant interest in three-phase slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) has come about in recent years due to their excellent heat removal capabilities during reaction. However, no evaluation test for catalyst attrition resistance is available in the literature yet for SBCR catalysts, although severe attrition of catalyst particles has actually been encountered in SBCRs. In this paper, fluidized bed catalyst attrition

Rong Zhao; James G. Goodwin; Rachid Oukaci

1999-01-01

296

Effective interfacial area in magnetically stabilized slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of magnetic field on effective interfacial area in a slurry bubble column of magnetizable particles (magnetic) has been studied by using the theory of absorption accompanied by chemical reaction. The model system used was oxidation of sodium sulphite in presence of cobalt sulphate as catalyst. The effective interfacial area increaseswith the increase in intensity of magnetic field. The

R. L. Sonolikar; T. B. M. L. Raja Rao

1996-01-01

297

Hydrodynamics of semibatch slurry bubble columns with polymer solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we perform an experimental study of the hydrodynamics of semibatch slurry bubble columns in which the liquid phase is a solution of a high molecular weight hydrolyzed polyacrylamide. Experiments were conducted in bubble columns with two different diameters (10 and 29 cm.) In gas-liquid operation, the gas holdup decreases as the polymer concentration increases due to the

M. G. Gómez; Z. Alarcón; E. Parra; S. Siquier; F. Pironti; A. E. Sáez

1996-01-01

298

Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-31

299

WATER QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EASTERN COAL SLURRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Current and projected used of coal have resulted in several proposals for coal slurry pipelines in the United States. A typical eastern coal has a greater sulfur content and a smaller percentage of alkaline minerals in the ash than a typical western coal. Thus, eastern coal slurr...

300

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others] [and others

1996-03-01

301

Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)  

SciTech Connect

Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite.

Witthar, S.R. [Black and Veatch, Overland Park, KS (United States)

1998-12-31

302

Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor, Benzotriazole, in Cu Slurry on Cu Polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effect of benzotriazole (BTA) in Cu slurry on Cu polishing behavior was investigated as functions of H2O2 and slurry pH. The addition of BTA to slurry effectively prevented Cu from being etched by forming a passivation layer of Cu-BTA regardless of pH and H2O2 concentration in the slurry. The passivation layer on the Cu wafer exhibited a contact angle of 50° in solution with BTA and H2O2. The dynamic etching rate, i.e., the Cu polishing rate using abrasive-free slurry, also decreased when BTA was added to the slurry at pH 2, 4, and 6. The removal rate of Cu in slurry without BTA was strongly dependent on H2O2 concentration and pH. In slurry with BTA, Cu-BTA on the Cu surface prevented the etching of Cu. At pH 2 and 4, the removal rates were lower in slurry with BTA than in slurry without BTA. However, slurries of pH 6 or higher with BTA showed higher removal rates at higher concentrations of H2O2 than 10%, which was explained by the thick passivating oxide layer formed at higher pH and H2O2 concentrations.

Kim, In-Kwon; Kang, Young-Jae; Kim, Tae-Gon; Park, Jin-Goo

2008-01-01

303

Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

Loth, John L. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV)

1982-01-01

304

Genetically modified pigs for biomedical research.  

PubMed

During the last two decades, pigs have been used to develop some of the most important large animal models for biomedical research. Advances in pig genome research, genetic modification (GM) of primary pig cells and pig cloning by nuclear transfer, have facilitated the generation of GM pigs for xenotransplantation and various human diseases. This review summarizes the key technologies used for generating GM pigs, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, somatic cell nuclear transfer by traditional cloning, and somatic cell nuclear transfer by handmade cloning. Broadly used genetic engineering tools for porcine cells are also discussed. We also summarize the GM pig models that have been generated for xenotransplantation and human disease processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, eye diseases, bone diseases, cancers and epidermal skin diseases, diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, and inherited metabolic diseases. Thus, this review provides an overview of the progress in GM pig research over the last two decades and perspectives for future development. PMID:22453682

Luo, Yonglun; Lin, Lin; Bolund, Lars; Jensen, Thomas G; Sørensen, Charlotte Brandt

2012-07-01

305

3 trillion pigs down, Angry Birds  

E-print Network

3 trillion pigs down, Angry Birds is thriving 12/10/2010 Daily Herald Newspapers - Online Online, consume r 175,007 96 3 trillion pigs down, Angry Birds keeps thriving 12/09/2010 Tampa Tribune - Online Online, news and business 683,875 75 1 3 trillion pigs down, Angry Birds keeps thriving 12/09/2010 Times

Way, Thomas

306

Factors affecting excretory behavior of pigs.  

PubMed

A 2(4) factorial experiment with six pens per treatment was conducted to examine the factors affecting the excretory behavior of growing-finishing pigs. The factors investigated were partition type (open or closed), pig density (9 or 14 pigs/pen, size: 2 m x 4.5 m), position of nipple drinker in the pen (back wall of the pen or side in front of slatted area), and prior experience of pigs (training or no training). A total of 1,104 pigs at a weight interval of 28.4 +/- .2 to 91.4 +/- .4 kg were used in this study. Pen cleanliness was assessed by a dung scoring system, and growth rate was determined over the growing-finishing period. Partition type, nipple drinker position, or prior training of pigs had no effect on growth rate. Stocking pigs at 14 pigs/pen reduced growth rate (P < .05) compared with 9 pigs/pen (.80 vs .83 kg/d). Significant differences for pen dirtiness were found for partition type. Pens with closed partitions were cleaner than those with open partitions (P = .0001) and pens became significantly dirtier as pigs grew older or heavier (P < .01). There was a significant interaction effect between pen partition and pig density as well as an interaction among pen partition, pig density, and water position (P < .05). PMID:8071169

Hacker, R R; Ogilvie, J R; Morrison, W D; Kains, F

1994-06-01

307

Sustained utilization of the Iberian pig breed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian pig is one of the scarce non-improved swine breeds which survives the modern techniques of pig production based on improved genotypes. This is attributed both to its perfect adaptation to the Mediterranean natural ecosystem and the high quality of its products. The production of meat products from Iberian pigs has very little in common with that of meat

C. J. Lopez-Bote

1998-01-01

308

Fattening pig performance as affected by the number of pigs per pen, the bedded surface area and the available volume per pig in fattening houses  

E-print Network

Fattening pig performance as affected by the number of pigs per pen, the bedded surface area been elucidated : How many pigs per pen ? How large the area and useful volume per pig ? How many pigs per house ? Is it possible to cram the fattening pens'? A total of 12 trials were made by the I

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

In the first year of the project, solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Progress was also made in analyzing the gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures. An Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is being developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of gas liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian particle tracking procedure to analyze the particle motions. Progress was also made in developing a rate dependent thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows in a state of turbulent motion. The new model includes the effect of phasic interactions and leads to anisotropic effective phasic stress tensors. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The formulation of a thermodynamically consistent model for chemically active multiphase solid-fluid flows in a turbulent state of motion was also initiated. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also to establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and nonreacting slurry flows, and to solve a number of technologically important problems related to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel production processes. (4) To verify the validity of the developed model by comparing the predicted results with the performed and the available experimental data under idealized conditions.

Goodarz Ahmadi

2000-11-01

310

ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and nonreacting slurry flows, and to solve a number of technologically important problems related to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel production processes. (4) To verify the validity of the developed model by comparing the predicted results with the performed and the available experimental data under idealized conditions.

Goodarz Ahmadi

2001-10-01

311

RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

Fernandez, A.

2010-02-08

312

Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications  

SciTech Connect

This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-01

313

Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry: effects of acidification and sulfur addition.  

PubMed

Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination with acidification, on sulfur transformations in slurry and emissions of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) during storage of fresh and aged cattle slurry. When pH was lowered to 5.5 it resulted in an almost complete inhibition of sulfate reduction. There was a huge emission of hydrogen sulfide (HS) with addition of sulfate and methionine ( < 0.01). Methanethiol (MT) was emitted in treatments with addition of methionine, especially when simultaneously acidified ( < 0.01). The large HS production in the sulfate-amended slurries resulted in little accumulation of MT and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) under neutral conditions, in contrast to acidic conditions where the degradation was inhibited and both MT and DMS accumulated. Based on odor activity values, untreated slurry had little odor development from S compounds, especially the aged slurry. Acidification did not significantly increase odor contribution from any of the compounds in fresh or aged slurry. Generally, addition of a sulfate increased the contribution from HS dramatically, whereas acidification lowered the HS contribution but increased that of MT. Thus, acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid may potentially produce more odor from S compounds than untreated slurry. PMID:23099955

Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik V; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Petersen, Søren O

2012-01-01

314

Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport  

SciTech Connect

The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

1980-03-31

315

Planarization effect evaluation of acid and alkaline slurries in the copper interconnect process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We observed and analyzed the acid and HEBUT alkaline of Cu chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) slurry to evaluate their effects. Material analysis has shown that the planarity surfaces and the removal rate of alkaline slurry are better than the acid slurry during metal CMP processes. The global surface roughness and the small-scale surface roughness by 10 × 10 ?m2 of copper film polished by the SVTC slurry are 1.127 nm and 2.49 nm. However, it is found that the surface roughnesses of copper films polished by the HEBUT slurry are 0.728 nm and 0.215 nm. All other things being equal, the remaining step heights of copper films polished by the SVTC slurry and HEBUT slurry are respectively 150 nm and 50 nm. At the end of the polishing process, the dishing heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 30 nm, the erosion heights of the HEBUT slurry and the SVTC slurry are approximately both 20 nm. The surface states of the copper film after CMP are tested, and the AFM results of two samples are obviously seen. The surface polished by SVTC slurry shows many spikes. This indicates that the HEBUT alkaline slurry is promising for inter-level dielectric (ILD) applications in ultra large-scale integrated circuits (ULSI) technology. Project supported by the Special Project Items No. 2 in National Long-Term Technology Development Plan (No. 2009ZX02308), the Doctoral Program Foundation of Xinjiang Normal University Plan (No. XJNUBS1226), the Key Laboratory of Coal Gasification, Ministry of Education, and the Inorganic Chemistry Key Disciplines of Xinjiang Normal University.

Yi, Hu; Yan, Li; Yuling, Liu; Yangang, He

2015-03-01

316

Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol measurements were conducted above a half-scale air sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry. Three aerosol size fractions were measured at three sampling heights at three different sparging rates using a filter based ambient air sampling technique. Aerosol concentrations in the head space above the closed tank demonstrated a wide range, varying between 97 ?g m-3 for PM2.5 and 5650 ?g m-3 for TSP. The variation in concentrations was a function of sampling heights, size fraction and sparging rate. Measured aerosol entrainment coefficients showed good agreement with existing entrainment models. The models evaluated generally over predicted the entrainment, but were within a factor of two of the measured entrainment. This indicates that the range of applicability of the models may be extendable to include sparged slurries with Bingham plastic rheological properties.

Fritz, Brad G.

2006-08-01

317

Cinematic "Pigness": A Discourse Analysis of Pigs in Motion Pictures  

E-print Network

its vegetarian co-star, James Cromwell, into a vegan animal-activist. In order to better understand the species of pigs and the complex relationship they have had with humans over the centuries, Chapter 5 is devoted to exploring the lives actual...

von Schlemmer, Mark

2010-07-30

318

Dewatering/reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an innovative approach for in-situ dewatering/hardening of fine clean coal slurry. The technique uses various fibrous waste materials added to coal slurry before dewatering process to obtain a dewatered product with lower cake moisture as well as sufficient strength to facilitate its handling. The study was conducted on both vacuum and pressure bench scale apparatus for dewatering and reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry. The fibrous waste materials investigated included plastic, newspaper, carpet mixed office waste, raw paper and wood fibers. The effects of several surfactants and flocculants on final moisture content of the filter cakes were also determined. The results showed that using the vacuum filter, addition of 10 Kg/ton of mixed office waste fibers decreased the filter cake moisture from 41.3 to 34.8% by weight, a 16% moisture reduction over the baseline data. The addition of fibers showed moisture reduction as well as large improvement in solids loading as much as 2 fold over those observed in the absence of fibers. For the pressure filtration, the addition of plastic fibers provided a filter cake containing 21.4% moisture which is about 2.1% lower than that of the untreated filter cake. The average final cake moisture reduction of 1.5% was achieved for the test fibers using the pressure filter. It was also found that fiber addition in pressure filtration led to shorter cake formation time thus increasing the filtration rate of the coal slurry. The hardening properties of the dried filter cakes with fibers improved significantly such that the cake compression strength improved from 0 to 4.5 Kg/cm{sup 2}, impact resistance from 0 to 4, abrasion resistance from 0 to 70%, and dust reduction efficiency from 0 to 75%.

Sung, D.J.; Shao, X.; Parekh, B.K.

1998-07-01

319

Dewatering/reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an innovative approach for in-situ dewatering/hardening of fine clean coal slurry. The technique uses various fibrous waste materials added to coal slurry before dewatering process to obtain a dewatered product with lower cake moisture as well as sufficient strength to facilitate its handling. The study was conducted on both vacuum and pressure bench scale apparatus for dewatering and reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry. The fibrous waste materials investigated included plastic, newspaper, carpet, mixed office waste, raw paper and wood fibers. The effects of several surfactants and flocculants; on final moisture content of the filter cakes were also determined. The results showed that using the vacuum filter, addition of 10 Kg/ton of mixed office waste fibers decreased the filter cake moisture from 41.3 to 34.8 percent by weight, a 16 percent moisture reduction over the baseline data. The addition of fibers showed moisture reduction as well as large improvement in solids loading as much as 2 fold over those observed in the absence of fibers. For the pressure filtration, the addition of plastic fibers provided a filter cake containing 21.4 percent moisture which is about 2.1 percent lower than that of the untreated filter cake. The average final cake moisture reduction of 1.5 percent was achieved for the tested fibers using the pressure filter. It was also found that fiber addition in pressure filtration led to shorter cake formation time thus increasing the filtration rate of the coal slurry. The hardening properties of the dried filter cakes with fibers improved significantly such that the cake compression strength improved from 0 to 4.5 Kg/cm{sup 2}, impact resistance from 0 to 4, abrasion resistance from 0 to 70 percent, and dust reduction efficiency from 0 to 75 percent.

Sung, D.J.; Shao, X.; Parekh, B.K. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1998-04-01

320

Heat transfer investigations in a slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry bubble columns, for use in Fisher-Tropsch synthesis, have been investigated. Two bubble columns (0.108 and 0.305 m internal diameter) were set up and experiments were conducted to determine gas holdup and heat transfer coefficients. These columns were equipped with either single heat transfer probes of different diameters, or bundles of five-, seven- or thirty-seven tubes. The experiments were conducted

S. C. Saxena; N. S. Rao; R. Vadivel; S. Shrivastav; A. C. Saxena; B. B. Patel; P. R. Thimmapuram; M. Y. Kagzi; I. A. Khan; A. K. Verma

1991-01-01

321

Hydrodynamic study in a slurry-bubble-column reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Local gas holdup, bubble diameter and bubble rise velocity in the nitrogen\\/Drakeol-10 oil system were measured at both laboratory (ambient temperature and pressure) and industrially relevant (high temperature and pressure) conditions using a dual conductivity probe in a slurry-bubble-column reactor. It was found that a constant superficial velocity, the Sauter mean bubble diameter decreases with increasing pressure and temperature. The

Y. Soong; F. W. Harke; I. K. Gamwo; R. R. Schehl; M. F. Zarochak

1997-01-01

322

Heat transfer investigations in a slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry bubble columns, for use in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, have been investigated. Two bubble columns (0.108 and 0.305 m internal diameter) were set up and experiments were conducted to determine gas holdup and heat transfer coefficients. These columns were equipped with either single heat transfer probes of different diameters, or bundles of five-, seven-, or thirty-seven tubes. the experiments were conducted

S. C. Saxena; N. S. Rao; R. Vadivel; S. Shrivastav; A. C. Saxena; B. B. Patel; P. R. Thimmapuram; M. Y. Kagzi; I. A. Khan; A. K. Verma

1991-01-01

323

Micro Machine Parts Fabricated from Aqueous Based Stainless Steel Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A fabrication process of stainless steel micro components from metallic powder is reported. The process consists of two stages.\\u000a In the first stage, high quality SU-8 master moulds and their negative replicas from soft moulds are produced using photolithography\\u000a and soft moulding techniques respectively. The second stage includes preparation of stainless steel slurry, filling the soft\\u000a mould, obtaining the green

Mohamed Imbaby; Isaac Chang; Kyle Jiang

324

Viscosity of coal\\/water slurries at high shear rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The service life of an injector nozzle in a diesel engine fueled with of coal\\/water slurry (CWS) is 2-5 h, which limits the continuous running time of the engine. This study of CWS flow and erosion in injector nozzles was initiated to provide an analytical tool, validated by experiment, for designing a durable injector and predicting long-term wear from limited

R. R. Sekar; C. S. Wang

1988-01-01

325

Coal slurry pipelines: energy movers of the future. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

U.S. western coals sell for $0.15\\/million Btu at the mine, but at the load center hundreds of miles away gasified coal delivered by pipeline would sell for $1.50 to $2.00\\/million Btu as compared with $0.50 to $0.60\\/million Btu for slurry-pipelined or rail delivered coal. Coal gasification is not remotely economical for power generation, and will be limited to peak shaving

E. J. Wasp; T. L. Thompson

1974-01-01

326

Color removal from aqueous solution by biogas residual slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Acid Brilliant Blue on biogas residual slurry has been investigated. The parameters studied include dye concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH. The equilibrium data fit well with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption isotherm. Maximum removal of 99% was observed at pH 2.56. Desorption studies indicate that the dye is solubilised in 50%(v\\/v) acetic

R. T. Yamuna; C. Namasivayam

1993-01-01

327

Design and use of multiple blade slurry sawing in a production atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique and uses of the multiple blade slurry (MBS) saw are considered. Multiple bands of steel are arranged in a frame and the frame is reciprocated with the steel bands to a workpiece, while simultaneously applying abrasive at the point of contact. The blades wear slots in the workpiece and progress through the piece resulting in several parts of wafers. The transition to MBA from diamond slicing is justified by savings resulting from minimized kerf losses, minimized subsurface damage, and improved surface quality off the saw. This allows wafering much closer to finished thickness specifications. The current state of the art MBS technology must be significantly improved if the low cost solar array (LSA) goals are to be attained. It is concluded that although MBS will never be the answer to every wafering requirement, the economical production of wafers to LSA project specifications will be achieved.

Lynah, F. P., Jr.; Ross, J. B.

1982-01-01

328

Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators - spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) - which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses.

Skowron, Krzysztof; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Olszewska, Halina; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Zimek, Zbigniew; ?rutek, M?cis?aw

2014-08-01

329

Saving genetic resources of native pigs in Occidental and Oriental countries - practical examples of the characterization and utilization of native pigs in Hungary and Laos.  

PubMed

Worldwide, only a few "fatty" pig breeds exist with different and/or regional utilization. Using the Hungarian Mangalica, which almost went extinct in Europe and the Lao Moo Lat pig, which still has a large population in South-East Asia as exemples, we wanted to demonstrate that indigenous (fatty) pig breeds may represent both national value and tremendous economic potential. Since these less prolific and less productive breeds cannot contribute to mass production, new market roles and methods should be established for them in the premium segment of pork trading. Thus their preservation and propagation needs the comprehensive collaboration of commercial, governmental actors and researchers. Briefly summarizing the history, we report the current results of reproductive physiology research. The commercial renaissance of Mangalica pigs is indebted to the enthusiastic efforts of basic scientists, pig breeding experts and dedicated Mangalica producers. Scientific achievements were applied to practical breeding and production of delicious pork and processed products, which ultimately made the economic success in the Mangalica sector possible. Both, research on and utilization of endangered (pig) breeds maintain not only breed diversities, but also may improve the livelihood of farmers worldwide. PMID:24162808

Rátky, Jozsef; Egerszegi, Istvan; Toth, Peter; Keonuchan, Soukanh; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Manabe, Noboru; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter

2013-10-01

330

Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry  

DOEpatents

Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

Forney, Albert J. (Coraopolis, PA); Haynes, William P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01

331

Interaction of organic additives with ceramic surfaces in colloidal slurries  

SciTech Connect

Three different dispersants, a low molecular weight compound (aminoalkanol), a polymer (polyelectrolyte) and a block-co-polymer (block polyethylenoxide-polyacrylic acid) were investigated with AFM and rheology in an aqueous system in order to elucidate the influence of the size and structure of the molecule on the dispersion stabilization. The AFM studies indicate that the aminoalkanol gives repulsive forces due to electrostatic repulsion only. The polyelectrolyte seems to stabilize the dispersion with both steric and electrostatic repulsive forces. A new compound that was designed for pure steric stabilization in aqueous media a block-co-polymer consisting of a polar anchor block and a stabilizing neutral chain was investigated for its behavior. The AFM measurements show that it is likely that this compound causes repulsion of silicon nitride surfaces due to steric repulsion only. Rheological measurements of aqueous powder slurries show that the adsorption of the organic additives is of great importance. Due to a more silicon dioxide like acidic surface of the investigated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-powder the carboxylate anions of the block-co-polymer adsorb badly. Therefore, no sterically repulsive forces can be built up. This then causes an increase in the slurry`s viscosity.

Sigmund, W.M.; Wang, L.; Sindel, J.; Rotov, M.; Aldinger, F. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Nichtmetallische Anorganische Materialien

1997-08-01

332

Sixth international technical conference on slurry transportation. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The Sixth International Technical Conference on Slurry Transportation was held at Las Vegas, Nevada, March 24-27, 1981. Researchers, engineers, economists and other specialists from Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, the People's Republic of China. The Netherlands and the United States presented papers, which attracted some 500 registrants from around the world. This volume includes all of their papers plus other presentations made during the Conference, and a list of attendees. The Slurry Transport Association sponsors and conducts this annual series of Conferences as a significant part of its ongoing effort to foster the exchange of information about developments in the pipeline delivery of solid commodities. Proceedings of the earlier Conferences are available from STA, which is a non-profit corporation founded in the United States in 1975. Membership is open to all companies, organizations and individuals throughout the world who are involved in and/or interested in slurry transportation. Forty-one papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

Not Available

1981-01-01

333

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOEpatents

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01

334

Polydispersed solids behavior in a bubble column. [Slurry bubble columns  

SciTech Connect

New data and theory are presented for describing polydispersed solids in slurry bubble columns. Axial solids concentration distributions were measured in a 0.108-m-ID slurry bubble column apparatus operated at steady-state conditions. Slurry and gas superficial velocities ranged from 0.007 to 0.02 m/s and 0.03 to 0.20 m/s, respectively. The liquid phase was water and the solid phase consisted of binary or ternary mixtures of narrow-sized fractions of glass spheres. The experimental data have been used to develop a method for predicting average solids loadings and axial distributions of solids in a bubble column with a one-dimensional sedmentation-dispersion model. Correlations are given for the hindered settling velocity, the solids dispersion coefficient, and the solids concentration at the top and bottom of the column. The effect of a distribution of particle size is interpreted by summation of the concentration of solids for each discrete particle size fraction. 12 refs., 13 figs.

Smith, D.N.; Ruether, J.A.; Stiegel, G.J.

1984-01-01

335

Oxygenated fatty acids isolated from wheat bran slurries.  

PubMed

Oxygenated fatty acids are classified as secondary metabolites in wheat, produced by oxidation of free fatty acids (FFAs). Oxygenated fatty acids have significant impact on the organoleptic and sensory properties of food products and participate in regulation of defense and developmental processes in plants. The objective of this study was to identify oxygenated fatty acids from wheat flour slurries. Wheat bran/water slurries were incubated for 4?h and freeze dried. Total lipids were extracted in chloroform/methanol/water; and methylated and silylated FFAs were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Seven oxygenated fatty acids were identified, (A) 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, (B) 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid, (C) 13-hydroxy-9cis,11trans-octadecadienoic acid, (D) 9,10,13-trihydroxy-11trans-octadecenoic acid, (E) 9,12,13-trihydroxy-10trans,15cis-octadecadienoic acid, (F) 10-oxo-13-hydroxy-11trans-octadecenoic acid and (G) 12-oxo-13-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid, in wheat bran slurries. Our results are important for whole wheat food applications since oxygenated fatty acids can result in bitter flavors in the final product. PMID:24934850

Simsek, Senay; Doehlert, Douglas C

2014-11-01

336

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOEpatents

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19

337

Generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene-targeted pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

The domestic pig has been widely used as an important large animal model. Precise and efficient genetic modification in pig provides a great promise in biomedical research. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has been successfully used to produce many gene-targeted animals. However, these animals have been generated by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into one-cell stage embryos, which mostly resulted in mosaicism of the modification. One or two rounds of further breeding should be performed to obtain homozygotes with identical genotype and phenotype. To address this issue, gene-targeted somatic cells can be used as donor for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce gene-targeted animals with single and identical mutations. In this study, we applied Cas9/sgRNAs to effectively direct gene editing in porcine fetal fibroblasts and then mutant cell colonies were used as donor to generate homozygous gene-targeted pigs through single round of SCNT. As a result, we successfully obtained 15 tyrosinase (TYR) biallelic mutant pigs and 20 PARK2 and PINK1 double-gene knockout (KO) pigs. They were all homozygous and no off-target mutagenesis was detected by comprehensive analysis. TYR (-/-) pigs showed typical albinism and the expression of parkin and PINK1 were depleted in PARK2 (-/-)/PINK1 (-/-) pigs. The results demonstrated that single- or double-gene targeted pigs can be effectively achieved by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT without mosaic mutation and detectable off-target effects. This gene-editing system provides an efficient, rapid, and less costly manner to generate genetically modified pigs or other large animals. PMID:25274063

Zhou, Xiaoqing; Xin, Jige; Fan, Nana; Zou, Qingjian; Huang, Jiao; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bentian; Liu, Zhaoming; Lai, Sisi; Yi, Xiaoling; Guo, Lin; Esteban, Miguel A; Zeng, Yangzhi; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

2015-03-01

338

APPLIED PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS  

E-print Network

MSc APPLIED PHYSICS #12;MSc APPLIED PHYSICS This taught Masters course is based on the strong research in Applied Physics in the University's Department of Physics. The department has an impressive photonics and quantum optics, Physics and the Life Sciences, and solid state physics. The knowledge gained

Mottram, Nigel

339

Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe  

PubMed Central

Mesolithic populations throughout Europe used diverse resource exploitation strategies that focused heavily on collecting and hunting wild prey. Between 5500 and 4200 cal BC, agriculturalists migrated into northwestern Europe bringing a suite of Neolithic technologies including domesticated animals. Here we investigate to what extent Mesolithic Ertebølle communities in northern Germany had access to domestic pigs, possibly through contact with neighbouring Neolithic agricultural groups. We employ a multidisciplinary approach, applying sequencing of ancient mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (coat colour-coding gene MC1R) as well as traditional and geometric morphometric (molar size and shape) analyses in Sus specimens from 17 Neolithic and Ertebølle sites. Our data from 63 ancient pig specimens show that Ertebølle hunter-gatherers acquired domestic pigs of varying size and coat colour that had both Near Eastern and European mitochondrial DNA ancestry. Our results also reveal that domestic pigs were present in the region ~500 years earlier than previously demonstrated. PMID:23982268

Krause-Kyora, Ben; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Evin, Allowen; Flink, Linus Girdland; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Hartz, Sönke; Schreiber, Stefan; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

2013-01-01

340

Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe.  

PubMed

Mesolithic populations throughout Europe used diverse resource exploitation strategies that focused heavily on collecting and hunting wild prey. Between 5500 and 4200 cal BC, agriculturalists migrated into northwestern Europe bringing a suite of Neolithic technologies including domesticated animals. Here we investigate to what extent Mesolithic Ertebølle communities in northern Germany had access to domestic pigs, possibly through contact with neighbouring Neolithic agricultural groups. We employ a multidisciplinary approach, applying sequencing of ancient mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (coat colour-coding gene MC1R) as well as traditional and geometric morphometric (molar size and shape) analyses in Sus specimens from 17 Neolithic and Ertebølle sites. Our data from 63 ancient pig specimens show that Ertebølle hunter-gatherers acquired domestic pigs of varying size and coat colour that had both Near Eastern and European mitochondrial DNA ancestry. Our results also reveal that domestic pigs were present in the region ~500 years earlier than previously demonstrated. PMID:23982268

Krause-Kyora, Ben; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Evin, Allowen; Flink, Linus Girdland; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Hartz, Sönke; Schreiber, Stefan; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

2013-01-01

341

Fermented liquid feed for pigs.  

PubMed

Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance. PMID:21214019

Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

2010-12-01

342

Chemical roles on Cu-slurry interface during copper chemical mechanical planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to optimize the existing slurry for low down-pressure chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP), copper CMP was conducted in H2O2 based slurries with benzotriazole (BTA) and glycine at different pH values. The film composition was investigated by the Nano Hardness Tester and XPS tests. Furthermore, the film structure forming on the copper surface at different pH values was investigated by adopting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology. In the acidic slurry, discontinuous and porous BTA film covering the Cu/Cu2O surface enhanced the mechanical effect during Cu CMP process, resulted in highest CMP removal rate. In neutral slurry, the lowest CMP removal rate and static corrosion rate were resulted from compacted passivation film on the copper surface. In the alkaline slurry, the mechanical effect was limited by the rapid chemical dissolution. The results will benefit optimization of the slurry and operate conditions during low down-pressure CMP process.

Li, Jing; Liu, Yuhong; Pan, Yan; Lu, Xinchun

2014-02-01

343

Bioremediation of solid TNT particles in a soil slurry reactor: Mass transfer considerations  

SciTech Connect

The bioreduction of solid TNT by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was investigated in a stirred tank reactor. Experiments in which TNT beads were the only solids present indicated that the biodegradation mechanism is dissolution followed by degradation in bulk solution. Dissolution may limit the overall rate, in which case degradation can be enhanced through increased agitation. Since soil slurries may contain high concentrations of solids other than TNT, Teflon chips were added to investigate two separate effects on TNT dissolution in slurries. First, Teflon solids increase the viscosity of the slurry, resulting in lower solid-liquid mass transfer coefficients. Second, the agitated Teflon slurry can grind or comminute TNT particles, creating additional surface area for mass transfer. Enhanced dissolution rates were observed for TNT beads in a Teflon slurry at higher agitator speeds. This suggests that the biodegradation of solid TNT nuggets in a soil slurry bioreactor may be enhanced under conditions that promote particle attrition.

Gilcrease, P.C.; Murphy, V.G.; Reardon, K.F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

344

Analysis of the polishing slurry flow of chemical mechanical polishing by polishing pad with phyllotactic pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make the polishing slurry distribution more uniform over the polishing region, a new kind of polishing pad, which has sunflower seed pattern, has been designed based on the phyllotaxis theory of biology, and the boundary conditions of polishing slurry flow have been established. By the help of computational fluid dynamics software (FLUENT), the flow state of the polishing slurry is simulated and the effects of the phyllotactic parameters of polishing pad on the flow field of polishing slurry are analyzed. The results show that when the polishing slurry is imported from the center of phyllotaxis polishing pad, the slurry flows along the counterclockwise and clockwise spiral grooves of phyllotatic pattern, which make fluid flow divergence around, and the flow field becomes more uniform.

Lv, Yushan; Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jun; Li, Nan; Duan, Min; Xing, Xue-Ling

2010-12-01

345

Analysis of the polishing slurry flow of chemical mechanical polishing by polishing pad with phyllotactic pattern  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to make the polishing slurry distribution more uniform over the polishing region, a new kind of polishing pad, which has sunflower seed pattern, has been designed based on the phyllotaxis theory of biology, and the boundary conditions of polishing slurry flow have been established. By the help of computational fluid dynamics software (FLUENT), the flow state of the polishing slurry is simulated and the effects of the phyllotactic parameters of polishing pad on the flow field of polishing slurry are analyzed. The results show that when the polishing slurry is imported from the center of phyllotaxis polishing pad, the slurry flows along the counterclockwise and clockwise spiral grooves of phyllotatic pattern, which make fluid flow divergence around, and the flow field becomes more uniform.

Lv, Yushan; Zhang, Tian; Wang, Jun; Li, Nan; Duan, Min; Xing, Xue-Ling

2011-05-01

346

Evaluation of oxide-chemical mechanical polishing characteristics using ceria-mixed abrasive slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) characteristics of mixed abrasive slurry (MAS) were studied which was retreated by adding of Ceria (CeO2) abrasives within 1:10 diluted silica slurry (DSS). The slurry was designed for optimal performance which produces reasonable removal rate, acceptable polishing selectivity with respect to underlying layer, low surface defects after polishing, and good slurry stability. The modified abrasives in MAS are evaluated with respect to their particle size distribution, surface morphology, and CMP performances such as removal rate and non-uniformity. As an experimental result, we could obtain successful slurry characteristics compared with traditional silica slurry in the viewpoint of removal rate and non-uniformity.

Lee, Youngkyun; Seo, Yong-Jin; Jeong, Haedo

2012-10-01

347

Influence of slurry concentrations on bubble population and their rise velocities in a three-phase slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were performed in air–water and air–water–glass particles systems to study variations in gas holdups, bubble population and their rise velocities. Slurry concentrations up to 40% (v\\/v) and superficial gas velocities up to 0.30 m\\/s were investigated. The measurements were made using fast response pressure transducers and the dynamic gas disengagement (DGD) technique. The gas holdup due to small bubbles

H Li; A Prakash

2000-01-01

348

Virtual dissection of pig carcasses Martin Vester-Christensen a,*, Sren G.H. Erbou a  

E-print Network

scheme is applied to classify volume elements of full body CT-scans of pig carcasses into three tissue HU-values comparable across scanners and settings. Fat tissue is usually around À60 HU, meat tissue it is compa- rable across scanners. Applying different settings, or protocols, in a specific CT-scanner has

349

Ethanol production from non-detoxified whole slurry of sulfite-pretreated empty fruit bunches at a low cellulase loading.  

PubMed

Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to an empty fruit bunches (EFB) for ethanol production. SPORL facilitated delignification through lignin sulfonation and dissolution of xylan to result in a highly digestible substrate. The pretreated whole slurry was enzymatically saccharified at a solids loading of 18% using a relatively low cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g glucan and simultaneously fermented without detoxification using Saccharomyces cerevisiae of YRH400. An ethanol yield of 217 L/tonne EFB was achieved at titer of 32 g/L. Compared with literature studies, SPORL produced high ethanol yield and titer with much lower cellulase loading without detoxification. PMID:24874873

Cheng, Jinlan; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Zhu, J Y; Jeffries, Thomas W

2014-07-01

350

Toxoplasmosis in pigs-The last 20 years  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pigs are important to the economy of many countries because they are a source of food for humans. Infected pig meat is a source of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans and animals in many countries. This parasite also causes mortality in pigs, especially neonatal pigs. Most pigs acquire T. gondii ...

351

ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX SOLIDS WITH LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H  

SciTech Connect

Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). In the summer of 2011, Tank 50H contained two standard slurry pumps and two quad volute slurry pumps. Current requirements for mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste moved both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that were failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to mix solids with liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX), SRNL computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Tank 50H operating experience, and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters of pumps needed to mix the solid particles with the liquid in Tank 50H. The analysis determined pump requirements to suspend the solids with no 'dead zones', but did not determine the pump requirements to produce a homogeneous suspension. In addition, the analysis determined the pump requirements to prevent the accumulation of a large amount of solid particles under the telescoping transfer pump. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) The analysis shows that three Quad Volute pumps should be able to suspend the solid particles expected ({approx}0.6 g/L insoluble solids, {approx}5 micron) in Tank 50H. (2) Three standard slurry pumps may not be able to suspend the solid particles in Tank 50H; (3) The ability of two Quad Volute pumps to fully suspend all of the solid particles in Tank 50H is marginal; and (4) One standard slurry pump should be able to achieve a cleaning radius larger than 43.5 feet, which will prevent large amounts of solid particles from settling under the telescoping transfer pump (TTP). The report recommends a pump operating approach to maximize the achieved cleaning radius.

Poirier, M.

2011-11-11

352

Thorium oxide slurries as blankets in fissile producing fusion- fission hybrids  

E-print Network

not to significantly reduce the breeding ratio. A neutron multiplier was added to the slurry-based blanket to extend the concept to Deuterium-Tritium fueled hybrids. A fissile breeding ratio of 1. AS was thus achieved which should enable adequate tritium breeding... circulating slurry. Spheres formed in slurries with prolonged circulation tend to reach an equilibrium size which is dependent on ci. rculating conditions and the solid material. Control or elimination of the colloidal and flocculating properties...

Geer, Thomas Charles

1982-01-01

353

Investigation of coal-water slurry fuel combustion in reciprocating, internal combustion engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-water slurry(CWS) engine tests designed to investigate the ignition and combustion processes of the fuel are described\\u000a in this paper. The effects of three different parameters, namely, (a) needle lift pressure, (b) fuel injection timing, and\\u000a (c) percent coal loading in the slurry fuel are studied in detail. Successful operation of the engine using the coal water\\u000a slurry required modifications

G. H. Choi; S. R. Bell

1994-01-01

354

Size, structure and dynamics of “large” bubbles in a two-dimensional slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports preliminary results of a study on the hydrodynamics of a two-dimensional slurry bubble column. Experiments have been carried out with air\\/paraffin oil slurries with solids concentrations of 0, 28.3 and 38.6 vol% of porous silica particles (mean diameter of 38 ?m). Bubble sizes, bubble coalescence and bubble break-up rates were determined by video image analysis. Increasing slurry

J. W. A. De Swart; R. E. van Vliet; R. Krishna

1996-01-01

355

Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs  

PubMed Central

Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilization is affected by the age of the pig and the pig breed. The use of potential prebiotic effects of dietary fiber is an attractive way to stimulate gut health and thereby minimize the use of anti-microbial growth promoters. Inclusion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet can stimulate the growth of commensal gut microbes. Inclusion of NSP from chicory results in changes in gut micro-environment and gut morphology of pigs, while growth performance remains unaffected and digestibility was only marginally reduced. The fermentation products and pH in digesta responded to diet type and were correlated with shifts in the microbiota. Interestingly, fiber intake will have an impact on the expression of intestinal epithelial heat-shock proteins in the pig. Heat-shock proteins have an important physiological role in the gut and carry out crucial housekeeping functions in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, there are increasing evidence showing that fiber can have prebiotic effects in pigs due to interactions with the gut micro-environment and the gut associated immune system. PMID:24580966

2014-01-01

356

Pig but not Human Interferon-? Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-? (IFN-? ) but not human IFN-? or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-? also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-? (but not human IFN-? or heat-inactivated pig IFN-? ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

1997-08-01

357

Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries  

DOEpatents

A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

1987-02-25

358

Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries  

DOEpatents

A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

Doherty, Joseph P. (Elkton, MD); Marek, James C. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01

359

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10

360

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butytl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: (1) Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch; (2) addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst; and, (3) addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1991-10-15

361

Synthesis of octane enhancer during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1991-12-15

362

Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

Pinns, Murray L

1955-01-01

363

Evaluation of planarization capability of copper slurry in the CMP process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The evaluation methods of planarization capability of copper slurry are investigated. Planarization capability and material removal rate are the most essential properties of slurry. The goal of chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is to achieve a flat and smooth surface. Planarization capability is the elimination capability of the step height on the copper pattern wafer surface, and reflects the passivation capability of the slurry to a certain extent. Through analyzing the planarization mechanism of the CMP process and experimental results, the planarization capability of the slurry can be evaluated by the following five aspects: pressure sensitivity, temperature sensitivity, static etch rate, planarization efficiency and saturation properties.

Kangda, Yin; Shengli, Wang; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Xiang, Li

2013-03-01

364

Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

1987-09-01

365

Reducing Nitrogen loadings to estuaries in Denmark, 1990-2010. Results and costs of measures applied in catchments to 10 Danish estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nitrogen loading to 10 Danish estuaries has since 1990 been reduced by on average 42%. Thirty percent of this reduction is due to a reduction in Nitrogen loss from diffuse sources. Nitrogen surplus and the change in this surplus is shown to be a strong overall indicator for the trends in Nitrogen loading to most estuaries. The Nitrogen surplus has been reduced due to general national regulations and mitigation measures applied leading to an increased efficiency of Nitrogen use in cattle slurry (30%) and in pig slurry (ca. 40%). These improvements are paralleled by a reduced application of commercial N-fertilizer. Mean flow-weighted total Nitrogen concentrations in inlet fresh waters to estuaries have been reduced by 18-56% resulting in reductions of total Nitrogen concentrations (24-62%) in the inner and middle parts of the estuaries. The large variations in total Nitrogen loadings and concentrations in estuaries are due to both attenuation and time delays of Nitrogen in groundwater aquifers depending on catchment soil type and geology. This also implies varying costs of reducing the Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land (24-94 Euro/kg N reduced). Knowledge of the outcome of responses in the form of national regulations of agricultural N management for the N cycling from field to estuaries is important for decision makers and catchment managers working with the implementation of EU Directives such as the Water Framework Directive. Based on our findings we suggest that further reductions of Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land should be based on targeted and catchment specific measures leading to the most cost efficient way to achieve good ecological quality in the individual estuaries.

Windolf, J.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Carstensen, N. J.; Kronvang, B.

2012-04-01

366

A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)  

PubMed Central

Background Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans. PMID:23020652

2012-01-01

367

Improved pig donor screening including newly identified variants of porcine endogenous retrovirus-C (PERV-C).  

PubMed

Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are widely distributed in the genomes of pigs. PERV-A and PERV-B are present in all pigs. They infect human cells in vitro and therefore represent a risk for xenotransplantation when pig cells, tissues or organs are used. PERV-C infects only pig cells and is not present in the genomes of all pigs. However, PERV-A/C recombinants infecting human cells and characterized by high replication titers were found in pigs. To select PERV-C-free animals that cannot generate such recombinants, PCR-based assays were developed (Kaulitz et al., J Virol Methods, 175:60, 2011). When screening for PERV-C in German wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa), applying these methods, a new variant of PERV-C was identified. Whereas in all 125 wild boar only the new variant of PERV-C was found, different variants were present in some landrace pigs, and most importantly, some pigs were totally free of PERV-C. PMID:23053520

Kaulitz, Danny; Mihica, Debora; Adlhoch, Cornelia; Semaan, Marwan; Denner, Joachim

2013-02-01

368

Could a Wolf Really Blow a Pig’s House Down?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will be animal investigators on a mission to learn all about pigs and wolves. With prompting and support from the teacher, students will read an informational text about pigs (Pigs by Robin Nelson) and wolves (Wolves by Michael Dahl). They will use information gathered to contribute to a class discussion about the characteristics of real pigs and wolves. Then, the teacher will read The Three Little Pigs (written by Anne Walters and Daniel Postgate) to the students and help them complete a Venn diagram comparing what they observed in The Three Little Pigs to what they know to be true of real pigs and wolves. In order to determine mastery of the concept, the students will complete a picture sort of Real and Imaginary Pigs and Wolves. At the end of the lesson, students will be able to explain how they make an informed decision about whether an animal is real or imaginary.

2013-01-04

369

Humoral Immune Responses to Pig Urinary Proteins and Respiratory Health of Pig Farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pig stable dust may contain large amounts of potentially allergenic pig urinary proteins (PUP). In this study, inhibition enzyme immunoassays were used to measure airborne PUP expo-sure, and high levels (up to 200 ?geq\\/m) could indeed be demon-strated in personal inhalable dust samples of pig farmers. IgE and IgG4 anti-PUP were assessed in the sera of 191 pig farmers, for

Gert Doekes; Liesbeth Preller; Roel Vermeulen; Jack Spithoven; Dick Heederik

1997-01-01

370

Heavy-Metal Fractions in Solid and Liquid Separates of Swine Slurry Separated using Different Technologies.  

PubMed

Accumulation of metals is a concern with continuous application of swine slurry to agricultural soils. Solid-liquid separation is a promising approach for reducing phosphorus and total metal loadings with swine manure application to farmlands. However, very little work has been performed on the partitioning of different metal fractions in swine slurry to separated solids and liquids. This study examined the distribution of various metal fractions in raw manures (RM), their separated liquids (SL), and separated solids (SS). The three separation techniques used were centrifuge without flocculant (CNF), centrifuge with flocculant (CFL), and rotary press with flocculant (RFL). Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Se in manure and separates were determined by a modified Sposito's sequential chemical fractionation scheme to extract water-soluble, exchangeable, organically bound, carbonate-precipitated, and residual fractions. The greatest concentrations of metals were recovered in the residual fraction, with the organically bound and carbonate-precipitated concentrations much greater than water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. Separation index () (i.e., percentage partitioned to SS) ranged from 13 to 66%, 9 to 87%, 16 to 93%, and 23 to 96% for water-soluble, exchangeable, organically bound, and carbonate-precipitated fractions, respectively. The values in general, were significantly ( < 0.05) greater for flocculant-based separation techniques than for CNF. For organically bound and carbonate-precipitated fractions, the greatest was obtained with the RFL for most metals. Our results suggest that applying the SL from RFL separation would minimize metal loading to farmlands compared with SL from CNF and CFL techniques. However, further validation is required using more sources of manure and different flocculants. PMID:25603262

Olatuyi, S O; Kumaragamage, D; Akinremi, O O; Grieger, L

2014-09-01

371

An investigation on the rheological behavior of metallic semi-solid slurries of Al-6.5 pct Si and semi-solid composite slurries of SiC particulates in an Al-6.5 pct Si alloy matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rheology of SiC particulate/Al-6.5 pct Si composite slurries was explored. The rheological behavior of the composite slurries shows both thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviors. Isostructural experiments on the composite slurries revealed a Newtonian behavior beyond a high shear rate limit. The rheology of fully molten composite slurries over the low to high shear rate range indicates the existence of a low shear rate Newtonian region, an intermediate pseudoplastic region and a high shear rate Newtonian region. The isostructural studies indicate that the viscosity of a composite slurry depends upon the shearing history of a given volume of material. An unexpected shear thinning was noted for SiC particulate + alpha slurries as compared to semi-solid metallic slurries at the same fraction solid. The implications of these findings for the processing of slurries into cast components is discussed.

Moon, H.-K.; Ito, Y.; Cornie, J. A.; Flemings, M. C.

1993-01-01

372

Propionibacterium from Liver and Lung of Pigs and Guinea Pigs. 1: Physiological Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 231 Propionibacterium strains originated from animals were identified based on key physiological properties. They comprised 218 strains derived from livers of pigs with or without milk spots, eight from lungs of pigs used in parasitic infection experiments (including controls), and three from livers and two from lungs of guinea pigs in experimental parasitic infection. All identification tests

Hiroaki Oomi; Ryozo Azuma; Shinichi Suzuki; Tadao Watanabe; Satoshi Murakami

2002-01-01

373

Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

2012-04-01

374

YIELD STRESS REDUCTION OF DWPF MELTER FEED SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site vitrifies High Level Waste for repository internment. The process consists of three major steps: waste pretreatment, vitrification, and canister decontamination/sealing. The HLW consists of insoluble metal hydroxides (primarily iron, aluminum, magnesium, manganese, and uranium) and soluble sodium salts (carbonate, hydroxide, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate). The pretreatment process acidifies the sludge with nitric and formic acids, adds the glass formers as glass frit, then concentrates the resulting slurry to approximately 50 weight percent (wt%) total solids. This slurry is fed to the joule-heated melter where the remaining water is evaporated followed by calcination of the solids and conversion to glass. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is currently assisting DWPF efforts to increase throughput of the melter. As part of this effort, SRNL has investigated methods to increase the solids content of the melter feed to reduce the heat load required to complete the evaporation of water and allow more of the energy available to calcine and vitrify the waste. The process equipment in the facility is fixed and cannot process materials with high yield stresses, therefore increasing the solids content will require that the yield stress of the melter feed slurries be reduced. Changing the glass former added during pretreatment from an irregularly shaped glass frit to nearly spherical beads was evaluated. The evaluation required a systems approach which included evaluations of the effectiveness of beads in reducing the melter feed yield stress as well as evaluations of the processing impacts of changing the frit morphology. Processing impacts of beads include changing the settling rate of the glass former (which effects mixing and sampling of the melter feed slurry and the frit addition equipment) as well as impacts on the melt behavior due to decreased surface area of the beads versus frit. Beads were produced from the DWPF process frit by fire polishing. The frit was allowed to free fall through a flame, then quenched with a water spray. Approximately 90% of the frit was converted to beads by this process, as shown in Figure 1. Borosilicate beads of various diameters were also procured for initial testing.

Stone, M; Michael02 Smith, M

2006-12-28

375

Slurry-based fabrication of chopped fiberglass composite preforms  

SciTech Connect

A water-based process for the fabrication of chopped fiberglass preforms is being developed in collaboration with the Automotive Composite Consortium (ACC) and The Budd Company. This slurry process uses hydraulic pressure to form highly compacted fiberglass preforms on contoured, perforated metal screens. The preforms will be used in the development of structural automotive composites. A key objective is to produce preforms having uniform areal density. Computational simulation of variable open area screens, and areal density mapping using a gamma densitometer are discussed.

Moore, G.A.; Johnson, R.W.; Landon, M.D.; Stoots, C.M.; Anderson, J.L.

1995-12-01

376

Aerated atomization of coal-water slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect

Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This programs was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50 {mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. This report describes results of a mathematical analysis in order to better understand physical phenomena involved. 12 figs.

Buckner, H.N.; Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

1989-04-01

377

Pig blastocyst-uterine interactions.  

PubMed

The litter-bearing pig is an invaluable model for research in reproductive biology. Spherical pig blastocysts on Day 10 of pregnancy undergo rapid morphological changes to tubular and then filamentous forms by Day 12 and a filamentous conceptus of almost 1m in length by Day 16 of pregnancy. Thus, trophectoderm of each conceptus achieves intimate contact with luminal uterine epithelium (LE) for exchange of nutrients, gases, hormones, growth factors and other key molecules for survival and development. Estrogens secreted between Days 11 and 13 of pregnancy signals pregnancy recognition to ensure that nutrients and prostaglandin F2-alpha (PGF) are secreted into the uterine lumen (exocrine secretion) rather than into the uterine vein (endocrine secretion) which would lead to regression of the corpora lutea (CL) and failure to maintain pregnancy. Pigs have a true epitheliochorial placenta. The fluid filled amnion bouys the embryo so that it develops symmetrically. The allantois fills with allantoic fluid to expand contact of the chorioallantois with uterine LE, and the allanotois supports the vascular system of the placenta. The chorion/trophectoderm in direct contact with uterine LE exchanges gases and nutrients and forms unique structures call areolae that absorb nutrient-rich secretions from uterine glands and transports them directly into fetal blood. The period from Days 20 to 70 of pregnancy is for placental growth in preparation for rapid fetal growth between Days 70 and 114 (term) of gestation. Maturation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leads to increases in secretion of cortisol from the fetal adrenal glands. Cortisol sets in motion secretion of estrogens, oxytocin, relaxin and prolactin, as well as increases in their receptors, which are required for delivery of piglets and for initiation of lactation and expression of maternal behavior. This review provides details of gestation in the pig with respect to uterine biology, implantation, placentation, fetal development and parturition. PMID:24388881

Bazer, Fuller W; Johnson, Gregory A

2014-01-01

378

HIMAC PIG ion source development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HIMAC (Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba) project is in progress. Necessary characteristics for the HIMAC ion source are high current (130-630 muA with a q\\/A of 1\\/7) from He to Ar, good stability, long life and easy maintenance. To attain these characteristics, an indirectly heated PIG ion source test bench has been designed and constructed since 1985. A low-energy

T. Yamada; Y. Sato; H. Ogawa; T. Kimura

1989-01-01

379

WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS  

SciTech Connect

Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

Mayer, J.

2013-04-12

380

PIG-A mutations in normal hematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is caused by phosphatidylinositol glycan–class A (PIG-A) mutations in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). PIG-A mutations have been found in granulocytes from most healthy individuals, suggesting that these spontaneous PIG-A mutations are important in the pathogenesis of PNH. It remains unclear if these PIG-A mutations have relevance to those found in PNH. We isolated CD34+ progenitors from 4 patients with PNH and 27 controls. The frequency of PIG-A mutant progenitors was determined by assaying for colony-forming cells (CFCs) in methylcellulose containing toxic doses of aerolysin (1 × 10-9 M). Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)–anchored proteins serve as receptors for aerolysin; thus, PNH cells are resistant to aerolysin. The frequency of aerolysin resistant CFC was 14.7 ± 4.0 × 10-6 in the bone marrow of healthy donors and was 57.0 ± 6.7 × 10-6 from mobilized peripheral blood. DNA was extracted from individual day-14 aerolysin-resistant CFCs and the PIG-A gene was sequenced to determine clonality. Aerolysin-resistant CFCs from patients with PNH exhibited clonal PIG-A mutations. In contrast, PIG-A mutations in the CFCs from controls were polyclonal, and did not involve T cells. Our data confirm the finding that PIG-A mutations are relatively common in normal hematopoiesis; however, the finding suggests that these mutations occur in differentiated progenitors rather than HSCs. PMID:15687243

Hu, Rong; Mukhina, Galina L.; Piantadosi, Steven; Barber, Jamie P.; Jones, Richard J.; Brodsky, Robert A.

2005-01-01

381

Properties of pig heart aconitase  

PubMed Central

Comparison of pig heart aconitase (Kennedy et al., 1972) with yeast (Candida lipolytica) aconitase (Suzuki et al., 1973) reveals similarities in molecular weight and iron content but not in sulphide content. Comparison with the Mildvan & Villafranca (1971) pig heart aconitase preparation reveals differences in iron ligands, specific activity and other properties; these differences possibly arise from protein association as pig heart protein associates under a variety of conditions. The electron spin resonance spectrum, g 4.25, and the low molar relaxivity, 473m?1·s?1, of water H+ suggest the presence of high-spin Fe(III) unco-ordinated to water in the enzyme. The iron chromophore on acid titration at 320nm gives a curve with an inflexion at pH4.2. Ten of 16 expected thiol equivalents are titrated with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate suggesting the presence of cystine as well as cysteine residues. Inhibition of the activation of inactive (activatable) enzyme is sigmoidally related to the molar ratio, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate/enzyme with 10–11mol of mercurial compound causing complete inhibition. Active enzyme, free from activating reagents, requires high molar ratios of mercurial compound for rapid inhibition. In terms of p-hydroxymercuribenzoate the enzyme then lacks an essential thiol group. PMID:4376951

Gawron, Oscar; Kennedy, Mary C.; Rauner, Richard A.

1974-01-01

382

Gastric emptying in young pigs  

PubMed Central

1. Gastric emptying in young pigs has been studied by using a serial test meal procedure. 2. Phenol red was used as a reference substance. In acute experiments the recovery of phenol red from the stomach with the pylorus occluded was 94·8 ± 2·2 (S.E.)% of that introduced. 3. Gastric emptying was examined in seven fasted conscious pigs provided with a chronic gastric cannula. After emptying the stomach 500 ml. of a liquid meal containing 20 g citrus pectin, 35·0 g sucrose and 100 mg phenol red made up to 1 l. was introduced. After 5-60 min the meal was withdrawn, the volume of meal that had left the stomach was assessed from the recovery of phenol red and the secretion of gastric juice was calculated from the dilution of phenol red and the rate of emptying. After an initial very rapid outflow, the rate of emptying fell with time, as did the rate of secretion. 4. In three pigs 200, 400, 600 or 800 ml. meal was introduced into the stomach and the stomach was emptied 20 min later. The rate of gastric emptying varied directly with the volume of meal introduced. 5. Atropine sulphate, 0·5 mg/kg body weight, injected I.M. 30 min before the test, greatly inhibited gastric emptying and secretion. PMID:4754870

Ochia, B. A.

1973-01-01

383

Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure.  

PubMed

In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological measures. Behavioral animal paradigms, in particular in combination with these histological and electrophysiological methods, are necessary in the development of new therapeutic interventions. However, the guinea pig is not considered an attractive animal for behavioral experiments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral task suitable for guinea pigs, that can be utilized in cochlear-implant related research. Guinea pigs were trained in a modified shuttle-box in which a stream of air was used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). A stream of air was preferred over conventionally used methods as electric foot-shocks since it produces less stress, which is a confounding factor in behavioral experiments. Hearing guinea pigs were trained to respond to acoustic stimuli. They responded correctly within only five sessions of ten minutes. The animals maintained their performance four weeks after the right cochlea was implanted with an electrode array. After systemic deafening, the animals responded in the first session immediately to intracochlear electrical stimulation. These responses were not affected by daily chronic electrical stimulation (CES). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that guinea pigs can be trained relatively fast to respond to acoustic stimuli, and that the training has a lasting effect, which generalizes to intracochlear electrical stimulation after deafening. Furthermore, it demonstrates that bilaterally deafened guinea pigs with substantial (?50%) loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), detect intracochlear electrical stimulation. PMID:24811981

Agterberg, Martijn J H; Versnel, Huib

2014-07-01

384

dsPIG: a tool to predict imprinted genes from the deep sequencing of whole transcriptomes  

PubMed Central

Background Dysregulation of imprinted genes, which are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, plays an important role in various human diseases, such as cancer and behavioral disorder. To date, however, fewer than 100 imprinted genes have been identified in the human genome. The recent availability of high-throughput technology makes it possible to have large-scale prediction of imprinted genes. Here we propose a Bayesian model (dsPIG) to predict imprinted genes on the basis of allelic expression observed in mRNA-Seq data of independent human tissues. Results Our model (dsPIG) was capable of identifying imprinted genes with high sensitivity and specificity and a low false discovery rate when the number of sequenced tissue samples was fairly large, according to simulations. By applying dsPIG to the mRNA-Seq data, we predicted 94 imprinted genes in 20 cerebellum samples and 57 imprinted genes in 9 diverse tissue samples with expected low false discovery rates. We also assessed dsPIG using previously validated imprinted and non-imprinted genes. With simulations, we further analyzed how imbalanced allelic expression of non-imprinted genes or different minor allele frequencies affected the predictions of dsPIG. Interestingly, we found that, among biallelically expressed genes, at least 18 genes expressed significantly more transcripts from one allele than the other among different individuals and tissues. Conclusion With the prevalence of the mRNA-Seq technology, dsPIG has become a useful tool for analysis of allelic expression and large-scale prediction of imprinted genes. For ease of use, we have set up a web service and also provided an R package for dsPIG at http://www.shoudanliang.com/dsPIG/. PMID:23083219

2012-01-01

385

Fused slurry silicide coatings for columbium alloy reentry heat shields. Volume 2: Experimental and coating process details  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The experimental and coating process details are presented. The process specifications which were developed for the formulation and application of the R-512E fused slurry silicide coating using either an acrylic or nitrocellulose base slurry system is also discussed.

Fitzgerald, B.

1973-01-01

386

A study of ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated coal water slurry droplet using digital image processing technique  

E-print Network

A digital image processing technique is used to investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of an isolated coal water slurry droplet in low Re flow. Coal water slurry droplet study is useful for dilute coal suspensions based...

Bhadra, Tanmoy

1998-01-01

387

The fate of Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 in cattle slurry after application to land.  

PubMed

The fate of both faecal Escherichia coli and E. coli O157 in slurry following application to arable and grass plots on a clay loam soil was studied. Slurry (5% dry matter) containing 5.3 x 10(4) ml(-1) E. coli and 30 E. coli O157 100 ml(-1) was spread in early March. Initially, almost all E. coli were retained in the upper layers of the soil. Escherichia coli numbers steadily declined to less than 1% of those applied by day 29, and E. coli O157 were only detected in the soil and on the grass for the first week after application. There was some transport of bacteria to deeper layers of the soil, but this was approximately 2% of the total; transport to drains over the same period was mainly associated with rainfall events and amounted to approximately 7% of applied E. coli. However, there were indications that periods of heavy rainfall could cause significant losses of E. coli by both leaching and run-off. Experimental studies showed that E. coli O157 on grass, which was subsequently ensiled in conditions allowing aerobic spoilage, could multiply to numbers exceeding 10(6) g(-1) in the silage. PMID:10880190

Fenlon, D R; Ogden, I D; Vinten, A; Svoboda, I

2000-01-01

388

Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory`s (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program`s first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow ({le}12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled.

Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab.

1998-12-31

389

Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications  

SciTech Connect

This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-01

390

RESTORATION DESIGN OF COLDWATER FORK FOLLOWING THE OCTOBER 11, 2000 SLURRY SPILL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Wednesday morning, October 11, 2000, a breach in the 72-acre Big Branch slurry impoundment caused the release of approximately 250 million gallons of coal slurry, a substance consisting of coal fines, other particles and water, into the Coldwater Fork and Wolf Creek Watersheds, through two mine portals ultimately affecting more than 100 miles of stream. Arguably, the most severly

Michael F. Adams; J. George Athanasakes

391

Effect of novel alkaline copper slurry on 300 mm copper global planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The copper removal rate and uniformity of two types copper slurries were investigated, which was performed on the 300 mm chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) platform. The experiment results illustrate that the removal rate of the two slurries is nearly the same. Slurry A is mainly composed of a FA/OII type chelating agent and the uniformity reaches to 88.32%. While the uniformity of slurry B is 96.68%, which is mainly composed of a FA/OV type chelating agent. This phenomenon demonstrates that under the same process conditions, the uniformity of different slurries is vastly different. The CMP performance was evaluated in terms of the dishing and erosion values. In this paper, the relationship between the uniformity and the planarization was deeply analyzed, which is mainly based on the endpoint detection mechanism. The experiment results reveal that the slurry with good uniformity has low dishing and erosion. The slurry with bad uniformity, by contract, increases Cu dishing significantly and causes copper loss in the recessed region. Therefore, the following conclusions are drawn: slurry B can improve the wafer leveling efficiently and minimize the resistance and current density along the line, which is helpful to improve the device yield and product reliability. This investigation provides a guide to improve the uniformity and achieve the global and local planarization. It is very significant to meet the requirements for 22 nm technology nodes and control the dishing and erosion efficiently.

Weijuan, Liu; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Guodong, Chen; Mengting, Jiang; Haobo, Yuan; Pengfei, Cheng

2014-09-01

392

Chemical Vapor Generation with Slurry Sampling: A Review of Atomic Absorption Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes and discusses the analytical methods and techniques described in the literature for hydride generation as a mode of slurry sample introduction into atomization cells. A brief comparison of detection limits for analytical atomic absorption methods and practical applications to analytical samples that utilize slurry hydride generation is discussed. The current state-of-the-art, including advantages and limitations of this

Henryk Matusiewicz

2003-01-01

393

INVESTIGATION OF SLURRY CUTOFF WALL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The document reviews current design and construction methods of soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff walls. It summarizes engineering practices, identifies areas of technical detail and initiates research to promote the development of standards for use of slurry walls to isolate h...

394

Effect of impact angle on the slurry erosion–corrosion of 304L stainless steel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This communication describes an investigation of the effect of impact angle on slurry erosion–corrosion of stainless steel using a new slurry erosion rig. With the new apparatus, it is possible to measure the individual erosion events under impact as both electrochemical current\\/time transients, and mechanical transients through acoustic emission (AE) simultaneously. Each sharp rise observed in the electrochemical current transient

G. T. Burstein; K. Sasaki

2000-01-01

395

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

1995-10-10

396

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Wittmer, Dale E. (Carbondale, IL)

1995-01-01

397

INVESTIGATING ULTRASONIC DIFFRACTION GRATING SPECTROSCOPY AND REFLECTION TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZING SLURRY PROPERTIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The objectives of the project are to investigate the use of (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) for measuring the particle size of a slurry and (2) shear wave reflection techniques to measure the viscosity of a slurry. For the first topic, the basic principle...

398

In-Situ Investigation of Wafer-Slurry-Pad Interactions during CMP , A. Mueller  

E-print Network

In-Situ Investigation of Wafer-Slurry-Pad Interactions during CMP N. Braun 1 , C. Gray 1 , A.Moinpour@intel.com The objective of this project is to acquire in-situ data during chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) including slurry film thickness and flow, wafer-pad contact, wafer- scale friction, and small-scale shear

White, Robert D.

399

RESEARCH ARTICLE Modeling of dual emission laser induced fluorescence for slurry  

E-print Network

to Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP) is complicated by the fluorescence of the polymeric polishing pad and the light scattering particles in the polishing slurry. We have developed a model of DELIF for CMP with 1-dye employing the polishing pad as the second fluorophore. While scattering particles in the slurry

White, Robert D.

400

Heat transfer and pressure drop of ice slurries in plate heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice slurries can be used both for cold storage in place of chilled water or ice and as a secondary refrigerant since, up to certain concentrations, they can be pumped directly through distribution pipeworks and heat exchangers. For ice slurries to become more widely accepted, however, more engineering information is required on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics.This paper reports

J. Bellas; I. Chaer; S. A. Tassou

2002-01-01

401

Influences of the interstitial liquid on segregation patterns of granular slurries in a rotating drum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular mixtures immersed in a liquid (slurries) show segregation dynamics which are quantitatively and qualitatively different from those of dry systems. The principal mechanisms of the segregation dynamics in slurries, as well as the relevant material parameters that must be taken into account in a dynamic description are not sufficiently understood so far. We investigate experimentally the influence of the

Tilo Finger; Ralf Stannarius

2007-01-01

402

The General Composition of the Faecal Virome of Pigs Depends on Age, but Not on Feeding with a Probiotic Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The pig faecal virome, which comprises the community of viruses present in pig faeces, is complex and consists of pig viruses, bacteriophages, transiently passaged plant viruses and other minor virus species. Only little is known about factors influencing its general composition. Here, the effect of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) NCIMB 10415 on the pig faecal virome composition was analysed in a pig feeding trial with sows and their piglets, which received either the probiotic bacterium or not. Results From 8 pooled faecal samples derived from the feeding trial, DNA and RNA virus particles were prepared and subjected to process-controlled Next Generation Sequencing resulting in 390,650 sequence reads. In average, 14% of the reads showed significant sequence identities to known viruses. The percentage of detected mammalian virus sequences was highest (55–77%) in the samples of the youngest piglets and lowest (8–10%) in the samples of the sows. In contrast, the percentage of bacteriophage sequences increased from 22–44% in the youngest piglets to approximately 90% in the sows. The dominating mammalian viruses differed remarkably among 12 day-old piglets (kobuvirus), 54 day-old piglets (boca-, dependo- and pig stool-associated small circular DNA virus [PigSCV]) and the sows (PigSCV, circovirus and “circovirus-like” viruses CB-A and RW-A). In addition, the Shannon index, which reflects the diversity of sequences present in a sample, was generally higher for the sows as compared to the piglets. No consistent differences in the virome composition could be identified between the viromes of the probiotic bacterium-treated group and the control group. Conclusion The analysis indicates that the pig faecal virome shows a high variability and that its general composition is mainly dependent on the age of the pigs. Changes caused by feeding with the probiotic bacterium E. faecium could not be demonstrated using the applied metagenomics method. PMID:24586429

Sachsenröder, Jana; Twardziok, Sven O.; Scheuch, Matthias; Johne, Reimar

2014-01-01

403

Regional Variation in Pig Farmer Awareness and Actions Regarding Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal: Implications for Public Health Education  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people’s personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs. PMID:24416402

Dhakal, Santosh; Joshi, Durga Datt; Ale, Anita; Sharma, Minu; Dahal, Meena; Shah, Yogendra; Pant, Dhan Kumar; Stephen, Craig

2014-01-01

404

Optimization of the rheological properties of alumina slurries for ceramic processing applications Part II: Spray-drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work deals with the preparation of stable alumina, titania and alumina–titania slurries with a high solid content for the production of spray-dried powders. The compatibility of commercial dispersants with various commercial binders, with respect to slurry stability and viscosity, was first studied on alumina slurries. It was shown that binders such as carboxy-methyl-cellulose significantly increase the slurry viscosity

Athena Tsetsekou; Christos Agrafiotis; Ioanna Leon; Aggelos Milias

2001-01-01

405

Development of rapid methods for estimating the fertilizing ability (nitrogen and potassium) of pig slurry and its changes during storage  

E-print Network

studied. The volume of biogas produced, the biogas required for the maintenance of fermentation (self. The digester output expressed as ml biogas/M3 tank/day ranged from 0.4 to 1.3 m"11' m3. d over a period of 9 can be checked #12;by the ratio of biogas production to organic matter input : 0.20 to 0.3 M3/kg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

406

Development of rapid methods for estimating the fertilizing ability (nitrogen and potassium) of pig slurry and its changes during storage  

E-print Network

studied. The volume of biogas produced, the biogas required for the maintenance of fermentation (self. The digester output expressed as ml biogas/M3 tank/day ranged from 0.4 to 1.3 m"11' m3. d over a period of 9

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

407

Study of the physical properties of petrolatum-stabilized magnesium-hydrocarbon slurry fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnesium-hydrocarbon slurries containing a moderate proportion of petrolatum have physical properties such that they offer promise as experimental aircraft fuels. The settling of the magnesium is greatly retarded by the petrolatum, and the slurries can easily be remixed to their original condition after storage. Successive batches which have closely similar properties can be prepared readily. The apparent viscosity of these slurries increased rapidly with increasing magnesium concentration, with increasing petrolatum concentration, and with decreasing temperature. As the apparent viscosity increased, the extent of settling and the ease of remixing both decreased. Although no quantitative correlation was found between the properties of the slurry and those of the petrolatum, and no one petrolatum gave slurries which were best in all respects, one of the five petrolatum used was judged to be superior to the others.

Pinns, Murray L; Goodman, Irving A

1954-01-01

408

KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

2003-09-29

409

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOEpatents

In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst-free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by mixing them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation. 2 figs.

White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

1998-10-27

410

Viscosity of coal/water slurries at high shear rates  

SciTech Connect

The service life of an injector nozzle in a diesel engine fueled with of coal/water slurry (CWS) is 2-5 h, which limits the continuous running time of the engine. This study of CWS flow and erosion in injector nozzles was initiated to provide an analytical tool, validated by experiment, for designing a durable injector and predicting long-term wear from limited test runs. The two-phase hydrodynamic theory of solid/liquid slurry flow has been extended to incorporate the constitutive relationship for power-law non-Newtonian behavior. A computer model has been developed to predict the spatial and temporal variations in solid and liquid velocities, viscosities, and concentrations under the high shear rates encountered in diesel injection systems. The model has been validated using Newtonian, single phase flow data obtained with water or No. 2 diesel fuel and non-Newtonian, two-phase flow data using a CWS. The computed and measured viscosities and shear rates showed good agreement. Viscosities of four micronized CWS samples were measured at shear rates between 3000 and 30,000 sec/sup /minus/1/ in a high-pressure/high-shear capillary tube system of a rotational viscometer. The complex CWS flow at high shear depended on coal particle size, temperature, coal loading, additives, and the shear rate. 40 refs., 19 figs., 6 tabs.

Sekar, R.R.; Wang, C.S.; Choi, U.S.

1988-08-01

411

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOEpatents

In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by slurring them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation.

White, Curt M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Quiring, Michael S. (Katy, TX); Jensen, Karen L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hickey, Richard F. (Bethel Park, PA); Gillham, Larry D. (Bartlesville, OK)

1998-10-27

412

Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.  

PubMed

Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model. PMID:16933643

Fritz, Brad G

2006-08-01

413

Analysis of genetic distribution and population genetic structure of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) data was applied to analyze the distribution of the MyoD gene in 10 pig breeds and pig breed crosses. The population genetic information about genetic distribution, variation, and\\u000a heterozygosity of the MyoD gene in different breed populations were analyzed. Based on the allele frequency, genetic distance and evolution distance\\u000a among each breed populations were calculated

Li Zhu; Xuewei Li; Surong Shuai; Mingzhou Li; Fangqiong Li; Lei Chen

2008-01-01

414

Rheological Behavior Xanthan and SlurryPro Polymer Solutions Evaluated as Shear Thinning Delivery Fluids for Subsurface Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear thinning fluids can be applied as a delivery means to enhance the uniformity of remedial amendment distribution in heterogeneous aquifers, thereby to improve remediation performance. The rheological behavior of biopolymer xanthan gum and synthetic polymer SlurryPro were tested, and their influence on the amendment delivery performance was evaluated. The impact of polymer concentration, basic water chemistry, salinity (e.g., Br-, Na+, Ca2+ concentrations), remedial amendments (phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate, lactate oil, whey), sediments, and the mixing approach on the rheological properties of the polymer solutions was determined. The SlurryPro polymer lost shear-thinning properties even at relatively low solution ionic strength. However, the xanthan gum polymer maintained shear-thinning properties under most of the tested conditions, though with some loss in absolute viscosity with increasing ionic strength. Xanthan appeared to be the better candidate for enhanced amendment delivery. Increasing in xanthan concentration not only increased the solution viscosity, but also increased degree of shear thinning. Addition of salt decreased the solution viscosity and the degree of shear thinning, while the influence was diminished when the polymer concentration was higher. After reaching a critical xanthan concentration, addition of salt increased solution viscosity. The degradation of xanthan and SlurryPro in the presence of site aquifer materials and microbes was studied in batch tests in which the field sediment/water ratio was simulated. The viscosity of the polymer solutions dropped 85% or more in the first week, while the solution chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreasing occurred at a much slower rate.

Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Truex, M.; Vermeul, V.

2011-12-01

415

Rheology of corn stover slurries at high solids concentrations--effects of saccharification and particle size.  

PubMed

The rheological characteristics of untreated and dilute acid pretreated corn stover (CS) slurries at high solids concentrations were studied under continuous shear using plate-plate type measurements. Slurry rheological behavior was examined as a function of insoluble solids concentration (10-40%), extent of pretreatment (0-75% removal of xylan) and particle size (-20 and -80 mesh). Results show that CS slurries exhibit shear-thinning behavior describable using a Casson model. Further, results demonstrate that the apparent viscosity and yield stress increase with increasing solids concentration (which corresponds to a decrease in free water). Dilute acid pretreatment leads to lower viscosity and yield stresses at equivalent solids concentrations, as does smaller particle size. Taken together, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the availability of free water in the slurry plays a significant role in determining its rheological behavior. In particular, as the free water content of the slurry decreases, e.g., with increasing solids concentration, the greater interaction among particles likely increases the apparent viscosity and yield stress properties of the slurry. The results also suggest that the availability of free water, and thereby slurry rheological properties, depend on the chemical composition of the corn stover as well as its physical characteristics such as particle size and porosity. Hydrophilic polymers within the cell wall, such as xylan or pectin, or larger pores within bigger particles, facilitate sequestration of water in the solid phase resulting in decreased availability of free water. Thus, dilute acid pretreated slurries, which contain smaller size particles having significantly lower xylan content than slurries of untreated milled stover, exhibit much lower viscosities and yield stresses than untreated slurries containing large particles at similar solid concentrations. PMID:18760597

Viamajala, Sridhar; McMillan, James D; Schell, Daniel J; Elander, Richard T

2009-01-01

416

Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe  

SciTech Connect

Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

2001-03-01

417

INFLUENZA: Pigs, People and Public Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary: Swine influenza viruses were first isolated in the United States in 1930. Since that time, they have become an economically important cause of respiratory disease in pigs throughout the world, and a human public health risk. The clinical signs\\/symptoms of influenza in pigs and people are remarkably similar, with fever, lethargy, lack of appetite and coughing prominent in both

Christopher W. Olsen

2004-01-01

418

RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge  

E-print Network

RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge Attila Bai & László Stündl & Péter Bársony & Milán- ied an economical method of algae production on pig sludge that can be operated on animal farms in Hungary with modest levels of investment. We analyzed four algae spe- cies, Chlorella vulgaris

Boyer, Edmond

419

Of pigs and men and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

A review of the role of pigs as an ideal experimental animal in human medical research is given, covering applications and analogies of sus scrofa in general medicine encompassing space medicine. It is also a report of some investigations carried out on Danish Landrace pigs that emphasize the similarities of swine and men. The musculoskeletal system, respiration, circulation, blood, lymph,

William Richard Douglas

1972-01-01

420

Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

421

The Ultrasensitive Bay of Pigs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On Wednesday, the National Security Archive released newly declassified portions of the Taylor Commission Report, the report from the commission charged by President Kennedy with investigating the Bay of Pigs incident. The eight documents in this new release add crucial details to the picture that emerged from prior, more heavily censored releases of Taylor Commission materials in 1977 and 1986. This release serves as a useful supplement to the The Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation (see the February 27, 1998 Scout Report), which was declassified in 1998 and scathing in its critique of the CIA's actions.

422

Experimental aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. PMID:24829285

Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

2015-01-01

423

Guinea pigs showing color inheritance, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>Threat of the Unfit>the fit and unfitGuinea pigs showing color inheritance, part of a Fitter Families exhibit, 1926. Fitter Families Contests held at state fairs throughout the United States during the 1920s showed that American eugenicists were literal in their aim to apply principles of agricultural breeding to human beings.

2008-10-06

424

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source, revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode Penning ionization gauge (PIG) ion source was investigated. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may

I. G. Brown; J. E. Galvin; B. F. Gavin; R. A. MacGill

1985-01-01

425

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source. Revision  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application

I. G. Brown; J. E. Galvin; B. F. Gavin; R. A. MacGill

1984-01-01

426

Healing potential of cream containing extract of Sphaeranthus indicus on dermal wounds in Guinea pigs.  

PubMed

A cream containing ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Sphaeranthus indicus, Linn. (Asteraceae) was evaluated for wound healing activity in guinea pigs. The cream was applied in vivo on the paravertebral area of six excised wounded models once a day for 15 days. The cream significantly enhanced the rate of wound contraction and the period of epithelialization comparable to neomycin. PMID:16765545

Sadaf, Farzana; Saleem, Rubeena; Ahmed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Syed Iqbal; Navaid-ul-Zafar

2006-09-19

427

A Pipeline Transport Correlation for Slurries with Small but Dense Particles  

SciTech Connect

Most correlations/models for minimum transport or critical velocity of slurry were developed for slurries composed of particles greater than ~100-200 ?m diameter with narrow particle-size distributions which is typical of the minerals industry. Many other process industries handle smaller particles. In particular waste slurries at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have broad size distributions and significant fractions of smaller particles. Despite the size of these wastes, recent PNNL studies indicate that the small particles might be of sufficient density to pose a significant risk for pipeline deposition and plugging. To allow predictive assessment of deposition of fine dense particles for waste slurry transport at the U.S. DOE Hanford site, a pipeline-transport correlation for critical velocity was developed using a simple power-law between two dimensionless numbers important for slurry transport, the deposition Froude and Archimedes numbers. The correlation accords well with experimental data for slurries with Archimedes numbers <80 and is an adequate pipeline design guide for processing Hanford waste slurry.

Poloski, Adam P.; Etchells, Arthur W.; Chun, Jaehun; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Minette, Michael J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

2010-04-01

428

Thin-film versus slurry-phase carbonation of steel slag: CO? uptake and effects on mineralogy.  

PubMed

The results of direct aqueous accelerated carbonation of three types of steel manufacturing residues, including an electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and two basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slags, are reported. Batch accelerated carbonation tests were conducted at different temperatures and CO2 pressures applying the thin-film route (liquid to solid, L/S, ratio=0.3L/kg) or the slurry-phase route (L/S ratio=5L/kg). The CO2 uptake strongly depended on both the slag characteristics and the process route; maximum yields of 280 (EAF), 325 (BOF1) and 403 (BOF2) gCO2/kg slag were achieved in slurry phase at T=100°C and pCO2=10 bar. Differently from previous studies, additional carbonates (other than Ca-based phases) were retrieved in the carbonated BOF slags, indicating that also Mg-, Fe- and Mn-containing phases partially reacted with CO2 under the tested conditions. The results hence show that the effects of accelerated carbonation in terms of CO2 uptake capacity, yield of mineral conversion into carbonates and mineralogy of the treated product, strongly rely on several factors. These include, above all, the mineralogy of the original material and the operating conditions adopted, which thus need specific case-by-case optimization to maximize the CO2 sequestration yield. PMID:25289564

Baciocchi, R; Costa, G; Di Gianfilippo, M; Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Stramazzo, A

2015-02-11

429

Dynamic Modeling of Hydro- Formylation of 1-Decene on Rh/C Catalyst in Bubble Column Slurry Reactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dynamic model has been developed for the bubble column slurry reactor operating under non-isothermal conditions. The model consists of mass and heat balance equations for the gas and liquid phases and the catalyst particle. The model equations consisted of partial differential equations (PDE) which were converted to ordinary differential equations (ODE) by using finite difference relationships for the spatial derivatives and the ordinary differential equations for the time derivatives (Numerical Method of Lines-NMoL). The model was applied to describe the dynamic behaviour of bubble column slurry reactor during the hydroformylation of 1-decene on Rh/C catalyst. Model simulations were performed to obtain a meaningful path to steady state and to reproduce the other characteristics of the dynamic behaviour of the reactor. Under given conditions, the reaction required approximately 3750 seconds to reach the steady state concentrations at various reactor positions. It was observed with increase in the fluid velocities, the dynamics of the system was altered to 2500 seconds to reach the steady state condition. The effect of axial dispersion on the substrate concentration and the temperature rise along the reactor was further studied and discussed.

Upkare, Makarand M.; Rajurkar, Kalpendra B.; Das, Samir K.; Jaganathan, R.

2010-10-01

430

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

DOEpatents

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

Krishna, C.R.

1984-07-27

431

Double shell slurry low-temperature corrosion tests  

SciTech Connect

A series of year-long tests have been completed on potential double shell slurry (DSS) compositions at temperatures up to 100/sup 0/C. These tests have sought data on uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress-corrosion cracking. No indication of the latter two types of corrosion were observed within the test matrix. Corrosion rates after four months were generally below the 1 mpy (25 ..mu..m/y) design limit. By the end of twelve months all results were below this limit and, except for very concentrated mixtures, all were below 0.5 mpy. Prediction equations were generated from a model fitted to the data. The equations provide a rapid means of estimating the corrosion rate for proposed DSS compositions.

Divine, J.R.; Bowen, W.M.; McPartland, S.A.; Elmore, R.P.; Engel, D.W.

1983-09-01

432

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Bernard A. Toseland

2002-09-30

433

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR)TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column 0reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D

2000-06-01

434

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3)