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1

Environmental vulnerability and phosphorus fractions of areas with pig slurry applied to the soil.  

PubMed

The application of pig slurry as a fertilizer can cause soil and water contamination. Intrinsic characteristics of the environment may enhance this effect and influence the vulnerability of the agricultural system. The goal of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of soil P fractions in areas treated with pig slurry and in forest areas and to propose an evaluation of the areas' vulnerability to P contamination. Soil samples were collected from 10 areas with pig slurry applied to the soil and one in forest without a history of pig slurry application, all located in the Coruja and Bonito rivers microbasin at Braço do Norte, Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Samples were prepared and subjected to P chemical fractionation. Two versions of the P index method, based on soil P forms or only on P extracted by Mehlich-1, were used to evaluate the environmental risk of the studied areas. Estimated soil losses were lower for the forest and natural pasture and highest in areas with black oat ( Schreb.)-corn ( L.) crop cultivation. Concentrations of P fractions, especially of organic and inorganic P extracted by 0.1 and 0.5 mol L NaOH and NaHCO and of inorganic P extracted by anion exchange resin and HCl, were higher in areas with a longer history and higher frequency of pig slurry applications. Vulnerability to P contamination was mainly influenced by soil P concentrations and soil losses in the studied areas. The P index based on Hedley's fractionation P forms resulted in a more accurate risk scoring of the studied areas than the P index based on the concentration of available P extracted by Mehlich-1. PMID:25602331

da Rosa Couto, Rafael; Santos, Matheus Dos; Comin, Jucinei José; Pittol Martini, Luíz Carlos; Gatiboni, Luciano Colpo; Martins, Sérgio Roberto; Filho, Paulo Belli; Brunetto, Gustavo

2015-01-01

2

Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

2014-01-01

3

Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and Chernozem had higher volatile compounds than Regosol, with no significant differences among treatments. Changes in total weight loss of soil among treatments were small, although endothermic and exothermic calorimetric peaks were different depending on the treatment, mainly in Regosol and Luvisol, being higher in biochar amended samples. The proportion of C containing gas species below 550 ºC was higher in Luvisol and Kastanozem with no differences among treatments. As a general pattern, FTIR absorbance intensity followed the pattern Kastanozem > Luvisol > Regosol due to the different amount of organic matter. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkenes moieties at 3286 cm-1 and 3340 cm-1 in Luvisol and Kastanozem. Chemically refractory aromatic moieties at 1580 cm-1 and 1594 cm-1 in Luvisol and Chernozem, and at 729 cm-1 and 754 cm-1 in the three types of soils. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkane moieties at 1359 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1, alkenyl moieties at 962 cm-1 and 975 cm-1, and alkynes at 636 cm-1 and 663 cm-1 in all types of soils. The soil samples measured before incubation presented higher absorbance intensity than at the end of incubation, indicating mineralization of organic matter with incubation. No significant alterations in the functional groups were observed with the application of the amendments in any soil. This study suggested that the application of 5 g C kg-1 soil was not sufficient to modify organic functional groups at short term. Thus, different soil types behave differently in terms of amendments applications, being the Regosol more prone to alter SOC content and stability after applications. The application of biochar promoted higher SOC concentrations and stability at the end of the incubation. Keywords: Pig slurry, Pig Manure, Biochar, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, soil respiration, soil mineralization.

Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanarda?, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

2014-05-01

4

Using a Soil Hydrometer to measure the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contents in Pig Slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrometer method to indirectly measure the nutrient contents, i.e. total nitrogen Nt, and total phosphorus Pt of pig slurries was examined against both single and multiple slurry sources. The data indicated that the estimation accuracy of the hydrometer method could be greatly improved if separate linear regressions were developed for slurry sources from pigs at different growing stages such

J. Zhu; Z. Zhang; P. M. Ndegwa

2003-01-01

5

Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In conclusion, the use of pig slurry to reclaim bare contaminated soils by heavy metals brings indirect positive effects by triggering a vegetation cover which can stabilize metals and increase soil quality (phytostabilization). Keywords: heavy metals, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phytoremediation.

Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

2013-04-01

6

Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.  

PubMed

Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application. PMID:24821206

Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

2014-07-01

7

Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark.  

PubMed

Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000 kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient redistribution before land application: (a) separation by mechanical screw press, (b) screw press separation with composting of the solid fraction, (c) separation by decanter centrifuge, and (d) decanter centrifuge separation with ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction. Emissions were determined based on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus storage. In all separation scenarios, the liquid fraction was applied to land on the pig-producing (donor) farm and the solid fraction transported to a recipient farm and utilised for crop production. Separation, especially by centrifuge, was found to result in a lower environmental impact potential than application of untreated slurry to adjacent land. Composting and ammonia stripping either slightly increased or slightly decreased the environmental impact potential, depending on the impact category considered. The relative ranking of scenarios did not change after a sensitivity analysis in which coefficients for field emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and phosphorus were varied within the range cited in the literature. Therefore, the best technology to implement in a given situation depends on the environmental problem in question, local policy, cost and practicality. PMID:24291578

ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas J; Peters, Gregory M; Svanström, Magdalena; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

2014-01-01

8

The role of heterotrophic microorganism Galactomyces sp. Z3 in improving pig slurry bioleaching.  

PubMed

The feasibility of removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry through bioleaching involving the fungus Galactomyces sp. Z3 and two acidophilic thiobacillus (A. ferrooxidans LX5 and A. thiooxidans TS6) was investigated. It was found that the isolated pig slurry dissolved organic matter (DOM) degrader Z3 was identified as Galactomyces sp. Z3, which could grow well at pH 2.5-7 and degrade pig slurry DOM from 1973 to 942 mg/l within 48 h. During the successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, the co-inoculation of pig slurry degrader Galactomyces sp. Z3 and the two Acidithiobacillus species could improve pig slurry bioleaching efficiency compared to the single system without Galactomyces sp. Z3. The removal efficiency of Zn and Cu exceeded 94% and 85%, respectively. In addition, the elimination efficiencies of pathogens, including both total coliform and faecal coliform counts, exceeded 99% after bioleaching treatment. However, the counts of Galactomyces sp. Z3 decreased with the fall of pH and did not restore to the initial level during successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, and it is necessary to re-inoculate Galactomyces sp. Z3 cells into the bioleaching system to maintain its role in degrading pig slurry DOM. Therefore, a bioleaching technique involving both Galactomyces sp. Z3 and Acidithiobacillus species is an efficient method for removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry. PMID:23530313

Zhou, Jun; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang; Liu, Fenwu; Zheng, Chaocheng; Cui, Chunhong

2013-01-01

9

Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and ?-galactosidase activity showed the biggest increment comparing to control. No pattern was observed among fertilizer doses, without big differences among them in most properties. We can conclude that the use of pig slurry as organic fertilizer incorporates great amounts of organic matter to the soil in its different forms, including soluble and microorganisms biomass, which has a positive effect encouraging the application of this agricultural management so that soil can act as C sink, in order to mitigate global warming. Thus, this procedure can be included in the strategies to increase the soil carbon sequestration. According to carbon dynamics, doses are not important, without risks of soluble carbon leaching.

Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

2010-05-01

10

Microbial activity in pig slurry-amended soils under aerobic incubation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 120-day aerobic incubation experiment was conducted to study the effects of pig slurry application on soil microbial activity.\\u000a Pig slurry was added to soil at rates of 0 (control treatment), 150 and 300 m3 ha?1. Soil samples were taken after 0, 7, 14, 30, 45, 60, and 120 days of incubation and analyzed for total organic C and microbial\\u000a biomass C contents,

César Plaza; Juan C. García-Gil; Alfredo Polo

2007-01-01

11

Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and ?-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and ?-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment, whereas, black and soluble C was decreased with PS addition. There may have been a transient positive effect of the RPS treatments on the soil biochemical parameters. However, the effect could not be detected because of less labile C content during the experiment. The beneficial effects of the PS additions were less pronounced in the 0-30 cm. soil layer. In this monoculture barley production system and under these Mediterranean climate conditions, applications of TPS should be avoided, so they were associated with a decline in microbial counts and a leveling of almost all the enzymatic activities and microbial biomass C. Keywords: Pig slurry, Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C, ?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzyme activities.

Halil Yanarda?, Ibrahim

2013-04-01

12

Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.  

PubMed

Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting excess slurry management scenarios as well as the identification of the main aspects determining their environmental performance. PMID:18793822

Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

2009-02-01

13

Characterization of pig slurry with reference to flocculation and separation.  

PubMed

Pig production is concentrated in large farms, increasing the need to export excess nutrients, so manure separation would be useful to concentrate the nutrients. We examined the physicochemical properties of pig manure pertinent to flocculation and separation. Manures from three farms were stored for 3 months at 13 degrees C. The organic pools in the manure did not vary significantly during storage, so microbial metabolism was low and storage was of minor importance to separation. The manure contained highly charged particles and surface charges did not vary between the manures. This implies that the polymer doses required for flocculation can be determined directly from the manure dry matter content and that highly charged, high-molecular-weight cationic polymers can be used. Phosphorus was mainly found in the particulate fraction as struvite and was retained in the solids fraction at high pH. Thus, pH adjustment can control the amount of dissolved phosphorus in manure. PMID:19081594

Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Hjorth, Maibritt; Keiding, Kristian

2009-02-01

14

Slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

2014-11-01

15

Emissions of sulfur-containing odorants, ammonia, and methane from pig slurry: effects of dietary methionine and benzoic acid.  

PubMed

Supplementation of benzoic acid to pig diets reduces the pH of urine and may thereby affect emissions of ammonia and other gases from slurry, including sulfur-containing compounds that are expected to play a role in odor emission. Over a period of 112 d, we investigated hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methanethiol (MT), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), and dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as well as ammonia and methane emissions from stored pig slurry. The slurry was derived from a feeding experiment with four pig diets in a factorial design with 2% (w/w) benzoic acid and 1% (w/w) methionine supplementation as treatments. Benzoic acid reduced slurry pH by 1 to 1.5 units and ammonia emissions by 60 to 70% for up to 2 mo of storage, and a considerable, but transitory reduction of methane emissions was also observed after 4 to 5 wk. All five volatile sulfur (S) compounds were identified in gas emitted from the slurry of the control treatment, which came from pigs fed according to Danish recommendations for amino acids and minerals. The emission patterns of volatile S compounds suggested an intense cycling between pools of organic S in the slurries, with urinary sulfate as the main source. Diet supplementation with methionine significantly increased all S emissions. Diet supplementation with benzoic acid reduced emissions of H(2)S and DMTS compared with the control slurry and moderately increased the concentrations of MT. Sulfur gas emissions were influenced by a strong interaction between methionine and benzoic acid treatments, which caused a significant increase in emissions of especially MT, but also of DMDS. In conclusion, addition of 2% benzoic acid to pig diets effectively reduced ammonia volatilization, but interactions with dietary S may increase odor problems. PMID:20400605

Eriksen, Jørgen; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Nørgaard, Jan V; Poulsen, Hanne D; Jensen, Bent Borg; Petersen, Søren O

2010-01-01

16

Deodorization of pig slurry and characterization of bacterial diversity using 16S rDNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

The concentration of major odor-causing compounds including phenols, indoles, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) in response to the addition of powdered horse radish (PHR) and spent mushroom compost (SMC) was compared with control non-treated slurry (CNS) samples. A total of 97,465 rDNAs sequence reads were generated from three different samples (CNS, n = 2; PHR, n = 3; SMC, n = 3) using bar-coded pyrosequencing. The number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) was lower in the PHR slurry compared with the other samples. A total of 11 phyla were observed in the slurry samples, while the phylogenetic analysis revealed that the slurry microbiome predominantly comprised members of the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria phyla. The rarefaction analysis showed the bacterial species richness varied among the treated samples. Overall, at the OTU level, 2,558 individual genera were classified, 276 genera were found among the three samples, and 1,832 additional genera were identified in the individual samples. A principal component analysis revealed the differences in microbial communities among the CNS, PHR, and SMC pig slurries. Correlation of the bacterial community structure with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) predicted pathways showed that the treatments altered the metabolic capabilities of the slurry microbiota. Overall, these results demonstrated that the PHR and S MC treatments significantly reduced the malodor compounds in pig slurry (P < 0.05). PMID:25359269

Hwang, Ok-Hwa; Raveendar, Sebastian; Kim, Young-Ju; Kim, Ji-Hun; Kim, Tae-Hun; Choi, Dong-Yoon; Jeon, Che Ok; Cho, Sung-Back; Lee, Kyung-Tai

2014-11-01

17

Modelling the potential of slurry management technologies to reduce the constraints of environmental legislation on pig production.  

PubMed

Limits on land applications of slurry nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used to restrict losses of nutrients caused by livestock production. Here, we used a model to assess technologies that enable a more even geographic distribution of slurry nutrients to land. Technologies included were screw press slurry separation, with or without solid fraction composting, centrifuge separation with or without liquid fraction ammonia (NH3) stripping, and anaerobic digestion. Regulatory constraints were placed first on the application in slurry of N, then P, then N and P both on the producing (donor) and receiving (recipient) farms. Finally, a constraint preventing an increase in donor farm NH3 emissions was imposed. Separation had little effect on N losses per unit mass of slurry, but NH3 stripping led to a reduction. Centrifuge separation allowed a greater increase in pig production than a screw press, especially with P regulation. NH3 stripping was only advantageous with N regulation or when combined with NH3 scrubbing of pig housing ventilation air, when donor farm NH3 emissions were a constraint. There was a production penalty for using composting or anaerobic digestion. The choice of appropriate slurry management option therefore depends on the focus of the regulation. Nuanced and therefore complex regulations are necessary to take advantage of synergies and avoid cross-policy conflicts and incongruencies. PMID:24184986

Hutchings, Nicholas J; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke; Bruun, Sander; Søtoft, Lene F

2013-11-30

18

Simulating nitrogen dynamics in agricultural soils fertilized with pig slurry and urea.  

PubMed

Within the framework of an interregional project in the Emilia Romagna region of northern Italy, the coupled MACRO-SOILN model was chosen to estimate soil protective capacity against pollutants. The aim of our study was to evaluate the model to better identify key parameters and processes that influence N losses in agricultural soils. Nitrate N content was monitored in soil under corn (Zea mays L.) fertilized with urea and/or pig slurry, in two field experiments performed on four different soils: a Fienili clay, a Barco-like silt, a Sant'Omobono silt loam, and a La Boaria silty clay soil. Measurements were compared with model predictions. For all soils, nitrate content was underestimated on average by 24 to 88% at lower N rates; it was overestimated by 1 to 104% at higher N rates. The root mean square error (RMSE) was equal to 81.1%. Simulation of crop N uptake and soil water flow, estimation of the ammonia losses at pig slurry spreading, and N transformation parameter setting were considered as possible error sources. The calibration of crop N uptake gave rise to good model efficiency index values. The RMSE for the simulation of soil water content varied between 9.8 and 20.2%. A more accurate setting of the ammonia losses and of the feces transformation parameter values could allow the RMSE for the simulation of soil nitrate content to be reduced by no more than 10 to 15%. It is possible for the model not to include the simulation of processes that could have relevant effects on the soil N dynamics. PMID:15254103

Marchetti, Rosa; Ponzoni, Gilda; Spallacci, Pasquale

2004-01-01

19

Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). PMID:25458767

Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

2015-01-01

20

Injection of Dicyandiamide-Treated Pig Slurry Reduced Ammonia Volatilization without Enhancing Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions from No-Till Corn in Southern Brazil.  

PubMed

There is a lack of information on how placement in soil and nitrification inhibitors affects nitrous oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH) emissions from pig slurry (PS) applied under no-till (NT) conditions. Our objective was to determine the impact of injecting PS and treating it with the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) on NH and NO emissions from soils under NT in subtropical southern Brazil. The emissions of these gases were compared for shallow (? 10 cm) injection and surface broadcasting of PS with and without DCD (8.1-10.0 kg ha; 6.5-8.4% of applied NH-N). Measurements were made at two sites during two summer growing seasons under NT corn crops. Injection reduced NH volatilization by 70% but increased NO emissions 2.4-fold (from 2628 to 6198 g NO N ha) compared with surface broadcast application. Adding DCD to PS inhibited nitrification and reduced NO emissions by an average of 28% (730 g NO-N ha) for surface broadcast and 66% (4105 g NO-N ha) for injection but did not increase NH volatilization. Consequently, NO emission factors were much higher for injection (3.6%) than for surface broadcast (1.3%) application and were reduced (0.9%) when DCD was added to injected PS. In conclusion, the injection of DCD-treated slurry is a recommendable practice for reducing NH and NO emissions when applying PS on NT corn in southern Brazil. PMID:25602808

Aita, Celso; Gonzatto, Rogério; Miola, Ezequiel C C; B, Daniela; Santos, Dos; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Chantigny, Martin H; Pujol, Stefen B; Giacomini, Diego A; Giacomini, Sandro J

2014-05-01

21

Ammonia Emissions from Anaerobically-digested Slurry and Chemical Fertilizer Applied to Flooded Forage Rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia fluxes from application of anaerobically-digested slurry (ADS) and chemical fertilizer (CF) to flooded forage rice\\u000a (Oryza sativa L.) in Japan were measured using a dynamic flow-through chamber method in lysimeters. The CF was applied at a rate of 300 N\\u000a ha?1 (three times) as ammoniacal-N fertilizer, and the ADS was applied to the lysimeters at total rates equivalent to 75,

Hong Hou; Sheng Zhou; Masaaki Hosomi; Koki Toyota; Kiori Yosimura; Yuuko Mutou; Taku Nisimura; Masao Takayanagi; Takashi Motobayashi

2007-01-01

22

Degradation of Sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus Strain SDZm4, Isolated from Lysimeters Previously Manured with Slurry from Sulfadiazine-Medicated Pigs  

PubMed Central

Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with 14C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no 14CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as 14CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified 14C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms. PMID:23396336

Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Björn; Groeneweg, Joost

2013-01-01

23

Characteristics and composition of fouling caused by pig slurry in a tubular heat exchanger--recommended cleaning systems.  

PubMed

The structure and composition of the fouling deposits caused by pig slurry heated in a tubular heat exchanger were characterized to understand their formation and thus be able to minimize fouling and define effective routine cleaning methods. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. Two types of fouling were identified: organic/mineral and biofilm. The first only formed at temperatures above 50 °C, often during the heating phase, and was the main problem encountered in treatments at 80 °C. Organic/mineral deposits formed a thin compact sub-layer and a thick porous top layer composed of 67-76% minerals, 9-15% proteins, 8-20% carbohydrates and 0-5% fats. Biofilms formed at temperatures between 25 °C and 70 °C in both the cooling and heating sections of the exchanger. This type of fouling predominated at temperatures below 55 °C. The biofilm covered a thin mineral base layer. Strongly acidic or alkaline washing cycle are recommended to clean Type I deposits, while in-line gas-rumbling is recommended for Type II fouling. PMID:23334456

Cunault, C; Coquinot, Y; Burton, C H; Picard, S; Pourcher, A M

2013-03-15

24

[Effects of applying pig manure on lettuce yield and nitrate content and soil nutrients].  

PubMed

A pot experiment with two representative soils (purple soil and yellow soil) in Southwest China was conducted to study the effects of applying pig manure on the lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L. ) yield and nitrate content and the soil nutrients. Applying pig manure increased the lettuce yield significantly, and the increment was higher for yellow soil than for purple soil. The nitrate and total nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium contents in lettuce plants were closely related to soil type and pig manure application rate. According to the evaluation standards of the nitrate pollution level of vegetables formulated by the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, the nitrate content in lettuce plants growing on purple soil was lower than the grade I (< or = 432 mg x kg(-1), slight pollution) in treatments CK (no pig manure application) and M1 ( applying 200 kg N x hm(-2) of pig manure), but generally higher than the grade II (< or = 758 mg x kg(-1), moderate pollution) while not exceeded the grade III (< or = 1440 mg x kg(-1), heavy pollution) in other treatments. The nitrate content in lettuce plants growing on yellow soil was lower than the grade I, except that in the treatments of chemical fertilizations and of M8 (applying 1600 kg N x hm(-2) of pig manure) where the plant nitrate content was exceeded the grade II. The critical value of Olsen-P characterizing the apparent leaching risk level of phosphorous in yellow soil and purple soil was 96.3 and 107.7 mg x kg(-1), respectively. The environmental safety capacity of pig manure was higher for yellow soil than for purple soil. Applying pig manure increased the organic carbon and total nitrogen contents of the two soils significantly. PMID:24175524

Hu, Liu-Jie; Liu, Jian-Fei; Liao, Dun-Xiu; Nie, Min; Xie, Yong-Hong; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Zhou, Zheng-Ke; Xiao, He-Ai

2013-07-01

25

Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.  

PubMed

In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens. PMID:16971105

Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

2007-01-01

26

Lapping slurry  

DOEpatents

Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina workpieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Upchurch, Victor S. (Powell, TN); Leitten, Michael E. (Frederick, MD)

1999-01-01

27

Lapping slurry  

DOEpatents

Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina work pieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid. 1 fig.

Simandl, R.F.; Upchurch, V.S.; Leitten, M.E.

1999-01-05

28

Slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

Wasp, E.J.

1983-11-01

29

Rotary cup slurry atomization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

1983-06-01

30

Observations of production and emission of greenhouse gases and ammonia during storage of solids separated from pig slurry: Effects of covering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Separation of slurry produces a solid fraction that is stored in manure heaps before being used as a fertiliser in crop production. Considerable amounts of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases may be emitted during storage, which has deleterious environmental effects. The emission levels can be expected to depend on oxygenation level inside the bulk of the stored manure and therefore

M. N. Hansen; K. Henriksen; S. G. Sommer

2006-01-01

31

Monitoring the diffusion of topically applied drugs through human and pig skin using fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy (FEWS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine if the diffusion process of topically applied drugs can reliably be monitored using FEWS in respect to timely distribution of the drug and chemical alterations of the drug during the diffusion process. In order to do this, recently excised human and pig skin was cut into slices of different thickness while also

Juergen Spielvogel; Susanne Reuter; Raimund Hibst; Abraham Katzir

1999-01-01

32

Application of PTR-MS for Measuring Odorant Emissions from Soil Application of Manure Slurry.  

PubMed

Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed. PMID:25585103

Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

2015-01-01

33

In-Situ Investigation of Slurry Flow Fields during CMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work is to obtain in situ slurry fluid flow data during the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. Slurry flow affects the material removal processes, the creation of defects, and consumable use during CMP, and therefore impacts the cost and quality of polishing. Wafer-scale flow visualization using seeded slurry was accomplished for a variable applied load (

N. Mueller; Chris B. Rogers; Vincent P. Manno; Robert D. White; M. Moinpour

2009-01-01

34

Comparison of raw dairy manure slurry and anaerobically digested slurry as N sources for grass forage production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our study was conducted to determine how raw dairy slurry and anaerobically digested slurry (dairy slurry and food waste) applied via broadcast and subsurface deposition to reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) affected forage biomass, N uptake, apparent nitrogen recovery (ANR), and soil nitrate...

35

Matrix control cementing slurry  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method of cementing a well bore. The method consists of 1.) mixing together at ambient temperatures at the well surface a hydraulic cement, water, in an effective amount to produce a pumpable slurry, and a polyvinyl acetate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer, which is insoluble in the slurry at ambient temperatures. The polymer has a greater than about 95 percent acetate groups converted to hydroxyl groups. The polymer is heated to actuable solubilization in the cement slurry at temperatures above about 120/sup 0/F. The solubilizing of the polyvinyl acetate-polyvinyl alcohol polymer in the slurry prior to the setting of the slurry by pumping the cement slurry to a desired location in the well bore. This action increases the temperature of the slurry; and 2.) allows the cement slurry to harden to a solid mass.

Arpenter, R.B.

1986-02-11

36

Monitoring the diffusion of topically applied drugs through human and pig skin using fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy (FEWS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to examine if the diffusion process of topically applied drugs can reliably be monitored using FEWS in respect to timely distribution of the drug and chemical alterations of the drug during the diffusion process. In order to do this, recently excised human and pig skin was cut into slices of different thickness while also taking into account the different layers skin is composed of (e.g. Dermis, Stratum Corneum). These layers were first characterized spectroscopically and optically using a microscope before the drug itself was applied topically. The diffusion process was monitored by placing the sample on an ATR (attenuated total reflection) element. Time series from 1 - 4 hours were taken and the characteristic absorption bands of the drug were analyzed in the mid-infrared. By using a first order approach on Fick's diffusion equations (skin assumed to be homogeneous) we were able to fit these experimental values and to obtain diffusion constants, e.g. for water at 3376 cm-1 in the order of 10-5 cm2/s, which compare well with previously published values. The results indicate that this technique can be applied to the prediction of transdermal drug delivery.

Spielvogel, Juergen; Reuter, Susanne; Hibst, Raimund; Katzir, Abraham

1999-04-01

37

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SLURRY WALLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Slurry walls are used at Superfund sites to contain the waste or contamination and to reduce the potential of future migration of waste constituents. n many cases slurry walls are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as covers and ground water pump-an...

38

Rheology Modifiers Applied to Kaolin-Bentonite Slurries for SRNL WTP Pulse Jets Tank Pilot Work in Support of RPP at Hanford  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to find and characterize the impact of rheological modifiers to a clay (Kaolin-Bentonite) slurry having 23.1 total wt percent solids, 1.165 g/ml, and Bingham Plastic yield stress of 13 Pa and plastic viscosity of 24 mPa-sec. The primary objective was to find rheological modifiers when blended with this clay slurry that would provide a vane yield stress of 300 Pa when the slurry was undisturbed for 24 hours. A secondary objective was to find a modifier that after shearing would produce a Bingham Plastic yield stress of 30 Pa and plastic viscosity of 30 mPa-sec. Two parallel paths were chosen with one examining a variety of organic/inorganic modifiers and another using just the inorganic modifier Laponite (R). The addition of organic modifiers hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, and hydroxypropylcellulose at a target 0.50 wt percent dramatically increased the vane yield stress over the range 311 - 724 Pa, and also increased the Bingham plastic yield stress and plastic viscosities over the range 33-112 Pa and 27-166 mPa-sec, respectively. The organic modifiers also showed elastic behavior, yielding a very unpredictable up flow curve. The 0.50 wt percent addition of inorganic modifiers magnesium aluminum silicate and hydrate magnesium aluminum silicate only increased the vane yield stress to 36-46 Pa and had little impact on the Bingham Plastic parameters. A range of an inorganic (2-4 wt percent magnesium aluminum silicate) and combination of a range of an inorganic (2-3 wt percent magnesium aluminum silicate) and organic (0.03-0.05 wt percent sodium carboxymethylcellulose) modifiers were then tested. These results showed that the target vane yield stress could be obtained but the Bingham Plastic yield stress and plastic viscosity were 3 times too high. Reducing the organic modifier weight percent by a few hundredths, the Bingham Plastic yield stress could be obtained, but then the vane yield stress would be too low. The addition of Laponite (R) (synthetic lithium aluminum silicate) increased the vane yield stress of the clay slurry to values as high as 1500 Pa. However, the flow curve behavior for the laponite samples was not predictable and the secondary objective was dropped based on customer needs and time constraints. Ultimately a 3-wt percent addition of Laponite (R) was chosen to produce a 600 Pa vane yield stress mixture.

WILLIAM, DANIEL

2005-02-09

39

ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS  

PubMed Central

The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

2011-01-01

40

Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

41

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of coal in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present a salt of naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and at least one water soluble polymer selected from the group consisting of gum karaya, mixtures of gum karaya and polyacrylamide and polysaccaride modified with polyacrylate. For example, a mixture of 61.5% by weight of ammonium naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and 38.5% by weight of gum karaya can be added to an aqueous coal slurry in an amount of 0.13% by weight of the slurry.

Schick, M.J.; Knitter, K.A.

1983-11-15

42

Corrosion inhibited aqueous slurries  

SciTech Connect

This invention relates to the use of phospho-compositions, for example phosphates, pyrophosphates, polyphosphates, organophosphates, etc., as corrosion inhibitors in oxygen-containing aqueous systems of particulate matter such as slurries of solids, such as coal, etc.

French, E.; Braga, Th.G.

1985-02-19

43

CLONING: Pigs Is Pigs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation.

Randall S. Prather (University of Missouri-Columbia; Department of Animal Sciences)

2000-09-15

44

Slurry reactor design studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

1990-06-01

45

Improved coal-slurry pipeline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High strength steel pipeline carries hot mixture of powdered coal and coal derived oil to electric-power-generating station. Slurry is processed along way to remove sulfur, ash, and nitrogen and to recycle part of oil. System eliminates hazards and limitations associated with anticipated coal/water-slurry pipelines.

Dowler, W. L.

1979-01-01

46

Protective slurry mixture  

SciTech Connect

A slurry mixture is described used in transferring porous catalyst particles from a catalyst reservoir at a temperature in the range of from room temperature to about 200/sup 0/F to a reactor site of higher temperature in the range of up to 1000/sup 0/F and lower pressure which mixture comprises a suspension of the porous catalyst particles in a carrier fluid wherein the critical temperature of the carrier fluid is above the temperature of the reactor site, the boiling point at atmospheric pressure of the carrier fluid is lower than the temperature of the reactor site and the critical pressure of the fluid is below the ambient pressure of the reactor site.

Chen, H.C.

1989-02-28

47

Manifold Coal-Slurry Transport System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feeding several slurry pipes into main pipeline reduces congestion in coal mines. System based on manifold concept: feeder pipelines from each working entry joined to main pipeline that carries coal slurry out of panel and onto surface. Manifold concept makes coal-slurry haulage much simpler than existing slurry systems.

Liddle, S. G.; Estus, J. M.; Lavin, M. L.

1986-01-01

48

A Novel Type of Environmentally Friendly Slurry Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of commercial slurries are available to aluminize the surfaces of nickel-based superalloys; however, they have three main disadvantages. First, the phosphates and chromates or halides used as binders or to activate the diffusion species are environmentally harmful and toxic; second, the slurry coatings can only produce high-aluminum-activity coatings which form precipitate-rich coatings that are detrimental to adherence. Finally, these coatings are limited to the incorporation of aluminum and silicon, whereas the co-deposition of other elements such as chromium or cobalt has not been achieved so far. In this work, the limitations of slurry coatings have been overcome by carefully designing the powder composition and controlling the process to produce co-deposition coatings with chromium, cobalt, or nickel by using nontoxic water-based slurries. This also opens an effective way to control Al activity and to produce low-activity aluminized coatings for the first time when using the slurry technique. These results expand the application range of slurry coatings so they can also be applied under ambient atmosphere, making it possible to fully coat aero engine pieces or large-scale industrial components, providing all properties that are usually only achieved by using more complex and expensive methods such as chemical vapor deposition. Furthermore, these new coatings offer unique advantages that can be very favorable especially as a repairing technique.

Montero, Xabier; Galetz, Mathias C.; Schütze, Michael

2014-12-01

49

A Novel Type of Environmentally Friendly Slurry Coatings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of commercial slurries are available to aluminize the surfaces of nickel-based superalloys; however, they have three main disadvantages. First, the phosphates and chromates or halides used as binders or to activate the diffusion species are environmentally harmful and toxic; second, the slurry coatings can only produce high-aluminum-activity coatings which form precipitate-rich coatings that are detrimental to adherence. Finally, these coatings are limited to the incorporation of aluminum and silicon, whereas the co-deposition of other elements such as chromium or cobalt has not been achieved so far. In this work, the limitations of slurry coatings have been overcome by carefully designing the powder composition and controlling the process to produce co-deposition coatings with chromium, cobalt, or nickel by using nontoxic water-based slurries. This also opens an effective way to control Al activity and to produce low-activity aluminized coatings for the first time when using the slurry technique. These results expand the application range of slurry coatings so they can also be applied under ambient atmosphere, making it possible to fully coat aero engine pieces or large-scale industrial components, providing all properties that are usually only achieved by using more complex and expensive methods such as chemical vapor deposition. Furthermore, these new coatings offer unique advantages that can be very favorable especially as a repairing technique.

Montero, Xabier; Galetz, Mathias C.; Schütze, Michael

2015-01-01

50

Aqueous slurries of carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of carbonaceous material in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present a salt of naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and at least one water soluble polymer selected from the group consisting of sodium alginate, guar gum, locust bean gum, carboxymethylhydroxypropyl guar gum, hydroxypropyl guar gum and guarpak guar gum. For example, a mixture of 96.8% by weight of ammonium naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and 3.2% by weight of sodium alginate can be added to an aqueous coal slurry in an amount of 0.31% by weight of the slurry.

Schick, M.J.; Knitter, K.A.

1984-03-13

51

Tribological Properties Of Coal Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes study of tribological properties of coal/methanol slurries with pin-on-disk tribometer. Coefficients of friction, rates of wear of steel pin, and morphological studies of worn surfaces conducted on pins and disks of AISI 440C HT stainless steel and M-50 tool steel, both used as bearing steels. Coal slurries considered as replacement fuels in terrestrial oil-burning facilities and possible fuels for future aircraft turbine engines. Rates of wear of metallic components through which slurries flow limit such practical applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

1988-01-01

52

A single topical dose of erythropoietin applied on a collagen carrier enhances calvarial bone healing in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The osteogenic potency of erythropoietin (EPO) has been documented. However, its efficacy in a large-animal model has not yet been investigated; nor has a clinically safe dosage. The purpose of this study was to overcome such limitations of previous studies and thereby pave the way for possible clinical application. Our hypothesis was that EPO increases calvarial bone healing compared to a saline control in the same subject. Methods We used a porcine calvarial defect model. In each of 18 pigs, 6 cylindrical defects (diameter: 1 cm; height: 1 cm) were drilled, allowing 3 pairwise comparisons. Treatment consisted of either 900 IU/mL EPO or an equal volume of saline in combination with either autograft, a collagen carrier, or a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. After an observation time of 5 weeks, the primary outcome (bone volume fraction (BV/TV)) was assessed with high-resolution quantitative computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were histomorphometry and blood samples. Results The median BV/TV ratio of the EPO-treated collagen group was 1.06 (CI: 1.02–1.11) relative to the saline-treated collagen group. Histomorphometry showed a similar median effect size, but it did not reach statistical significance. Autograft treatment had excellent healing potential and was able to completely regenerate the bone defect independently of EPO treatment. Bony ingrowth into the PCL scaffold was sparse, both with and without EPO. Neither a substantial systemic effect nor adverse events were observed. The number of blood vessels was similar in EPO-treated defects and saline-treated defects. Interpretation Topical administration of EPO on a collagen carrier moderately increased bone healing. The dosing regime was safe, and could have possible application in the clinical setting. However, in order to increase the clinical relevance, a more potent but still clinically safe dose should be investigated. PMID:24564750

2014-01-01

53

Comparative study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement using two slurry circulation systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental conditions associated with slurry measurements to achieve good precision by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are examined. LIBS analysis was applied to a special waste slurry sample that contains 85.4% water, 2.5% ferric oxide Fe2O3, 1.7% alumina Al2O3, and small quantities of oxides of boron and chromium. While liquids add challenge to LIBS measurements, the analysis was successfully performed on iron and aluminum. Two slurry circulation systems were devised to overcome the major technical problems associated with LIBS measurements of slurry samples, namely, sedimentation and change in the lens-to-sample distance during measurement. LIBS slurry measurements using both circulation systems are compared. The results show that the experimental configuration plays a crucial role for online slurry analysis.

Oh, Seong Yong; Miller, Tracy; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

2007-07-01

54

Comparative study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement using two slurry circulation systems.  

PubMed

The experimental conditions associated with slurry measurements to achieve good precision by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are examined. LIBS analysis was applied to a special waste slurry sample that contains 85.4% water, 2.5% ferric oxide Fe(2)O(3), 1.7% alumina Al(2)O(3), and small quantities of oxides of boron and chromium. While liquids add challenge to LIBS measurements, the analysis was successfully performed on iron and aluminum. Two slurry circulation systems were devised to overcome the major technical problems associated with LIBS measurements of slurry samples, namely, sedimentation and change in the lens-to-sample distance during measurement. LIBS slurry measurements using both circulation systems are compared. The results show that the experimental configuration plays a crucial role for online slurry analysis. PMID:17571141

Oh, Seong Yong; Miller, Tracy; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P

2007-07-01

55

Streamline coal slurry letdown valve  

DOEpatents

A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

Platt, Robert J. (Dover, NJ); Shadbolt, Edward A. (Basking Ridge, NJ)

1983-01-01

56

Streamline coal slurry letdown valve  

DOEpatents

A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

1983-11-08

57

Comparative testing of slurry monitors  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1998-05-01

58

Medical ice slurry production device  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL); Oras, John (Des Plaines, IL); Son, HyunJin (Naperville, IL)

2008-06-24

59

Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system  

DOEpatents

A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

1994-01-01

60

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

61

Ammonia and greenhouse gas emissions from a straw flow system for fattening pigs: Housing and manure storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal welfare and environmental protection are increasingly important. Housing systems must be found that offer animal welfare while minimizing the overall emissions of ammonia and greenhouse gases. The straw flow system is an animal friendly housing system for fattening pigs, which can be operated economically on commercial farms. Emissions from conventional slurry based pig houses have been intensively studied, but

Barbara Amon; Vitaliy Kryvoruchko; Martina Fröhlich; Thomas Amon; Alfred Pöllinger; Irene Mösenbacher; Anton Hausleitner

2007-01-01

62

Turbulence in slurry pipe flow  

SciTech Connect

The present state of knowledge of liquid-solid flows (slurries) is far behind than that for single phase flows. Very few geometries have been examined with a slurry and only with a limited variation of system parameters i.e. fluid viscosity, particle diameter, etc. This paper presents the first part of a study which examines the effects of the addition of a solid to the flow through a confined coaxial jet. Presented here will be the initial conditions for the jet which correspond to fully developed pipe flow. 6 refs., 9 figs.

Gore, R.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Crowe, C.T. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical and Materials Engineering)

1990-01-01

63

Nanoparticle control of slurry flow in microchannel  

Microsoft Academic Search

We clarify the mechanism of the formation a free surface of slurry flow in a microchannel with a simple hydrodynamics model. A slurry is a solid-liquid and pseudoplastic fluid among non-Newtonian fluids [1, 2]. We investigate the free-surface formation of a slurry as a function of flow velocity. The shape of the free surface of the slurry is determined by

Shota Ikeshima; Keisuke Nagato; Kazuyasu Sugiyama; Shu Takagi; Tetsuya Hamaguchi; Masayuki Nakao

2011-01-01

64

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOEpatents

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

1991-01-01

65

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SLURRY BIODEGRADATION, International Technology Corporation  

EPA Science Inventory

This technology uses a slurry-phase bioreactor in which the soil is mixed with water to form a slurry. Microorganisms and nutrients are added to the slurry to enhance the biodegradation process, which converts organic wastes into relatively harmless byproducts of microbial metabo...

66

Quantitative analysis of slurry sample by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) has been employed for the analysis of slurry samples. Quantitative analysis of slurry samples is crucial and challenging. The problems associated with slurry samples include splashing, surface turbulence, and the difficulties of obtaining reproducible samples due to sedimentation. The LIBS analysis has achieved limited success due to inherent disadvantages when applied to slurry samples. In order to achieve improved measurement precision and accuracy, a spin-on-glass sampling method was evaluated. Five elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Ni, and Si) were examined in five slurry simulants containing varying amounts of each ion. Three calibration models were developed by using univariate calibration, multiple linear regression, and partial least square regression. LIBS analysis results obtained from the partial least square regression model were determined to be the best fit to results obtained from inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analysis. PMID:21424178

Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K; Dikshit, Vivek; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P; Smith, Laura T

2011-07-01

67

Environmental impact of pig meat production.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to examine the environmental effects of pig production and possibilities at farm level to limit these effects. According to the 'EC Nitrate Directive' the application of animal manure should not exceed 170 kg N/ha. Supply of animal manure in the 12 European member states exceeds 170 kg N per ha, approximately 13% of the number of holdings. The production of nitrogen from animal manure at member state level exceeds 170 kg N/ha in Belgium and The Netherlands. The performance and mineral excretion per sow and per fattening pig on Dutch farms in 1995 were estimated using data from 362 sow farms and 631 farms with growing-finishing pigs. Average annual P(2)O(5) excretion per sow and per fattening pig amounted to 14.0 and 5.0 kg year(-1), respectively. Average annual N-excretion per sow and per fattening pig amounted to 30.8 and 13.1 kg/ year respectively. Observed differences between farms in annual mineral excretion per animal are large. Farms with low annual mineral excretion have better productivity figures. The possibilities of reducing the mineral excretion are mainly dependent on the onset of the situation. In many cases lowering the mineral content in the feed alone will not be sufficient. There are possibilities for reducing the mineral excretion level but it takes time to implement the appropriate measures and they are not feasible for all farms. The emission of ammonia from animals which is produced in the barn can only be reduced by allowing new housing systems that meet specific environmental requirements. The emission of ammonia can be diminished by reducing the emitting surface, the slurry temperature, the air movement above the emission surface, the N contents and the pH of the slurry. Over the last few years, low emission housing systems for each pig category have been developed. PMID:22060721

Backus, G B; van Wagenberg, C P; Verdoes, N

1998-01-01

68

Emission of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli from pig fattening farms to surrounding areas.  

PubMed

The presence of ESBL/AmpC-producing Escherichia coli in livestock such as pigs has been known for some time. However, to date there is little information about the transmission of these resistant bacteria between pig farms and their surroundings. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore this topic by investigating seven German pig fattening farms. Samples from outside (including ground surfaces, ambient air, slurry and digestate from biogas plants) and, in parallel, from inside the pig barns (including pig feces, dust, barn air, flies and mice feces) were examined for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli and selected isolates were compared by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis. 14/17 (82.4%) slurry samples and three of four samples of digestate from biogas plants tested positive for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli. In the vicinity of the pig barns these resistant bacteria were detected in 14/87 (16.1%) boot swabs taken from various ground surfaces and in 2/36 (6%) ambient air samples. Inside the pig barns, 6/63 (9.5%) barn air samples and a small proportion of flies and mice feces samples were ESBL/AmpC-positive. PFGE analysis proved fecal emission as well as a possible spread via flies, as identical ESBL-E. coli isolates were detected in slurry and on fertilized fields, as well as in flies and pooled feces from inside the barn and slurry. Contaminated slurry presented the major emission source for ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli in the pig fattening farms, but a spread via the airborne route or via different vectors also seems possible. PMID:25465658

von Salviati, Christina; Laube, Henriette; Guerra, Beatriz; Roesler, Uwe; Friese, Anika

2015-01-30

69

Tribological properties of coal slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to study the tribological properties of methyl alcohol-coal slurries. Friction coefficients, steel pin wear rates and wear surface morphological studies were conducted on AISI 440C HT and M-50 bearing steels which were slid dry and in solutions of methyl alcohol, methyl alcohol-fine coal particles, and methyl alcohol-fine coal particles-flocking additive. The latter was an oil derived from coal and originally intended to be added to the coal slurry to improve the sedimentation and rheology properties. The results of this study indicated that the addition of the flocking additive to the coal slurry markedly improved the tribological properties, especially wear. In addition, the type of steel was found to be very important in determining the type of wear that took place. Cracks and pits were found on the M-50 steel pin wear surfaces that slid in the coal slurries while 440C HT steel pins showed none.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

1987-01-01

70

Ammonia and odour emissions from UK pig farms and nitrogen leaching from outdoor pig production. A review.  

PubMed

We reviewed specific literature for emissions of ammonia (NH3) and odours from all stages of pig production together with nitrogen (N) leaching from raising pigs outdoors. Emissions of NH3 decrease with decreases in the crude protein (CP) content of pig diets, at all stages of manure management. The CPs of pig diets have been greatly reduced by matching the CP content to the protein required at each stage of the animals' growth and by using synthetic essential amino acids to minimise total CP intake. The CP contents of the dietary ingredients needed to provide energy for the animals impose further limits to reductions in dietary CP. Housing systems have been designed and evaluated which offer potential for reducing NH3 emissions. However such designs may not be applicable at all stages of the pigs' development and the careful management needed to ensure their effective working may be costly and difficult to implement on commercial farms. The factors behind odour emissions are less well characterised. Reducing diet CP to 160 g CP kg(-1) has been shown to reduce odour emissions but further CP reductions may increase them. Some reductions in odour emissions from buildings can be achieved by careful management of the ventilation rate but the most effective measures to reduce emissions of NH3 and odours are to cover slurry stores and to inject slurry into soil. Changes in the feeding and management of outdoor pigs mean that N leaching losses may be up to 50% less than previously reported. No studies have been undertaken that compare the N leached from pigs raised outdoors, versus that arising from the application of pig manure from an equal number of housed pigs. As a precursor to any field study, current models could be used to provide a first estimate of any systematic differences. PMID:24211346

Webb, J; Broomfield, Mark; Jones, Stephanie; Donovan, Brian

2014-02-01

71

Solid–Liquid Separation of Animal Slurry in Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Animal slurry contains plant nutrients that are essential for crop production. However, intensive livestock production may\\u000a lead to a surplus of plant nutrients on farms and, as a consequence, discharge or emission to the environment. In order to\\u000a ensure that the slurry applied to fields matches the nutrient requirements of the crops, techniques have been developed to\\u000a reduce the nutrient

Maibritt Hjorth; K. V. Christensen; M. L. Christensen; Sven G. Sommer

72

Solid—liquid separation of animal slurry in theory and practice. A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal slurry contains plant nutrients that are essential for crop production. However, intensive livestock production may\\u000a lead to a surplus of plant nutrients on farms and, as a consequence, discharge or emission to the environment. In order to\\u000a ensure that the slurry applied to fields matches the nutrient requirements of the crops, techniques have been developed to\\u000a reduce the nutrient

M. Hjorth; K. V. Christensen; M. L. Christensen; S. G. Sommer

2010-01-01

73

Equations of substrate-inhibition kinetics applied to pig kidney diamine oxidase (DAO, E.C. 1.4.3.6).  

PubMed

Pig kidney diamine oxidase (DAO) and other semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAO) show clear substrate-inhibition kinetics and a reaction-scheme mechanism based on two substrate binding sites. We evaluated several reaction scheme mechanisms with a non-linear regression program (NCSS), estimating R2, the constants of the equations and their standard errors and we determined the deviation of experimental data from theoretical equations. The best fit was obtained with a "dead end" mechanism with two binding sites. Based on this scheme, other schemes for a two-substrate reaction and for mechanisms of inhibition were constructed. These reaction schemes, even at low substrate concentration, fitted experimental data better than Michaelis-Menten kinetics, and provided information on the mechanisms of action of inhibitors. The presence of two substrate-binding sites on pig kidney DAO was confirmed by all experimental data. PMID:15008510

Ignesti, G

2003-12-01

74

Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours to weeks. The unusual shape of the slurry flow curves was not an artifact of the rheometric measurement. Adjusting the user-specified parameters in the rheometer measurement jobs can alter the shape of the flow curve of these time dependent samples, but this was not causing the unusual behavior. Variations in the measurement parameters caused the time dependence of a given slurry to manifest at different rates. The premise of the controlled shear rate flow curve measurement is that the dynamic response of the sample to a change in shear rate is nearly instantaneous. When this is the case, the data can be fitted to a time independent rheological equation, such as the Bingham plastic model. In those cases where this does not happen, interpretation of the data is difficult. Fitting time dependent data to time independent rheological equations, such as the Bingham plastic model, is also not appropriate.

Koopman, D. C.

2005-09-01

75

Nitric oxide and greenhouse gases emissions following the application of different cattle slurry particle size fractions to soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (>2000 ?m, 2000-500 ?m, 500-100 ?m, <100 ?m) was compared to other experimental treatments, including whole slurry (WS), ammonium sulphate (AS) and an unamended control (CON). The highest value of cumulated NO emissions (6.3 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted (˜1 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (>2000 ?m) induced significantly higher N 2O emissions (1.8 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil). The >2000 ?m, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N 2O emissions. Hence, for N 2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the >2000 ?m, fraction. Low CH 4 emissions (<200 ?g CH 4-C kg -1 dry soil d -1) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH 4 emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO 2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO 2 emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N 2O contributed 10-30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions have to be used for other purposes as anaerobic digestion rather than applied to soil.

Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, João; Cabral, Fernanda; Fidalgo, Paula; Bol, Roland; Trindade, Henrique

2012-02-01

76

Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump  

DOEpatents

Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Daniel, Arnold D. (Alameda, CA)

1984-03-27

77

Apparent Benzene Solubility in Tetraphenylborate Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Personnel conducted testing to determine the apparent solubility of benzene in potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries. The lack of benzene vapor pressure suppression in these tests indicate that for a 6.5 wt percent solids KTPB slurry in 4.65 M Na+ salt solution at approximately 25 degrees Celsius, no significant difference exists between the solubility of benzene in the slurry and the solubility of benzene in salt solution without KTPB solids. The work showed similar results in slurry with 6,000 mg/L sludge and 2,000 mg/L monosodium titanate added. Slurries containing tetraphenylborate decomposition intermediates (i.e., 4,200 mg/L triphenylboron (3PB), 510 mg/L diphenylborinic acid (2PB) and 1,500 mg/L phenylboric acid (1PB) or 100 mg/L tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)) also showed no significant difference in benzene solubility form filtrate containing no KTPB solids. Slurry containing 2,000 mg/L Surfynol 420 did exhibit significant additional benzene solubility, as did irradiated slurries. The vapor pressure depression in the irradiated slurries presumably results from dissolution of biphenyl and other tetraphenylborate irradiation products in the benzene.

Swingle, R.F.; Peterson, R.A.; Crawford, C.L.

1997-11-01

78

Optimizing slurry separation in coal preparation  

SciTech Connect

In processing slurry with cationic polyelectrolytes, the final concentration of the suspended particulates in the water beyond the slurry tank in the coal-preparation shop is no more than 10 mg/l. Consequently, this water may be reused in industrial systems.

V.S. Shved; V.H. Fritsler; V.V. Bukhtiyarov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

2009-05-15

79

Verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli in animal faeces, manures and slurries.  

PubMed

Animal wastes and effluents from farming operations, including manures and slurries, are frequently applied as fertilizer to land used for crop or silage production and cattle grazing. It is well documented that potentially harmful pathogens including verocytoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) are shed in animal faeces and there is growing concern in many countries about the number of sporadic and outbreak cases of VTEC attributable to direct contact with faecal material either as a result of handling contaminated mud in fields or ingestion of produce grown in contaminated manures or slurries. VTEC has been detected in the faeces of ruminant and non-ruminant farmed animals, wild animals, domestic pets and birds and the pathogen appears to be well adapted to survive in animal faeces and can persist for extended periods ranging from several weeks to many months. Because of this persistence these materials are important as potential vehicles for transmission within herds, farms, the fresh food chain and the wider environment. Appropriate handling of bovine faeces is necessary to control spread of this pathogen and to limit the significant risks of human infection. It may be necessary to hold manure/slurry for extended periods prior to spreading on farmland, or for use in the production of food crops, particularly foods that are to be consumed in the raw or minimally processed state. Alternatively, it may be necessary to apply processes such as composting, heat drying or digestion which can expedite the decline of pathogens including VTEC in manures. However, there is a need for research work to develop economical and practical systems for treatment of manures and slurries. The risk from direct contact with faecal material at farms and petting zoos is also recognized and many public health authorities have put forward measures for strict practices to limit the risk of infection, particularly for young children visiting these environments. PMID:12675941

Duffy, G

2003-01-01

80

Gases in agricultural slurry stores.  

PubMed

The evolution of gases during the handling of animal slurry was investigated at five sites. Particular attention was paid to the mixing and emptying operations since it is when performing these that personnel are most likely to be at risk of exposure. The main hazard was found to be high transient concentrations of hydrogen sulphide presenting in some cases a serious acute toxicity problem. Time-weighted average exposures did not generally indicate any long-term exposure risk. Other features noted were the evolution of ammonia and methane, although not at high levels, and some increase in the carbon dioxide concentration. Some reduction in oxygen concentration was measured, but generally the risk of poisoning by hydrogen sulphide was more serious than the risk of asphyxiation. PMID:2042881

Groves, J A; Ellwood, P A

1991-04-01

81

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOEpatents

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

1993-03-16

82

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOEpatents

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Lyczkowski, Robert W. (Darien, IL); Wang, Chi-Sheng (Woodridge, IL)

1993-01-01

83

The effect of cattle slurry electroflotation products as fertilizers on gaseous emissions and grassland yield.  

PubMed

The climatic conditions of the Basque Country (northern Spain) provide the favorable conditions for the growth of grasslands and the development of livestock enterprises. The intensification of the farms is leading to serious environmental risks due to the great generation of manures and slurries and their subsequent inefficient management. Their application involves N losses that can be pollutant. The environmental company ADE BIOTEC S.L. is developing the process called "electroflotation" with the aim of reducing the volume of slurries from intensive livestock farms. The process consists basically of an electrolysis of the slurry catalyzed by iron which leads to the flocculation of the solid particles, giving as a final result a solid and a liquid fraction. The objective of this work was to assess the usefulness of these two fractions as fertilizers. With this aim, the environmental risk of their application was determined regarding gaseous emissions to the atmosphere (i.e., of NO, NH(3), N(2)O, and CO(2)) and their fertilizer capacity was investigated by determining their effects on grassland yield and N uptake in comparison to the untreated slurry. The untreated slurry and the solid and the liquid fractions were all applied at a rate of 70 kg NH(4)(+)-N ha(-1). The application of the products of electroflotation did not affect N(2)O and CO(2) losses, being of the same magnitude as those caused by the application of the original slurry. However, after their application, a reduction in NH(3) volatilization losses was induced in the short term and a reduction in NO losses was caused in the long term. The solid and liquid fractions both increased biomass yield with respect to the untreated slurry. The solid fraction even induced a higher N uptake than the liquid fraction and the untreated slurry. PMID:18453418

Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Lekuona, A; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

2008-01-01

84

Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

85

Surface Modification of Nickel Foams by a Slurry Aluminizing Process  

SciTech Connect

A novel slurry-based process for aluminizing nickel foams while improving the mechanical properties and conserving the excellent ductility is reported. Cellular unalloyed nickel foams with 92% porosity and uniform pore size and distribution were used as a starting material. Several slurries of different compositions were examined to investigate the possibility of developing an aluminide-nickel intermetallic coating on a Ni foam without considerably degrading the original ductile properties of the foam. The process temperature was varying from 400 to 850 deg. C and the process holding time was ranging between 2h to 6h. Scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and X-Ray diffraction were applied to assess the effectiveness of the aluminizing process and determine both the optimum parameters of the procedure (slurry composition, holding temperature and time) and the concentration profiles across the coating cross-section. The mechanical behavior of the aluminized Ni-foams was evaluated by the conduction of micro-tension tests. The resulting Ni-foams after aluminization retain the pore structure of original Ni-foams and present a thick outer surface layer which consists of a range of aluminide phases. The mechanical properties of the Ni-foams aluminized in low process temperature were insignificantly affected.

Omar, H.; Papanastasiou, N.; Psyllaki, P.; Stergioudi, F.; Tsipas, D. N. [Physical Metallurgy Laboratory (PML), Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Tsipas, S. A. [Dpto. Ciencia e Ingenieria de Materiales e Ingenieria Quimica Escuela Politecnica Superior Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda de la Universidad, 30 28911 Leganes (Spain); Michailidis, N. [Physical Metallurgy Laboratory (PML), Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Physical Metallurgy Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2010-01-21

86

LIMESTONE SCRUBBER SLURRY AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report utilizes current understanding of limestone scrubbers for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) to develop an effort into the optimization of automatic control for the recirculating slurry processes. The acknowledged methods of mathematical modeling, computer simulation, and ...

87

Pollution attenuation by soils receiving cattle slurry after passage of a slurry-like feed solution. Column experiments.  

PubMed

Designing soil filtration systems or vegetated filter strips as a means of attenuating water pollution should take into account soil purging capacity. Here we report data on laboratory column trials used to investigate the capacity of a Hortic Anthrosol to attenuate contamination due to downward leaching from cattle slurry applied at the surface. The columns comprised 900 g of soil to a depth of about 20-25 cm, and had been used previously in an experiment involving passage of at least 5 pore volumes of an ion-containing cattle slurry-like feed solution. For the present experiments, the columns were first washed through with distilled water (simulating resting and rain falling after passage of the feed solution), and then received a single slurry dose equivalent to about 300 m3 ha(-1). The columns were then leached with distilled water, with monitoring of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ion contents in outflow. The results indicated that the pollution-neutralising capacity of the soil was still high but clearly lower than in the earlier experiments with the feed solution. Furthermore, the time-course of COD showed that organic acids were leached through the column even more rapidly than chloride (often viewed as an inert tracer) enhancing the risk of heavy metals leaching and subsequent water pollution. Resting and alternate use of different soil-plant buffer zones would increase the lifespan of purging systems that use soil like the here studied one. PMID:12118698

Núñez-Delgado, Avelino; López-Períago, Eugenio; Diaz-Fierros-Viqueira, Francisco

2002-09-01

88

Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.  

PubMed

Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end. PMID:21520745

Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H

2011-01-01

89

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction  

SciTech Connect

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32[degrees]C by absorbing water at 25[degrees]C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33[degrees]C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng.

1990-01-01

90

Impact of test sensitivity and specificity on pig producer incentives to control Mycobacterium avium infections in finishing pigs.  

PubMed

In this paper we analyze the impact of the sensitivity and specificity of a Mycobacterium avium (Ma) test on pig producer incentives to control Ma in finishing pigs. A possible Ma control system which includes a serodiagnostic test and a penalty on finishing pigs in herds detected with Ma infection was modelled. Using a dynamic optimization model and a grid search of deliveries of herds from pig producers to slaughterhouse, optimal control measures for pig producers and optimal penalty values for deliveries with increased Ma risk were identified for different sensitivity and specificity values. Results showed that higher sensitivity and lower specificity induced use of more intense control measures and resulted in higher pig producer costs and lower Ma seroprevalence. The minimal penalty value needed to comply with a threshold for Ma seroprevalence in finishing pigs at slaughter was lower at higher sensitivity and lower specificity. With imperfect specificity a larger sample size decreased pig producer incentives to control Ma seroprevalence, because the higher number of false positives resulted in an increased probability of rejecting a batch of finishing pigs irrespective of whether the pig producer applied control measures. We conclude that test sensitivity and specificity must be considered in incentive system design to induce pig producers to control Ma in finishing pigs with minimum negative effects. PMID:23777649

van Wagenberg, Coen P A; Backus, Gé B C; Wisselink, Henk J; van der Vorst, Jack G A J; Urlings, Bert A P

2013-09-01

91

Characterization of melter slurries vitrified by microwave  

SciTech Connect

Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). In this facility, control of the oxidation/reduction (redox) equilibrium in the glass melter is critical for processing of the nuclear waste. As part of the DWPF process control strategy, the glass redox expected in the melter will be determined by measuring the ratio of ferrous to ferric ions in vitrified slurry from the slurry mix evaporator (SME). Chemical analysis of this vitrified feed will also be used for other process control constraints which are related to glass viscosity, liquidus, and waste component solubility. In addition, the canisters of borosilicate waste glass produced in the DWPF must comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS) established by the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. Specification 1.1.2 requires that the elemental composition of the glass be reported. The elemental analyses will be performed on vitrified melter feed taken from the melter feed tank (MFT). Conventional vitrification of SME/MFT slurries takes 4 hours at the DWPF melt temperature of 1150{degrees}C. Microwave vitrification of melter feed slurries has been shown to significantly reduce the time required to vitrify slurry samples.

Jantzen, C.M.

1991-04-01

92

THE FATIGUED PIG SYNDROME  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A workshop sponsored by the National Pork Board was held to review the literature relating to fatigued pigs. A fatigued pig (non-ambulatory, non-injured) was defined as a pig that - without obvious injury, trauma, or disease - refuses to walk at any one of the respective stages of the marketing cha...

93

The Impact of Using Alternative Forages on the Nutrient Value within Slurry and Its Implications for Forage Productivity in Agricultural Systems  

PubMed Central

Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha?1) with 100 kg N ha?1 inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha?1 year?1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha?1 yr?1). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P?=?0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks. PMID:24830777

Crotty, Felicity V.; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J.; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R.; Marley, Christina L.

2014-01-01

94

The impact of using alternative forages on the nutrient value within slurry and its implications for forage productivity in agricultural systems.  

PubMed

Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha?¹) with 100 kg N ha?¹ inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha?¹ year-1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha?¹ yr?¹). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P?=?0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks. PMID:24830777

Crotty, Felicity V; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R; Marley, Christina L

2014-01-01

95

Mechanical and Tribochemical Effects During Accelerated Wear of Silicon Nitride in Diamond Slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of mechanical action and tribochemical effects on the material removal mechanism during accelerated wear of silicon nitride balls was investigated. It was found that the tribochemical effects are more effective in material removal than the mechanical action of abrasive particles present in the slurry. Mechanical action is governed by the applied load, amount of slip within the contact

E. Jisheng; T. A. Stolarski; D. T. Gawne

1997-01-01

96

Lightweight Cement Slurries based on vermiculite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main purpose of the research is to study the lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite and its parameters in accordance with GOST 1581-96 requirements as well as improvement of its formulation by polymer additives. Analysis of vermiculite-containing mixture providing the lowest density while maintaining other required parameters was conducted. As a cement base, cement PTscT-I-G-CC-1, cement PTscT - 100 and vermiculite M200 and M150 were used. Vermiculite content varied from 10 to 15 %; and water-to-cement-ratio ranged from 0.65 to 0.8. To sum up, despite the fact that lightweight cement slurry based on vermiculite satisfies GOST 1581-96 requirements under laboratory conditions, field studies are necessary in order to make a conclusion about applicability of this slurry for well cementing.

Minaev, K.; Gorbenko, V.; Ulyanova, O.

2014-08-01

97

Simplified slurry design increases wellsite success  

SciTech Connect

Highly flexible cement systems can be designed to accommodate a broad range of well conditions with a relatively small number of additives that are readily available from any cementing service company. Fluid-loss additives can be used with dispersants and small amounts of KCl (when applicable) to design slurries for most primary cementing applications - e.g., cementing in CO/sub 2/ and salt-zone environments and prevention of annular flow after cementing. This paper illustrates how materials and slurry properties that are easily specified can be used to improve wellsite success.

Grant, W.H.; Dodd, E.L.; Gardner, C.A. (Chevron Services Co. (US))

1989-09-01

98

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, R.G.

1984-08-31

99

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, Ramkrishna G. (San Antonio, TX)

1986-01-01

100

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has recently been identified in pigs and people that work with pigs, raising concerns about the role of pigs as reservoirs of MRSA for human infection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in pigs and pig farmers in Ontario, Canada and to characterize MRSA strains. Nasal and

T. Khanna; R. Friendship; C. Deweya; J. S. Weese

2008-01-01

101

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel

Robben

1984-01-01

102

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated

Robben

1985-01-01

103

Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management  

PubMed Central

The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

?i?ková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Taká?, Peter

2012-01-01

104

Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management  

E-print Network

The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7632.0 ml of eggs in a 15day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.962.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8611.9 % in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types.

Helena ?i?ková; Berta Pastor; Milan Kozánek; Anabel Martínez-sánchez; Santos Rojo

2012-01-01

105

Hydraulic Fracturing Slurry Transport in Horizontal Pipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horizontal-well activity has increased throughout the industry in the past few years. To design a successful hydraulic fracturing treatment for horizontal wells, accurate information on the transport properties of slurry in horizontal pipe is required. Limited information exists that can be used to estimate critical deposition and resuspension velocities when proppants are transported in horizontal wells with non-Newtonian fracturing gels.

Subhash Shah; David Lord

1990-01-01

106

CLAYS AS SUSPENDING AGENTS FOR THORIA SLURRIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Montmorillonite and attapulgite, in concentrations of 3% and above, are ; very effective in the retardation of settling of ThOâ slurries and in the ; prevention of hardcaked sediments. The most useful material found was ; attapulgite sold under the trade name of Zeogel. Concentrations of 3% were very ; effective and 5% were even more so. Viscosity of the

L. M. Doney; E. D. Lynch

1957-01-01

107

Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

1993-01-01

108

Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry  

DOEpatents

In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul D. (Tucson, AZ)

2000-01-01

109

SLURRY TRENCH CONSTRUCTION FOR POLLUTION MIGRATION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The handbook provides in-depth guidance on the use of slurry walls for the control of subsurface pollutants. It describes how these barriers can be employed for waste site remediation and presents the theory of their function and use. The handbook describes the essential elements...

110

Mechanisms underlying ACh induced modulation of neurogenic and applied ATP constrictions in the submucosal arterioles of the guinea-pig small intestine  

PubMed Central

Role of the vascular endothelium in acetylcholine (ACh) induced modulation of neurogenic and applied ATP (adenosine 5?-triphosphate) constrictions of intestinal submucosal arterioles was investigated. Arteriole constrictions, induced either by exogenous ATP or evoked by perivascular nerve stimulation, were attenuated in the presence of ACh. 100?nM ACh almost completely abolished neurogenic constrictions whereas up to 10??M ACh reduced constrictions to exogenous ATP by only about 60%. Treatment of the arterioles with 100??M N?-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA) and 5??M indomethacin, to block respectively nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoid release from the endothelium, had no effect on the ACh induced inhibition of neurogenic constrictions but significantly attenuated the inhibitory effects of ACh on constrictions to exogenous ATP. Disruption of the vascular endothelium had no effect on the ACh induced inhibition of neurogenic constrictions but attenuated the inhibitory effects of ACh on applied ATP constrictions to the same extent as after treatment with NOLA and indomethacin. In comparison, endothelial disruption completely abolished the inhibitory effect of substance P (SP) on exogenously applied ATP constrictions. 50?nM ACh significantly attenuated the amplitude of neurally evoked excitatory junction potentials (ejps) recorded from the vascular smooth muscle without altering the time constant of decay (?decay) of the ejps. It is concluded that ACh inhibits neurogenic constrictions by prejunctional modulation of transmitter release from the perivascular sympathetic nerves with no major role for endothelial paracrine factors. Endothelial NO and/or prostanoids mediate some of the ACh induced inhibition of constrictions to exogenous ATP whereas the endothelium independent inhibitory effects of ACh are attributed to a direct action of ACh on the vascular smooth muscle. However, an indirect effect resulting from activation of vasodilator nerves cannot be ruled out. PMID:10323595

Kotecha, N

1999-01-01

111

Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.  

PubMed

Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (P<0.001). However, penmate-directed behaviour was not reduced with an increased amount of straw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P<0.001), but the amount of penmate-directed behaviour was similar (P>0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy pigs more than one daily allocation did. In conclusion, there was no difference in penmate-directed behaviour of the pigs when given 25 or 50 g of straw/pig per day compared with 100 g of straw/pig per day, nor were there any difference when 100 g of straw/pig per day was provided more frequently. PMID:25076383

Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

2014-11-01

112

System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries  

DOEpatents

A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

Kasper, Stanley (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-01-01

113

Rheology of coal slurries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigations of suspensions of three size distributions of glass spheres in a solution of tetralin and tetrabromoethane were made using a Haake viscometer. The values of viscosity were determined over a range of shear rates from 1 to 1000 sec/sup -1/. The suspending medium is Newtonian with a viscosity of about 9.66 centipoise at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C. At phi less than or equal to 20%, the suspension exhibited Newtonian behavior but at phi greater than or equal to 30%, the suspension exhibited pronounced non-Newtonian behavior. Experimental studies of these three size distributions were also conducted in aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone using a pipe loop apparatus. Viscosity was measured over the shear rate range from 600 to 6000 sec./sup -1/. These suspensions having non-Newtonian suspending media, exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at all concentration levels of the solid particles. In the limit of very high shear rates, the suspension viscosity was found to be independent of tube diameter over the range of shear rates and concentrations studied. The rheological behavior of slurries of irregularly-shaped anthracite coal particles was also systematically investigated. The suspending medium consisted of a mixture of anthracene oil and tetrabromoethane. The shear rate was varied from 0.01 to 1000 sec./sup -1/. Volume concentrations range from 0 to 34%. At volume concentrations greater than 29% the slurries exhibited a yield stress and pronounced thixotropic behavior. The relative viscosities of both the model and the coal slurries were found to be dependent on both the shear rate and the particle size. In the case of the coal slurries caution must be exercised with regard to the proper interpretation of the rheological data due to the influences of the measured apparent density of the coal particles, viscometric flow geometry, and time dependent effects.

Ulbrecht, J.J.; Ryan, M.E.

1982-01-01

114

Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide  

DOEpatents

An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

Duran, E.L.

1984-11-29

115

Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide  

DOEpatents

An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM)

1985-01-01

116

CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF) is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM) and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF) containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone). It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

Azimian, Mehdi; Bart, Hans-Jörg

2013-04-01

117

Pig in the Middle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

Mills, Sophie

2000-01-01

118

Pig Poop Power  

E-print Network

Broadcast Transcript: What could be more fitting in the Year of the Pig than to turn to the pig for power? And that's what is happening here in South Korea. In an effort to develop environmentally friendly, renewable energy sources, the South...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-04-11

119

Viral diseases in pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Genomic approaches have expanded our understanding of genes and gene pathways, and quantitative trait loci (QTL), controlling traits of economic importance in pig production, recently including health traits and disease resistance. Efforts are underway to use novel tools including pig gene arrays, s...

120

The Pig as archetype  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fascination with the pig has swept across the United States. This animal is making multiple appearances in television, literature, the cinema, and in artifacts everywhere. Last spring the sweet pig-movie Babe earned seven academy award nominations. We have to wonder what is calling to us in this animal symbol.

Paula Smith-marder

1997-01-01

121

Preliminary evaluation of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for slurry samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was applied to the analysis of simulant slurry samples used in the vitrification process of liquid radioactive wastes. A spectroscopic analysis was performed by two different detection systems: Czerny-Turner spectrometer coupled with intensified diode array detector (IDAD) and an Echelle spectrometer with intensified charge coupled device (ICCD). For the Czerny-Turner detection system, the normalized intensity method, which is the normalization of the atomic emission intensity by the released whole plasma emission area intensity, was employed to improve the reproducibility of LIBS signals. The Echelle detection system showed a high efficiency in simultaneous multi-element detection and determination of the physical quantities of the simulant.

Oh, Seong Yong; Yueh, Fang Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.; Herman, Connie C.; Zeigler, Kristine

2009-01-01

122

Optimizing contaminant desorption and bioavailability in dense slurry systems. 1. Rheology, mechanical mixing, and PAH desorption.  

PubMed

Intermittently mixed batch reactor (IMBR) systems were employed to evaluate the effects of mechanical mixing and corresponding power consumption on rates of phenanthrene desorption from natural and synthetic model sorbent phases to the aqueous phase in dense slurry reactors. Sorbent slurries comprising 57-67% (w/w) solids exhibited non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic) fluid behaviors, with apparent viscosities varying with shear rate. Dimensionless power numbers varied inversely with the Reynolds number under laminar flow conditions, indicating that small increases in mixing revolution number and auger size effect significant increases in power and torque requirements for the mechanical mixing of dense slurries. Rates of release of phenanthrene associated with rapidly desorbing or labile fractions of sorbent organic matter (SOM) to the aqueous phase were markedly enhanced by relatively low-level auger mixing, but significantly less further enhancement was observed as higher levels of mixing were applied. Conversely, desorption of phenanthrene associated with slowly desorbing or resistant fractions of SOM was relatively unaffected by auger mixing, being limited as it is by slow intraparticle-scale diffusion processes that are not enhanced by reactor-scale mixing. The experimental results lead to and support a conclusion that auger mixing at relatively low intensity is an attractive strategy for optimizing dense slurry reactor systems for remediation of hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with labile (rapidly desorbing) fractions of SOM with respect to performance efficiency and cost-effectiveness. PMID:15871263

Weber, Walter J; Kim, Han S

2005-04-01

123

Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels  

DOEpatents

Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

Anderson, Chris M. (Shakopee, MN); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND); Mann, Michael D. (Thompson, ND); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Richter, John J. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); Willson, Warrack G. (Fairbanks, AK)

2000-01-01

124

Debris Flow Rheology: Experimental Analysis of Fine-Grained Slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rheology of slurries consisting of <=2-mm sediment from a natural debris flow deposit was measured using a wide-gap concentric-cylinder viscometer. The influence of sediment concentration and size and distribution of grains on the bulk rheological behavior of the slurries was evaluated at concentrations ranging from 0.44 to 0.66. The slurries exhibit diverse rheological behavior. At shear rates above 5

Jon J. Major; Thomas C. Pierson

1992-01-01

125

Slurry Nebulization in Plasmas for Analysis of Inorganic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes and discusses the preparation of slurries for analysis of inorganic materials by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP?OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP?MS). Details about the grinding step for slurry preparation, the stabilization of slurries, and the calibration strategies are critically discussed. Typical applications described in the literature and the state?of?the?art including advantages and

Mirian C. Santos; Joaquim A. Nóbrega

2006-01-01

126

ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H  

SciTech Connect

Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron within 3.1 hours, and three rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron within 2.5 hours. (6) If the Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets are drawn through the pump, they will be further reduced in size, with a maximum drop size less than 15 micron.

Poirier, M.

2011-06-15

127

Redox potential as a means to control the treatment of slurry to lower HS emissions.  

PubMed

Slurry can be oxidized to eliminate undesirable emissions, including malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). However, it is difficult to assess the optimal amount of oxidizing agent required. In this study, one cow and one pig manure, each in three particle size ranges were oxidized with 0-350 mg ozone/L manure. Redox and H(2)S concentration were measured continuously. During ozonation the manures gave equivalent redox potential curves. A relatively rapid rise in redox potential was observed within a range of -275 mV to -10 mV, with all manures changing as a minimum from -200 mV to -80 mV. The gaseous H(2)S emissions were decreased by 99.5% during the redox increase (-200 mV to -80 mV). This is attributed to H(2)S oxidation by ozone and oxygen, and is not due to H(2)S deprotonation or gas flushing. By identifying the initiation of the final redox level following the rise, the amount of ozone required to remove H(2)S from the manure samples was estimated to be in the range of 6-24 mg O(3)/L manure, depending on the type of manure. Hence, continuous monitoring of redox potential (termination of the redox rise) during the oxidation treatment is a simple method of achieving cost-effective minimization of H(2)S emissions from slurry. PMID:22778588

Hjorth, Maibritt; Pedersen, Christina Ø; Feilberg, Anders

2012-01-01

128

Fine-particle slurry wear resistance of selected tungsten carbide thermal spray coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The surface degradation of tungsten carbide based thermal spray coatings when exposed to fine-particle slurry abrasion has been investigated. The coatings that were studied contain binder-phase constituents consisting of either nickel or cobalt. The coatings were deposited onto test cylinders using a detonation gun device. After applying approximately 0.15 mm thickness of thermal spray coating, the coatings were ground, then

J. K. Knapp; H. Nitta

1997-01-01

129

Elaboration of metal matrix composites from thixotropic alloy slurries using a new magnetohydrodynamic caster  

Microsoft Academic Search

The working principle and the peculiarities of a new electromagnetic rheocaster, which is based on the use of rotating permanent\\u000a magnets and which allows the production of intense three-dimensional (3-D) multiphase flows in solidifying semisolid alloy\\u000a slurries and metal matrix composites, are described. This process can be applied to the direct continuous casting of billets,\\u000a tubes, and slabs and is

Charles Vivès

1993-01-01

130

A new fluidization–suspension combustion technology for coal water slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slagging is a major operating problem in application of the atomization–suspension combustion technology for burning coal water slurry (CWS) fuel in small and low height industrial boilers. The fluidization–suspension combustion is a new alternative for replacement of oil, which is capable of solving the slagging problems. In addition, it can be successfully applied to CWS-fired boilers with capacity smaller than

Hui Wang; Xiumin Jiang; Minxiao Zhang; Yufeng Ma; Hui Liu; Shaohua Wu

2010-01-01

131

30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. 77.216-5 Section...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. (a) Prior to abandonment...or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of...

2010-07-01

132

Elimination Of Catalytic Hydrogen Generation In Defense Waste Processing Facility Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Based on lab-scale simulations of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) slurry chemistry, the addition of sodium nitrite and sodium hydroxide to waste slurries at concentrations sufficient to take the aqueous phase into the alkaline region (pH > 7) with approximately 500 mg nitrite ion/kg slurry (assuming <25 wt% total solids, or equivalently 2,000 mg nitrite/kg total solids) is sufficient to effectively deactivate the noble metal catalysts at temperatures between room temperature and boiling. This is a potential strategy for eliminating catalytic hydrogen generation from the list of concerns for sludge carried over into the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator Condensate Tank (SMECT) or Recycle Collection Tank (RCT). These conclusions are drawn in large part from the various phases of the DWPF catalytic hydrogen generation program conducted between 2005 and 2009. The findings could apply to various situations, including a solids carry-over from either the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) or Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) into the SMECT with subsequent transfer to the RCT, as well as a spill of formic acid into the sump system and transfer into an RCT that already contains sludge solids. There are other potential mitigating factors for the SMECT and RCT, since these vessels are typically operated at temperatures close to the minimum temperatures that catalytic hydrogen has been observed to occur in either the SRAT or SME (pure slurry case), and these vessels are also likely to be considerably more dilute in both noble metals and formate ion (the two essential components to catalytic hydrogen generation) than the two primary process vessels. Rhodium certainly, and ruthenium likely, are present as metal-ligand complexes that are favored under certain concentrations of the surrounding species. Therefore, in the SMECT or RCT, where a small volume of SRAT or SME material would be significantly diluted, conditions would be less optimal for forming or sustaining the catalytic ligand species. Such conditions are likely to adversely impact the ability of the transferred mass to produce hydrogen at the same rate (per unit mass SRAT or SME slurry) as in the SRAT or SME vessels.

Koopman, D. C.

2013-01-22

133

Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts  

SciTech Connect

A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

McDaniel, E. W.

1980-10-01

134

Keeping Show Pigs Healthy  

E-print Network

Bruce Lawhorn Visiting Professor, Swine Practice, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences The Texas A&M University System how pigs can bring many disease organisms into a farm and spread them to other swine. However, there are things...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2006-10-13

135

EVALUATION OF CARBON BLACK SLURRIES AS CLEAN BURNING FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed to examine the pumpability, atomization and combustion characteristics of slurries made of mixtures of carbon black with No. 2 fuel oil and methanol. Carbon black-No. 2 fuel oil and carbon black-methanol slurries, with carbon black contents of up to 50 ...

136

Performance of cooled-ceiling operating with MPCM slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurry is advantageous for thermal storage systems to use as a heat transfer and storage medium. In this paper, a new design of air-conditioning system is proposed, which is a combination of CC and a MPCM slurry storage tank. The mathematical model of the combined system is provided and used to predict the system performance

Xichun Wang; Jianlei Niu

2009-01-01

137

CST Suspension Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 40  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tank 40 simulation models with four submersible slurry pumps available for the CST suspension operations have been developed to provide operational guidance of slurry pumps for an efficient sludge removal. A series of the modeling calculations have been performed for key operational parameters such as pump operation mode, number of operating pumps, and to provide a recommendation for CST suspension

2004-01-01

138

Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry  

DOEpatents

A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

Costantini, Michael A. (Hudson, NH); Talbott, Jonathan A. (Amherst, NH); Chandra, Mohan (Merrimack, NH); Prasad, Vishwanath (East Setauket, NY); Caster, Allison (Nashua, NH); Gupta, Kedar P. (Merrimack, NH); Leyvraz, Philippe (Nashua, NH)

2000-09-05

139

Effects of coal slurry on wastewater bacteria and bacteriophage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal slurry was only mildly toxic to coliform bacteria, which serve as indicators of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater, and the fecal streptococci concentration appeared to remain essentially unchanged with respect to the wastewater control. Thus the results do not support the supposition that wastewater would be naturally disinfected in a coal slurry pipeline. On the other hand, at least 99.8%

L. W. Margler; M. B. Rogozen

1980-01-01

140

Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

2014-10-01

141

Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

1984-06-01

142

Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries  

SciTech Connect

Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

1993-09-01

143

Fumed Silica Slurry Stabilizing Methods for Chemical Mechanical Polishing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to achieve a low number of polishing defects and to decrease surface roughness on the silicon wafers in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) technology, the fumed silica slurry settlement method is proposed. Large particles including in the CMP slurry are known to have effects on the polishing defect and the surface roughness on the polished wafer. To stabilize the CMP slurry, the large particles are removed with the settlement separation method, which is a simple method compared to filtration or centrifuge methods. The fumed silica slurry settlement system can selectively remove the large particles which cause scratch defects during CMP. The large particles over 1.0 ?m size can be selectively removed after 7 days of sedimentation. The settlement-treated slurry shows good results in terms of the defect levels and surface roughness with the plasma-tetra-ethoxy-silane (p-TEOS) oxide wafer.

Haba, Shinichi; Fukuda, Keiji; Ohta, Yoshiharu; Koubuchi, Yasushi; Katouda, Takashi

2003-02-01

144

Effects of surface chemical and electrochemical factors on the dewatering characteristics of fine particle slurry.  

PubMed

Coal suspension was employed in vacuum filtration process to observe the dewatering characteristics of fine particle slurry. Generally, as the size of coal particle decreased, the specific resistance was increased and dewatering efficiency was reduced. Slurries containing the particles with a broad size range had a higher compressibility and could not filter easily if modified process was not applied. This study also investigated the effects of an anionic and a cationic surfactants on filterability by examining the surface property of coal particles. Dewatering was observed to be more efficient when cationic surfactant was used. To improve dewatering rate and to reduce the final moisture content of slurry, electrodewatering combined with vacuum filtration was applied. The effects of some different variables were examined, such as the type of surfactants, electrode (arrangements and materials), and the electrical parameters (voltage and current). By application of electrodewatering, dewatering efficiency was found to be enhanced compared to conventional vacuum filtration. The specific resistance was represented to be 0.3815 at 0 V, whereas it was shown to be 0.2113 and 0.1631 at 20 V under direct current and alternative current, respectively. PMID:15332676

Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su

2004-01-01

145

Behavioural responses of stable flies to cattle manure slurry associated odourants.  

PubMed

Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans [Diptera: Muscidae] L.) are blood-feeding synanthropic pests, which cause significant economic losses in livestock. Stable fly antennae contain olfactory sensilla responsive to host and host environment-associated odours. Field observation indicated that the abundance of stable flies increased significantly in grasslands or crop fields when cattle manure slurry was applied. Major volatile compounds emanating from manure slurry were collected and identified. Behavioural responses of stable flies to those compounds were investigated in laboratory bioassays and field-trapping studies. Results from olfactometer assays revealed that phenol, p-cresol and m-cresol were attractive to adult stable flies. When tested individually, attraction was higher with lower dosages. Stable flies were most attracted to blends of phenol and m-cresol or p-cresol. Traps with binary blend lures caught more stable flies in field trials as well. PMID:25557192

Tangtrakulwanich, K; Albuquerque, T A; Brewer, G J; Baxendale, F P; Zurek, L; Miller, D N; Taylor, D B; Friesen, K A; Zhu, J J

2015-03-01

146

Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials  

SciTech Connect

A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of shiny in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

2000-03-01

147

Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

1999-08-01

148

Ice slurry cooling development and field testing  

SciTech Connect

A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

Kasza, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hietala, J. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Wendland, R.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Collins, F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

149

Ice slurry cooling development and field testing  

SciTech Connect

A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-07-01

150

Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

Moujaes, S.F.

1983-07-01

151

Virtual Pig Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dissection can be an aspect of scientific education that can make some parties queasy, but it is a fascinating way to learn more about the different body systems, their operations, and basic animal anatomy. Entering the world of pig dissection can make budding scientists even more squeamish, but they need never fear, as this site allows these individuals the opportunity to engage in a bit of virtual pig dissection. Originally created by Professor Earl W. Fleck of Whitman Collegeâ??s biology department, the site lets users go inside the pig to learn about its various systems, via a set of high-quality color photographs, which can be viewed at different angles and perspectives. Of course, what would a lab be without a quiz? Rounding out the site, visitors can take short quizzes on the pigâ??s anatomy and such.

Fleck, Earl W.

152

Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries  

SciTech Connect

A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

Coleman, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-01-08

153

When Pigs Fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore probability. Learners brainstorm activities that are possible and impossible, make a flap book, and read and discuss the book, "Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs." Learners also investigate the probability of selecting a pink "pig" (pink cotton ball) from a bag containing varying amounts of pink and white "pigs" (cotton balls). Learners make predictions, record data, and graph the results. This activity is written as a four day lesson, but can be shortened into a one-time activity.

2012-10-22

154

Identification of flow regime in a slurry bubble column by Hilbert-Huang transform analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional (2-D) slurry bubble column, which had a length of 0.1m, a width of 0.01m and a total height of 0.8m. The gas phase was oil-free air, tap water was used as the liquid phase, glass powders with particle diameter of 58?m-75?m constituted the solid phase, which belonged to the Geldart A particles. Time-domain analysis and the Hilbert-Huang transform methods were employed to analyze the differential pressure signals obtained and to identify the transition points of the flow regimes in the slurry bubble column. Useful qualitative and quantitative information about the changes in flow structure and particle distributions were extracted. Changes in the standard deviation, skewness and flatness of measured pressure time series with superficial gas velocity are proposed. Hilbert-Huang transform was applied to extract information from signals, and flow structures of the slurry bubble column were characterized by the energy distribution of the multi-resolution signals and the EMD energy entropy. Particle distributions were obtained and analyzed from flow pattern images.

Li, Weiling; Zhong, Wenqi; Jin, Baosheng; Xiao, Rui

2013-06-01

155

Laser-induced shock wave removal of chemical-mechanical polishing slurries from silicon wafers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new dry cleaning methodology named laser-induced shock cleaning has been applied to remove the chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) slurries from silicon wafer surfaces. After CMP process using the slurries, the slurry particles should be removed from the surface in order to avoid the circuit failure and enhance the yield. The well-distributed remaining silica particles were attempted to remove from the surface by using laser-induced plasma shock waves. In order to evaluate the cleaning performance quantitatively, the number of particles on the wafer surfaces were measured by surface scanner before and after cleaning. It was found that most of the silica particles on the wafer surface were removed after the treatment of laser-induced shock waves. The average removal efficiency of the particles was 99% over. It was found that cleaning performance is strongly dependent on a gap distance between laser focus and the surface and a suitable control of the gap is crucial for the successful removal of the particles.

Lee, J. M.; Cho, S. H.; Park, J. G.; Lee, S. H.; Han, Y. P.; Kim, S. Y.

2003-02-01

156

Greenhouse Gas Microbiology in Wet and Dry Straw Crust Covering Pig Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

- and NO 3 - ) (up to 36 ?mol g -1 wet weight) and the highest emissions of N 2 O and CH 4 . Fluorescent in situ hybridization and gene-specifi c polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to detect occurrence of bacterial groups. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were abundant in all three crust types, whereas nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were

Rikke R. Hansen; Daniel Aa. Nielsen; Andreas Schramm; Lars P. Nielsen; Niels P. Revsbech; Martin N. Hansen

2009-01-01

157

Degradation of chlorobenzenes in soil slurry by a specialized organism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbial degradation of monochloro-, 1,2-dichloro-, 1,4-dichloro-, and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene in soil slurries was examined with single compounds as well as in mixtures. The indigenous soil populations brought about the degradation of monochlorobenzene when incubated at 27°C in slurries with 29% (w\\/w) suspended solids. In contrast, the other chlorobenzenes persisted during an incubation period of 1 month. Supplementation with buffer, mineral

F. R. Brunsbach; W. Reineke

1994-01-01

158

Regenerative limestone slurry process for flue gas desulfurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of the regenerative limestone slurry process was demonstrated on a bench scale. CaCOâ and HâS were recovered from waste sludge from the limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization process. CaCOâ would be recycled to the scrubber. HâS would be converted to elemental sulfur in a Clause plant. At 950 to 980°C in the presence of coke or coal, 95%

Miriam S. Mozes

1978-01-01

159

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

Nodd, Dennis G. (West Mifflin, PA); Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

160

Treatment of food wastes using slurry-phase decomposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bioreactor incorporating a slurry-phase reaction was developed for high-rate decomposition of food wastes with an ultimate goal of complete decomposition leaving minimal residue of food wastes when compared to conventional food waste treatment producing composts. In this slurry-phase decomposition, suspended solids in the reactor disappeared with a maximum rate of 7.9 g dry weight dm?3 day?1. The changes in

Yeoung-Sang Yun; Jong Ik Park; Min Seok Suh; Jong Moon Park

2000-01-01

161

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32{degrees}C by absorbing water at 25{degrees}C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33{degrees}C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng

1990-12-31

162

St. Paul's Pig Pack.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

Miller, Penny Folley

1982-01-01

163

A Simple "Pig" Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

Johnson, Roger W.

2008-01-01

164

Abundance and distribution of feral pigs at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, 2010-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 2010–2013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (±105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (±88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.

Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steve J.

2013-01-01

165

Potbellied pig husbandry and nutrition.  

PubMed

Vietnamese potbellied pigs, when appropriately cared for, make excellent pets for some people. However, their proper housing, care, and training is more challenging to the average person than that required for most traditional pets, such as dogs and cats. Failure to feed and house the pet pig appropriately results in the most common health and behavior problems. The obese, intractable pet pig gives little pleasure to a pet owner and appears to lead a very poor-quality life, frequently leading to the pet pig being given away or worse. Preventing health and behavior problems is easy if pet owners are armed with correct information early, either before or immediately after their acquisition of a pet pig. A veterinarian prepared to share this information can save the lives of many pigs as well as keep clients happy and coming back. PMID:11228693

Tynes, V V

1999-01-01

166

Redox Potential as a Means to Control the Treatment of Slurry to Lower H2S Emissions  

PubMed Central

Slurry can be oxidized to eliminate undesirable emissions, including malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, it is difficult to assess the optimal amount of oxidizing agent required. In this study, one cow and one pig manure, each in three particle size ranges were oxidized with 0–350 mg ozone/L manure. Redox and H2S concentration were measured continuously. During ozonation the manures gave equivalent redox potential curves. A relatively rapid rise in redox potential was observed within a range of ?275 mV to ?10 mV, with all manures changing as a minimum from ?200 mV to ?80 mV. The gaseous H2S emissions were decreased by 99.5% during the redox increase (?200 mV to ?80 mV). This is attributed to H2S oxidation by ozone and oxygen, and is not due to H2S deprotonation or gas flushing. By identifying the initiation of the final redox level following the rise, the amount of ozone required to remove H2S from the manure samples was estimated to be in the range of 6–24 mg O3/L manure, depending on the type of manure. Hence, continuous monitoring of redox potential (termination of the redox rise) during the oxidation treatment is a simple method of achieving cost-effective minimization of H2S emissions from slurry. PMID:22778588

Hjorth, Maibritt; Pedersen, Christina Ø; Feilberg, Anders

2012-01-01

167

Three Little Pigs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, leaners explore building techniques by recreating the story of The Three Little Pigs. They build model houses out of plastic grass, popsicle sticks, and building blocks, and then test to see how strongly their houses stand up to the huffing and puffing of a hair dryer. The activity uses the story to explore the design process of building, testing and changing, as well as the scientific method of predicting, measuring and analyzing.

Omsi

2005-01-01

168

Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

Dudukovic, M.P.

1999-05-14

169

Support vector regression with parameter tuning assisted by differential evolution technique: Study on pressure drop of slurry flow in pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a robust support vector regression (SVR) methodology that offers superior performance for important process\\u000a engineering problems. The method incorporates hybrid support vector regression and differential evolution technique (SVR-DE)\\u000a for efficient tuning of SVR meta parameters. The algorithm has been applied for prediction of pressure drop of solid liquid\\u000a slurry flow. A comparison with selected correlations in the

Sandip Kumar Lahiri; Kartik Chandra Ghanta

2009-01-01

170

Application of low density foam pigs offshore Brazil  

SciTech Connect

In complex offshore installations, such as in the Campos Basin, it is relatively common to encounter pipeline systems where conventional pigs can not be run due to several factors. Changing pipe diameters, and presence of wet X-mas trees and manifolds are the most troublesome ones. In this work a new successful concept of using low cost and low density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines, and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase flow pipelines, is presented. Experimental work conducted in a 4 in laboratory facility, including a small scale glass manifold and a 6 in steel manifold, proved these pigs to be very effective. The performance of almost all kind of flexible polyurethane foams manufactured in Brazil is evaluated. Three field tests are also reported. The first low density foam pig operation was performed on a 127 mile long, 16 in diameter wet-gas offshore pipeline where the foam pig showed even higher liquid removal efficiency than the conventional inflatable spheres. The second operation was performed on a 6 mile long, 12 in diameter multiphase production offshore pipeline, which has never been pigged during its 9 year operation, and resulted in the removal of approximately 200 tons of paraffin. Finally, the third successful case is the cleaning of a 2 mile long flexible flow line of a subsea completed satellite well, in which the foam pigs were sent through a 2.5 in gas lift line, through a wet x-mas tree, not designed to be pigged, and then back through the 4 in production flow line. In spite of the fact that this paper is focusing on condensate and paraffin removal in pipeline, the basic principles can be applied to several kinds of operations: general pipeline cleaning; products separation in pipeline; corrosion evaluation; chemical product application.

Lima, P.C.R.; Alves, S.J. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

1995-12-31

171

Coal slurry pipelines: Blach Mesa and future projects  

SciTech Connect

Most people in the mining industry have some familiarity with pipelining of minerals in slurry form, however, many may not realize the extent that mineral slurry pipeline transport is used throughout the world. The author is referring to the shipment of the minerals in the raw or concentrate form, not tailings pipelines which are also commonplace in the minerals industry. There are over forty mineral pipelines around the world. The list covers a wide range of minerals, including copper ore concentrate, iron ore concentrate, limestone, phosphate concentrate, kaolin, Gilsonite and gold ore, with only eleven of the mineral pipelines located in the USA. It should be noted that one of the earliest slurry pipelines was a 108 mile coal slurry pipeline in Ohio, which started up in 1957. The pipeline only operated until 1963 when a railroad company literally bought out the transportation contract. This really was the beginning of the unit train concept. Each mineral has specific physical and chemical characteristics to be considered when evaluating transport by pipeline. The processing required at the pipeline origin, as well as at the pipeline termination, are also important factors in determining slurry pipeline feasibility. Transport distance, annual volume, and continuity of shipments are other important factors. One of the most difficult minerals to transport as a slurry is coal because the specific gravity is closer to water than most other minerals. Thus, the fine balance of creating enough fine particles to serve as a carrier for the coarser material, while at the same time having a material that can be economically dewatered is very sensitive and technical designs will vary with types of coal. Additionally, since coal is purchased for its thermal value, excess surface moisture can lower the value of the coal to the customer. One of the most successful slurry pipeline operations, and the only current operating long-distance coal slurry pipeline is the Black Mesa Pipeline System. The Black Mesa Pipeline is a 273 mile (439 km) long, 18-inch (457 mm) coal/water slurry pipeline, originating on the Black Mesa in the Northeastern part of Arizona, USA. The system delivers coal from the Peabody Coal Company`s Black Mesa open pit mine to the Mohave Generating Station which is a 1580 MW steam powered electric generating plant located in Laughlin, Nevada. Black Mesa Pipeline began commercial operation in November, 1970 and has transported in excess of 110,000,000 tons (99,800,000 metric tons) of coal with an availability factor of 99%.

Brolick, H.J. [Williams Technologies Inc. (United States)

1998-12-31

172

Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on the effects of interparticle forces on the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal water slurry (CWS). We found that the CWS flow behavior index is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The former intensifies as the Hamaker constant increases and the interparticle distance reduces while the latter increases as the particle surface charge density increases. The interparticle attraction causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior. In contrast, the interparticle repulsion prevents particle aggregation and thus leads to Newtonian behavior. Both atomized at low atomizing air pressures (less than 270 kPa) using twin-fluid jet atomizers of various distributor designs. We found that the atomized drop sizes of micronized coal water slurries substantially decrease as the atomizing air pressure exceeds a threshold value. The effects of coal volume fraction, coal particle surface charge, liquid composition and liquid viscosity on slurry atomization can be accounted for by their effects on slurry rheology. 26 refs.

Tsai, S.C.

1990-01-01

173

Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices  

DOEpatents

An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

2014-11-18

174

Effect of high pressure homogenisation on the capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum A6 to ferment rice\\/soybean slurries to prepare high energy density complementary food  

Microsoft Academic Search

New bioprocesses to prepare high energy density (HED) gruels for complementary young child feeding are being developed based on the ability of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) to modify the rheological characteristics of cereal-based slurries, provided appropriate pretreatment are applied. Gelatinisation is a common pre-treatment which could be implemented to enhance the action of amylases, and has been successfully used

Thi Thanh Thuy Nguyen; Jean-Pierre Guyot; Christèle Icard-Vernière; Isabelle Rochette; Gérard Loiseau

2007-01-01

175

Chemically enhanced combustion of water-slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect

A method of enhancing the combustion of solid fuel/-water slurries by the addition of about 100 to 5,000 ppm of a stable water-soluble explosive, which will detonate early in the combustion process, thereby producing a secondary dispersion of fuel particles, and an 80-65% coal/20-35% water composition suitable for secondary dispersion during combustion containing about 100-5,000 ppm of a water-soluble explosive, preferably selected from at least one member of a group consisting of picric acid; alkali picrates, such as ammonium picrate, sodium picrate, potassium picrate, calcium picrate, etc., and heavy metal picrates, such as iron picrate, lead picrate, zinc picrate, etc.; guanidine and nitroguanidine. The addition of the explosive may be made to the water makeup of the slurry or may be added to the formed slurry.

Olen, K.R.

1984-06-19

176

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

1985-11-05

177

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction...potential and performance of the impounding structure, and shall include a requirement...

2010-07-01

178

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. 77.216-1 ...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. A permanent identification...identification number of the impounding structure as assigned by the District...

2010-07-01

179

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. 77.216 Section...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. (a) Plans for...construction, and maintenance of structures which impound water,...

2010-07-01

180

Slurry-comp, a new method for fuel peat production  

SciTech Connect

Peat is mainly used in Finland for energy production. About 5 % of Finland`s present energy consumption is fulfilled by peal Peat is normally produced with methods based on solar energy, i.e. peat is dried on open fields. These methods are not feasible in Northern Finland where solar radiation is not intensive enough. Alternative production methods based on so-called artificial (mechanical) dewatering have been studied in many countries, including Finland, over the recent years. In Finland a research program called {open_quotes}The Artificial Dewatering of Peat{close_quotes} (ADEWA) has been in progress during 1988-92, the total funding being approved USD 2 million. In the ADEWA research programme a new peat production method, called SLURRY-COMP, has been developed. In this production process, peat, after having been slurried to a dry solids content of about 7%, is pumped from the slurrying basin into a large storage pond located near the power plant, and after that passed through a mechanical dewatering process. The dewatered peat, with a moisture content of about 60 - 65%, can be burned in pressurized combustion or, after some thermal drying, in traditional combustion chambers. In the process concept, the total peat production is 400,000 metric tons of dry solids per year, which equals the fuel demand for a power plant of about 150 - 200 MW electric power. One of the aims of the studies carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland has been to obtain enough reliable information for the optimization of long distance pumping of peat slurry. In addition to peat type, the mining and slurrying technique (determining the particle size), pipe diameter, and flow velocity also have a great influence on the flowing properties and pressure losses of peat slurry.

Luukkainen, V.M. [Combustion and Thermal Engineering Lab., Jyvaskyla (Finland)

1993-12-31

181

Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)  

SciTech Connect

Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman (2004b), was drafted in addition to the companion technical report to this document.

Koopman, D. c.

2005-09-01

182

Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters  

SciTech Connect

This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

Carter, J.T.

2001-03-28

183

SYNTHESIS OF NON-RADIOACTIVE SLURRIES TO SIMULATE THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLURRIES 626-G  

SciTech Connect

Process development using non-radioactive analogs to high-level radioactive waste slurries is an established cost effective alternative to working with actual samples of the real waste. Current simulated waste slurries, however, do not capture all of the physical behavior of real waste. New methods of preparing simulants are under investigation along with mechanisms for altering certain properties of finished simulants. These methods have achieved several notable successes recently in the areas of rheology and foaminess. Particle size is also being manipulated more effectively than in the past, though not independently of the rheological properties. The interaction between rheology and foaminess has exhibited counter-intuitive behavior with more viscous slurries being less foamy even though drainage of liquid from the foam lamellae should be inhibited by higher viscosities.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Eibling, R.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

2009-09-03

184

Technology And Pregnant Pigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

1978-01-01

185

Ethanolamine in a method of recovering coal in aqueous slurry form  

SciTech Connect

A method of in-situ coal recovery in slurry form from a coal deposit by first contacting the coal with a gaseous mixture of an oxygen-containing gas containing vaporized NO/sub 2/, then with an aqueous alkaline solution to slurry the coal, and then recovering the slurried coal from the deposit. The particular aqueous alkaline solution disclosed herein contains ethanolamine.

Davis, B.W.

1980-03-04

186

Microstructure\\/property relationships in the slurry erosion of tungsten carbide–cobalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slurry erosion performance of ultrafine WC–Co composites sintered from powder produced through the spray conversion process has been evaluated and compared to that of conventional materials. Slurry erosion testing has been carried out using the jet impingement method and slurry composed of water and 500 ?m diameter silica sand. The erosion resistance of WC–Co hard metals is seen to

V. A Pugsley; C Allen

1999-01-01

187

Flow of Fiber-Reinforced Cement Slurries at Elevated Temperatures Y. Wang and C. Meyer  

E-print Network

Flow of Fiber-Reinforced Cement Slurries at Elevated Temperatures Y. Wang and C. Meyer Dept. of Civil Eng. and Eng. Mech., Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA Abstract Cement slurries for a constant pressure drop of a fiber-reinforced cement slurry through an eccentric annulus at elevated

Meyer, Christian

188

WATER DECOMPOSITION BY FISSION FRAGMENT RECOIL ENERGY IN AN AQUEOUS SLURRY OF URANIUM-THORIUM OXIDES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the rate of decomposition of water as a function of ; particle size and concentration of a slurry of fissionable and fertile fuel were ; made. Irradiations of 10 cc samples of slurry, kept in suspension by a ; mechanical stirrer, were carried out in a nuclear reactor. By passing N through ; the slurry during the irradiation,

Steele

1962-01-01

189

Extraction of Citrus Oil from Peel Slurry of Japanese Citrus Fruits with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peel slurry of some Japanese citrus fruits, such as lemon, shikuwasa and daidai, was used as an alternative source of citrus oil and the extraction was conducted by using supercritical carbon dioxide at 333 K and 20 MPa in order to compare the compositions and the extraction efficiency of oils extracted from these slurries. The peel slurry of citrus fruits

Bhupesh C. Roy; M. Sasaki; M. Goto

2005-01-01

190

Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

1977-01-01

191

Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by anaerobic digestion of cattle slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas treatment of animal manures is an upcoming technology because it is a way of producing renewable energy (biogas). However, little is known about effects of this management strategy on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during fermentation, storage, and field application of the substrates compared to untreated slurries. In this study, we compared cattle slurry and cattle slurry with potato starch

Joachim Clemens; Manfred Trimborn; Peter Weiland; Barbara Amon

2006-01-01

192

Production of Paving Asphalt by Blending RFCC Slurry in Deoiled Asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment of producing paving asphalt was performed by blending the deoiled asphalt and the residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) slurry according to the uniform design method. The experiment scheme was designed by choosing the full-fraction FCC, above 400°C slurry, above 445°C slurry, and deoiled asphalt as factors. The mathematical model of blending components and asphalt properties was established by

H.-P. Li; J. Shen

2009-01-01

193

The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

Arnold, Arthur

1988-01-01

194

Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

Gidaspow, D.

1996-04-01

195

DWPF DECON FRIT: SUMP AND SLURRY SOLIDS ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. In this report, the physical and chemical characterization results of the slurry solids and sump solids are reported. Crawford et al. (2010) provide the results of the supernate analysis. The results of the sump solids are reported on a mass basis given the samples were essentially dry upon receipt. The results of the slurry solids were converted to a volume basis given approximately 2.4 grams of slurry solids were obtained from the {approx}4 liters of liquid slurry sample. Although there were slight differences in the analytical results between the sump solids and slurry solids the following general summary statements can be made. Slight differences in the results are also captured for specific analysis. (1) Physical characterization - (a) SEM/EDS analysis suggested that the samples were enriched in Li and Si (B and Na not detectable using the current EDS system) which is consistent with two of the four principle oxides of Frit 418 (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}). (b) SEM/EDS analysis also identified impurities which were elementally consistent with stainless steel (i.e., Fe, Ni, Cr contamination). (c) XRD results indicated that the sump solids samples were amorphous which is consistent with XRD results expected for a Frit 418 based sample. (d) For the sump solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size of the sump solids were consistent with that of an as received Frit 418 sample from a current DWPF vendor. (e) For the slurry solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size range of the slurry solids was much broader than compared to the sump solids. More specifically, there were significantly more fines in the slurry solids as compared to the sump solids. (f) PSD results indicated that > 99% of both the sump and slurry solids were less than 350 microns. The PSD results also supported SEM/EDS analysis that there were significantly more fines in the slurry solids as compared to the sump solids. (2) Weight Percent Solids - Based on the measured supernate density and mass of insoluble solids (2.388 grams) filtered from the four liters of liquid slurry samples, the weight percent insoluble solids was estimated to be 0.060 wt%. This level of insoluble solids is higher than the ETP WAC limit of 100 mg/L, or 0.01 wt% which suggests a separation technology of some type would be required. (3) Chemical Analysis - (a) Elemental results from ICP-ES analysis indicated that the sump solids and slurry were very consistent with the nominal composition of Frit 418. There were other elements identified by ICP analysis which were either consistent with the presence of stainless steel (as identified by SEM/EDS analysis) or impurities that have been observed in 'as received' Frit 418 from the vendor. (b) IC anion analysis of the sump solids and slurry solids indicated all of the species were less than detection limits. (c) Radionuclide analysis of the sump solids also indicated that most of the analytes were either at or below the detection limits. (d) Organic analysis of the sump solids and slurry solids indicated all of the species were less than detection limits. It should be noted that the results of this study may not be representative of future decon frit solutions or sump/slurry solids samples. Therefore, future DWPF decisions regarding the possible disposal pathways for either the aqueous or solid portions of the Decon Frit system need to factor in the potential differences. More specifically, introduction of a different frit or changes to other DWPF flowsheet unit operations (e.g., different sludge batch or coupling with other process streams) ma

Crawford, C.; Peeler, D.; Click, D.

2010-10-20

196

Deoxypodophyllotoxin reduces skin pigmentation of brown Guinea pigs.  

PubMed

In this report, we have demonstrated that deoxypodophyllotoxin from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm decreases UV-induced skin pigmentation of brown guinea pigs. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (0.05 % in propylene glycol: ethanol: water = 5 : 3:2) was topically applied twice daily for two weeks to dorsal skin of brown guinea pigs that were exposed to UV irradiation using a solar simulator. Visual inspection and Fontana-Masson staining both demonstrated that deoxypodophyllotoxin reduced skin pigmentation and total epidermal melanin when compared to that of vehicle-treated areas, suggesting that deoxypodophyllotoxin maybe applicable to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:15095159

Choi, Hyunjung; Lee, Jeongho; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Byeong-Gon; Chang, Ihseop; Hwang, Jae-Sung

2004-04-01

197

SAMPLE COMMINUTION FOR MYCOTOXIN ANALYSIS: DRY MILLING OR SLURRY MIXING?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A comparison was made between dry milling and slurry mixing as a comminuting step preceding mycotoxin analysis. Sample schemes of up to 30 kg are mandated by EC legislation. Cacao, green coffee, almonds and pistachio samples of 10 kg were milled by a Romer Analytical Sampling mill and all three samp...

198

Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength,  

E-print Network

Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength, and Shrinkage K.R. Backe oilwell cements. The results show that the curing characteristics are a function of temperature and that there is a correlation between shrinkage and cement content. The paper also introduces a new mechanism for gas migration

Backe, Knut

199

Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction  

E-print Network

Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction Onno Bokhove o, Twente #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction Outline · 1. Introduction · 2. Experiments · 3. Conclusions · References ISSF 2008 University of Twente Page 2 #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

200

Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier  

SciTech Connect

A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects.

Deming, P.W. [Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (United States)

1997-12-31

201

Apparatus for converting biomass to a pumpable slurry  

DOEpatents

An apparatus used in the pretreatment of wood chips in a process for converting biomass to a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. The apparatus functions to break down the wood chips to a size distribution that can be readily handled in a slurry form. Low maintenance operation is obtained by hydrolyzing the chips in a pressure vessel having no moving parts.

Ergun, Sabri (Hillsborough, CA); Schaleger, Larry L. (Oakland, CA); Wrathall, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Yaghoubzadeh, Nasser (El Cerrito, CA)

1986-01-01

202

Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-31

203

Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-01-01

204

Aerobic thermophilic treatment of farm slurry and food wastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review discusses the aerobic treatments for farm slurry and food wastes and concentrates in particular on the thermophilic aerobic treatments. Methods are discussed under the heading of chemical, physical and other treatments. From those methods considered, the most suitable physical–microbiological treatment are aerobic thermophilic treatments. The main problem faced in aerobic thermophilic treatments could be the foaming formation during

Mohammed Mohaibes; Helvi Heinonen-Tanski

2004-01-01

205

Particle Deposition in Laminar Crossflow Filtration of Power Law Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A theoretical model for predicting the probability of particle deposition in crossflow filtration of power law slurry is developed. The model is based on the critical angle of friction between depositing particles, which can be estimated by analyzing the forces exerted on the particles. The binding force between the particles due to polymer adsorption plays an important role in the

Kuo-Jen Hwang; Wei-Ming Lu

1997-01-01

206

Bench Scale Test of Absorption Slurry-ice Maker  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slurry ice system is desirable as cold heat source for air conditioning, because it requires less conveyance power or less pipe size. On the other hand, recently absorption refrigerator is reevaluated because it can utilize various types of waste heat and it does not use fluorocarbon refrigerant. But it had been regarded to be difficult to make ice by absorption refrigerator because the refrigerant is water. However making slurry ice is possible, of cource, if the slurry ice generated by partial freezing of water is continuously taken away from the evaporator. This method was certified experimentally with a bench scale model. For ice making continuously, ice had not to be frozen stiff at water surface or inside wall of the evaporator. Then refrigerant water in the evaporator was raised swirl flow. And inside wall of the evaporator was finished by water repellent coating, and heated from outside wall. This slurry ice was adaptable to hydraulic transportation, because ice was needle crystal with about 5 mm length and ice temperature was 0°C.

Sasao, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

207

Slurry catalyst for hydroprocessing heavy and refractory oils  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a Group VIB metal sulfide slurry catalyst for the hydroprocessing of heavy hydrocarbonaceous oil or residue prepared by a process. It comprises sulfiding a Group VIB metal, ammonia-containing compound in an aqueous phase, in the substantial absence of hydrocarbon oil, with hydrogen sulfide, at a temperature less than about 350° F, to form a presulfided product without

J. Lopez; E. A. Pasek

1992-01-01

208

Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry  

DOEpatents

In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul D. (Tucson, AZ)

2002-01-01

209

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

2001-01-07

210

Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others] [and others

1996-03-01

211

Hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble-column reactors for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

SciTech Connect

In the Fischer-Tropsch approach to indirect liquefaction, slurry bubble-column reactors (SBCRs) are used to convert coal syngas into the desired product. Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of SBCRs at industrially relevant conditions is discussed.Gas-liquid flow experiments are performed in an industrial-scale stainless steel vessel. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to make spatially resolved gas holdup measurements. Both water and Drakeol 10 with air sparging are examined at ambient and elevated pressures. Gas holdup increases with gas superficial velocity and pressure, and the GDT values are in good agreement with values from differential pressure (DP) measurements.

Jackson, N.B.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.

1996-08-01

212

Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs.  

PubMed

Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

Kv?tina, Jaroslav; Edakkanambeth Varayil, Jithinraj; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopá?ová, Marcela

2010-06-01

213

Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs  

PubMed Central

Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

Kv?tina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopá?ová, Marcela

2010-01-01

214

Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)  

SciTech Connect

Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite.

Witthar, S.R. [Black and Veatch, Overland Park, KS (United States)

1998-12-31

215

Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 ..mu..m, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0.

Ballinger, M Y; Hodgson, W H

1986-12-01

216

High-pressure intrapleural chemotherapy: feasibility in the pig model  

PubMed Central

Background The usual treatments for pleural malignancies are mostly palliative. In contrast, peritoneal malignancies are often treated with a curative intent by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. As pressure has been shown to increase antitumor efficacy, we applied the concept of high-pressure intracavitary chemotherapy to the pleural space in a swine model. Methods Cisplatin and gemcitabine were selected because of their antineoplasic efficacy in vitro in a wide spectrum of cancer cell lines. The pleural cavity of 21 pigs was filled with saline solution; haemodynamic and respiratory parameters were monitored. The pressure was increased to 15-25 cm H2O. This treatment was associated with pneumonectomy in 6 pigs. Five pigs were treated with chemotherapy under pressure. Results The combination of gemcitabine (100 mg/l) and cisplatin (30 mg/l) was highly cytotoxic in vitro. The maximum tolerated pressure was 20 cm H20, due to haemodynamic failure. Pneumonectomy was not tolerated, either before or after pleural infusion. Five pigs survived intrapleural chemotherapy associating gemcitabine and cisplatin with 20 cm H2O pressure for 60 min. Conclusions High-pressure intrapleural chemotherapy is feasible in pigs. Further experiments will establish the pharmacokinetics and determine whether the benefit already shown in the peritoneum is also obtained in the pleura. PMID:22309737

2012-01-01

217

Pharmacologically Stimulated Pupil and Accommodative Changes in Guinea Pigs  

PubMed Central

Purpose. The guinea pig is being used increasingly as a model of human myopia. As accommodation may influence the effects of manipulations used in experimental myopia models, understanding the accommodative ability of guinea pigs is important. Here, nonselective muscarinic agonists were used as pharmacological tools to study guinea pig accommodation. Methods. Measurements were made on 15 pigmented guinea pigs. For in vivo testing, animals were anesthetized and, following baseline measurements, 2% pilocarpine was applied topically. Measurements included A-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, corneal topography, and refraction. In vitro lens scanning experiments were performed using anterior segment preparations, with measurements before and during exposure to carbachol. Anterior segment structures were examined histologically and immunohistochemistry was done to characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes present. Results. In vivo, pilocarpine induced a myopic shift in refractive error coupled to a small, but consistent decrease in anterior chamber depth (ACD), a smaller and more variable increase in lens thickness, and a decrease in pupil size. Lens thickness increases were short-lived (10 minutes), while ACD and pupil size decreased over 20 minutes. Corneal curvature was not significantly affected. Carbachol tested on anterior segment preparations in vitro was without effect on lens back vertex distance, but did stimulate pupil constriction. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of muscarinic receptor subtypes 1 to 5 in the iris and ciliary body. Conclusions. The observed pilocarpine-induced changes in ACD, lens thickness, and refraction are consistent with active accommodation in the guinea pig, through cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. PMID:25097245

Ostrin, Lisa A.; Garcia, Mariana B.; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

2014-01-01

218

Gaseous emissions during the fattening of pigs kept either on fully slatted floors or on straw flow.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to compare the environmental impact of the straw-flow system for fattening pigs with the slatted-floor system by measuring pollutant gas emissions such as ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2), manure nitrogen (N) content and emissions of water vapour (H2O). Three successive batches of 32 pigs were fattened. For each batch, pigs were allotted to two groups raised in separated rooms fitted either with a concrete totally slatted-floor system (0.75 m2 per pig) or with a straw-flow system (0.79 m2 per pig). With this last system, pigs were kept on a sloped floor, straw being provided daily at the top of the pen. Throughout the fattening period, about 34.4 kg of straw were supplied per pig. The straw, mixed with dung, travelled down the slope by pig motion and went out of the pen to a scraped passage. The solid fraction was scraped every day, stored in a heap in the room and removed every month, 1 week before each period of gaseous emission measurement. The liquid fraction was automatically pumped from the scraped passage into a hermetic tank, which was emptied at the end of each fattening period. Rooms were ventilated mechanically in order to maintain a constant ambient temperature. Once a month, the emissions of NH3, N2O, CH4, CO2 and H2O were measured hourly for 6 consecutive days via infrared photoacoustic detection. Mean daily emissions per pig fattened on the slatted floor or on the sloped floor were, respectively, 4.98 and 13.31 g NH3, 0.67 and 0.68 g N2O, 15.2 and 8.88 g CH4, 548 g and 406 g CO2 equivalents, 1.61 and 1.77 kg CO2 and 2.33 and 2.95 kg H2O. Except for N2O emissions, all the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). From the slatted-floor system, the amount of slurry removed per fattening period was on average 256 kg per pig. From the straw-flow system, solid manure amounted on average to 209 kg per pig and liquid manure to 53 kg per pig. The total N-content of the manure was 2.23 kg N per pig with the straw-flow system (solid and liquid manure) v. 3.26 kg N per pig for slurry from the slatted-floor system. This reduction of 30% observed with the sloped floor was mainly explained by the higher level of NH3-N emissions. PMID:22444925

Philippe, F-X; Laitat, M; Canart, B; Vandenheede, M; Nicks, B

2007-11-01

219

Potential nitrification in alum-treated soil slurries amended with poultry manure.  

PubMed

Alum is used to reduce environmental pollutants in poultry production. Alum decreases NH3 volatilization and increases total N and NH4+-N compared to untreated poultry manure. Nitrification in poultry wastes could therefore be stimulated due to higher NH4+ concentrations or could be inhibited because the soil environment is acidified. A 10-day laboratory study was conducted to study potential nitrification rates in soil slurries (20 g soil in 150 ml water) amended with 2.0 g alum-treated poultry manure. Fecal bacteria, NH4+, NO2-, NO3-, orthophosphate, pH, and NH3 were measured at 2-day intervals. Alum significantly reduced fecal bacteria concentrations through day 6. Water-soluble P was reduced 82% by day 10. Alum-treated manure had significantly increased NH4+ concentrations by day 8 and 10, and significantly decreased NO2- and NO3- concentrations by days 6-10. Alum's effect on potential nitrification was inhibitory in the soil environment. Slurries with alum-treated poultry manure had reduced nitrification rates, fecal bacteria, and soluble P. Therefore, in addition to reducing P loss, alum could temporarily reduce the risk for environmental pollution from land-applied manures in terms of both NO3- and fecal bacteria loss. PMID:15905088

Gandhapudi, S K; Coyne, M S; D'Angelo, E M; Matocha, C

2006-03-01

220

Plugging nuclear waste pipelines: impact of high level waste slurry characteristics and pipe diameter  

SciTech Connect

The work presented here focuses on experiments carried out in 22-mm ID and 45-mm ID pipelines utilizing slurries composed of spherical glass beads having particle size distribution following the Rosin-Rammler distribution and mean size of 50 {mu}m. The spreads of the distribution were 1.7 and 7, corresponding to wide and narrow distributions, respectively. The slurries utilized in this study had concentrations ranging from 5% to 25% by volume. Results obtained in the same pipeline diameter indicated that the slurry of the narrower distribution experienced higher pressure drops and lower critical deposition velocities than those for the slurry of wider distribution. Pressure drop increased markedly with increasing slurry concentration regardless of the pipe diameter and slurry PSD. However, the pipe diameter was found to have more significant influence on the pressure drop than the slurry concentration does. (authors)

Daas, M.; Srivastava, R.; Skudarnov, P. [Florida International Univ., Applied Research Center, Miami, FL (United States)

2007-07-01

221

Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

Loth, John L. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV)

1982-01-01

222

Risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing swine. A longitudinal study was conducted in 18 cohorts of pigs from three finishing sites of one swine production company. Among the 446 Salmonella isolates (isolated from 187 pigs), there were 18 distinct serovars. The six most common serovars were S. enterica serovar Derby (47.3%), S. Agona (27.4%), S. Johannesburg (10.5%), S. Schwarzengrund (2.7%), S. Litchfield (2.5%) and S. Mbandaka (2.2%). Survival analysis techniques, Kaplan-Meier methods and Log-rank test were used to estimate the duration of Salmonella shedding in days and to evaluate differences in shedding associated with risk factors at different organizational levels: isolate (serovar), pig, cohort and site. The risk factors at the pig-level were: sex, age and individual health status; and the risk factors at the cohort-level were: health risk, treatment and "at risk pigs" proportions, nursery and barn environment Salmonella status and prior exposure to the same serovar in the nursery or barn environment. Survival analysis using acceleration failure time models, with a log-normal distribution, was applied to investigate risk factors associated with Salmonella persistence (175 pigs) and serovar-specific persistence (151 pigs) during the study period. Pigs detected Salmonella positive for the first time at 10 weeks of age had a longer duration of shedding, than pigs first detected at an older age. The duration of shedding was shorter among pigs infected with S. Derby, S. Johannesburg and other serovars as compared to pigs infected with S. Agona. A significant difference was observed among sites. Cohorts with pig treatment proportions greater than the median were more likely to have a shorter duration of Salmonella shedding. Pigs from cohorts with nursery positive pools greater than the overall mean had a longer duration of Salmonella shedding as compared to pigs from cohorts with nursery pools less than or equal to the mean. These results suggest that the duration of Salmonella shedding may depend on Salmonella serovar, pig age at the time of infection, farm site and cohort-level risk factors. Identification of risk factors associated with the duration of shedding may allow more targeted interventions for the control Salmonella by evaluation of control measures not only for prevalence reduction, but also to decrease the duration of shedding. Such measures may decrease the risk of contamination of pork and subsequent risk of foodborne illness. PMID:25005468

Pires, A F A; Funk, J A; Bolin, C

2014-09-01

223

Immunological Unresponsiveness in Guinea Pigs  

PubMed Central

A state of immunological unresponsiveness to bovine serum albumin (BSA) or human gamma globulin (HGG) can be produced in guinea pigs by contact with these proteins either before and soon after birth, or even soon after birth alone. As judged by failure of treated animals to show immune elimination of the antigen, or anaphylaxis on reinjection, the animals were completely unresponsive when tested up to 5 months after birth. Administration of 6-mercaptopurine to guinea pigs, even in lethal doses, did not prevent the development of antibodies to HGG. After administration of BSA or HGG, labelled with 131I, to pregnant guinea pigs, their offspring at term contained significant amounts of the labelled proteins. HGG was catabolized in new-born guinea pigs with the same half-life as in adults. PMID:14449975

Humphrey, J. H.; Turk, J. L.

1961-01-01

224

Pig shipping container test sequence  

SciTech Connect

This test plan outlines testing of the integrity of the pig shipping container. It is divided into four sections: (1) drop test requirements; (2) test preparations; (3) perform drop test; and (4) post-test examination.

Adkins, H.E. Jr.

1995-01-13

225

Pig shipping container test sequence  

Microsoft Academic Search

This test plan outlines testing of the integrity of the pig shipping container. It is divided into four sections: (1) drop test requirements; (2) test preparations; (3) perform drop test; and (4) post-test examination.

Adkins; H. E. Jr

1995-01-01

226

BINDING OF RECOMBINANT NOROVIRUS LIKE PARTICLE TO HISTO-BLOOD GROUP ANTIGEN ON CELLS IN THE LUMEN OF PIG DUODENUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A set of HBGA specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was used to determine the presence of corresponding HBGA in pig gastro-intestine tissue (PGIT) washings and on epithelial cells. . rNWs were applied to plate coated with pig gastro-intestine tissue (PGIT) washings , and measured by ELISA assay us...

227

Three Little Pigs Construction Company  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about problem-solving, learners build a house for the Three Little Pigs using twenty straws and two index cards. Learners then use a fan to simulate a tornado and shake the table three times to simulate an earthquake. Learners must alter their house design to make it sturdy enough to withstand the elements and house the pigs. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2014-09-19

228

Excess dietary cobalt in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were conducted, in which 240 growing finishing pigs were used, to determine the level of Cobalt (Co) which is toxic. Pigs tolerated up to 200 mg\\/kg of Co when added to corn-soybean meal diets containing 82 to 178 mg\\/kg of iron. The addition of 400 or 600 mg\\/kg of Co caused anorexia, growth depression, stiff-leggedness, humped back, incoordination

D. W. Huck; A. J. Clawson

1976-01-01

229

Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are an Attractive Donor Cell Type for Production of Cloned Pigs As Well As Genetically Modified Cloned Pigs by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer  

PubMed Central

Abstract The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique has been widely applied to clone pigs or to produce genetically modified pigs. Currently, this technique relies mainly on using terminally differentiated fibroblasts as donor cells. To improve cloning efficiency, only partially differentiated multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thought to be more easily reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, have been used as nuclear donors in pig SCNT. Although in vitro–cultured embryos cloned from porcine MSCs (MSCs-embryos) were shown to have higher preimplantation developmental ability than cloned embryos reconstructed from fibroblasts (Fs-embryos), the difference in in vivo full-term developmental rate between porcine MSCs-embryos and Fs-embryos has not been investigated so far. In this study, we demonstrated that blastocyst total cell number and full-term survival abilities of MSCs-embryos were significantly higher than those of Fs-embryos cloned from the same donor pig. The enhanced developmental potential of MSCs-embryos may be associated with their nuclear donors' DNA methylation profile, because we found that the methylation level of imprinting genes and repeat sequences differed between MSCs and fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that use of transgenic porcine MSCs generated from transgene plasmid transfection as donor cells for SCNT can produce live transgenic cloned pigs. These results strongly suggest that porcine bone marrow MSCs are a desirable donor cell type for production of cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs via SCNT. PMID:24033142

Li, Zicong; He, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liwen; Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Weihua

2013-01-01

230

Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport  

SciTech Connect

The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

1980-03-31

231

Characteristics of microencapsulated PCM slurry as a heat-transfer fluid  

SciTech Connect

The hydrodynamic and heat-transfer characteristics of slurry containing microencapsulated phase-change materials (MCPCMs) were investigated experimentally for use as a heat-transfer fluid. Pressure drop and local convective heat-transfer coefficients of the slurry flows in a circular tube with uniform heat flux were measured. Slurries consisting of octadecane (C{sub 18}H{sub 38}) contained in 2--10-{micro}m-dia. microcapsules and pure water were used. The particle volume fractions in the slurry were varied up to 0.3. Results showed that increases in particle volume fractions caused the slurry flow structure to change from turbulent to laminar, and the pressure-drop reduction of the slurry flow relative to a single-phase water flow was under the same flow-rate conditions. The heat-transfer performance of the slurry also depended on the change in flow structure. When the MCPCMs melted, the local heat-transfer coefficients for turbulent slurry flows increased relative to those for nonmelting slurry. This phenomenon was influenced by the MCPCM fraction, the degree of turbulence, and the heating rate at the tube wall. The experimental data will be useful in the design of thermal-energy transportation systems using MCPCM slurry.

Yamagishi, Yasushi [Daido Hoxan Inc., Osaka (Japan)] [Daido Hoxan Inc., Osaka (Japan); Takeuchi, Hiromi; Pyatenko, A.T. [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Inst., Sapporo (Japan)] [Hokkaido National Industrial Research Inst., Sapporo (Japan); Kayukawa, Naoyuki [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology] [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Center for Advanced Research of Energy Technology

1999-04-01

232

Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

1982-01-01

233

Freeforming of Ceramics and Composites from Colloidal Slurries  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the work completed for an LDRD project. The objective of the project was to develop a solid freeform fabrication technique for ceramics and composites from fine particle slurries. The work was successful and resulted in the demonstration of a manufacturing technique called robocasting. Some ceramic components may pow be fabricated without the use of molds or tooling by dispensing colloidal suspensions through an orifice and stacking two-dimensional layers into three-dimensional shapes. Any conceivable two-dimensional pattern may be ''written'' layer by layer into a three-dimensional shape. Development of the robocasting technique required the materials expertise for fabrication and theological control of very highly concentrated fine particle slurries, and development of robotics for process control and optimization. Several ceramic materials have been manufactured and characterized. Development of techniques for robocasting multiple materials simultaneously have also been developed to build parts with unique structures or graded compositions.

CESARANO III,JOSEPH; DENHAM,HUGH B.; STUECKER,JOHN N.; BAER,THOMAS A.; GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.

1999-12-01

234

Chemically enhanced combustion of water-slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of enhancing the combustion of solid fuel\\/-water slurries by the addition of about 100 to 5,000 ppm of a stable water-soluble explosive, which will detonate early in the combustion process, thereby producing a secondary dispersion of fuel particles, and an 80-65% coal\\/20-35% water composition suitable for secondary dispersion during combustion containing about 100-5,000 ppm of a water-soluble explosive,

Olen

1984-01-01

235

Foamed cement: A second generation. [Foamed cement slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technology in design and implementation of stable foamed cement systems now offers new solutions to critical oil-field cementing problems well beyond the original utility of lightweight slurries in reducing hydrostatic pressure across fracture-sensitive zones. Implications of new high-performance foamed cement capabilities are discussed for specialized applications such as thermal recovery, deep cementing in a narrow annular gap, lost-circulation control

Loeffler

1984-01-01

236

Gasification and shell characteristics in slurry droplet burning  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the gasification process of the liquid component of freely falling carbon slurry droplets in a hot oxidizing environment is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical model formulated describes droplet gasification as consisting of two periods: An initial period of regressing droplet size governed by the classical d²-law, and a subsequent d³-law period which the droplet size

A. Lee; C. K. Law

1991-01-01

237

Color removal from aqueous solution by biogas residual slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Acid Brilliant Blue on biogas residual slurry has been investigated. The parameters studied include dye concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH. The equilibrium data fit well with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption isotherm. Maximum removal of 99% was observed at pH 2.56. Desorption studies indicate that the dye is solubilised in 50%(v\\/v) acetic

R. T. Yamuna; C. Namasivayam

1993-01-01

238

Electrically induced pore pressures in high salt content clay slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of stagnant pore water pressures due to non-uniform and non-steady distribution of voltage gradients were investigated in high water and salt content clay slurry using a floor-scale apparatus. The experiment was intended to simulate electrically enhanced dewatering of sea harbor sediments by horizontal drainage towards vertically installed electrodes. The scale of the test apparatus allowed for accurate measurements

Trent Muraoka; Ehsan Ghazanfari; Reena Amatya Shrestha; Sibel Pamukcu

2011-01-01

239

Heat transfer investigations in a slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry bubble columns, for use in Fisher-Tropsch synthesis, have been investigated. Two bubble columns (0.108 and 0.305 m internal diameter) were set up and experiments were conducted to determine gas holdup and heat transfer coefficients. These columns were equipped with either single heat transfer probes of different diameters, or bundles of five-, seven- or thirty-seven tubes. The experiments were conducted

S. C. Saxena; N. S. Rao; R. Vadivel; S. Shrivastav; A. C. Saxena; B. B. Patel; P. R. Thimmapuram; M. Y. Kagzi; I. A. Khan; A. K. Verma

1991-01-01

240

Heat transfer investigations in a slurry bubble column  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry bubble columns, for use in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, have been investigated. Two bubble columns (0.108 and 0.305 m internal diameter) were set up and experiments were conducted to determine gas holdup and heat transfer coefficients. These columns were equipped with either single heat transfer probes of different diameters, or bundles of five-, seven-, or thirty-seven tubes. the experiments were conducted

S. C. Saxena; N. S. Rao; R. Vadivel; S. Shrivastav; A. C. Saxena; B. B. Patel; P. R. Thimmapuram; M. Y. Kagzi; I. A. Khan; A. K. Verma

1991-01-01

241

Dewatering/reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an innovative approach for in-situ dewatering/hardening of fine clean coal slurry. The technique uses various fibrous waste materials added to coal slurry before dewatering process to obtain a dewatered product with lower cake moisture as well as sufficient strength to facilitate its handling. The study was conducted on both vacuum and pressure bench scale apparatus for dewatering and reconstitution of fine clean coal slurry. The fibrous waste materials investigated included plastic, newspaper, carpet mixed office waste, raw paper and wood fibers. The effects of several surfactants and flocculants on final moisture content of the filter cakes were also determined. The results showed that using the vacuum filter, addition of 10 Kg/ton of mixed office waste fibers decreased the filter cake moisture from 41.3 to 34.8% by weight, a 16% moisture reduction over the baseline data. The addition of fibers showed moisture reduction as well as large improvement in solids loading as much as 2 fold over those observed in the absence of fibers. For the pressure filtration, the addition of plastic fibers provided a filter cake containing 21.4% moisture which is about 2.1% lower than that of the untreated filter cake. The average final cake moisture reduction of 1.5% was achieved for the test fibers using the pressure filter. It was also found that fiber addition in pressure filtration led to shorter cake formation time thus increasing the filtration rate of the coal slurry. The hardening properties of the dried filter cakes with fibers improved significantly such that the cake compression strength improved from 0 to 4.5 Kg/cm{sup 2}, impact resistance from 0 to 4, abrasion resistance from 0 to 70%, and dust reduction efficiency from 0 to 75%.

Sung, D.J.; Shao, X.; Parekh, B.K.

1998-07-01

242

Ice slurry on outdoor running performance in heat.  

PubMed

The efficacy of ingestion of ice slurry on actual outdoor endurance performance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate ice slurry ingestion as a cooling intervention before a 10 km outdoor running time-trial. Twelve participants ingested 8?g?·?kg?(-?1) of either ice slurry (?-?1.4°C; ICE) or ambient temperature drink (30.9°C; CON) and performed a 15-min warm-up prior to a 10 km outdoor running time-trial (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature: 28.2 ± 0.8°C). Mean performance time was faster with ICE (2?715 ± 396 s) than CON (2?730 ± 385 s; P=0.023). Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) reduced by 0.5 ± 0.2°C after ICE ingestion compared with 0.1 ± 0.1°C (P<0.001) with CON. During the run, the rate of rise in Tgi was greater (P=0.01) with ICE than with CON for the first 15 min. At the end of time-trial, Tgi was higher with ICE (40.2 ± 0.6°C) than CON (39.8 ± 0.4°C, P=0.005). Ratings of thermal sensation were lower during the cooling phase and for the first kilometre of the run (?-?1.2 ± 0.8; P<0.001). Although ingestion of ice slurry resulted in a transient increase in heat strain following a warm up routine, it is a practical and effective pre-competition cooling manoeuvre to improve performance in warm and humid environments. PMID:22730052

Yeo, Z W; Fan, P W P; Nio, A Q X; Byrne, C; Lee, J K W

2012-11-01

243

The physiological and behavioral response of pigs castrated with and without anesthesia or analgesia.  

PubMed

Surgical castration is a common management practice performed on male pigs to prevent the occurrence of boar taint. Surgical castration is known to cause physiological and behavioral changes in pigs indicative of pain-induced distress; however, it is commonly performed without pain relief. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of carbon dioxide gas (CO(2)) anesthesia and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to alleviate the pain caused by castration. At 3 d of age, male pigs were either control handled (CON), castrated without pain relief (CAS), given an NSAID and then immediately castrated (CAS+NSAID), anesthetized with CO(2) and then castrated (CAS+CO2), or anesthetized with CO(2) and given an NSAID at the time of castration (CAS+BOTH). Blood samples were collected before castration, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 min, 24 h, and 3 d after castration or handling for analysis of cortisol, C-Reactive protein (CRP), and substance-P (SP) concentrations. This study was then repeated using the same treatment groups, and the behavioral response to castration and handling were measured using a 1-min scan sampling procedure. The percentage of stress vocalizations was recorded during the administration of all treatments. Anesthesia and analgesia did not effectively reduce (P > 0.05) the cortisol response to surgical castration. Overall, CRP concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in CAS+CO2 pigs as compared with CON pigs. Sixty minutes after castration or handling, SP concentrations were greater (P < 0.08) in pigs given CO(2) anesthesia (CO2, CAS+CO2, and CAS+BOTH) than CON, CAS, and CAS+NSAID pigs. Pigs castrated without pain relief spent more (P < 0.001) time lying without contact than all other treatments during the first 30 min after castration, but thereafter CAS+CO2 pigs spent more (P < 0.001) time lying without contact than other treatments. During the first 30 min after the treatments were applied, CAS+CO2 pigs spent more (P < 0.01) time displaying pain-like behaviors than CON, CAS, CAS+NSAID, and CAS+BOTH pigs. The percentage of stress vocalizations was greater (P < 0.05) in CAS and CAS+NSAID pigs than all other treatments. Neither CO(2) anesthesia nor a NSAID, given separately or combined, markedly reduced the pain-induced distress caused by castration in pigs. More research is needed to evaluate practical methods of on-farm pain relief for pigs. PMID:22266989

Sutherland, M A; Davis, B L; Brooks, T A; Coetzee, J F

2012-07-01

244

Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges  

SciTech Connect

Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, B. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

245

Warm season grass establishment on limestone-amended coal slurry  

SciTech Connect

Direct seeding of limestone amended areas can be an effective alternative to soil covering. Both wetland and upland plant communities have been established on post law (PL 95-87) slurry areas by the Wildlife Research Laboratory of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Terrestrial habitat reclamation has emphasized both cool and warm season grass species, using a 3-year program of limestone amendment (40-50 tons/acre/year) and cover crop (years 1 and 2) and perennial grass (year 3) establishment. Warm season grasses have been included in Midwest slurry reclamation projects since 1984. Vegetation monitoring of three Midwest sites (Illinois and Kentucky), ranging in age from 3 to 12 years since planting, identified current ground cover in excess of 100 percent. Warm season grasses accounted for 48 to 73 percent of the ground cover. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was the dominant warm season species at all sites, with vegetative cover values ranging from 48 to more than 56 percent. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) accounted for 12 to 16 percent of the ground cover at the two Kentucky sites 3 years after establishment. Vegetative density for all species (forbs and grasses) ranged from 539 to 622 stems/m{sup 2} while above ground biomass values ranged from 404 to over 900 gm/m{sup 2}. Warm season grass establishment practices on these direct seeded slurry areas have been successful in providing excellent ground cover and diverse upland wildlife habitat.

Nawrot, J.R.; Skeel, V.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gray, B. [Peabody Coal Company, Graham, KY (United States); Newton, R.

1997-12-31

246

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

SciTech Connect

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reducted pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

Robben, F. A.

1985-12-17

247

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOEpatents

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19

248

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOEpatents

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01

249

Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry  

DOEpatents

Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

Forney, Albert J. (Coraopolis, PA); Haynes, William P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01

250

33 CFR 154.2104 - Pigging system.  

...MATERIAL IN BULK Marine Vapor Control Systems Transfer Facilities-Vcs Design...system. (a) If a pigging system is used to clear cargo in the...connected to the facility vapor control system (VCS), the pigging...

2014-07-01

251

Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators - spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) - which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses.

Skowron, Krzysztof; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Olszewska, Halina; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Zimek, Zbigniew; ?rutek, M?cis?aw

2014-08-01

252

Regenerating slurries for use in zinc-air batteries  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for the regeneration of an at least partially spent slurry having a dissolved phase and an undissolved phase for use in metal-air batteries which slurry comprises an admixture of at least components (a) and (b), of the following components (a) through (g): (a) zinc which has been at least partly oxidized to zinc oxide, zinc hydroxide or zincates; (b) an aqueous solution of at least one Group Ia metal comprising anions selected from the group consisting of hydroxide and zincate; (c) an inorganic inhibitor to inhibit the evolution of hydrogen gas; (d) a gelling agent; (e) a filler; (f) a labelling agent; (g) a dissolved electrolyte extender; which process comprises subjecting the spent slurry to at least steps (i), (ii), (iii) and (iv) of the following six steps: (i) separating of the dissolved and undissolved phases; (ii) electrolyzing the separated dissolved phase, in a cell with a non-zinc-adherent cathode such that the zinc which deposits thereon self-detaches, provided that the current density at the cathode is preselected so that in conjunction with the non-zinc-adherent characteristic of the cathode, the electrowon zinc will have a density within the range 0.3-1.4 g/cc and a surface area within the range 0.5-6.0 m[sup 2]/g.; (iii) removing zinc from the cathode and consolidating it into particles; (iv) combining zinc from step (iii) with the separated undissolved phase from step (i) and additional aqueous Group la metal hydroxide, thereby reconstituting charged slurry; (v) analyzing at least one of following (A), (B) and (C): (A) the separated undissolved phase from step (i) prior to combining step (iv); (B) the separated dissolved phase from step (i) prior to combining step (iv); (C) the reconstituted charged slurry obtained in step (iv); in order to ascertain whether the amount of (a) through (g) lie within predetermined limits; (vi) adjusting the amounts of (a) through (g) to within predetermined limits.

Goldstein, J.; Meitav, A.

1993-07-20

253

Chemical roles on Cu-slurry interface during copper chemical mechanical planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to optimize the existing slurry for low down-pressure chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP), copper CMP was conducted in H2O2 based slurries with benzotriazole (BTA) and glycine at different pH values. The film composition was investigated by the Nano Hardness Tester and XPS tests. Furthermore, the film structure forming on the copper surface at different pH values was investigated by adopting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology. In the acidic slurry, discontinuous and porous BTA film covering the Cu/Cu2O surface enhanced the mechanical effect during Cu CMP process, resulted in highest CMP removal rate. In neutral slurry, the lowest CMP removal rate and static corrosion rate were resulted from compacted passivation film on the copper surface. In the alkaline slurry, the mechanical effect was limited by the rapid chemical dissolution. The results will benefit optimization of the slurry and operate conditions during low down-pressure CMP process.

Li, Jing; Liu, Yuhong; Pan, Yan; Lu, Xinchun

2014-02-01

254

Production of cloned pigs expressing human thrombomodulin in endothelial cells.  

PubMed

For long-term xenograft survival, coagulation control is one of the remaining critical issues. Our attention has been directed toward human thrombomodulin (hTM), because it is expected to exhibit the following beneficial effects on coagulation control and cytoprotection: (i) to solve the problem of molecular incompatibility in protein C activation; (ii) to exert a role as a physiological regulator, only when thrombin is formed; (iii) to suppress direct prothrombinase activity; and (iv) to have anti-inflammatory properties. hTM gene was transfected into pig (Landrace/Yorkshire) fibroblasts using pCAGGS expression vector and pPGK-puro vector. After puromycin selection, only fibroblasts expressing a high level of hTM were collected by cell sorting and then applied to nuclear transfer. Following electroactivation and subsequent culture, a total of 1547 cleaved embryos were transferred to seven surrogate mother pigs. Two healthy cloned piglets expressing hTM were born, successfully grew to maturity and produced normal progeny. Immunohistochemical staining of organs from F1 generation pigs demonstrated hTM expression in endothelial cells as well as parenchymal cells. High expression was observed particularly in endothelial cells of kidney and liver. Aortic endothelial cells from cloned pigs were found to express hTM levels similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and to make it possible to convert protein C into activated protein C. The blockade of human endothelial cell protein C receptor (hEPCR) significantly reduced APC production in HUVEC, but not in hTM-PAEC. Although no bleeding tendency was observed in hTM-cloned pigs, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) was slightly prolonged and soluble hTM was detected in pig plasma. hTM was expressed in platelets and mononuclear cells, but not in RBC. Cloned pigs expressing hTM in endothelial cells at a comparable level to HUVEC were produced. As complete suppression of antigen-antibody reaction in the graft is essential for accurate assessment of transgene related to coagulation control, production of genetically engineered pigs expressing hTM and complement regulatory protein based on galactosyltransferase knockout is desired. PMID:22497510

Yazaki, Satoko; Iwamoto, Masaki; Onishi, Akira; Miwa, Yuko; Hashimoto, Michiko; Oishi, Takatsugu; Suzuki, Shunichi; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Sembon, Shoichiro; Furusawa, Tadashi; Liu, DaGe; Nagasaka, Takaharu; Kuzuya, Takafumi; Ogawa, Haruko; Yamamoto, Koji; Iwasaki, Kenta; Haneda, Masataka; Maruyama, Shoichi; Kobayashi, Takaaki

2012-01-01

255

Hard-tissue-engineered zirconia porous scaffolds with hydroxyapatite sol-gel and slurry coatings  

Microsoft Academic Search

A zirconia (ZrO2) porous scaffold was coated with a gradient apatite layer to induce osteoconductivity with the use of a combination of sol- gel and powder slurry methods. The ZrO2 was used to impart mechanical strength and the apatite layer was coated for functional biocompatibility. The coating layer, from the outside in, was composed of sol- gel hydroxyapatite (HA)\\/slurry HA\\/slurry

Hae-Won Kim; Hyoun-Ee Kim; Jonathan C. Knowles

2004-01-01

256

Effect of dairy manure slurry application in a no-till system on phosphorus runoff  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of manure slurry under reduced tillage conditions remains a challenge in the northeastern US. New technologies\\u000a to directly incorporate slurry are available but their agronomic and environmental benefits have generally not been quantified.\\u000a This study evaluated the effects of five manure slurry application methods on phosphorus (P) loss in runoff (broadcasting\\u000a with and without incorporation by tillage, shallow disk

Keisha N. JohnsonPeter; Peter J. A. Kleinman; Douglas B. Beegle; Herschel A. Elliott; Lou S. Saporito

2011-01-01

257

ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX SOLIDS WITH LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H  

SciTech Connect

Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). In the summer of 2011, Tank 50H contained two standard slurry pumps and two quad volute slurry pumps. Current requirements for mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste moved both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that were failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to mix solids with liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX), SRNL computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Tank 50H operating experience, and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters of pumps needed to mix the solid particles with the liquid in Tank 50H. The analysis determined pump requirements to suspend the solids with no 'dead zones', but did not determine the pump requirements to produce a homogeneous suspension. In addition, the analysis determined the pump requirements to prevent the accumulation of a large amount of solid particles under the telescoping transfer pump. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) The analysis shows that three Quad Volute pumps should be able to suspend the solid particles expected ({approx}0.6 g/L insoluble solids, {approx}5 micron) in Tank 50H. (2) Three standard slurry pumps may not be able to suspend the solid particles in Tank 50H; (3) The ability of two Quad Volute pumps to fully suspend all of the solid particles in Tank 50H is marginal; and (4) One standard slurry pump should be able to achieve a cleaning radius larger than 43.5 feet, which will prevent large amounts of solid particles from settling under the telescoping transfer pump (TTP). The report recommends a pump operating approach to maximize the achieved cleaning radius.

Poirier, M.

2011-11-11

258

Quality of bentonite and its effect on cement-slurry performance  

SciTech Connect

This paper shows the results of a 2-year study on the quality of cement-grade bentonite now available commercially. A comparison of laboratory-designed slurries with field-blend samples shows drastic alteration of cement-slurry performance from poor blending procedures and/or poor-quality bentonite, which could cause catastrophic consequences. Evidence from microscopic examination, chemical-quality procedures, and cement-slurry performance data shows a failure rate approaching 50% among more than 150 samples tested from field stocks. Laboratory data on cement-slurry performance with bentonite that passed and failed the current API specification test are presented.

Grant, W.H. Jr.; Rutledge, J.M.; Gardner, C.A. (Chevron Services Co., Houston, TX (US))

1990-11-01

259

Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

Marcelin, G.

1992-06-10

260

Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries  

DOEpatents

A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

1987-02-25

261

Study On Numerical Simulation And Experiment Of Fabrication Magnesium Semisolid Slurry By Damper Cooling Tube Method  

SciTech Connect

Damper Cooling Tube (DCT) Method to fabricate the semi-solid metal slurry has been studied in this paper. Firstly, numerical simulation is adopted to investigate the flow process in order to optimize the technical parameters. The temperature effects on the rheological properties of the slurries are also considered. The effects of technical parameters on the slurry properties are studied in detail. Then the experiment was carried out with AZ91 magnesium alloy in order to examine the numerical simulation results. The results of numerical simulation are consistent with the experimental results. According to the numerical and experiment results, the DCT device can fabricate fine semisolid slurry with primary globular phase.

Xie Shuisheng; Huang Guojie; Zhang Xiaoli; Yang Haoqiang [State Key Laboratory for Fabrication and Processing of Nonferrous Metals, Beijing General Research Institute for Non-ferrous Metals, China, 100088 (China)

2007-05-17

262

Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries  

DOEpatents

A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

Doherty, Joseph P. (Elkton, MD); Marek, James C. (Augusta, GA)

1989-01-01

263

Vitrification of SRP waste by a slurry-fed ceramic melter  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level waste (HLW) can be vitrified by feeding a slurry, instead of a calcine, to a joule-heated ceramic melter. Potential advantages of slurry feeding include (1) use of simpler equipment, (2) elimination of handling easily dispersed radioactive powder, (3) simpler process control, (4) effective mixing, (5) reduced off-gas volume, and (6) cost savings. Assessment of advantages and disadvantages of slurry feeding along with experimental studies indicate that slurry feeding is a promising way of vitrifying waste.

Wicks, G.G.

1980-01-01

264

Effect of Organic Additives on Ceria Slurry in Shallow Trench Isolation Chemical Mechanical Planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An increase in the removal selectivity between silicon oxide and silicon nitride was attempted by adding organic additives to a ceria slurry for the application of shallow trench isolation (STI) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). The protection behavior of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and the acceleration behavior of RE-610 in a ceria slurry were studied. PAA served as a protector of the silicon nitride due to the change in zeta potential. RE-610 worked as a hydration accelerator of the silicon oxide. When the two additives were added to the ceria slurry, the removal selectivity increased to 31:1. Moreover, PAA improved the stability of the ceria slurry.

Kang, Min Cheol; Kim, Jae Jeong; Moon, Doo-Kyung

2005-08-01

265

Distribution and leaching ability of some heavy metals in products of flotation processing of fine-grained coal slurries  

SciTech Connect

Coal from the Ostrava-Karvina mines is processed in 19 coal preparation plants, 6 of which are not equipped with flotation technology. Generally, all fine-grained coal is transported into sedimentary coal slurry ponds. Depending on processing technology, coal slurries contain from 5 to 95% coal matter. Sedimentary coal slurry ponds occupy large areas, deteriorate the landscape, and ar great sources of dust in a dry summer. Moreover, some components from coal slurries scan be leached and can penetrate into underground water. This research project sampled 13 coal slurry ponds to determine the composition of coal slurries, the distribution of some heavy metals in the flotation process, and leaching behavior.

Klika, Z.; Weiss, Z.; Lach, K. [Univ. of Mining and Metallurgy, Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)

1994-12-31

266

Effects of polypeptide from Chlamys farreri on amino acid content in guinea pig skin irradiated by chronic ultraviolet A and B  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of polypeptide fromChlamys farreri (PCF) on the amount of hydroxyproline in guinea pig skin irradiated by chronic ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB)\\u000a radiation. PCF was applied locally before repeated exposure of guinea pig to UVA and UVB. The contents of hydroxyproline and\\u000a other amino acids in guinea pig skin were determined by automatic amino

Guoying Yu; Pengli Cao; Kun Guo; Yuejun Wang; Mi Sun; Chunbo Wang

2004-01-01

267

APPLIED PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS  

E-print Network

MSc APPLIED PHYSICS #12;MSc APPLIED PHYSICS This taught Masters course is based on the strong research in Applied Physics in the University's Department of Physics. The department has an impressive photonics and quantum optics, Physics and the Life Sciences, and solid state physics. The knowledge gained

Mottram, Nigel

268

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hot-cathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important. 29 references, 2 figures.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, J.E.; Gavin, B.F.; MacGill, R.A.

1984-08-01

269

Synthesis of polyethyleneimine capped carbon dots for preconcentration and slurry sampling analysis of trace chromium in environmental water samples.  

PubMed

Carbon dots capped with polyethyleneimine (CD-PEI) were synthesized and applied in selective separation and preconcentration of trace Cr(VI). Dispersed particle extraction (DPE) slurry sampling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to selectively and sensitively determine Cr(VI) in water samples. The as-synthesized CD-PEI was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, fluorescence and zeta potential measurement. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on CD-PEI was evaluated. Its isothermal adsorption was studied and fitted in the Langmuir model. Nearly 85% of Cr(VI) was adsorbed within 10min showed that the CD-PEI exhibited fairly fast kinetics for the sorption of Cr(VI). Experimental conditions, including the content and size of CD-PEI, sample pH, adsorption time, sample volume, slurry volume and interfering ions, were further optimized to obtain efficient preconcentration and high-precision determination of Cr(VI). CD-PEI with small size turned to be a good candidate for the preparation of slurry. CD-PEI served not only as a promising adsorbent for separation and preconcentration of Cr, but also a signal-enhancing agent in FAAS. The method achieved an enhancement factor of 30 and a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.21µgL(-1) Cr(VI) with a consumption of 14.0mL sample and an adsorption time of 5min, which provided two times of signal enhancement. The RSD for 11 replicate measurements of 5.0µgL(-1) Cr(VI) was 2.8%. The possible signal enhancement mechanism was proposed. The developed method has been applied to determine trace Cr(VI) in a variety of water samples. PMID:25618635

Liu, Yue; Hu, Jia; Li, Yan; Wei, Hai-Ping; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Xi-Hua; Chen, Shi-Min; Chen, Xiao-Qin

2015-03-01

270

Generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene-targeted pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

The domestic pig has been widely used as an important large animal model. Precise and efficient genetic modification in pig provides a great promise in biomedical research. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has been successfully used to produce many gene-targeted animals. However, these animals have been generated by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into one-cell stage embryos, which mostly resulted in mosaicism of the modification. One or two rounds of further breeding should be performed to obtain homozygotes with identical genotype and phenotype. To address this issue, gene-targeted somatic cells can be used as donor for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce gene-targeted animals with single and identical mutations. In this study, we applied Cas9/sgRNAs to effectively direct gene editing in porcine fetal fibroblasts and then mutant cell colonies were used as donor to generate homozygous gene-targeted pigs through single round of SCNT. As a result, we successfully obtained 15 tyrosinase (TYR) biallelic mutant pigs and 20 PARK2 and PINK1 double-gene knockout (KO) pigs. They were all homozygous and no off-target mutagenesis was detected by comprehensive analysis. TYR (-/-) pigs showed typical albinism and the expression of parkin and PINK1 were depleted in PARK2 (-/-)/PINK1 (-/-) pigs. The results demonstrated that single- or double-gene targeted pigs can be effectively achieved by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT without mosaic mutation and detectable off-target effects. This gene-editing system provides an efficient, rapid, and less costly manner to generate genetically modified pigs or other large animals. PMID:25274063

Zhou, Xiaoqing; Xin, Jige; Fan, Nana; Zou, Qingjian; Huang, Jiao; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bentian; Liu, Zhaoming; Lai, Sisi; Yi, Xiaoling; Guo, Lin; Esteban, Miguel A; Zeng, Yangzhi; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

2014-10-01

271

An investigation on the rheological behavior of metallic semi-solid slurries of Al-6.5 pct Si and semi-solid composite slurries of SiC particulates in an Al-6.5 pct Si alloy matrix  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rheology of SiC particulate/Al-6.5 pct Si composite slurries was explored. The rheological behavior of the composite slurries shows both thixotropic and pseudoplastic behaviors. Isostructural experiments on the composite slurries revealed a Newtonian behavior beyond a high shear rate limit. The rheology of fully molten composite slurries over the low to high shear rate range indicates the existence of a low shear rate Newtonian region, an intermediate pseudoplastic region and a high shear rate Newtonian region. The isostructural studies indicate that the viscosity of a composite slurry depends upon the shearing history of a given volume of material. An unexpected shear thinning was noted for SiC particulate + alpha slurries as compared to semi-solid metallic slurries at the same fraction solid. The implications of these findings for the processing of slurries into cast components is discussed.

Moon, H.-K.; Ito, Y.; Cornie, J. A.; Flemings, M. C.

1993-01-01

272

Continuous method of cleaning a slurry of crushed raw coal  

SciTech Connect

A crushed raw coal washing plant using a plurality of deflector-fitted centrifugal cyclones to produce a washed and dried mixture of clean coarse and fine coal, and fine coal alone, with means to remove refuse and means to recycle clean fine coal slurry byproduct into the raw crushed coal inlet. Each centrifugal cyclone of said system is fitted with an inlet line deflector and equalizer means to create laminar flow and gravity separation whereby low density (1.6 or less) washed coal escapes through a first outlet at the top and refuse drains out of a second outlet at the bottom of said cyclone.

Liller, D. I.

1980-08-12

273

Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs  

PubMed Central

Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilization is affected by the age of the pig and the pig breed. The use of potential prebiotic effects of dietary fiber is an attractive way to stimulate gut health and thereby minimize the use of anti-microbial growth promoters. Inclusion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet can stimulate the growth of commensal gut microbes. Inclusion of NSP from chicory results in changes in gut micro-environment and gut morphology of pigs, while growth performance remains unaffected and digestibility was only marginally reduced. The fermentation products and pH in digesta responded to diet type and were correlated with shifts in the microbiota. Interestingly, fiber intake will have an impact on the expression of intestinal epithelial heat-shock proteins in the pig. Heat-shock proteins have an important physiological role in the gut and carry out crucial housekeeping functions in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, there are increasing evidence showing that fiber can have prebiotic effects in pigs due to interactions with the gut micro-environment and the gut associated immune system. PMID:24580966

2014-01-01

274

3-Methylindole (skatole) and indole production by mixed populations of pig fecal bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Pig fecal slurries converted added L-tryptophan either to indole without detectable intermediates or to 3-methylindole (skatole) via indole-3-acetate. The initial rate of production of 3-methylindole was greatest at pH 6.5 and less at pH 5.0 and 8.0; the initial rates of indole production were similar at pH 6.5 and 8.0. More than 80% of the tryptophan added was converted to 3-methylindole at pH 5.0; at pH 8.0 85% was converted to indole. Both pathways had similar Km values for tryptophan and similar maximum rates. Indole-3-carbinol and indole-3-acetonitrile completely inhibited the production of 3-methylindole from indole-3-acetate but had no effect on the reactions involving L-tryptophan. PMID:7487051

Jensen, M T; Cox, R P; Jensen, B B

1995-01-01

275

Performance of chilled ceiling panels using phase change material slurries as the heat transport medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phase change materials (PCM) are advantageous for the dynamic and static storage of thermal energy. By encapsulating PCM in a solid material, of small enough diameter to be suspended in a liquid, partially melting and solidifying slurries can be created with very high energy densities and heat transfer rates. Such slurries are both transport medium and energy storage medium, and

P. W. Griffiths; P. C. Eames

2007-01-01

276

Correlation between repassivation kinetics and corrosion rate over a passive surface in flowing slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of hydrodynamics of flowing slurry on anodic dissolution rate of passive metals was quantitatively evaluated using a theoretical model recently developed by the authors. The enhanced anodic dissolution over a passive metal in flowing slurry is dominated by the passive film breakdown caused by the impingement of solid particles and the decay of local current density over the

B. T. Lu; J. L. Luo; F. Mohammadi; K. Wang; X. M. Wan

2008-01-01

277

Heat transfer and pressure drop of ice slurries in plate heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice slurries can be used both for cold storage in place of chilled water or ice and as a secondary refrigerant since, up to certain concentrations, they can be pumped directly through distribution pipeworks and heat exchangers. For ice slurries to become more widely accepted, however, more engineering information is required on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics.This paper reports

J. Bellas; I. Chaer; S. A. Tassou

2002-01-01

278

The contribution of frictional contacts to the shear strength of coarse glass bead powders and slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the use of the shear vane technique as a means of determining frictional and cohesive interparticle force contributions to the shear strength of coarse glass bead powders and slurries. To this end, the shear strength of 203-?m glass beads in air and slurried in water and kaolinite suspensions was determined as a function of vane immersion depth,

Adam P. Poloski; Paul R. Bredt; Richard C. Daniel; Avelino Eduardo Saez

2006-01-01

279

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

1995-10-10

280

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Wittmer, Dale E. (Carbondale, IL)

1995-01-01

281

Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory`s (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program`s first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow ({le}12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled.

Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab.

1998-12-31

282

Effect of novel alkaline copper slurry on 300 mm copper global planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The copper removal rate and uniformity of two types copper slurries were investigated, which was performed on the 300 mm chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) platform. The experiment results illustrate that the removal rate of the two slurries is nearly the same. Slurry A is mainly composed of a FA/OII type chelating agent and the uniformity reaches to 88.32%. While the uniformity of slurry B is 96.68%, which is mainly composed of a FA/OV type chelating agent. This phenomenon demonstrates that under the same process conditions, the uniformity of different slurries is vastly different. The CMP performance was evaluated in terms of the dishing and erosion values. In this paper, the relationship between the uniformity and the planarization was deeply analyzed, which is mainly based on the endpoint detection mechanism. The experiment results reveal that the slurry with good uniformity has low dishing and erosion. The slurry with bad uniformity, by contract, increases Cu dishing significantly and causes copper loss in the recessed region. Therefore, the following conclusions are drawn: slurry B can improve the wafer leveling efficiently and minimize the resistance and current density along the line, which is helpful to improve the device yield and product reliability. This investigation provides a guide to improve the uniformity and achieve the global and local planarization. It is very significant to meet the requirements for 22 nm technology nodes and control the dishing and erosion efficiently.

Weijuan, Liu; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Guodong, Chen; Mengting, Jiang; Haobo, Yuan; Pengfei, Cheng

2014-09-01

283

INVESTIGATION OF SLURRY CUTOFF WALL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTES  

EPA Science Inventory

The document reviews current design and construction methods of soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff walls. It summarizes engineering practices, identifies areas of technical detail and initiates research to promote the development of standards for use of slurry walls to isolate h...

284

Processing and mechanical properties of silicon nitride formed by robocasting aqueous slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Robocasting is a new freeform fabrication technique for dense ceramics. It uses robotics to control deposition of ceramic slurries through an orifice. The optimization of concentrated aqueous SiâNâ slurry properties to achieve high green density robocast bodies and subsequent high sintered densities was investigated. The effects of pH, electrolyte, additives and solids loading on the dispersion and rheological properties of

GUOPING HE; DEIDRE A. HIRSCHFELD; JOSEPH CESARANO

2000-01-01

285

Reduction of Odor and Odorant Emissions from Slurry Stores by Means of Straw Covers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swine (Sus scrofa) slurry stored in open storages is a source of airborne contaminants. A customary practice for ammonia and odor control consists of covering the surface of the slurry with fl oating materials, such as straw. Although straw covers have been proven to generally reduce gaseous emissions, more knowledge is needed regarding how age, moisture content, and microbiological development

Victoria Blanes-Vidal; Martin N. Hansen; Patricia Sousa

2009-01-01

286

Pig but not Human Interferon-? Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-? (IFN-? ) but not human IFN-? or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-? also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-? (but not human IFN-? or heat-inactivated pig IFN-? ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

1997-08-01

287

Metabolomic phenotyping of a cloned pig model  

PubMed Central

Background Pigs are widely used as models for human physiological changes in intervention studies, because of the close resemblance between human and porcine physiology and the high degree of experimental control when using an animal model. Cloned animals have, in principle, identical genotypes and possibly also phenotypes and this offer an extra level of experimental control which could possibly make them a desirable tool for intervention studies. Therefore, in the present study, we address how phenotype and phenotypic variation is affected by cloning, through comparison of cloned pigs and normal outbred pigs. Results The metabolic phenotype of cloned pigs (n = 5) was for the first time elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic analysis of multiple bio-fluids including plasma, bile and urine. The metabolic phenotype of the cloned pigs was compared with normal outbred pigs (n = 6) by multivariate data analysis, which revealed differences in the metabolic phenotypes. Plasma lactate was higher for cloned vs control pigs, while multiple metabolites were altered in the bile. However a lower inter-individual variability for cloned pigs compared with control pigs could not be established. Conclusions From the present study we conclude that cloned and normal outbred pigs are phenotypically different. However, it cannot be concluded that the use of cloned animals will reduce the inter-individual variation in intervention studies, though this is based on a limited number of animals. PMID:21859467

2011-01-01

288

Salmonella in slaughter pigs: the effect of logistic slaughter procedures of pigs on the prevalence of Salmonella in pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial part of the finishing pigs in the Netherlands is infected with Salmonella. Infection of pigs with Salmonella can occur already on the farm. Pigs can also get infected or contaminated during transport, lairage or slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of separating pigs from Salmonella-infected farms from pigs from Salmonella-free farms during transport,

M. Swanenburg; P. J. van der Wolf; H. A. P. Urlings; J. M. A. Snijders; F. van Knapen

2001-01-01

289

A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect

Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

1990-05-01

290

Heavy oil hydroprocessing with group VI metal slurry catalyst  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process comprising the preparation of a dispersed Group VIB metal sulfide hydrocarbon oil hydroprocessing catalyst. It comprises reacting ammonia and a Group of VIB metal compound in water to form an aqueous ammonium Group VIB metal compounds, reacting aqueous ammonium Group VIB metal compounds with hydrogen sulfide essentially in the absence of feed oil in a low temperature sulfiding step at a temperature in the range 70{sup 0} to 350{sup 0}F, continuing the reaction of aqueous ammonium Group VIB metal compound with hydrogen sulfide in an intermediate temperature sulfiding step at a temperature in the range 180{sup 0} to 700{sup 0}F which is higher than the temperature in the low temperature sulfiding step and essentially without feed oil, with drawing an aqueous effluent stream from the intermediate temperature sulfiding step, passing the effluent stream to a separator zone, removing ammonia from the aqueous effluent stream in the separator zone leaving a separator residue, passing the separator residue together with feed hydrocarbon oil and hydrogen sulfide to a high temperature sulfiding step at a temperature in the range 500{sup 0} to 750{sup 0}F which is higher than the temperature in the intermediate temperature sulfiding step, the residence time in each of the sulfiding steps being at least 0.02 hours, withdrawing from the high temperature sulfiding step an aqueous-oil-slurry containing dispersed group VIB metal sulfide slurry catalyst.

Lopez, J.; Pasek, E.A.

1989-08-15

291

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOEpatents

In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by slurring them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation.

White, Curt M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Quiring, Michael S. (Katy, TX); Jensen, Karen L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Hickey, Richard F. (Bethel Park, PA); Gillham, Larry D. (Bartlesville, OK)

1998-10-27

292

Separation of catalyst from Fischer-Tropsch slurry  

DOEpatents

In a catalytic process for converting synthesis gas including hydrogen and carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons and oxygenates by a slurry Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, the wax product along with dispersed catalyst is removed from the slurry and purified by removing substantially all of the catalyst prior to upgrading the wax and returning a portion to the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Separation of the catalyst particles from the wax product is accomplished by dense gas and/or liquid extraction in which the organic compounds in the wax are dissolved and carried away from the insoluble inorganic catalyst particles that are primarily inorganic in nature. The purified catalyst-free wax product can be subsequently upgraded by various methods such as hydrogenation, isomerization, hydrocracking, conversion to gasoline and other products over ZSM-5 aluminosilicate zeolite, etc. The catalyst particles are returned to the Fischer-Tropsch Reactor by mixing them with a wax fraction of appropriate molecular weight, boiling point and viscosity to avoid reactor gelation. 2 figs.

White, C.M.; Quiring, M.S.; Jensen, K.L.; Hickey, R.F.; Gillham, L.D.

1998-10-27

293

Documented performance of a slurry wall at a Superfund site  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents data on the performance of a soil-bentonite slurry wall installed at the FLR Landfill site. The wall was approximately 1,600 meters or 5,250 lineal ft in length, and varied in depth for 6 m (20 ft) to 13 m (43 ft). Pre-construction laboratory testing was performed and identified a mix of 4 percent bentonite by dry weight as being required to provide the necessary hydraulic conductivity of 1{times}10E-7 cm/sec. Because of limited space near the trench, the construction contractor was required to use a central mixing plant (pugmill). The pugmill provided computerized weight documentation of the mix proportions to insure a homogeneous backfill mix. It also gave permanent records of the amount of materials used. The hydraulic conductivity of the installed, slurry wall was determined by post-construction testing. With the use of a central mixing plant, a consistent good quality soil-bentonite wall was obtained together with the necessary documentation for the regulatory agencies. The main source of environmental concern at FLR was the reported deposition of approximately 86 metric tons of hazardous chemicals at the site which included phthalates, heavy metals and vinyl chloride monomers. Landfill gas emissions containing methane, hydrogen sulfide and volatile organic compounds were also observed.

Zamojski, L.D. [Acres International Corp., Amherst, NY (United States); Reinknecht, D.F. [New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection, Trenton, NJ (United States)

1995-12-31

294

The granular mixing in a slurry rotating drum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mixing dynamics of granular materials immersed in a liquid was experimentally studied in a quasi-2D rotating drum. A DV (SONY DCR-TRV900 NTSC) motion corder analyzer was used to record the motions of granular materials. The effects of interstitial fluid viscosity and filling degree on the mixing index, mixing rate constant, and dynamic repose angle in the rotating drum were investigated and discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the interstitial fluid viscosity has almost not influence on the final stable mixing index but has significantly effects on the mixing rate constant and dynamic repose angle in slurry granular flows. The results show that the mixing rate and dynamic repose angle increase with increasing the interstitial fluid viscosity. The results also indicate that the filling degree plays an important role in mixing dynamics in slurry granular flows. The mixing rate constant is demonstrated to be decreased with increasing the filling degree. The dynamic repose angle is not altered by the filling degree. Finally, we find that the dynamic repose angle and the mixing rate constant increase slightly at high Stokes number and increase dramatically at low Stokes number with decreasing Stokes number.

Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.

2009-12-01

295

The granular mixing in a slurry rotating drum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mixing dynamics of granular materials immersed in a liquid was experimentally studied in a quasi-2D rotating drum. A DV (SONY DCR-TRV900 NTSC) motion corder analyzer was used to record the motions of granular materials. The effects of interstitial fluid viscosity and filling degree on the mixing index, mixing rate constant, and dynamic repose angle in the rotating drum were investigated and discussed in this paper. The experimental results show that the interstitial fluid viscosity has almost not influence on the final stable mixing index but has significantly effects on the mixing rate constant and dynamic repose angle in slurry granular flows. The results show that the mixing rate and dynamic repose angle increase with increasing the interstitial fluid viscosity. The results also indicate that the filling degree plays an important role in mixing dynamics in slurry granular flows. The mixing rate constant is demonstrated to be decreased with increasing the filling degree. The dynamic repose angle is not altered by the filling degree. Finally, we find that the dynamic repose angle and the mixing rate constant increase slightly at high Stokes number and increase dramatically at low Stokes number with decreasing Stokes number.

Liao, C. C.; Hsiau, S. S.

2010-03-01

296

Shooting slurries with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: sampling is the name of the game.  

PubMed

Analyses of iron ore slurries in industrial and laboratory environments showed that many physical and geometric parameters affect the stability and reproducibility of the response to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. A thorough reexamination of the sampling strategy led to a revised sampling layout that ensures a true representative sampling of the slurry and significantly improves the sensitivity and repeatability of the sampling method. An examination of the characteristics of slurries revealed that the mean particulate size and the concentration of solids in a slurry influence the measurement of silica, whereas the magnetite content is responsible for a matrix effect. On-line monitoring of iron ore slurries should be practicable, provided that these variables are controlled within a few percent or that some means of correction is implemented. PMID:14594082

Michaud, Daniel; Proulx, Eric; Chartrand, Jean-Guy; Barrette, Louis

2003-10-20

297

Shooting slurries with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: sampling is the name of the game  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analyses of iron ore slurries in industrial and laboratory environments showed that many physical and geometric parameters affect the stability and reproducibility of the response to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. A thorough reexamination of the sampling strategy led to a revised sampling layout that ensures a true representative sampling of the slurry and significantly improves the sensitivity and repeatability of the sampling method. An examination of the characteristics of slurries revealed that the mean particulate size and the concentration of solids in a slurry influence the measurement of silica, whereas the magnetite content is responsible for a matrix effect. On-line monitoring of iron ore slurries should be practicable, provided that these variables are controlled within a few percent or that some means of correction is implemented.

Michaud, Daniel; Proulx, Eric; Chartrand, Jean-Guy; Barrette, Louis

2003-10-01

298

Design and Operation of Large Size Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler Fired Slurry and Gangue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The way which burns slurry and gangue to generate electricity and provide heat has been always desired. If mixture of slurry and gangue are burnt by conventional combustion technology, it is difficult to be satisfied., but for circulating fluidized bed(CFB) boiler, it is flexible for fuels and it is easy to desulfurize and DeNox in the furnace of the boiler. There are lots of advantages to burning the mixture of slurry and gangue in CFB boiler. This technology has been researched and practiced for many years, it is mature now and has been used widely, by now, 50MW, 135MW and 300MW CFB boiler which burn the mixture of slurry and gangue have already been operated in China. In the paper, slurry characteristic and conveying is described, the design and operation of boilers mentioned above will be also introduced in detail.

Man, Zhang; Rushan, Bie; Fengjun, Wang

299

A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)  

PubMed Central

Background Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans. PMID:23020652

2012-01-01

300

Experimental study of hydraulic and thermal behavior of an ice slurry in a shell and tube heat exchanger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were conducted in a shell and tube heat exchanger with an ethylene glycol ice slurry flowing in the tubes and hot water in the shell. Pressure loss in the tubes, inlet and outlet density for the ice slurry, in addition to inlet temperature, outlet temperature and mass flowrate for both fluids were measured. A transient study with a slurry

Simone Renaud-Boivin; Michel Poirier; Nicolas Galanis

301

Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe  

SciTech Connect

Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

2001-03-01

302

Could a Wolf Really Blow a Pig’s House Down?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will be animal investigators on a mission to learn all about pigs and wolves. With prompting and support from the teacher, students will read an informational text about pigs (Pigs by Robin Nelson) and wolves (Wolves by Michael Dahl). They will use information gathered to contribute to a class discussion about the characteristics of real pigs and wolves. Then, the teacher will read The Three Little Pigs (written by Anne Walters and Daniel Postgate) to the students and help them complete a Venn diagram comparing what they observed in The Three Little Pigs to what they know to be true of real pigs and wolves. In order to determine mastery of the concept, the students will complete a picture sort of Real and Imaginary Pigs and Wolves. At the end of the lesson, students will be able to explain how they make an informed decision about whether an animal is real or imaginary.

2013-01-04

303

Arginine nutrition in neonatal pigs.  

PubMed

The concentration of arginine (an essential amino acid for neonates) in sow's milk is remarkably low, and thus endogenous synthesis of arginine plays a crucial role in maintaining arginine homeostasis in milk-fed piglets. Paradoxically, intestinal synthesis of citrulline from glutamine/glutamate and proline (the endogenous source of arginine) declines markedly in 7- to 21-d-old suckling pigs, compared with 1- to 3-d-old pigs. Therefore, plasma concentrations of arginine and its immediate precursors (ornithine and citrulline) decrease progressively by 20-41%, whereas plasma ammonia levels increase progressively by 18-46%, between d 3 and 14 of life. Dietary supplementation of 0.2 and 0.4% arginine to 7- to 21-d-old pigs (artificially reared on a milk feeding system) dose dependently enhances the plasma arginine concentration (30 and 61%), reduces the plasma ammonia level (20 and 35%), and increases weight gain (28 and 66%). These compelling metabolic and growth data demonstrate unequivocally that arginine is insufficient for supporting the maximal growth in milk-fed young pigs and that this arginine deficiency represents a major obstacle to realizing the growth potential in piglets. A low concentration of mitochondrial N-acetylglutamate (an activator of both pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase and carbamoylphosphate synthase-I) is responsible for the striking decline in the intestinal synthesis of citrulline and arginine during the suckling period. Accordingly, oral administration of N-carbamoylglutamate [a metabolically stable analogue of N-acetylglutamate; 2 x 50 mg/(kg body wt . d)] enhances plasma arginine level (68%) and weight gain (61%) of 4- to 14-d-old sow-reared pigs. Thus, the metabolic activation of intestinal citrulline and arginine synthesis provides a novel, effective means to increase endogenous arginine provision and therefore piglet growth (a major goal of animal agriculture). Our findings not only generate new fundamental knowledge about amino acid utilization by neonatal pigs, but they also have important practical implications for improving the efficiency of pork production. PMID:15465785

Wu, Guoyao; Knabe, Darrell A; Kim, Sung Woo

2004-10-01

304

Development of rapid methods for estimating the fertilizing ability (nitrogen and potassium) of pig slurry and its changes during storage  

E-print Network

studied. The volume of biogas produced, the biogas required for the maintenance of fermentation (self. The digester output expressed as ml biogas/M3 tank/day ranged from 0.4 to 1.3 m"11' m3. d over a period of 9 can be checked #12;by the ratio of biogas production to organic matter input : 0.20 to 0.3 M3/kg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

305

The rheology of cryovolcanic slurries: Motivation and phenomenology of methanol-water slurries with implications for Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cassini spacecraft has revealed landforms on the surface of Titan suggested to be viscous cryovolcanic flows and possibly eruptive domes. In order to relate those surface features to the processes and chemistries that produced them, it is necessary to construct flow models, which rely on characterization of the rheological properties of the eruptants. This paper describes our initial exploratory attempts to understand the rheological characteristics of cryogenic slurries, using a 40% methanol-water mixture, as a precursor to more detailed experiments. We have devised a new automated cryogenic rotational viscometer system to more fully characterize cryovolcanic slurry rheologies. A series of measurements were performed, varying first temperature, and then strain rate, which revealed development of yield stress-like behaviors, shear-rate dependence, and thixotropic behavior, even at relatively low crystal fractions, not previously reported. At fixed shear rate our data are fit well by the Andrade equation, with the activation energy modified by a solid volume fraction. At fixed temperature, depending on shearing history, a Cross model could describe our data over a wide shear rate range. A Bingham plastic model appears to be a good constitutive model for the data measured at high shear rates when the shear was global. The yield stress like behavior implies that levee formation on cryolava flows is more likely than would be inferred from the previous studies, and may provide a partial explanation for features interpreted as steep-sided volcanic constructs on Titan.

Zhong, Fang; Mitchell, Karl L.; Hays, Charles C.; Choukroun, Mathieu; Barmatz, Martin; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

2009-08-01

306

Pig manure treatment by filtration.  

PubMed

A study of new pig manure treatment and filtration process was carried out. The advantage of the worked out technology is the method of incorporation of crystalline phase into solid organic part of manure. The obtained new solid phase of manure contains about 50% of crystalline phase forming a filtration aid that enables high effectiveness of manure filtration. The filtration rate of manure separation into solid and liquid fractions with pressure filter may achieve 1300-3000 kg/m(2)/h. The method makes it possible to maintain an overall average pollutant removal performance 90% for the chemical oxygen demand COD, > 99% for the suspended solids SS, to 47% for the total nitrogen content. The obtained results showed that the proposed technology being efficient and simple offers a possible solution to pig manure problems. PMID:24432343

Kowalski, Zygmunt; Makara, Agnieszka; Matýsek, Dalibor; Hoffmann, Józef; Hoffmann, Krystyna

2013-01-01

307

ALTERNATIVE FEED INGREDIENTS FOR PIGS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Largely due to the demand for grains for the bio-fuel industry, the cost of feed energy will increase worldwide. Therefore, alternative energy supplying pig feed ingredients should be explored, including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), field peas, wheat shorts and liquid co-products from the bio-fuel and food industry. The inclusion of DDGS in diets is limited by the fiber

Hans Stein; Kees de Lange

308

Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure.  

PubMed

In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological measures. Behavioral animal paradigms, in particular in combination with these histological and electrophysiological methods, are necessary in the development of new therapeutic interventions. However, the guinea pig is not considered an attractive animal for behavioral experiments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral task suitable for guinea pigs, that can be utilized in cochlear-implant related research. Guinea pigs were trained in a modified shuttle-box in which a stream of air was used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). A stream of air was preferred over conventionally used methods as electric foot-shocks since it produces less stress, which is a confounding factor in behavioral experiments. Hearing guinea pigs were trained to respond to acoustic stimuli. They responded correctly within only five sessions of ten minutes. The animals maintained their performance four weeks after the right cochlea was implanted with an electrode array. After systemic deafening, the animals responded in the first session immediately to intracochlear electrical stimulation. These responses were not affected by daily chronic electrical stimulation (CES). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that guinea pigs can be trained relatively fast to respond to acoustic stimuli, and that the training has a lasting effect, which generalizes to intracochlear electrical stimulation after deafening. Furthermore, it demonstrates that bilaterally deafened guinea pigs with substantial (?50%) loss of spiral ganglion cells (SGCs), detect intracochlear electrical stimulation. PMID:24811981

Agterberg, Martijn J H; Versnel, Huib

2014-07-01

309

dsPIG: a tool to predict imprinted genes from the deep sequencing of whole transcriptomes  

PubMed Central

Background Dysregulation of imprinted genes, which are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, plays an important role in various human diseases, such as cancer and behavioral disorder. To date, however, fewer than 100 imprinted genes have been identified in the human genome. The recent availability of high-throughput technology makes it possible to have large-scale prediction of imprinted genes. Here we propose a Bayesian model (dsPIG) to predict imprinted genes on the basis of allelic expression observed in mRNA-Seq data of independent human tissues. Results Our model (dsPIG) was capable of identifying imprinted genes with high sensitivity and specificity and a low false discovery rate when the number of sequenced tissue samples was fairly large, according to simulations. By applying dsPIG to the mRNA-Seq data, we predicted 94 imprinted genes in 20 cerebellum samples and 57 imprinted genes in 9 diverse tissue samples with expected low false discovery rates. We also assessed dsPIG using previously validated imprinted and non-imprinted genes. With simulations, we further analyzed how imbalanced allelic expression of non-imprinted genes or different minor allele frequencies affected the predictions of dsPIG. Interestingly, we found that, among biallelically expressed genes, at least 18 genes expressed significantly more transcripts from one allele than the other among different individuals and tissues. Conclusion With the prevalence of the mRNA-Seq technology, dsPIG has become a useful tool for analysis of allelic expression and large-scale prediction of imprinted genes. For ease of use, we have set up a web service and also provided an R package for dsPIG at http://www.shoudanliang.com/dsPIG/. PMID:23083219

2012-01-01

310

A Pipeline Transport Correlation for Slurries with Small but Dense Particles  

SciTech Connect

Most correlations/models for minimum transport or critical velocity of slurry were developed for slurries composed of particles greater than ~100-200 ?m diameter with narrow particle-size distributions which is typical of the minerals industry. Many other process industries handle smaller particles. In particular waste slurries at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have broad size distributions and significant fractions of smaller particles. Despite the size of these wastes, recent PNNL studies indicate that the small particles might be of sufficient density to pose a significant risk for pipeline deposition and plugging. To allow predictive assessment of deposition of fine dense particles for waste slurry transport at the U.S. DOE Hanford site, a pipeline-transport correlation for critical velocity was developed using a simple power-law between two dimensionless numbers important for slurry transport, the deposition Froude and Archimedes numbers. The correlation accords well with experimental data for slurries with Archimedes numbers <80 and is an adequate pipeline design guide for processing Hanford waste slurry.

Poloski, Adam P.; Etchells, Arthur W.; Chun, Jaehun; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Minette, Michael J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

2010-04-01

311

Impact of Rheological Modifiers on Various Slurries Supporting DOE Waste Processing  

SciTech Connect

Controlling the stability and subsequent rheological properties of slurries has been an important but challenging issue in nuclear waste treatment, one that previous research has yet to sufficiently address. At the Hanford and Savannah River sites, operation of the waste treatment facilities at increased solids loading reduces the evaporative load on the melter systems and thereby increases waste processing rates. However, at these higher solids loadings, increased slurry rheology becomes a significant processing issue. The current study evaluates the use of several rheological modifiers to alleviate increased slurry rheology at high waste solids concentrations. Rheological modifiers change particle interactions in slurry. For colloidal slurries, modifiers mainly alter the electrostatic and steric interactions between particles, leading to a change in slurry rheology. Weak organic acid type rheological modifiers strengthen electrostatic repulsion whereas nonionic/polymer surfactant type rheological modifiers introduce a steric repulsion. We investigated various rheological modifiers using high level waste (HLW) nuclear waste simulants characterized typically by high ionic strength and a wide range of pH from 4 to 13. Using rheological analysis, it was found that citric acid and polyacrylic acid would be good rheological modifiers for the HLW simulants tested, effectively reducing slurry rheology by 40% or more. Physical insights into the mechanisms driving stabilization by these rheological modifiers will be discussed.

Chun, Jaehun; Bredt, Paul R.; Hansen, Erich; Bhosale, Prasad S.; Berg, John C.

2010-03-11

312

Slurry catalyst for hydroprocessing heavy and refractory oils  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a Group VIB metal sulfide slurry catalyst for the hydroprocessing of heavy hydrocarbonaceous oil or residue prepared by a process. It comprises sulfiding a Group VIB metal, ammonia-containing compound in an aqueous phase, in the substantial absence of hydrocarbon oil, with hydrogen sulfide, at a temperature less than about 350{degrees} F, to form a presulfided product without substantial loss of ammonia; separating ammonia from the presulfided product to form a sulfided product; charging the sulfided product into a hydroprocessing reactor zone at a temperature sufficient to convert the sulfided product into an active hydroprocessing catalyst; wherein the catalyst is characterized by a pore volume in the range of 10 to 300{Angstrom} radius pore size of from about 0.1 to about 1 cc/g and a surface area of from about 20 to about 400 m{sup 2}/g.

Lopez, J.; Pasek, E.A.

1992-03-10

313

Engineering development of slurry bubble column recactor(SBCR) technology  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

1998-12-01

314

Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Toseland, B.A.

1998-10-29

315

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Bernard A. Toseland

2000-06-30

316

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

DOEpatents

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

Krishna, C.R.

1984-07-27

317

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Bernard A. Toseland

2002-09-30

318

Biodegradation of PAH`s in sediment-slurry processes  

SciTech Connect

The focus of this research was to examine biodegradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in lab scale slurry reactors. The studies summarized in this paper focused on the rate and extent of contaminant release from the sediments, oxygen demand of anaerobic sediments, and the rate and extent of PAH biodegradation achieved. Mass balances were used in all cases. The studies identified several factors which may influence the design or operation of bioreactors used for sediment remediation. Mixing had the greatest effect on the rate and extent of contaminant release; solids loading and aeration had little or no effect in mixed reactors. In unmixed reactors, aerated systems showed faster rates of contaminant release than unaerated systems, indicating that the aeration process itself provides some degree of mixing. The maximum extent of mineralization appeared to be reached within five days in mixed systems; significantly lower mineralization was seen in reactors with insufficient mixing.

Hughes, J.B.; Beckles, D.; Chandra, S. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31

319

Well completion and stimulation: good slurry blending enhances frac  

SciTech Connect

Successful fracturing is dependent in large part upon surface equipment. One critical factor is effective blending of the fracturing slurry before it is pumped into the formation. In hydraulic fracturing, a blender draws water from storage tanks to mix with sand, polymers, or other chemical additives. Solids and liquids generally are mixed by a paddle in a large open tub monitored visually for mixture level. The mixture then advances through the impeller zone of the blender. Conventional blending apparatus often requires multistage blending to mix large quantities of liquid and solids or additives and to maintain them in suspension when pumped the extended distances required in fracturing. Geo Condor, Inc. has developed a closed blending system, which provides a single-stage blending apparatus which achieves intimate mixing of liquid-solid or liquid-liquid constituents without altering the course or direction of liquid flow in established high-capacity mixing. The advantages and disadvantages of this system are discussed.

Arribau, J.O.; Dorn, R.J.; Deleon, C.

1982-02-01

320

The General Composition of the Faecal Virome of Pigs Depends on Age, but Not on Feeding with a Probiotic Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The pig faecal virome, which comprises the community of viruses present in pig faeces, is complex and consists of pig viruses, bacteriophages, transiently passaged plant viruses and other minor virus species. Only little is known about factors influencing its general composition. Here, the effect of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) NCIMB 10415 on the pig faecal virome composition was analysed in a pig feeding trial with sows and their piglets, which received either the probiotic bacterium or not. Results From 8 pooled faecal samples derived from the feeding trial, DNA and RNA virus particles were prepared and subjected to process-controlled Next Generation Sequencing resulting in 390,650 sequence reads. In average, 14% of the reads showed significant sequence identities to known viruses. The percentage of detected mammalian virus sequences was highest (55–77%) in the samples of the youngest piglets and lowest (8–10%) in the samples of the sows. In contrast, the percentage of bacteriophage sequences increased from 22–44% in the youngest piglets to approximately 90% in the sows. The dominating mammalian viruses differed remarkably among 12 day-old piglets (kobuvirus), 54 day-old piglets (boca-, dependo- and pig stool-associated small circular DNA virus [PigSCV]) and the sows (PigSCV, circovirus and “circovirus-like” viruses CB-A and RW-A). In addition, the Shannon index, which reflects the diversity of sequences present in a sample, was generally higher for the sows as compared to the piglets. No consistent differences in the virome composition could be identified between the viromes of the probiotic bacterium-treated group and the control group. Conclusion The analysis indicates that the pig faecal virome shows a high variability and that its general composition is mainly dependent on the age of the pigs. Changes caused by feeding with the probiotic bacterium E. faecium could not be demonstrated using the applied metagenomics method. PMID:24586429

Sachsenröder, Jana; Twardziok, Sven O.; Scheuch, Matthias; Johne, Reimar

2014-01-01

321

Regional Variation in Pig Farmer Awareness and Actions Regarding Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal: Implications for Public Health Education  

PubMed Central

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people’s personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs. PMID:24416402

Dhakal, Santosh; Joshi, Durga Datt; Ale, Anita; Sharma, Minu; Dahal, Meena; Shah, Yogendra; Pant, Dhan Kumar; Stephen, Craig

2014-01-01

322

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large-diameter reactors. Washington University's work during the reporting period involved the implementation of the automated calibration device, which will provide an advanced method of determining liquid and slurry velocities at high pressures. This new calibration device is intended to replace the original calibration setup, which depended on fishing lines and hooks to position the radioactive particle. The report submitted by Washington University contains a complete description of the new calibration device and its operation. Improvements to the calibration program are also discussed. Iowa State University utilized air-water bubble column simulations in an effort to determine the domain size needed to represent all of the flow scales in a gas-liquid column at a high superficial velocity. Ohio State's report summarizes conclusions drawn from the completion of gas injection phenomena studies, specifically with respect to the characteristics of bubbling-jetting at submerged single orifices in liquid-solid suspensions.

Bernard A. Toseland

2000-12-31

323

Heat transfer investigations in a slurry bubble column  

SciTech Connect

Slurry bubble columns, for use in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, have been investigated. Two bubble columns (0.108 and 0.305 m internal diameter) were set up and experiments were conducted to determine gas holdup and heat transfer coefficients. These columns were equipped with either single heat transfer probes of different diameters, or bundles of five-, seven-, or thirty-seven tubes. the experiments were conducted for two- and three phase systems; employing for gas phase: air and nitrogen, liquid phase: water and Therminol-66, and solid phase: red iron oxide (1.02, 1.70 and 2.38 {mu}m), glass beads (50.0, 90.0, 119.0 and 143.3 {mu}m), silica sand (65 {mu}m), and magnetite (28.0, 35.7, 46.0, 58.0, 69.0, 90.5, 115.5 and 137.5 {mu}m). The column temperature was varied between 298--523 K, gas velocity between 0--40 cm/s, and solids concentration between 0--50 weight percent. The holdup and heat transfer data as a function of operating and system parameters were employed to assess the available correlations and semitheoretical models, and to develop new correlations. Information concerning the design and scale-up of larger units is presented. Specific research work that need to be undertaken to understand the phenomena of heat transfer and gas holdup is outlined so that efficient gas conversion and catalyst usage may be accomplished in slurry bubble columns. 28 refs., 102 figs., 42 tabs.

Saxena, S.C.; Rao, N.S.; Vadivel, R.; Shrivastav, S.; Saxena, A.C.; Patel, B.B.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Kagzi, M.Y.; Khan, I.A.; Verma, A.K.

1991-02-01

324

Heat transfer investigations in a slurry bubble column  

SciTech Connect

Slurry bubble columns, for use in Fisher-Tropsch synthesis, have been investigated. Two bubble columns (0.108 and 0.305 m internal diameter) were set up and experiments were conducted to determine gas holdup and heat transfer coefficients. These columns were equipped with either single heat transfer probes of different diameters, or bundles of five-, seven- or thirty-seven tubes. The experiments were conducted for two- and three-phase systems; employing for gas phase: air and nitrogen, liquid phase: water and Therminol-66, and solid phase: red iron oxide (1.02, 1.70 and 2.38 {mu}m), glass beads (50.0, 90.0, 119.0 and 143.3 {mu}m), silica sand (65 {mu}), and magnetite (28.0, 35.7, 46.0, 58.0, 69.0, 90.5, 115.5, and 137.5 {mu}m). The column temperature was varied between 298--523 K, gas velocity between 0--40 cm/s, and solids concentration between 0--50 weight percent. The holdup and heat transfer data as a function of operating and system parameters were employed to assess the available correlations and semitheoretical models, and to develop new correlations. Information concerning the design and scale-up of larger units is presented. Specific research work that need to be undertaken to understand the phenomena of heat transfer and gas holdup is outlined so that efficient gas conversion and catalyst usage may be accomplished in slurry bubble columns. 130 refs., 177 figs., 54 tabs.

Saxena, S.C.; Rao, N.S.; Vadivel, R.; Shrivastav, S.; Saxena, A.C.; Patel, B.B.; Thimmapuram, P.R.; Kagzi, M.Y.; Khan, I.A.; Verma, A.K.

1991-02-01

325

Thin-film versus slurry-phase carbonation of steel slag: CO2 uptake and effects on mineralogy.  

PubMed

The results of direct aqueous accelerated carbonation of three types of steel manufacturing residues, including an electric arc furnace (EAF) slag and two basic oxygen furnace (BOF) slags, are reported. Batch accelerated carbonation tests were conducted at different temperatures and CO2 pressures applying the thin-film route (liquid to solid, L/S, ratio=0.3L/kg) or the slurry-phase route (L/S ratio=5L/kg). The CO2 uptake strongly depended on both the slag characteristics and the process route; maximum yields of 280 (EAF), 325 (BOF1) and 403 (BOF2) gCO2/kg slag were achieved in slurry phase at T=100°C and pCO2=10bar. Differently from previous studies, additional carbonates (other than Ca-based phases) were retrieved in the carbonated BOF slags, indicating that also Mg-, Fe- and Mn-containing phases partially reacted with CO2 under the tested conditions. The results hence show that the effects of accelerated carbonation in terms of CO2 uptake capacity, yield of mineral conversion into carbonates and mineralogy of the treated product, strongly rely on several factors. These include, above all, the mineralogy of the original material and the operating conditions adopted, which thus need specific case-by-case optimization to maximize the CO2 sequestration yield. PMID:25289564

Baciocchi, R; Costa, G; Di Gianfilippo, M; Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Stramazzo, A

2015-02-11

326

Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01

327

Processing and mechanical properties of silicon nitride formed by robocasting aqueous slurries  

SciTech Connect

Robocasting is a new freeform fabrication technique for dense ceramics. It uses robotics to control deposition of ceramic slurries through an orifice. The optimization of concentrated aqueous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurry properties to achieve high green density robocast bodies and subsequent high sintered densities was investigated. The effects of pH, electrolyte, additives and solids loading on the dispersion and rheological properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurries were determined. The mechanical behavior of sintered robocast bars was determined and compared to conventionally produced silicon nitride ceramics.

HE,GUOPING; HIRSCHFELD,DEIDRE A.; CESARANO III,JOSEPH

2000-01-26

328

Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures  

DOEpatents

A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

2013-01-29

329

Use of aqueous slurries of coal fly ash samples for the direct determination of As, Sb, and Se by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry  

SciTech Connect

A highly sensitive and simple method was developed based on the continuous hydride generation of aqueous coal fly ash slurry samples and the direct atomic fluorescence detection of As, Sb, and Se. A 2{sup 8} x 3/64 Plackett-Burman design was used as the multivariate strategy for evaluation of the effects of several variables involved in hydride generation efficiency (HCl, NaBH{sub 4}, NaBH{sub 4} flow rate, particle size, and slurry concentration). In addition, measurement time was also considered. Slurry concentration was the significant variable for As, hydrochloric acid concentration for Sb determination; no significant variable was found for Se. Optimum values for the significant variables were selected by using univariate approaches. The precision obtained ({lt} 8.0 %) was adequate for the determination of several hydride-forming elements in coal fly ash samples. Since there was a matrix effect, the standard addition method was required. Accuracy was assessed by analyzing NIST 1633b Coal Fly Ash certified reference material. Detection limits within the range of 0.03-0.67 {mu} g g{sup -1} were achieved. The developed methods were applied to several coal fly ash samples obtained from a coal-fired power plant.

Moreda-Pineiro, J.; Moscoso-Perez, C.; Lopez-Mahia, P.; Muniategui-Lorenzoa, S.; Fernandez-Fernandez, E.; Prada-Rodriguez, D. [University of La Coruna, La Coruna (Spain). Faculty of Science

2006-01-15

330

Application of a bacteriophage cocktail to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium U288 contamination on pig skin.  

PubMed

Multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium U288 is a significant pathogen of pigs, accounting for over half of all outbreaks on UK pig production premises. The potential of this serovar, and other salmonellae, to enter the food chain during the slaughtering process requires that efforts be made to reduce the prevalence of these bacteria at both the pre- and post-harvest stages of production. A bacteriophage cocktail (PC1) capable of lysing various Salmonella enterica serovars was designed using the broad host-range phage Felix 01, and three phages isolated from sewage. PC1 applied to pig skin experimentally-contaminated with U288 achieved significant reductions (P<0.05) in Salmonella counts when stored at 4 °C over 96 h. Reductions of >1 log?? unit were observed when the ratio of phage applied was in excess of the bacterial concentration. The treatment was found to be effective at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10 or above, with no significant reductions taking place when the MOI was less than 10. Under these conditions U288 counts of log?? 4.1-4.3 CFU were reduced to undetectable levels following the application of PC1 to pig skin (>99% reduction). These data suggest phage cocktails could be employed post-slaughter as a means to reduce Salmonella contamination of pig carcasses. PMID:21899907

Hooton, Steven P T; Atterbury, Robert J; Connerton, Ian F

2011-12-01

331

Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

332

Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Blastocystis subtype 5, a subtype known to infect humans, was detected by molecular methods in the feces of 36 naturally infected market age pigs. At necropsy, 6 heavily infected pigs were selected to determine the tropism of the infection within the gastrointestinal tract. Because so little is know...

333

Orangutan death and scavenging by pigs.  

PubMed

Pongid remains are rarely recovered from tropical rain forests. Observations of a Bornean bearded pig (Sus barbatus) scavenging an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) carcass and the recovery of an orangutan skull fragment corroborates evidence from Africa and suggests that the scavenging of wild pigs may play an important role in the destruction of pongid remains. PMID:17847332

Galdikas, B M

1978-04-01

334

Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

Barman, Charles R.

1977-01-01

335

Salmonella in the lairage of pig slaughterhouses.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to determine if lairages of pig slaughterhouses can act as a source of contamination of slaughtered pigs with Salmonella. The prevalence and variety of serotypes of Salmonella in the lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were determined, and the efficacy of the usual cleaning and disinfection on the presence of Salmonella was estimated. Lairages of two pig slaughterhouses were sampled three times when pigs were present. Furthermore, these lairages were sampled after the usual cleaning and disinfection, whereas the lairage of one slaughterhouse was sampled an additional time after improved cleaning and disinfection. Samples were collected by swabbing floor and wall surfaces and collecting the residing fluids on the floor throughout the lairage. Salmonella was isolated in 70 to 90% of the samples when pigs were present. The usual cleaning and disinfection reduced the level of contamination with Salmonella to 25% positive samples, whereas improved cleaning and disinfection reduced this level to 10% positive samples. It is concluded that the waiting period in the lairage of at least 2 h contains a substantial risk for slaughter pigs to become infected with Salmonella, especially for pigs originating from Salmonella-free herds. The usual cleaning and disinfection of the lairage were not sufficient to eliminate this risk, whereas an improved procedure for cleaning and disinfection still was unsatisfactory. PMID:11198433

Swanenburg, M; Urlings, H A; Keuzenkamp, D A; Snijders, J M

2001-01-01

336

Protective immunity against influenza in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Swine influenza is a highly contagious acute viral disease of the respiratory tract in pigs, which is prevalent world-wide. The disease causes considerable economic damage primarily due to reduced weight gain in finishing pigs and reduced reproductive performance of sows. In addition, influenza is a zoonotic disease, because swine influenza viruses can transmit to, and cause disease in people, and

Peter Paul Heinen

2002-01-01

337

Thermal Performance of Microencapsulated Phase Material (MPCM) Slurry in a Coaxial Heat Exchanger  

E-print Network

Microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries and coil heat exchangers had been recently studied separately as enhancers of convective heat transfer processes. Due to the larger apparent heat related to the phase change process...

Yu, Kun

2014-05-08

338

Preparation of highly exfoliated epoxy/clay nanocomposites by "slurry compounding": process and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Epoxy/clay nanocomposites with a high degree of exfoliation were achieved using a so-called "slurry-compounding" process with which the dispersed state of clay in water can be successfully transferred to an epoxy matrix. In this process sodium montmorillonite was first exfoliated and suspended in water. This suspension was further treated with acetone to form a clay-acetone slurry followed by chemical modification using silane. The modified slurry was then mixed extensively with epoxy to form epoxy/nanoclay composites. It has been shown that the morphologies of clay before and after curing are quite similar and the exfoliation process is termed "slurry compounding". Furthermore, the amount of organic modifier used is only 5 wt % of clay, in contrast to conventional organoclays which normally contain at least 25-45 wt % of organic surfactant. The resulting epoxy/nanoclay composites exhibit a high degree of clay exfoliation and a better thermal mechanical property. PMID:15807609

Wang, Ke; Wang, Lei; Wu, Jingshen; Chen, Ling; He, Chaobin

2005-04-12

339

Development of carbon slurry fuels for transportation (hybrid fuels, phase 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slurry fuels of various forms of solids in diesel fuel are developed and evaluated for their relative potential as fuel for diesel engines. Thirteen test fuels with different solids concentrations are formulated using eight different materials. A variety of properties are examined including ash content, sulfur content, particle size distribution, and rheological properties. Attempts are made to determine the effects of these variations on these fuel properties on injection, atomization, and combustion processes. The slurries are also tested in a single cylinder CLR engine in both direct injection and prechamber configurations. The data includes the normal performance parameters as well as heat release rates and emissions. The slurries perform very much like the baseline fuel. The combustion data indicate that a large fraction (90 percent or more) of the solids are burning in the engine. It appears that the prechamber engine configuration is more tolerant of the slurries than the direct injection configuration.

Ryan, T. W., III; Dodge, L. G.

1984-01-01

340

BUFFER ADDITIVES FOR LIME/LIMESTONE SLURRY SCRUBBING SYNTHESIS, MASS TRANSFER, AND DEGRADATION  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of experimental studies, performed with buffer additives, useful for flue gas desulfurization by lime/limestone slurry scrubbing. The most attractive acids for further testing are adipic, mixtures of waste dibasic organic, sulfosuccinic, hydroxypropionic,...

341

Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same  

DOEpatents

An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

1992-01-01

342

ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION OF RECYCLE SO2-LIME SLURRY IN TCA (TURBULENT CONTACT ABSORBER) SCRUBBER SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of an analysis of flue gas desulfurization by a turbulent contact absorber (TCA) employing lime slurry, including the development of performance equations for the scrubber-hold tank recycle system. Performance characteristics investigated include pressure...

343

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments...minimum, maximum, and present depth and elevation of the...

2010-07-01

344

Evaluation of the Thermal Needs of the Early Weaned Pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermal needs of early weaned pigs were examined by placing pigs that were weaned from 13 to 16 days in indirect calorimeters and exposing them to four different temperature regimes. Pigs, in groups of ten (3 ft. 2 \\/pig), were weaned into four chambers at 88, 84, 80, and 76 o F and the temperature decreased by 2 o

Jay D. Harmon; Hongwei Xin; J. Shao

1996-01-01

345

Degradation of dimethyl phthalate in solutions and soil slurries by persulfate at ambient temperature.  

PubMed

The degradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by persulfate at ambient temperature (T=20-40°C) was investigated in aqueous solutions and soil slurries to assess the feasibility of using persulfate to remediate DMP contaminated soil and groundwater. First, the effects of temperature, initial oxidant concentration, initial DMP concentration and initial solution pH on the removal of DMP and TOC were studied in aqueous solutions. The results show that persulfate at 40°C can effectively mineralize DMP. Furthermore, dimethyl 4-hydroxyl phthalate, maleic acid and oxalic acid were identified as the degradation intermediates, and degradation pathways were proposed. Lastly, persulfate at 40°C was applied to remediate soil spiked with DMP at ? 600 mg/kg. The results show that persulfate at 40°C is highly effective for the remediation of DMP contaminated soil. Overall, this study provides fundamental and practical knowledge for the treatment of emerging phthalate esters (PAEs) contaminated soil and groundwater, as well as PAEs contaminated industrial wastewater, with persulfate at ambient temperature. PMID:24637446

Wang, Zhen; Deng, Dayi; Yang, Liling

2014-04-30

346

On-line pervaporation-capillary electrophoresis for the determination of volatile analytes in food slurries.  

PubMed

Pervaporation has been coupled on-line to capillary electrophoresis (CE) by a flow injection manifold and the replenishment system of the CE instrument. The approach allows volatile analytes to be removed, derivatisated and injected into the capillary meanwhile the sample matrix remains in the pervaporator. Acetone and four aldehydes (namely: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, hexenal, 2-trans-hexenal) have been simultaneously determined in slurries samples by this approach. The detection limits (LOD) ranged between 0.1 and 0.6 microg/ml, the quantification limits between 0.5 and 2.0 microg/ml and the linear dynamic ranges between the limit of quantitation and 150 microg/ml. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), ranged between 0.76 and 4.21% for repeatability and between 1.12 and 4.78% for within laboratory intermediary precision. The errors involved in the analysis of the target analytes--expressed as RSD for all compounds--ranged between 0.13 and 4.87%. The optimal pervaporation time and that necessary for the individual separation/detection of the target analytes are 15 and 10 min, respectively. The analysis frequency is 4 h(-1). The accuracy of the method and potential matrix effects were established by analysing spiked samples. Recoveries between 96.12 and 105.67% were obtained. The proposed method was applied to 10 samples with different solid contents (namely, such yoghurt, juice and yoghurt-juice mixtures). PMID:16814795

Ruiz-Jiménez, J; Luque de Castro, M D

2006-09-22

347

Coal Slurry Transportation Systems and Related Water Rights and Water Quality Problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two successful pipelines not withstanding, considerable controversy remains over the extent to which state and Federal assistance is warranted for coal-slurry-pipeline transportation. Although the merits of slurry pipelines can be demonstrated by two successful operations, litigation is inevitable over water rights and availability, rights of way and the granting of eminent-domain power, and environmental impacts. The pipelines eliminate the noise

WALTER KIECHEL JR.; W. Jr

1979-01-01

348

Effect of cattle slurry separation on greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions during storage.  

PubMed

Storage of cattle slurry leads to emissions of methane (CH(4)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), ammonia (NH(3)), and carbon dioxide (CO(2)). On dairy farms, winter is the most critical period in terms of slurry storage due to cattle housing and slurry field application prohibition. Slurry treatment by separation results in reduced slurry dry matter content and has considerable potential to reduce gaseous emissions. Therefore, the efficiency of slurry separation in reducing gaseous emissions during winter storage was investigated in a laboratory study. Four slurry fractions were obtained: a solid and a liquid fraction by screw press separation (SPS) and a supernatant and a sediment fraction by chemically enhanced settling of the liquid fraction. Untreated slurry and the separated fractions were stored in plastic barrels for 48 d under winter conditions, and gaseous emissions were measured. Screw press separation resulted in an increase of CO(2) (650%) and N(2)O (1240%) emissions due to high releases observed from the solid fraction, but this increase was tempered by using the combined separation process (CSP). The CSP resulted in a reduction of CH(4) emissions ( approximately 50%), even though high emissions of CH(4) (46% of soluble C) were observed from the solid fraction during the first 6 d of storage. Screw press separation increased NH(3) emissions by 35%, but this was reduced to 15% using the CSP. During winter storage greenhouse gas emissions from all treatments were mainly in the form of CH(4) and were reduced by 30 and 40% using SPS and CSP, respectively. PMID:18948486

Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, Joao; Chadwick, David; Moreira, Nuno; Trindade, Henrique

2008-01-01

349

Optimal Conditions for Biodegradation of Indeno (1,2,3-cd) Pyrene in Soil Slurry Reactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil slurry reactor technology is one of the effective methods for treating PAHs contaminated soil. In this paper, removal of high molecular weight PAHs, Indeno (1,2,3-cd) pyrene (Inp), was studied in soil slurry reactors with isolated bacteria from PAHs contaminated soil. The factors affecting Inp biodegradation and the optimal conditions were investigated using orthogonal experimental design (L9(34)). The highest degradation

Haiying Chen; Aizhong Ding; Junfeng Dou; Lirong Cheng; Fuqiang Fan; Yongchao Du; Xiaona Liu

2010-01-01

350

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF DICHLOROAROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN NONADAPTED AND ADAPTED FRESHWATER SEDIMENT SLURRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Nonadapted freshwater sediment slurries and sediment slurries adapted to dechlorinate 2,3-dichloropyridine (2,3-Cl2Pyd), 2,3-dichloroaniline (2,3-Cl2Anl), 2,3-dichlorophenol (2,3C12PhOH), 3,5-dichloropyridine (3,5-Cl2Pyd), 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-Cl2Anl) and 3,5-dichlorophenol (...

351

Efficient treatment of garbage slurry in methanogenic bioreactor packed by fibrous sponge with high porosity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adding a supporting material to a methanogenic bioreactor treating garbage slurry can improve efficiency of methane production.\\u000a However, little is known on how characteristics (e.g., porosity and hydrophobicity) of the supporting material affect the\\u000a bioreactor degrading garbage slurry. We describe the reactor performances and microbial communities in bioreactors containing\\u000a hydrophilic or hydrophobic sheets, or fibrous hydrophilic or hydrophobic sponges. The

Kengo Sasaki; Daisuke Sasaki; Masahiko Morita; Shin-ichi Hirano; Norio Matsumoto; Naoya Ohmura; Yasuo Igarashi

2010-01-01

352

Hydrogen peroxide as an antibacterial factor in zinc oxide powder slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using four kinds of antibiotics, an investigation was made to determine whether or not H2O2 generated from a ZnO powder slurry was related to its antibacterial activity. Changes in the sensitivity of Escherichia coli to the antibiotics suggested that H2O2 was one of the primary factors concerned in the antibacterial activity of the ZnO powder slurry.

Jun Sawai; Shinobu Shoji; Hideo Igarashi; Atsushi Hashimoto; Takao Kokugan; Masaru Shimizu; Hiromitsu Kojima

1998-01-01

353

Experimental studies of 1 ton\\/day coal slurry feed type oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental Studies of a 1 Ton\\/Day coal slurry feed type oxygen blown, entrained flow gasifier have been performed with the\\u000a slurry concentration and gasifier temperature at 65% and above 1,300 ‡C, respectively. The characteristics of ash fusion temperature\\u000a with addition of CaO as a flux were investigated to maintain the proper slag tapping condition in the range of reaction temperature.

Young-Chan Choi; Tae-Jun Park; Jae-Ho Kim; Jae-Goo Lee; Jae-Chang Hong; Yong-Goo Kim

2001-01-01

354

Low emission combustion technology program. Final report. [Micronized coal-water slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this program was to demonstrate the combustion of a coal-water slurry fuel in a Rich\\/Quench\\/Lean (RQL) combustion system at typical gas turbine operating conditions. The fuel chosen for this project was a clean micronized coal-water slurry (CWS) with a loading of coal\\/water of 51.5:48.5% by weight. The RQL combuster was originally designed for use with high fuel

D. W. Clark; C. Wilkes

1984-01-01

355

Effects of friction factor and slip factor on the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Ma]or Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Approved as to style and content by...

Sheth, Ketankumar Kantilal

2012-06-07

356

Experimental aerosolized Guinea pig-adapted zaire ebolavirus (variant: mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in Guinea pigs.  

PubMed

Eight guinea pigs were aerosolized with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) and developed lethal interstitial pneumonia that was distinct from lesions described in guinea pigs challenged subcutaneously, nonhuman primates challenged by the aerosol route, and natural infection in humans. Guinea pigs succumbed with significant pathologic changes primarily restricted to the lungs. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in many alveolar macrophages. Perivasculitis was noted within the lungs. These changes are unlike those of documented subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs and aerosolized filoviral infections in nonhuman primates and human cases. Similar to findings in subcutaneously challenged guinea pigs, there were only mild lesions in the liver and spleen. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aerosol challenge of guinea pigs with guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga). Before choosing this model for use in aerosolized ebolavirus studies, scientists and pathologists should be aware that aerosolized guinea pig-adapted Zaire ebolavirus (variant: Mayinga) causes lethal pneumonia in guinea pigs. PMID:24829285

Twenhafel, N A; Shaia, C I; Bunton, T E; Shamblin, J D; Wollen, S E; Pitt, L M; Sizemore, D R; Ogg, M M; Johnston, S C

2015-01-01

357

Aliphatic and Alicyclic Diols Induce Melanogenesis in Cultured Cells and Guinea Pig Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have found that several aliphatic and alicyclic diols induce melanogenesis in cultured S91 mouse melanoma cells and normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM). In addition, these compounds induce melanogenesis when applied to guinea pig skin, with transfer of melanin to keratinocytes and formation of “supranuclear caps,” as occurs in naturally pigmented skin. The relative order of potency of some of

David A. Brown; Wu-Yun Ren; Alexander Khorlin; Krystyna Lesiak; Dorothy Conklin; Kyoichi A. Watanabe; Michael M. Seidman; Jay George

1998-01-01

358

Guinea pigs showing color inheritance, still imageSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

DNAi location: Chronicle>Threat of the Unfit>the fit and unfitGuinea pigs showing color inheritance, part of a Fitter Families exhibit, 1926. Fitter Families Contests held at state fairs throughout the United States during the 1920s showed that American eugenicists were literal in their aim to apply principles of agricultural breeding to human beings.

2008-10-06

359

Healing potential of cream containing extract of Sphaeranthus indicus on dermal wounds in Guinea pigs.  

PubMed

A cream containing ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Sphaeranthus indicus, Linn. (Asteraceae) was evaluated for wound healing activity in guinea pigs. The cream was applied in vivo on the paravertebral area of six excised wounded models once a day for 15 days. The cream significantly enhanced the rate of wound contraction and the period of epithelialization comparable to neomycin. PMID:16765545

Sadaf, Farzana; Saleem, Rubeena; Ahmed, Muhammad; Ahmad, Syed Iqbal; Navaid-ul-Zafar

2006-09-19

360

The state of benzene in TIP slurry using nuclear magnetic resonance measurements  

SciTech Connect

Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements on In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) simulated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been completed. Most measurements were made on 4 wt percent KTPB slurry in 4 to 5 molar sodium salt solution. Liquid benzene was added volumetrically to the slurry in 25-mL vials and agitated to create a suspension. Earlier tests using dyed benzene showed that benzene remains suspended permanently in the slurry and the only visible change is overall slurry settling. Gentle vial agitation restores the original suspension state. To simulate in-situ uniformly dispersed benzene, benzene/KTPB samples were homogenized using a high speed rotor/stator biological homogenizer. Photomicrographs using homogenized samples containing dyed benzene showed no residual benzene droplets and fairly uniform coloration of the KTPB solids structure. All benzene concentration estimates are based on benzene addition since there is no available analytical method for benzene in slurry. Benzene losses could be significant, particularly at low concentrations and during homogenization.

Dworjanyn, L.O.

1997-11-14

361

Experimental investigation of an applicator of liquid slurry, from biogas production, for crop production.  

PubMed

A unit for the application of liquid digested slurry in the field was designed and developed. The developed slurry applicator had a capacity of 1500 L and was pulled by a 35 h.p. tractor. The liquid digested slurry of a biogas plant was pumped in to the tank with the help of a slurry pump. The necessary power transmission system, consisting of a pulley, power take off shaft (PTO) and cross joints, was provided to get power from the PTO of the tractor. In this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate the application of liquid slurry in the field in terms of plant growth parameters such as number of branches/plant, number of nodules/plant, plant height and yield attributes like pods/plant and grains/pod. The application of liquid slurry resulted in an increase in grain, straw and biological yields of 32%, 7% and 15%, respectively, compared with the application of farmyard manure. PMID:21879562

Kurchania, A K; Panwar, N L

2011-01-01

362

COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. This report summarizes the measurements and simulations completed so far. This work will continue under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and Dow Corning Corporation. This phase of the work is part of the DOE/Industry/University Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium. Optimization of the LaPorte pilot plant reactor was attempted by rearranging the heat exchangers. The paper accepted for presentation at the Sixth World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, September 23-27, 2001 is a part of this report.

Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

2002-05-01

363

Efficacy of active carbon towards the absorption of deoxynivalenol in pigs.  

PubMed

In order to assess the in vivo efficacy of mycotoxin binders, specific toxicokinetic parameters should be measured according to European guidelines. For this purpose, an absorption model in pigs is described with emphasis on absorption kinetics. Pigs received a single oral bolus of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol alone or in combination with active carbon (applied as mycotoxin binder). After administration of deoxynivalenol alone, significant plasma amounts of deoxynivalenol were detected and kinetic parameters were calculated using a one compartmental model. Activated carbon completely prevented the absorption of deoxynivalenol as no plasma amounts could be detected. PMID:25337799

Devreese, Mathias; Antonissen, Gunther; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

2014-10-01

364

Experimental encephalomyocarditis virus infection in pigs.  

PubMed

A field isolate of Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) virus was inoculated intravenously into 8 pigs. Four animals died at post inoculation day (PID) 2, the remaining being sacrificed at PID 5, 7, 11 and 15. Two control, in-contact pigs were sacrificed at PID 19. Virus was isolated from leucocytes and nasal swabs until PID 4, from rectal swabs until PID 2 and, in the pigs found dead at PID 2, from several organs. EMC virus was further isolated from brain and spleen of the pig sacrificed at PID 7. One of the 2 control pigs became infected: virus was isolated from nasal swabs at days 6 and 7 and from leucocytes at day 4 of the experiment. Serum-neutralizing (SN) antibody was detected in the injected pigs starting from PID 4; two days later, it was also revealed in the infected, in-contact control. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an experimental transmission of EMC virus infection in pigs by contact exposure. PMID:8237207

Foni, E; Barigazzi, G; Sidoli, L; Marcato, P S; Sarli, G; Della Salda, L; Spinaci, M

1993-07-01

365

In-line ultrasonic monitoring of waste slurry suspended solids  

SciTech Connect

During the transport of tank waste, it is very important to quantitatively measure the percent solids concentration (PSC) of the waste, which indicates the flow conditions and the extent of solids settling. At Argonne National Laboratory, an in-line, real-time, a nonintrusive ultrasonic monitoring system has been developed to measure the PSC and flow density of tank waste by measuring sound velocity and attenuation in the flow. This system consists of a pair of longitudinal transducers bonded to waveguides on the opposite sides of the pipe and operating at IMHz simultaneously in pulse-and-echo and pitch-and-catch modes. The PSC measurement is provided by attenuation, while the density measurement is calculated by impedance and sound velocity. A thermocouple is attached to one of the waveguides for automatic temperature correction of the measurements. This system was one of four evaluated for in-line measurement of slurry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1998. The results indicate that the measurements are in good agreement with a Coriolis meter and that the system can be used to monitor PSC up to 40 wt.%. However, the system is greatly affected by entrained air bubbles within the solid flow during Puisair mixing. A different mixing mechanism will solve this problem.

Chien, H.-T.; Sheen, S.-H.; Raptis, A. C.

2000-05-25

366

Rules governing the classification of coal slurries for filtering centrifuges  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using filtering centrifuges for the cleaning of a coking-coal slurry is confirmed in principle, and regime operating parameters which ensure the production of a concentrate of conditioned quality are determined on the basis of results of experimental-industrial tests of a new procedure for this operation at the Neryungrinskaya Concentrating Mill. An equation is proposed for determination of solid carry-off in the centrifuge effluent, which completely satisfactorily (with a correlation coefficient of 0.7-0.8) describes the dependence of the parameter in question on the solid content in the centrifuge feed, and on its content of -0.2-mm material. It is noted that special investigations to determine the effect of the speed of the rotor and shape of the particles on the amount of solid carry-off in the centrifuge effluent are required for construction of a model describing the size reduction of solid-phase particles in the effluent during centrifuge filtration.

G.Y. Gol'berg; Y.B. Rubinshtein; S.A. Osadchii [Institute for Enrichment of Solid Fuel (IOTT), Moscow Oblast (Russian Federation)

2008-07-01

367

Vacuum Production Characteristics of Ice Slurries Treated with Surfactants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The production characteristics of ice particles treated with surfactant additives and brines in the case of using vacuum ice production system have been investigated. In the present study, cetyl dimethyl betaine was used as surfactants and the results were compared with those in the case when poly(oxyethylene) sorbitan monooleate used in the previous studies was tested. From the results, it was found that ice particles size produced by using a vacuum system becomes much smaller than that made by the scraper ice production system used in the previous study. It was also found that the size of ice particles treated with the present surfactants without brine still remains small. Additionally, the fluidity of ice slurry treated with the present surfactants was enough high though the drag reduction could not be observed due to the small diameter of the present test pipe. From these results, a combination of the present surfactant treatment without brine and the vacuum ice production system was concluded to have an advantage for the production of fine ice particles.

Suzuki, Hiroshi; Okada, Kazuto; Fujisawa, Ryo; Komoda, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Hiromoto

368

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors. Washington University's work for the quarter involved the study of the dynamic simulations of bubble columns in three dimensions. Work was also done in dynamic simulations of two-phase transient flow using CFDLIB. Ohio State measured the axial dispersion coefficients of the liquid phase. The steady-state thermal dispersion method was used to obtain the measurements. Iowa State followed the last quarter's work by using CFDLIB to simulate conditions described in the literature, with the objective of validating the simulation result. The group's work also led to a determination of the adequacy of periodic boundary conditions in representing small columns.

Bernard A. Toseland

2001-03-31

369

Coal slurry combustion optimization on single cylinder engine  

SciTech Connect

Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, GE Transportation System has been conducting a proof of concept program to use coal water slurry (CWS) fuel to power a diesel engine locomotive since 1988. As reported earlier [1], a high pressure electronically controlled accumulator injector using a diamond compact insert nozzle was developed for this project. The improved reliability and durability of this new FIE allowed for an improved and more thorough study of combustion of CWS fuel in a diesel engine. It was decided to include a diesel pilot fuel injector in the combustion system mainly due to engine start and low load operation needs. BKM, Inc. of San Diego, CA was contracted to develop the electronic diesel fuel pilot/starting FIE for the research engine. As a result, the experimental combustion study was very much facilitated due to the ability of changing pilot/CWS injection timings and quantities without having to stop the engine. Other parameters studied included combustion chamber configuration (by changing CWS fuel injector nozzle hole number/shape/angle), as well as injection pressure. The initial phase of this combustion study is now complete. The results have been adopted into the design of a 12 cylinder engine FIE, to be tested in 1992. This paper summarizes the main findings of this study.

Not Available

1992-09-01

370

Final Report Mechanics of Bubbles in Sludges and Slurries  

SciTech Connect

The Hanford Site has 177 underground waste storage tanks that are known to retain and release bubbles composed of flammable gases. Characterizing and understanding the behavior of these bubbles is important for the safety issues associated with the flammable gases for both ongoing waste storage and future waste-retrieval operations. The retained bubbles are known to respond to small barometric pressure changes, though in a complex manner with unusual hysteresis occurring in some tanks in the relationship between bubble volume and pressure, or V-P hysteresis. With careful analysis, information on the volume of retained gas and the interactions of the waste and the bubbles can be determined. The overall objective of this study is to create a better understanding of the mechanics of bubbles retained in high-level waste sludges and slurries. Significant advancements have been made in all the major areas of basic theoretical and experimental method development. In addition, the relevance of these basic developments to Hanford waste has resulted in an entirely new understanding of bubble mechanics and waste microstructure in Hanford waste tanks. This effort included both experimental and theoretical studies. Experimental developments have provided measurements of V-P hysteresis on a range of simulants. The theoretical approaches included solid-mechanics studies of bubbles in soft solids, fluid-mechanics studies of bubbles in yield stress fluids, and porous-media studies of bubbles in model porous media filled with Newtonian fluids or filled with yield-stress fluids.

Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Terrones, Guillermo; Muller, Susan J.; Denn, Morton M.; Rossen, William R.

2001-12-31

371

Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield  

SciTech Connect

The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and gas yield was measured by the method of water displacement. Temperature variation within the digesters was measured with a maximum and minimum thermometer. Anaerobic digestion of the slurries was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (20--40 C). The carbon:nitrogen ratio of each of the slurries digested was determined. The carbon content was determined using the wackley-Black method, and nitrogen content was determined by the regular kjeldhal method. The pH was measured weekly during the period of digestion from a digital pH meter. Gas quality (% methane fraction) was also measured weekly from an analyzer. Coefficient of variation was computed to ascertain the status of the digestion process. Analysis of variance was used to determine the significant difference in gas yield at p < 0.05. Duncan's New Multiple Range Test at p < 0.05 was used to analyze the difference in gas yield among the various TS concentrations of the slurries investigated. The results indicate that biogas yield is of the order: 5% TS > 10% TS > 15% TS > 20% TS. This result shows that gas yield increases with decreasing TS concentration of the slurries. The ANOVA showed that the gas yield from the various TS % was significantly different (p < 0.05). DNMRT showed that there was significant difference in gas yield from the slurries and wastetypes investigated. Poultry waste slurries had the greatest gas yield (L CH4/kg TS) as the gas yield from the waste types was of the order: Poultry > Piggery > Cattle. The pH of the slurries was of the range 5.5 to 6.8 (weakly acidic). The C:N of the slurries varied between 6:1 and 9:1. The Coefficient of Variation (CV) for 10 consecutive days of digestion was less than 10% indicating a steady state in all the digesters.

Itodo, I.N.; Awulu, J.O.

1999-12-01

372

Nuclear transfer and transgenesis in the pig.  

PubMed

Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) using genetically modified donor cells facilitates the generation of tailored pig models for biomedical research and for xenotransplantation. Up to now, SCNT is the main way to generate gene-targeted pigs, since germ line-competent pluripotent stem cells are not available for this species. In this chapter, we introduce our routine workflow for the production of genetically engineered pigs, especially focused on the genetic modification of somatic donor cells, SCNT using in vitro matured oocytes, and laparoscopic embryo transfer. PMID:25287337

Kurome, Mayuko; Kessler, Barbara; Wuensch, Annegret; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Wolf, Eckhard

2015-01-01

373

Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium in slaughter pigs based on serological monitoring results and bacteriological validation.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium avium (MA) is a potential food safety hazard in pigs. Blood samples of slaughtered pigs in the Netherlands and Germany were tested for the presence of MA antibodies to estimate the serological prevalence in the tested population. In the Dutch and German population 1.0% and 1.7% samples were positive, and 0.5% and 17.4% of the herds were at risk for having a MA infection respectively. The validity of the applied MA-ELISA was evaluated under field conditions. The specificity of the MA-ELISA was high (>98.4%). The average herd sensitivity was 18%. In the affected herds on average 50% of the animals were tested bacteriological positive for MA. It can be concluded that serological screening for the presence of MA antibodies is capable of identifying pig populations that are at risk for a MA infection. PMID:23999550

Hiller, Anne; Oorburg, Derk; Wisselink, Henk J; van Solt-Smits, Conny B; Urlings, Bert; Klein, Günter; Althoff, Gereon Schulze; Heres, Lourens

2013-09-01

374

Prevalence of Mycobacterium avium in Slaughter Pigs Based on Serological Monitoring Results and Bacteriological Validation  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium avium (MA) is a potential food safety hazard in pigs. Blood samples of slaughtered pigs in the Netherlands and Germany were tested for the presence of MA antibodies to estimate the serological prevalence in the tested population. In the Dutch and German population 1.0% and 1.7% samples were positive, and 0.5% and 17.4% of the herds were at risk for having a MA infection respectively. The validity of the applied MA-ELISA was evaluated under field conditions. The specificity of the MA-ELISA was high (>98.4%). The average herd sensitivity was 18%. In the affected herds on average 50% of the animals were tested bacteriological positive for MA. It can be concluded that serological screening for the presence of MA antibodies is capable of identifying pig populations that are at risk for a MA infection. PMID:23999550

Hiller, Anne; Oorburg, Derk; Wisselink, Henk J.; van Solt-Smits, Conny B.; Urlings, Bert; Klein, Günter; Althoff, Gereon Schulze; Heres, Lourens

2013-01-01

375

The influence of Streptococcus spp., Lactobacillus spp. and Pediococcus spp. on production of volatile sulfhydryl compounds in Cheddar cheese slurries  

E-print Network

slurries prepared from direct acid cheese and cheese made with bacteria. He found that only methanethiol and carbonyl sulfide were detected in the headspace of direct acid cheese slurries. The headspace of Cheddar cheese slurries with bacteria contained... arginine; hydrogen sulfide production; esculin hydrolysis; acid production from arabinose, cellobiose, melibiose, and raffinose. The isolated strains were grown on Rogosa SL slants for 48 h at 25 oC prior to testing. Fermentation reactions of specific...

Dagerath, Michael Lynn

1989-01-01

376

The phylogenetic status of typical Chinese native pigs: analyzed by Asian and European pig mitochondrial genome sequences  

PubMed Central

China is one of the most diverse countries, which have developed 88 indigenous pig breeds. Several studies showed that pigs were independently domesticated in multiple regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the origin and evolution of Chinese pigs using complete mitochondrial genomic sequences (mtDNA) from Asian and European domestic pigs and wild boars. Thirty primer pairs were designed to determine the mtDNA sequences of Xiang pig, Large White, Lantang, Jinhua and Pietrain. The phylogenetic status of Chinese native pigs was investigated by comparing the mtDNA sequences of complete coding regions and D-loop regions respectively amongst Asian breeds, European breeds and wild boars. The analyzed results by two cluster methods contributed to the same conclusion that all pigs were classified into two major groups, European clade and Asian clade. It revealed that Chinese pigs were only recently diverged from each other and distinctly different from European pigs. Berkshire was clustered with Asian pigs and Chinese pigs were involved in the development of Berkshire breeding. The Malaysian wild boar had distant genetic relationship with European and Asian pigs. Jinhua and Lanyu pigs had more nucleotide diversity with Chinese pigs although they all belonged to the Asian major clade. Chinese domestic pigs were clustered with wild boars in Yangtze River region and South China. PMID:23497624

2013-01-01

377

Analysis of the atomization process in coal-water slurry sprays  

SciTech Connect

Photographic and laser diffraction techniques were used to characterize the atomization of 70 weight% coal water slurry by a commercially-sized, external mix atomizer in the region relevant to combustion (0-250 mm downstream). The use of two complementary analytical techniques has provided much information about the nature of the spray as well as the strengths and limitations of each technique. The mechanism of slurry breakup and atomization is similar to that of water except that much higher atomization energy is required. At very high air/fuel mass ratios (1.2:1) the size distribution profile of slurry sprays resembles that of other liquids rather than that of the solid particles composing the slurry. The appropriate model choice for the Malvern analysis is critical in obtaining accurate and meaningful results. The Rosin Rammler model is shown to severely underestimate the contribution of large particles in slurry sprays. Observation, size distributions and mean diameters all vary with axial and radial position in slurry and water sprays. Comparison of slurry spray and raw coal size distributions shows that use of only the mean spray diameter can be misleading. Reporting only the mean diameter determined by the Malvern at a particular axial location in the spray does not adequately characterize the nature of the spray. A more meaningful quantitative description would be a size distribution based on a radial traverse of the spray at the particular axial location. Also, since the Malvern has a limited size range, it is inappropriate to use only this technique as a chick for large drops or ligaments (>500 ..mu..m). Photographs or other imaging techniques should be used to monitor large drops in the spray.

Meyer, P.L.

1986-01-01

378

Campylobacter jejuni infections in gnotobiotic pigs.  

PubMed

At 3 days of age, 12 gnotobiotic pigs were inoculated orally with broth cultures of Campylobacter jejuni. One pig was euthanatized and evaluated each day for 12 days. In the cecum and colon, there was diffuse edema, neutrophilic infiltration, and sloughing of epithelial cells from the mucosa on postinoculation days (PID) 2 through 5. Dysplastic colonic crypt epithelial cells were observed in the submucosa of the colon on PID 5 through 12. Curved, rod-shaped bacteria were detected on the surface of ileal, cecal, and colic absorptive and glandular epithelial cells. Bacteria also were found around small submucosal vessels on PID 3 and 4 and were associated with numerous perivascular neutrophils. The gnotobiotic pig appears to provide a simple, well-controlled in vivo model for the study of the pathogenesis of C jejuni infections in human beings, pigs, and other mammals. PMID:3377304

Boosinger, T R; Powe, T A

1988-04-01

379

The scientific art of pipeline pigging  

SciTech Connect

Today, energy pipeline operators face many unique problems. Many relate to the installation of new pipelines with complex designs (especially offshore), the rehabilitation of older lines and, more important, the quest to increase the safety and integrity of all energy pipelines. This paper reports that these factors are crating the need for more technology involving pigging procedures, equipment and services. They are also establishing the need for better communication between pipeline operators and those involved in every aspect of pipeline pigging.

Smith, G. (Pigging Products and Services Association (United States))

1992-08-01

380

Esophageal prostaglandins in guinea pigs and rats.  

PubMed

The synthesis of prostaglandins (PGs) in the mucosa of the esophagus is studied in 20 albinotic adult guinea pigs and rats using the radioimmunoassay method. Both species investigated synthesize five PGs. The PG synthesis activity in the guinea pig's esophagus is higher than that in the rat's. PGE2 and PGF2 alpha might be involved in the regulation of lower esophagus sphincter pressure. PMID:2288193

Aharinejad, S; Franz, P; Sinzinger, H; Firbas, W

1990-01-01

381

Effect of irrigation regimes on mobilization of nonreactive tracers and dissolved and particulate phosphorus in slurry-injected soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Understanding the mobilization processes of phosphorus (P) in the plow layer are essential to quantify potential P losses and suggest management strategies to reduce P losses. This study is aimed at examining nonequilibrium exchange dynamics on the mobilization of slurry-amended Br-, and dissolved and particulate P in slurry-injected soils. We compared leaching from intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) under unsaturated flow (suction at the lower boundary of 5 hPa) subjected to continuous irrigation at 2 mm hr-1, and intermittent irrigation at 2 mm hr-1 and 10 mm hr-1 to with interruptions of 10 h duration simulate periodic precipitation events. Suction was increased to 20 hPa during interruptions to allow drainage of the largest pores. Irrigation interruptions induced fluctuations in leaching of nonreactive tracers, particles, and particulate P indicating nonequilibrium transport. A nonreactive tracer, 3H2O, applied with irrigation water, diffused from mobile to less mobile pore regions during interruptions, leading to a lower mass recovery during low-intermittent (76.4%) compared with continuous irrigation (86.6%). In contrast, mass recovery of slurry-injected Br- increased as Br- diffused from less mobile to mobile pore regions during low-intermittent (53%-64%) compared with continuous irrigation (42%-47%). Despite high fluctuations during the leaching of particles and particulate P during low-intermittent irrigation, accumulated values did not differ from continuous irrigation. Increased preferential flow during high-intermittent irrigation lowered the mass exchange between pore regions of nonreactive tracers, particles, and particulate P compared with low-intermittent irrigation. The leaching of dissolved inorganic and organic P was low during all of the experiments and scarcely affected by the irrigation regime. These results highlight that nonequilibrium exchange dynamics are important when evaluating processes affecting mobilization and transport in structured soils. Leaching experiments, including cycles of irrigation interruptions and gravitational drainage, thus, adds significantly to the understanding and interpretation of processes affecting mobilization and transport under natural conditions.

GlæSner, Nadia; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; RubæK, Gitte H.; Magid, Jakob

2011-12-01

382

Coal-water slurry (CWS) dispenser: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This thesis addressed some of the problems associated with using Coal-Water Slurry as a fuel in gas turbine combustors. A technique has been developed which reduces the velocity and average droplet size distribution needed for good atomization to achieve high combustion efficiency. Finely atomized droplets are desired to minimize the number of coal particles which fuse together in the high radiation zone. Any big droplet discharged from the atomizing nozzle will be slow to dry and ignite, which consequently may reduce the combustion efficiency. To study the characteristics of a CWS spray entering the combustor, a dryer dispenser unit was designed and built. Typical gas turbine operating conditions are discussed. Atomization aspects are discussed. CWS nozzles are found to produce high velocity spray with a wide range of particle sizes. Dried samples were studied under the scanning electron microscope. The micrographs of the samples collected in the range of 70 to 550/sup 0/F show that the individual coal particles are within a 15 micron range. The single droplet drying rate was found to be unrelated to that occurring inside a jet. Particles collected at room temperature are sharp and not rounded at the edges. Particles collected at 400/sup 0/F have a tendency to stay together; they are much more rounded at the edges than those collected at 70/sup 0/F. The individual particle size distribution is not much affected in the range of temperatures from 70 to 500/sup 0/F, but agglomeration is directly proportional to the dryer temperature. Since the particle size distribution of CWS does not change much in the range of 70 to 500/sup 0/F, predrying prior to entering the high radiation zone, is not beneficial. Fine CWS atomization is more important to decrease the ignition delay and to maximize the combustion efficiency.

Loth, J.L.; Kulkarni, B.M.

1987-01-01

383

COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

The objective if this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with PIV measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. This phase of the work was presented at the Chemical Reaction Engineering VIII: Computational Fluid Dynamics, August 6-11, 2000 in Quebec City, Canada. To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. The results together with simulations will be presented at the annual meeting of AIChE in November 2000.

Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

2000-09-01

384

Dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in a slurry reactor  

SciTech Connect

The April 1990 Alternative Fuels Proposal to the Department of Energy involved the development of new technology, based on the liquid phase process, for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, fuel additives, and fuel intermediates. The objective of this work was to develop a slurry reactor based process for the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The isobutene can serve as a feedstock for the high octane oxygenated fuel additive methyl tertiary-butyl either (MTBE). Alumina catalysts were investigated because of their wide use as a dehydration catalyst. Four commercially available alumina catalysts (Catapal B, Versal B, Versal GH, and Al-3996R) were evaluated for both activity and selectivity to the branched olefin. All four catalysts demonstrated conversions greater than 80% at 290 C, while conversions of near 100% could be obtained at 330 C. The reaction favors low pressures and moderate to low space velocities. A yield of 0.90 mole isobutene per mole reacted isobutanol or better was obtained at conversions of 60--70% and higher. From 75 to 98% conversion, the four catalysts all provide isobutene yields ranging from 0.92 to 0.94 with the maximum occurring around 90% conversion. At low conversions, the concentration of diisobutyl ether becomes significant while the concentration of linear butenes is essentially a linear function of isobutanol conversion. Doping the catalyst with up to 0.8 wt % potassium showed a modest increase in isobutene selectivity; however, this increase was more than offset by a reduction in activity. Investigations using a mixed alcohols feed (consistent with isobutanol synthesis from syngas) demonstrated a small increase in the C4 iso-olefin selectivity over that observed for a pure isobutanol feed. 55 refs.

Latshaw, B.E.

1994-02-01

385

Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

1992-12-31

386

Evolutionary dynamics of copy number variation in pig genomes in the context of adaptation and domestication  

PubMed Central

Background Copy number variable regions (CNVRs) can result in drastic phenotypic differences and may therefore be subject to selection during domestication. Studying copy number variation in relation to domestication is highly relevant in pigs because of their very rich natural and domestication history that resulted in many different phenotypes. To investigate the evolutionary dynamic of CNVRs, we applied read depth method on next generation sequence data from 16 individuals, comprising wild boars and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Results We identified 3,118 CNVRs with an average size of 13 kilobases comprising a total of 39.2 megabases of the pig genome and 545 overlapping genes. Functional analyses revealed that CNVRs are enriched with genes related to sensory perception, neurological process and response to stimulus, suggesting their contribution to adaptation in the wild and behavioral changes during domestication. Variations of copy number (CN) of antimicrobial related genes suggest an ongoing process of evolution of these genes to combat food-borne pathogens. Likewise, some genes related to the omnivorous lifestyle of pigs, like genes involved in detoxification, were observed to be CN variable. A small portion of CNVRs was unique to domestic pigs and may have been selected during domestication. The majority of CNVRs, however, is shared between wild and domesticated individuals, indicating that domestication had minor effect on the overall diversity of CNVRs. Also, the excess of CNVRs in non-genic regions implies that a major part of these variations is likely to be (nearly) neutral. Comparison between different populations showed that larger populations have more CNVRs, highlighting that CNVRs are, like other genetic variation such as SNPs and microsatellites, reflecting demographic history rather than phenotypic diversity. Conclusion CNVRs in pigs are enriched for genes related to sensory perception, neurological process, and response to stimulus. The majority of CNVRs ascertained in domestic pigs are also variable in wild boars, suggesting that the domestication of the pig did not result in a change in CNVRs in domesticated pigs. The majority of variable regions were found to reflect demographic patterns rather than phenotypic. PMID:23829399

2013-01-01

387

Solid gel pigs for cleaning production pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Many oil fields, such as that at Kuparuk, on the North Slope of Alaska, have been built as a trunk and lateral gathering system, with many different pipeline diameters in a branched network. No launchers nor receivers were built for the Kuparuk oil production pipelines. The high cost of retrofitting launchers and receivers prompted investigation of alternative methods for cleaning the pipelines. This paper describes a novel approach to mold solid gelatin pigs in bypass lines, and to run those pigs through the production pipelines to the primary separators. The gelatin pigs would slowly melt, eliminating the need for receivers. Field and laboratory testing showed that gelatin pigs could not effectively clean the pipelines. The addition of cross linking agents could increase the mechanical integrity of the gelatin pigs, but also elevated the melting temperatures above the operating temperatures of the primary separators. As such, they were not meltable (in time), and no benefits could be obtained by the use of solid gelatin pigs for cleaning applications.

Powell, D.E.; Bohon, W.M. [ARCO Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Chesnut, G.R. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States)

1996-08-01

388

EVALUATION OF MIXING IN THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR AND MELTER FEED TANK  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) vitrifies High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HLW currently being processed is a waste sludge composed primarily of metal hydroxides and oxides in caustic slurry. These slurries are typically characterized as Bingham Plastic fluids. The HLW undergoes a pretreatment process in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) at DWPF. The processed HLW sludge is then transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) where it is acidified with nitric and formic acid then evaporated to concentrate the solids. Reflux boiling is used to strip mercury from the waste and then the waste is transferred to the Slurry Mix Evaporator tank (SME). Glass formers are added as a frit slurry to the SME to prepare the waste for vitrification. This mixture is evaporated in the SME to the final concentration target. The frit slurry mixture is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) to be fed to the melter.

MARINIK, ANDREW

2004-08-01

389

Evaluation of planarization performance for a novel alkaline copper slurry under a low abrasive concentration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel alkaline copper slurry that possesses a relatively high planarization performance is investigated under a low abrasive concentration. Based on the action mechanism of CMP, the feasibility of using one type of slurry in copper bulk elimination process and residual copper elimination process, with different process parameters, was analyzed. In addition, we investigated the regular change of abrasive concentration effect on copper and tantalum removal rate and within wafer non-uniformity (WIWNU) in CMP process. When the abrasive concentration is 3 wt%, in bulk elimination process, the copper removal rate achieves 6125 Å/min, while WIWNU is 3.5%, simultaneously. In residual copper elimination process, the copper removal rate is approximately 2700 Å/min, while WIWNU is 2.8%. Nevertheless, the tantalum removal rate is 0 Å/min, which indicates that barrier layer isn't eliminated in residual copper elimination process. The planarization experimental results show that an excellent planarization performance is obtained with a relatively high copper removal rate in bulk elimination process. Meanwhile, after residual copper elimination process, the dishing value increased inconspicuously, in a controllable range, and the wafer surface roughness is only 0.326 nm (sq < 1 nm) after polishing. By comparison, the planarization performance and surface quality of alkaline slurry show almost no major differences with two kinds of commercial acid slurries after polishing. All experimental results are conducive to research and improvement of alkaline slurry in the future.

Mengting, Jiang; Yuling, Liu; Haobo, Yuan; Guodong, Chen; Weijuan, Liu

2014-11-01

390

Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

Not Available

1984-08-01

391

Coal liquefaction process utilizing coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream  

DOEpatents

A coal hydrogenation and liquefaction process in which particulate coal feed is pressurized to an intermediate pressure of at least 500 psig and slurried with CO.sub.2 liquid to provide a flowable coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream, which is further pressurized to at least 1000 psig and fed into a catalytic reactor. The coal particle size is 50-375 mesh (U.S. Sieve Series) and provides 50-80 W % coal in the coal/CO.sub.2 slurry feedstream. Catalytic reaction conditions are maintained at 650.degree.-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-4000 psig hydrogen partial pressure and coal feed rate of 10-100 lb coal/hr ft.sup.3 reactor volume to produce hydrocarbon gas and liquid products. The hydrogen and CO.sub.2 are recovered from the reactor effluent gaseous fraction, hydrogen is recycled to the catalytic reactor, and CO.sub.2 is liquefied and recycled to the coal slurrying step. If desired, two catalytic reaction stages close coupled together in series relation can be used. The process advantageously minimizes the recycle and processing of excess hydrocarbon liquid previously needed for slurrying the coal feed to the reactor(s).

Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); McLean, Joseph B. (S. Somerville, NJ)

1989-01-01

392

Kinetics of biotransformation of chlorpyrifos in aqueous and soil slurry environments.  

PubMed

The attenuation of chlorpyrifos (CPF) by the enriched indigenous soil microorganism was studied in 15 d aerobic and 60 d anaerobic batch experiments in aqueous and soil slurry (1:3 w/w) media. At the end of the batch experiments, 2.78 ± 0.11 ?M of CPF was degraded by 82% in aerobic and 66% in anaerobic aqueous environments, while 12.4 ± 0.5 ?M of CPF was degraded by 48% in aerobic and 31% in anaerobic soil slurries. The reduced degradation in the soil slurries was due to the significantly (2-10 times) slower rate of degradation of soil phase CPF compared with its degradation rate in water. The pathways of degradation of CPF were identified, including a partial anaerobic degradation pathway that is constructed for the first time. The simulation of the various conversions in the degradation pathways using first order kinetics was used to analyze relative persistence of metabolites. The common metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) accumulated (increased monotonically during the period of experiments) in aerobic soil slurry and in anaerobic aqueous as well as soil slurry systems but did not accumulate in aerobic aqueous system. The most toxic compound in the pathway, chlorpyrifos oxon (CPFO) was not detected in anaerobic environment. In aerobic environment, CPFO was short lived in aqueous medium, but accumulated slowly in the soils. PMID:24394307

Tiwari, Manoj K; Guha, Saumyen

2014-03-15

393

Simulation and characterization of a Hanford high-level waste slurry  

SciTech Connect

The baseline waste used for this simulant is a blend of wastes from tanks 101-AZ, 102-AZ, 106-C, and 102-AY that have been through water washing. However, the simulant used in this study represents a combination of tank waste slurries and should be viewed as an example of the slurries that might be produced by blending waste from various tanks. It does not imply that this is representative of the actual waste that will be delivered to the privatization contractor(s). This blended waste sludge simulant was analyzed for grain size distribution, theological properties both as a function of concentration and aging, and calcining characteristics. The grain size distribution allows a comparison with actual waste with respect to theological properties. Slurries with similar grain size distributions of the same phases are expected to exhibit similar theological properties. Rheological properties may also change because of changes in the slurry`s particulate supernate chemistry due to aging. Low temperature calcination allows the potential for hazardous gas generation to be investigated.

Russell, R.L.; Smith, H.D.

1996-09-01

394

Hydraulic properties of Hanford Waste Vitrification Project 39-4 frit slurries  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for Fluor Daniel Inc. and Westinghouse Hanford Company. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of solids loading on the hydraulic properties of frit slurries. The effect of solids loading on the hydraulic properties of the fret slurries was evaluated by testing various concentrations of frit slurries in various sized schedule 40 stainless steel piping. The pressure drop in straight and 90-degree long radius elbow sections was measured as a function of flowrate, pipe size, and solids concentration. The results of testing yielded recommendations for predicting the pressure drop as a function of solids concentration, pipe size, and flow-rate. The contribution of a 90-degree long radius elbow to the pressure drop was measured and recommendations given. Observations were also made on solids settling in the lines, wear on the testing equipment, slurry properties, and measuring equipment performance. The equipment and procedures used for pumping the high solids concentration frit slurry were successful in completing the test.

Abrigo, G.P.

1996-03-01

395

Evaluation and testing of metering pumps for high-level nuclear waste slurries  

SciTech Connect

The metering pump system that delivers high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) slurry to a melter is an integral subsystem of the vitrification process. The process of selecting a pump for this application began with a technical review of pumps typically used for slurry applications. The design and operating characteristics of numerous pumps were evaluated against established criteria. Two pumps, an air-displacement slurry (ADS) pump and an air-lift pump, were selected for further development. In the development activity, from FY 1983 to FY 1985, the two pumps were subjected to long-term tests using simulated melter feed slurries to evaluate the pumps' performances. Throughout this period, the designs of both pumps were modified to better adapt them for this application. Final reference designs were developed for both the air-displacement slurry pump and the air-lift pump. Successful operation of the final reference designs has demonstrated the feasibility of both pumps. A fully remote design of the ADS pump has been developed and is currently undergoing testing at the West Valley Demonstration Project. Five designs of the ADS pump were tested and evaluated. The initial four designs proved the operating concept of the ADS pump. Weaknesses in the ADS pump system were identified and eliminated in later designs. A full-scale air-lift pump was designed and tested as a final demonstration of the air-lift pump's capabilities.

Peterson, M.E.; Perez, J.M. Jr.; Blair, H.T.

1986-06-01

396

Using guinea pigs in studies relevant to asthma and COPD  

PubMed Central

The guinea pig has been the most commonly used small animal species in preclinical studies related to asthma and COPD. The primary advantages of the guinea pig are the similar potencies and efficacies of agonists and antagonists in human and guinea pig airways and the many similarities in physiological processes, especially airway autonomic control and the response to allergen. The primary disadvantages to using guinea pigs are the lack of transgenic methods, limited numbers of guinea pig strains for comparative studies and a prominent axon reflex that is unlikely to be present in human airways. These attributes and various models developed in guinea pigs are discussed. PMID:18462968

Canning, Brendan J.; Chou, Yangling

2010-01-01

397

Affect of dairy cow manure, urine, and slurry on N<2>O, CO<2>, and CH<4> emissions from Pasture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture is responsible for roughly 25% of total anthropogenic emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) globally. These agricultural emissions are primarily in the form of methane (CH<4>) and nitrous oxide (N<2>O) where they account for roughly 40 and 80 percent of anthropogenic emissions of their gas, respectively. Measuring and modeling of these gases has remained difficult however as management varies between farms and N<2>O fluxes have been difficult to link to climate and site conditions. Most of these N<2>O fluxes occur during soil freeze-thaw and wetting-drying cycles as well as fertilizer addition moments, all of which are difficult to measure and harder yet to model. Thus the N<2>O flux remains poorly understood and may be underestimated in literature. This provides a problem in agriculture emissions as N use efficiency has been suggested as a proxy for farm scale emissions. On a farm scale these large fluxes of N<2>O from soil "hot moments" can account for up to 60% of the total GHG emissions and thus it is essential to capture the full flux. At the University of New Hampshire Agriculture Experiment Station's (NHAES) organic dairy farm a manure fertilizer experiment was conducted. Manure, urine, and slurry from the UNH dairy farms were collected, analyzed, and applied to pasture plots in May 2012 in order to examine N<2>O flux hot moments. Sites were measured at least bi-weekly with manual static flux chambers taken with soil temperature and moisture along with measurements for soil inorganic N, soil C:N, plant biomass and C:N, and soil pH. Gas samples were analyzed for CO<2>, CH<4>, and N<2>O. Emissions were compared with other fluxes from the farm ecosystem including; corn silage, free stall bedding, composting and solid manure, and a manure slurry tank.

Dorich, C.; Varner, R. K.; Contosta, A.; Li, C.

2012-12-01

398

Urea synthesis in enterocytes of developing pigs.  

PubMed Central

Urea synthesis from ammonia, glutamine and arginine was determined in enterocytes from newborn (0-day-old), 2-21-day-old suckling, and 29-58-day-old post-weaning pigs. Pigs were weaned at 21 days of age. Cells were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C in Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (pH 7.4) containing (i) 0.5-2 mM NH4Cl plus 0.05-2 mM ornithine and 2 mM aspartate, (ii) 1-5 mM glutamine, or (iii) 0.5-2 mM arginine. In enterocytes from newborn and suckling pigs, there was no measurable synthesis of urea from ammonia, glutamine or arginine, and analysis of amino acids by a sensitive fluorimetric HPLC method revealed the formation of negligible amounts of ornithine from arginine. In contrast, in cells from post-weaning pigs, relatively large amounts of urea and ornithine were produced from ammonia, glutamine and arginine in a dose-dependent manner. To elucidate the mechanism of the developmental change of urea synthesis in pig enterocytes, the activities of urea-cycle enzymes were determined. The activities of enterocyte carbamoyl phosphate synthase I and ornithine carbamoyltransferase were lower in post-weaning pigs than in suckling ones, whereas there was no difference in arginino-succinate lyase. The activities of argininosuccinate synthase and arginase were increased by 4-fold and 50-100-fold, respectively, in enterocytes from post-weaning pigs compared with suckling pigs. The induction of arginase appears to be sufficient to account for the formation of urea from ammonia, glutamine and arginine in post-weaning pig enterocytes. These results demonstrate for the first time the presence of synthesis of urea from extracellular or intramitochondrially generated ammonia in enterocytes of post-weaning pigs. This hitherto unrecognized urea synthesis in these cells may be a first line of defence against the potential toxicity of ammonia produced by the extensive intestinal degradation of glutamine (a major fuel for enterocytes) and derived from diet and luminal micro-organisms. PMID:8554511

Wu, G

1995-01-01

399

Agitation Effect on the Rheological Behavior of Lithium-Ion Battery Slurries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed the rheological and morphological characteristics of a multicomponent slurry system consisting of an active material, conductive additive, and binder. The effect of storage time and agitation on the rheological properties was investigated. In particular, we concentrated on the yield stress and power law index to demonstrate the change in the internal structure of slurries. The results show that the internal structure degrades with time and is deteriorated by mechanical agitation. To verify the internal structure, the slurry samples were freeze-dried, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analyses were carried out. The morphological observations were in accordance with the rheological results obtained by simple shear, thixotropic, and viscoelastic experiments.

Kwon, Young Il; Kim, Jong Dae; Song, Young Seok

2015-01-01

400

Heat transfer enhanced microwave process for stabilization of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectve of this CRADA is to combine a polymer process for encapsulation of liquid radioactive waste slurry developed by Monolith Technology, Inc. (MTI), with an in-drum microwave process for drying radioactive wastes developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), for the purpose of achieving a fast, cost-effectve commercial process for solidification of liquid radioactive waste slurry. Tests performed so far show a four-fold increase in process throughput due to the direct microwave heating of the polymer/slurry mixture, compared to conventional edge-heating of the mixer. We measured a steady-state throughput of 33 ml/min for 1.4 kW of absorbed microwave power. The final waste form is a solid monolith with no free liquids and no free particulates.

White, T.L.

1995-03-31

401

Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries  

SciTech Connect

It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2009-07-01

402

Preliminary Toxicological Analysis of the Effect of Coal Slurry Impoundment Water on Human Liver Cells  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Coal is usually 'washed' with water and a variety of chemicals to reduce its content of sulfur and mineral matter. The 'washings' or 'coal slurry' derived from this process is a viscous black liquid containing fine particles of coal, mineral matter, and other dissolved and particulate substances. Coal slurry may be stored in impoundments or in abandoned underground mines. Human health and environmental effects potentially resulting from leakage of chemical substances from coal slurry into drinking water supplies or aquatic ecosystems have not been systematically examined. Impoundments are semipermeable, presenting the possibility that inorganic and organic substances, some of which may be toxic, may contaminate ground or surface water. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has concluded that well water in Mingo County, West Virginia, constitutes a public health hazard.

Bunnell, Joseph E.

2008-01-01

403

Estimation of body composition of pigs  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.

Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

1984-04-01

404

Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the research is the development of improved technology for the preparation of coal-water slurries, which have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. The fine grinding of coal is a crucial step in the manufacture of coal-water slurries. In this context, currently available grinding mills exhibit poor energy efficiency for size reduction and non-optimum packing characteristics of the ground coal. The first increases the cost of manufacture of coal-water slurries and the second adversely affects their rheological properties. The newly invented choke-fed, high-pressure roll mill is up to 50% more energy efficient and, moreover, there are reasons to believe that it produces a size distribution of ground particles which is closer to the dense packing composition. The high-pressure roll mill (which is perhaps the only really significant innovation in industrial comminution in this century) has lower capital cost, occupies less floor space, shows negligible wear rate, accepts feed with a wide range of moisture contents and, of particular importance, it can be scaled up to grind hundreds of tons of solids per hour. The high-pressure roll mill provides a unique opportunity to develop an improved technology for preparing coal-water slurries. Our research group in the University of California at Berkeley not only has a fully instrumented, laboratory-scale, choke-fed. high-pressure roll mill (the only one of its kind in the United States) but also fully instrumented laboratory ball mills for comparative fine coal preparation purposes. In this research program, our plans are to systematically investigate comminution energy consumption, deagglomeration procedures, and the stability and rheology of coal-water slurry fuel prepared with high-pressure roll mill, and to compare the results with slurry prepared with ball-milled coal.

Fuerstenau, D.W.

1992-12-01

405

Yield Stress Reduction of Radioactive Waste Slurries by Addition of Surfactants  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site (SRS) and Hanford site are in the process of stabilizing millions of gallons of radioactive waste slurries remaining from production of nuclear materials for the Department of Energy (DOE). The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at SRS is currently vitrifying the waste in borosilicate glass while the facilities at the Hanford site are in the design/construction phase. Both processes utilize slurry-fed joule heated melters to vitrify the waste slurries. The rheological properties of the waste slurries limit the total solids content that can be processed by the remote equipment during the pretreatment and melter feed processes. The use of a surface active agent, or surfactant, to increase the solids loading that can be fed to the melters would increase melt rate by reducing the heat load on the melter required to evaporate the water in the feed. The waste slurries are non-Newtonian fluids with rheological properties that were modeled using the Bingham Plastic mod el (this model is typically used by SRNL when studying the DWPF process1).The results illustrate that altering the surface chemistry of the particulates in the waste slurries can lead to a reduction in the yield stress. Dolapix CE64 is an effective surfactant over a wide range of pH values and was effective for all simulants tested. The effectiveness of the additive increased in DWPF simulants as the concentration of the additive was increased. No maxi main effectiveness was observed. Particle size measurements indicate that the additive acted as a flocculant in the DWPF samples and as a dispersant in the RPP samples.

MICHAEL, STONE

2005-02-08

406

The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids  

SciTech Connect

Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to SO{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in the Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The ultimate of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be slurry pond reclamation.

Dreher, G.B.

1991-01-01

407

Acceptance testing of the Lasentec focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) monitor for slurry transfer applications at Hanford and Oak Ridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lasentec M600F FBRM particle size and population monitor (Lasentec, Redmond, WA) was selected for deployment on radioactive slurry transfer systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hanford after extensive testing with `physical simulants.' These tests indicated that the monitor is able to measure the change in particle size distribution of concentrated (up to 35 vol.%) slurries at flow rates

Eric A. Daymo; Tom D. Hylton; Thomas H. May

1999-01-01

408

Acceptance testing of the Lasentec focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) monitor for slurry transfer applications at Hanford and Oak Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lasentec M600F FBRM particle size and population monitor (Lasentec, Redmond, WA) was selected for deployment on radioactive slurry transfer systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hanford after extensive testing with `physical simulants.' These tests indicated that the monitor is able to measure the change in particle size distribution of concentrated (up to 35 vol.%) slurries at flow rates greater than 2 m/sec. As well, the monitor provided relatively stable mean particle size values when air bubbles were introduced to the slurry pipe test loop and when the color of the slurry was altered. Slurry samples taken during each test were analyzed with a laboratory particle size monitor. For kaolin slurry samples (length-cubed weighted mean of around 55 micrometers ), the Lasentec M600F FBRM in-line monitor measured length-cubed weighted mean particle sizes within 25% of those measured by a laboratory Lasentec M500LF monitor. This difference is thought primarily to be the result of sample handling issues. Regardless, this accuracy is acceptable for radioactive slurry transfer applications. Once deployed, the in-line Lasentec monitor is expected to yield significant cost savings at Hanford and Oak Ridge through the possible reduction in risk of pipeline blockage. In addition, fewer samples of radioactive slurries will need to be measured in the laboratory, further reducing costs and increasing safety.

Daymo, Eric A.; Hylton, Tom D.; May, Thomas H.

1999-01-01

409

Rheological properties of water-coal slurries based on brown coal in the presence of sodium lignosulfonates and alkali  

SciTech Connect

The effect of the oxidized surface of brown coal on the structural and rheological properties of water-coal slurries was found. The kinetics of structure formation processes in water-coal slurries based on as-received and oxidized brown coal was studied. The effect of lignosulfonate and alkali additives on the samples of brown coal was considered.

D.P. Savitskii; A.S. Makarov; V.A. Zavgorodnii [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Dumanskii Institute of Colloid and Water Chemistry

2009-07-01

410

Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium in cow manure and cow manure slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

An exponential linear destruction was observed for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella typhimurium in cattle manure and manure slurry stored at 4, 20 or 37°C. The resulting decimal reduction times ranged from 6 days to 3 weeks in manure and from 2 days to 5 weeks in manure slurry. The main effects of time as well as temperature were pronounced

Sakchai Himathongkham; Saipul Bahari; Hans Riemann; Dean Cliver

1999-01-01

411

Using property values of aqueous solutions and ice to estimate ice concentrations and enthalpies of ice slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

For ice slurry calculations and modeling, it is important that they are performed with accurate thermophysical property values of the aqueous solution and of ice. For ice slurry applications there is a need for accurate freezing point data and for more basic thermophysical property data at low concentrations. The article covers some phenomena in connection with freezing of aqueous solutions.

Å. Melinder; E. Granryd

2005-01-01

412

Impact of MST on the Rheology of the Neutralized Am/Cm Slurry  

SciTech Connect

The americium (Am) and curium (Cm) solution, currently stored in F-Canyon Tank 17.1 will be neutralized and diluted prior to addition to High Level Waste (HLW) sludge batch 3 to eliminate the cost and uncertainty of processing and vitrifying this solution. One of the processing alternatives involves the addition of monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb any soluble Am, Cm or Pu present in the slurry. This paper discusses the impact of the MST on the rheology of the neutralized Am/Cm slurry.

Lambert, D.P.; Peters, T.B.

2001-08-20

413

Effects of biogas digestate and cattle slurry application on greenhouse gas emissions from grasslands on organic soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The change in the German energy policy resulted in a strong development of biogas plants in Germany. As a consequence, drained peatlands are increasingly used to satisfy the rising demand for fermentative substrates. In return high amounts of nutrient-rich digestates are used as organic fertilizer to maintain soil fertility and crop yield. It is well known that organic fertilization enhances nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from managed grasslands, especially in south Germany, a region with frequently frost-thaw cycles. Additionally drained organic soils are considered as hotspots of GHG emissions including N2O. Our study addressed the question to what extent biogas digestate and cattle slurry application alters N2O and methane (CH4) fluxes and how different contents of soil organic matter (SOM) promote the production of GHG. The study was conducted at two areas within one grassland parcel, which differed in their soil organic carbon (SOC) contents (10% versus 17%). At each area (named Corg medium and Corg high) three sites were established: One was fertilized five times with biogas digestate, the second five times with cattle slurry and the third site served as control without fertilization. For each treatment, the fluxes of N2O and CH4 were measured over two years using the closed chamber method. Significantly higher short term (16 days) N2O fluxes after fertilization with digestate compared to slurry could only be found in one out of four fertilisation events. However, on an annual basis the application of biogas digestate significantly enhanced the N2O fluxes compared to the application of cattle slurry. Furthermore, N2O fluxes from the Corghigh site significantly exceeded N2O fluxes from the Corg medium sites. Annual cumulative emissions ranged from 0.91 ± 0.49 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to 3.14 ± 0.91 kg N ha-1 yr-1, reflecting the lower end of literature values from other organic soils and corresponding more to those reported from grasslands on mineral soils in Germany. Significantly different CH4 fluxes between the investigated treatments or the different soil types were not observed. Cumulative annual CH4 exchange rates varied between -0.21 ± 0.19 kg C ha-1 yr-1 and -1.06 ± 0.46 kg C ha-1 yr-1, confirming the minor importance of CH4 emissions from applied organic fertilizers for the GHG balance of agricultural grasslands. It could be shown that the frequent but low dosage application of fertilizer and quick N uptake by plants avoid conditions favourable for high N2O emissions. However, the observed linear increase of 16 days cumulative N2O-N exchange or rather annual N2O emissions, due to a higher mean groundwater level and a higher application rate of NH4+-N, reveal the importance of site adapted N fertilization and the avoidance of N surpluses during the agricultural use of Corg rich grasslands.

Eickenscheidt, Tim; Freibauer, Annette; Heinichen, Jan; Augustin, Jürgen; Drösler, Matthias

2014-05-01

414

Confirmation test for gas/slurry flow in SRC-I coal liquefaction process. Internal R and D final report  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of program 12.11.1 was to provide data needed to confirm the design of the transport system, slurry heat exchangers, and slurry feed manifolds for the SRC-I Demonstration Plant. Because of lack of funds, the program was terminated before most of the work was completed. Two studies related to distribution of two-phase flow in the heat exchanger tubes were finished. A special system was designed to measure slurry concentration and flow rate in different tubes. Results showed that withdrawing slurry samples from the sides of the tubes gives a reasonably accurate measure of the concentration. Flow rate was measured indirectly with a photodiode/digital counter arrangement that measured velocity of a gas slug injected in the tube. A simple linear correlation was found to exist between the average slurry velocity and the gas-slug velocity. 1 reference, 25 figures.

Moujaes, S.F.

1983-09-01

415

Apparatus and method for pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in coal derived, water immiscible liquid  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of pumping hot, erosive slurry of coal solids in a coal derived, water immiscible liquid to higher pressure involves the use of a motive fluid which is miscible with the liquid of the slurry. The apparatus includes a pump 12, a remote check valve 14 and a chamber 16 between and in fluid communication with the pump 12 and check valve 14 through conduits 18,20. Pump 12 exerts pressure on the motive fluid and thereby on the slurry through a concentration gradient of coal solids within chamber 16 to alternately discharge slurry under pressure from the outlet port of check valve 14 and draw slurry in through the inlet port of check valve 14.

Ackerman, Carl D. (Olympia, WA)

1983-03-29

416

Simultaneous Identification of DNA and RNA Viruses Present in Pig Faeces Using Process-Controlled Deep Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Animal faeces comprise a community of many different microorganisms including bacteria and viruses. Only scarce information is available about the diversity of viruses present in the faeces of pigs. Here we describe a protocol, which was optimized for the purification of the total fraction of viral particles from pig faeces. The genomes of the purified DNA and RNA viruses were simultaneously amplified by PCR and subjected to deep sequencing followed by bioinformatic analyses. The efficiency of the method was monitored using a process control consisting of three bacteriophages (T4, M13 and MS2) with different morphology and genome types. Defined amounts of the bacteriophages were added to the sample and their abundance was assessed by quantitative PCR during the preparation procedure. Results The procedure was applied to a pooled faecal sample of five pigs. From this sample, 69,613 sequence reads were generated. All of the added bacteriophages were identified by sequence analysis of the reads. In total, 7.7% of the reads showed significant sequence identities with published viral sequences. They mainly originated from bacteriophages (73.9%) and mammalian viruses (23.9%); 0.8% of the sequences showed identities to plant viruses. The most abundant detected porcine viruses were kobuvirus, rotavirus C, astrovirus, enterovirus B, sapovirus and picobirnavirus. In addition, sequences with identities to the chimpanzee stool-associated circular ssDNA virus were identified. Whole genome analysis indicates that this virus, tentatively designated as pig stool-associated circular ssDNA virus (PigSCV), represents a novel pig virus. Conclusion The established protocol enables the simultaneous detection of DNA and RNA viruses in pig faeces including the identification of so far unknown viruses. It may be applied in studies investigating aetiology, epidemiology and ecology of diseases. The implemented process control serves as quality control, ensures comparability of the method and may be used for further method optimization. PMID:22514648

Sachsenröder, Jana; Twardziok, Sven; Hammerl, Jens A.; Janczyk, Pawel; Wrede, Paul; Hertwig, Stefan; Johne, Reimar

2012-01-01

417

Escherichia coli challenge in newborn pigs.  

PubMed

Escherichia coli F18 is a common porcine enteric pathogen causing diarrhea and edema in weaned pigs. An essential step in the pathogenesis of this enteric colibacillosis is a fimbria-receptor interaction in the small intestine, involving the ?(1,2)-fucosyltransferase gene (FUT1) enzyme for bacterial receptor binding to the epithelium. Enzyme expression is genetically determined and increases after weaning at 3 to5 wk, probably due to age- and/or diet-related intestinal maturation. We hypothesized that artificially reared piglets, deprived of sow's milk from birth, show susceptibility to F18 already in the neonatal period. First we verified the intestinal expression of FUT1 in preterm, term, and weaned pigs by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Then age-related F18 susceptibility (degree of diarrhea) was evaluated in 3-, 10-, and 20-d-old pigs after inoculation of 10(10) cfu E. coli F18 per day for 12 d. Finally, F18 susceptibility was evaluated in caesarean-delivered 0- to 7-d-old piglets inoculated daily with F18 as above. For all pigs, their sows were genotyped to ensure expression of the FUT1 enzyme. FUT1 expression was detected in the proximal and distal small intestine with no apparent differences in levels among preterm, term, and weaned pigs. No consistent F18-induced diarrhea was detected in any of the 3 groups of 3- to 20-d-old pigs. In contrast, 0- to 7-d-old caesarean-delivered pigs showed a higher score of diarrhea in pigs inoculated with F18 compared with controls (2.4 ± 0.1 vs. 1.8 ± 0.1 respectively; P < 0.001). Caesarean-delivered piglets deprived of sow milk are highly susceptible to diarrhea induced by E. coli F18. Lack of the protective effects of birth colonization and sow milk may contribute to high intestinal F18 sensitivity. The newborn pig may be a useful model to investigate factors in maternal milk that protect against F18 diarrhea. PMID:23365279

Jensen, M L; Cilieborg, M S; Østergaard, M V; Bering, S B; Jørgensen, C B; Sangild, P T

2012-12-01

418

Kinetics of Slurry Phase Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) employing iron-based catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred-tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. Three STSR tests of the Ruhrchemie LP 33/81 catalyst were conducted to collect data on catalyst activity and selectivity under 25 different sets of process conditions. The observed decrease in 1-olefin content and increase in 2-olefin and n-paraffin contents with the increase in conversion are consistent with a concept that 1-olefins participate in secondary reactions (e.g. 1-olefin hydrogenation, isomerization and readsorption), whereas 2-olefins and n-paraffins are formed in these reactions. Carbon number product distribution showed an increase in chain growth probability with increase in chain length. Vapor-liquid equilibrium calculations were made to check validity of the assumption that the gas and liquid phases are in equilibrium during FTS in the STSR. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values for the liquid-phase composition (for some of the experimental data) are ascribed to experimental errors in the amount of wax collected from the reactor, and the relative amounts of hydrocarbon wax and Durasyn 164 oil (start-up fluid) in the liquid samples. Kinetic parameters of four kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003; Van der Laan and Beenackers, 1998, 1999; and an extended kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers) were estimated from experimental data in the STSR tests. Two of these kinetic models (Lox and Froment, 1993b; Yang et al., 2003) can predict a complete product distribution (inorganic species and hydrocarbons), whereas the kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers (1998, 1999) can be used only to fit product distribution of total olefins and n-paraffins. The kinetic model of Van der Laan and Beenackers was extended to account separately for formation of 1- and 2-olefins, as well as n-paraffins. A simplified form of the kinetic model of Lox and Froment (1993b) has only five parameters at isothermal conditions. Because of its relative simplicity, this model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. The same techniques and computer codes were used in the analysis of other kinetic models. The Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method was employed for minimization of the objective function and kinetic parameter estimation. Predicted reaction rates of inorganic and hydrocarbon species were not in good agreement with experimental data. All reaction rate constants and activation energies (24 parameters) of the Yang et al. (2003) model were found to be positive, but the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were large. Agreement between predicted and experimental reaction rates has been fair to good. Light hydrocarbons were predicted fairly accurately, whereas the model predictions of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons values were lower than the experimental ones. The Van der Laan and Beenackers kinetic model (known as olefin readsorption product distribution model = ORPDM) provided a very good fit of the experimental data for hydrocarbons (total olefins and n-paraffins) up to about C{sub 20} (with the exception of experimental data that showed higher paraffin formation rates in C{sub 12}-C{sub 25} region, due to hydrocracking or other secondary reactions). Estimated values of all model parameters (true and pseudo-kinetic parameters) had high statistical significance after combining parameters related to olefin termination and readsorption into one (total of 7 model parameters). The original ORPDM was extended to account separately for formation of 1- and 2-olefins, and successfully employed to fit experimental data of three majo

Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski; Lech Nowicki; Madhav Nayapati

2006-12-31

419

Generation and Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Successful establishment of pluripotent embryonic stem cells from ungulates, especially pigs, is an important but challenging\\u000a endeavor. The pig is an attractive species for creating pluripotent cell lines because, unlike the currently preferred mouse\\u000a model, the pig resembles the human quite closely in size, anatomy, and physiology. This chapter describes the derivation of\\u000a induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from pig

Toshihiko Ezashi; Bhanu Prakash V. L. Telugu; R. Michael Roberts

420

Availability of selected amino acids in sorghum grain and corn determined in ileocecal cannulated finishing pigs  

E-print Network

Period 2 Period 3 Period 4 Sorghum grain Corn Pig A Pig B Pig B Pig A Pig D Pig C Pig C Pig D Each 18 day period was divided into an initial 7-day adjust- ment followed by 6 days of fecal and 5 days of ileal collections. Fqual amounts of feed... Acids to the Finishing Pig Determined by the Fecal Index Method. . . . 75 6 Analysis of Variance for Apparent Digestibility of Selected Amino Acids and Nitrogen Digestibility in Corn and Sorghum Grain by Finishing Pigs. . 76 7 Analysis of Variance...

Easter, Robert Arnold

2012-06-07

421

Current transcriptomics in pig immunity research.  

PubMed

Swine performance in the face of disease challenge is becoming progressively more important. To improve the pig's robustness and resilience against pathogens through selection, a better understanding of the genetic and epigenetic factors in the immune response is required. This review highlights results from the most recent transcriptome research, and the meta-analyses performed, in the context of pig immunity. A technological overview is given including wholegenome microarrays, immune-specific arrays, small-scale high-throughput expression methods, high-density tiling arrays, and next generation sequencing (NGS). Although whole genome microarray techniques will remain complementary to NGS for some time in domestic species, research will transition to sequencing-based methods due to cost-effectiveness and the extra information that such methods provide. Furthermore, upcoming high-throughput epigenomic studies, which will add greatly to our knowledge concerning the impact of epigenetic modifications on pig immune response, are listed in this review. With emphasis on the insights obtained from transcriptomic analyses for porcine immunity, we also discuss the experimental design in pig immunity research and the value of the newly published porcine genome assembly in using the pig as a model for human immune response. We conclude by discussing the importance of establishing community standards to maximize the possibility of integrative computational analyses, such as was clearly beneficial for the human ENCODE project. PMID:25398484

Schroyen, Martine; Tuggle, Christopher K

2015-02-01

422

Hypervitaminosis D in Guinea Pigs with ?-Mannosidosis  

PubMed Central

A colony of guinea pigs (n = 9) with ?-mannosidosis was fed a pelleted commercial laboratory guinea pig diet. Over 2 mo, all 9 guinea pigs unexpectedly showed anorexia and weight loss (11.7% to 30.0% of baseline weight), and 3 animals demonstrated transient polyuria and polydipsia. Blood chemistry panels in these 3 guinea pigs revealed high-normal total calcium, high-normal phosphate, and high ALP. Urine specific gravity was dilute (1.003, 1.009, 1.013) in the 3 animals tested. Postmortem examination of 7 animals that were euthanized after failing to respond to supportive care revealed renal interstitial fibrosis with tubular mineralization, soft tissue mineralization in multiple organs, hepatic lipidosis, and pneumonia. Analysis of the pelleted diet revealed that it had been formulated with a vitamin D3 content of more than 150 times the normal concentration. Ionized calcium and 25-hydroxyvitamin D values were both high in serum saved from 2 euthanized animals, confirming the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis D. This report discusses the clinical signs, blood chemistry results, and gross and histologic findings of hypervitaminosis D in a colony of guinea pigs. When unexpected signs occur colony-wide, dietary differentials should be investigated at an early time point. PMID:23582422

Jensen, JanLee A; Brice, Angela K; Bagel, Jessica H; Mexas, Angela M; Yoon, Sea Young; Wolfe, John H

2013-01-01

423

A review of pig pathology in Tanzania.  

PubMed

The approximately 1.58 million pigs in Tanzania represent 3.7% of the national population of quadruped meat-producing animals. Pigs are kept mainly by small producers who own 99.5% of the national stock in units that average 3.04 animals (range 2-48). Government policy has had little practical application. African swine fever, foot-and-mouth disease and Cysticercosis are important diseases. The first two are notifiable diseases under Tanzania legislation; the last has widespread distribution and relevance as a major zoonosis. Ascariasis (Ascaris suum), hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus), leptospirosis (Leptospira interrogans) and thermophilic Campylobacter are other zoonoses associated with pigs. Gastrointestinal helminths and external parasites, especially Sarcoptes scabiei, are common. Risk factors associated with cysticercosis for humans working with pigs or eating their meat include the free-range or semi-confined management systems, the use of rivers or ponds as a source of water, lack of household sanitation, informal home slaughter, pork not being inspected at slaughter slabs and undercooked and barbecued meat. Pigs are a minor component of Tanzania's livestock sector but there is potential for increasing their contribution to human welfare. Prospects are enhanced by the shorter life cycle, greater number of young produced per year and the possibility of producing high-quality animal protein at a lower cost than meat produced by cattle and small ruminants. PMID:23733144

Wilson, Richard Trevor; Swai, Emmanuel

2013-08-01

424

Experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of pigs.  

PubMed

Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged virus responsible for an acute non-specific syndrome in adult cattle including high fever, decrease in milk production and severe diarrhea. It also causes reproductive problems in cattle, sheep and goat including abortions, stillbirths and malformations. The role of pigs in the epidemiology of SBV has not yet been evaluated while this could be interesting seen their suggested role in the epidemiology of the closely related Akabane virus. To address this issue, four 12 week old seronegative piglets were subcutaneously infected with 1 ml of SBV infectious serum (FLI) and kept into contact with four non-infected piglets to examine direct virus transmission. Throughout the experiment blood, swabs and feces samples were collected and upon euthanasia at 28 dpi different organs (cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, lung, liver, iliac lymph nodes, kidney and spleen) were sampled. No clinical impact was observed and all collected samples tested negative for SBV in rRT-PCR. Despite the absence of viremia and virus transmission, low and short lasting amounts of neutralizing antibodies were found in 2 out of 4 infected piglets. The limited impact of SBV infection in pigs was further supported by the absence of neutralizing anti-SBV antibodies in field collected sera from indoor housed domestic pigs (n=106). In conclusion, SBV infection of pigs can induce seroconversion but is ineffective in terms of virus replication and transmission indicating that pigs have no obvious role in the SBV epidemiology. PMID:24679959

Poskin, Antoine; Van Campe, Willem; Mostin, Laurent; Cay, Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

2014-06-01

425

Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect

To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

Ohene, F.

1997-05-01

426

Methane emission, nutrient degradation and nitrogen turnover in dairy cows and their slurry at different milk production scenarios with and without concentrate supplementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methane emissions from dairy cows, including storage of their slurry, contribute significantly to the global greenhouse gas budget. Supplementation of diets with concentrate often diminishes enteric methane emissions from cows, but it may simultaneously enhance slurry methanogenesis because this is associated with extra amounts of undigested fibre which may be a substrate for slurry microbes. In the present study, the

I. K. Hindrichsen; H.-R. Wettstein; A. Machmüller; M. Kreuzer

2006-01-01

427

Microhomogeneity assessments using ultrasonic slurry sampling coupled with electrothermal vaporization isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) is a very powerful technique for the direct analysis of solid materials prepared as slurries. The use of isotope dilution USS-ETV-ICP-MS (USS-ETV-ID-ICP-MS) for micro-homogeneity characterization studies of powdered reference materials based on elemental analyses, was investigated. Slurry analysis conditions were optimized taking into consideration density, particle size, analyte extraction, slurry mixing, analyte transport and sampling depth. Slurries were prepared using 1-20 mg of material and adding 1.0 ml of 5% nitric acid diluent containing 0.005% Triton X-100®. Three reference materials were analyzed (RM 8431a Mixed Diet, SRM 1548a Typical Diet and SRM 2709 San Joaquin Soil). Cu and Ni were determined in each material and Fe was also determined in RM 8431a Mixed Diet. ETV conditions were optimized and the benefit of using Pd as a carrier to enhance transport, combined with oxygen ashing was demonstrated. The accuracy of the method was verified by comparing analytical results with certified values. The precision of the method was demonstrated by comparing R.S.D.'s for slurry samples and aqueous standards and elemental 'homogeneity' was quantified based on the slurry sampling variability. The representative sample mass analyzed was calculated taking into consideration extraction of analyte into the liquid phase of the slurry. Representative sample masses of approximately 4 mg of RM 8431a provided slurry sampling variabilities of 10% or less for Cu, Fe and Ni. Representative sample masses of approximately 10 mg of SRM 1548a provided slurry sampling variabilities of approximately 10% for Cu and Ni. Representative sample masses of approximately 0.3 mg of SRM 2709 resulted in total analytical variabilities of less than 7%, highlighting the fact that the San Joaquin Soil is clearly the most homogeneous of the materials characterized.

Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.; Baker, Scott A.

2001-09-01

428

TREATMENT OF CYANIDE SOLUTIONS AND SLURRIES USING AIR-SPARGED HYDROCYCLONE (ASH) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The two-year Department of Energy (DOE) project ''Treatment of Cyanide Solutions and Slurries Using Air-Sparged Hydrocyclone (ASH) Technology'' (ASH/CN) has been completed. This project was also sponsored by industrial partners, ZPM Inc., Elbow Creek Engineering, Solvay Minerals, EIMCO-Baker Process, Newmont Mining Corporation, Cherokee Chemical Co., Placer Dome Inc., Earthworks Technology, Dawson Laboratories and Kennecott Minerals. Development of a new technology using the air-sparged hydrocyclone (ASH) as a reactor for either cyanide recovery or destruction was the research objective. It was expected that the ASH could potentially replace the conventional stripping tower presently used for HCN stripping and absorption with reduced power costs. The project was carried out in two phases. The first phase included calculation of basic processing parameters for ASH technology, development of the flowsheet, and design/adaptation of the ASH mobile system for hydrogen cyanide (HCN) recovery from cyanide solutions. This was necessary because the ASH was previously used for volatile organics removal from contaminated water. The design and modification of the ASH were performed with the help from ZPM Inc. personnel. Among the modifications, the system was adapted for operation under negative pressure to assure safe operating conditions. The research staff was trained in the safe use of cyanide and in hazardous material regulations. Cyanide chemistry was reviewed resulting in identification of proper chemical dosages for cyanide destruction, after completion of each pilot plant run. The second phase of the research consisted of three field tests that were performed at the Newmont Mining Corporation gold cyanidation plant near Midas, Nevada. The first field test was run between July 26 and August 2, 2002, and the objective was to demonstrate continuous operation of the modified ASH mobile system. ASH units were applied for both stripping and absorption, to recover cyanide, using the acidification-volatilization-reabsorption chemistry. Plant barren cyanide solution was used during the field tests. The original ASH system used for the field tests had been designed and fabricated by ZPM Inc. to remove volatile organic compounds from ground water. The system, even with a number of modifications, could not operate at optimum conditions for cyanide recovery. Reactors and pumps installed in the mobile system only allowed for the treatment of clear solutions, not slurries. Also the original mobile system was limited with respect to Q, the relative air flow rate, and the extent of recovery in a single stage. Due to the lack of automatic controls, the system required constant supervision of the University of Utah (U/U) team. In spite of these difficulties, application of the ASH mobile system was particularly attractive due to compactness of the apparatus and less than 1 second residence time of the aqueous phase in the cyclones. The performance of the ASH system was evaluated by comparison with theoretical predictions.

Jan D. Miller; Terrence Chatwin; Jan Hupka; Doug Halbe; Tao Jiang; Bartosz Dabrowski; Lukasz Hupka

2003-03-31

429

Potential for transmission of avian influenza viruses to pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pandemic strains of influenza A virus arise by genetic reassortment between avian and human viruses. Pigs have been suggested to generate such reassortants as intermediate hosts. In order for pigs to serve as 'mixing vessels' in genetic reassortment events, they must be susceptible to both human and avian influenza viruses. The ability of avian influenza viruses to replicate in pigs,

Hiroshi Kida; Toshihiro Ito; Jiro Yasuda; Yukio Shimizu; Chitoshi Itakura; Kennedy F. Shortridge; Yoshihiro Kawaoka; Robert G. Webster

1994-01-01

430

9 CFR 113.38 - Guinea pig safety test.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guinea pig safety test. 113.38 Section 113.38 Animals...REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.38 Guinea pig safety test. The guinea pig safety test provided in this section...

2010-01-01

431

The simulation model Porsim Decision aid in pig production  

E-print Network

The simulation model « Porsim » Decision aid in pig production O. TEFFENE Y. SALA�N LT.P., Domaine de la Motte-au- Vicomte, B.P. 3, 35650 Le Rheu France A pig production simulation model (Porsim Porc (I.T.P.) with the aim of providing specialists with an aid for decisions in pig production

Boyer, Edmond

432

Effects of insulin on coronary blood flow in anesthetized pigs.  

PubMed

Insulin can influence the vasculature by a sympathetically mediated vasoconstriction and a vasodilatation; the latter effect predominates in the renal circulation of anesthetized pigs. We determined the effect of intravenous infusion of insulin on coronary blood flow in pentobarbitone-anesthetized pigs at constant heart rate, arterial pressure and blood levels of glucose and potassium. In 6 pigs, infusion of 0.004 IU kg(-1) min(-1) of insulin decreased coronary flow despite increasing left ventricular dP dT(max)(-1); when the latter was abolished by propranolol, the coronary flow response was augmented. The mechanisms of this response were examined in 22 pigs given propranolol. Phentolamine changed coronary flow response to an increase (6 pigs) and this was abolished by intracoronary injection of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 5 pigs). L-NAME augmented coronary flow response (6 pigs) and this was abolished by phentolamine (5 pigs). In 18 pigs given propranolol, three incremental doses of insulin caused graded coronary flow decreases whether L-NAME was given (6 pigs) or not (6 pigs) beforehand, and caused graded coronary flow increases after phentolamine (6 pigs). Thus insulin caused a coronary vasoconstriction mediated by sympathetic alpha-adrenergic effects and a vasodilatation related to the release of nitric oxide. The net effect was a coronary vasoconstriction. PMID:12566976

Molinari, C; Battaglia, A; Grossini, E; Mary, D A S G; Bona, G; Scott, E; Vacca, G

2002-01-01

433

Experimental Salmonella Enterica Infection in Market-weight Pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Market pigs infected with Salmonella pose a significant food safety risk by carrying the pathogen into abattoirs. A study was conducted to determine the dynamic of Salmonella infection in market-weight pigs (220-240 lbs.). Pigs (n=24) were individually inoculated (intranasally; 108 cfu/mL) with Salm...

434

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in humans living in high pig density areas of Germany.  

PubMed

An increase in acute autochthonous hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections has been recorded in Germany. These are suspected to be zoonotically transmitted from wild boar, deer and domestic pig. The latter may represent a major reservoir for HEV. In this study, 537 sera from humans living in Westphalia and Lower Saxony, representing areas of high pig density in Germany, were tested for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Among them were 302 individuals with occupational, direct contact to pigs and 235 individuals without direct contact to pigs. Two commercial tests and one in-house assay were applied for the detection of HEV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. Sera were also tested in an assay that detects all classes of HEV-specific antibodies. Depending on the test used, the seroprevalence ranged from 4.1 to 27.9 %. Exposition to pigs was found to be associated with a significantly higher seroprevalence in subjects with contact to pigs (13.2-32.8 %) compared with that in non-exposed humans (7.7-21.7 %). In particular, individuals younger than 40 years with occupational exposure exhibited a markedly higher HEV seroprevalence compared with non-exposed individuals of that age group. In general, HEV seroprevalence increased with age resulting in a similar prevalence level in the age group of ? 50 years for exposed and non-exposed individuals. Analysis of all sera by a commercial anti-HEV IgM ELISA revealed 35 positive and 25 borderline samples. However, only one positive serum could be confirmed by an IgM line assay. Selected samples from IgM and/or IgG as well as total HEV antibody-positive individuals were also tested for the presence of HEV RNA. In one of the 78 samples, the only IgM ELISA positive and IgM line assay confirmed sample, RNA of HEV genotype 3 was detected. This sequence has high similarity to HEV sequences obtained from wild boars and domestic pigs from Germany and The Netherlands. This study demonstrates that in addition to the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, direct contact to pigs has to be considered as an additional risk factor for HEV infection. PMID:24744181

Krumbholz, Andi; Joel, Sebastian; Dremsek, Paul; Neubert, Anne; Johne, Reimar; Dürrwald, Ralf; Walther, Mario; Müller, Thomas H; Kühnel, Detlef; Lange, Jeannette; Wutzler, Peter; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Ulrich, Rainer G; Zell, Roland

2014-08-01

435

Distribution of galanin immunoreactivity in the respiratory tract of pig, guinea pig, rat, and dog.  

PubMed

Galanin, a newly discovered peptide isolated from porcine intestine, is known to cause contraction in rat smooth muscle preparations and to induce hyperglycaemia in dogs. By the use of radioimmunoassay and immunohistochemical techniques the concentration and distribution of galanin immunoreactivity were determined in several areas of the respiratory tract of five dogs, five guinea pigs, five rats, and two pigs. Antibodies were raised in rabbits to whole unconjugated natural porcine galanin. The highest galanin concentrations were found in the bronchus and the trachea of the dog, guinea pig, rat (2 pmol/g in each case), and pig (less than 1 pmol/g). The lowest galanin concentrations were found in the lung parenchyma. Gel chromatographic analysis in the pig showed one molecular form of galanin coeluting with the porcine galanin standard. By means of the indirect immunofluorescence technique on sections of tissues fixed in benzoquinone solution, galanin was found to be confined to nerve fibres in different regions of the respiratory tract. In the nasal mucosa of the pig nerve fibres containing galanin were distributed around seromucous glands and blood vessels and beneath the epithelium. In the trachea, bronchus, and major intrapulmonary airways of the pig, dog, and guinea pig galanin immunoreactive fibres were detected predominantly in smooth muscle, as well as around seromucous glands and in the adventitia of blood vessels. Rarely, galanin immunoreactive nerve fibres were found in the lung parenchyma. A few galanin immunoreactive ganglion cells also containing vasoactive intestinal polypeptide were found in the adventitia of the tracheobronchial wall of the pig and dog. The distribution of galanin suggests that it may have some influence on airway, vascular, and secretory functions in the mammalian respiratory tract. PMID:2420020

Cheung, A; Polak, J M; Bauer, F E; Cadieux, A; Christofides, N D; Springall, D R; Bloom, S R

1985-12-01

436

Distribution and excretion of TEGDMA in guinea pigs and mice.  

PubMed

The monomer triethyleneglycoldimethacrylate (TEGDMA) is used as a diluent in many resin-based dental materials. It was previously shown in vitro that TEGDMA was released into the adjacent biophase from such materials during the first days after placement. In this study, the uptake, distribution, and excretion of 14C-TEGDMA applied via gastric, intradermal, and intravenous administration at dose levels well above those encountered in dental care were examined in vivo in guinea pigs and mice as a test of the hypothesis that TEGDMA reaches cytotoxic levels in mammalian tissues. 14C-TEGDMA was taken up rapidly from the stomach and small intestine after gastric administration in both species and was widely distributed in the body following administration by each route. Most 14C was excreted within one day as 14CO2. The peak equivalent TEGDMA levels in all mouse and guinea pig tissues examined were at least 1000-fold less than known toxic levels. The study therefore did not support the hypothesis. PMID:11437210

Reichl, F X; Durner, J; Hickel, R; Kunzelmann, K H; Jewett, A; Wang, M Y; Spahl, W; Kreppel, H; Moes, G W; Kehe, K; Walther, U; Forth, W; Hume, W R

2001-05-01