Sample records for pig slurry applied

  1. Agronomic recycling of pig slurry and pig sewage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Garrido, Melisa; Sánchez García, Pablo; Faz Cano, Ángel; Büyükk?l?ç Yanardag, Asuman; Yanardag, Ibrahim; Kabas, Sebla; Ángeles Múñoz García, María; María Rosales Aranda, Rosa; Segura Ruíz, Juan Carlos

    2013-04-01

    Recycling pig slurry as organic fertilizer is a convenient and suitable way of waste elimination due to its low cost and high agronomic benefits. The objectives of this two year study are focused on improving and recycling pig slurry appropriately, and monitoring the soil-plant system at the same time. The evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of different types of pig slurry (raw, solid, treated and depurated) in different doses (170 kg N ha-1 (legislated dose), 340 and 510 kg N ha-1) is innovative because the fertilizer value of each amendment can be balanced. Furthermore environmental issues such us volatilisation, leaching and salinisation have been considered for each treatment in order to set the viability of the study and to justify the treatments applied. Electrical conductivity, Kjeldhal nitrogen, sodium and potassium are the physico-chemical parameters most influenced in soils treated with doses 340 and 510 kg N ha-1. Additionally plant samples, especially halophyte, have shown the highest major and minor nutrients contents. Finally, pig slurry application in legislated doses could be considered a useful environmental practice; however, the development of the crop will be very influenced by the type of dose and amendment selected.

  2. Toxicity evaluation of pig slurry using luminescent bacteria and zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-07-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  3. Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

    2014-01-01

    Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

  4. Pilot scale thermal treatment of pig slurry for the inactivation of animal virus pathogens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Turner; Stuart M. Williams; Colin H. Burton; Trevor R. Cumby; Philip J. Wilkinson; John W. Farrent

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a pilot scale treatment plant that has been designed and built for the thermal inactivation in pig slurry of two viruses that infect pigs ? African swine fever virus (ASFV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). The plant treats pig slurry continuously at a rate of up to 100 litres\\/hour and functions by heating the slurry, maintaining

  5. Using a Soil Hydrometer to measure the Nitrogen and Phosphorus Contents in Pig Slurries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zhu; Z. Zhang; P. M. Ndegwa

    2003-01-01

    The hydrometer method to indirectly measure the nutrient contents, i.e. total nitrogen Nt, and total phosphorus Pt of pig slurries was examined against both single and multiple slurry sources. The data indicated that the estimation accuracy of the hydrometer method could be greatly improved if separate linear regressions were developed for slurry sources from pigs at different growing stages such

  6. Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In conclusion, the use of pig slurry to reclaim bare contaminated soils by heavy metals brings indirect positive effects by triggering a vegetation cover which can stabilize metals and increase soil quality (phytostabilization). Keywords: heavy metals, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phytoremediation.

  7. Phosphorus, copper and zinc in solid and liquid fractions from full-scale and laboratory-separated pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Olga; Hjorth, Maibritt; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-09-01

    Pig slurry separation is a slurry treatment technique that can reduce excess loads of P, Cu and Zn to the arable land. This study investigated the effects of different commercial and laboratory separation treatments for pig slurry on P, Cu and Zn distribution into solid and liquid fractions. Solid and liquid separation fractions were collected from two commercial separators installed on the farm. Five different separation treatments were performed (polymer flocculation and drainage; coagulation with iron sulphate addition and polymer flocculation and drainage; ozonation and centrifugation; centrifugation only; and natural sedimentation) on sow and suckling piglet raw slurry. Particle size fractionation was performed on raw slurry and all separation fractions by sequential wet sieving and P, Cu and Zn concentrations were then measured in the particle size classes. Dry matter and total P, Cu and Zn were separated with higher efficiency when chemical pretreatments with flocculants and coagulants were introduced before mechanical separation at both commercial and laboratory scale. When solid fractions are utilized as crop fertilizer (primarily as P fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn to the soils are not markedly different than the loads applied with raw slurry. When liquid fractions are used as crop fertilizer (primarily as N fertilizer), the loads of Cu and Zn are markedly lower than those supplied with raw slurry. The loads of Cu and Zn introduced to the soil were lowest on application of the liquid fraction produced by optimized separation treatments that included flocculation and coagulation. PMID:23240207

  8. Bioavailability of Cu and Zn in raw and anaerobically digested pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Marcato, Claire-Emmanuelle; Pinelli, Eric; Cecchi, Marie; Winterton, Peter; Guiresse, Maritxu

    2009-07-01

    The impact of anaerobic digestion on the bioavailability of copper and zinc from pig slurry was assessed. Both chemical and biological approaches were used independently on raw slurry (RS) and anaerobically digested pig slurry (DS). This work, using ultracentrifugation pellets from the same pig slurry before and after an anaerobic treatment, confirmed that Cu and Zn behave differently in terms of bioavailability, and contrasting results were obtained by chemical and biological assessments. A chemical approach combined a preliminary study of the pH effect on particulate/dissolved metal partitioning, sequential extraction, and biochemical fractionation. This approach tended to show a lower mobility of metals from digested slurry (DS). A biological approach was carried out with Zea mays and Vicia faba to study Cu and Zn uptake in soil amended with RS or DS. This assay could not differentiate the two slurries. PMID:19200597

  9. Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

    2010-05-01

    In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and ?-galactosidase activity showed the biggest increment comparing to control. No pattern was observed among fertilizer doses, without big differences among them in most properties. We can conclude that the use of pig slurry as organic fertilizer incorporates great amounts of organic matter to the soil in its different forms, including soluble and microorganisms biomass, which has a positive effect encouraging the application of this agricultural management so that soil can act as C sink, in order to mitigate global warming. Thus, this procedure can be included in the strategies to increase the soil carbon sequestration. According to carbon dynamics, doses are not important, without risks of soluble carbon leaching.

  10. Pilot scale thermal treatment of pig slurry for the inactivation of animal virus pathogens.

    PubMed

    Turner, C; Williams, S M; Burton, C H; Cumby, T R; Wilkinson, P J; Farrent, J W

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes a pilot scale treatment plant that has been designed and built for the thermal inactivation in pig slurry of two viruses that infect pigs--African swine fever virus (ASFV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV). The plant treats pig slurry continuously at a rate of up to 100 litres/hour and functions by heating the slurry, maintaining at least 99.99% of the slurry at the required temperature for a minimum period of 5 minutes, and then recovering the heat to raise the temperature of the incoming slurry. Results obtained indicated that SVDV was inactivated in pig slurry to below detectable levels with an alkaline pH (pH 7.5 to 8, as is usually the case) at a temperature of between 50 and 55 degrees C. In acidified slurry (pH 6.4), inactivation occurred between 55 and 60 degrees C. The difference in inactivation temperatures was probably due to the presence of free ammonia in the unacidified slurry. ASFV was inactivated by operating the plant at a temperature of 53 degrees C at a pH of 8. PMID:10565423

  11. Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halil Yanarda?, Ibrahim

    2013-04-01

    Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and ?-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and ?-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment, whereas, black and soluble C was decreased with PS addition. There may have been a transient positive effect of the RPS treatments on the soil biochemical parameters. However, the effect could not be detected because of less labile C content during the experiment. The beneficial effects of the PS additions were less pronounced in the 0-30 cm. soil layer. In this monoculture barley production system and under these Mediterranean climate conditions, applications of TPS should be avoided, so they were associated with a decline in microbial counts and a leveling of almost all the enzymatic activities and microbial biomass C. Keywords: Pig slurry, Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C, ?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzyme activities.

  12. Storage temperature affects distribution of carbon, VFA, ammonia, phosphorus, copper and zinc in raw pig slurry and its separated liquid fraction.

    PubMed

    Popovic, Olga; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2012-08-01

    Chemical-mechanical separation of pig slurry into a solid fraction rich in dry matter, P, Cu and Zn and a liquid fraction rich in inorganic N but poor in dry matter may allow farmers to manage surplus slurry by exporting the solid fraction to regions with no nutrient surplus. Pig slurry can be applied to arable land only in certain periods during the year, so it is commonly stored prior to field application. This study investigated the effect of storage duration and temperature on chemical characteristics and P, Cu and Zn distribution between particle size classes of raw slurry and its liquid separation fraction. Dry matter, VFA, total N and ammonium content of both slurry products decreased during storage and were affected by temperature, showing higher losses at higher storage temperatures. In both products, total P, Cu and Zn concentrations were not significantly affected by storage duration or temperature. Particle size distribution was affected by slurry separation, storage duration and temperature. In raw slurry, particles larger than 1 mm decreased, whereas particles 250 ?m-1 mm increased. The liquid fraction produced was free of particles >500 ?m, with the highest proportions of P, Cu and Zn in the smallest particle size class (<25 ?m). The proportion of particles <25 ?m increased when the liquid fraction was stored at 5 °C, but decreased at 25 °C. Regardless of temperature, distribution of P, Cu and Zn over particle size classes followed a similar pattern to dry matter. PMID:22591817

  13. Response of maize yield, nitrate leaching, and soil nitrogen to pig slurry combined with mineral nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Yagüe, María R; Quílez, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The application of pig (Sus scrofa) slurry (PS) is a common fertilization practice that may affect nitrate concentrations and loads in drainage and receiving water bodies. To protect water resources, many agricultural areas are being designated as vulnerable to nitrate contamination, and there is a need for scientific data aiming at reducing nitrate exports from these vulnerable zones by optimizing N fertilization strategies. The objective of this work, conducted in drainage lysimeters in a 4-yr monoculture maize (Zea mays L.) crop, is to assess the effects of four fertilization strategies combining PS (30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha(-1)) and mineral N on yield, changes in soil mineral N, and concentration and mass of nitrate in drainage waters. Grain yield was not affected by treatments in the four experimental years, nor was the soil mineral N at the end of the experiment. Effects of fertilization strategies on nitrate concentration and mass in drainage waters were detected only after 3 yr of repeated PS applications. The mass of nitrate leached over the 4 yr was positively related to the total amount of N applied, either organic or mineral. In year 2003, precipitation in spring reduced N availability for the crop in treatments with rates > or = 60 t PS ha(-1). The N-budget revealed that the transport pathways for 25% of N inputs to the system are unknown. The presowing application of pig slurry at 30 t ha(-1) complemented with mineral N at side-dressing, was the most efficient from an environmental standpoint (4-yr average of 145 kg grain yield kg(-1) N leached). PMID:20176841

  14. Recovery and assay of African swine fever and swine vesicular disease viruses from pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Turner, C; Williams, S M; Wilkinson, P J

    1999-09-01

    Assaying samples for infectious virus is more difficult when the sample is toxic to cells used in the assay, e.g. with samples of infected pig slurry. Various techniques were compared for the recovery of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) in pig slurry. Extraction with Freon led to 80-100% recovery of SVDV added to pig slurry. The assay sensitivity enabled undiluted, centrifuged sample to be put directly onto monolayers of IB-RS2 cells, allowing a minimum detection level of 100.7 pfu ml-1. ASFV was difficult to recover intact, and the best technique allowed a recovery of 60% with a minimum detectable level of 101.8 HAD50 ml-1, due to toxicity to the cells at low sample dilutions. Extraction with the addition of an equal volume of ox serum to inoculated slurry was best at recovering ASFV. Poor recoveries with the other techniques may have been due to the inactivation of the virus while in the slurry rather than as a result of the inability of the method to extract ASFV. PMID:10540248

  15. Pig slurry reduces the survival of Raltstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gorissen; Overbeek van L. S; Elsas van J. D

    2004-01-01

    The effect of added pig slurry and solarization on the survival of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 strain 1609 in soil was analysed in soil microcosms and field plots. In addition, the invasion of potato plants by R. solanacearum and the development of disease symptoms were determined, as measures of induced disease suppressiveness. In untreated soil, R. solanacearum showed slow population

  16. Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Byrne-Bailey; W. H. Gaze; P. Kay; A. B. A. Boxall; P. M. Hawkey; E. M. H. Wellington

    2009-01-01

    Received 17 May 2007\\/Returned for modification 9 September 2007\\/Accepted 21 November 2008 The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for

  17. Ammonia emissions from cattle, pig and poultry wastes applied to pasture.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, D R; Pain, B F; Klarenbeek, J V

    1989-01-01

    In four field experiments, carried out in The Netherlands, small wind-tunnels were used to make direct measurements of ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization from different types of slurry and manure applied to the surface of grassland. During periods of up to six days following application, losses of NH(3)-N often amounted to more than 40% of the NH(4)-N applied. Percentage loss was highest (83%) from a poultry slurry and least (21%) from an air-dried poultry manure. Losses of NH(3)-N were generally greater from pig slurry (36-78%) than from cattle slurry (41%). In most cases 80% or more of the total NH(3)-N loss occurred within 48 h of application. Estimates were made of total annual NH(3) emissions from four systems of poultry housing. The highest total loss (50% of the N voided in droppings) occurred with a battery house producing a slurry with a low content of dry-matter; most of the loss took place after spreading. With a second battery house, in which the droppings were air-dried, the total loss was only 12%, with much lower emissions from the housing and during spreading. PMID:15092488

  18. Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2014-10-01

    The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms. PMID:25089896

  19. Triggered antioxidant defense mechanism in maize grown in soil with accumulation of Cu and Zn due to intensive application of pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Tiecher, Tadeu L; De Conti, Lessandro; Schmatz, Roberta; Brunetto, Gustavo; Schetinger, Maria R C; Nicoloso, Fernando T

    2013-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in both the growth parameters and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of maize (Zea may L.) plants grown in Typic Hapludalf soil containing an accumulation of Cu and Zn. This accumulation developed because the soil received nineteen applications of pig slurry in no-tillage system over seven years. In this study, the maize plants were grown for fifteen and 25 days after emergence (DAE) in pots containing undisturbed and disturbed soil samples collected from a field experiment that received the rates 0, 20, 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry, which totalized the amount of 0, 380, 760 and 1520m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry in seven years, respectively, and phosphorus (P)+potassium (K) treatment (in disturbed soil samples). The maize plants grown in the undisturbed soil samples with an accumulation of Cu and Zn did not indicate an apparent decrease in growth. However, when compared to the treatment with PK fertilization, the maize plants grown in the disturbed soil with pig slurry treatments indicated higher lipid peroxidation and a number of senescent leaves, as well as a significant decrease in plant height. Additionally, when compared to the PK treatment, the leaf superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased and increased, respectively, with the addition of pig slurry treatments in the disturbed soil at 25 DAE. In general, when compared to the treatments with 20m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry and PK at fifteen and 25 DAE, the leaf ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups concentrations decreased with the addition of 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry. This result suggests that the excess of Cu and Zn in the pig slurry significantly changed the antioxidant system of the maize plants. PMID:23669342

  20. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    PubMed

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). PMID:25458767

  1. Laboratory-scale inactivation of African swine fever virus and swine vesicular disease virus in pig slurry.

    PubMed

    Turner, C; Williams, S M

    1999-07-01

    Two methods were evaluated for the inactivation of African swine fever (ASV) and swine vesicular disease (SVD) viruses in pig slurry: chemical treatment and heat treatment. The addition of NaOH or Ca(OH)2 at different concentration/time combinations at 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C was examined, as was virus stability at different temperature/time combinations. ASF virus (ASFV) was less resistant to both methods than SVD virus (SVDV). In slurry from one source, ASFV was inactivated at 65 degrees C within 1 min, whereas SVDV required at least 2 min at 65 degrees C. However, it was found that thermal inactivation depended on the characteristics of the slurry used. Addition of 1% (w/v) of NaOH or Ca(OH)2 caused the inactivation of ASFV within 150 s at 4 degrees C; 0.5% (w/v) NaOH or Ca(OH)2 required 30 min for inactivation. NaOH or Ca(OH)2 (1% (w/v)) was not effective against SVDV at 22 degrees C after 30 min, and 1.5% (w/v) NaOH or Ca(OH)2 caused inactivation of SVDV at both 4 degrees C and 22 degrees C. At higher chemical concentrations or temperatures, ASFV and SVDV inactivation was faster in slurry than in buffered medium. PMID:10432596

  2. Marble wastes and pig slurry improve the environmental and plant-relevant properties of mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Kabas, S; Faz, A; Acosta, J A; Arocena, J M; Zornoza, R; Martínez-Martínez, S; Carmona, D M

    2014-02-01

    Poor soil fertility is often the biggest challenge to the establishment of vegetation in mine wastes deposits. We conducted field trials in the El Gorguel and El Lirio sites in SE Spain, two representative tailing ponds of similar properties except for pH, to understand the environmental and plant-relevant benefits of marble waste (MW) and pig slurry (PS) applications to mine tailings. Low pH (5.4) tailings (El Lirio) exhibit reduction of up to fourfold in bio-availability of metals as shown by the DTPA-Zn, Pb, water-soluble Zn, Pb and up to 3× for water-soluble Cd. Tailings in El Gorguel have high pH (7.4) and did not exhibit significant trends in the reductions of water-extractable Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu. Improvements to the edaphic (plant-relevant) properties of tailings after the amendments are not as sensitive to pH compared to the environmental characteristics. The two sites had increases in aggregate stability, organic matter (total N and organic C) although total N is higher in the El Gorguel (up to 212 ?g N kg(-1)) than the El Lirio (up to 26 ?g N kg(-1)). However, cation exchange capacities are similar in both sites at 15.2 cmol(+) kg(-1). We conclude that the characteristics, especially pH, of tailing materials significantly influence the fate of metals but not improvements to plant-relevant properties such as cation exchange capacity and aggregate stability 1 year after the application of MW and PS amendments. PMID:23479083

  3. Increasing energy and lysine in diets for growing-finishing pigs in hot environmental conditions: consequences on performance, digestibility, slurry composition, and gas emission.

    PubMed

    Cerisuelo, A; Torres, A; Lainez, M; Moset, V

    2012-05-01

    The influence of dietary nutrient concentration on growth performance, manure composition, and gas emission was studied in pigs in hot environmental conditions. A total of 64 intact males and 64 females [(Landrace × Large White) × Pietrain] weighing 63.1 ± 9.7 kg were divided into 2 dietary treatments: high (HD: 14.39 MJ of DE/kg and 1.11% Lys) and low (LD: 13.97 MJ of DE/kg and 1.01% Lys) in energy and Lys contents. Pigs were allocated to 32 split-sex pens with 4 pigs/pen and 16 pens/treatment. Average productive performance was recorded for 41 d (phase 1). After phase 1, 12 females of 103.3 ± 3.15 kg (6 per treatment) were selected and housed individually, and feces and slurry were collected during 3 and 4 consecutive days, respectively, to calculate nutrient digestibility and measure gas emissions (phase 2). For gas emission measurements, slurry was pooled by treatment and stored for 76 d. Initial composition of slurry and pH were analyzed. Maximum and minimum temperatures registered in the barn throughout the growing period were 35.1 and 18.1°C, respectively. Animals fed the HD diet grew more efficiently than pigs fed the LD diet (G:F, 0.43 vs. 0.40; SEM = 0.01; P < 0.05). Fat digestibility was greater in HD compared with LD pigs (88.0 vs. 84.9%; SEM = 0.9; P < 0.05). Slurry from pigs fed the LD diet showed greater DM, OM, total N, and VFA contents than slurry from pigs fed the HD diet. Cumulative NH(3), CO(2), and especially CH(4) emissions were greater in the HD slurry compared with the LD slurry (192.4 vs. 210.g of NH(3)/m(3); 2,712 vs. 3,210 g of CO(2)/m(3); 1,502 vs. 2,647 mL of CH(4)/kg of OM). Increasing feed density in the present study led to a more efficient growth, a decreased nutrient concentration in the slurry, and a greater gas emission. PMID:22147479

  4. Evolution of temperature and chemical parameters during composting of the pig slurry solid fraction amended with natural zeolite.

    PubMed

    Venglovsky, J; Sasakova, N; Vargova, M; Pacajova, Z; Placha, I; Petrovsky, M; Harichova, D

    2005-01-01

    A 3-month experiment was conducted at a 300 kg scale to observe decomposition processes in pig slurry solids amended with two different doses of natural Slovak zeolite-clinoptilolite (substrates S1 and S2, 1% and 2% of zeolite by weight, respectively) in comparison with the control (unamended solids). The experimental and control substrates were stored outdoors in sheltered static piles at ambient temperatures ranging from 8.0 to 34.7 degrees C. The solid fraction (SF) of pig slurry was obtained by separation on vibration sieves prior to slurry treatment with activated sludge. The initial water content of the SF was 77.1% and no water was added to the piles during the storage. The temperature in the core of the piles was recorded throughout the experiment. By day 3 and 5 of storage (1% and 2% zeolite, resp.), the temperature in the substrates S1 and S2 exceeded 55 degrees C and remained above this level for 15 days while the highest temperature recorded in the control during the experiment was 29.8 degrees C. Samples from the core of the piles were taken periodically to determine pH, dry matter at 105 degrees C (DM), ash (550 degrees C/4 h), ammonia nitrogen (N-NH(4)(+)), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO(3)(-)), total nitrogen (N(t)), total phosphorus (P(t)); total organic carbon (TOC) was computed. The results showed that pH levels in S1 and S2 remained below that in the control for most of the thermophilic stage. This may be related to water-soluble ammonia and the affinity of zeolites to ammonium ions. A significant decrease in the level of ammonia nitrogen in water extracts from S1 and S2 was observed between days 5 and 35 in comparison with the control. The values of ash also differed and corresponded to the intensity of the decomposition processes in the respective substrates. PMID:15381214

  5. Inactivation of Murine Norovirus 1 and Bacteroides fragilis Phage B40-8 by Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Pig Slurry ?

    PubMed Central

    Baert, Leen; De Gusseme, Bart; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy; Debevere, Johan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2010-01-01

    Mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (52°C) anaerobic digestion of pig slurry induced at least a 4-log decrease in murine norovirus 1, used as a surrogate virus for porcine norovirus, after 13 and 7 days, respectively. Bacteroides fragilis phage B40-8, employed as a universal viral model, was lowered by 2.5 log after 7 days. The viral titer declined due to temperature and matrix effects. PMID:20080994

  6. Management factors affecting ammonia volatilization from land-applied cattle slurry in the Mid-Atlantic USA.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R B; Meisinger, J J

    2002-01-01

    Ammonia (NH3) volatilization commonly causes a substantial loss of crop-available N from surface-applied cattle slurry. Field studies were conducted with small wind tunnels to assess the effect of management factors on NH3 volatilization. Two studies compared NH3 volatilization from grass sward and bare soil. The average total NH3 loss was 1.5 times greater from slurry applied to grass sward. Two studies examined the effect of slurry dry matter (DM) content on NH3 loss under hot, summer conditions in Maryland, USA. Slurry DM contents were between 54 and 134 g kg(-1). Dry matter content did not affect total NH3 loss, but did influence the time course of NH3 loss. Higher DM content slurries had relatively higher rates of NH3 volatilization during the first 12 to 24 h, but lower rates thereafter. Under the hot conditions, the higher DM content slurries appeared to dry and crust more rapidly causing smaller rates of NH3 volatilization after 12 to 24 h, which offset the earlier positive effects of DM content on NH3 volatilization. Three studies compared immediate incorporation with different tillage implements. Total NH3 loss from unincorporated slurry was 45% of applied slurry NH4+-N, while losses following immediate incorporation with a moldboard plow, tandem-disk harrow, or chisel plow were, respectively, 0 to 3, 2 to 8, and 8 to 12%. These ground cover and DM content data can be used to improve predictions of NH3 loss under specific farming conditions. The immediate incorporation data demonstrate management practices that can reduce NH3 volatilization, which can improve slurry N utilization in crop-forage production. PMID:12175054

  7. Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Sim?nek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

    2012-12-01

    Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils. PMID:23141380

  8. Characteristics and composition of fouling caused by pig slurry in a tubular heat exchanger--recommended cleaning systems.

    PubMed

    Cunault, C; Coquinot, Y; Burton, C H; Picard, S; Pourcher, A M

    2013-03-15

    The structure and composition of the fouling deposits caused by pig slurry heated in a tubular heat exchanger were characterized to understand their formation and thus be able to minimize fouling and define effective routine cleaning methods. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. Two types of fouling were identified: organic/mineral and biofilm. The first only formed at temperatures above 50 °C, often during the heating phase, and was the main problem encountered in treatments at 80 °C. Organic/mineral deposits formed a thin compact sub-layer and a thick porous top layer composed of 67-76% minerals, 9-15% proteins, 8-20% carbohydrates and 0-5% fats. Biofilms formed at temperatures between 25 °C and 70 °C in both the cooling and heating sections of the exchanger. This type of fouling predominated at temperatures below 55 °C. The biofilm covered a thin mineral base layer. Strongly acidic or alkaline washing cycle are recommended to clean Type I deposits, while in-line gas-rumbling is recommended for Type II fouling. PMID:23334456

  9. Feasibility study of the anaerobic digestion of dewatered pig slurry by means of polyacrylamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Campos; M. Almirall; J. Mtnez-Almela; J. Palatsi; X. Flotats

    2007-01-01

    Liquid livestock waste can be managed by separating liquid and solid fractions then treating each separately by applying best avail- able technology, such as anaerobic digestion for the solid fraction. There is an increasing use of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a flocculant agent to improve solid-liquid separation. In the present work, the anaerobic toxicity of PAM residues and the optimal range

  10. Feasibility study of the anaerobic digestion of dewatered pig slurry by means of polyacrylamide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Campos; M. Almirall; J. Mtnez-Almela; J. Palatsi; X. Flotats

    2008-01-01

    Liquid livestock waste can be managed by separating liquid and solid fractions then treating each separately by applying best available technology, such as anaerobic digestion for the solid fraction. There is an increasing use of polyacrylamide (PAM) as a flocculant agent to improve solid–liquid separation. In the present work, the anaerobic toxicity of PAM residues and the optimal range of

  11. Enhancing soil infiltration reduces gaseous emissions and improves N uptake from applied dairy slurry.

    PubMed

    Bhandral, R; Bittman, S; Kowalenko, G; Buckley, K; Chantigny, M H; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Friesen, A

    2009-01-01

    Rapid infiltration of liquid manure into the soil reduces emissions of ammonia (NH(3)) into the atmosphere. This study was undertaken to assess the effects of two low-cost methods of assisting infiltration of applied dairy slurry on emissions of NH(3), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), and on crop N uptake. The two methods were removing of solids by settling-decantation to make the manure less viscous and mechanically aerating the soil. Ammonia emissions were measured with wind tunnels as percentage of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) while emissions of N(2)O were measured with vented chambers. Mechanically aerating the soil before manure application significantly reduced emissions of NH(3) relative to the nonaerated soil in spring (38.6 to 20.3% of applied TAN), summer (41.1 to 26.4% of applied TAN) and fall (27.7 to 13.6% of applied TAN) trials. Decantation of manure had no effect on NH(3) emissions in spring, tended to increase emissions in summer and significantly decreased emissions in fall (30.3 to 11.1% of applied TAN). Combining the two abatement techniques reduced NH(3) emission by 82% in fall, under cool weather conditions typical of manure spreading. The two abatement techniques generally did not significantly affect N(2)O emissions. Uptake of applied N by Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was generally significantly greater with decanted than from whole manure but the effect of aeration was generally small and not significant. The study shows that low cost methods that assist manure infiltration into the soil may be used to greatly reduce ammonia loss without increasing N(2)O emissions, but efficacy of abatement methods is affected by weather conditions. PMID:19465712

  12. Characteristics of volatile compounds removal in biogas slurry of pig manure by ozone oxidation and organic solvents extraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yujun; Feng, Lianshuang; Zhao, Xiaosong; Ma, Xiulan; Yang, Jingmin; Liu, Huiqing; Dou, Sen; Zhou, Miping; Xie, Zhonglei

    2013-09-01

    Biogas slurry is not suitable for liquid fertilizer due to its high amounts of volatile materials being of complicated composition and peculiar smell. In order to remove volatiles from biogas slurry efficiently, the dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to clear the composition of volatiles. Nitrogen stripping and superfluous ozone were also used to remove volatiles from biogas slurry. The results showed that there were 21 kinds of volatile compounds in the biogas slurry, including sulfur compounds, organic amines, benzene, halogen generation of hydrocarbons and alkanes, some of which had strong peculiar smell. The volatile compounds in biogas slurry can be removed with the rate of 53.0% by nitrogen stripping and with rate of 81.7% by the oxidization and stripping of the superfluous ozone. On this basis, the removal rate of the volatile compounds reached 99.2% by chloroform and n-hexane extraction, and almost all of odor was eliminated. The contents of some dissolved organic compounds decreased obviously and however main plant nutrients had no significant change in the biogas slurry after being treated. PMID:24520722

  13. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juluri R. Rao; Miyuki Watabe; T. Andrew Stewart; B. Cherie Millar; John E. Moore

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w\\/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w\\/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w\\/w), cocoa husks

  14. Simulation with models of increasing complexity of CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation, after soil application of labelled pig slurry and maize stalks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechini, Luca; Marino Gallina, Pietro; Geromel, Gabriele; Corti, Martina; Cavalli, Daniele

    2015-04-01

    High amounts of nitrogen are available per unit area in regions with intensive livestock operations. In swine farms, pig slurries are frequently incorporated in the soil together with maize stalks. Simulation models may help to understand nitrogen dynamics associated with animal manure and crop residue decomposition in the soil, and to support the definition of best management practices. The objective of this work was to test the ability of different models to simulate CO2 emissions and nitrogen mineralisation during a laboratory incubation (under optimal soil water content and constant temperature) of maize stalks (ST) and pig slurry (PS). A loam soil was amended with labelled (15N) or unlabelled maize stalks and pig slurries, in the presence of ammonium sulphate (AS). These treatments were established: unfertilised soil; ST15 + AS + PS; ST + AS15 + PS; and ST + AS + PS15. During 180 days, we measured CO2 emissions; microbial biomass C, N, and 15N; and soil mineral N (SMN and SM-15N). Three models of increasing complexity were calibrated using measured data. The models were two modifications of ICBM 2B/N (Kätterer and Andrén, 2001) and CN-SIM (Petersen et al., 2005). The three models simulated rather accurately the emissions of CO2 throughout the incubation period (Relative Root Mean Squared Error, RRMSE = 8-25). The simplest model (with one pool for ST and one for PS) strongly overestimated SMN immobilisation from day 3 to day 21, both in the treatments with AS15 and PS15 (RRMSE = 27-30%). The other two models represented rather well the dynamics of SMN in the soil (RRMSE = 21-25%), simulating a fast increase of nitrate concentration in the first days, and slower rates of nitrification thereafter. Worse performances were obtained with all models for the simulation of SM-15N in the treatment with ST15 (RRMSE = 64-104%): experimental data showed positive mineralization of stalk-derived N from the beginning of the incubation, while models strongly underestimated ST15 mineralisation until day 7. Due to model structure, trade-offs exist between a good simulation of CO2 emissions and a good simulation of SMN. Therefore, simulation performances of the three models are a compromise between the errors in the simulation of C and N dynamics. Thus, some models (especially the simplest one), overestimated or underestimated SMN to match CO2 measurements. This preliminary work emphasised the importance of testing models with both C and N measurements. This reduced the risk of obtaining model parameters suitable for the simulation of N (or opposite C) dynamics that lead to unrealistic simulation of C (or N) decomposition. The use of 15N-labelled materials will help to improve models for the simulation of added organic matter decomposition. Kätterer, T., Andrén, O., 2001. The ICBM family of analytically solved models of soil carbon, nitrogen and microbial biomass dynamics'descriptions and application examples. Ecol. Model. 136, 191-207. doi:10.1016/S0304-3800(00)00420-8. Petersen, B.M., Jensen, L.S., Hansen, S., Pedersen, A., Henriksen, T.M., Sørensen, P., Trinsoutrot-Gattin, I., Berntsen, J., 2005. CN-SIM: a model for the turnover of soil organic matter. II. Short-term carbon and nitrogen development. Soil Biol. Biochem. 37, 375-393. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.08.007.

  15. Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics Following Application of Pig Slurry for the 19th Consecutive Year: I. Carbon Dioxide Fluxes and Microbial Biomass Carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Rochette; Denis A. Angers

    the total emissions occurring during the first week after slurry applica- tion. The rapid initial decomposition was exponential and was attrib- slurry application on CO2 emissions and soil microbial uted to the decomposition of the labile fraction of the slurry C. The biomass. Soil temperature, soil moisture, and extract- second phase was linear and much slower and probably involved able

  16. Ice–liquid–vapour equilibria of ammonia and ethanol aqueous solutions applied to the production of ice-slurries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lugo; L. Fournaison; J. Guilpart

    2006-01-01

    Ice-slurries have gained high attention as they can achieve performant cold storage and transport with higher heat transfer rates; nevertheless, the technique of production of ice-slurries remains a subject of research that limits the development of this technology. Existing applications use scrappers or brushes to produce the dispersed ice, which is to be transported by an aqueous solution. In vacuum

  17. Lapping slurry

    DOEpatents

    Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Upchurch, Victor S. (Powell, TN); Leitten, Michael E. (Frederick, MD)

    1999-01-01

    Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina workpieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid.

  18. Modelling of the available latent heat of a CO 2 hydrate slurry in an experimental loop applied to secondary refrigeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandrine Marinhas; Anthony Delahaye; Laurence Fournaison; Didier Dalmazzone; Walter Fürst; Jean-Pierre Petitet

    2006-01-01

    The present study investigates the suitability of CO2 hydrate for a use as phase change material in two-phase secondary refrigeration. Unlike the generation of the classical two-phase refrigerants, power limited by mechanical parts, hydrate slurry production has the advantage of being performed using a nonmechanical process. Nevertheless, in order to be efficient, the hydrate slurry needs to fulfil two major

  19. A novel immunochromatographic test applied to a serological survey of Japanese encephalitis virus on pig farms in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cha, Go-Woon; Lee, Eun Ju; Lim, Eun-Joo; Sin, Kang Suk; Park, Woo Won; Jeon, Doo Young; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Woo-Young; Jeong, Young Eui

    2015-01-01

    Among vertebrate species, pigs are a major amplifying host of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and measuring their seroconversion is a reliable indicator of virus activity. Traditionally, the hemagglutination inhibition test has been used for serological testing in pigs; however, it has several limitations and, thus, a more efficient and reliable replacement test is required. In this study, we developed a new immunochromatographic test for detecting antibodies to JEV in pig serum within 15 min. Specifically, the domain III region of the JEV envelope protein was successfully expressed in soluble form and used for developing the immunochromatographic test. The test was then applied to the surveillance of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in Korea. We found that our immunochromatographic test had good sensitivity (84.8%) and specificity (97.7%) when compared with an immunofluorescence assay used as a reference test. During the surveillance of JE in Korea in 2012, the new immunochromatographic test was used to test the sera of 1,926 slaughtered pigs from eight provinces, and 228 pigs (11.8%) were found to be JEV-positive. Based on these results, we also produced an activity map of JEV, which marked the locations of pig farms in Korea that tested positive for the virus. Thus, the immunochromatographic test reported here provides a convenient and effective tool for real-time monitoring of JEV activity in pigs. PMID:25992769

  20. Feed restriction applied after weaning has different effects on pig performance and health depending on the sanitary conditions.

    PubMed

    Pastorelli, H; Le Floc'h, N; Merlot, E; Meunier-Salaün, M C; van Milgen, J; Montagne, L

    2012-12-01

    Feed restriction may be a strategy used by farmers to limit digestive disorders after weaning. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feed restriction applied 1 wk after weaning on growth performance and health of pigs reared in 2 different sanitary conditions (Good vs. Poor; managed in opposite ways with respect to cleaning, animal density, and preventive antibiotic use) and confronted with stressful common farming practices (i.e., diet transition and building transfer). At weaning at 4 wk of age, 48 pigs were assigned to 1 of the 4 experimental treatments consisting of 2 sanitary conditions and 2 feeding levels (ad libitum vs. restricted). At 2 d after weaning, restricted pigs received 20% of the feed quantity consumed by ad libitum pigs. The feeding level of the restricted pigs was gradually increased to attain ad libitum feeding on d 8. Imposed stressful conditions occurred at d 12 (the weaner diet replaced the starter diet), d 33 (transfer of pigs from the weaner unit to the grower unit), and d 47 (the grower diet replaced the weaner diet). This allowed 4 distinguishing phases: I, from 0 to 11 d; II, from 12 to 32 d; III, from 33 to 46 d; and IV, from 47 to 60 d after weaning. Poor sanitary conditions resulted in decreased growth performance during phase I (P < 0.001) and III (P < 0.01), and the final BW of pigs kept in Poor sanitary conditions was 4 kg less (P = 0.02) than those kept in Good sanitary conditions. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased on d 12 after weaning (P = 0.001) as was the occurrence of soft feces during phases II and III (P ? 0.05) in Poor sanitary conditions. In both sanitary conditions, the restricted feeding level resulted in decreased ADG (P < 0.001), increased plasma haptoglobin and salivary cortisol concentrations, and feeding-associated behaviors (P < 0.05) during phase I. In Poor sanitary conditions, feed restriction was very detrimental and differences in ADFI and ADG between restricted and ad libitum pigs increased with time (P = 0.05). Conversely, in Good sanitary conditions, restricted pigs attained the BW of ad libitum pigs before the end of the experiment. In conclusion, imposing feed restriction on pigs during the first days after weaning does not seem to be an effective strategy to decrease the negative effects of Poor sanitary conditions; rather, it reinforces these effects. PMID:22952368

  1. Application of PTR-MS for measuring odorant emissions from soil application of manure slurry.

    PubMed

    Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

    2015-01-01

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed. PMID:25585103

  2. Application of PTR-MS for Measuring Odorant Emissions from Soil Application of Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

    2015-01-01

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed. PMID:25585103

  3. Column studies to investigate the fate of veterinary antibiotics in clay soils following slurry application to agricultural land.

    PubMed

    Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2005-07-01

    The environment may be exposed to veterinary medicines administered to livestock due to the application of organic fertilisers to land. For other groups of substances that are applied to agricultural land (e.g. pesticides), preferential flow in underdrained clay soils has been identified as an extremely important pathway by which pollution of surface waters can occur. Three soil column leaching experiments have therefore been carried out using a clay soil to investigate the fate of a range of antibiotics from the sulphonamide, tetracycline and macrolide groups. These column studies complemented a range of other experiments at the field and semi-field scales, as well as modelling studies which are being reported in separate papers. Each column study had a different objective. The first examined the effect of pig slurry on the mobility of antibiotics in clay loam soil. The second experiment investigated changes in soil water pH due to the application of slurry. The final experiment quantified the extent to which soil tillage prior to slurry application can reduce the leaching of antibiotic residues found in slurry. It was found that slurry had no impact on the leaching of oxytetracycline although soil water pH was affected significantly by slurry application. It was also shown that pre-tillage can substantially reduce the leaching of antibiotic residues through macroporous clay soils. PMID:15950042

  4. Slurry-Mixing Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, E. V.

    1985-01-01

    Paddles and water jets create uniform, continuous flow. Slurry-mixing chamber on hydrojet-jaw mining machine ensures uniform, continuously flowing slurry of coal particles in water. By mixing coal and water at high speed and keeping resulting slurry in constant motion, chamber prevents slurry from becoming dry semisolid that blocks flow. Also prevents coal particles from settling and caking in bends, corners, and other locations where flow changes in direction or speed.

  5. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied KP-103 against Experimental Tinea Unguium in Guinea Pigs in Comparison with Amorolfine and Terbinafine

    PubMed Central

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoo, Mamoru; Senda, Hisato; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of KP-103, a novel topical triazole, in a guinea pig tinea unguium model was investigated. Experimental tinea unguium and tinea pedis were produced by inoculation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes SM-110 between the toes of the hind paw of guinea pigs. One percent solution (0.1 ml) of KP-103, amorolfine, or terbinafine was topically applied to the nails and whole sole of an infected foot once daily for 30 consecutive days, and terbinafine was also orally administered at a daily dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight for 30 consecutive days, starting on day 60 postinfection. The fungal burdens of nails and plantar skin were assessed using a new method, which makes it possible to recover infecting fungi by removing a carryover of the drug remaining in the treated tissues into the culture medium. Topically applied KP-103 inhibited the development of nail collapse, significantly reduced the fungal burden of the nails, and sterilized the infected plantar skin. On the other hand, topical amorolfine and topical or oral terbinafine were ineffective for tinea unguium, although these drugs eradicated or reduced the fungal burden of plantar skin. The in vitro activities of amorolfine and terbinafine against T. mentagrophytes SM-110 were 8- and 32-fold, respectively, decreased by the addition of 5% keratin to Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. In contrast, the activity of KP-103 was not affected by keratin because its keratin affinity is lower than those of the reference drugs, suggesting that KP-103 largely exists in the nails as an active form that was not bound to keratin and diffuses in the nail without being trapped by keratin. The effectiveness of KP-103 against tinea unguium is probably due to its favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the nails together with its potent antifungal activity. PMID:12435679

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of topically applied KP-103 against experimental tinea unguium in guinea pigs in comparison with amorolfine and terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoo, Mamoru; Senda, Hisato; Kakehi, Kazuaki

    2002-12-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of KP-103, a novel topical triazole, in a guinea pig tinea unguium model was investigated. Experimental tinea unguium and tinea pedis were produced by inoculation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes SM-110 between the toes of the hind paw of guinea pigs. One percent solution (0.1 ml) of KP-103, amorolfine, or terbinafine was topically applied to the nails and whole sole of an infected foot once daily for 30 consecutive days, and terbinafine was also orally administered at a daily dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight for 30 consecutive days, starting on day 60 postinfection. The fungal burdens of nails and plantar skin were assessed using a new method, which makes it possible to recover infecting fungi by removing a carryover of the drug remaining in the treated tissues into the culture medium. Topically applied KP-103 inhibited the development of nail collapse, significantly reduced the fungal burden of the nails, and sterilized the infected plantar skin. On the other hand, topical amorolfine and topical or oral terbinafine were ineffective for tinea unguium, although these drugs eradicated or reduced the fungal burden of plantar skin. The in vitro activities of amorolfine and terbinafine against T. mentagrophytes SM-110 were 8- and 32-fold, respectively, decreased by the addition of 5% keratin to Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. In contrast, the activity of KP-103 was not affected by keratin because its keratin affinity is lower than those of the reference drugs, suggesting that KP-103 largely exists in the nails as an active form that was not bound to keratin and diffuses in the nail without being trapped by keratin. The effectiveness of KP-103 against tinea unguium is probably due to its favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the nails together with its potent antifungal activity. PMID:12435679

  7. Ultrasound Analysis of Slurries

    DOEpatents

    Soong, Yee and Blackwell, Arthur G.

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N, gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  8. Ultrasound Analysis Of Slurries

    DOEpatents

    Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Blackwell, Arthur G. (Duquesne, PA)

    2005-11-01

    An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N.sub.2 gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

  9. Effects of dairy slurry on the nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry onto growing alfalfa. Our objectives were to determine the effects of dairy-slurry application on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa silages. Dairy slurry was applie...

  10. ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SLURRY WALLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Slurry walls are used at Superfund sites to contain the waste or contamination and to reduce the potential of future migration of waste constituents. n many cases slurry walls are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as covers and ground water pump-an...

  11. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

    2010-12-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  12. ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

  13. Medical ice slurry production device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth E. Kasza; John Oras; HyunJin Son

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production

  14. Cloning. Pigs is pigs.

    PubMed

    Prather, R S

    2000-09-15

    Since the first report of a cloned animal (Dolly the sheep) 3 years ago, cloning mammals has become something of a cottage industry. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation. PMID:11012362

  15. Combinatorial study of ceramic tape-casting slurries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhifu; Wang, Yiling; Li, Yongxiang

    2012-03-12

    Ceramic tape-casting slurries are complex systems composed of ceramic powder, solvent, and a number of organic components. Conventionally, the development of ceramic tape-casting slurries is time-consuming and of low efficiency. In this work, combinatorial approaches were applied to screen the ethanol and ethyl-acetate binary solvent based slurry for ceramic green tape-casting. The combinatorial libraries were designed considering the variation of the amount of PVB (Poly vinyl-butyral) binder, polyethylene-400, and butyl-benzyl-phthalate plasticizers, and glyceryl triacetate dispersant. A parallel magnetic stirring process was used to make the combinatorial slurry library. The properties mapping of the slurry library was obtained by investigating the sedimentation and rheological characteristics of the slurries. The slurry composition was refined by scaling up the experiments and comparing the microstructure, mechanical property, and sintering behavior of green tapes made from the selected slurries. Finally, a kind of ethanol-ethyl acetate binary solvent based slurry system suitable for making X7R dielectric ceramic green tapes was achieved. PMID:22283488

  16. Protective effect of topically applied polypeptide from Chlamys farreri against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in guinea pig

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Mingliang; Cao, Pengli; Yu, Guoying; Zhu, Li; Wang, Yuejun; Wang, Chunbo

    2003-12-01

    Polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF), a topical polypeptide isolated from Chlamys farreri, was used in this experiment aimed to investigate the photoprotective effect of PCF against chronic skin damage induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The chronic ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig model was established, and visible changes in the skin including wrinkling, sagging and erythema were observed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in the dorsal skin were determined using biochemical methods. The results showed: (1) PCF (5 % and 20%) could greatly protect the dorsal skin of guinea pig against wrinkling, sagging and erythema induced by UV radiation in a concentration-dependent manner. (2) PCF could reduce MDA formation in the dorsal skin caused by UV irradiation, while increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-px. (3) The differences among the PCF groups and UV model group were significant ( P<0.05, P<0.01). These results indicated that topical application, of PCF provided broad solar UV spectrum photoprotection; and that the antioxidant property of PCF might play a role in photoprotection.

  17. Persistence and leaching potential of microorganisms and mineral N in animal manure applied to intact soil columns.

    PubMed

    Amin, M G Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1)) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path. PMID:23124240

  18. Rheological characterization of hydraulic fracturing slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.N. (Halliburton Services, Duncan, OK (United States). Research and Engineering Dept.)

    1993-05-01

    Few studies have dealt with the flow behavior of concentrated suspensions or slurries prepared with non-Newtonian carrier fluids. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is to present experimental results obtained by pumping various hydraulic fracturing slurries into a fracture model and gathering data on differential pressure vs. flow rate. Several concentrations of hydroxypropyl guard (HPG), a wide range of proppant concentrations, and three test temperatures were studies. The effects of such variables as polymer gelling-agent concentration, proppant concentration, test temperature, and fracture-flow shear rate on the rheological properties of slurries were investigated. The correlations for predicting the relative slurry viscosity for these HPG fluids are presented. Substantial increases in viscosity of fracturing gels were observed, and results are discussed in light of several affecting variables. Results also are compared with those available for Newtonian and non-Newtonian concentrated suspensions. Applications of these correlations to estimate the hindered particle-settling velocity in the fracture caused by the presence of surrounding particles also is discussed. The correlations presented can easily be included in any currently available 2D or 3D fracture-design simulators; thus, the information can be applied directly to predict fracture geometry and extension.

  19. Multiwire slurry wafering demonstrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. P. Chen

    1978-01-01

    Ten slicing demonstrations on a multi-wire slurry saw, made to evaluate the silicon ingot wafering capabilities, reveal that the present sawing capabilities can provide usable wafer area from an ingot 1.05m\\/kg (e.g. kerf width 0.135 mm and wafer thickness 0.265 mm). Satisfactory surface qualities and excellent yield of silicon wafers were found. One drawback is that the add-on cost of

  20. Effects of dairy slurry on silage fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy producers frequently ask questions about the risks associated with applying dairy slurry to growing alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). Our objectives were to determine the effects of applying dairy slurry on the subsequent nutritive value and fermentation characteristics of alfalfa balage. Dairy sl...

  1. Sorting out slurry pump seals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1988-01-01

    Pumping applications in processing industries can vary from clean filtrates that have relatively no solids present, to 30% solid content in heavy media with specific gravities of 1.5 to 1.7. However, even small amounts of solids can cause rapid wear of rotating components such as shaft sleeves. Because of the solids content in slurry processing, slurry pumps are heavier and

  2. Improved coal-slurry pipeline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowler, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    High strength steel pipeline carries hot mixture of powdered coal and coal derived oil to electric-power-generating station. Slurry is processed along way to remove sulfur, ash, and nitrogen and to recycle part of oil. System eliminates hazards and limitations associated with anticipated coal/water-slurry pipelines.

  3. A single topical dose of erythropoietin applied on a collagen carrier enhances calvarial bone healing in pigs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose The osteogenic potency of erythropoietin (EPO) has been documented. However, its efficacy in a large-animal model has not yet been investigated; nor has a clinically safe dosage. The purpose of this study was to overcome such limitations of previous studies and thereby pave the way for possible clinical application. Our hypothesis was that EPO increases calvarial bone healing compared to a saline control in the same subject. Methods We used a porcine calvarial defect model. In each of 18 pigs, 6 cylindrical defects (diameter: 1 cm; height: 1 cm) were drilled, allowing 3 pairwise comparisons. Treatment consisted of either 900 IU/mL EPO or an equal volume of saline in combination with either autograft, a collagen carrier, or a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. After an observation time of 5 weeks, the primary outcome (bone volume fraction (BV/TV)) was assessed with high-resolution quantitative computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were histomorphometry and blood samples. Results The median BV/TV ratio of the EPO-treated collagen group was 1.06 (CI: 1.02–1.11) relative to the saline-treated collagen group. Histomorphometry showed a similar median effect size, but it did not reach statistical significance. Autograft treatment had excellent healing potential and was able to completely regenerate the bone defect independently of EPO treatment. Bony ingrowth into the PCL scaffold was sparse, both with and without EPO. Neither a substantial systemic effect nor adverse events were observed. The number of blood vessels was similar in EPO-treated defects and saline-treated defects. Interpretation Topical administration of EPO on a collagen carrier moderately increased bone healing. The dosing regime was safe, and could have possible application in the clinical setting. However, in order to increase the clinical relevance, a more potent but still clinically safe dose should be investigated. PMID:24564750

  4. Comparative study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement using two slurry circulation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Seong Yong; Miller, Tracy; Yueh, F.Y.; Singh, Jagdish P

    2007-07-01

    The experimental conditions associated with slurry measurements to achieve good precision by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are examined. LIBS analysis was applied to a special waste slurry sample that contains 85.4% water, 2.5% ferric oxide Fe2O3, 1.7% alumina Al2O3, and small quantities of oxides of boron and chromium. While liquids add challenge to LIBS measurements, the analysis was successfully performed on iron and aluminum. Two slurry circulation systems were devised to overcome the major technical problems associated with LIBS measurements of slurry samples, namely, sedimentation and change in the lens-to-sample distance during measurement. LIBS slurry measurements using both circulation systems are compared. The results show that the experimental configuration plays a crucial role for online slurry analysis.

  5. Compression ignition characteristics of coal slurry fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brehob

    1985-01-01

    Slow and medium speed compression ignition engines are devices with the potential for conversion to coal fueling. Recent work focuses on coal slurried in a liquid carrier. Engine studies on coal slurry to date have investigated the slurries' wear, thermal efficiency, and injection performance. Previously lacking information on the compression ignition characteristics of coal slurries, specifically, the ignition delay times

  6. Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows

    SciTech Connect

    Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

    2013-08-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

  7. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, Robert J. (Dover, NJ); Shadbolt, Edward A. (Basking Ridge, NJ)

    1983-01-01

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

  8. Streamline coal slurry letdown valve

    DOEpatents

    Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

    1983-11-08

    A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

  9. Coal slurry fuel supply and purge system

    DOEpatents

    McDowell, Robert E. (Fairview, PA); Basic, Steven L. (Hornell, NY); Smith, Russel M. (North East, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A coal slurry fuel supply and purge system for a locomotive engines is disclosed which includes a slurry recirculation path, a stand-by path for circulating slurry during idle or states of the engine when slurry fuel in not required by the engine, and an engine header fluid path connected to the stand-by path, for supplying and purging slurry fuel to and from fuel injectors. A controller controls the actuation of valves to facilitate supply and purge of slurry to and from the fuel injectors. A method for supplying and purging coal slurry in a compression ignition engine is disclosed which includes controlling fluid flow devices and valves in a plurality of fluid paths to facilitate continuous slurry recirculation and supply and purge of or slurry based on the operating state of the engine.

  10. Evaluation of denitrification losses by the acetylene inhibition technique in a permanent ryegrass field ( Lolium perenne L.) fertilized with animal slurry or ammonium nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Schwarz; M. Kapp; G. Benckiser; J. C. G. Ottow

    1994-01-01

    In a field experiment, the effect of animal slurry, (with and without the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide on total denitrification losses estimated by the C2H2 inhibition technique was measured over 2 years (1989–1990). During this period, four different plots (each with four replicates) were fertilized six times with 150 kg N ha-1 in the form of cattle-pig slurry or NH4NO3. Soil

  11. MEASURING GASEOUS EMISSIONS FROM STORED PIG SLURRY S. Espagnol1

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    to measure emissions factors of ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O) methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2 and their duration to measure emission factors. KEYWORDS. Ammonia, nitrous oxide, methane, gaseous emissions, dynamic;3 MATERIALS AND METHODS Experimental design In order to test the influence of air speed in the dynamic

  12. Ice slurry generation involving moving parts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Stamatiou; J. W. Meewisse; M. Kawaji

    2005-01-01

    Efficient ice slurry generation systems continuously produce ice crystals of desired size offering high cooling rates without any wall freeze-up. Although several ice slurry generation technologies have been and are being developed, currently only the scraped surface and supercooling type have been widely used in commercial applications. Typical ice slurry generators require the use of mechanical devices such as scraper

  13. Coal-water slurry combustion tests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. K. Manfred; R. W. Borio; S. J. Vecci

    1983-01-01

    This paper reports on the testing of slurries of different coals prepared by various vendors in order to establish typical ranges of physical and chemical properties and to determine the effect of these and rheological properties on atomization and combustion behavior. Six slurries provided by five vendors were tested to establish typical viscosity and solids levels of currently produced slurries.

  14. Advances in pigging technology

    SciTech Connect

    Naylor, J. [Pipeline Engineering, Yorkshire (United Kingdom)

    1998-08-01

    Pigging is now an essential aspect of pipeline planning and engineers, influencing every facet from design and routing to integrity management, rehabilitation, servicing and maintenance. Some recent developments are reviewed here but systems, equipment and products are being continually enhanced to improve operational efficiency and cost effectiveness. The paper describes special-purpose pigs and pigging systems, intelligent pigging, pig signaling and detection, and static pigging/pipeline isolation.

  15. Crop N and P utilization following application of slurry from swine fed traditional or low phytate corn diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field application of swine (Sus scrofa) slurry provides essential nutrients for crop production. The N:P ratio for slurry is lower than needed by most crops resulting in P accumulation when applied at N rates required for crop growth. Low phytate corn (Zea mays L.) (LPC) contains similar amounts of ...

  16. The effect of ilmenite plant dusts on rheological properties of Class G oil well cement slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Saasen, A.; Log, P.A. [Hoegskolen i Stavanger (Norway). Dept. of Petroleum Technology] [Hoegskolen i Stavanger (Norway). Dept. of Petroleum Technology

    1996-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate two ilmenite plant dusts as an alternative to barite as weight material for oil well cement slurries. These dusts had a similar particle size distribution to ground barite. Rheological investigations show that one of the dusts could be applied if it was properly dispersed. However, a change in consistency with time resulting from chemical reactions within the slurry was observed before the initial set. Such changes in consistency was not observed for a similar slurry weighted with barite. This makes the use of ilmenite plant dusts less favorable than the use of barite as a weight material for well cements.

  17. GPR measurements for the distribution of thixotropic slurry behind segments in large diameter and long distance pipe-jacking construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yonghui; Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Xiongyao; Zeng, Chenchao

    2013-04-01

    It is very important to form an integrated ring of thixotropic slurry around the pipe segments to reduce resistance during large diameter and long distance pipe jacking. Furthermore, the integrated slurry ring between the pipe and the excavated soil can effectively reduce the soil disturbance caused by the pipes, and minimize ground settlement. It is necessary to real-time monitor the spatial distribution of the thixotripic slurry during jacking process. The traditional solution to estimate the outlines of slurry ring is the jacking load and the injecting pressure. If the jacking load increases, which means more slurry should be injected to reduce the jacking load. However, this solution couldn't provide the distribution of the slurry beneath pipe segments, and locate the zones which need to be injected enough slurry. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been successfully used to detect the thickness of the grouting behind the shield tunnel segments in last several years. An important factor is the dielectric difference between grouting and soil. Similarly, the interface between the liquid slurry with high relative electric permittivity and surrounding soil, should be recognized from GPR image due to the distinct dielectric difference. Here, GPR experiment has been conducted on a sewage pipe jacking engineering. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the distribution of the thixotropic slurry through GPR image. In this sewage jacking engineering, the width and the thickness of each pipe segments is 200 cm and 30 cm, respectively. Considering the resolution and propagation range of radar wave, ground coupled bowtie antenna of 900 MHz frequency has been selected for GPR data acquisition. A series of circular GPR data have been collected along the inner surface of pipe segments. In addition, sampling of slurry has been performed on four different segments. The relative electric permittivity and conductivity of the thixotropic slurry have been measured by using time domain reflectometer (TDR). The velocity of propagation in slurry is calculated by dielectric characteristics, which extremely improves the resolution of time-depth conversion. Some process methods, including moving average, AGC and migration, have been applied to improve the quality of each GPR images. It's possible to recognize the reflection wave from the slurry-soil interface from the processed images. Combined the exact velocity estimation, the two-way travel time between pipe-slurry and slurry-soil interfaces can be converted to the thickness of the slurry ring. The experiment results show that GPR is able to evaluate the distribution of the liquid thixotropic slurry behind pipe segments in large diameter and long distance jacking. The velocity measured by TDR can significantly reduce the error caused by the time-depth conversion.

  18. Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics

    E-print Network

    Botero, Cristina

    Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. ...

  19. Separation of Liquid Pig Manure by Flocculation and Ion Exchange Part 1: Laboratory Experiments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Henriksen; L. Berthelsen; R. Matzen

    1998-01-01

    A method of treating pig manure is described, such that the necessary storage volume is reduced to 25–30% of the original volume. The manure is separated into a water fraction with a low content of dry matter and nutrients, and into a slurry fraction which contains most of the dry matter and nutrients. The water fraction can be purified to

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus consumption, utilisation and losses in pig production: Denmark

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A Fernández; H. D Poulsen; S Boisen; H. B Rom

    1999-01-01

    Swine production in Denmark has increased by more than 50% in the past 20 years and in this time the structure of production has changed markedly towards larger units. This has resulted in a serious threat to the local environment. Consequently, legislative measures with a progressive degree of restriction have been introduced. The annual production of slurry from pigs amounted

  1. Nitric oxide and greenhouse gases emissions following the application of different cattle slurry particle size fractions to soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fangueiro, David; Coutinho, João; Cabral, Fernanda; Fidalgo, Paula; Bol, Roland; Trindade, Henrique

    2012-02-01

    The application to soil of different slurry particle size fractions may lead to variable gaseous soil emissions and associated differential environmental impacts. An incubation experiment was carried out during 70 d to assess the influence on nitric oxide (NO) and greenhouse gas (GHG; i.e. nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane) emissions following incorporation of 4 particle size fractions, obtained through laboratorial separation from cattle slurry, to agricultural sandy loam soil (Dystric Cambisol). The response to these applied slurry fractions (>2000 ?m, 2000-500 ?m, 500-100 ?m, <100 ?m) was compared to other experimental treatments, including whole slurry (WS), ammonium sulphate (AS) and an unamended control (CON). The highest value of cumulated NO emissions (6.3 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) were observed from the AS treatment. The cumulated amount of NO emitted (˜1 mg NO-N kg -1 dry soil) was not significantly different between slurry fractions, thereby indicating that slurry particle size had no effect on NO emissions. The largest slurry fraction (>2000 ?m) induced significantly higher N 2O emissions (1.8 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil) compared to the other smaller sized fractions (1.0 mg N 2O-N kg -1 dry soil). The >2000 ?m, fraction, being more than 55% of the slurry by weight, was the major contributor to daily and cumulative N 2O emissions. Hence, for N 2O, the application of WS to agricultural soil is a better option that amendment with the >2000 ?m, fraction. Low CH 4 emissions (<200 ?g CH 4-C kg -1 dry soil d -1) were observed, but only in treatments amended with slurry or its fractions. The CH 4 emissions were short-lived and rates returned to control levels within 3 d after the slurry application. Higher CO 2 emissions were observed in soils amended with slurry fractions when compared to application with whole slurry. Clearly, slurry separation can increase soil CO 2 emissions relative to whole slurry application. Overall, N 2O contributed 10-30% to total GHG emissions, while that of methane was negligible. The present study suggested that mechanical separation of slurry into fractions and targeted application of the finest fractions to soil is a potential suitable management tool to reduce GHG emissions. However, the largest fractions have to be used for other purposes as anaerobic digestion rather than applied to soil.

  2. The Effect of Chemical Amendments Used for Phosphorus Abatement on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Cattle Slurry: Synergies and Pollution Swapping

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Raymond B.; Healy, Mark G.; Fenton, Owen; Lanigan, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Land application of cattle slurry can result in incidental and chronic phosphorus (P) loss to waterbodies, leading to eutrophication. Chemical amendment of slurry has been proposed as a management practice, allowing slurry nutrients to remain available to plants whilst mitigating P losses in runoff. The effectiveness of amendments is well understood but their impacts on other loss pathways (so-called ‘pollution swapping’ potential) and therefore the feasibility of using such amendments has not been examined to date. The aim of this laboratory scale study was to determine how the chemical amendment of slurry affects losses of NH3, CH4, N2O, and CO2. Alum, FeCl2, Polyaluminium chloride (PAC)- and biochar reduced NH3 emissions by 92, 54, 65 and 77% compared to the slurry control, while lime increased emissions by 114%. Cumulative N2O emissions of cattle slurry increased when amended with alum and FeCl2 by 202% and 154% compared to the slurry only treatment. Lime, PAC and biochar resulted in a reduction of 44, 29 and 63% in cumulative N2O loss compared to the slurry only treatment. Addition of amendments to slurry did not significantly affect soil CO2 release during the study while CH4 emissions followed a similar trend for all of the amended slurries applied, with an initial increase in losses followed by a rapid decrease for the duration of the study. All of the amendments examined reduced the initial peak in CH4 emissions compared to the slurry only treatment. There was no significant effect of slurry amendments on global warming potential (GWP) caused by slurry land application, with the exception of biochar. After considering pollution swapping in conjunction with amendment effectiveness, the amendments recommended for further field study are PAC, alum and lime. This study has also shown that biochar has potential to reduce GHG losses arising from slurry application. PMID:26053923

  3. Optimizing slurry separation in coal preparation

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Shved; V.H. Fritsler; V.V. Bukhtiyarov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    In processing slurry with cationic polyelectrolytes, the final concentration of the suspended particulates in the water beyond the slurry tank in the coal-preparation shop is no more than 10 mg/l. Consequently, this water may be reused in industrial systems.

  4. Single stage high pressure centrifugal slurry pump

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Daniel, Arnold D. (Alameda, CA)

    1984-03-27

    Apparatus is shown for feeding a slurry to a pressurized housing. An impeller that includes radial passages is mounted in the loose fitting housing. The impeller hub is connected to a drive means and a slurry supply means which extends through the housing. Pressured gas is fed into the housing for substantially enveloping the impeller in a bubble of gas.

  5. Slurry erosion properties of ceramic coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. X Zhao; A Yabuki; M Matsumura; T Takahashi; M Yamamoto

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of ceramic coatings on pump impellers used in the acidic gypsum-fly ash slurry environments in desulphurisers was assessed by using two kinds of slurry erosion tester. The experimental results from the two testers did not always coincide, although in general they did. The possible reasons and the implications of this distinction between the two testers were discussed, and

  6. Wear of elastomeric seals in abrasive slurries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugo M. Ayala; Douglas P. Hart; Oscar C. Yeh; Mary C. Boyce

    1998-01-01

    Seals are a critical aspect of machinery that operates in the presence of abrasive slurries. Seals act to maintain machine lubrication and prevent abrasives from affecting critical components. Over time, however, the slurry will wear the seal and lead to a loss of lubrication and eventual machine failure. It is therefore important to investigate the seal wear process in aims

  7. Apparent Benzene Solubility in Tetraphenylborate Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R.F.; Peterson, R.A.; Crawford, C.L.

    1997-11-01

    Personnel conducted testing to determine the apparent solubility of benzene in potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries. The lack of benzene vapor pressure suppression in these tests indicate that for a 6.5 wt percent solids KTPB slurry in 4.65 M Na+ salt solution at approximately 25 degrees Celsius, no significant difference exists between the solubility of benzene in the slurry and the solubility of benzene in salt solution without KTPB solids. The work showed similar results in slurry with 6,000 mg/L sludge and 2,000 mg/L monosodium titanate added. Slurries containing tetraphenylborate decomposition intermediates (i.e., 4,200 mg/L triphenylboron (3PB), 510 mg/L diphenylborinic acid (2PB) and 1,500 mg/L phenylboric acid (1PB) or 100 mg/L tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)) also showed no significant difference in benzene solubility form filtrate containing no KTPB solids. Slurry containing 2,000 mg/L Surfynol 420 did exhibit significant additional benzene solubility, as did irradiated slurries. The vapor pressure depression in the irradiated slurries presumably results from dissolution of biphenyl and other tetraphenylborate irradiation products in the benzene.

  8. Refinement of ptr-ms methodology and application to the measurement of (o)vocs from cattle slurry

    E-print Network

    House, Emily

    2009-01-01

    product distributions is applied to identify possible contributors to m/z observed during PTR-MS measurements of emission from cattle slurry. Field measurements were made during fertilisation of a grassland site south of Edinburgh in 2004 and 2005...

  9. Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

    1988-01-01

    A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

  10. ICP analysis of water slurries of ashes

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, J.T.; Renfrow, M.B.; Riley, J.M. Jr.

    1995-08-01

    The direct injection of solids-water slurries into the torch of an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer offers a rapid and easy method for the analysis of major and minor elements in various solids. In this project aqueous slurries of solids were prepared by milling with a stirred-ball slurry attritor mill and analyzed. Slurries of standard reference materials, prepared in the same manner, were used to calibrate the spectrometer. The best results were obtained with solids having a small particle size (2-5 {mu}m) and a close distribution of particle sizes. The average percent relative error for slurry-ICP analysis of most major and minor elements was generally less than 5% for the materials studied.

  11. Pilot scale facility to determine gaseous emissions from livestock slurry during storage.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Søren O; Skov, Morten; Drøscher, Per; Adamsen, Anders P S

    2009-01-01

    Livestock production is a growing source of air pollution, locally and to the wider environment. Improved livestock manure management has the potential to reduce environmental impacts, but there is a need for methodologies to precisely quantify emissions. This paper describes and evaluates a novel storage facility for livestock slurry consisting of eight 6.5-m(3) cylindrical units. The stores may be equipped with airtight covers and ventilated during storage or during measurement only. Each store has eight air inlets (160 mm diameter) and a single outlet in the cover connected to a main ventilation duct. The stores can also be used as static enclosures. Ventilation can be regulated within the range of 50 to 250 m(3) h(-1). A gas sampling line enables sampling of odorants using automatic thermal desorption tubes, ammonia using acid traps, and greenhouse gases using gas sampling bags (pooled samples) or a syringe (time point samples). Complete recovery of CH(4) independent of ventilation rate was demonstrated. Vertical profiles of CO(2) and CH(4) above the slurry surface with and without ventilation and mixing of the headspace indicated methane oxidation activity in the surface crust. p-Cresol and 4-ethyl phenol emission from pig slurry was identified by GC-MS analysis of odor collected on adsorption tubes. Ammonia emissions between 0 and 166 mg N m(-2) h(-1) were observed during storage of pig slurry with and without surface crust and cover. A comparison of pooled and averaged time point measurements of CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O indicated that pooled samples account for the diurnal variations under realistic storage conditions. PMID:19549932

  12. Effects of Application of Dairy Slurry on Voluntary Intake of Orchardgrass Hays by Growing Dairy Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many dairy production systems have a critical need for available sites to land apply dairy slurry after spring planting and during the summer months. One potential option is to apply these nutrients on perennial grass sods; however, this approach is viable only if voluntary intake by livestock is no...

  13. The effect of cattle slurry electroflotation products as fertilizers on gaseous emissions and grassland yield.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, S; Merino, P; Lekuona, A; Pinto, M; González-Murua, C; Estavillo, J M

    2008-01-01

    The climatic conditions of the Basque Country (northern Spain) provide the favorable conditions for the growth of grasslands and the development of livestock enterprises. The intensification of the farms is leading to serious environmental risks due to the great generation of manures and slurries and their subsequent inefficient management. Their application involves N losses that can be pollutant. The environmental company ADE BIOTEC S.L. is developing the process called "electroflotation" with the aim of reducing the volume of slurries from intensive livestock farms. The process consists basically of an electrolysis of the slurry catalyzed by iron which leads to the flocculation of the solid particles, giving as a final result a solid and a liquid fraction. The objective of this work was to assess the usefulness of these two fractions as fertilizers. With this aim, the environmental risk of their application was determined regarding gaseous emissions to the atmosphere (i.e., of NO, NH(3), N(2)O, and CO(2)) and their fertilizer capacity was investigated by determining their effects on grassland yield and N uptake in comparison to the untreated slurry. The untreated slurry and the solid and the liquid fractions were all applied at a rate of 70 kg NH(4)(+)-N ha(-1). The application of the products of electroflotation did not affect N(2)O and CO(2) losses, being of the same magnitude as those caused by the application of the original slurry. However, after their application, a reduction in NH(3) volatilization losses was induced in the short term and a reduction in NO losses was caused in the long term. The solid and liquid fractions both increased biomass yield with respect to the untreated slurry. The solid fraction even induced a higher N uptake than the liquid fraction and the untreated slurry. PMID:18453418

  14. The Importance of the Solids Loading on Confirming the Dielectric Nanosize Dependence of BaTiO3 Powders by Slurry Method

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Nie, Yi Mei; Li, Shu Jing; Liang, Hai Yan

    2013-01-01

    The dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO3 powders was investigated by the slurry method, where two series of BaTiO3 slurries with 10?vol% and 30?vol% solids loadings were prepared as model samples. Applying the Bruggeman-Hanai equation, the high-frequency limiting permittivity (?h) of the slurries was extracted from the dielectric spectra. The ?h of the 10?vol% slurry showed abnormal size independence in the range from 100?nm to 700?nm, and the ?h of the 30?vol% slurry exhibited good agreement with the previous prediction. Through analysing quantitatively the response of ?h to the changing permittivity of the powders under different solids loading, it was found that the ?h of the slurry with lower solids loading is more inclined to be interfered by the systematic and random errors. Furthermore, a high permittivity value was found in the BaTiO3 powders with 50?nm particle size. PMID:23844376

  15. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

  16. Process for heating coal-oil slurries

    DOEpatents

    Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

    1984-01-03

    Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

  17. Corrosion pig performance evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Vieth, P.H. [Kiefner and Associates, Inc., Worthington, OH (United States); Rust, S.W. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); Johnson, E.R.; Cox, M.L. [Alyeska Pipeline Service Co., Anchorage, AK (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The ability of a corrosion pig to reliably detect, measure, and assess corrosion that could adversely affect pipeline integrity is its most important performance attribute. Objective knowledge of the performance limitations of in-line inspection tools (commonly referred to as pigs) under real operating conditions is the key to subsequent decision making based on pig results.

  18. Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.

    PubMed

    Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H

    2011-01-01

    Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end. PMID:21520745

  19. The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

    2011-07-01

    The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission reduction.

  20. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Khanna; R. Friendship; C. Deweya; J. S. Weese

    2008-01-01

    Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has recently been identified in pigs and people that work with pigs, raising concerns about the role of pigs as reservoirs of MRSA for human infection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in pigs and pig farmers in Ontario, Canada and to characterize MRSA strains. Nasal and

  1. Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng.

    1990-01-01

    A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32[degrees]C by absorbing water at 25[degrees]C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33[degrees]C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

  2. Determination of mercury in fish samples by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Ming-Jyh; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Li, Yi-Ching

    1997-06-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to the determination of mercury in several fish samples. The effects of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals are reported. Palladium was used as modifier to delay the vaporization of mercury in this study. As the vaporization behavior of mercury in fish slurry and aqueous solution is quite different, the standard addition method was used for the determination of mercury in reference materials. The detection limit of mercury estimated from the standard addition curve was in the range 0.002-0.004 ?g g -1 for different samples. This method has been applied to the determination of mercury in dogfish muscle reference material (DORM-1 and DORM-2) and dogfish liver reference material (DOLT-1). Accuracy was better than 4% and precision was better than 7% with the USS-ETV-ICP-MS method.

  3. Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management

    PubMed Central

    ?i?ková, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozánek, Milan; Martínez-Sánchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Taká?, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7±32.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.9±2.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8±11.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

  4. Ice/water slurry blocking phenomenon at a tube orifice.

    PubMed

    Hirochi, Takero; Yamada, Shuichi; Shintate, Tuyoshi; Shirakashi, Masataka

    2002-10-01

    The phenomenon of ice-particle/water mixture blocking flow through a pipeline is a problem that needs to be solved before mixture flow can be applied for practical use in cold energy transportation in a district cooling system. In this work, the blocking mechanism of ice-particle slurry at a tube orifice is investigated and a criterion for blocking is presented. The cohesive nature of ice particles is shown to cause compressed plug type blocking and the compressive yield stress of a particle cluster is presented as a measure for the cohesion strength of ice particles. PMID:12496014

  5. Yield stress and effusion rates in model cryovolcanic slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, R.; Petford, N.; Heyes, D. G.

    2009-12-01

    A recent publication on the low temperature viscometry of methanol-water slurries [Zhong et al, Icarus 202, 607-619 (2009)] has provided the first experimental evidence for the likely presence of a ‘yield stress’ in putative cryomagmas - a precursor for levee formation and steep sided volcanic structures on icy planets. This paper serves to build on this approach by applying a range of rheometrical techniques routinely employed in materials science. The system water-sucrose was used as a model ‘cryomagma’. This has the practical advantage of allowing experiments to be undertaken at 253 - 273K, prior to the planned construction of a low temperature measuring system capable of operating down to 120K. The ‘peritectic’ for the model system has a composition close to 66.3:33.7 sucrose:water and a viscosity at 255 K of ~ 15 Pa s - not dissimilar from regions of the ammonia-water-methanol phase diagram. The ice crystal volume fraction was varied in the range 0.05 - 0.35, by variation in the water:sucrose ratio prior to freezing - giving consistencies ranging from a ‘fluid slurry’ to a ‘soft solid’. A vane and serrated cup measuring geometry was employed to avoid artefacts from wall slip. Data from a range of experiments are presented - including flow curves (controlled stress and controlled rate), creep studies (‘static’ yield stress) and stress ramps (‘dynamic’ yield stress), linear viscoelastic measurements (varying strain, frequency, temperature) and assessments of time-dependent structural recovery (thixotropy) - and their geophysical significance highlighted. Rheometrical experiments were also performed using a novel extrusion flow cell that allows observation of slurry flow through a cylindrical channel. Combination of dynamic yield stress data from rotational experiments and pressure drop measurements from extrusion studies allows the prediction of the slurry effusion rate, following the treatments commonly employed in industrial extrusion situations. Initial results suggest that the slurry under shear deviates from published models used to predict the relative viscosity of suspensions (see Figure). Novel numerical approaches are being developed in parallel that have potential to explore the multi-phase rheological aspects of these systems in more detail.

  6. Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.

    PubMed

    Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

    2014-11-01

    Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (P<0.001). However, penmate-directed behaviour was not reduced with an increased amount of straw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P<0.001), but the amount of penmate-directed behaviour was similar (P>0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy pigs more than one daily allocation did. In conclusion, there was no difference in penmate-directed behaviour of the pigs when given 25 or 50 g of straw/pig per day compared with 100 g of straw/pig per day, nor were there any difference when 100 g of straw/pig per day was provided more frequently. PMID:25076383

  7. Cleaning pipelines: a pigging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Kipin, P.

    1985-02-04

    The ''pig'', a cleaning device currently used to clear out pipes, is discussed here. Types of pigs are described and include styrofoam, rubber, and soft foam. The limitations to the use of pigs are discussed. Unless all valves are fully open, a pig can get stuck. Ball-type tees may cause a short pig to drop and bypass. Generally, no pig is able to traverse a one-cut miter.

  8. Approach to designing structural slurry walls

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Tryon, S.O.

    1999-11-01

    Some of the deepest structural slurry walls in the world were designed for permanent training walls at the Dam No. 2 Hydropower Project on the Arkansas River. Each of the 152 wall panels had to be optimized for embedment, length, section type, and restraining system. Compatibility for deflection and load transfer of adjacent panels was an integral part in designing individual structural slurry wall panels to behave as a system of panels. Design of the structural slurry walls utilized the computer program RIDO to analyze the deflection, shear, and moment under construction and operation conditions. Structural requirements for the design based on the RIDO analyses were checked using STAAD-III. A third program (SOILSTRUCT) was used to verify the 2D global deformation of the proposed structural slurry wall system. Analyses and design had to be completed in a short 9-month time frame. This paper presents the design methodology, approach, and procedures for optimization of the structural slurry wall system required to make this project a reality.

  9. Fundamental Researches and Developments on Fine Criystalline Ice Slurries in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukusako, Shoichiro; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Masahiko; Tanino, Masayuki

    In this paper, a brief review for fundamental researches and developments on fine crystalline ice slurries in Japan has been made. The present paper essentially consists of two parts. In the former part of the present paper, the fundamental studies on the basic components, namely, the production, the transportation, and the melting of ice slurry were presented. Furthermore, as an example for the application of these basic researches, the computer simulation on the cold thermal storage system has been performed to study the effects of such as the operation mode on the system performance. In the latter part, the state of the art of ice slurries, which is applied to development of ice storage systems for air conditioning uses in Japan, has been described. The types of ice storage system were categorized into five groups by the way of ice manufacturing. Furthermore, the performance of ice storage system was also discussed.

  10. Development on test equipment of coal slurry mixing tank

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin Wang; Xu-wen Zhang; Zhi-ping Chen; Jian-hua Lan

    2010-01-01

    A coal slurry mixing tank is a key piece of equipment in the preparation of coal slurry for direct coal liquefaction. It is\\u000a a gas-liquid-solid three-phase mixing device. Based on the performance of the existing coal slurry mixing equipment, a type\\u000a of test equipment for horizontal continuous coal slurry preparation was developed, but to this point has limited research\\u000a results.

  11. Simplified slurry design increases wellsite success

    SciTech Connect

    Grant, W.H.; Dodd, E.L.; Gardner, C.A. (Chevron Services Co. (US))

    1989-09-01

    Highly flexible cement systems can be designed to accommodate a broad range of well conditions with a relatively small number of additives that are readily available from any cementing service company. Fluid-loss additives can be used with dispersants and small amounts of KCl (when applicable) to design slurries for most primary cementing applications - e.g., cementing in CO/sub 2/ and salt-zone environments and prevention of annular flow after cementing. This paper illustrates how materials and slurry properties that are easily specified can be used to improve wellsite success.

  12. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  13. Acidophilic biohydrogen production from rice slurry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Herbert H. P. Fang; Chenlin Li; Tong Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Batch experiment results showed that hydrogen production from rice slurry was found most effective at pH 4.5, 37°C treating a slurry containing 5.5g-carbohydrate\\/L. An anaerobic digester sludge was used as seed after a 100°C heat treatment for 30min. After a 36h acclimation period, the sludge had a maximum specific hydrogen production rate of 2.1L\\/(g-VSSd) and a hydrogen yield of 346mL\\/g-carbohydrate,

  14. The hydrogen peroxide, as a potentially useful slurry disinfectant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alenka Tofant; Marija Vu?emilo; Željko Pavi?i?; Dinka Mili?

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is used more and more as the water and wastewater as well as slurry disinfectant. Its advantages over other oxidants are nontoxic, harmless, and environmentally acceptable by products. The basic task in the disinfection of slurry is to destroy or remove infectious microorganisms so that the slurry cannot transmit disease producing agents, when disposed on the land or

  15. District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, P.J.

    1991-01-02

    The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

  16. Geosynthetic tubes for confining pressurized slurry: Some design aspects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dov Leshchinsky; H. I. Ling; O. Leshchinsky; Paul A. Gilbert

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with geosynthetic tubes that are made of several geosynthetic sheets sewn together to form a shell capable of confining pressurized slurry. The slurry is sufficiently fluid so that it is possible to hydraulically fill the tube. After pumping the slurry in, the geosynthetic shell acts as a cheese cloth, allowing seepage of liquid out and retaining the

  17. Pig Poop Power

    E-print Network

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2007-04-11

    Broadcast Transcript: What could be more fitting in the Year of the Pig than to turn to the pig for power? And that's what is happening here in South Korea. In an effort to develop environmentally friendly, renewable energy sources, the South...

  18. Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Hayashi; K. Kasza

    2000-01-01

    The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient

  19. Effects of a reduced calcium, phosphorus and protein intake and of benzoic acid on calcium and phosphorus metabolism of growing pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Gutzwiller; H. D. Hess; A. Adam; D. Guggisberg; A. Liesegang; P. Stoll

    2011-01-01

    In order to minimise environmental pollution, many pig feeds contain low phosphorus and protein concentrations as well as benzoic acid (BA), an additive which reduces ammonia formation in the slurry. Since both a low P intake and metabolic acidosis compromise bone mineralisation, the effect of a diet with a low concentration of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P) and crude protein (CP)

  20. Fluidization mechanisms in slurry flows: Quarterly report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    The major goal of this project is to determine by which mechanism, nonbuoyant solid particles are held in suspension in a slurry flow. Basically, this is accomplished either by: (1) entrainment of particles in turbulent eddies or (2) self-fluidization of the particles by Bagnold dispersive stresses, in much the same way as in a dry granular material. The principal object

  1. Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

  2. Compression ignition of coal slurry fuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. D. Brehob; R. F. Sawyer

    1985-01-01

    Slow- and medium-speed compression ignition engines have the potential for conversion to coal fueling. Previous engine studies on coal slurries have investigated wear, thermal efficiency, and injection performance without evaluating the ignition characteristics. The ignition delay times and conditions for ignition of 45 mass % coal in methanol, diesel No. 2, and water are compared to diesel No. 2 and

  3. Ice slurry production using supercooling phenomenon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Pierre Bédécarrats; Thomas David; Jean Castaing-Lasvignottes

    2010-01-01

    The studied ice slurry production consists in generating ice from a flow of supercooled water or aqueous solution. After leaving the evaporator of the refrigerating plant, the supercooled flow is physically disturbed in order to generate ice crystals. The influence of different parameters on the crystallization have been studied: the level of supercooling, the flow rate and the refrigerant temperature.

  4. SLURRY TRENCH CONSTRUCTION FOR POLLUTION MIGRATION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The handbook provides in-depth guidance on the use of slurry walls for the control of subsurface pollutants. It describes how these barriers can be employed for waste site remediation and presents the theory of their function and use. The handbook describes the essential elements...

  5. Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

  6. Exporting Colorado water in coal slurry pipelines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean T. Massey

    1985-01-01

    The San Marco Pipeline Company has proposed a 1000 mile (1610 km) pipeline system to move coal slurry from southeastern Colorado to several electrical generating plants in the Texas Gulf Coast area. This area of Colorado is experiencing severe water shortage problems due to the large amount of water used for irrigation. Colorado statutes restrict the diversion of both surface

  7. Evaluation of slurry characteristics for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Ki Yeon [Research Institute of Advanced Materials (RIAM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Young Il [SAMSUNG SDI, 428-5 Gongse-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin, Kyunggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Youn, Jae Ryoun, E-mail: jaeryoun@snu.ac.kr [Research Institute of Advanced Materials (RIAM), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Daehak-Dong, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Young Seok, E-mail: ysong@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Fiber System Engineering, Dankook University, 126 Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Lithium-ion battery slurries are prepared for rechargeable batteries. • The dispersion state of slurry constituents is identified. • Thermal, morphological, rheological, and electrical properties of slurries are analyzed. - Abstract: A multi-component slurry for rechargeable batteries is prepared by dispersing LiCoO{sub 2}, conductive additives, and polymeric binders in a solvent. The physical properties, including rheological, morphological, electrical, and spectroscopic features of battery slurries are investigated. The relationship between the measured physical properties and the internal structure of the slurry is analyzed. It is found that the rheological behavior of the slurry is determined by the interaction of active materials and binding materials (e.g., network structure) and that the dispersion state of conductive additives (e.g., agglomeration) also depends on the binder–carbon interaction.

  8. Synthetic maternal pheromone stimulates feeding behavior and weight gain in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    McGlone, J J; Anderson, D L

    2002-12-01

    One hundred and forty-four pigs were used to determine the effects of a putative synthetic maternal pheromone on behavior and performance of weanling pigs. Each pen of weaned pigs contained three pigs that were given free access to water and feed. Pigs were videotaped in time lapse for 48 h after weaning and weekly body weights and feed disappearances were recorded for 4 wk. Treatments included: a) control (vehicle applied), b) 30 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to the feeder, or c) 10 mL of synthetic pheromone applied to each of three pigs' snouts. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone spent more (P < 0.05) time with their heads in the feeder and less (P < 0.05) time drinking, lying down, or engaged in agonistic behaviors than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone were more (P < 0.05) active during the 48-h period of video taping than control pigs. Pigs exposed to the synthetic pheromone (either on the feeder or their snout) had increased (P < 0.01) average daily gain (ADG) and better (P < 0.01) feed:gain ratio than control pigs over the 28-d postweaning period. In conclusion, the putative synthetic pheromone, applied once at weaning, stimulated apparent feeding behaviors, and reduced fighting and apparent drinking behaviors during the first 48 h after weaning. ADG and feed:gain ratio were improved by application of the putative synthetic pheromone either directly on the feeder or when painted on the pigs' snouts. Olfactory signals can modulate adaptation to the postweaning environment in ways that may improve pig performance and welfare. PMID:12542158

  9. Keeping Show Pigs Healthy 

    E-print Network

    Lawhorn, D. Bruce

    2006-10-13

    pro- gram that is practical and simple. A major problem with pigs in 4-H and FFA projects is that no vaccines are used, or they are improperly used. While vaccines do not exist for all swine dis- eases, there are ones that are effective against some...). The first dose is administered for pigs as early as 4 weeks of age that are raised on your farm. Pigs are usually purchased when they are at least 8 weeks old or weigh at least 40 pounds; you will need to vaccinate them the first week they arrive...

  10. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Sangeeta, D (Cincinnati, OH)

    2002-01-01

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  11. Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles

    DOEpatents

    Hasz, Wayne Charles; Sangeeta, D

    2006-04-18

    A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

  12. Screening pigs for xenotransplantation: expression of porcine endogenous retroviruses in transgenic pig skin.

    PubMed

    Kimsa-Dudek, Magdalena; Strzalka-Mrozik, Barbara; Kimsa, Malgorzata W; Blecharz, Irena; Gola, Joanna; Skowronek, Bartlomiej; Janiszewski, Adrian; Lipinski, Daniel; Zeyland, Joanna; Szalata, Marlena; Slomski, Ryszard; Mazurek, Urszula

    2015-06-01

    Pigs seem to be the answer to worldwide organ donor shortage. Porcine skin may also be applied as a dressing for severe burns. Genetic modifications of donor animals enable reduction of immune response, which prolongs xenograft survival as temporary biological dressing and allows achieving resistance against xenograft rejection. The risk posed by porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) cannot be eliminated by breeding animals under specific-pathogen-free conditions and so all recipients of porcine graft will be exposed to PERVs. Therefore our study has been focused on the assessment of PERV DNA and mRNA level in skin samples of transgenic pigs generated for xenotransplantation. Porcine skin fragments were obtained from 3- to 6-month-old non-transgenic and transgenic Polish Landrace pigs. Transgenic pigs were produced by pronuclear DNA microinjection and were developed to express the human ?-galactosidase and the human ?-1,2-fucosyltransferase gene. The copy numbers of PERV DNA and RNA were evaluated using real-time Q-PCR and QRT-PCR. Comparative analysis of all PERV subtypes revealed that PERV-A is the main subtype of PERVs in analyzed skin samples. There was no significantly different copy number of PERV-A, PERV-B and PERV-C between non-transgenic pigs, pigs with the human ?-galactosidase and pigs expressing the human ?-1,2-fucosyltransferase gene, except of PERV-C DNA. It brings the conclusion, that transgenesis process exerts no influence on PERVs transinfection. That is another step forward in the development of pig skin xenografts as burn wounds dressing. PMID:25812516

  13. Computational modeling of dilute biomass slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprague, Michael; Stickel, Jonathan; Fischer, Paul; Lischeske, James

    2012-11-01

    The biochemical conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid transportation fuels involves a multitude of physical and chemical transformations that occur in several distinct processing steps (e.g., pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation). In this work we focus on development of a computational fluid dynamics model of a dilute biomass slurry, which is a highly viscous particle-laden fluid that can exhibit yield-stress behavior. Here, we model the biomass slurry as a generalized Newtonian fluid that accommodates biomass transport due to settling and biomass-concentration-dependent viscosity. Within a typical mixing vessel, viscosity can vary over several orders of magnitude. We solve the model with the Nek5000 spectral-finite-element solver in a simple vane mixer, and validate against experimental results. This work is directed towards our goal of a fully coupled computational model of fluid dynamics and reaction kinetics for the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass.

  14. Determination of field scale ammonia emissions for common slurry spreading practice with two independent methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, J.; Ammann, C.; Kuhn, U.; Spirig, C.; Hirschberger, R.; Gärtner, A.; Neftel, A.

    2011-09-01

    At a cropland and a grassland site field scale ammonia (NH3) emissions from slurry application were determined simultaneously by two approaches based on (i) eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using high temperature Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (HT-CIMS) and on (ii) backward Lagrangian Stochastic (bLS) dispersion modelling using concentration measurements by three optical open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) systems. Slurry was spread on the fields in sequential tracks over a period of one to two hours. In order to calculate field emissions, measured EC/HT-CIMS fluxes were combined with flux footprint analysis of individual slurry spreading tracks to parameterise the NH3 volatilisation with a bi-exponential time dependence. Accordingly, track-resolved concentration footprints for the FTIR measurements were calculated using bLS. A consistency test with concentrations measured by impingers showed very low systematic deviations for the EC/HT-CIMS results (<8%) but larger deviations for the bLS/FTIR results. For both slurry application events, the period during fertilisation and the subsequent two hours contributed by more than 80% to the total field emissions. Averaged over the two measurement methods, the cumulated emissions of the first day amounted to 17 ± 3% loss of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen over the cropland and 16 ± 3% over the grassland field.

  15. Slurry Molding Technologies for Novel Carbon and Graphite Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Burchell, T.D.

    2004-06-30

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a slurry molding technology for the manufacture of porous, high surface area, carbon fiber composites molecular sieves, and carbon-carbon composite preforms. Potentially, this technology could be applied to the manufacture of a host of novel carbon materials including porous adsorbent carbons, low-pressure drop adsorbent carbon composites, ultra-fine-grained graphite, and carbon fiber reinforced graphite. New opportunities for high surface carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) materials are now emerging. Many of these opportunities are driven by increasingly harsh environmental pressures. Traditional granular activated carbon (GAC) is not suitable for many of these applications because of the difficulties encountered with attrition and in forming ''structures'' which have the necessary mechanical and physical properties. In addition, the electrical desorption of adsorbed species is not possible with GAC due to its low bulk electrical conductivity. Activated carbon fibers have been found to be useful in some applications. Work by ORNL has shown, for example, that CFCMS materials are capable of adsorbing various gases and desorbing them under electrical stimulation. For some applications these fibers have to be formed into a structure that can offer the desired mechanical integrity and pressure drop characteristics. To date, the work by ORNL has focused on the use of a single manufacturer's isotropic pitch fibers which, when activated, may be cost prohibitive for many applications. Fine-grained graphite is attractive for many applications including the chemical processing industry where their unique combination of properties--including high strength and chemical inertness, are particularly attractive. However, a lack of toughness can limit their utility in certain applications. The use of ultra-fine powders in conjunction with slurry molding and hot pressing offers the possibility of higher strength graphite. Moreover, the inclusion of carbon fibers may provide a toughening mechanism, resulting in tougher, stronger graphite at an attractive cost. The objective of this work was to further develop the ORNL slurry molding technology and apply it to the following tasks: (1) the development of low cost, high surface area CFCMS materials and structures; (2) the development of ultra-fine-grained graphite; and (3) to identify suitable applications for the materials developed in (1) and (2). The work was conducted jointly by SGL and ORNL.

  16. Rheology of coal slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ulbrecht, J.J.; Ryan, M.E.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental investigations of suspensions of three size distributions of glass spheres in a solution of tetralin and tetrabromoethane were made using a Haake viscometer. The values of viscosity were determined over a range of shear rates from 1 to 1000 sec/sup -1/. The suspending medium is Newtonian with a viscosity of about 9.66 centipoise at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C. At phi less than or equal to 20%, the suspension exhibited Newtonian behavior but at phi greater than or equal to 30%, the suspension exhibited pronounced non-Newtonian behavior. Experimental studies of these three size distributions were also conducted in aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone using a pipe loop apparatus. Viscosity was measured over the shear rate range from 600 to 6000 sec./sup -1/. These suspensions having non-Newtonian suspending media, exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at all concentration levels of the solid particles. In the limit of very high shear rates, the suspension viscosity was found to be independent of tube diameter over the range of shear rates and concentrations studied. The rheological behavior of slurries of irregularly-shaped anthracite coal particles was also systematically investigated. The suspending medium consisted of a mixture of anthracene oil and tetrabromoethane. The shear rate was varied from 0.01 to 1000 sec./sup -1/. Volume concentrations range from 0 to 34%. At volume concentrations greater than 29% the slurries exhibited a yield stress and pronounced thixotropic behavior. The relative viscosities of both the model and the coal slurries were found to be dependent on both the shear rate and the particle size. In the case of the coal slurries caution must be exercised with regard to the proper interpretation of the rheological data due to the influences of the measured apparent density of the coal particles, viscometric flow geometry, and time dependent effects.

  17. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.

    1984-11-29

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  18. Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

  19. Thermal Analysis of Simulated Slurry Mix Evaporator Samples

    SciTech Connect

    RUSSELL, EIBLING

    2004-10-01

    This report documents the results of applying thermal analysis methods to the characterization of the properties of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product samples as a function of temperature. The goal of the research program was to determine if various thermal analysis methods could aid in measuring melter feed melt rate, study the impact of post SME additions of formic acid, and aid in developing a better understanding of melter cold cap chemistry. The thermal analysis methods tested in this program included Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Accelerating Rate Calorimetry (ARC). The samples used in the study were from a study on the impact of acid stoichiometry and redox on melt rate.

  20. Short-term sequestration of slurry-derived carbon into particle size fractions of a temperate grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Bol, Roland; Moering, Judith; Preedy, Neil; Glaser, Bruno

    2004-03-01

    Surface application of animal wastes in intensive grassland systems has caused growing environmental problems during the last decade and, therefore, increasing public and scientific concern. In the present study we examined if the natural abundance 13C stable isotope tracer techniques could be used to investigate a poorly defined aspect of waste application, i.e. incorporation of slurry-derived C and its distribution in soil organic matter (SOM) fractions with different turnover times of a pasture soil. C3 and C4 slurries (delta13C(V-PDB) = -30.7/1000 and -21.3/1000, respectively) from cows fed either on a maize (C4) or perennial ryegrass (C3) diet were applied to a C3 soil with a delta13C value of (-30.0+/-0.2)/1000. The cattle slurry was applied at 50 m3 ha(-1). Coarse sand, fine sand, silt, clay and fine clay were isolated from bulk soil samples (0-2 cm depth), freeze-dried and ground prior to total organic C (TOC) using elemental analysis and 13C natural abundance analysis by isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. The stable isotope tracer technique did allow to quantify the short-term sequestration of slurry-derived C in particle-size fractions of the grassland soil. Slurry-derived carbon was sequestered in various amounts in the five particle-size fractions, but most of it was sequestered in the coarse sand fraction during the two week experiment. The preferential input into the coarse sand fraction suggests that only the larger particulate slurry-derived materials were trapped into the soil during the experimental period. Less than 40% of the applied slurry-derived C was sequestered into the soil, suggesting a potential for large losses into the wider environment. The practice of surface spreading of slurry to temperate grassland soils is clearly not efficient, and improvements in slurry application methods, such as incorporation directly into the soil, should therefore be encouraged. PMID:15085987

  1. Water-quality characterization of an eastern coal slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, C.D.; Dietz, J.D.; Flint, M.J.; Todd, M.R.

    1987-03-01

    Current and projected used of coal have resulted in several proposals for coal-slurry pipelines in the United States. A typical eastern coal has a greater sulfur content and a smaller percentage of alkaline minerals in the ash than a typical western coal. Thus, eastern coal slurries likely will yield different quality wastewaters from western coal slurries. An experimental program was conducted to characterize the wastewater resulting from a 50% eastern Kentucky coal slurry. Twenty-nine water-quality parameters were measured as a function of pumping time in the pilot-scale pipeline. Tests were conducted with and without a nitrite-based corrosion inhibitor added directly to the slurry. The treatability of the 10-day slurry wastewater was assessed using both lime and alum addition.

  2. Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development

    SciTech Connect

    Rogozen, M.B.

    1980-11-01

    This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

  3. Effects of mineral fillers in slurry seal mixtures 

    E-print Network

    Harper, William Joe

    1964-01-01

    manner similar to that of portland cement concrete. Experi- mental strips have been placed with thicknesses up to 3/4 inches. Color. Although they are scill in the experimental stage, colored slurry seals have been made and successfully placed.... These applications have been in the nature of small test strips and on parking lots and driveways. Colored slurry seals have a potential in the field oi' traffic engineering as a type of lane delineation at interchanges. These slurry seals are made...

  4. Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Mann, M.D.; DeWall, R.A.; Richter, J.J.; Potas, T.A.; Willson, W.G.

    2000-04-25

    Methods are disclosed for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300 to 350 C.

  5. Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY FOR FLOWABLE SLURRY CONTAINING

    E-print Network

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    for their physical and chemical properties, and leachate behavior. The leachate results of these materials based), and leachate characteristics. Generally compressive strength of the flowable slurry materials increased

  7. Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

    2000-05-03

    The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

  8. A new fluidization–suspension combustion technology for coal water slurry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Wang; Xiumin Jiang; Minxiao Zhang; Yufeng Ma; Hui Liu; Shaohua Wu

    2010-01-01

    Slagging is a major operating problem in application of the atomization–suspension combustion technology for burning coal water slurry (CWS) fuel in small and low height industrial boilers. The fluidization–suspension combustion is a new alternative for replacement of oil, which is capable of solving the slagging problems. In addition, it can be successfully applied to CWS-fired boilers with capacity smaller than

  9. Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal LIquefaction.

    SciTech Connect

    Datye, A.K.

    1997-08-08

    This report covers the fourth six month period of this three year grant under the University Coal Research program. During this period, we have begun the synthesis of precipitated catalysts using a bench-top spray dryer. The influence of binders on particle strength was also studied using the ultrasonic fragmentation approach to derive particle breaking stress. A similar approach was used to derive particle strength of catalysts obtained from Mr. Robert Gormley at FETC. Over the next six month period, this work will be continued while the catalysts prepared here will be examined by TPR to determine reducibility and the extent of adverse iron-silica interactions. A fundamental study of Fe/silica interactions has been performed using temperature programmed reaction and TEM to provide understanding of how the silica binders influence the activity of Fe catalysts. To understand differences in the reducibility of the iron phase caused by silica, we have set up a temperature programmed reduction facility. TPR in H, as well as in CO was performed of Fe/ SiO, catalysts prepared by impregnation as well as by precipitation. What is unique about these studies is that high resolution TEM was performed on samples removed from the reactor at various stages of reduction. This helps provide direct evidence for the phase changes that are detected by TPR. We have continued the analysis of catalysts received from slurry reactor runs at Texas A&M university (TAMU) and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) by x-ray diffraction. The purpose of the XRD analysis was to determine the phase composition of catalysts derived from a slurry reaction run using Fe Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. We had previously described how catalyst removed in the hot wax may oxidize to magnetite if the wax is air-exposed. We have now received catalysts from CAER that were removed under a protective inert blanket, and we are in the process of analyzing them, but preliminary work presented here shows very little oxide by XRD. However, the catalyst that was used in these runs at CAER was a different composition than that used in previous runs, so the protective effect of an inert blanket will need further study. Finally, we point out how the interference by the wax can make it difficult in some cases to analyze the phases in a Fe catalyst. Several approaches have been used to remove the interference from the wax and we come to the surprising conclusion that Fe may be present in a working slurry reactor despite the high CO/ H{sub 2} ratio. Further work is underway to corroborate this finding.

  10. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    McClaine, Andrew W.

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

  11. Virtual Pig Dissection

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fleck, Earl W.

    Dissection can be an aspect of scientific education that can make some parties queasy, but it is a fascinating way to learn more about the different body systems, their operations, and basic animal anatomy. Entering the world of pig dissection can make budding scientists even more squeamish, but they need never fear, as this site allows these individuals the opportunity to engage in a bit of virtual pig dissection. Originally created by Professor Earl W. Fleck of Whitman Collegeâ??s biology department, the site lets users go inside the pig to learn about its various systems, via a set of high-quality color photographs, which can be viewed at different angles and perspectives. Of course, what would a lab be without a quiz? Rounding out the site, visitors can take short quizzes on the pigâ??s anatomy and such.

  12. Impact of slurry management strategies on potential leaching of nutrients and pathogens in a sandy soil amended with cattle slurry.

    PubMed

    Fangueiro, D; Surgy, S; Napier, V; Menaia, J; Vasconcelos, E; Coutinho, J

    2014-12-15

    For farmers, management of cattle slurry (CS) is now a priority, in order to improve the fertilizer value of the slurry and simultaneously minimize its environmental impact. Several slurry pre-treatments and soil application methods to minimize ammonia emissions are now available to farmers, but the impact of such management strategies on groundwater is still unclear. A laboratory experiment was performed over 24 days in controlled conditions, with undisturbed soil columns (sandy soil) in PVC pipes (30 cm high and 5.7 cm in diameter). The treatments considered (4 replicates) were: a control with no amendment (CTR), injection of whole CS (WSI), and surface application of: whole CS (WSS), acidified (pH 5.5) whole CS (AWSS), the liquid fraction obtained by centrifugation of CS (LFS), and acidified (pH 5.5) liquid fraction (ALFS). An amount of CS equivalent to 240 kg N ha(-1) was applied in all treatments. The first leaching event was performed 72 h after application of the treatments and then leaching events were performed weekly to give a total of four irrigation events (IEs). All the leachates obtained were analyzed for mineral and organic nitrogen, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, total carbon, and phosphorus. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also quantified in the leachates obtained in the first IE. The results show that both acidification and separation had significant effects on the composition of the leachates: higher NO3(-) concentrations were observed for the LFS and ALFS relative to all the other treatments, throughout the experiment, and lower NO3(-) concentrations were observed for acidified relative to non-acidified treatments at IE2. Acidification of both the LF and WS led to higher NH4(+) concentrations as well as an increase of EC for treatment ALFS relative to the control, in the first IE, and lower pH values in the AWSS. Furthermore, the E. coli and total coliform concentrations in AWSS, LFS, and ALFS were significantly higher than in WSI or WSS. In conclusion, none of the strategies generally used to minimize ammonia emissions impact positively on leaching potential relative to the traditional surface application of CS. Furthermore, some treatments, such as separation, might increase significantly the risk of leaching. PMID:25173728

  13. When Pigs Fly

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah LessonPlans

    2012-10-22

    In this math lesson, learners explore probability. Learners brainstorm activities that are possible and impossible, make a flap book, and read and discuss the book, "Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs." Learners also investigate the probability of selecting a pink "pig" (pink cotton ball) from a bag containing varying amounts of pink and white "pigs" (cotton balls). Learners make predictions, record data, and graph the results. This activity is written as a four day lesson, but can be shortened into a one-time activity.

  14. Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, L.E. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Hughes, R.W. [Professional Services Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Baggett, G. [Genex/Praxair, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

  15. EVALUATION OF CARBON BLACK SLURRIES AS CLEAN BURNING FUELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to examine the pumpability, atomization and combustion characteristics of slurries made of mixtures of carbon black with No. 2 fuel oil and methanol. Carbon black-No. 2 fuel oil and carbon black-methanol slurries, with carbon black contents of up to 50 ...

  16. IMPROVED IRON CATALYSTS FOR SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Bukur

    OBJECTIVES The main objective of this project is to develop improved attrition resistant iron catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to high quality diesel fuels in slurry reactors. Slurry phase catalysts based on iron tend to break down into fine particles leading to severe operational difficulties in separating the hydrocarbon products from the catalyst. Attrition resistant catalysts will be prepared

  17. Ice-slurry production using direct contact heat transfer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Wijeysundera; M. N. A. Hawlader; Chan Wee Boon Andy; M. Kamal Hossain

    2004-01-01

    An ice slurry generation system was developed using direct contact heat transfer between water and the coolant, Fluroinert FC-84. The location of the coolant nozzle is an important design consideration to avoid clogging due to freezing of water. An ice fraction of up to about 40 percent was obtained with the nozzle located at the bottom of the ice slurry

  18. Sedimentation Behavior of Four Dredged Slurries in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gui-Zhong Xu; Yu-Feng Gao; Zhen-Shun Hong; Jian-Wen Ding

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentation model tests were carried out on four clays in China for investigating the sedimentation behavior of slurries. The sedimentary process can be divided into fluid state and consolidation state. The consolidation state of slurries can be divided into Non-Terzahi soil and Terzaghi soil. The void ratio responsible for the intersect point of fluid state and consolidation state is determined

  19. Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry

    DOEpatents

    Costantini, Michael A. (Hudson, NH); Talbott, Jonathan A. (Amherst, NH); Chandra, Mohan (Merrimack, NH); Prasad, Vishwanath (East Setauket, NY); Caster, Allison (Nashua, NH); Gupta, Kedar P. (Merrimack, NH); Leyvraz, Philippe (Nashua, NH)

    2000-09-05

    A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

  20. The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    MACLEAN, G.T.

    1999-11-15

    The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

  1. Effect of Soft Agglomerates on CMP Slurry Performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Bahar Basim; Brij M. Moudgil

    2002-01-01

    The stability of the polishing slurries under extreme environments of pH, ionic strength, pressure, and temperature is required for their optimal performance in chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) operations. Agglomeration of the abrasive particles during polishing due to fluctuations in local particle or salt concentration under dynamic processing conditions may alter the slurry performance. It is known that the presence of

  2. A Collection Scheme for Tracing Information of Pig Safety Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Qingyao; Xiong, Benhai; Yang, Liang

    This study takes one main production pattern of smallhold pig farming in Tianjin as a study prototype, deeply analyzes characters of informations about tracing inputs including vaccines,feeds,veterinary drugs and supervision test in pig farming, proposesinputs metadata, criteria for integrating inputs event and interface norms for data transmision, developes and completes identification of 2D ear tags and traceability information collection system of pig safety production based on mobile PDA. The system has implemented functions including setting and invalidate of 2D ear tags, collection of tracing inputs and supervision in the mobile PDA and finally integration of tracing events (the epidemic event,feed event,drug event and supervision event) on the traceability data center (server). The PDA information collection system has been applied for demonstration in Tianjin, the collection is simple, convenient and feasible. It could meet with requirements of traceability information system of pig safety production

  3. Bubble column apparatus for separating wax from catalyst slurry

    DOEpatents

    Neathery, James K.; Davis, Burtron H.

    2004-07-13

    Novel methods and devices for production of liquid hydrocarbon products from gaseous reactants are disclosed. In one aspect, a method for separating a liquid hydrocarbon, typically a wax, from a catalyst containing slurry is provided, comprising passing the slurry through at least one downcomer extending from an overhead separation chamber and discharging into the bottom of a slurry bubble column reactor. The downcomer includes a cross-flow filtration element for separating a substantially particle-free liquid hydrocarbon for downstream processing. In another aspect, a method for promoting plug-flow movement in a recirculating slurry bubble column reactor is provided, comprising discharging the recirculating slurry into the reactor through at least one downcomer which terminates near the bottom of the reactor. Devices for accomplishing the above methods are also provided.

  4. Chemists report slurry breakthroughs for syngas-to-alcohol process

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.

    1996-04-24

    Scientists at North Carolina State University (Raleigh) report that they have developed an alcohol synthesis process that uses a high-temperature slurry reactor with a conventional zinc chromite methanol catalyst. The scientists say it is the first time zinc-chromite catalysts have been used in slurry reactors at temperatures as high as 375 C. They add that it could lead to a synthesis gas (syngas)-based route to higher alcohols and to broader commercial applications for slurry reactors. Slurry reactors typically operate at less than 300 C, limiting applications for many high-volume industrial applications. By extending the temperature 100 C, says George Roberts, a chemist at North Carolina State, the work could {open_quotes}open up chemistry never run in slurry reactors before.{close_quotes} Roberts points to potential for use in partial oxidation reactions and synthesis routes involving formaldehyde.

  5. St. Paul's Pig Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Penny Folley

    1982-01-01

    Describes a guinea pig (cavy) breeding and management program developed as part of an elementary school science curriculum. Includes comments on show competitions (sponsored by the American Rabbit Breeders Association) to measure the success of the breeding program and to enable children to experience the business world. (Author/JN)

  6. Guinea pig stapedius muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jovita Burgener; Robert Mayr

    1980-01-01

    Guinea pig stapedius muscle is exceptional among all skeletal and even stapedius muscles of mammals: Muscle size (0.75 mm long, 0.3 mm of maximal diameter) as well as muscle fibres (about 200 µm long, about 6 µm in diameter) are extremely small, and many characteristics of developing muscle persist up to the adult stage. Quantitative data on blood supply seem

  7. Continuous Production of Ice Slurry by Control of Solute Concentration with Ultrasonic Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Yukio; Takimoto, Akira; Miyamoto, Tomoaki; Mikami, Hiroko; Hayashi, Yujiro

    A method to making ice slurry is one of key technology for cold-energy Storage system. This study has been conducted to clarify continuous production of ice slurry by utilizing constitutional supercooling promoted by mixing of two aqueous solutions whose solute concentrations are different. In this technique, fine ice crystals are made under volume-catalyzed nucleation without heat transfer surface. In the experiments, cooled sucrose solution and water were mixed in the cylindrical vessel, and ultrasonic vibration was applied to promote nucleation in the supercooled solution. It was found that the ice making process is classified into three characteristic patterns; stable ice making, ice making in stratified concentration layer due to defect in solute-mixing, and no ice making due to no supercooling by mixing. The characteristics of ice making were discussed with the mixing ratio and total flow rate of solutions.

  8. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  9. Coal-slurry fuels for environmental benefit

    SciTech Connect

    Trass, O.; Gandolfi, E.

    1999-07-01

    Following a brief review of various coal-slurry fuels (CFS), their history and current status, different plausible approaches for further utilization of such fuels are discussed, with potential environmental benefits highlighted. These include (i) beneficiation of the coal for CSF preparation, preferably as an integral part of the preparation process; (ii) extending the life of tailing ponds if waste coal is used for CSF preparation; (iii) the well-confirmed NO{sub x} reduction potential, and (iv) addition of limestone or other adsorbent additives for sulfur capture during and after combustion. In the last case, limestone addition already to the fuel, rather than post-combustion, provides an economic means of reducing sulfurous emissions. For fluidized bed combustion, particularly when pressurized (PFBC), feeding the fuel as a high-consistency slurry is desirable and, again, limestone addition is beneficial. Further, as calcium utilization is usually quite low, reprocessing and recycling of the FBC combustion ashes is also an attractive possibility. A recent test program with ash recycle in an FBC system, where the Szego Mill{trademark} was used for reprocessing the ash, has yield good results.

  10. Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

    2000-03-01

    A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of shiny in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

  11. Coal-water slurry as utility boiler fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffee, R.S.; Boyd, T.J.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; McHale, E.T.; Henderson, C.B.; Glenn, R.D.

    1982-03-01

    Coal-water slurries are a potential replacement for heavy fuel oil in utility boilers. Slurries have the major advantages of low cost, ease of handling, and early availability. A program was conducted to characterize the formulation, processing, handling, combustion, and storage of coal-water slurries made from cleaned coals. Acceptable slurries containing between 67 and 70% coal (by weight) were made from two different coals. A selected slurry was burned with good results in the Atlantic Research Corporation's one-million Btu/h experimental furnace. Approximately five tons (4,500 kg) of slurry were prepared on a pilot line for testing in the four-million Btu/h Babcock and Wilcox Basic Combustion Test Unit. A plant flowsheet was developed for a slurry plant designed to process five-million tons (4.5 x 10/sup 9/ kg) of coal a year. Total plant investment is estimated at $104-million (1980). Assuming a delivered coal cost of $50/ton (800 kg), the production costs are estimated to be $58/ton of coal or $2.14/million Btu. This cost compares favorably to a cost of $4.76/million Btu for heavy fuel oil at $30/barrel. These costs exclude certain ancillary costs such as marketing, fees and permits, insurance, interest on capital, profit, local taxes, and corporate income tax.

  12. Developing anthracite coal water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmon, F.J.; Keller, D.V.; Marino, J.; Keller, D.S.; Ask, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Public law has directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to increase the use of coal, particularly anthracite, at steam generating facilities. This study evaluates the feasibility of producing slurry fuel from anthracite coal and examines the combustion characteristics of the anthracite/water fuel slurry. The T-Process, a proprietary process developed by Otisca Industries, Ltd., Syracuse, NY, was used to produce anthracite-based coal water slurries for testing and combustion. Although it is feasible to manufacture anthracite water fuel, the slurries used in this research would not burn well without substantial amounts of natural gas cofiring. Stable combustion with reduced support fuel can probably be achieved by chemically or physically modifying the factors that affect combustion. Additional research to determine the differences between anthracite and bituminous slurries, to increase the residence time for anthracite slurries, and to manufacture slurries with oil rather than water needs to be conducted to help the DOD meet anthracite purchase/consumption targets. Coal, Combustion, Coal water fuel, Anthracite coal.

  13. Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

    1999-08-01

    Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

  14. Effect of Particle Size Distribution and Concentration on Flow Behavior of Dense Slurries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel Vlasak; Zdenek Chara

    2011-01-01

    The flow behavior of concentrated slurry depends on particle size distribution, shape, density, and concentration. The slurry flow behavior can change from Newtonian to non-Newtonian depending on the concentration, slurry composition, and content of fine and especially colloidal particles, which evoke a complex rheological behavior of the slurry. The present article deals with experimental investigation of the flow behavior and

  15. Reduction of odor and volatile substances in pig slurries by using pit additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhu; Dwaine S. Bundy; Xi Wei Li; Nahgamana Rashid

    1997-01-01

    The effects of five commercial pit additive products on the release of odor nuisance and volatile compounds from swine manure were examined in this study. The changes of pH, volatile fatty acids, total solids, total volatile solids, total nitrogen, and total ammonia nitrogen in swine manure were measured and the levels of aerial ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were monitored. The

  16. Reduction of odor and volatile substances in pig slurries by using pit additives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Zhu; Dwaine S. Bundy; Xi Wei Li; Nahgamana Rashid

    1996-01-01

    The effects of five commercial pit additive products on the release of odor nuisance and volatile compounds from swine manure were examined in this study. The changes of pH, volatile fatty acids, total solids, total volatile solids, total nitrogen, and total ammonia nitrogen in swine manure were measured and the levels of aerial ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were monitored. The

  17. Load directly from railcar to slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, J.M. [General Chemical Corp., Claymont, DE (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Many process plants must unload soluble, granular chemicals from railcars and trucks and then dissolve or slurry them before use. Material handling problems such as agglomeration, plugging, spillage, dusting and noise can make these efforts inefficient and drive up capital, maintenance and labor costs. Pneumatic and gravity flow technologies are beset with these problems. To solve them, General Chemical Corp. has developed a device called the GCH Hydrator that unloads directly into water. The apparatus and associated process is adaptable to many chemicals. The Hydrator has been successfully used in paper making, chemical processing, petroleum refining, metals recovery and water treatment. Specific sites include: white liquor makeup in paper making; sulfur dioxide scrubbing in chemical processing and refining; acid neutralization in metals recovery, paper making, and sulfuric acid manufacture; and pH and alkalinity control in water treatment facilities.

  18. ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

  19. Process for producing useful concentrated slurries from waste material

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, V.

    1980-01-29

    Domestic refuse containing inorganic and organic material is treated to separate off the inorganic material, after which the organic material, with sewage sludge, is assimilated in a digestor by a microorganism to produce a combustible gas, and a dilute slurry emerging from the digestor is dewatered to recover a self-binding concentrated slurry or cake containing long fibres suitable for use in the production of boards, paper, or fuel, for instance. The more dilute slurry which results from the dewatering is concentrated, and is then useful as a soil conditioner or animal feedstuff.

  20. Preparing polymeric matrix composites using an aqueous slurry technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Norman J. (inventor); Towell, Timothy W. (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An aqueous process was developed to prepare a consolidated composite laminate from an aqueous slurry. An aqueous poly(amic acid) surfactant solution was prepared by dissolving a poly(amic acid) powder in an aqueous ammonia solution. A polymeric powder was added to this solution to form a slurry. The slurry was deposited on carbon fiber to form a prepreg which was dried and stacked to form a composite laminate. The composite laminate was consolidated using pressure and was heated to form the polymeric matrix. The resulting composite laminate exhibited high fracture toughness and excellent consolidation.

  1. Effect of Livestock Slurry Ozonation and Separation on pH, Particles, and Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Christina Ø; Hjorth, Maibritt; Hutchings, Nicholas J

    2014-05-01

    Applying slurry to arable land as fertilizer increases the risk of phosphorus (P) runoff and thereby increases the risk of eutrophication. Solid-liquid separation can reduce the excess application of P, and this study focused on the use of ozonation as an alternative chemical pretreatment for separation to improve P separation efficiency. Sow and cattle slurries were separated by screw press and flocculation+filtration. The screw press and flocculation liquid fractions and raw slurries were treated with no ozone or with low-, medium-, or high-ozone doses and then separated by centrifugation. The pH, particle size distribution, dry matter, and dissolved phosphate (PO) concentrations were measured. For separations without ozonation, pH increased by 0.15 to 0.87 pH units, and correlation analysis showed that the dissolved PO concentration decreased with increasing pH and particle removal efficiency. During ozonation, pH increased, and a shift in particle size distribution in the liquid fraction combined with an improved dry matter separation indicated particle aggregation. Ozonation thus affected the parameters found to affect dissolved PO separation, and at the highest ozone dose, dissolved PO separation efficiency increased by 7 to 81%. An ozonation pretreatment may therefore promote removal of dissolved PO from the liquid fraction during separation. PMID:25602833

  2. Determination of field scale ammonia emissions for common slurry spreading practice with two independent methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintermann, J.; Ammann, C.; Kuhn, U.; Spirig, C.; Hirschberger, R.; Gärtner, A.; Neftel, A.

    2011-05-01

    At a cropland and a grassland site field scale ammonia (NH3) emissions from slurry application were determined simultaneously by two approaches based on (i) eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using high temperature Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (HT-CIMS) and on (ii) backward Lagrangian Stochastic (bLS) dispersion modelling using concentration measurements by three optical open path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) systems. Slurry was spread on the fields in sequential tracks over a period of one to two hours. In order to calculate field emissions, measured EC/HT-CIMS fluxes were combined with flux footprint analysis of individual slurry spreading tracks to parameterise the NH3 volatilisation with a bi-exponential time dependence. Accordingly, track-resolved concentration footprints for the FTIR measurements were calculated using bLS. Comparison of concentrations calculated from the parameterised fluxes with concentrations measured by impingers showed that the EC/HT-CIMS emissions on the two fertilisations corresponded to the impinger concentrations within 10 % while the bLS/FTIR results showed larger deviations. For both events, the period during fertilisation and the subsequent two hours contributed by more than 80 % to the total field emissions. Averaged over the two measurement methods, the cumulated emissions of the first day amounted to 17 ± 3 % loss of applied total ammoniacal nitrogen over the cropland and 16 ± 3 % over the grassland field.

  3. Forced convection heat transfer with phase-change-material slurries: Turbulent flow in circular tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunsoo; Cho, Young I.; Lorsch, Harold G.

    1994-01-01

    The present study investigates the increase in the convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the increase in the thermal capacity of a working fluid by using the latent heat from a solid-liquid phase change of particles. A long heating test section (627 diameters) with a uniform heat flux boundary condition is constructed in order to study the effects of the phase-change phenomenon produced by a phase-change-material (PCM) -- water slurry on the convective heat transfer coefficient in a turbulent flow. The study introduces a method to generate very fine PCM particles inside a flow loop using an emulsifier. With such fine PCM particles, the flow loop did not clog. Local pressure drops and local heat transfer coefficients are measured along the test section. The pressure drop significantly decreased at the point where the PCM particles in the slurry melted. The local convective heat transfer coefficient was found to vary significantly when the particles melted. This made it difficult to apply the log-mean-temperature-difference (LMTD) method to the analysis of the PCM slurry flow heat transfer. The study proposes a new three-region melting model, and provides an explanation of the physical mechanism of the convective heat transfer enhancement due to the PCM particles.

  4. Three Little Pigs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    OMSI

    2005-01-01

    In this activity, leaners explore building techniques by recreating the story of The Three Little Pigs. They build model houses out of plastic grass, popsicle sticks, and building blocks, and then test to see how strongly their houses stand up to the huffing and puffing of a hair dryer. The activity uses the story to explore the design process of building, testing and changing, as well as the scientific method of predicting, measuring and analyzing.

  5. Application of low density foam pigs offshore Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, P.C.R.; Alves, S.J. [Petrobras, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    In complex offshore installations, such as in the Campos Basin, it is relatively common to encounter pipeline systems where conventional pigs can not be run due to several factors. Changing pipe diameters, and presence of wet X-mas trees and manifolds are the most troublesome ones. In this work a new successful concept of using low cost and low density foam pigs for both liquid removal in wet-gas pipelines, and paraffin removal in oil and multiphase flow pipelines, is presented. Experimental work conducted in a 4 in laboratory facility, including a small scale glass manifold and a 6 in steel manifold, proved these pigs to be very effective. The performance of almost all kind of flexible polyurethane foams manufactured in Brazil is evaluated. Three field tests are also reported. The first low density foam pig operation was performed on a 127 mile long, 16 in diameter wet-gas offshore pipeline where the foam pig showed even higher liquid removal efficiency than the conventional inflatable spheres. The second operation was performed on a 6 mile long, 12 in diameter multiphase production offshore pipeline, which has never been pigged during its 9 year operation, and resulted in the removal of approximately 200 tons of paraffin. Finally, the third successful case is the cleaning of a 2 mile long flexible flow line of a subsea completed satellite well, in which the foam pigs were sent through a 2.5 in gas lift line, through a wet x-mas tree, not designed to be pigged, and then back through the 4 in production flow line. In spite of the fact that this paper is focusing on condensate and paraffin removal in pipeline, the basic principles can be applied to several kinds of operations: general pipeline cleaning; products separation in pipeline; corrosion evaluation; chemical product application.

  6. Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction

    E-print Network

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad

    Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction Onno Bokhove o, Twente #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction Outline · 1. Introduction · 2. Experiments · 3. Conclusions · References ISSF 2008 University of Twente Page 2 #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction

  7. Supercritical extraction of organic mixtures from soil-water slurries

    E-print Network

    Green, Lynda Ann

    1994-01-01

    Supercritical C02was used to extract orgamc rruxtures from soil-water slurries. The extent of extraction and the equilibrium distribution of the mixture and of the individual components were determined. A single stage batch vessel was used...

  8. Modeling the structure of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays 

    E-print Network

    Prithiviraj, Manikandan

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes a model of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays and presents new experimental data for CWS viscosities. The model is based on the aerodynamic theory of spray atomization which has been successfully used for Diesel sprays. However...

  9. Contribution of additives Cu to its accumulation in pig feces: study in Beijing and Fuxin of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Xia; Li, Wei; Wu, Juan; Xu, Li-Chao; Su, Qiu-Hong; Xiong, Xiong

    2007-01-01

    Massive amounts of pig manure are produced by intensive pig farm in China, and the composition of pig manure has changed much due to the use of feed additives. However, little is known about the exact Cu (copper) feed as additives or present as contaminants in pig feed and the residues in feces. One hundred and thirty-seven feeds and one hundred and forty-two fecal samples from 48 pig farms were collected in Beijing and Fuxin cities in 1999 and 2005, respectively. The concentrations of Cu were in the range of 6.86-395.19 mg/kg in the feed samples, and the mean values were in the order of weaner > grower-finisher > sow's feeds. The high concentrations over EU recommendations implied that excessive levels of Cu are fed on many pig farms in Beijing and Fuxin. Cu was also present in high concentrations in feces, and concentrations were highly variable. Cu concentrations in the feces from grower-finisher and weaner pigs were significantly greater than feces of sows. The super-intensive and small-scale farms had higher levels of Cu in feces than the middle farms. Cu concentrations in pig feces were approximately 5-times greater than in pig feeds. Feed management in grower-finisher pigs on super-intensive and small-scale pig farms is needed to reduce high Cu concentrations in feces and risks to soil contamination while feces are land-applied. PMID:17915692

  10. Treatment of food wastes using slurry-phase decomposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeoung-Sang Yun; Jong Ik Park; Min Seok Suh; Jong Moon Park

    2000-01-01

    A bioreactor incorporating a slurry-phase reaction was developed for high-rate decomposition of food wastes with an ultimate goal of complete decomposition leaving minimal residue of food wastes when compared to conventional food waste treatment producing composts. In this slurry-phase decomposition, suspended solids in the reactor disappeared with a maximum rate of 7.9 g dry weight dm?3 day?1. The changes in

  11. Comparison of catalytic ethylene polymerization in slurry and gas phase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Majid Daftaribesheli

    2009-01-01

    Polyethylene (PE) with the annual consumption of 70 million tones in 2007 is mostly produced in slurry, gas-phase or combination of both processes.\\u000aThis work focuses on a comparison between the slurry and gas phase processes. Why does PE produced in theses two processes can show extremely different properties and extremely different reaction behaviour even if the same Ziegler-Natta (ZN)

  12. Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng

    1990-12-31

    A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32{degrees}C by absorbing water at 25{degrees}C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33{degrees}C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

  13. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM FROM INCINERATOR ASH LEACH SLURRIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biery

    1958-01-01

    The possibility of removing uranium by extraction from incinerater ash ; leach slurries was studied. The incinerator ashes were leached with HNOâ, ; HCI, HâSOâ, and HâPO\\/sub 4 These slurries were extracted with ; the following solvents: mono-heptadecylphosphoric acid (HDPA); and di-; 2ethylhexylphosphoric acid plus dihexylhexylphosphonate (D2EHPA\\/DHHP). The ; solvents satisfactorily extracted the uranium from the HNOâ, HâSO\\/sub ; 4\\/,

  14. Crusaders or pigs in raincoats?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Barnett

    2011-01-01

    The caped crusader versus the pigs The phone hacking scandal reveals the difference between two models of journalism and two models of journalist, argues Steven Barnett, professor of communications at the University of Westminster. Now is the time to stand up for the caped crusaders and to kill of the ‘pigs in raincoats.

  15. Technology And Pregnant Pigs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

  16. Hyperostosis in Newborn Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Michael M.

    1962-01-01

    Hyperostosis “thick legs” is reported in a case involving 7 of a litter of 11 purebred Landrace piglets. The 12 limbs involved showed variable degrees of thickening and immobility; tension and fixation of the skin. Necropsy revealed extensive fibrous connective tissue, enlargement and edema of associated lymph nodes and hypoplasia of muscle groups. Radiographs revealed osteodystrophia along the shafts of long bones. The case is compared to previous reports of infantile cortical hyperostosis in children and “thick legs” in pigs. ImagesNo.1No.2No.3No.4 PMID:17649395

  17. New technology improves cement-slurry design

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    A promising geothermal concession is located in a tea plantation on the island of Java. A drilling project was undertaken to evaluate and harness this resource for geothermal electricity generation. The program used two slimhole rigs to drill appraisal wells to establish the potential of the field. Geothermal wells present the most severe conditions to which cements are exposed. As a result, their performance requirements are among the most stringent. Geothermal cements are usually designed to provide at least 1,000 psi compressive strength and no more than 1.0-md water permeability. While casings with tight annular clearances require that good cementing practices be observed, they also create conditions that demand much greater care and control in slurry and procedure design than regular casing cementation. Free-water and thickening-time requirements are similar for geothermal and slimhole conditions, but the use of perlite and silica flour complicate the rheology required for geothermal wells. The paper describes liquid-cement premix, applications, laboratory testing, field pilot testing, and field operations.

  18. Trace element determination in different milk slurries.

    PubMed

    García, E M; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C; Sánchez, J

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the contents of trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest in 90 samples of whole, low-fat, skim, condensed, evaporated and powdered milks. Slurries of the samples were prepared with Triton X-100 and analysed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The temperature-time programme of the graphite oven was optimized for each element, and the accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were verified. Concentrations of the trace elements we investigated were: Pb 0-0.211 microgram/g, Cd 0-28.985 ng/g, Al 0.528-4.025 micrograms/g, Cu 0.041-0.370 microgram/g, Cr 0-0.177 microgram/g, Mn 0.024-0.145 microgram/g, Se 0-23.333 ng/g, Zn 0.297-0.827 microgram/g and Ni 0.058-1.750 micrograms/g. (A value of zero indicates that the element was undetectable by our methods.) Concentrations of the pairs of elements Cu-Cd, Mn-Cd, Mn-Cu, Zn-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Zn were significantly correlated (P < 0.001). Linear discriminant analysis confirmed the separation between the six types of milk analyzed. PMID:10612055

  19. PIGS on sky - dream or reality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellner, Stephan; Ragazzoni, Roberto; Gassler, Wolfgang; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Farinato, Jacopo; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Myers, Richard M.; Morris, Tim J.; Ghedina, Adriano

    2004-07-01

    Since several problems of Laser Guide Stars, like conical anisoplanatism, perspective elongation, etc., scales with the telescope diameter, the use of artificial stars will become more difficult with apertures in the range of ELTs. Problems with Laser Guide Stars are reviewed and a way is shown how to overcome most of these difficulties with the concept of Pseudo Infinity Guide Stars (PIGS). A new kind of wavefront sensor is introduced taking advantage of the concept by the means of two optical devices, a reflecting rod and a mask. We explain this novel wavefront sensor, show results of a laboratory experiment, and conclude in further steps to apply the concept with full MCAO capability.

  20. Deoxypodophyllotoxin reduces skin pigmentation of brown Guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunjung; Lee, Jeongho; Shin, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Byeong-Gon; Chang, Ihseop; Hwang, Jae-Sung

    2004-04-01

    In this report, we have demonstrated that deoxypodophyllotoxin from Anthriscus sylvestris (L.) Hoffm decreases UV-induced skin pigmentation of brown guinea pigs. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (0.05 % in propylene glycol: ethanol: water = 5 : 3:2) was topically applied twice daily for two weeks to dorsal skin of brown guinea pigs that were exposed to UV irradiation using a solar simulator. Visual inspection and Fontana-Masson staining both demonstrated that deoxypodophyllotoxin reduced skin pigmentation and total epidermal melanin when compared to that of vehicle-treated areas, suggesting that deoxypodophyllotoxin maybe applicable to treat hyperpigmentation. PMID:15095159

  1. Coal slurry transportation alternatives: Conceptual design and economics: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, C.E.; Manning, S.H.

    1987-07-01

    The Coal Slurry Transportation Alternatives study provides utilities with a decisionmaking tool and necessary cost data to facilitate a systematic and rigorous comparison of slurry, rail, and barge transportation from the mine to the busbar for coal deliveries to both existing and new power plants. Volume 3 summarizes the methodology and results of examining operating and cost differences between slurry and run-of-mine coal. Two objectives of the study are to document the engineering costs and assumptions of the coal slurry pipeline system and to provide comparative estimates of costs and performance for power generation from slurry pipeline and run-of-mine coal. The results indicate that an increase in fuel moisture causes a decrease in boiler efficiency; that is, higher fuel burn rates and higher gas flows. For new plants, major equipment must be sized to accommodate higher fuel, ash, and flue gas flow rates associated with coal slurry. Other impacts include higher auxiliary power requirements, increased scrubber additive requirements, and potential increases in plant maintenance. For existing plants, a more serious concern may be the capability of current fuel transport systems to properly dry and transport the fuel. Flue gas flow rates for slurry should be within the design margins of run-of-mine, but where flue gas flow rates are increased, downstream FGD and particulate removal equipment may be impacted. Of the total levelized busbar costs for new plants, approximately 40 percent of differential costs are associated with capital, with the remaining 60 percent associated with consumables. For existing plants, replacement power costs due to limitations in fuel drying and conveyance may be up to 20 percent of the total generation cost. 40 figs., 62 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of Single Column Trapping/Separation and Chemiluminescence Detection for Measurement of Methanethiol and Dimethyl Sulfide from Pig Production

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Michael Jørgen; Toda, Kei; Obata, Tomoaki; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Reduced sulfur compounds are considered to be important odorants from pig production due to their low odor threshold values and low solubility in slurry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of a portable method with a single silica gel column for trapping/separation coupled with chemiluminescence detection (SCTS-CL) for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to evaluate the trapping/separation. The silica gel column used for the SCTS-CL efficiently collected hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The measurement of methanethiol by SCTS-CL was clearly interfered by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide found in pig production, and a removal of hydrogen sulfide was necessary to obtain reliable results. Air samples taken from a facility with growing-finishing pigs were analyzed by SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and a gas chromatograph with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD) to evaluate the SCTS-CL. The difference between the concentrations of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide measured with SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and GC-SCD was below 10%. In conclusion, the SCTS-CL is a portable and low-cost alternative to the commercial methods that can be used to measure methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. PMID:22997603

  3. High-pressure intrapleural chemotherapy: feasibility in the pig model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The usual treatments for pleural malignancies are mostly palliative. In contrast, peritoneal malignancies are often treated with a curative intent by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. As pressure has been shown to increase antitumor efficacy, we applied the concept of high-pressure intracavitary chemotherapy to the pleural space in a swine model. Methods Cisplatin and gemcitabine were selected because of their antineoplasic efficacy in vitro in a wide spectrum of cancer cell lines. The pleural cavity of 21 pigs was filled with saline solution; haemodynamic and respiratory parameters were monitored. The pressure was increased to 15-25 cm H2O. This treatment was associated with pneumonectomy in 6 pigs. Five pigs were treated with chemotherapy under pressure. Results The combination of gemcitabine (100 mg/l) and cisplatin (30 mg/l) was highly cytotoxic in vitro. The maximum tolerated pressure was 20 cm H20, due to haemodynamic failure. Pneumonectomy was not tolerated, either before or after pleural infusion. Five pigs survived intrapleural chemotherapy associating gemcitabine and cisplatin with 20 cm H2O pressure for 60 min. Conclusions High-pressure intrapleural chemotherapy is feasible in pigs. Further experiments will establish the pharmacokinetics and determine whether the benefit already shown in the peritoneum is also obtained in the pleura. PMID:22309737

  4. Application of dairy slurry on alfalfa fields, and subsequent effects on nutritive value and silage fermentation characteristics of the harvested forage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Frequently, dairy producers ask questions about the potential risks of applying dairy manure, usually in liquid or slurry form, to growing alfalfa. In many cases, this management option is considered when storage reservoirs are approaching capacity during summer months. One caution associated with t...

  5. Comparative determination of Ba, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn in tea leaves by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption and liquid sampling inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Mierzwa; Y. C Sun; Y. T Chung; M. H Yang

    1998-01-01

    The comparative determination of barium, copper, iron, lead and zinc in tea leaf samples by two atomic spectrometric techniques is reported. At first, slurry sampling electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was applied. The results of Ba and Pb determination were calculated using the method of standard additions, and results of Cu, Fe and Zn from the calibration graphs based

  6. Combined on-board hydride slurry storage and reactor system and process for hydrogen-powered vehicles and devices

    DOEpatents

    Brooks, Kriston P; Holladay, Jamelyn D; Simmons, Kevin L; Herling, Darrell R

    2014-11-18

    An on-board hydride storage system and process are described. The system includes a slurry storage system that includes a slurry reactor and a variable concentration slurry. In one preferred configuration, the storage system stores a slurry containing a hydride storage material in a carrier fluid at a first concentration of hydride solids. The slurry reactor receives the slurry containing a second concentration of the hydride storage material and releases hydrogen as a fuel to hydrogen-power devices and vehicles.

  7. Pig illnesses and epidemics: a qualitative study on perceptions and practices of pig raisers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Gurley, Emily S; Khan, M Salah Uddin; Hossain, M Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    Zoonoses in swine are increasingly becoming a global public health concern. Understanding how livestock farmers perceive animal illnesses will help to develop locally acceptable and effective public health intervention strategies to control and manage zoonoses. The authors describe Bangladeshi pig raisers' perception of pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs. We collected qualitative data from August 2007 to September 2008. Included in our study are backyard pig raisers from three districts, namely: Faridpur, Chapainobabgonj and Tangail and nomadic herders from six districts, namely: Mymensingh, Tangail, Sherpur, Sirajgonj, Bogra and Pabna. We conducted in-depth interviews (n=34) and made observations of human interactions with pigs (n=18). Pig raisers reported several illnesses that caused their pigs to suffer and die. They had close contact with sick pigs whilst caring for them. They slaughtered sick pigs and consumed and sold the pork if they thought that the pig might die. They believed that pig illness could be transmitted among pigs but not between pigs and humans. The perception of pig raisers on pig illnesses and their behaviour towards sick pigs places them in close contact with potentially infectious pig secretions and excretions. Such exposure could favour zoonotic transmission of infectious diseases. A better surveillance system for pig diseases would provide an opportunity to identify the transmission of diseases, determine whether they pose a risk to humans, or whether they contribute to the emergence of diseases. PMID:22718332

  8. Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dudukovic, M.P.

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

  9. Effects of Additives in the Process of Ice Slurry Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumano, Hiroyuki; Saito, Akio; Okawa, Seiji; Yamada, Hideki

    In this study, effects of additives on the size of ice particles in ice slurries are investigated experimentally. Ethanol solution was used as aqueous solution to make ice slurries, and PVA (poly-vinyl alcohol) was examined as an additive. The aqueous solution was kept in supercooled condition, and ice slurry was subsequently made by releasing the supercooled condition. The degree of supercooling and concentrations of additives were varied as parameters. The observations of the ice particles in the ice slurry were carried out just after generation of the ice slurry and after 24 hours of storage. Differences between results with and without additive was not observed just after generation, and dendritic ice appeared in both cases. However, finer ice particles were observed after 24 hours storage in a case of the solutions with additives. Moreover, the size of ice particles was measured from photographs to confirm the effects of PVA. As the result, it is found that the average diameter is independent of the degree of polymerization in the range of this study.

  10. Loss coefficients of ice slurry in sudden pipe contractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mika, ?ukasz

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, flow systems which are commonly used in fittings elements such as contractions in ice slurry pipelines, are experimentally investigated. In the study reported in this paper, the consideration was given to the specific features of the ice slurry flow in which the flow behaviour depends mainly on the volume fraction of solid particles. The results of the experimental studies on the flow resistance, presented herein, enabled to determine the loss coefficient during the ice slurry flow through the sudden pipe contraction. The mass fraction of solid particles in the slurry ranged from 5 to 30%. The experimental studies were conducted on a few variants of the most common contractions of copper pipes: 28/22 mm, 28/18 mm, 28/15 mm, 22/18 mm, 22/15 mm and 18/15 mm. The recommended (with respect to minimal flow resistance) range of the Reynolds number (Re about 3000-4000) for the ice slurry flow through sudden contractions was presented in this paper.

  11. Cholesterol-lowering potential in human subjects of fat from pigs fed rapeseed oil.

    PubMed

    Sandström, B; Bügel, S; Lauridsen, C; Nielsen, F; Jensen, C; Skibsted, L H

    2000-08-01

    The possibility of achieving blood-lipid-lowering characteristics of pig fat by increasing the content of unsaturated fat in pig feed was evaluated. Three pig feeding regimens were applied: basal feed (no added fat or vitamin E), basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg feed), and basal feed + rapeseed oil (60 g/kg) + vitamin E (200 mg/kg). Meat and meat products from the three pig groups were incorporated into diets providing 86 g pig fat/10 MJ. The diets were served to twelve healthy human male subjects for 3 weeks each in a randomised crossover design. The diets prepared from pigs fed rapeseed oil had a lower content of saturated fatty acids (approximately 9 v. 11% of energy) and a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (approximately 6 v. 4% of energy) than the diet prepared from pigs fed the basal feed. Diets based on fat from pigs fed the rapeseed oil resulted in significantly lower (approximately 4%, P = 0.019) total serum cholesterol concentration compared with the diet from pigs fed the basal feed. No differences were observed in LDL-, HDL- or VLDL-cholesterol, or in triacylglycerol or VLDL-triacylglycerol concentrations. Addition of vitamin E to the pig feed resulted in only a minor increase in vitamin E content in the human subjects' diet and the vitamin E content was low in all three pig diets. Plasma vitamin E concentration in the human subjects at the end of the period with diets from pigs fed rapeseed oil without vitamin E was significantly lower (P = 0.04) than in the other two diet periods. In conclusion, an increased content of rapeseed oil in pig feed changes the fatty acid composition of the pig fat in a way that has a potential to reduce blood cholesterol concentrations in human subjects. However, intake of pig fat with a higher content of unsaturated fatty acids needs to be matched by a higher dietary intake of vitamin E. PMID:11029964

  12. Risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Pires, A F A; Funk, J A; Bolin, C

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing swine. A longitudinal study was conducted in 18 cohorts of pigs from three finishing sites of one swine production company. Among the 446 Salmonella isolates (isolated from 187 pigs), there were 18 distinct serovars. The six most common serovars were S. enterica serovar Derby (47.3%), S. Agona (27.4%), S. Johannesburg (10.5%), S. Schwarzengrund (2.7%), S. Litchfield (2.5%) and S. Mbandaka (2.2%). Survival analysis techniques, Kaplan-Meier methods and Log-rank test were used to estimate the duration of Salmonella shedding in days and to evaluate differences in shedding associated with risk factors at different organizational levels: isolate (serovar), pig, cohort and site. The risk factors at the pig-level were: sex, age and individual health status; and the risk factors at the cohort-level were: health risk, treatment and "at risk pigs" proportions, nursery and barn environment Salmonella status and prior exposure to the same serovar in the nursery or barn environment. Survival analysis using acceleration failure time models, with a log-normal distribution, was applied to investigate risk factors associated with Salmonella persistence (175 pigs) and serovar-specific persistence (151 pigs) during the study period. Pigs detected Salmonella positive for the first time at 10 weeks of age had a longer duration of shedding, than pigs first detected at an older age. The duration of shedding was shorter among pigs infected with S. Derby, S. Johannesburg and other serovars as compared to pigs infected with S. Agona. A significant difference was observed among sites. Cohorts with pig treatment proportions greater than the median were more likely to have a shorter duration of Salmonella shedding. Pigs from cohorts with nursery positive pools greater than the overall mean had a longer duration of Salmonella shedding as compared to pigs from cohorts with nursery pools less than or equal to the mean. These results suggest that the duration of Salmonella shedding may depend on Salmonella serovar, pig age at the time of infection, farm site and cohort-level risk factors. Identification of risk factors associated with the duration of shedding may allow more targeted interventions for the control Salmonella by evaluation of control measures not only for prevalence reduction, but also to decrease the duration of shedding. Such measures may decrease the risk of contamination of pork and subsequent risk of foodborne illness. PMID:25005468

  13. 30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...operating, or controlling a water, sediment, or slurry...elevation of the impounded water, sediment, or slurry...reporting period. (4) Storage capacity of the impounding structure...volume of the impounded water, sediment, or...

  14. 30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. 77.216-1 ...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. A permanent identification...identification number of the impounding structure as assigned by the District...

  15. Functionalized bio-artifact fabricated via selective slurry extrusion. Part 1: Preparation of slurry containing tourmaline superfine powders.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Qu, Yunxia; Liu, Yushan

    2011-12-01

    The far infrared dental porcelain slurry for fabricating artificial tooth via selective slurry extrusion (SSE) of solid freeform fabrication (also known as rapid prototyping) techniques was prepared by using tourmaline as additive and employing ball-milling approach. After characterization by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, it was found that the far infrared emission properties of the dental porcelain were apparently improved in the ranges of 2000-1201 cm(-1) and 881-600 cm(-1). This is due to the increase of the number of infrared active bonds that are from the tourmaline superfine powders. Moreover, it was also found that the tourmaline superfine powders can improve the pseudo-plastic properties of dental porcelain slurries, which results from the increase of the absolute value of zeta potential of the suspensions. Slurries with pseudo-plastic behavior are highly desirable in controlling the shape of the extrudate during solid freeform fabrication. With the functionalized material, a variety of bio-artifacts beneficial to body health can be built by using selective slurry extrusion machine. PMID:22409019

  16. Three Little Pigs Construction Company

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-19

    In this activity about problem-solving, learners build a house for the Three Little Pigs using twenty straws and two index cards. Learners then use a fan to simulate a tornado and shake the table three times to simulate an earthquake. Learners must alter their house design to make it sturdy enough to withstand the elements and house the pigs. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

  17. Gas distribution effects on waste properties: Viscosities of bubbly slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gauglitz, P.A.; Shah, R.R.; Davis, R.L.

    1994-09-01

    The retention and episodic release of flammable gases are critical safety concerns for double-shell tanks that contain waste slurries. The rheological behavior of the waste, particularly of the settled sludge, is critical to characterizing the tendency of the waste to retain gas bubbles. The presence of gas bubbles is expected to affect the rheology of the sludge, but essentially no literature data are available to assess the effect of bubbles. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to develop models for the effect of gas bubbles on the viscosity of a particulate slurry, develop an experimental method (capillary rheometer), collect data on the viscosity of a bubbly slurry, and develop a theoretical basis for interpreting the experimental data from the capillary rheometer.

  18. Slurry sample introduction with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    1993-04-01

    The successful direct introduction of aqueous slurry samples into a highly efficient TE 101 microwave plasma has been demonstrated. Slurry samples from a spray chamber are fed directly into the cavity with no desolvation apparatus. A V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer was evaluated for use with high solids content solutions. Slurry concentrations up to 10% m/v were used for the microwave induced plasma work with calibration by the standard additions method. Results are presented for the analysis of two NRCC Standard Reference Materials, i.e. TORT-1 (Lobster Hepatopancreas) and PACS-21 (Marine Sediment). Agreement between analytical results and certified values for the test elements Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn (in the range of 28-850 ?g/g) was good. No memory effects were evident and the nebulizer system had a rapid clean-out time.

  19. Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water

    DOEpatents

    Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

    1985-11-05

    The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

  20. Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor, Benzotriazole, in Cu Slurry on Cu Polishing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    In-Kwon Kim; Young-Jae Kang; Tae-Gon Kim; Jin-Goo Park

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effect of benzotriazole (BTA) in Cu slurry on Cu polishing behavior was investigated as functions of H2O2 and slurry pH. The addition of BTA to slurry effectively prevented Cu from being etched by forming a passivation layer of Cu-BTA regardless of pH and H2O2 concentration in the slurry. The passivation layer on the Cu wafer exhibited

  1. Steam Explosions in Slurry-fed Ceramic Melters

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, J.T.

    2001-03-28

    This report assesses the potential and consequences of a steam explosion in Slurry Feed Ceramic Melters (SFCM). The principles that determine if an interaction is realistically probable within a SFCM are established. Also considered are the mitigating effects due to dissolved, non-condensable gas(es) and suspended solids within the slurry feed, radiation, high glass viscosity, and the existence of a cold cap. The report finds that, even if any explosion were to occur, however, it would not be large enough to compromise vessel integrity.

  2. Determination of bismuth in environmental samples by slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using combined chemical modifiers.

    PubMed

    Dobrowolski, Ryszard; Dobrzy?ska, Joanna; Gawro?ska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry technique was applied for the determination of Bi in environmental samples. The study focused on the effect of Zr, Ti, Nb and W carbides, as permanent modifiers, on the Bi signal. Because of its highest thermal and chemical stability and ability to substantially increase Bi signal, NbC was chosen as the most effective modifier. The temperature programme applied for Bi determination was optimized based on the pyrolysis and atomization curves obtained for slurries prepared from certified reference materials (CRMs) of the soil and sediments. To overcome interferences caused by sulfur compounds, Ba(NO?)? was used as a chemical modifier. Calibration was performed using the aqueous standard solutions. The analysis of the CRMs confirmed the reliability of the proposed analytical method. The characteristic mass for Bi was determined to be 16 pg with the detection limit of 50 ng/g for the optimized procedure at the 5% (w/v) slurry concentration. PMID:25384374

  3. Viscosity and yield stress of alumina slurries containing large concentrations of electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeanne C. Chang; Fred F. Lange; Dale S. Pearson

    1994-01-01

    Viscosity and yield stress measurements of AlâOâ slurries containing high concentrations of electrolyte are reported. Contrary to what is expected from DLVO theory, the particles in coagulated slurries produced in this way are held together by weaker forces than particles in slurries brought to the isoelectric point by changing the pH. In both cases an attractive, connective particle network is

  4. Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

    1977-01-01

    Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

  5. The resource utilization of algae—Preparing coal slurry with algae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weidong Li; Weifeng Li; Haifeng Liu

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, the occurrence of harmful algal blooms is increasing rapidly all over the world. However, the methods of resource utilization of algae are very few. In this study, we propose a new way to dispose algae, which is gasification of coal–algae slurry. Coal slurries prepared with algae were investigated, and gasification reactivity of coal–algae slurry was compared with that of

  6. Experimental Study of Erosion Wear in a Centrifugal Slurry Pump Using Coriolis Wear Test Rig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sunil Chandel; S. N. Singh; V. Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    The erosion wear in slurry pumps has been identified as a major problem during transportation of slurry as it affects the equipment performance and reduces its reliability and operation life. To simulate the erosion mechanism in slurry equipments mainly in casing and impeller, the Coriolis erosion test rig on the lines proposed by Pagalthivarthi and Helmly (1992) has been suitably

  7. Coal slurry pump development. Fossil energy annual summary technical information report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1983-01-01

    The Coal Slurry Pump Development Program was initiated in October 1979, and was completed 15 December 1983. In the first phase of the program (Phase IIB), an experimental prototype of a two-stage, high pressure, centrifugal slurry pump was fabricated and assembled into a test unit. In the second phase (Phase IIC), the experimental pump was delivered to a slurry test

  8. Production of Paving Asphalt by Blending RFCC Slurry in Deoiled Asphalt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-P. Li; J. Shen

    2009-01-01

    The experiment of producing paving asphalt was performed by blending the deoiled asphalt and the residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) slurry according to the uniform design method. The experiment scheme was designed by choosing the full-fraction FCC, above 400°C slurry, above 445°C slurry, and deoiled asphalt as factors. The mathematical model of blending components and asphalt properties was established by

  9. Ethanolamine in a method of recovering coal in aqueous slurry form

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.W.

    1980-03-04

    A method of in-situ coal recovery in slurry form from a coal deposit by first contacting the coal with a gaseous mixture of an oxygen-containing gas containing vaporized NO/sub 2/, then with an aqueous alkaline solution to slurry the coal, and then recovering the slurried coal from the deposit. The particular aqueous alkaline solution disclosed herein contains ethanolamine.

  10. Interaction effects of slurry chemistry on chemical mechanical planarization of electroplated copper

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Miranda; J. A. Imonigie; A. J. Moll

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have been conducted investigating the effects of slurry chemistry on the copper CMP process. Slurry pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration are two important variables that must be carefully formulated in order to achieve desired removal rates and uniformity. In applications such as through-wafer vertical interconnects, slurry chemistry effects must be thoroughly understood when copper plating thicknesses can measure

  11. Hydraulic properties of Hanford Waste Vitrification Project 39-4 frit slurries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abrigo

    1996-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for Fluor Daniel Inc. and Westinghouse Hanford Company. The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of solids loading on the hydraulic properties of frit slurries. The effect of solids loading on the hydraulic properties of the fret slurries was evaluated by testing various concentrations of frit slurries in various sized

  12. Exploring mobilisation and transport of diffuse substances using multiple sediment and colloid tracers applied to a temperate grassland catchment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granger, S.; Hawkins, J.

    2009-04-01

    The mobilisation and transport of diffuse substances from livestock grassland systems to surface water bodies is known to impact aquatic ecology and human health. Diffuse substances include sediment and colloidal material detached from the soil surface and subsurface and colloidal material solubilised by water travelling across and through the soil matrix. Improving understanding of the dominant processes controlling the mobilisation and transport of sediment and colloid associated materials requires the application of established and novel tracing methods. In this study our objective was to link mobilisation from the plot to head water catchment scales by tracing the movement of slurry material delivered to a first order stream through the application of natural and artificial fluorescence and rare earth oxide (REO) tracing techniques. Slurry treated with fluorescent beads or REO's was applied to a hydrologically isolated field within a ~40 ha catchment. Novel natural fluorescence techniques were used to assess the presence of dissolved slurry material through the distinctive signature of samples in drainage waters. The particulate phase of slurry was traced using artificial fluorescent beads manufactured to represent two particulate phases of slurry: organic and mineral. The bead treated slurry was applied homogeneously across the entire field. REO treated slurry was applied in five 1 ha contour zones across the field, each zone receiving slurry labelled with different REOs. Surface drainage was monitored and sampled at a v-notch weir placed at the hydrological outlet of the field and at a trapezoidal flume at the catchment outlet.

  13. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-07

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  14. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF AN HYDRATE SLURRY FOR AIR CONDITIONNING APPLICATION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    [-] INTRODUCTION In the context of the classical refrigerants phase out, phase change materials (PCM) arouse great stress versus the volume fraction of hydrates. Keywords : Rheology, Two-phase flow, Heat transportation interests. Indeed, for very low temperature application such as refrigeration, ice-slurries are spread

  15. Aerobic thermophilic treatment of farm slurry and food wastes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed Mohaibes; Helvi Heinonen-Tanski

    2004-01-01

    The review discusses the aerobic treatments for farm slurry and food wastes and concentrates in particular on the thermophilic aerobic treatments. Methods are discussed under the heading of chemical, physical and other treatments. From those methods considered, the most suitable physical–microbiological treatment are aerobic thermophilic treatments. The main problem faced in aerobic thermophilic treatments could be the foaming formation during

  16. Apparatus for converting biomass to a pumpable slurry

    DOEpatents

    Ergun, Sabri (Hillsborough, CA); Schaleger, Larry L. (Oakland, CA); Wrathall, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Yaghoubzadeh, Nasser (El Cerrito, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus used in the pretreatment of wood chips in a process for converting biomass to a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. The apparatus functions to break down the wood chips to a size distribution that can be readily handled in a slurry form. Low maintenance operation is obtained by hydrolyzing the chips in a pressure vessel having no moving parts.

  17. Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Deming, P.W. [Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects.

  18. SAMPLE COMMINUTION FOR MYCOTOXIN ANALYSIS: DRY MILLING OR SLURRY MIXING?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A comparison was made between dry milling and slurry mixing as a comminuting step preceding mycotoxin analysis. Sample schemes of up to 30 kg are mandated by EC legislation. Cacao, green coffee, almonds and pistachio samples of 10 kg were milled by a Romer Analytical Sampling mill and all three samp...

  19. Continuous expression of slurry in a screw press

    SciTech Connect

    Shirato, M.; Hayashi, N.; Iwata, M.; Murase, T.; Ogawa, Y.

    1985-01-01

    An approximate method is described for predicting the steadystate performance of a screw press for the continuous expression of a slurry, with the worm channel being modified as the path between two flat plates. Screw expression of a slurry involves two mechanisms of dewatering which, for a batch operation, can be analyzed by the variable-pressure, variable-rate theory of filtration and by consolidation theory. By assuming that the expression consists of a succession of batch processes, basic equations are derived for the relationship between the dehydration rate, the feed rate, and the expression pressure distribution in a constant-pitch, straighttaper screw press. The thickness of the filter cake in the worm channel and the flow distribution in the consolidated cake are calculated for a given pressure distribution and feed rate, and the solids concentration and rate of discharge of the cake are estimated. The critical speed of rotation of the worm, at which the slurry becomes highly deliquored, is strongly influenced by the external diameter and helical angle of the worm. The theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental data for clay slurries with a concentration of 0.31-0.46 in the feed.

  20. WATER QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EASTERN COAL SLURRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current and projected used of coal have resulted in several proposals for coal slurry pipelines in the United States. A typical eastern coal has a greater sulfur content and a smaller percentage of alkaline minerals in the ash than a typical western coal. Thus, eastern coal slurr...

  1. Improving the attrition resistance of slurry phase heterogeneous catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hien N Pham; Alexander Viergutz; Robert J Gormley; Abhaya K Datye

    2000-01-01

    Slurry phase heterogeneous catalysts for processes such as Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) synthesis must exhibit a high degree of attrition resistance. The precipitated Fe–Cu catalyst used for F–T synthesis is quite weak in its as-prepared state. Spray-drying yields spherical particles which show some improvement in attrition resistance. However, the formation of fines (

  2. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. Datye; Hien Pham; J. Xu

    OBJECTIVE The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal derived syngas (H 2\\/CO ratio of ? 0.7). The specific objective is to develop novel catalysts for synthesis of clean diesel fuels from coal. ACCOMPLISHMENTS TO DATE Four slurry reactor tests have been performed during the last year.

  3. NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Lech Nowicki; Patricia ODowd; Hien Pham; Jian Xu

    2001-01-01

    This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

  4. Attrition assessment for slurry bubble column reactor catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rong Zhao; James G. Goodwin; Rachid Oukaci

    1999-01-01

    Significant interest in three-phase slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) has come about in recent years due to their excellent heat removal capabilities during reaction. However, no evaluation test for catalyst attrition resistance is available in the literature yet for SBCR catalysts, although severe attrition of catalyst particles has actually been encountered in SBCRs. In this paper, fluidized bed catalyst attrition

  5. Study on ice slurry production by water spray

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Kim; H. T. Shin; Y. P. Lee; J. Jurng

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study was performed to examine the water spray method of ice slurry production. First, the conditions for the formation of ice particles were investigated theoretically by the diffusion-controlled evaporation model. The prediction of the model was proved to agree relatively well with experiments in which we examined the conditions for a droplet of initial temperature 20°C

  6. Ice Slurry Formation in a Cocurrent Liquid-Liquid Flow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengbiao PENG; Zhulin YUAN; Kunfeng LIANG; Jie CAI

    2008-01-01

    A new technique for ice slurry production was explored. Multiple small water-drops were formed in another immiscible chilled liquid by a single-nozzled atomizer and frozen in the fluidized bed by direct contact heat transfer. Experiments were conducted to investigate the dynamic behaviors of the ice crystal making system. The results demonstrate that the ice crystals could be produced continuously and

  7. Energetic performances of a refrigerating loop using ice slurry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ikram El Abbassi; Jean Castaing-Lasvignottes; Jean-Pierre Bédécarrats; Jean-Pierre Dumas; Abdelaziz Mimet

    2010-01-01

    The consideration of environmental constraints in production, transport and distribution of cold energy resulted in reconsidering the practices of installations dimensioning in particular. Their containment led to the development of secondary refrigerants such as ice slurries to store, transport and distribute the cold energy. These heat transfer fluids should have good thermophysical properties, giving high transport capability, high heat transfer

  8. STUDY ON CASING PERFORMANCES IN CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMPS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. C. ROCO; G. R. ADDIE; R. VISINTAINER

    1985-01-01

    The pump casing is the most expensive wear component of a centrifugal slurry pump. It determines to a large extent the hydraulic performance of the pump and plays a major role in the overall wear life of the unit.This paper suggests a new approach to compute the mixture velocity and solid particle dynamics in the casing, and on this basis

  9. Bench Scale Test of Absorption Slurry-ice Maker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasao, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Takashi

    Slurry ice system is desirable as cold heat source for air conditioning, because it requires less conveyance power or less pipe size. On the other hand, recently absorption refrigerator is reevaluated because it can utilize various types of waste heat and it does not use fluorocarbon refrigerant. But it had been regarded to be difficult to make ice by absorption refrigerator because the refrigerant is water. However making slurry ice is possible, of cource, if the slurry ice generated by partial freezing of water is continuously taken away from the evaporator. This method was certified experimentally with a bench scale model. For ice making continuously, ice had not to be frozen stiff at water surface or inside wall of the evaporator. Then refrigerant water in the evaporator was raised swirl flow. And inside wall of the evaporator was finished by water repellent coating, and heated from outside wall. This slurry ice was adaptable to hydraulic transportation, because ice was needle crystal with about 5 mm length and ice temperature was 0°C.

  10. Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry

    DOEpatents

    Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul D. (Tucson, AZ)

    2002-01-01

    In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

  11. Oxidation-Resistant Slurry Coating for Carbon-Based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    New process uses paint sprayer and vacuum furnace to produce silicon carbide outer layer. In cross section of silicon and silicon carbide reaction zone, top layer of silicon adheres to silicon carbide layer. Crystals prominent on melted top surface of slurry coating. Process especially useful in coating repair.

  12. Solid dispersion in the slurry reactor with multiple impellers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. P. Klenov; A. S. Noskov

    A whole series of significant catalytic processes are carried out in a slurry reactor with multiple impellers. The selective hydrogenation of sunflower seed oil is the characteristic example of such a process. The liquid phase is the main medium into stirred tank and an investigation of a fluid dynamics of one just as transient regime of solid distribution in liquid

  13. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  14. Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design and model a conceptual slurry reactor for two indirect liquefaction applications; (1) production of methanol and (2) production of hydrocarbon fuels via Fischer-Tropsch route. A slurry reactor is defined here as a three-phase bubble column reactor using a fine catalyst particle suspension in a high molecular weight liquid. The feed gas is introduced through spargers. It then bubbles through the column providing the agitation necessary for catalyst suspension and mass transfer. The reactor models for the two processes have been formulated using computer simulation. Process data, kinetic and thermodynamic data, heat and mass transfer data and hydrodynamic data have been used in the mathematical models to describe the slurry reactor for each of the two processes. Available data from process development units and demonstration units were used to test and validate the models. Commercial size slurry reactors for methanol and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were sized using reactor models developed in this report.

  15. Vitrification of SRP Waste by a Slurry-fed Ceramic Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Wicks, G.G.

    2001-03-15

    Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is testing the slurry feeding of a ceramic melter as a possible method to vitrify its high-level radioactive waste. Feeding a liquid slurry requires simpler and less expensive equipment than feeding a powdered calcine. Experiments have progressed from manual feeding, to a semiautomatic system, to the present slurry-feed system, which is completely automatic. All experiments to date indicate that slurry feeding is a promising way of vitrifying waste. No safety hazards associated with feeding the slurry onto molten glass at 1150 degrees Centigrade have been observed experimentally, even when the melter chamber was purposely flooded.

  16. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others] [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  17. Odors from evaporation of acidified pig urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. C. Willers; P. J. Hobbs; N. W. M. Ogink

    2004-01-01

    In the Dutch Hercules project feces and urine from pigs are collected separately underneath the slatted floor in a pig house and treated in two processes. Feces are composted and urine is concentrated by water evaporation in a packed bed. Exhaust air from the pig house is used for the evaporation in a packed bed scrubber. Before entering the scrubber,

  18. Fermentation of liquid diets for pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Scholten

    2001-01-01

    In the last 30 years major changes occurred in pig nutrition. With the increasing size of the pig farms, manual feeding was replaced by automatic feeding systems. Most pigs were fed on dry diets, but during last the 15 years a clear tendency towards liquid feeding systems was observed. In the early 80's the use of liquid co-products from the

  19. Surfactant in Newborn Compared with Adolescent Pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnar A. Rau; Gertrud Vieten; Jack J. Haitsma; Joachim Freihorst; Christian Poets; Benno M. Ure; Wolfgang Bernhard

    Surfactant composition and function differ between vertebrates, depending on pulmonary anatomy and respiratory physiology. Be- cause pulmonary development in pigs is similar to that in humans, we investigated surface tension function, composition of phospho- lipid molecular species, and concentrations of surfactant protein (SP)-A to -D in term newborn pigs (NP) compared with adolescent pigs (AP), using the pulsating bubble surfactometer,

  20. Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, M Y; Hodgson, W H

    1986-12-01

    Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 ..mu..m, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0.

  1. Effect of Corrosion Inhibitor, Benzotriazole, in Cu Slurry on Cu Polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In-Kwon; Kang, Young-Jae; Kim, Tae-Gon; Park, Jin-Goo

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the effect of benzotriazole (BTA) in Cu slurry on Cu polishing behavior was investigated as functions of H2O2 and slurry pH. The addition of BTA to slurry effectively prevented Cu from being etched by forming a passivation layer of Cu-BTA regardless of pH and H2O2 concentration in the slurry. The passivation layer on the Cu wafer exhibited a contact angle of 50° in solution with BTA and H2O2. The dynamic etching rate, i.e., the Cu polishing rate using abrasive-free slurry, also decreased when BTA was added to the slurry at pH 2, 4, and 6. The removal rate of Cu in slurry without BTA was strongly dependent on H2O2 concentration and pH. In slurry with BTA, Cu-BTA on the Cu surface prevented the etching of Cu. At pH 2 and 4, the removal rates were lower in slurry with BTA than in slurry without BTA. However, slurries of pH 6 or higher with BTA showed higher removal rates at higher concentrations of H2O2 than 10%, which was explained by the thick passivating oxide layer formed at higher pH and H2O2 concentrations.

  2. Blast furnace slag slurries may have limits for oil field use

    SciTech Connect

    Benge, O.G.; Webster, W.W. (Mobil Exploration Producing Technical Center, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1994-07-18

    Thorough testing, economic evaluations, and environmental evaluations of blast furnace slag slurries revealed that replacing Portland cement with slag slurries may compromise essential properties in a cementing operation. The use of blast furnace slag (BFS) slurries should be analyzed on a per case basis for oil well cementing operations. BFS slurry technology may be a viable mud solidification process, but the slurries are not cement and should not be considered as such. Several slurries using field and laboratory prepared drilling fluids solidified with blast furnace slag were investigated to determine thickening time, compressive strength, free water, and other pertinent properties. The tests included an evaluation of the expansion of the set material and shear bond, as well as rheological compatibility studies of the finished slurries with the base muds. These additional tests are critical in the potential application of this process under field conditions.

  3. Isotretinoin-loaded nanocapsules: stability and cutaneous penetration by tape stripping in human and pig skin.

    PubMed

    Bettoni, Clarissa C; Felippi, Cândice C; de Andrade, Cristiane; Raffin, Renata P; Jager, Alessandro; Guterres, Sílvia S; Costal, Teresa Dalla

    2012-04-01

    The cutaneous penetration of isotretinoin-loaded poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules (GEL-NCISO) was compared to that of free isotretinoin (GEL-FREE) incorporated in hydrogels by tape stripping in excised human and pig skin. The physicochemical stability of isotretinoin-loaded nanocapsules and a nanoemulsion (used as a control) was evaluated using multiple light scattering, quantifying drug content and determining particle size, polydispersion index, zeta potential and pH for 60 days. A photostability study was also carried out. GEL-FREE and GEL-NCISO were applied to human and pig skin and penetration was assessed by tape stripping in Franz diffusion cells. The isotretinoin-loaded nanocapsules showed suitable physicochemical characteristics for topical administration, physical stability for 2 months at room temperature and under UVA radiation. In vitro tape stripping in human and pig skin showed that no isotretinoin reaches the receptor compartment for both formulations up to 8 h. Nanoencapsulation increased isotretinoin skin penetration for both skin stratum corneum. Pig skin was more permeable than human since higher isotretinoin concentrations were found at human upper skin layers for both formulations. Similar proportion of cutaneous penetration for human and pig skin were observed although different amounts of drug were detected in the stratum corneum of both skin specimens in vitro. A positive Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (0.79) between human and pig skin penetration in vitro was obtained, thus, pig skin can be considered suitable for predicting cutaneous penetration of isotretinoin in humans in vitro. PMID:22515077

  4. Saving Genetic Resources of Native Pigs in Occidental and Oriental Countries — Practical Examples of the Characterization and Utilization of Native Pigs in Hungary and Laos

    PubMed Central

    RÁTKY, Jozsef; EGERSZEGI, Istvan; TOTH, Peter; KEONUCHAN, Soukanh; NAGAI, Takashi; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; MANABE, Noboru; BRÜSSOW, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, only a few “fatty” pig breeds exist with different and/or regional utilization. Using the Hungarian Mangalica, which almost went extinct in Europe and the Lao Moo Lat pig, which still has a large population in South-East Asia as exemples, we wanted to demonstrate that indigenous (fatty) pig breeds may represent both national value and tremendous economic potential. Since these less prolific and less productive breeds cannot contribute to mass production, new market roles and methods should be established for them in the premium segment of pork trading. Thus their preservation and propagation needs the comprehensive collaboration of commercial, governmental actors and researchers. Briefly summarizing the history, we report the current results of reproductive physiology research. The commercial renaissance of Mangalica pigs is indebted to the enthusiastic efforts of basic scientists, pig breeding experts and dedicated Mangalica producers. Scientific achievements were applied to practical breeding and production of delicious pork and processed products, which ultimately made the economic success in the Mangalica sector possible. Both, research on and utilization of endangered (pig) breeds maintain not only breed diversities, but also may improve the livelihood of farmers worldwide. PMID:24162808

  5. ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Goodarz Ahmadi

    2001-10-01

    In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and nonreacting slurry flows, and to solve a number of technologically important problems related to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel production processes. (4) To verify the validity of the developed model by comparing the predicted results with the performed and the available experimental data under idealized conditions.

  6. Generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene-targeted pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoqing; Xin, Jige; Fan, Nana; Zou, Qingjian; Huang, Jiao; Ouyang, Zhen; Zhao, Yu; Zhao, Bentian; Liu, Zhaoming; Lai, Sisi; Yi, Xiaoling; Guo, Lin; Esteban, Miguel A; Zeng, Yangzhi; Yang, Huaqiang; Lai, Liangxue

    2015-03-01

    The domestic pig has been widely used as an important large animal model. Precise and efficient genetic modification in pig provides a great promise in biomedical research. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has been successfully used to produce many gene-targeted animals. However, these animals have been generated by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into one-cell stage embryos, which mostly resulted in mosaicism of the modification. One or two rounds of further breeding should be performed to obtain homozygotes with identical genotype and phenotype. To address this issue, gene-targeted somatic cells can be used as donor for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce gene-targeted animals with single and identical mutations. In this study, we applied Cas9/sgRNAs to effectively direct gene editing in porcine fetal fibroblasts and then mutant cell colonies were used as donor to generate homozygous gene-targeted pigs through single round of SCNT. As a result, we successfully obtained 15 tyrosinase (TYR) biallelic mutant pigs and 20 PARK2 and PINK1 double-gene knockout (KO) pigs. They were all homozygous and no off-target mutagenesis was detected by comprehensive analysis. TYR (-/-) pigs showed typical albinism and the expression of parkin and PINK1 were depleted in PARK2 (-/-)/PINK1 (-/-) pigs. The results demonstrated that single- or double-gene targeted pigs can be effectively achieved by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT without mosaic mutation and detectable off-target effects. This gene-editing system provides an efficient, rapid, and less costly manner to generate genetically modified pigs or other large animals. PMID:25274063

  7. Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Krause-Kyora, Ben; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Evin, Allowen; Flink, Linus Girdland; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Hartz, Sönke; Schreiber, Stefan; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

    2013-01-01

    Mesolithic populations throughout Europe used diverse resource exploitation strategies that focused heavily on collecting and hunting wild prey. Between 5500 and 4200 cal BC, agriculturalists migrated into northwestern Europe bringing a suite of Neolithic technologies including domesticated animals. Here we investigate to what extent Mesolithic Ertebølle communities in northern Germany had access to domestic pigs, possibly through contact with neighbouring Neolithic agricultural groups. We employ a multidisciplinary approach, applying sequencing of ancient mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (coat colour-coding gene MC1R) as well as traditional and geometric morphometric (molar size and shape) analyses in Sus specimens from 17 Neolithic and Ertebølle sites. Our data from 63 ancient pig specimens show that Ertebølle hunter-gatherers acquired domestic pigs of varying size and coat colour that had both Near Eastern and European mitochondrial DNA ancestry. Our results also reveal that domestic pigs were present in the region ~500 years earlier than previously demonstrated. PMID:23982268

  8. Vacuum freezing type ice slurry production using ethanol solution 2nd report: Investigation on evaporation characteristics of ice slurry in ice production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tatsunori Asaoka; Akio Saito; Seiji Okawa; Hiroyuki Kumano; Tsutomu Hozumi

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an original method for production of ice slurry from ethanol solution without using a refrigerator is proposed. As was introduced in the first report, this system has advantages compared with similar existing systems using materials other than ethanol solution. In this paper, the process of producing ice slurry using this method was observed, and the relationship between

  9. Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-01

    This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

  10. Evaluation of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. The study consisted of two major activities: (1) fundamental slurry formulation experiments leading to the production and combustion characteristics investigation of suitable, anthracite slurries, and (2) analytical evaluations of the potential of anthracite slurry as a boiler fuel for new industrial and utility boiler application and for retrofit application of an industrial oil-fired boiler. The study results have shown that anthracite can be readily processed into a coal-water slurry with coal loading 70 wt % coal and 30% water plus chemical additives. Slurry viscosity, handling, and storage characteristics are similar to the bituminous coal-water slurries that are under active commercial development. Commercial anthracite-water slurry processing cost is projected to be only slightly higher than for bituminous coal-water slurry. Combustion testing in a small, industrial, water-tube boiler has shown that stable combustion of anthracite-water slurry can be achieved with high carbon conversion. The results also indicate that oxygen enrichment and secondary fuel firing can compensate for the low volatile content of the anthracite to achieve good combustion. Under the conditions assumed, anthracite-water slurry was not an economical fuel retrofit option for an existing oil-fired, industrial boiler. Contributing significantly to the economic results were the requirement for secondary fuel and oxygen to achieve good anthracite slurry combustion in the oil-designed boiler. Minimizing or eliminating the secondary fuel and oxygen requirements through a continued burner/boiler development program or more radical boiler modification to fire low-volatile fuel would greatly improve conversion economics and likely make anthracite-water slurry a candidate for industrial boiler fuel retrofit. 10 refs., 22 figs., 38 tabs.

  11. Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

    2014-08-01

    Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg. PMID:24713198

  12. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joris A. M. Missotten; Joris Michiels; Anneke Ovyn; Stefaan De Smet; Noël A. Dierick

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed

  13. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

  14. Toxoplasmosis in pigs-The last 20 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigs are important to the economy of many countries because they are a source of food for humans. Infected pig meat is a source of Toxoplasma gondii infection for humans and animals in many countries. This parasite also causes mortality in pigs, especially neonatal pigs. Most pigs acquire T. gondii ...

  15. Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

  16. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezgoda-?elasko, B.; ?elasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  17. Oil's new rival - coal-water slurry for utility boilers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Moore; R. Manfred

    2009-01-01

    Coal-water slurries (CWS), composed of about 70-75% coal, 24-29% water, and 1% chemical additives, offer utilities an alternative to burning oil for power generation. The CWS process has advanced through the pilot plant stage in a little over five years, and now needs a utility demonstration to show that stable combustion flame can be maintained at full and partial loads,

  18. Kinetics of bacterial death by heated dolomite powder slurry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun Sawai; Kyoko Himizu; Osamu Yamamoto

    2005-01-01

    The kinetics of the bactericidal action of dolomite powders heated at 600–1000°C against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. Dolomite powder heated to at least 700°C exhibited bactericidal action, and the process of bacterial death in the heated dolomite powder slurries followed first-order reaction kinetics. The value of the death rate constant (k) increased with dolomite powder concentration, and

  19. Measuring the strength of slurry phase heterogeneous catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hien N Pham; John Reardon; Abhaya K Datye

    1999-01-01

    Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) synthesis is a process used to convert coal-derived syngas to hydrocarbon liquids and waxes. A slurry phase bubble-column reactor (SBCR) is the preferred reactor type due to improved heat and mass transfer and operational simplicity in terms of catalyst loading and discharge. A potential disadvantage in the SBCR vs. a fixed-bed reactor is the attrition of the catalyst

  20. The Direct Contact Heat Exchanger: Experiences on Ice Slurry Production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raksit Thitipatanapong; Bundit Limmeechokchai

    An experimental pilot scale of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHE) for ice slurry production was fabricated and evaluated. The study investigated the DCHE of Ø114mm and 1000 mm height using evaporated refrigerant as disperse phase and solidified water as continuous phase. The heat transfer rate across the DCHE was varied between 3.0 and 6.5 kW while the water flow rate

  1. Ultrasonic Methods for Characterization of Liquids and Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Pappas, Richard A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Bond, Leonard J.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Panetta, Paul D.; Pfund, David M.

    2001-10-07

    In the field of process monitoring and control technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is utilizing unique technical capabilities and drawing upon knowledge gained through many years of government- and industry-sponsored research activities to develop and deploy advanced sensor and measurement systems for the monitoring and control of process operations. This includes non-invasive, on-line and real-time technologies that use ultrasound characterization to measure the physical and chemical properties of flowing materials, such as liquids and slurries.

  2. Gasification and shell characteristics in slurry droplet burning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lee; C. K. Law

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the gasification process of the liquid component of freely falling carbon slurry droplets in a hot oxidizing environment is studied both theoretically and experimentally. The theoretical model formulated describes droplet gasification as consisting of two periods: An initial period of regressing droplet size governed by the classical d²-law, and a subsequent d³-law period which the droplet size

  3. Ice slurry on outdoor running performance in heat.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Z W; Fan, P W P; Nio, A Q X; Byrne, C; Lee, J K W

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of ingestion of ice slurry on actual outdoor endurance performance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate ice slurry ingestion as a cooling intervention before a 10 km outdoor running time-trial. Twelve participants ingested 8?g?·?kg?(-?1) of either ice slurry (?-?1.4°C; ICE) or ambient temperature drink (30.9°C; CON) and performed a 15-min warm-up prior to a 10 km outdoor running time-trial (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature: 28.2 ± 0.8°C). Mean performance time was faster with ICE (2?715 ± 396 s) than CON (2?730 ± 385 s; P=0.023). Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) reduced by 0.5 ± 0.2°C after ICE ingestion compared with 0.1 ± 0.1°C (P<0.001) with CON. During the run, the rate of rise in Tgi was greater (P=0.01) with ICE than with CON for the first 15 min. At the end of time-trial, Tgi was higher with ICE (40.2 ± 0.6°C) than CON (39.8 ± 0.4°C, P=0.005). Ratings of thermal sensation were lower during the cooling phase and for the first kilometre of the run (?-?1.2 ± 0.8; P<0.001). Although ingestion of ice slurry resulted in a transient increase in heat strain following a warm up routine, it is a practical and effective pre-competition cooling manoeuvre to improve performance in warm and humid environments. PMID:22730052

  4. Erosive wear of advanced ceramics in coal-slurry streams

    SciTech Connect

    Shetty, D.K.

    1982-09-01

    Erosive wear of advanced ceramics and cemented carbides was evaluated in a coal-slurry jet test that simulates the conditions in let-down valves in liquefaction plants. The results indicate that some ceramics, notably those based on SiC, possess superior wear resistance as compared to the cemented carbides. The paper discusses the influence of the microstructures and the physical properties of the target materials on their relative susceptibility to erosive wear.

  5. Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowron, Krzysztof; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Olszewska, Halina; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Zimek, Zbigniew; ?rutek, M?cis?aw

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators - spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) - which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses.

  6. Interaction of organic additives with ceramic surfaces in colloidal slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, W.M.; Wang, L.; Sindel, J.; Rotov, M.; Aldinger, F. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Nichtmetallische Anorganische Materialien

    1997-08-01

    Three different dispersants, a low molecular weight compound (aminoalkanol), a polymer (polyelectrolyte) and a block-co-polymer (block polyethylenoxide-polyacrylic acid) were investigated with AFM and rheology in an aqueous system in order to elucidate the influence of the size and structure of the molecule on the dispersion stabilization. The AFM studies indicate that the aminoalkanol gives repulsive forces due to electrostatic repulsion only. The polyelectrolyte seems to stabilize the dispersion with both steric and electrostatic repulsive forces. A new compound that was designed for pure steric stabilization in aqueous media a block-co-polymer consisting of a polar anchor block and a stabilizing neutral chain was investigated for its behavior. The AFM measurements show that it is likely that this compound causes repulsion of silicon nitride surfaces due to steric repulsion only. Rheological measurements of aqueous powder slurries show that the adsorption of the organic additives is of great importance. Due to a more silicon dioxide like acidic surface of the investigated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-powder the carboxylate anions of the block-co-polymer adsorb badly. Therefore, no sterically repulsive forces can be built up. This then causes an increase in the slurry`s viscosity.

  7. Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.

    PubMed

    Boger, David V

    2013-01-01

    The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting. PMID:23540291

  8. Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry

    DOEpatents

    Forney, Albert J. (Coraopolis, PA); Haynes, William P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

  9. Additive for coal water slurry made from weak slurryability coal

    SciTech Connect

    Zi-xiu Zang; Lin Zhang; Xino-an Fu; Long Jiang [Institute of Photographic Chemistry, Beijing (China)

    1993-12-31

    Surface treatment of weak slurryability coal and preparation of highly concentrated coal water slurry (CWS) have been investigated using wettability and rheology measurements. By adding 0.5{approximately}10 wt.% (based on coal) pitch during dry milling coal surface became more hydrophobic and the coal could be easily prepared for CWS which had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the untreated coal. The reasons of this result is high degree of hydrophobic surface of coal particles made surfactant adsorption easier compared with high degree of hydrophilic surface of coal particles. Another important reason in hydrophobic surface impeded the penetration of water into the inner pores of coal particles which resulted in decreasing swelling ability of coal and enhancing the fluidity of CWS. Four different additives have been investigated including three nonionic ethoxylated surfactants and one mixture of anionic surfactants (sodium humate derivative and naphthalenesulfonic acid-HCHO condensate). Both rheological and thixotropic properties showed that nonionic surfactant G2 was the most efficient additive for preparation of highly concentrated CWS. The results of dynamic experiment illustrated that the slurry had good dynamic stability, in other words, the viscosity of the slurry decreased very slowly at constant stir. The pitch treated coal powders were beneficiated coal had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the unbeneficiated coal.

  10. Pig but not Human Interferon-? Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

    1997-08-01

    Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-? (IFN-? ) but not human IFN-? or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-? also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-? (but not human IFN-? or heat-inactivated pig IFN-? ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

  11. Bend detector for a pipeline pig

    SciTech Connect

    Laymon, D.; Berry, J.M.

    1986-12-16

    A bend detector is described for use on a pipeline pig assembly; the pipeline pig assembly comprising a front pig element and a rear pig element pivotally connected to each other by the bend detector, the front pig element having a longitudinally disposed housing with means for driving the pipeline assembly by the flow of a fluid through a pipeline system. The rear pig element has a longitudinally disposed housing with means for axially supporting the housing in the pipeline system. The detector includes a means for determining the distance traversed by the pipeline pig assembly through the pipeline system. The bend detector comprises a universal joint having a pair of yoke members being pivotally interconnected to a central member so as to oscillate about a pair of mutually perpendicular axes lying in a plane generally perpendicular to the axis of the pipeline, each of the yoke members having a yoke and a collar. The detector also includes a means for mounting each collar to the front pig element and the rear pig element, respectively, the central member being provided with a substantially longitudinal bore for receiving a hollow sleeve, a central opening in each collar thereby forming an axially aligned passageway with the hollow sleeve. A cable is received in the passageway and has its rear end anchored to the mounting means of the rear pig element, the forward end of the cable connected to an actuator shaft for a stylus for recording a bend along the pipeline system, whereby when the pig assembly traverses a bend. The front pig element pivots with respect to the rear pig element thereby pivoting the sleeve relative to the passageway and thereby exerting a pull on the cable causing the actuator shaft to move longitudinally rearward; thereby indicating the location and degree of the bend.

  12. Improved pig donor screening including newly identified variants of porcine endogenous retrovirus-C (PERV-C).

    PubMed

    Kaulitz, Danny; Mihica, Debora; Adlhoch, Cornelia; Semaan, Marwan; Denner, Joachim

    2013-02-01

    Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) are widely distributed in the genomes of pigs. PERV-A and PERV-B are present in all pigs. They infect human cells in vitro and therefore represent a risk for xenotransplantation when pig cells, tissues or organs are used. PERV-C infects only pig cells and is not present in the genomes of all pigs. However, PERV-A/C recombinants infecting human cells and characterized by high replication titers were found in pigs. To select PERV-C-free animals that cannot generate such recombinants, PCR-based assays were developed (Kaulitz et al., J Virol Methods, 175:60, 2011). When screening for PERV-C in German wild boars (Sus scrofa scrofa), applying these methods, a new variant of PERV-C was identified. Whereas in all 125 wild boar only the new variant of PERV-C was found, different variants were present in some landrace pigs, and most importantly, some pigs were totally free of PERV-C. PMID:23053520

  13. A low-cost solid-liquid separation process for enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries.

    PubMed

    Sievers, David A; Lischeske, James J; Biddy, Mary J; Stickel, Jonathan J

    2015-07-01

    Solid-liquid separation of intermediate process slurries is required in some process configurations for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to transportation fuels. Thermochemically pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed corn stover slurries have proven difficult to filter due to formation of very low permeability cakes that are rich in lignin. Treatment of two different slurries with polyelectrolyte flocculant was demonstrated to increase mean particle size and filterability. Filtration flux was greatly improved, and thus scaled filter unit capacity was increased approximately 40-fold compared with unflocculated slurry. Although additional costs were accrued using polyelectrolyte, techno-economic analysis revealed that the increase in filter capacity significantly reduced overall production costs. Fuel production cost at 95% sugar recovery was reduced by $1.35 US per gallon gasoline equivalent for dilute-acid pretreated and enzymatically hydrolyzed slurries and $3.40 for slurries produced using an additional alkaline de-acetylation preprocessing step that is even more difficult to natively filter. PMID:25836372

  14. Chemical roles on Cu-slurry interface during copper chemical mechanical planarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yuhong; Pan, Yan; Lu, Xinchun

    2014-02-01

    In order to optimize the existing slurry for low down-pressure chemical mechanical polishing/planarization (CMP), copper CMP was conducted in H2O2 based slurries with benzotriazole (BTA) and glycine at different pH values. The film composition was investigated by the Nano Hardness Tester and XPS tests. Furthermore, the film structure forming on the copper surface at different pH values was investigated by adopting electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technology. In the acidic slurry, discontinuous and porous BTA film covering the Cu/Cu2O surface enhanced the mechanical effect during Cu CMP process, resulted in highest CMP removal rate. In neutral slurry, the lowest CMP removal rate and static corrosion rate were resulted from compacted passivation film on the copper surface. In the alkaline slurry, the mechanical effect was limited by the rapid chemical dissolution. The results will benefit optimization of the slurry and operate conditions during low down-pressure CMP process.

  15. Bioremediation of solid TNT particles in a soil slurry reactor: Mass transfer considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Gilcrease, P.C.; Murphy, V.G.; Reardon, K.F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The bioreduction of solid TNT by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was investigated in a stirred tank reactor. Experiments in which TNT beads were the only solids present indicated that the biodegradation mechanism is dissolution followed by degradation in bulk solution. Dissolution may limit the overall rate, in which case degradation can be enhanced through increased agitation. Since soil slurries may contain high concentrations of solids other than TNT, Teflon chips were added to investigate two separate effects on TNT dissolution in slurries. First, Teflon solids increase the viscosity of the slurry, resulting in lower solid-liquid mass transfer coefficients. Second, the agitated Teflon slurry can grind or comminute TNT particles, creating additional surface area for mass transfer. Enhanced dissolution rates were observed for TNT beads in a Teflon slurry at higher agitator speeds. This suggests that the biodegradation of solid TNT nuggets in a soil slurry bioreactor may be enhanced under conditions that promote particle attrition.

  16. Ethanol production from non-detoxified whole slurry of sulfite-pretreated empty fruit bunches at a low cellulase loading.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinlan; Leu, Shao-Yuan; Zhu, J Y; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2014-07-01

    Sulfite pretreatment to overcome the recalcitrance of lignocelluloses (SPORL) was applied to an empty fruit bunches (EFB) for ethanol production. SPORL facilitated delignification through lignin sulfonation and dissolution of xylan to result in a highly digestible substrate. The pretreated whole slurry was enzymatically saccharified at a solids loading of 18% using a relatively low cellulase loading of 15 FPU/g glucan and simultaneously fermented without detoxification using Saccharomyces cerevisiae of YRH400. An ethanol yield of 217 L/tonne EFB was achieved at titer of 32 g/L. Compared with literature studies, SPORL produced high ethanol yield and titer with much lower cellulase loading without detoxification. PMID:24874873

  17. Exploring pig raising in Bangladesh: implications for public health interventions.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Nazmun; Uddin, Main; Sarkar, Rouha Anamika; Gurley, Emily S; Uddin Khan, M Salah; Hossain, M Jahangir; Sultana, Rebeca; Luby, Stephen P

    2013-01-01

    Pigs are intermediate hosts and potential reservoirs of a number of pathogens that can infect humans. The objectives of this manuscript are to understand pig raising patterns in Bangladesh, interactions between pigs and humans, social stigma and discrimination that pig raisers experience and to explore the implications of these findings for public health interventions. The study team conducted an exploratory qualitative study by interviewing backyard pig raisers and nomadic herders (n=34), observing daily interactions between pigs and humans (n=18) and drawing seasonal diagrams (n=6) with herders to understand the reasons for movement of nomadic herds. Pig raisers had regular close interaction with pigs. They often touched, caressed and fed their pigs which exposed them to pigs' saliva and feces. Herders took their pigs close to human settlements for scavenging. Other domestic animals and poultry shared food and sleeping and scavenging places with pigs. Since pigs are taboo in Islam, a majority of Muslims rejected pig raising and stigmatized pig raisers. This study identified several potential ways for pigs to transmit infectious agents to humans in Bangladesh. Poverty and stigmatization of pig raisers make it difficult to implement health interventions to reduce the risk of such transmissions. Interventions that offer social support to reduce stigma and highlight economic benefits of disease control might interest of pig raisers in accepting interventions targeting pig borne zoonoses. PMID:23564585

  18. Comparison of slurry and dry erosion behaviour of some HVOF thermal sprayed coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M Hawthorne; B Arsenault; J. P Immarigeon; J. G Legoux; V. R Parameswaran

    1999-01-01

    The performance of 10 high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed coatings has been evaluated under both dry particle and slurry erosion conditions at 90° and 20° impingement angles. The coatings were six WC cermets with Co- or Ni-based matrices, a Cr3C2–NiCr composite and three metallic alloys. Slurry jet erosion experiments were carried out using a 9 wt.% alumina\\/water slurry with 35

  19. Effect of plastic viscosity and yield value on spray characteristics of magnesium-slurry fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prok, George M

    1957-01-01

    Magnesium slurries were sprayed onto a sheet of paper from an air-atomizing injector. Drop sizes and distributions were then determined from photomicrographs. Four different surface-active additives were used in preparing the slurries to give plastic viscosities between 0.22 and 0.51 poise and yield values between 150 and 810 dynes-cm(exp 2). It was found that there was no significant variation in the spray characteristics of these slurries when tested under the same conditions.

  20. Study of clay-cement slurries with mechanical and electromagnetic waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Fam; J. C. Santamarina

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a test program in which the setting and hardening of cement, bentonite-cement slurries, and attapulgite-cement slurries are monitored in the laboratory with mechanical-shear and electromagnetic waves. Specimens are prepared by prehydrating the clay before adding cement. The presence of clays in soil-cement slurries delays hydration and its manifestation. The complex permittivity emerges as a

  1. Topical ice slurry prevents brain rewarming during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in newborn sheep

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Brooker; David A. Zvara; Harm Velvis; Richard C. Prielipp

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To measure the effect of ice slurry topical cooling on brain surface temperature during deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.Design: This was a prospective, controlled experiment.Setting: Animal laboratory at a university hospital.Participants: Five control lambs, five treatment (ice slurry) lambs.Interventions: Animals were studied in two groups: the study group had topical cooling of the head with ice slurry started immediately before

  2. CMP Slurry Blending Process Optimization and Cost Improvements using Real-time Concentration Monitoring

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlo Dominic Aparece; C. Wacinski; S. Rajan

    2007-01-01

    The approach of this study is to install a realtime concentration monitoring system in a slurry blending system with the main intention of replacing a complex auto-titration system for cost reduction and optimization of the blending process. A Swagelok CR-288 concentration sensor was installed in a Kinetics Slurry Blending System to monitor in real-time the peroxide concentration of the slurry

  3. Combined slurry and solid-phase bioremediation of diesel contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Nano; A Borroni; R Rota

    2003-01-01

    This work investigates, at a laboratory and pilot-scale, the influence of various operating parameters on the combined slurry and solid-phase bioremediation technique for a diesel contaminated soil. For slurry-phase bioreactors (SPB), it has been found that, as far as famine conditions are attained at the end of the react cycle, a low hydraulic retention time and a low slurry recycle

  4. Synthesis of octane enhancers during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch

    SciTech Connect

    Marcelin, G.

    1992-06-10

    The objective of this project is to investigate three possible routes to the formation of ethers, in particular methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), during slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch reaction. The three reaction schemes to be investigated are: Addition of isobutylene during the formation of methanol and/or higher alcohols directly from CO and H{sub 2} during slurry-phase Fischer-Tropsch. Addition of isobutylene to FT liquid products including alcohols in a slurry-phase reactor containing an MTBE or other acid catalyst. Addition of methanol to slurry phase FT synthesis making iso-olefins.

  5. Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program

    SciTech Connect

    Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

  6. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    DOEpatents

    Doherty, Joseph P. (Elkton, MD); Marek, James C. (Augusta, GA)

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper (II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the orginal organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge and transferred to a virtrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage.

  8. Improvement of the commercial quality of chilled Norway lobster ( Nephrops norvegicus) stored in slurry ice: Effects of a preliminary treatment with an antimelanosic agent on enzymatic browning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santiago P. Aubourg; Vanesa Losada; Marta Prado; José M. Miranda; Jorge Barros-Velázquez

    2007-01-01

    The use of slurry ice is gaining increasing importance as an advanced method for the hygienic and efficient chilling and sub-zero storage of aquatic food products. In this work, this technology was applied as a novel technique for the chilling and storage of Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) – a crustacean species of high-commercial value – under refrigeration conditions at ?1.5°C.

  9. Association between microbiological and serological prevalence of human pathogenic Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches.

    PubMed

    Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

    2015-07-01

    Pigs are the main reservoir of human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica, and the microbiological and serological prevalence of this pathogen differs between pig farms. The infection status of pig batches at moment of slaughter is unknown while it is a possibility to classify batches. A relation between the presence of human pathogenic Yersinia spp. and the presence of antibodies could help to predict the infection of the pigs prior to slaughter. Pigs from 100 different batches were sampled. Tonsils and pieces of diaphragm were collected from 7047 pigs (on average 70 pigs per batch). The tonsils were analyzed using a direct plating method and the meat juice collected from the pieces of diaphragm was analyzed by Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay. The microbiological and serological results were compared using a mixed-effects logistic regression at pig and batch level. Yersinia spp. were found in 2031 (28.8%) pigs, antibodies were present in 4692 (66.6%) pigs. According to the logistic regression, there was no relation at pig level between the presence of Yersinia spp. in tonsils and the presence of antibodies. Contrarily, at batch level, a mean activity value of 37 Optical Density (OD)% indicated a Yersinia spp. positive farm and the microbiological prevalence in pig batches could be estimated before shipment to the slaughterhouse. This offers the opportunity to classify batches based on their potential risk to contaminate carcasses with human pathogenic Yersinia spp. PMID:25982260

  10. Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine.

    PubMed

    Fayer, R; Elsasser, T; Gould, R; Solano, G; Urban, J; Santin, M

    2014-04-01

    Blastocystis has been reported in pig feces but the sites of development in the gastrointestinal tract are unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine predilection sites of Blastocystis in 11 naturally infected pigs examined at 20 weeks of age. At necropsy, feces and contents of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum were examined by immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopy and PCR and tissues from these sites as well as the proximal and distal colon were processed for histology from pigs 1 to 5. Feces were examined by IFA microscopy, and segments from the jejunum and ileum were processed for histology from pigs 6 to 11. Multiple sections were cut from each tissue segment, and each was stained with the following: hematoxylin and eosin, polyclonal rabbit antibody to Blastocystis, and ParaFlor B monoclonal antibody to Blastocystis. Blastocystis was detected in feces of all 11 pigs by IFA microscopy and determined by PCR and gene sequencing to be subtype 5 for pigs 1-5. Blastocystis was also detected in the lumen contents removed from the cecum of pigs 1-5 examined by IFA microscopy and in the cecum of pigs 4 and 5 by PCR. Blastocystis was also observed in tissue sections from the jejunum of 7 of the 11 pigs, in the proximal and distal colon of pigs 1-5, and in the cecum of 4 of these 5 pigs but was not detected in the duodenum or ileum of any pigs. In tissue sections, Blastocystis was found primarily in the lumen usually associated with digested food debris, sometimes in close proximity or appearing to adhere to the epithelium, but no stages were found to penetrate the epithelium or the lamina propria. PMID:24535732

  11. Erysipelas in turkeys, sheep and pigs.

    PubMed

    2015-03-21

    Erysipelas diagnosed in turkeys, sheep and pigs. Parasitic gastroenteritis reported in cattle on several farms. Unusual presentation of Actinobacillus suis causing spinal abscesses in pigs on a breeder-finisher unit. First APHA diagnosis of oedema disease in pigs in East Anglia for many years. Infectious coryza confirmed in a hobby breeding flock. These are among matters discussed in the Animal and Plant Health Agency's (APHA's) disease surveillance report for November 2014. PMID:25792678

  12. Synthesis of polyethyleneimine capped carbon dots for preconcentration and slurry sampling analysis of trace chromium in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Hu, Jia; Li, Yan; Wei, Hai-Ping; Li, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Xi-Hua; Chen, Shi-Min; Chen, Xiao-Qin

    2015-03-01

    Carbon dots capped with polyethyleneimine (CD-PEI) were synthesized and applied in selective separation and preconcentration of trace Cr(VI). Dispersed particle extraction (DPE) slurry sampling with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) was used to selectively and sensitively determine Cr(VI) in water samples. The as-synthesized CD-PEI was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis, fluorescence and zeta potential measurement. The adsorption of Cr(VI) on CD-PEI was evaluated. Its isothermal adsorption was studied and fitted in the Langmuir model. Nearly 85% of Cr(VI) was adsorbed within 10 min showed that the CD-PEI exhibited fairly fast kinetics for the sorption of Cr(VI). Experimental conditions, including the content and size of CD-PEI, sample pH, adsorption time, sample volume, slurry volume and interfering ions, were further optimized to obtain efficient preconcentration and high-precision determination of Cr(VI). CD-PEI with small size turned to be a good candidate for the preparation of slurry. CD-PEI served not only as a promising adsorbent for separation and preconcentration of Cr, but also a signal-enhancing agent in FAAS. The method achieved an enhancement factor of 30 and a detection limit (S/N=3) of 0.21 µg L(-1) Cr(VI) with a consumption of 14.0 mL sample and an adsorption time of 5 min, which provided two times of signal enhancement. The RSD for 11 replicate measurements of 5.0 µg L(-1) Cr(VI) was 2.8%. The possible signal enhancement mechanism was proposed. The developed method has been applied to determine trace Cr(VI) in a variety of water samples. PMID:25618635

  13. WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, J.

    2013-04-12

    Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

  14. dsPIG: a tool to predict imprinted genes from the deep sequencing of whole transcriptomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dysregulation of imprinted genes, which are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, plays an important role in various human diseases, such as cancer and behavioral disorder. To date, however, fewer than 100 imprinted genes have been identified in the human genome. The recent availability of high-throughput technology makes it possible to have large-scale prediction of imprinted genes. Here we propose a Bayesian model (dsPIG) to predict imprinted genes on the basis of allelic expression observed in mRNA-Seq data of independent human tissues. Results Our model (dsPIG) was capable of identifying imprinted genes with high sensitivity and specificity and a low false discovery rate when the number of sequenced tissue samples was fairly large, according to simulations. By applying dsPIG to the mRNA-Seq data, we predicted 94 imprinted genes in 20 cerebellum samples and 57 imprinted genes in 9 diverse tissue samples with expected low false discovery rates. We also assessed dsPIG using previously validated imprinted and non-imprinted genes. With simulations, we further analyzed how imbalanced allelic expression of non-imprinted genes or different minor allele frequencies affected the predictions of dsPIG. Interestingly, we found that, among biallelically expressed genes, at least 18 genes expressed significantly more transcripts from one allele than the other among different individuals and tissues. Conclusion With the prevalence of the mRNA-Seq technology, dsPIG has become a useful tool for analysis of allelic expression and large-scale prediction of imprinted genes. For ease of use, we have set up a web service and also provided an R package for dsPIG at http://www.shoudanliang.com/dsPIG/. PMID:23083219

  15. Regional Variation in Pig Farmer Awareness and Actions Regarding Japanese Encephalitis in Nepal: Implications for Public Health Education

    PubMed Central

    Dhakal, Santosh; Joshi, Durga Datt; Ale, Anita; Sharma, Minu; Dahal, Meena; Shah, Yogendra; Pant, Dhan Kumar; Stephen, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease that has pigs as the major amplifying hosts. It is the most important cause of viral encephalitis in people in Nepal and is spreading in its geographic distribution in that country. Pig farming is increasing in Nepal due to reducing cultural biases against pigs and government programs to support pig farming for poverty alleviation. Major strategies for JE prevention and control include education, vector control, and immunization of people and pigs. This study used a survey of 400 pig farmers in 4 areas of Nepal with different JE and pig farming histories to explore regional variations in farmer awareness and actions towards JE, the association of awareness and actions with farm and farmer variables, and the implications of these associations for public health education. Exposure to JE risk factors was common across pig farms and pig farming districts but there were significant district level differences in knowledge and practices related to on-farm JE risk reduction. Social factors such as literacy, gender, and cultural practices were associated with farmer attitudes, knowledge and practices for JE control. JE vaccine uptake was almost non-existent and mosquito control steps were inconsistently applied across all 4 districts. Income was not a determining factor of the differences, but all farmers were very poor. The low uptake of vaccine and lack of infrastructure or financial capacity to house pigs indoors or away from people suggest that farmer personal protection should be a priority target for education in Nepal. This study re-enforces the need to attack root causes of people’s personal disease prevention behaviours and take into account local variation in needs and capacities when designing health or agriculture education programs. PMID:24416402

  16. The General Composition of the Faecal Virome of Pigs Depends on Age, but Not on Feeding with a Probiotic Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Sachsenröder, Jana; Twardziok, Sven O.; Scheuch, Matthias; Johne, Reimar

    2014-01-01

    Background The pig faecal virome, which comprises the community of viruses present in pig faeces, is complex and consists of pig viruses, bacteriophages, transiently passaged plant viruses and other minor virus species. Only little is known about factors influencing its general composition. Here, the effect of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) NCIMB 10415 on the pig faecal virome composition was analysed in a pig feeding trial with sows and their piglets, which received either the probiotic bacterium or not. Results From 8 pooled faecal samples derived from the feeding trial, DNA and RNA virus particles were prepared and subjected to process-controlled Next Generation Sequencing resulting in 390,650 sequence reads. In average, 14% of the reads showed significant sequence identities to known viruses. The percentage of detected mammalian virus sequences was highest (55–77%) in the samples of the youngest piglets and lowest (8–10%) in the samples of the sows. In contrast, the percentage of bacteriophage sequences increased from 22–44% in the youngest piglets to approximately 90% in the sows. The dominating mammalian viruses differed remarkably among 12 day-old piglets (kobuvirus), 54 day-old piglets (boca-, dependo- and pig stool-associated small circular DNA virus [PigSCV]) and the sows (PigSCV, circovirus and “circovirus-like” viruses CB-A and RW-A). In addition, the Shannon index, which reflects the diversity of sequences present in a sample, was generally higher for the sows as compared to the piglets. No consistent differences in the virome composition could be identified between the viromes of the probiotic bacterium-treated group and the control group. Conclusion The analysis indicates that the pig faecal virome shows a high variability and that its general composition is mainly dependent on the age of the pigs. Changes caused by feeding with the probiotic bacterium E. faecium could not be demonstrated using the applied metagenomics method. PMID:24586429

  17. Heavy-Metal Fractions in Solid and Liquid Separates of Swine Slurry Separated using Different Technologies.

    PubMed

    Olatuyi, S O; Kumaragamage, D; Akinremi, O O; Grieger, L

    2014-09-01

    Accumulation of metals is a concern with continuous application of swine slurry to agricultural soils. Solid-liquid separation is a promising approach for reducing phosphorus and total metal loadings with swine manure application to farmlands. However, very little work has been performed on the partitioning of different metal fractions in swine slurry to separated solids and liquids. This study examined the distribution of various metal fractions in raw manures (RM), their separated liquids (SL), and separated solids (SS). The three separation techniques used were centrifuge without flocculant (CNF), centrifuge with flocculant (CFL), and rotary press with flocculant (RFL). Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Se in manure and separates were determined by a modified Sposito's sequential chemical fractionation scheme to extract water-soluble, exchangeable, organically bound, carbonate-precipitated, and residual fractions. The greatest concentrations of metals were recovered in the residual fraction, with the organically bound and carbonate-precipitated concentrations much greater than water-soluble and exchangeable fractions. Separation index () (i.e., percentage partitioned to SS) ranged from 13 to 66%, 9 to 87%, 16 to 93%, and 23 to 96% for water-soluble, exchangeable, organically bound, and carbonate-precipitated fractions, respectively. The values in general, were significantly ( < 0.05) greater for flocculant-based separation techniques than for CNF. For organically bound and carbonate-precipitated fractions, the greatest was obtained with the RFL for most metals. Our results suggest that applying the SL from RFL separation would minimize metal loading to farmlands compared with SL from CNF and CFL techniques. However, further validation is required using more sources of manure and different flocculants. PMID:25603262

  18. Open mesh device for improved in-car slurrying

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, R.L.; Coulter, J.S.

    1988-11-29

    This patent describes a method for improved in-car slurrying of dry bulk powder contained in hopper compartments in a hopper car, each compartment having means for admitting air under pressure and water into the compartment at the bottom thereof comprising the steps of: providing a porous obstruction across the upper portion of the compartment at about the level of the bulk powder therewithin which will admit the passage of air therethrough but not clumps of unwet powder, admitting water and air to the bottom of the bulk to pump the material upwardly against the obstruction.

  19. A study of ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated coal water slurry droplet using digital image processing technique

    E-print Network

    Bhadra, Tanmoy

    1998-01-01

    A digital image processing technique is used to investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of an isolated coal water slurry droplet in low Re flow. Coal water slurry droplet study is useful for dilute coal suspensions based...

  20. Method and apparatus for pre dilution of driffing mud slurry and the like

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Priebe

    1985-01-01

    An aqueous slurry of spent drilling mud and\\/or produced water is diluted prior to free discharge into a body of receiving water by expelling a jet stream of such slurry into an open-ended submerged mixing conduit. The jet stream aspirates and entrains the surrounding water within the conduit and is then passed through a mixer stage prior to exiting the

  1. Ultrasonic determination of the particle concentration in model suspensions and ice slurry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Langlois; W. Gautherin; J. Laurent; L. Royon; L. Fournaison; A. Delahaye; X. Jia

    2011-01-01

    The development of ice slurry for refrigeration systems and the enhancement of its efficiency depend on an accurate control of the ice concentration. We present here an ultrasonic method capable to measure precisely the particle concentration in ice slurry. To calibrate the ultrasonic measurement, we first determine the sound velocity and attenuation in two model suspensions (glass beads\\/polyethylene glycol and

  2. Evaluation of the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterial Population Associated With Stored Swine Slurry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in swine manure storage pit (SMSP) slurries are responsible for the production of hydrogen sulfide emitted from livestock facilities. However, little is known about the prevalence and diversity of SRB in livestock wastes. In this study, SRB populations in SMSP slurrie...

  3. Reduction of Odor and Odorant Emissions from Slurry Stores by Means of Straw Covers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victoria Blanes-Vidal; Martin N. Hansen; Patricia Sousa

    2009-01-01

    Swine (Sus scrofa) slurry stored in open storages is a source of airborne contaminants. A customary practice for ammonia and odor control consists of covering the surface of the slurry with fl oating materials, such as straw. Although straw covers have been proven to generally reduce gaseous emissions, more knowledge is needed regarding how age, moisture content, and microbiological development

  4. Determination of particle size distribution of salt crystals in aqueous slurries. [From reprocessing of fuel elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining particle size distribution of water-soluble crystals in aqueous slurries is described. The salt slurries, containing sodium salts of predominantly nitrate, but also nitrite, sulfate, phosphate, aluminates, carbonate, and hydroxide, occur in radioactive, concentrated chemical waste from the reprocessing of nuclear fuel elements. The method involves separating the crystals from the aqueous phase, drying them, and then

  5. Effect of Adding Alum or Zeolite to Dairy Slurry on Ammonia Volatilization and Chemical Composition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Lefcourt; J. J. Meisinger

    2001-01-01

    Development of cost-effective amendments for treat- ing dairy slurry has become a critical problem as the number of cows on farms continues to grow and the acreage available for manure spreading continues to shrink. To determine effectiveness and optimal rates of addition of either alum or zeolite to dairy slurry, we measured ammonia emissions and resulting chemical changes in the

  6. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Wittmer, Dale E. (Carbondale, IL)

    1995-01-01

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  7. INVESTIGATING ULTRASONIC DIFFRACTION GRATING SPECTROSCOPY AND REFLECTION TECHNIQUES FOR CHARACTERIZING SLURRY PROPERTIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objectives of the project are to investigate the use of (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) for measuring the particle size of a slurry and (2) shear wave reflection techniques to measure the viscosity of a slurry. For the first topic, the basic principle...

  8. Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry

    DOEpatents

    Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

    1995-10-10

    A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

  9. Fluidized bed heat exchangers to prevent fouling in ice slurry systems and industrial crystallizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Pronk

    2006-01-01

    Ozon layer depletion and global warming by synthetic refrigerants forces refrigeration industries to switch over to natural but hazardous refrigerants like ammonia and hydrocarbons. A promising technology to safely use the latter refrigerants is the application of indirect refrigeration systems with ice slurry as heat transfer fluid. Ice slurry, a suspension of aqueous solution and small ice crystals, has a

  10. Investigation on the final polishing slurry and technique of silicon substrate in ULSI

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuling Liu; Kailiang Zhang; Fang Wang; Weiguo Di

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the final polishing slurry and polishing techniques are studied, which is based on the investigation of the polishing kinetics process and mechanism of the silicon substrate. The new polishing kinetics process and mechanism are put forward. CMP final polishing slurry used in silicon substrate polishing is also researched, in which the smaller size (ranging from 15 to

  11. Phase two laboratory testing of Direct Freeze ice slurry district cooling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winters

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the laboratory development progress of a proprietary ice production technology (Direct Freeze) for ice-water slurry district cooling systems. The current work builds on a previous Phase 1 effort performed for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of the current Phase 2 effort was divided into two separate areas. The first, Ice Slurry Hydraulic Characterization Tests,

  12. In-situ Study of the Thermal Properties of Hydrate Slurry by High Pressure DSC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osmann Sari; Jin Hua; Frederic Bruna; Nicolas Erbeaua; Paul Homsy; Jean-claude Logel; Jin Hu; Frederic Brun; Erbeau Nicolas

    Knowing the enthalpy of hydrate slurry is very essential for energy balance and industrial applications. No direct measurement processes had been developed in this field in the past time. A new experimental method with special device has been developed to carry out on-line measurement of the thermal properties for hydrate slurry under dynamic conditions. With this special device, it is

  13. Comparing the studies of a coal slurry pipeline. Special report No. 17

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cox

    1983-01-01

    The proposal to build a coal slurry pipeline in Virginia has become a hotly debated topics. In this report, a former Water Center staff member compares what eight separate studies have to say about its economic feasibility and its impact on employment and the environment. Only two of the studies examine the economic feasibility of a coal slurry pipeline, and

  14. Potassium Bromate as an Oxidizing Agent in a Titania-Based Ru CMP Slurry

    E-print Network

    Suni, Ian Ivar

    Potassium Bromate as an Oxidizing Agent in a Titania-Based Ru CMP Slurry S. Noyel Victoria,a Pranav was studied in slurries containing titania and potassium bromate at different pH values, showing that the Ru rate is low. Potassium bromate increases Ru removal only at anodic potentials or during mechanical

  15. Slurry Chemical Corrosion and Galvanic Corrosion during Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Seiichi Kondo; Noriyuki Sakuma; Yoshio Homma; Naofumi Ohashi

    2000-01-01

    Copper (Cu) corrosion during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was controlled in order to improve the Cu damascene interconnect process. Slurry chemical corrosion was found to be enhanced when the slurry was diluted by deionized (DI) water during rinsing just after CMP@. Since the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole (BTA), reduces the Cu removal rate, adding it to the rinse solution prevents chemical

  16. A re-examination of the ‘particle size effect’ in slurry erosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mc I. Clark; Ryan B. Hartwich

    2001-01-01

    The nature and significance of what has been called the ‘particle size effect’ on the rate of slurry erosion and the problem of its experimental evaluation are discussed. Experiments involving the change of erodent particle size in typical laboratory test equipment, while revealing a decrease in erosion rate with decreasing erodent particle size, also produce significant changes in the slurry

  17. Effect of Chemicals and Slurry Particles on Chemical Mechamical Polishing of Polyimide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyoung-Gyun; An, Yoo-Min; Moon, Doo-Kyung; Park, Jin-Goo

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chemicals and particles on chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of polyimide (PI). The effect of particle size and its surface area on both the removal rates and the surface roughness was investigated as a function of the slurry content upon the addition of various chemicals. The optimal particle content was measured for silica, ceria and alumina slurries in terms of the removal rate and surface roughness. The removal rate was highest when deionized (DI)-water-based alumina slurry was used. However, the greatest surface roughness was measured when ceria slurry was used rather than alumina. Alkaline chemicals were added to the slurry to enhance the removal rates of PI during CMP@. The addition of Tetramethyl Ammonium Hydroxide (TMAH) and Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) to ceria slurry but not to alumina and silica slurries increased the removal rate significantly at higher pH values. The addition of ethylenediamine and the presoaking of PI in hot DI water did not increase the removal rate in alkaline-chemical-based slurries. The addition of surfactant resulted in a decrease of the removal rate to half of that determined without the addition of surfactant.

  18. High density ash slurry pumping and disposal: An environmentally safe and economical alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Broek, B. van den

    1999-07-01

    The paper describes conventional ash disposal systems; high density slurry transportation and disposal systems, including the design, disposal site, technical features, sloped disposal site operating parameters, slurry quality and deposit management; typical operational questions; specific advantages of the proposed GEHO system; and GEHO piston diaphragm pumps.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF SLURRY CUTOFF WALL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR CONTAINING HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document reviews current design and construction methods of soil-bentonite slurry trench cutoff walls. It summarizes engineering practices, identifies areas of technical detail and initiates research to promote the development of standards for use of slurry walls to isolate h...

  20. Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

    1991-12-01

    This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

  1. Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of Archaea in the intestinal tract of pigs is limited. In order to investigate archaeal community structure, samples were taken from the cecum and proximal colon of finishing pigs (24) fed diets with either corn or solvent extracted corn germ meal (CGM). Corn germ meal feeding began in w...

  2. Genetically Modified Pigs for Medicine and Agriculture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RANDALL S. PRATHER; MIAODA SHEN; YIFAN DAI

    2008-01-01

    The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into

  3. RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge Attila Bai & László Stündl & Péter Bársony & Milán- ied an economical method of algae production on pig sludge that can be operated on animal farms in Hungary with modest levels of investment. We analyzed four algae spe- cies, Chlorella vulgaris

  4. Original article Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in pigs

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Original article Pharmacokinetics of doxycycline in pigs following oral administration in feed Éric) Abstract - Doxycycline medicated feed was administered to healthy fattening pigs for an 8-day period either/kg/day. Doxycycline concentrations were determined in plasma, lung and nasal mucosa using a high performance liquid

  5. Guinea Pigs: Versatile Animals for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.

    1977-01-01

    Guinea pigs are presented as versatile classroom animals. Suggestions for animal behavior and genetics studies are given. Also included is information concerning sex determination and the breeding of guinea pigs, and hints on keeping these animals in the classroom. References and illustrations complete the article. (MA)

  6. Histotripsy for Pediatric Cardiac Applications: In Vivo Neonatal Pig Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan M.; Owens, Gabe; Ensing, Gregory; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the in vivo feasibility of using histotripsy to non-invasively create a flow channel between the ventricles by generating a perforation of the ventricular septum, clinically referred to as a ventricular septum defect (VSD). The overall goal is to develop a non-invasive procedure to aid in the treatment of neonatal patients with complex congenital heart diseases such as Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). Histotripsy is a therapeutic ultrasound technique that produces mechanical fractionation of soft tissue through controlled cavitation. The study was conducted in a live and intact neonatal pig model. The ventricular septum in the neonatal pig heart was treated with histotripsy delivered by a spherically focused 1 MHz transducer positioned outside the chest wall. Histotripsy treatment was applied using 5-cycle ultrasound pulses at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency with 12-18 MPa peak negative pressure. The treatment was guided and monitored with ultrasound imaging. In all nine subjects treated, a bubble cloud was generated on the ventricular septum using histotripsy, and visualized with ultrasound imaging. Within 20 seconds to 4 minutes following the initiation of a bubble cloud, a VSD was created in all nine pigs and confirmed by the detection of blood flow through the ventricular septum with color Doppler ultrasound. Gross morphology and histology on all hearts showed a demarcated perforation in the ventricular septum. This study shows that a VSD can be created in an intact neonatal animal using extracorporeal histotripsy under real-time ultrasound guidance.

  7. Study of the physical properties of petrolatum-stabilized magnesium-hydrocarbon slurry fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L; Goodman, Irving A

    1954-01-01

    Magnesium-hydrocarbon slurries containing a moderate proportion of petrolatum have physical properties such that they offer promise as experimental aircraft fuels. The settling of the magnesium is greatly retarded by the petrolatum, and the slurries can easily be remixed to their original condition after storage. Successive batches which have closely similar properties can be prepared readily. The apparent viscosity of these slurries increased rapidly with increasing magnesium concentration, with increasing petrolatum concentration, and with decreasing temperature. As the apparent viscosity increased, the extent of settling and the ease of remixing both decreased. Although no quantitative correlation was found between the properties of the slurry and those of the petrolatum, and no one petrolatum gave slurries which were best in all respects, one of the five petrolatum used was judged to be superior to the others.

  8. Wild pig populations in the National Parks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Francis J.

    1981-05-01

    Populations of introduced European wild boar, feral pigs, and combinations of both types (all Sus scrola L.) inhabit thirteen areas in the National Park Service system. All parks have relatively stable populations, with the exception of Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which reported a rapidly expanding wild boar population. Suspected and documented impacts were apparently related to pig densities and sensitivity of the ecosystem; the three largest units with dense wild pig populations reported the most damage. Overall, wild pigs are a relatively minor problem for the Park Service; however, problems are severe in at least three parks, and there is potential for invasion of wild boars into several additional parks in the Appalachian Mountains. More specific information is needed on numbers of wild pigs and their impacts in the various parks.

  9. R and D pilot plant project for evaluating a direct freeze ice slurry based district cooling system: Revised final report

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Knodel

    1988-01-01

    This report quantifies the potential for an ice slurry district cooling system based on an innovative direct freeze ice production technology as part of the US Department of Energy project ''District Heating and Cooling Technology Research: District Cooling\\/Ice Slurries''. The results will be used by DOE to guide RandD strategies to develop a technically viable and economically sensible ice slurry

  10. Rheological Behavior Xanthan and SlurryPro Polymer Solutions Evaluated as Shear Thinning Delivery Fluids for Subsurface Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Truex, M.; Vermeul, V.

    2011-12-01

    Shear thinning fluids can be applied as a delivery means to enhance the uniformity of remedial amendment distribution in heterogeneous aquifers, thereby to improve remediation performance. The rheological behavior of biopolymer xanthan gum and synthetic polymer SlurryPro were tested, and their influence on the amendment delivery performance was evaluated. The impact of polymer concentration, basic water chemistry, salinity (e.g., Br-, Na+, Ca2+ concentrations), remedial amendments (phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate, lactate oil, whey), sediments, and the mixing approach on the rheological properties of the polymer solutions was determined. The SlurryPro polymer lost shear-thinning properties even at relatively low solution ionic strength. However, the xanthan gum polymer maintained shear-thinning properties under most of the tested conditions, though with some loss in absolute viscosity with increasing ionic strength. Xanthan appeared to be the better candidate for enhanced amendment delivery. Increasing in xanthan concentration not only increased the solution viscosity, but also increased degree of shear thinning. Addition of salt decreased the solution viscosity and the degree of shear thinning, while the influence was diminished when the polymer concentration was higher. After reaching a critical xanthan concentration, addition of salt increased solution viscosity. The degradation of xanthan and SlurryPro in the presence of site aquifer materials and microbes was studied in batch tests in which the field sediment/water ratio was simulated. The viscosity of the polymer solutions dropped 85% or more in the first week, while the solution chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreasing occurred at a much slower rate.

  11. KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYNTHESIS

    SciTech Connect

    Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Lech Nowicki; Jiang Wang; Wen-Ping Ma

    2003-09-29

    This report covers the first year of this three-year research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sup 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we have completed one STSR test with precipitated iron catalyst obtained from Ruhrchemie AG (Oberhausen-Holten, Germany). This catalyst was initially in commercial fixed bed reactors at Sasol in South Africa. The catalyst was tested at 13 different sets of process conditions, and had experienced a moderate deactivation during the first 500 h of testing (decrease in conversion from 56% to 50% at baseline process conditions). The second STSR test has been initiated and after 270 h on stream, the catalyst was tested at 6 different sets of process conditions.

  12. A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1990-05-01

    Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Measurement of the Critical Deposition Velocity in Slurry Transport through a Horizontal Pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Erian, Fadel F.; Furfari, Daniel J.; Kellogg, Michael I.; Park, Walter R.

    2001-03-01

    Critical Deposition Velocity (CDV) is an important design and operational parameter in slurry transport. Almost all existing correlations that are used to predict this parameter have been obtained experimentally from slurry transport tests featuring single solid species in the slurry mixture. No correlations have been obtained to describe this parameter when the slurry mixture contains more than one solid species having a wide range of specific gravities, particle size distributions, and volume concentrations within the overall slurry mixture. There are no physical or empirical bases that can justify the extrapolation or modification of the existing single species correlations to include all these effects. New experiments must be carried out to obtain new correlations that would be suited for these types of slurries, and that would clarify the mechanics of solids deposition as a function of the properties of the various solid species. Our goal in this paper is to describe a robust experimental technique for the accurate determination of the critical deposition velocity associated with the transport of slurries in horizontal or slightly inclined pipes. Because of the relative difficulty encountered during the precise determination of this useful operational parameter, it has been the practice to connect it with some transitional behavior of more easily measurable flow parameters such as the pressure drop along the slurry pipeline. In doing so, the critical deposition velocity loses its unique and precise definition due to the multitude of factors that influence such transitional behaviors. Here, data has been obtained for single species slurries made up of washed garnet and water and flowing through a 1- inch clear pipe. The selected garnet had a narrow particle size distribution with a mean diameter of 100 mm, approximately. The critical deposition velocity was measured for garnet/water slurries of 10, 20, and 30 percent solids concentration by volume.

  14. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. B. M. Bracke; H. A. M. Spoolder

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to them. This paper systematically examines the overall importance of wallowing for pig welfare using

  15. The Ultrasensitive Bay of Pigs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On Wednesday, the National Security Archive released newly declassified portions of the Taylor Commission Report, the report from the commission charged by President Kennedy with investigating the Bay of Pigs incident. The eight documents in this new release add crucial details to the picture that emerged from prior, more heavily censored releases of Taylor Commission materials in 1977 and 1986. This release serves as a useful supplement to the The Inspector General's Survey of the Cuban Operation (see the February 27, 1998 Scout Report), which was declassified in 1998 and scathing in its critique of the CIA's actions.

  16. Serial blood sampling from the portal and hepatic vein in conscious unrestrained miniature pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Paschen; M. J. Miiller

    1986-01-01

    Summary A technique of implantation of portal and hepatic venous catheters in miniature pigs is described in detail. To overcome early patency loss, Swan-Ganz balloon catheters were used. Portal as well as hepatic venous catheters could be held open to withdraw blood and to apply fluids over a period of at least 50 days. The collected hepatic venous blood represents

  17. Effects of regular moving and handling on the behavioral and physiological responses of pigs to preslaughter treatment and consequences for subsequent meat quality.

    PubMed

    Geverink, N A; Kappers, A; van de Burgwal, J A; Lambooij, E; Blokhuis, H J; Wiegant, V M

    1998-08-01

    The effects of regular moving and handling during the finishing period on behavioral and physiological responses of pigs during preslaughter treatment and consequences for meat quality were studied. From the age of 10 wk onward, 144 pigs were housed in groups of four (two gilts and two castrates) and subjected to one of the following treatments. The Environment treatment allowed pigs to move freely for 8 min outside their home pen. Then the pigs were transported in a box for 2 min, and after which they were returned to their home pen. In the Handling treatment, an experimenter remained for 3 min in the pen, and whenever a pig made contact, it was gently stroked. The experimenter then walked for an additional 1 min, without attempting to pat or stroke any pigs but subsequently held each pig in a tight grip for about 5 s. This entire procedure was then repeated. A Control treatment was also included, in which the pigs were subjected to no treatment. The Environment and Handling treatments were applied twice a week at the age of 15, 17, 19, 21, and 23 wk. At 25 wk of age, pigs were transported to the abattoir. They were held unmixed in the truck and in lairage and were manually stunned. The stockmen needed significantly less time to move Environment pigs out of their pen and into the transport box. There were no differences between treatments in salivary cortisol concentrations before or after transport. Environment and Handling pigs had paler meat than Control pigs. Glycogen content at 1 h after death and water-holding capacity were lower in Environment pigs than in Control pigs, but this did not lead to a higher incidence of PSE meat. We conclude that the pigs that had experience with leaving their home pen and some of the transport conditions were much easier to handle at loading. Pigs that are easier to move are less likely to be subjected to rough handling, which implies improved welfare, and the workload for personnel at the time of marketing is reduced. Differences in meat quality due to treatment were slight. PMID:9734857

  18. The rheology of cryovolcanic slurries: Motivation and phenomenology of methanol-water slurries with implications for Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Fang; Mitchell, Karl L.; Hays, Charles C.; Choukroun, Mathieu; Barmatz, Martin; Kargel, Jeffrey S.

    2009-08-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has revealed landforms on the surface of Titan suggested to be viscous cryovolcanic flows and possibly eruptive domes. In order to relate those surface features to the processes and chemistries that produced them, it is necessary to construct flow models, which rely on characterization of the rheological properties of the eruptants. This paper describes our initial exploratory attempts to understand the rheological characteristics of cryogenic slurries, using a 40% methanol-water mixture, as a precursor to more detailed experiments. We have devised a new automated cryogenic rotational viscometer system to more fully characterize cryovolcanic slurry rheologies. A series of measurements were performed, varying first temperature, and then strain rate, which revealed development of yield stress-like behaviors, shear-rate dependence, and thixotropic behavior, even at relatively low crystal fractions, not previously reported. At fixed shear rate our data are fit well by the Andrade equation, with the activation energy modified by a solid volume fraction. At fixed temperature, depending on shearing history, a Cross model could describe our data over a wide shear rate range. A Bingham plastic model appears to be a good constitutive model for the data measured at high shear rates when the shear was global. The yield stress like behavior implies that levee formation on cryolava flows is more likely than would be inferred from the previous studies, and may provide a partial explanation for features interpreted as steep-sided volcanic constructs on Titan.

  19. Continuous odour measurement from fattening pig units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romain, Anne-Claude; Nicolas, Jacques; Cobut, Pierre; Delva, Julien; Nicks, Baudouin; Philippe, François-Xavier

    2013-10-01

    A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou s.pig-1), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess the odour annoyance zone. Dynamic olfactometry measurements carried out at different development stages of pigs showed a logical trend of the mean assessed odour emission factor with the pig mass. However, the variation within the same mass class was much larger than variation between classes. Possible causes of such variation were identified as the evolution of ventilation rate during the day and the circadian rhythm of pig. To be able to monitor continuously the daily variation of the odour, an electronic nose was used with suitable regression model calibrated against olfactometric measurements. After appropriate validation check, the electronic nose proved to be convenient, as a complementary tool to dynamic olfactometry, to record the daily variation of the odour emission factor in the pig barn. It was demonstrated that, in the controlled conditions of the experimental pens, the daily variation of the odour emission rate could be mainly attributed to the sole influence of the circadian rhythm of pig. As a consequence, determining a representative odour emission factor in a real case cannot be based on a snapshot odour sampling.

  20. Study on Fundamental Characteristics of Ice Slurry of Propylene Glycol Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Akio; Kumano, Hiroyuki; Okawa, Seiji; Hozumi, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Matunaga, Tatsumi; Isayama, Yasuhiko; Seki, Mitsuo; Ninomiya, Toru

    In this study, the fundamental characteristics of ice slurry which is used for the dynamic type thermal energy storage system were investigated experimentally. Propylene glycol solution was used a thermal energy storage material. The ice slurry was produced by release of supercooling condition of the solution, while the solution was stirred. Then, the degree of supercooling and the concentration of the solution were varied as the parameter, and the observation of ice crystal right after the generation were carried out. The ice slurry after storage for several hours in the solution and the air was also observed to examine the variation of the characteristics of the ice slurry due to the storage. Moreover, the latent heat of fusion of the ice slurry was measured, and the relationship between the effective latent heat of fusion and the heat of dilution were revealed. These examinations were performed for ice slurry produced from another solutions which were ethanol solution and ethylene glycol solution, and the characteristics of the ice slurry were compared with each other from the viewpoint of the thermal energy storage material.

  1. Localized corrosion effects and modifications of acidic and alkaline slurries on copper chemical mechanical polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Yen, Shi-Chern

    2003-04-01

    This study demonstrates the CMP performance can be enhanced by modifying the corrosion effects of acidic and alkaline slurries on copper. A corrosion test-cell with a polishing platform is connected with the potentiostat to investigate the corrosion behaviors of copper CMP in various alumina slurries. Experiments show that the slurry needs to be maintained in acidic pH<4.56 or alkaline pH>9.05 surroundings and thus better dispersion of alumina particles and less residual contaminant on copper surface can be obtained. The surface defects after copper CMP using acidic and alkaline slurries are described by pitting corrosion mechanisms, and these mechanisms can be regarded as a basis to modify their corrosion effects. Experimental results indicate that it is necessary to modify the dissolution of HNO 3 and oxidization of NH 4OH for copper CMP slurries. Consequently, the slurries of 5 wt.% HNO 3 by adding 0.1 wt.% BTA or 5 wt.% KNO 3 by adding 1 wt.% NH 4OH achieve good CMP performance for copper with higher CMP efficiency factor (CMPEF), 1460 and 486, and lower surface roughness ( Rq), 4.019 and 3.971 nm, respectively. It is found that AFM micrographs can support the effectiveness of corrosion modifications for copper CMP in various slurry chemistries.

  2. Dynamic Modeling of Hydro- Formylation of 1-Decene on Rh/C Catalyst in Bubble Column Slurry Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upkare, Makarand M.; Rajurkar, Kalpendra B.; Das, Samir K.; Jaganathan, R.

    2010-10-01

    A dynamic model has been developed for the bubble column slurry reactor operating under non-isothermal conditions. The model consists of mass and heat balance equations for the gas and liquid phases and the catalyst particle. The model equations consisted of partial differential equations (PDE) which were converted to ordinary differential equations (ODE) by using finite difference relationships for the spatial derivatives and the ordinary differential equations for the time derivatives (Numerical Method of Lines-NMoL). The model was applied to describe the dynamic behaviour of bubble column slurry reactor during the hydroformylation of 1-decene on Rh/C catalyst. Model simulations were performed to obtain a meaningful path to steady state and to reproduce the other characteristics of the dynamic behaviour of the reactor. Under given conditions, the reaction required approximately 3750 seconds to reach the steady state concentrations at various reactor positions. It was observed with increase in the fluid velocities, the dynamics of the system was altered to 2500 seconds to reach the steady state condition. The effect of axial dispersion on the substrate concentration and the temperature rise along the reactor was further studied and discussed.

  3. Experimental Inoculation of Conventional Pigs with Tissue Homogenates from Pigs with Post-weaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Balasch; J. Segalés; C. Rosell; M. Domingo; A. Mankertz; A. Urniza; J. Plana-Durán

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the experimental inoculation of conventional pigs with a tissue homogenate obtained from two pigs affected with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Eight 2-month-old pigs were inoculated by the intranasal route, and two pigs were left as uninfected controls. Clinical signs, rectal temperatures and body weights were recorded. Pigs were necropsied at days 14 or 21 post-inoculation, and

  4. Effect of adding alum or zeolite to dairy slurry on ammonia volatilization and chemical composition.

    PubMed

    Lefcourt, A M; Meisinger, J J

    2001-08-01

    Development of cost-effective amendments for treating dairy slurry has become a critical problem as the number of cows on farms continues to grow and the acreage available for manure spreading continues to shrink. To determine effectiveness and optimal rates of addition of either alum or zeolite to dairy slurry, we measured ammonia emissions and resulting chemical changes in the slurry in response to the addition of amendments at 0.4, 1.0, 2.5, and 6.25% by weight. Ammonia volatilization over 96 h was measured with six small wind tunnels with gas scrubbing bottles at the inlets and outlets. Manure samples from the start and end of trials were analyzed for total nitrogen and phosphorus, and were extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2, 1.0 M KCl, and water with the extracts analyzed for ammonium nitrogen, phosphorous, aluminum, and pH. The addition of 6.25% zeolite or 2.5% alum to dairy slurry reduced ammonia emissions by nearly 50 and 60%, respectively. Alum treatment retained ammonia by reducing the slurry pH to 5 or less. In contrast, zeolite, being a cation exchange medium, adsorbed ammonium and reduced dissolved ammonia gas. In addition, alum essentially eliminated soluble phosphorous. Zeolite also reduced soluble phosphorous by over half, but the mechanism for this reduction is unclear. Alum must be carefully added to slurry to avoid effervescence and excess additions, which can increase soluble aluminum in the slurry. The use of alum or zeolites as on-farm amendment to dairy slurry offers the potential for reducing ammonia emissions and soluble phosphorus in dairy slurry. PMID:11518305

  5. Virus safety of islet cell transplantation from transgenic pigs to marmosets.

    PubMed

    Plotzki, Elena; Buerck, Lelia Wolf-van; Knauf, Yvonne; Becker, Tamara; Maetz-Rensing, Kerstin; Schuster, Marion; Baehr, Andrea; Klymiuk, Nikolai; Wolf, Eckhard; Seissler, Jochen; Denner, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Transplantation of pig islet cells for the treatment of diabetes may be a more effective approach compared with the application of insulin. However, before introduction into the clinic, efficacy and safety of this treatment have to be shown. Non-human primate models may be used for this, despite the fact that they are characterised by several limitations. Here we investigate the prevalence of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs), which are present in the genome of all pigs and which may infect human cells, as well as of porcine herpes viruses in donor pigs and their potential transmission to non-human primate recipients. Despite the fact that all three subtypes of PERV were present in all and porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) was found in some of the pigs, neither PERVs nor PCMV were found in the recipient animals under the experimental conditions applied. Porcine lymphotropic herpes viruses (PLHV) were not found in the donor pigs, hepatitis E virus (HEV) was not found in the recipients. PMID:25956348

  6. Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Characterization of Fluids and Slurries.

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Brodsky, Anatol; Burgess, Lloyd; Bond, Leonard J.; Hamad, Mazen

    2004-04-01

    The ultrasonic diffraction grating is formed by machining triangular grooves, 300 microns apart, on a stainless steel surface. The grating surface is in contact with the liquid or slurry. The ultrasonic beam, traveling in the solid, strikes the back of the grating and produces a transmitted m = 1 beam in the liquid. The angle of this beam in the liquid increases with decreasing frequency and the critical frequency FCR occurs when the angle is 90{sup o}. At frequencies below FCR, this m = 1 wave does not exist and its energy is shared with other types of waves. The signal of the reflected m = 0 wave is observed and an increase is observed at FCR. This information yields the velocity of sound in the liquid and particle size.

  7. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1990-12-01

    This quarterly report describes the effects of anionic dispersant and nonionic surfactant on the rheology of micronized (Mass Median Diameters of 4 {mu}m and 10 {mu}m) coal water slurries (CWSs). We found that the micronized CWS is pseudoplastic (shear thinning) at a low additive concentration of either anionic dispersant or nonionic surfactant because coal particles aggregate under the influence of the interparticle van der Waals attraction. At a high additive concentration, the micronized CWS becomes Newtonian, and turns dilatent (shear thickening) at an even higher concentration of nonionic surfactant. The Newtonian behavior results as the interparticle van der Waals attraction is counterbalanced by the interparticle electrostatic repulsion; the dilatent behavior may be attributed to the cross linking of the nonionic surfactant molecules adsorbed on the coal particle surface. No dilatent behavior has been observed when using anionic dispersant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  8. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2002-09-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  9. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2000-06-30

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  10. Drying and cracking mechanisms in a starch slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, Lucas

    2009-09-01

    Starch-water slurries are commonly used to study fracture dynamics. Drying starch cakes benefit from being simple, economical, and reproducible systems, and have been used to model desiccation fracture in soils, thin-film fracture in paint, and columnar joints in lava. In this paper, the physical properties of starch-water mixtures are studied, and used to interpret and develop a multiphase transport model of drying. Starch cakes are observed to have a nonlinear elastic modulus, and a desiccation strain that is comparable to that generated by their maximum achievable capillary pressure. It is shown that a large material porosity is divided between pore spaces between starch grains, and pores within starch grains. This division of pore space leads to two distinct drying regimes, controlled by liquid and vapor transport of water, respectively. The relatively unique ability for drying starch to generate columnar fracture patterns is shown to be linked to the unusually strong separation of these two transport mechanisms.

  11. Drying and cracking mechanisms in a starch slurry

    E-print Network

    Lucas Goehring

    2009-10-09

    Starch-water slurries are commonly used to study fracture dynamics. Drying starch-cakes benefit from being simple, economical, and reproducible systems, and have been used to model desiccation fracture in soils, thin film fracture in paint, and columnar joints in lava. In this paper, the physical properties of starch-water mixtures are studied, and used to interpret and develop a multiphase transport model of drying. Starch-cakes are observed to have a nonlinear elastic modulus, and a desiccation strain that is comparable to that generated by their maximum achievable capillary pressure. It is shown that a large material porosity is divided between pore spaces between starch grains, and pores within starch grains. This division of pore space leads to two distinct drying regimes, controlled by liquid and vapor transport of water, respectively. The relatively unique ability for drying starch to generate columnar fracture patterns is shown to be linked to the unusually strong separation of these two transport mechanisms.

  12. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  13. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  14. Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries

    DOEpatents

    Krishna, C.R.

    1984-07-27

    In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

  15. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR)TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D

    2000-06-01

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column 0reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

  16. Double shell slurry low-temperature corrosion tests

    SciTech Connect

    Divine, J.R.; Bowen, W.M.; McPartland, S.A.; Elmore, R.P.; Engel, D.W.

    1983-09-01

    A series of year-long tests have been completed on potential double shell slurry (DSS) compositions at temperatures up to 100/sup 0/C. These tests have sought data on uniform corrosion, pitting, and stress-corrosion cracking. No indication of the latter two types of corrosion were observed within the test matrix. Corrosion rates after four months were generally below the 1 mpy (25 ..mu..m/y) design limit. By the end of twelve months all results were below this limit and, except for very concentrated mixtures, all were below 0.5 mpy. Prediction equations were generated from a model fitted to the data. The equations provide a rapid means of estimating the corrosion rate for proposed DSS compositions.

  17. Melt rate predictions for slurry-fed glass melters

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, C.J.

    1996-03-01

    Numerous bench-scale and pilot-scale tests have been conducted to support high-level waste vitrification projects within DOE. These projects include the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and the West Valley Demonstration Project (MNDP). Testing for these projects has investigated aspects of the vitrification process such as the pumpability of the slurry feed, melter processing rates, melter scale-up, and off-gas decontamination factors for feed constituents. The high costs for testing have generated interest in using modeling to predict major processing impacts on the vitrification systems from any given feed material. Important components required for such modeling include feed composition, feed rheology, melter glass temperature, melter geometry, and melter power configurations. I Some work has already been performed in modeling glass melters, but little attention has been given to feed composition (Routt 1982).

  18. Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (inventors)

    1985-01-01

    An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

  19. The phylogenetic status of typical Chinese native pigs: analyzed by Asian and European pig mitochondrial genome sequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    China is one of the most diverse countries, which have developed 88 indigenous pig breeds. Several studies showed that pigs were independently domesticated in multiple regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the origin and evolution of Chinese pigs using complete mitochondrial genomic sequences (mtDNA) from Asian and European domestic pigs and wild boars. Thirty primer pairs were designed to determine the mtDNA sequences of Xiang pig, Large White, Lantang, Jinhua and Pietrain. The phylogenetic status of Chinese native pigs was investigated by comparing the mtDNA sequences of complete coding regions and D-loop regions respectively amongst Asian breeds, European breeds and wild boars. The analyzed results by two cluster methods contributed to the same conclusion that all pigs were classified into two major groups, European clade and Asian clade. It revealed that Chinese pigs were only recently diverged from each other and distinctly different from European pigs. Berkshire was clustered with Asian pigs and Chinese pigs were involved in the development of Berkshire breeding. The Malaysian wild boar had distant genetic relationship with European and Asian pigs. Jinhua and Lanyu pigs had more nucleotide diversity with Chinese pigs although they all belonged to the Asian major clade. Chinese domestic pigs were clustered with wild boars in Yangtze River region and South China. PMID:23497624

  20. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  1. Processing and mechanical properties of silicon nitride formed by robocasting aqueous slurries

    SciTech Connect

    HE,GUOPING; HIRSCHFELD,DEIDRE A.; CESARANO III,JOSEPH

    2000-01-26

    Robocasting is a new freeform fabrication technique for dense ceramics. It uses robotics to control deposition of ceramic slurries through an orifice. The optimization of concentrated aqueous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurry properties to achieve high green density robocast bodies and subsequent high sintered densities was investigated. The effects of pH, electrolyte, additives and solids loading on the dispersion and rheological properties of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} slurries were determined. The mechanical behavior of sintered robocast bars was determined and compared to conventionally produced silicon nitride ceramics.

  2. Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

  3. Investigating Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Reflection Techniques for Characterizing Slurry Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Salahuddin Ahmed

    2006-06-01

    The particle size of a slurry and the viscosity of a liquid or slurry are both difficult to measure on-line and in real time. The objectives of this research are to develop the following methods for such measurements: (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) to measure the particle size and concentration of a slurry, (2) develop theoretical models and computer codes to describe the passage of ultrasound through a grating surface in order to increase the sensitivity of the particle size measurement.

  4. Effect of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride on growth performance and responses to handling and transport in heavy-weight pigs.

    PubMed

    Peterson, C M; Pilcher, C M; Rothe, H M; Marchant-Forde, J N; Ritter, M J; Carr, S N; Puls, C L; Ellis, M

    2015-03-01

    The impact of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) on growth performance and responses to handling and transport in heavy BW pigs was evaluated in a study performed as a split-plot design with a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments: 1) RAC level (0 vs. 5 vs. 7.5 mg/kg of feed) and 2) handling intensity (HI; gentle vs. moderate vs. aggressive); RAC level was the main plot and HI was the subplot. A total of 288 pigs housed in groups of 8 were used to evaluate growth performance over a 28-d RAC feeding period (98.5 ± 4.58 to 131.5 ± 7.45 kg BW). On d 29 of the study, the HI treatment was applied to 216 pigs (6/pen; 2/pen on each HI). This was followed by transportation for 1 h on a livestock trailer at the end of which pigs were subjected to a final handling procedure. Blood samples (to measure acid-base, cortisol, and catecholamine levels) were collected and rectal temperature was measured 2 h before the HI treatment (baseline) and after the final handling procedure (final). Feeding RAC (5 and 7.5 mg/kg) improved ( < 0.01) ADG (9.9 and 9.0% for 5 and 7.5 mg/kg RAC, respectively) and G:F (8.8 and 11.8%, respectively) compared to controls, with no differences ( > 0.05) between the 2 RAC levels. Increasing the intensity of handling decreased ( < 0.001) final blood pH, bicarbonate, and base excess and increased ( < 0.001) final blood lactate and plasma cortisol and norepinephrine levels. Aggressive compared to gentle handling increased ( < 0.05) the incidence of pigs exhibiting open-mouth breathing and skin discoloration after the final handling procedure but had no effect ( > 0.05) on the incidence on nonambulatory, noninjured pigs. There was no effect ( > 0.05) of feeding RAC on final rectal temperature or blood acid-base measurements. Feeding 7.5, but not 5, compared to 0 mg/kg RAC increased ( < 0.05) final plasma epinephrine levels and the incidence of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs. This study confirms the improved growth performance of pigs fed RAC and the negative effects of aggressive handling on physical, metabolic, and physiological responses of pigs. It also suggests that pigs fed 5 compared to 0 mg/kg RAC showed similar responses to transport and handling. However, pigs fed 7.5 mg/kg of RAC had a greater incidence of nonambulatory, noninjured pigs when subjected to the handling/transport model and this warrants further investigation. PMID:26020900

  5. Proline metabolism in enterocytes of neonatal pigs

    E-print Network

    Dillon, Edgar Lichar

    1999-01-01

    Sow's milk is remarkably deficient in arginine (an raphics. essential amino acid for neonates) but is rich in proline and glutamine plus glutamate. In neonatal pigs, enterocytes play an important role in synthesizing citrulline and arginine from...

  6. Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.

    PubMed

    Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

    2012-10-01

    This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a ?(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P < 0.001), identifying 2 main dimensions of pig expression (dim1: playful/confident-cautious/timid; dim2: aggressive/nervous-relaxed/bored), on which pig scores for different observer groups were highly correlated (pearson r > 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P < 0.001); however, this difference did not distort the strong overall consistency of characterizations by observers of individual pigs. Questionnaire results indicated observer groups to differ in various ways, such as daily and lifetime contact with pigs (P < 0.001), some aspects of affection and empathy for pigs (P < 0.05), and confidence in the validity of personal QBA descriptors (P < 0.02). The main finding of this study is that despite such differences in background and outlook, the 3 observer groups showed high interobserver and intraobserver reliability in their characterizations of pig body language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate. PMID:22745187

  7. Production of Cloned Wuzhishan Miniature Pigs and Application for Alloxan Toxicity Test.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Jin, Long; Gao, Qing-Shan; Kang, Jin-Dan; Cui, Cheng-Du; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2015-10-01

    Wuzhishan miniature pig is one of the four most important pig breeds in China and has many major economic characteristics. Herein, we successfully used SCNT to clone Wuzhishan miniature pig. First, ear fibroblasts were isolated from a 2-year-old female Wuzhishan miniature piglet to be used as the donor cell. Second, good-quality COCs were selected from ovaries obtained from pigs at a local slaughterhouse and cultured. Mature eggs with the first polar body and ear fibroblasts were applied SCNT. Lastly, we in total produced 12 piglets with 7 piglets surviving to adults. Next, we used these pigs to test alloxan toxicity and to build T I D diabetes type. We know that diabetes mellitus is a chronic heterogeneous metabolic disease characterized by a high blood glucose level and abnormal insulin secretion. In this study, T I D (type I diabetes) was experimentally induced in cloned Wuzhishan miniature pigs with alloxan. In brief, an intravenous injection of alloxan (group B: 170 mg/kg, n = 3) was administered to pigs weighing between 27 and 39 kg. Sterile saline was administered to control pigs (n = 3). We determined the glycometabolism related index, performed an intravenous glucose tolerance test, and carried out immunohistochemistry experiments. There were no significant differences in body weight, blood glucose, and serum insulin in all groups, before treatment. The level of blood glucose was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in group B (12.18 ± 0.70 mmol/L) than in the control (2.93 ± 0.39 mmol/L). By contrast, the level of serum insulin was lower in group B (5.641 ± 0.573 ?IU/mL) than in the control (7.578 ± 0.539 ?IU/mL). Histological studies by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) revealed a loss of ?-cells in the pancreas from pigs treated with 170 mg/kg alloxan. Immunolocalization studies showed a decrease in insulin reactivity in this treatment group as well. To conclude, our model holds promise in future studies of diabetes drug testing and islet xenotransplantation. PMID:26158462

  8. Solid gel pigs for cleaning production pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, D.E.; Bohon, W.M. [ARCO Alaska, Inc., Anchorage, AK (United States); Chesnut, G.R. [ARCO Exploration and Production Technology, Plano, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Many oil fields, such as that at Kuparuk, on the North Slope of Alaska, have been built as a trunk and lateral gathering system, with many different pipeline diameters in a branched network. No launchers nor receivers were built for the Kuparuk oil production pipelines. The high cost of retrofitting launchers and receivers prompted investigation of alternative methods for cleaning the pipelines. This paper describes a novel approach to mold solid gelatin pigs in bypass lines, and to run those pigs through the production pipelines to the primary separators. The gelatin pigs would slowly melt, eliminating the need for receivers. Field and laboratory testing showed that gelatin pigs could not effectively clean the pipelines. The addition of cross linking agents could increase the mechanical integrity of the gelatin pigs, but also elevated the melting temperatures above the operating temperatures of the primary separators. As such, they were not meltable (in time), and no benefits could be obtained by the use of solid gelatin pigs for cleaning applications.

  9. On-line method developed to calibrate coal-hydrocarbon slurry meters

    SciTech Connect

    Corbo, M.J.

    1984-04-23

    Based on the data obtained from this test program, one can conclude that this flowmeter development effort has clearly provided solutions for two potential flow-measurement problem areas in a commercial coal-liquefaction plant. The solutions provided from this test program are as follows: A sliding-vane PD meter offers a straightforward on-line method for calibrating conventional flowmeters in coal/hydrocarbon slurry services with varying fluid properties. A wedge-type slurry flowmeter has been found to work well in slurry bottoms streams, independent of the streams, non-Newtonian nature. In summary, this flowmeter test program provided a lot of insight into the area of slurry measurement.

  10. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L. W.; Brodsky, A. M.; Panetta, P. D.; Pappas, R. A.; Ahmed, S.; Tucker, B.

    2004-06-15

    The goal of this proposed work is to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. Current technologies are not capable of characterizing the HLW waste stream without dilution. The results from this work will be utilized to develop new methodologies to characterize the HLW stream in-situ. There are three tasks: (1) develop new optical and acoustic scattering measurements to provide the fundamental science needed for successful device development and implementation, (2) develop theories that describe the interrelationship between wave propagation and the physical properties of the slurry, and (3) perform inversions of the theories and compare them with the experimental measurements to non-intrusively characterize slurries.

  11. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Utilizing Optical and Ultrasonic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, Lloyd W.

    2005-06-01

    The goal of this proposed work is to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. There are three tasks: (1) develop new optical and acoustic scattering measurements to provide the fundamental science needed for successful device development and implementation, (2) develop theories that describe the interrelationship between wave propagation and the physical properties of the slurry, and (3) perform inversions of the theories and compare them with the experimental measurements to non-intrusively characterize slurries.

  12. Physical Characterization of Solid-Liquid Slurries at High Weight Fractions Using Optical and Ultrasonic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Burgess, L. W.; Brodsky, A. M.; Panetta, P. D.; Pappas, R. A.; Bond, L. J.; Bamberger, J. A.

    2002-05-28

    The goal of this proposed work is to directly address the need for rapid on-line characterization of the physical properties of HLW slurries during all phases of the remediation process, from in-tank characterization of sediments to monitoring of the concentration, particle size, and degree of agglomeration and gelation of slurries during transport. This will be done with both optical and ultrasonic methods. There are three tasks: (1) develop optical and acoustic measurements to provide the fundamental science needed for successful device development and implementation, (2) develop theories that describe the interrelationship between wave propagation and the physical properties of the slurry, and (3) solve, in the framework of these theories, the inversion problem and compare them with the experimental measurements to non-intrusively characterize slurries.

  13. Spray drying and attrition behavior of iron catalysts for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis 

    E-print Network

    Carreto Vazquez, Victor Hugo

    2004-11-15

    This thesis describes results of a study aimed at developing and evaluating attrition resistant iron catalysts prepared by spray drying technique. These catalysts are intended for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis in a slurry bubble column reactor...

  14. NPK NMR Sensor: Online Monitoring of Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium in Animal Slurry.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Morten K; Jensen, Ole; Bakharev, Oleg N; Nyord, Tavs; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge of the actual content of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) in animal slurry is highly important to optimize crop production and avoid environmental pollution when slurry is spread on agricultural fields. Here, we present a mobile, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensor suitable for online monitoring of the NPK content in animal slurry as an alternative to crude estimates or tedious nonspecific, off-site laboratory analysis. The sensor is based on (14)N, (17)O, (31)P, and (39)K NMR in a digital NMR instrument equipped with a 1.5 T Halbach magnet for direct detection of ammonium N, total P, and K and indirect evaluation of the organic N content, covering all practical components of NPK in animal slurry. In correlation studies, the obtained NMR measurements show good agreement with reference measurements from commercial laboratories. PMID:26020811

  15. Identification of active agents for tetrachloroethylene degradation in Portland cement slurry containing ferrous iron 

    E-print Network

    Ko, Sae Bom

    2006-08-16

    -EDS) were used to identify minerals in chemical mixtures that have high activities. Results indicate that active agents for PCE degradation in Portland cement slurries and in cement extracts might be one of several AFm phases. However, systems without cement...

  16. A new procedure for treatment of oily slurry using geotextile filters.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, M B; Cammarota, M C; Freire, D D C; Ehrlich, M

    2004-07-01

    A new procedure to mitigate the environmental impacts and reduce the cost of disposal of oil slurry is present in this paper. Waste from the petroleum industry has a high environmental impact. Systems for oil-water separation have been used to mitigate the contamination potential of these types of effluents. At the outlet of these systems, the oil is skimmed-off the surface, while the slurry is removed from the base. Due to the high concentration of contaminants, the disposal of this slurry is an environmentally hazardous practice. Usually this type of waste is disposed of in tanks or landfills after removal from the industrial plant. Basically, the proposed procedure utilizes drying beds with geotextile filters to both reduce the water content in the slurry and obtain a less contaminated effluent. Laboratory tests were carried out to simulate the drying system. Four types of filters were analyzed: two non-woven geotextiles, one woven geotextile, and a sand filter. PMID:15177732

  17. Heat Transfer of a Multiple Helical Coil Heat Exchanger Using a Microencapsulated Phase Change Material Slurry

    E-print Network

    Gaskill, Travis

    2012-02-14

    The present study has focused on the use of coil heat exchangers (CHEs) with microencapsulated phase change material (MPCM) slurries to understand if CHEs can yield greater rates of heat transfer. An experimental study was conducted using a...

  18. Nanoaluminium-Water Slurry: A Novel "Green" Propellant for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafirovich, E.; Bocanegra, P. Escot; Chauveau, C.; Gükalp, I.

    2004-10-01

    In the present work, a novel approach to the problem of hydrazine replacement is proposed. Aluminium/water slurries are suggested as potential substitutes for hydrazine. This slurry includes both the fuel (Al) and the oxidizer (H2O), and has physical properties similar to those of a monopropellant. The specific impulse of the Al/H2O bipropellant is about 300 s. The proposed propellant includes only non-toxic components; this fact significantly facilitates preparation, storage, filling, and other operations. The results of preliminary experiments with single droplets of nanoAl-gelled water slurry are reported. A new research programme is presented, which is funded by INTAS and CNES and involves six teams from France, Italy, and Russia. The programme includes studies of nanoaluminium-water slurries in order to develop the best methods for their preparation, atomisation and combustion.

  19. Development of carbon slurry fuels for transportation (hybrid fuels, phase 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, T. W., III; Dodge, L. G.

    1984-01-01

    Slurry fuels of various forms of solids in diesel fuel are developed and evaluated for their relative potential as fuel for diesel engines. Thirteen test fuels with different solids concentrations are formulated using eight different materials. A variety of properties are examined including ash content, sulfur content, particle size distribution, and rheological properties. Attempts are made to determine the effects of these variations on these fuel properties on injection, atomization, and combustion processes. The slurries are also tested in a single cylinder CLR engine in both direct injection and prechamber configurations. The data includes the normal performance parameters as well as heat release rates and emissions. The slurries perform very much like the baseline fuel. The combustion data indicate that a large fraction (90 percent or more) of the solids are burning in the engine. It appears that the prechamber engine configuration is more tolerant of the slurries than the direct injection configuration.

  20. Intrapancreatic ectopic splenic tissue found in a cloned miniature pig

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ok Jae; Ha, Seung-Kwon; Park, Sol Ji; Park, Hee Jung; Kim, Su Jin; Kwon, Daekee; Kang, Jung Taek; Moon, Joon Ho; Park, Eun Jung; Jang, Goo

    2015-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a cost-effective technique for producing transgenic pigs. However, abnormalities in the cloned pigs might prevent use these animals for clinical applications or disease modeling. In the present study, we generated several cloned pigs. One of the pigs was found to have intrapancreatic ectopic splenic tissue during histopathology analysis although this animal was grossly normal and genetically identical to the other cloned pigs. Ectopic splenic tissue in the pancreas is very rare, especially in animals. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such report for cloned pigs. PMID:25643801

  1. Effects of storage in ozonised slurry ice on the sensory and microbial quality of sardine (Sardina pilchardus).

    PubMed

    Campos, Carmen A; Rodríguez, Oscar; Losada, Vanesa; Aubourg, Santiago P; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge

    2005-08-25

    The use of slurry ice, both alone and in combination with ozone, as compared with traditional flake ice was investigated as a new refrigeration system for the storage of sardine (Sardina pilchardus). Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were carried out throughout a storage period of 22 days. According to sensory analyses, sardine specimens stored in ozonised slurry ice had a shelf life of 19 days, while counterpart batches stored in slurry ice or flake ice had shelf lives of 15 and 8 days, respectively. Storage in ozonised slurry ice led to significantly lower counts of aerobic mesophiles, psychrotrophic bacteria, anaerobes, coliforms, and both lipolytic and proteolytic microorganisms in sardine muscle, and of surface counts of mesophiles and psychrotrophic bacteria in sardine skin as compared with the slurry ice and the flake ice batches. In all cases, the slurry ice batch also exhibited significantly lower microbial counts, both in muscle and skin, than the flake ice batch. Chemical parameters revealed that the use of slurry ice slowed down the formation of TVB-N and TMA-N to a significant extent in comparison with storage in flake ice. A combination of slurry ice with ozone also allowed a better control of pH and TMA-N formation as compared with slurry ice alone. This work demonstrates that the combined use of slurry ice and ozone for the storage of sardine can be recommended to improve the quality and extend the shelf life of this fish species. PMID:16083815

  2. Method and apparatus for pre dilution of driffing mud slurry and the like

    SciTech Connect

    Priebe, W. F.

    1985-10-22

    An aqueous slurry of spent drilling mud and/or produced water is diluted prior to free discharge into a body of receiving water by expelling a jet stream of such slurry into an open-ended submerged mixing conduit. The jet stream aspirates and entrains the surrounding water within the conduit and is then passed through a mixer stage prior to exiting the opposite end of the tube.

  3. Vitrification of SRP waste by a slurry-fed ceramic melter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wicks

    1980-01-01

    Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level waste (HLW) can be vitrified by feeding a slurry, instead of a calcine, to a joule-heated ceramic melter. Potential advantages of slurry feeding include (1) use of simpler equipment, (2) elimination of handling easily dispersed radioactive powder, (3) simpler process control, (4) effective mixing, (5) reduced off-gas volume, and (6) cost savings. Assessment of advantages

  4. Efficient treatment of garbage slurry in methanogenic bioreactor packed by fibrous sponge with high porosity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kengo Sasaki; Daisuke Sasaki; Masahiko Morita; Shin-ichi Hirano; Norio Matsumoto; Naoya Ohmura; Yasuo Igarashi

    2010-01-01

    Adding a supporting material to a methanogenic bioreactor treating garbage slurry can improve efficiency of methane production.\\u000a However, little is known on how characteristics (e.g., porosity and hydrophobicity) of the supporting material affect the\\u000a bioreactor degrading garbage slurry. We describe the reactor performances and microbial communities in bioreactors containing\\u000a hydrophilic or hydrophobic sheets, or fibrous hydrophilic or hydrophobic sponges. The

  5. Rheological study of comingled biomass and coal slurries with hydrothermal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Wei He; Chan S. Park; Joseph M. Norbeck [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Bourns College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology

    2009-09-15

    Gasification of comingled biomass and coal feedstock is an effective means of reducing the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in the coal gasification process while maintaining its inherent benefits of abundance and high-energy density. However, feeding a comingled biomass and coal feedstock into a pressurized gasification reactor poses a technical problem. Conventional dry feeding systems, such as lock hoppers and pressurized pneumatic transport, are complex and operationally expensive. A slurry formation of comingled biomass and coal feedstock can be easily fed into the gasification reactor but, in normal conditions, only allows for a small portion of biomass in the mixture. This is a consequence of the hydroscopic and hydrophilic nature of the biomass. The College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) at the University of California, Riverside, has developed a process producing high solid content biomass-water slurry using a hydrothermal pretreatment process. In this paper, the systematic investigation of the rheological properties (e.g., shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity) of coal-water slurries, biomass-water slurries, and comingled biomass and coal-water slurries is reported. The solid particle size distribution in the slurry and the initial solid/water ratio were investigated to determine the impact on shear rate and viscosity. This was determined using a rotational rheometer. The experimental results show that larger particle size offers better pumpability. The presence of a high percentage of biomass in solid form significantly decreases slurry pumpability. It is also shown that the solid loading of the biomass-water slurry can be increased to approximately 35 wt % with viscosity of less than 0.7 Pa.s after the pretreatment process. The solid loading increased to approximately 45 wt % when the biomass is comingled with coal. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Effects of friction factor and slip factor on the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump

    E-print Network

    Sheth, Ketankumar Kantilal

    1985-01-01

    EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Ma]or Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Approved as to style and content by...

  7. Characterization of double-shell slurry feed grout produced in a pilot-scale test

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. O. Lokken; P. F. C. Martin; J. W. Shade

    1992-01-01

    Current plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank (DST) wastes at Hanford, Washington include grouting. Grout disposal in this context is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders. and pumping the resultant slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults. Once the slurry is in the vaults. the hydration reactions that occur result in the

  8. Attrition resistance of cobalt F–T catalysts for slurry bubble column reactor use

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dongguang Wei; James G Goodwin; Rachid Oukaci; Alan H Singleton

    2001-01-01

    There exists much current interest in the use of supported Co catalysts and slurry bubble column reactors (SBCR) for the conversion of natural gas to higher hydrocarbons via the Fischer–Tropsch (F–T) synthesis. Catalyst attrition resistance is extremely important in the operation of slurry-phase reactor systems because of potential problems with plugging of system filters and\\/or contamination of the liquid products.

  9. A genetic analysis of taoyuan pig and its phylogenetic relationship to eurasian pig breeds.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuan-Yi; Li, Kuang-Ti; Cheng, Chun-Chun; Chen, Chia-Hsuan; Hung, Chien-Yi; Ju, Yu-Ten

    2015-04-01

    Taoyuan pig is a native Taiwan breed. According to the historical record, the breed was first introduced to Taiwan from Guangdong province, Southern China, around 1877. The breed played an important role in Taiwan's early swine industry. It was classified as an indigenous breed in 1986. After 1987, a conserved population of Taoyuan pig was collected and reared in isolation. In this study, mitochondrial DNA sequences and 18 microsatellite markers were used to investigate maternal lineage and genetic diversity within the Taoyuan pig population. Population differentiation among Taoyuan, Asian type, and European type pig breeds was also evaluated using differentiation indices. Only one D-loop haplotype of the Taoyuan pig was found. It clustered with Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China Type pig breeds. Based on the polymorphism of microsatellite markers, a positive fixation index value (FIS) indicates that the conserved Taoyuan population suffers from inbreeding. In addition, high FST values (>0.2105) were obtained, revealing high differentiation among these breeds. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed a clear geometric structure among 7 breeds. Together these results indicate that maternally Taoyuan pig originated in the Lower Changjiang River Basin and Central China; however, since being introduced to Taiwan differentiation has occurred. In addition, Taoyuan pig has lost genetic diversity in both its mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. PMID:25656199

  10. Evaluation of a soil slurry reactor system for treating soil contaminated with munitions compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Boopathy, R.; Manning, J.; Montemagno, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulpa, C.F. [Notre Dame Univ., IN (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences

    1994-05-01

    Two 0.5-L semicontinuous soil slurry reactors were operated for seven months to evaluate the performance of the slurry reactor system in bioremediating soil contaminated with munitions compounds. Nitrogen and carbon were supplemented. The soil slurry was mixed continuously and aerated 10 min/day. Ten percent of the contaminated soil was replaced every week. The 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) concentration in soil began to drop after 15 days of treatment, falling to less than 0.5 mg/kg from 7800 mg/kg. Total plate counts in both reactors indicated that the bacterial population was maintained, with an average plate count of about 10{sup 8} CFU/mL. The soil slurry was slightly acidic. In addition to TNT, the slurry reactor also removed the other munitions compounds trinitrobenzene (TNB), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), RDX, and HMX. Radiolabeling studies on the reactor biomass showed that 23% of [{sup C}14]TNT was mineralized, while 27% was used as biomass and 8% was adsorbed on to the soil. The rest of the [{sup 14}C]TNT was accounted for as TNT metabolites. Increasing the frequency of soil replacement from once to two or three times weekly did not affect the TNT removal rates. However, the slurry system showed signs of stress, with highly acidic conditions and low oxygen uptake rates.

  11. Effect of Slurry Composition on Plate Weight in Ceramic Shell Investment Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Balwinder Singh; Kumar, Pradeep; Mishra, B. K.

    2008-08-01

    This paper deals with the study of the effect of primary slurry parameters on the plate weight (ceramic retention test) in ceramic shell investment casting process. Four controllable factors of the zircon flour and fused-silica powder based slurries were studied at three levels each by Taguchi’s parametric approach and single-response optimization of plate weight was conducted to identify the main factors controlling its stability. Variations in coating thickness with plate weight were calculated for each slurry and ceramic shell moulds were made on wax plate using primary slurry and coarse fused-silica sand as stucco. The Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) technique has been used to study the surface morphology of zircon flour and fused silca powder particles as well as primary coating (shell surface). X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis was done to identify the various phases present in the ceramic slurry coating. Optical profilometer has been used to measure the surface roughness of the shells. The result reveals that the surface condition of shell can be improved by increasing the plate weight, corresponding to higher filler loading in the slurry. Confirmation experiments were conducted at an optimal condition showed that the surface quality of the ceramic shell mould were improved significantly. Castings were produced using Al-7%Si alloy in recommended parameters through ceramic shell investment casting process. Surface roughness of the produced casting were measured and presented in this paper.

  12. The state of benzene in TIP slurry using nuclear magnetic resonance measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Dworjanyn, L.O.

    1997-11-14

    Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) measurements on In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) simulated potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have been completed. Most measurements were made on 4 wt percent KTPB slurry in 4 to 5 molar sodium salt solution. Liquid benzene was added volumetrically to the slurry in 25-mL vials and agitated to create a suspension. Earlier tests using dyed benzene showed that benzene remains suspended permanently in the slurry and the only visible change is overall slurry settling. Gentle vial agitation restores the original suspension state. To simulate in-situ uniformly dispersed benzene, benzene/KTPB samples were homogenized using a high speed rotor/stator biological homogenizer. Photomicrographs using homogenized samples containing dyed benzene showed no residual benzene droplets and fairly uniform coloration of the KTPB solids structure. All benzene concentration estimates are based on benzene addition since there is no available analytical method for benzene in slurry. Benzene losses could be significant, particularly at low concentrations and during homogenization.

  13. Comparing the studies of a coal slurry pipeline. Special report No. 17

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, C.B.

    1983-12-01

    The proposal to build a coal slurry pipeline in Virginia has become a hotly debated topics. In this report, a former Water Center staff member compares what eight separate studies have to say about its economic feasibility and its impact on employment and the environment. Only two of the studies examine the economic feasibility of a coal slurry pipeline, and both conclude that it would be feasible. Three reports indicate that a slurry pipeline would not hurt employment in Virginia. A fourth report concludes otherwise. Surface water was considered the most likely water source for the pipeline by reports considering the issue, but, emphasizes one report, impoundments may be necessary. The question of quality of the slurry water at the end of the pipeline is addressed. According to one report, the amount of degradation will be slight. Not so, says another, while a third concludes that contaminants would be removed by conventional water treatment methods. Using the slurry water to cool VEPCO's generators in Portsmouth is the choice method of disposal. Four reports examine the impact of pipeline construction on the environment and conclude that it could be serious, but two of the four believe that, with care, adverse effects could be greatly reduced or even eliminated. Based on the experiences of other pipelines, the likelihood of a rupture or spill is not great. One report describes a coal slurry pipeline as the least environmentally disruptive mode of coal transportation today.

  14. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul C.K. Lam; Isaac K. Gamwo; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed and is appended in this report. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The details are presented in the attached paper titled ''CFD Simulation of Flow and Turbulence in a Slurry Bubble Column''. This phase of the work is in press in a referred journal (AIChE Journal, 2002) and was presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001) in New Orleans, May 27-June 1, 2001 (Paper No. 909). The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. To better understand turbulence we studied fluidization in a liquid-solid bed. This work was also presented at the Fourth International Conference on Multiphase Flow (ICMF 2001, Paper No. 910). To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. This report summarizes the measurements and simulations completed so far. This work will continue under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation and Dow Corning Corporation. This phase of the work is part of the DOE/Industry/University Multiphase Fluid Dynamics Research Consortium. Optimization of the LaPorte pilot plant reactor was attempted by rearranging the heat exchangers. The paper accepted for presentation at the Sixth World Congress of Chemical Engineering, Melbourne, Australia, September 23-27, 2001 is a part of this report.

  15. Characteristics of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli from pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, V P; Gyles, C L; Friendship, R W

    1988-01-01

    Porcine verotoxigenic Escherichia coli were characterized with respect to frequency of occurrence, serogroup, and association with disease, weaning, and selected properties of the bacterium. Of 668 strains of E. coli from southern Ontario pigs with enteric disease, 32 (4.8%) produced verotoxin at 10(3)-10(7) cytotoxic doses per mL of culture supernatant. Of 22 isolates which belonged to O serogroups 138, 139 and 141, 15 produced verotoxin. Among other enterotoxigenic types of E. coli, two of 57 isolates of O157:K"V17" and two of 96 isolates of O149:K91 were verotoxigenic. The remaining 13 verotoxigenic E. coli belonged to O groups 2, 107, 120, 121 and 130. An additional 21 verotoxigenic E. coli belonging to O groups 138, 139 and 141 and three to O157:K"V17" were identified in a collection of 47 E. coli recovered from weaned pigs with enteric disease. Verotoxigenic E. coli were associated with postweaning diarrhea, bloody stools, sudden death and edema disease. They were isolated at similar frequencies (14%) from healthy weaned pigs, and from weaned pigs with enteric disease. Isolation rates from neonates were low and significantly different from rates in weaned pigs. Neutralizing antibody to verotoxin was not detected in the sera of 45 pigs, which included pigs from herds with a history of edema disease. Verotoxin was not associated with production of colicin, hemolysin, or enterotoxins or with any of 23 biochemical properties of the organisms. The serological data indicate that porcine verotoxigenic E. coli are not a common source of verotoxigenic E. coli for humans. Porcine verotoxin may play a role in postweaning diarrhea and absence of detectable neutralizing antibody in serum may be an important aspect of pathogenesis. PMID:3048621

  16. Prognostics of slurry pumps based on a moving-average wear degradation index and a general sequential Monte Carlo method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong; Tse, Peter W.

    2015-05-01

    Slurry pumps are commonly used in oil-sand mining for pumping mixtures of abrasive liquids and solids. These operations cause constant wear of slurry pump impellers, which results in the breakdown of the slurry pumps. This paper develops a prognostic method for estimating remaining useful life of slurry pump impellers. First, a moving-average wear degradation index is proposed to assess the performance degradation of the slurry pump impeller. Secondly, the state space model of the proposed health index is constructed. A general sequential Monte Carlo method is employed to derive the parameters of the state space model. The remaining useful life of the slurry pump impeller is estimated by extrapolating the established state space model to a specified alert threshold. Data collected from an industrial oil sand pump were used to validate the developed method. The results show that the accuracy of the developed method improves as more data become available.

  17. Investigation of the filtration processes of coal hydrogenation slurries and suspensions obtained after the extraction of oils

    SciTech Connect

    Gel'perin, N.I.; Pebalk, V.L.; Shashkova, M.N.; Gorlov, E.G.; Zotova, O.V.

    1987-10-10

    As a result of an investigation of the filtration of slurries and their suspensions in hydrogenates under a pressure difference ..delta..P = 0.03 MPa at t = 25 to 120/sup 8/C on various filtration barriers (the ash content of the filtrates did not exceed 0.1%) it was established that the filtration rate of the slurries and their suspensions in hydrogenates is strongly dependent on the type of coal and the hydrogenation conditions and decreases as the content of solid substances and asphaltenes increases. The rate of filtration of the suspensions of the slurries in the hydrogenates is approximately an order of magnitude greater than that of the original slurries; this is due to the sharp drop in the viscosity of the liquid and the aggregation of the small solid particles when the slurry is mixed with the hydrogenate. The rate of filtration for the slurries can be increased by adding auxiliary substances.

  18. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bernard A. Toseland

    2001-03-31

    The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors. Washington University's work for the quarter involved the study of the dynamic simulations of bubble columns in three dimensions. Work was also done in dynamic simulations of two-phase transient flow using CFDLIB. Ohio State measured the axial dispersion coefficients of the liquid phase. The steady-state thermal dispersion method was used to obtain the measurements. Iowa State followed the last quarter's work by using CFDLIB to simulate conditions described in the literature, with the objective of validating the simulation result. The group's work also led to a determination of the adequacy of periodic boundary conditions in representing small columns.

  19. Drying and cracking mechanisms in a starch slurry.

    PubMed

    Goehring, Lucas

    2009-09-01

    Starch-water slurries are commonly used to study fracture dynamics. Drying starch cakes benefit from being simple, economical, and reproducible systems, and have been used to model desiccation fracture in soils, thin-film fracture in paint, and columnar joints in lava. In this paper, the physical properties of starch-water mixtures are studied, and used to interpret and develop a multiphase transport model of drying. Starch cakes are observed to have a nonlinear elastic modulus, and a desiccation strain that is comparable to that generated by their maximum achievable capillary pressure. It is shown that a large material porosity is divided between pore spaces between starch grains, and pores within starch grains. This division of pore space leads to two distinct drying regimes, controlled by liquid and vapor transport of water, respectively. The relatively unique ability for drying starch to generate columnar fracture patterns is shown to be linked to the unusually strong separation of these two transport mechanisms. PMID:19905189

  20. In-line ultrasonic monitoring of waste slurry suspended solids

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, H.-T.; Sheen, S.-H.; Raptis, A. C.

    2000-05-25

    During the transport of tank waste, it is very important to quantitatively measure the percent solids concentration (PSC) of the waste, which indicates the flow conditions and the extent of solids settling. At Argonne National Laboratory, an in-line, real-time, a nonintrusive ultrasonic monitoring system has been developed to measure the PSC and flow density of tank waste by measuring sound velocity and attenuation in the flow. This system consists of a pair of longitudinal transducers bonded to waveguides on the opposite sides of the pipe and operating at IMHz simultaneously in pulse-and-echo and pitch-and-catch modes. The PSC measurement is provided by attenuation, while the density measurement is calculated by impedance and sound velocity. A thermocouple is attached to one of the waveguides for automatic temperature correction of the measurements. This system was one of four evaluated for in-line measurement of slurry at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1998. The results indicate that the measurements are in good agreement with a Coriolis meter and that the system can be used to monitor PSC up to 40 wt.%. However, the system is greatly affected by entrained air bubbles within the solid flow during Puisair mixing. A different mixing mechanism will solve this problem.

  1. Vacuum Production Characteristics of Ice Slurries Treated with Surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Okada, Kazuto; Fujisawa, Ryo; Komoda, Yoshiyuki; Usui, Hiromoto

    The production characteristics of ice particles treated with surfactant additives and brines in the case of using vacuum ice production system have been investigated. In the present study, cetyl dimethyl betaine was used as surfactants and the results were compared with those in the case when poly(oxyethylene) sorbitan monooleate used in the previous studies was tested. From the results, it was found that ice particles size produced by using a vacuum system becomes much smaller than that made by the scraper ice production system used in the previous study. It was also found that the size of ice particles treated with the present surfactants without brine still remains small. Additionally, the fluidity of ice slurry treated with the present surfactants was enough high though the drag reduction could not be observed due to the small diameter of the present test pipe. From these results, a combination of the present surfactant treatment without brine and the vacuum ice production system was concluded to have an advantage for the production of fine ice particles.

  2. Rules governing the classification of coal slurries for filtering centrifuges

    SciTech Connect

    G.Y. Gol'berg; Y.B. Rubinshtein; S.A. Osadchii [Institute for Enrichment of Solid Fuel (IOTT), Moscow Oblast (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    The feasibility of using filtering centrifuges for the cleaning of a coking-coal slurry is confirmed in principle, and regime operating parameters which ensure the production of a concentrate of conditioned quality are determined on the basis of results of experimental-industrial tests of a new procedure for this operation at the Neryungrinskaya Concentrating Mill. An equation is proposed for determination of solid carry-off in the centrifuge effluent, which completely satisfactorily (with a correlation coefficient of 0.7-0.8) describes the dependence of the parameter in question on the solid content in the centrifuge feed, and on its content of -0.2-mm material. It is noted that special investigations to determine the effect of the speed of the rotor and shape of the particles on the amount of solid carry-off in the centrifuge effluent are required for construction of a model describing the size reduction of solid-phase particles in the effluent during centrifuge filtration.

  3. Generation and Characterization of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Pig

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihiko Ezashi; Bhanu Prakash V. L. Telugu; R. Michael Roberts

    \\u000a Successful establishment of pluripotent embryonic stem cells from ungulates, especially pigs, is an important but challenging\\u000a endeavor. The pig is an attractive species for creating pluripotent cell lines because, unlike the currently preferred mouse\\u000a model, the pig resembles the human quite closely in size, anatomy, and physiology. This chapter describes the derivation of\\u000a induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from pig

  4. Effect of fabrication parameters on coating properties of tubular solid oxide fuel cell electrolyte prepared by vacuum slurry coating

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Jeong Son; Rak-Hyun Song; Tak-Hyoung Lim; Seung-Bok Lee; Sung-Hyun Kim; Dong-Ryul Shin

    2010-01-01

    The process of vacuum slurry coating for the fabrication of a dense and thin electrolyte film on a porous anode tube is investigated for application in solid oxide fuel cells. 8mol% yttria stabilized zirconia is coated on an anode tube by vacuum slurry-coating process as a function of pre-sintering temperature of the anode tube, vacuum pressure, slurry concentration, number of

  5. Study of slurry spin coating technique parameters for the fabrication of anode-supported YSZ Films for SOFCs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaming Wang; Zhe Lü; Kongfa Chen; Xiqiang Huang; Na Ai; Jinyan Hu; Yaohui Zhang; Wenhui Su

    2007-01-01

    A slurry spin coating method was developed to fabricate gas-tight anode-supported YSZ films for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several technique parameters for slurry spin coating, such as the slurry viscosity, spinning speed, number of coating cycles, film thickness and their effects on YSZ electrolyte film were investigated. SEM results, open-circuit voltage (OCV) values and cell performance indicated that these

  6. Chemical-mechanical polishing of low-dielectric-constant spin-on-glasses: film chemistries, slurry formulation and polish selectivity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-L Wang; C Liu; S.-T Chang; M.-S Tsai; M.-S Feng; W.-T Tseng

    1997-01-01

    Alkyl siloxane-based low-dielectric-constant (low-k) spin-on-glass (SOG) thin films with varying amounts of organic content were subjected to polishing experiments using silica- and ZrO2-based slurries with a variety of additives. As the amount of organic content in SOG increases, the chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) removal rate decreases with silica-based potassium hydroxide-added slurry. On the other hand, zirconia-based slurry resulted in higher removal

  7. Optimization of slurry nebulization inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for the analysis of ZrO 2 -powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. ?obi?ski; W. Borm; J. A. C. Broekaert; P. Tschöpel; G. Tölg

    1992-01-01

    The optimization and use of ICP-AES with slurry nebulization for the direct analysis of ZrO2-powder is described. The powder samples are dispersed in water, acidified to pH 2 and the slurry is fed into a Babington nebulizer. The effects of grain size, pH of the suspending medium and standing time on the stability of the slurry are discussed. For the

  8. Computer tracks pigs to speed gas drying

    SciTech Connect

    Ashburner, M.

    1984-04-01

    Advanced pipeline drying techniques have been used to commission a 27-mile, 30-in. undersea natural gas pipeline in Malaysia's Luconia field. After first sending a series of torpedo-shape foam and rubber cup pigs through the line to force out some 4 million gal of seawater, a new technique combines a vacuum drying process with a sophisticated computer program to keep track of the pigs, thereby enabling the job to be completed in just 4 weeks. The program simulates pipeline conditions at the pig air/water interface under constant propelling flow conditions. The computer produces a pressure profile, calculates the overall time along the pipe, and then uses the resultant time-pressure model to interpret the actual results from the flow measurement-pressure plot for the pig's progress. The program was developed primarily to forecast the effects of changes in propelling capacity in deepwater conditions to ensure that adequate pressure capacity was available to maintain pig speeds above minimum self-cleaning velocities.

  9. Experimental Schmallenberg virus infection of pigs.

    PubMed

    Poskin, Antoine; Van Campe, Willem; Mostin, Laurent; Cay, Brigitte; De Regge, Nick

    2014-06-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a newly emerged virus responsible for an acute non-specific syndrome in adult cattle including high fever, decrease in milk production and severe diarrhea. It also causes reproductive problems in cattle, sheep and goat including abortions, stillbirths and malformations. The role of pigs in the epidemiology of SBV has not yet been evaluated while this could be interesting seen their suggested role in the epidemiology of the closely related Akabane virus. To address this issue, four 12 week old seronegative piglets were subcutaneously infected with 1 ml of SBV infectious serum (FLI) and kept into contact with four non-infected piglets to examine direct virus transmission. Throughout the experiment blood, swabs and feces samples were collected and upon euthanasia at 28 dpi different organs (cerebrum, cerebellum, brain stem, lung, liver, iliac lymph nodes, kidney and spleen) were sampled. No clinical impact was observed and all collected samples tested negative for SBV in rRT-PCR. Despite the absence of viremia and virus transmission, low and short lasting amounts of neutralizing antibodies were found in 2 out of 4 infected piglets. The limited impact of SBV infection in pigs was further supported by the absence of neutralizing anti-SBV antibodies in field collected sera from indoor housed domestic pigs (n=106). In conclusion, SBV infection of pigs can induce seroconversion but is ineffective in terms of virus replication and transmission indicating that pigs have no obvious role in the SBV epidemiology. PMID:24679959

  10. When pigs fly, UCP1 makes heat.

    PubMed

    Jastroch, Martin; Andersson, Leif

    2015-05-01

    Brown and beige adipose tissue may represent important therapeutic targets for the treatment of diabetes and obesity as these organs dissipate nutrient energy as heat through the thermogenic uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). While mice are commonly used to mimic the potential effects of brown/beige adipose tissue that may act in human metabolism, new animal models are edging into the market for translational medicine. Pigs reflect human metabolism better than mice in multiple parameters such as obesity-induced hyperglycemia, cholesterol profiles and energy metabolism. Recently, it was reported that energy expenditure and body temperature in pigs is induced by the hormone leptin, and that leptin's action is mediated by UCP1 in adipose tissue. Given the tremendous importance of identifying molecular mechanisms for targeting therapeutics, we critically examine the evidence supporting the presence of UCP1 in pigs and conclude that methodological shortcomings prevent an unequivocal claim for the presence of UCP1 in pigs. Despite this, we believe that leptin's effects on energy expenditure in pigs are potentially more transformative to human medicine in the absence of UCP1, as adult and obese humans possess only minor amounts of UCP1. In general, we propose that the biology of new animal models requires attention to comparative studies with humans given the increasing amount of genomic information for various animal species. PMID:25973382

  11. Endotoxin induced uncoupling of the somatotrophic axis in nursery pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an endotoxin known to stimulate the innate immune response and stress axis in pigs. However, little is known about the effects of LPS on pig somatotrophic responses. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an endotoxin challenge on weaned pig serum con...

  12. Failure of guinea pig plasma kallikrein to cause neutrophil migration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahisa Imamura; Tetsuro Yamamoto; Kikuo Kozono; Takeshi Kambara

    1986-01-01

    Guinea pig plasma kallikrein was apparently chemotactic for guinea pig neutrophils when assayed in Boyden's chamber. However, it was concluded that this phenomenon was artificial due to the following reasons: (1) Kallikrein was only chemotactic in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the chamber but not when BSA was substituted by guinea pig serum albumin or egg albumin.

  13. Attitudes of Dutch pig farmers towards animal welfare

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. M. van Huik; B. B. Bock

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the rationale of Dutch pig farmers concerning animal welfare and animal-friendly production. It aims to show the interrelations between farmers' production logic, their ideas about good farming and animal welfare and the characteristics of Dutch pig production. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – In total, 62 Dutch pig farmers, participating in quality

  14. Pathogenicity of 2 Porcine Deltacoronavirus Strains in Gnotobiotic Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui; Eyerly, Bryan; Lu, Zhongyan; Chepngeno, Juliet

    2015-01-01

    To verify whether porcine deltacoronavirus infection induces disease, we inoculated gnotobiotic pigs with 2 virus strains (OH-FD22 and OH-FD100) identified by 2 specific reverse transcription PCRs. At 21–120 h postinoculation, pigs exhibited severe diarrhea, vomiting, fecal shedding of virus, and severe atrophic enteritis. These findings confirm that these 2 strains are enteropathogenic in pigs. PMID:25811229

  15. CARBOHYDRATE ASSIMILATION AND UTILIZATION BY NEWBORN PIGS 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. CurTis; C. J. HEIDENREICI-I; C. W. FOLEY

    2010-01-01

    HE metabolism of the newborn pig is peculiarly dependent upon the concentra- tion of circulating sugars, and thus metabolic stability appears to depend upon their ability to regulate carbohydrate metabolism (Good- win, 1957). Fructose is the principal blood sugar in fetal pigs (Goodwin, 1956). It has been established that carbohydrate is the chief energy reserve used by fasted, newborn pigs

  16. Absence of Chlamydia-like organisms in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Van Gils, M.; Aeby, S.; Vanrompay, D.; Greub, G.

    2015-01-01

    Porcine reproductive failure, especially abortion, causes significant economic loss in the pig industry. Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are potential abortigenic agents for pigs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of these two Chlamydia-like organisms in abortion-related samples originating from Belgian pig farms. All investigated samples remained negative. PMID:26137311

  17. Influenza Virus Infection in Guinea Pigs Raised as Livestock, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Leyva-Grado, Victor H.; Mubareka, Samira; Krammer, Florian; Cárdenas, Washington B.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether guinea pigs are infected with influenza virus in nature, we conducted a serologic study in domestic guinea pigs in Ecuador. Detection of antibodies against influenza A and B raises the question about the role of guinea pigs in the ecology and epidemiology of influenza virus in the region. PMID:22710350

  18. Split marketing: A risk factor for Salmonella in market pigs?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to determine if split marketing affects Salmonella prevalence in market pigs, by comparing the Salmonella prevalence in the first group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “First pull”) versus the last group of pigs selected for slaughter (i.e., “Close out”) from typical co...

  19. Absence of Chlamydia-like organisms in pigs.

    PubMed

    Van Gils, M; Aeby, S; Vanrompay, D; Greub, G

    2015-09-01

    Porcine reproductive failure, especially abortion, causes significant economic loss in the pig industry. Waddlia chondrophila and Parachlamydia acanthamoebae are potential abortigenic agents for pigs. Therefore, we investigated the presence of these two Chlamydia-like organisms in abortion-related samples originating from Belgian pig farms. All investigated samples remained negative. PMID:26137311

  20. Vitamin E in immunity and reproductive performance in pigs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Review Vitamin E in immunity and reproductive performance in pigs Araceli PINELLI and reproductive perfor- mance in pigs. There are reports that vitamin E can have a positive effect on some parameters of the immune system in pigs. The optimal level of vitamin E needed to improve the immune system

  1. Natural trematode infestation in feral Nebrodi Black pigs: Pathological investigations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Capucchio; Catalano Deborah; Di Marco Vincenzo; Russo Miriam; Aronica Vincenzo; Tomaselli Amedeo; Lazzara Alessandro; Amedeo Stefano; Scaglione Frine Eleonora; Dore Bruno; Guarda Franco

    2009-01-01

    Few studies describe the parasites of pigs bred in the wild state, although pigs are a known reservoir of trematode infestation. This article reports the results of a retrospective study carried out from January 2003 to June 2007 on 3021 Nebrodi Black male and female pigs, regularly slaughtered, aged between 8 months and 4 years. Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum

  2. FE-CO catalyst slurry system for use in alpha olefin production

    SciTech Connect

    Fiato, R.A.; McVicker, G.B.; Montagna, A.A.

    1986-11-25

    A process is described for synthesizing hydrocarbons containing alpha olefins comprising contacting a gaseous feed mixture of H/sub 2/ and CO, in a reaction zone, with a slurry catalyst system at elevated temperature for a time sufficient to convert at least a portion of the gaseous feed to the alpha olefins. The catalysts slurry system is prepared by a process comprising the steps of: (a) heating a slurry mixture comprised of: a Fischer-Tropsch slurry liquid, an iron carbonyl compound, a cobalt carbonyl compound, or iron and cobalt compounds capable of forming carbonyl complexes in an atmosphere of CO, and mixtures thereof, and a powdered support. The iron and cobalt compounds are present in a total iron:cobalt atomic ratio of about 35:1 to 1:10, taken as free metals. The cobalt carbonyl compound has a lower melting point/decomposition temperature than the iron carbonyl compound. The slurry mixture is heated in a carbon monoxide atmosphere under pressure, at a temperature above the melting point/decomposition temperature of the cobalt compound for a time sufficient to substantially decompose the cobalt compound; and (b) heating the slurry mixture from step (a) at a temperature above the melting point/decomposition temperature of the iron compound in the CO atmosphere under pressure, to substantially decompose the iron compound; and (c) heating the slurry mixture from step (b) in an atmosphere of hydrogen gas to substantially reduce the iron and cobalt carbonyl compounds and their decomposition products to form the catalyst.

  3. Responses of non-primed or primed seeds of ‘Marketmore 76’ cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) slurry coated with Trichoderma species to planting in growth media infested with Pythium aphanidermatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. G. Pill; C. M. Collins; B. Goldberger; N. Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous slurries of commercial preparations of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai strain KRL-AG2 G41 (Th), T. virens Strain G-41 (Tv), or their combination (ThTv, at half rates each of the single application rate) were applied to ‘Marktetmore 76’ cucumber seeds (Cucumis sativus L.) that were non-primed or primed for 3 days at 25°C either osmotically (?2.5MPa from 0.337 molal Ca(NO3)2) or osmomatrically

  4. Effect of irrigation regimes on mobilization of nonreactive tracers and dissolved and particulate phosphorus in slurry-injected soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GlæSner, Nadia; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; RubæK, Gitte H.; Magid, Jakob

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the mobilization processes of phosphorus (P) in the plow layer are essential to quantify potential P losses and suggest management strategies to reduce P losses. This study is aimed at examining nonequilibrium exchange dynamics on the mobilization of slurry-amended Br-, and dissolved and particulate P in slurry-injected soils. We compared leaching from intact soil columns (20 cm diam., 20 cm high) under unsaturated flow (suction at the lower boundary of 5 hPa) subjected to continuous irrigation at 2 mm hr-1, and intermittent irrigation at 2 mm hr-1 and 10 mm hr-1 to with interruptions of 10 h duration simulate periodic precipitation events. Suction was increased to 20 hPa during interruptions to allow drainage of the largest pores. Irrigation interruptions induced fluctuations in leaching of nonreactive tracers, particles, and particulate P indicating nonequilibrium transport. A nonreactive tracer, 3H2O, applied with irrigation water, diffused from mobile to less mobile pore regions during interruptions, leading to a lower mass recovery during low-intermittent (76.4%) compared with continuous irrigation (86.6%). In contrast, mass recovery of slurry-injected Br- increased as Br- diffused from less mobile to mobile pore regions during low-intermittent (53%-64%) compared with continuous irrigation (42%-47%). Despite high fluctuations during the leaching of particles and particulate P during low-intermittent irrigation, accumulated values did not differ from continuous irrigation. Increased preferential flow during high-intermittent irrigation lowered the mass exchange between pore regions of nonreactive tracers, particles, and particulate P compared with low-intermittent irrigation. The leaching of dissolved inorganic and organic P was low during all of the experiments and scarcely affected by the irrigation regime. These results highlight that nonequilibrium exchange dynamics are important when evaluating processes affecting mobilization and transport in structured soils. Leaching experiments, including cycles of irrigation interruptions and gravitational drainage, thus, adds significantly to the understanding and interpretation of processes affecting mobilization and transport under natural conditions.

  5. Discerning pig screams in production environments.

    PubMed

    Vandermeulen, J; Bahr, C; Tullo, E; Fontana, I; Ott, S; Kashiha, M; Guarino, M; Moons, C P H; Tuyttens, F A M; Niewold, T A; Berckmans, D

    2015-01-01

    Pig vocalisations convey information about their current state of health and welfare. Continuously monitoring these vocalisations can provide useful information for the farmer. For instance, pig screams can indicate stressful situations. When monitoring screams, other sounds can interfere with scream detection. Therefore, identifying screams from other sounds is essential. The objective of this study was to understand which sound features define a scream. Therefore, a method to detect screams based on sound features with physical meaning and explicit rules was developed. To achieve this, 7 hours of labelled data from 24 pigs was used. The developed detection method attained 72% sensitivity, 91% specificity and 83% precision. As a result, the detection method showed that screams contain the following features discerning them from other sounds: a formant structure, adequate power, high frequency content, sufficient variability and duration. PMID:25923725

  6. In-vitro transfer of antibiotic resistance between faecal Escherichia coli strains isolated from pig farmers and pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Nijsten; A. van den Bogaard; E. Stobberingh

    1996-01-01

    Faecal Escherichia coli isolated from fanners and their pigs were analyzed for biotypes, plasmid patterns and transferability of antibiotic resistance. Pairs of isolates from the fanner and pigs from the same farm with the same resistance patterns formed group A and were compared with pig and fanner isolates showing different patterns (group B). Only one pair of isolates in group

  7. Farming practices and genetic characterization of Nicobari pig, an indigenous pig germplasm of Nicobar group of islands, India.

    PubMed

    De, Arun Kumar; Jeyakumar, S; Kundu, Madhu Sudan; Kundu, Anandamoy; Sunder, Jai; Ramachandran, M

    2014-04-01

    The Nicobari pig, locally known as Ha-un, is an indigenous pig germplasm located only in the Nicobar group of islands, India. The present study documents the Nicobari pig-rearing practices of the tribal farmers and genetically characterizes them using 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The study was conducted over a period of 3 years (2010-2012) in Car Nicobar, India. A total of 225 farmers were surveyed (15 farmers per village of 15 villages). Information on herd statistics, husbandry practices, and constraints faced by the farmers in pig production were collected. The pigs were reared in a free-range system. Mean pig herd size per house hold was 8.9, and main feed for pigs was coconut and some indigenous feed materials such as pandanus, bread fruit, and Nicobari alu. The main constraints faced by the farmers were lack of feed after the tsunami, different disease conditions, piglet mortality, and predator attack. The Nicobari pigs were genotyped by 23 FAO-recommended microsatellite markers. The mean observed number of alleles for all 23 loci in Nicobari pigs was 6.96 ± 0.31. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.66 ± 0.02 and 0.75 ± 0.01, respectively. It was found that the genetic diversity of this pig breed was very high compared to Large White Yorkshire and other European pig breeds. This genetic characterization of the pig breed will be helpful in their conservation effort. PMID:24595559

  8. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of human microtia via a pig model of HOXA1 syndrome.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Ruimin; He, Yuyong; Pan, Bo; Xiao, Shijun; Zhang, Xufei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhiyan; Hong, Yuan; Xing, Yuyun; Ren, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Microtia is a congenital malformation of the outer ears. Although both genetic and environmental components have been implicated in microtia, the genetic causes of this innate disorder are poorly understood. Pigs have naturally occurring diseases comparable to those in humans, providing exceptional opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanism of human inherited diseases. Here we first demonstrated that a truncating mutation in HOXA1 causes a monogenic disorder of microtia in pigs. We further performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis on affected and healthy pig embryos (day 14.25). We identified a list of 337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the normal and mutant samples, shedding light on the transcriptional network involving HOXA1. The DEGs are enriched in biological processes related to cardiovascular system and embryonic development, and neurological, renal and urological diseases. Aberrant expressions of many DEGs have been implicated in human innate deformities corresponding to microtia-associated syndromes. After applying three prioritizing algorithms, we highlighted appealing candidate genes for human microtia from the 337 DEGs. We searched for coding variants of functional significance within six candidate genes in 147 microtia-affected individuals. Of note, we identified one EVC2 non-synonymous mutation (p.Asp1174Asn) as a potential disease-implicating variant for a human microtia-associated syndrome. The findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human microtia, and provide an interesting example of the characterization of human disease-predisposing variants using pig models. PMID:26035869

  9. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of human microtia via a pig model of HOXA1 syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Ruimin; He, Yuyong; Pan, Bo; Xiao, Shijun; Zhang, Xufei; Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhiyan; Hong, Yuan; Xing, Yuyun; Ren, Jun

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microtia is a congenital malformation of the outer ears. Although both genetic and environmental components have been implicated in microtia, the genetic causes of this innate disorder are poorly understood. Pigs have naturally occurring diseases comparable to those in humans, providing exceptional opportunity to dissect the molecular mechanism of human inherited diseases. Here we first demonstrated that a truncating mutation in HOXA1 causes a monogenic disorder of microtia in pigs. We further performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis on affected and healthy pig embryos (day 14.25). We identified a list of 337 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the normal and mutant samples, shedding light on the transcriptional network involving HOXA1. The DEGs are enriched in biological processes related to cardiovascular system and embryonic development, and neurological, renal and urological diseases. Aberrant expressions of many DEGs have been implicated in human innate deformities corresponding to microtia-associated syndromes. After applying three prioritizing algorithms, we highlighted appealing candidate genes for human microtia from the 337 DEGs. We searched for coding variants of functional significance within six candidate genes in 147 microtia-affected individuals. Of note, we identified one EVC2 non-synonymous mutation (p.Asp1174Asn) as a potential disease-implicating variant for a human microtia-associated syndrome. The findings advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying human microtia, and provide an interesting example of the characterization of human disease-predisposing variants using pig models. PMID:26035869

  10. Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections of pigs and wild boars using a molecular approach.

    PubMed

    Parra, A; Fernández-Llario, P; Tato, A; Larrasa, J; García, A; Alonso, J M; Hermoso de Mendoza, M; Hermoso de Mendoza, J

    2003-12-01

    A molecular epidemiological approach was applied to establishing a possible role for the wild boar as a natural reservoir of Mycobacterium bovis in Sierra de Villuercas, Western Spain; an area free of farmed cattle and wild deer populations. Spoligo and VNTR typing were used over a three year period to study the epidemiological relationship between the occurrence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in extensively bred Iberian pigs and indigenous wild boar. The 37 sampled wild boar showed different degree of calcified granulomatous lesions in retropharyngeal, mediastinal and pulmonary lymph nodes. The 25 sampled Iberian pigs showed calcified lesions, mainly in the respiratory tract. Lesions located in the mesenteric lymph nodes appeared secondarily. M. bovis was isolated from all affected animals. Twenty-five and 37 isolates of M. bovis were obtained from domestic pigs and wild boar, respectively. Our findings provide evidence that supports the possibility of cross infection between wild boar and domestic pig populations. This is contrary to the generally held belief that swine represent an epidemiological dead end host and play no role in the epidemiology of M. bovis. PMID:14637044

  11. Tin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from slurries. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, A.T.; Cochran, J.K.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this effort was to develop a process for economically fabricating thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres from conventional ceramic powders using dispersions. This process resulted in successful production of monosized spheres in the mm size range which were point contact bonded into foams. Thin-wall hollow ceramic spheres of small (one to five millimeter) diameter have novel applications as high-temperature insulation and light structural materials when bonded into monolithic foams. During Phase 1 of this program the objective as to develop a process for fabricating thin-wall hollow spheres from powder slurries using the coaxial nozzle fabrication method. Based on the success during Phase 1, Phase 2 was revised to emphasize the assessment of the potential structural and insulation applications for the spheres and modeling of the sphere formation process was initiated. As more understanding developed, it was clear that to achieve successful structural application, the spheres had to be bonded into monolithic foams and the effort was further expanded to include both bonding into structures and finite element mechanical modeling which became the basis of Phase 3. Successful bonding techniques and mechanical modeling resulted but thermal conductivities were higher than desired for insulating activities. In addition, considerable interest had been express by industry for the technology. Thus the final Phase 4 concentrated on methods to reduce thermal conductivity by a variety of techniques and technology transfer through individualized visits. This program resulted in three Ph.D. theses and 10 M.S. theses and they are listed in the appropriate technical sections.

  12. COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

    2000-09-01

    The objective if this study was to develop a predictive experimentally verified computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for gas-liquid-solid flow. A three dimensional transient computer code for the coupled Navier-Stokes equations for each phase was developed. The principal input into the model is the viscosity of the particulate phase which was determined from a measurement of the random kinetic energy of the 800 micron glass beads and a Brookfield viscometer. The computed time averaged particle velocities and concentrations agree with PIV measurements of velocities and concentrations, obtained using a combination of gamma-ray and X-ray densitometers, in a slurry bubble column, operated in the bubbly-coalesced fluidization regime with continuous flow of water. Both the experiment and the simulation show a down-flow of particles in the center of the column and up-flow near the walls and nearly uniform particle concentration. Normal and shear Reynolds stresses were constructed from the computed instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced instantaneous particle velocities. The PIV measurement and the simulation produced similar nearly flat horizontal profiles of turbulent kinetic energy of particles. This phase of the work was presented at the Chemical Reaction Engineering VIII: Computational Fluid Dynamics, August 6-11, 2000 in Quebec City, Canada. To understand turbulence in risers, measurements were done in the IIT riser with 530 micron glass beads using a PIV technique. The results together with simulations will be presented at the annual meeting of AIChE in November 2000.

  13. Use of power ultrasound to enhance the thermal inactivation of Clostridium perfringens spores in beef slurry.

    PubMed

    Evelyn; Silva, Filipa V M

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium perfringens is a pathogen of concern in pasteurised foods. The main objective of this study was to use power ultrasound to enhance the thermal inactivation of C. perfringens spores in beef slurry. The effect of simultaneous ultrasound and heat (TS, thermosonication) on the spore inactivation in beef slurry was first investigated. At 75°C, a 60min TS process (24kHz, 0.33W/g) resulted in a less than 1.5 log reduction for both C. perfringens NZRM 898 and NZRM 2621 spores. Then, the thermal inactivation first order kinetic parameters of C. perfringens spores in beef slurry were estimated for the two strains. The D105°C- and z-values were 2.5min and 10.6°C for NZRM 898 and 1.8min and 10.9°C for NZRM 2621. After, the effect of a spore heat shock followed by ultrasound on its thermal inactivation in beef slurry was investigated. This heat shock+ultrasound pretreatment was able to double the spore thermal inactivation rate in beef slurry. For example at 95°C D-value of 20.2min decreased to 9.8min, demonstrating that spore exposure to heat shock followed by ultrasonication enhanced its thermal inactivation. PMID:25912313

  14. Area 3, SRC-II coal slurry preheater studies report for the technical data analysis program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    This report reviews the raw data gathered from the Preheater B test runs at Ft. Lewis, and also the Preheater B results presented in the Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) Process Final Report, Volumes 1 and 2 of Slurry Preheater Design, SRC-II Process and the Ft. Lewis Slurry Preheater Data Analysis, 1 1/2 Inch Coil by Gulf Science and Technology Corporation of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. attempts were made to correlate several variables not previously considered with slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity. Only partial success was realized. However, in the process of attempting to correlate these variables an understanding of why some variables could not be correlated was achieved. An attempt was also made, using multiple linear regression, to correlate coal slurry viscosity and thermal conductivity with several independent variables among which were temperature, coal concentration, total solids, coal type, slurry residence time, shear rate, and unit size. The final correlations included some, but not all, of these independent variables. This report is not a stand alone document and should be considered a supplement to work already done. It should be read in conjunction with the reports referenced above.

  15. Attenuation of groundwater contamination caused by cattle slurry: a plot-scale experimental study.

    PubMed

    López Periago, E; Núñez Delgado, A; Díaz-Fierros, F

    2002-09-01

    Infiltration of contaminants was investigated in a flat pasture plot Lolium perenne L. which received 250 m3/ha of cattle slurry. Lysimeters and piezometers had previously been installed in the plot to sample groundwater at different depths. Water samples were analysed for pH, conductivity, NH4(+), NO3-, orthophosphate, Cl-, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and chemical oxygen demand (COD), and for faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci. Contaminant concentrations in water samples taken in lysimeters at a depth of 5 cm (2 h after slurry application) were already from 22% to 83%, of raw slurry. After slurry application and after 150 mm of rainfall, contaminant concentrations in groundwater were in all depths less than 95% of those initially measured in the slurry. For all contaminants except Cl-, NO3-, K+ and COD, concentrations in groundwater measured before application were reached within 15 days. Mechanical retention was the principal mechanism of attenuation of microorganism and COD levels, whereas cations were attenuated by sorption to soil matrix. Dilution by rain water had less significant effects, accounting for about a tenfold reduction in contaminant levels. PMID:12139326

  16. EVALUATION OF MIXING IN THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR AND MELTER FEED TANK

    SciTech Connect

    MARINIK, ANDREW

    2004-08-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) vitrifies High Level radioactive Waste (HLW) currently stored in underground tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The HLW currently being processed is a waste sludge composed primarily of metal hydroxides and oxides in caustic slurry. These slurries are typically characterized as Bingham Plastic fluids. The HLW undergoes a pretreatment process in the Chemical Process Cell (CPC) at DWPF. The processed HLW sludge is then transferred to the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) where it is acidified with nitric and formic acid then evaporated to concentrate the solids. Reflux boiling is used to strip mercury from the waste and then the waste is transferred to the Slurry Mix Evaporator tank (SME). Glass formers are added as a frit slurry to the SME to prepare the waste for vitrification. This mixture is evaporated in the SME to the final concentration target. The frit slurry mixture is then transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) to be fed to the melter.

  17. Simulation and characterization of a Hanford high-level waste slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, R.L.; Smith, H.D.

    1996-09-01

    The baseline waste used for this simulant is a blend of wastes from tanks 101-AZ, 102-AZ, 106-C, and 102-AY that have been through water washing. However, the simulant used in this study represents a combination of tank waste slurries and should be viewed as an example of the slurries that might be produced by blending waste from various tanks. It does not imply that this is representative of the actual waste that will be delivered to the privatization contractor(s). This blended waste sludge simulant was analyzed for grain size distribution, theological properties both as a function of concentration and aging, and calcining characteristics. The grain size distribution allows a comparison with actual waste with respect to theological properties. Slurries with similar grain size distributions of the same phases are expected to exhibit similar theological properties. Rheological properties may also change because of changes in the slurry`s particulate supernate chemistry due to aging. Low temperature calcination allows the potential for hazardous gas generation to be investigated.

  18. The effect of particle-particle interaction forces on the flow properties of silica slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Harbottle, David; Fairweather, Michael; Biggs, Simon [Institute of Particle Science and Engineering, School of Process, Environmental and Materials Engineering, University of Leeds, UK, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Rhodes, Dominic [Nexia Solutions, Sellafield, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-01

    Preliminary work has been completed to investigate the effect of particle-particle interaction forces on the flow properties of silica slurries. Classically hydro-transport studies have focused on the flow of coarse granular material in Newtonian fluids. However, with current economical and environmental pressures, the need to increase solid loadings in pipe flow has lead to studies that examine non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. The flow characteristics of non-Newtonian slurries can be greatly influenced through controlling the solution chemistry. Here we present data on an 'ideal' slurry where the particle size and shape is controlled together with the solution chemistry. We have investigated the effect of adsorbed cations on the stability of a suspension, the packing nature of a sediment and the frictional forces to be overcome during re-slurrying. A significant change in the criteria assessed was observed as the electrolyte concentration was increased from 0.1 mM to 1 M. In relation to industrial processes, such delicate control of the slurry chemistry can greatly influence the optimum operating conditions of non-Newtonian pipe flows. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry for onsite monitoring of batch slurry reactions.

    PubMed

    Cho, David S; Gibson, Stephen C; Bhandari, Deepak; McNally, Mary Ellen; Hoffman, Ron M; Cook, Kelsey D; Song, Liguo

    2011-12-15

    Batch slurry reactions are widely used in the industrial manufacturing of chemicals, pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals and polymers. However, onsite monitoring of batch slurry reactions is still not feasible in production plants due to the challenge in analyzing heterogeneous samples without complicated sample preparation procedures. In this study, direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) has been evaluated for the onsite monitoring of a model batch slurry reaction. The results suggested that automation of the sampling process of DART-MS is important to achieve quantitative results. With a sampling technique of manual sample deposition on melting point capillaries followed by automatic sample introduction across the helium beam, relative standard deviation (RSD) of the protonated molecule signals from the reaction product of the model batch slurry reaction ranged from 6 to 30%. This RSD range is improved greatly over a sampling technique of manual sample deposition followed by manual sample introduction where the RSDs are up to 110%. Furthermore, with the semi-automated sampling approach, semi-quantitative analysis of slurry samples has been achieved. Better quantification is expected with a fully automated sampling approach. PMID:22095506

  20. Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials Are Heavily Dependent on Type I Hair Cell Activity of the Saccular Macula in Guinea Pigs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    June-Horng Lue; An-Shiou Day; Po-Wen Cheng; Yi-Ho Young

    2009-01-01

    This study applied the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test to guinea pigs coupled with electronic microscopic examination to determine whether VEMPs are dependent on type I or II hair cell activity of the saccular macula. An amount of 0.05 ml of gentamicin (40 mg\\/ml) was injected directly overlaying, but not through, the round window membrane of the left ear

  1. No effect of glutamate on metabolic disturbances in hippocampal slices of mature fetal guinea pigs after transient in vitro ischemia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Berger; Arne Jensen; Konstantin-Alexander Hossmann; Wulf Paschen

    1997-01-01

    The involvement of glutamate in the development of cerebral metabolic disturbances in mature fetuses after transient ischemia was studied using a hippocampal slice model. We investigated the effects of exogenously applied glutamate or glutamate antagonists on the recovery of energy metabolism and protein synthesis rate (PSR) in hippocampal slices of mature guinea pigs after in vitro ischemia. The slices were

  2. EFFECT OF A CHEMICAL MIXTURE ON DERMAL PENETRATION OF ARSENIC AND NICKEL IN MALE PIG IN VITRO

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rita M. Turkall; Gloria A. Skowronski; Duck H. Suh; Mohamed S. Abdel-rahman

    2003-01-01

    The effect of a chemical mixture on the dermal penetration of arsenic or nickel was assessed by applying arsenic-73 or nickel-63 alone or with the chemical mixture to dermatomed male pig skin samples in flow-through diffusion cells. The chemical mixture consisted of chloroform, phenanthrene, and toluene for arsenic penetration studies and phenol, toluene, and trichloroethylene (TCE) for nickel studies. These

  3. Dynamics of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Transmission among Pigs in Northwest Bangladesh and the Potential Impact of Pig Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salah Uddin; Salje, Henrik; Hannan, A.; Islam, Md. Atiqul; Bhuyan, A. A. Mamun; Islam, Md. Ariful; Rahman, M. Ziaur; Nahar, Nazmun; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Luby, Stephen P.; Gurley, Emily S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus infection can cause severe disease in humans, resulting in death or permanent neurologic deficits among survivors. Studies indicate that the incidence of JE is high in northwestern Bangladesh. Pigs are amplifying hosts for JE virus (JEV) and a potentially important source of virus in the environment. The objectives of this study were to describe the transmission dynamics of JEV among pigs in northwestern Bangladesh and estimate the potential impact of vaccination to reduce incidence among pigs. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a comprehensive census of pigs in three JE endemic districts and tested a sample of them for evidence of previous JEV infection. We built a compartmental model to describe JEV transmission dynamics in this region and to estimate the potential impact of pig vaccination. We identified 11,364 pigs in the study area. Previous JEV infection was identified in 30% of pigs with no spatial differences in the proportion of pigs that were seropositive across the study area. We estimated that JEV infects 20% of susceptible pigs each year and the basic reproductive number among pigs was 1.2. The model suggest that vaccinating 50% of pigs each year resulted in an estimated 82% reduction in annual incidence in pigs. Conclusions/Significance The widespread distribution of historic JEV infection in pigs suggests they may play an important role in virus transmission in this area. Future studies are required to understand the contribution of pig infections to JE risk in humans and the potential impact of pig vaccination on human disease. PMID:25255286

  4. Sanitary state of pig herds from Brittany. 1. Lesions of the respiratory tract in fattening pigs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -finishing herds. Antigenic characterization of porcine respiratory coronavirus using monoclonal antibodies directed against TGEV H. LAUDE, Jacqueline GELFI, D. RASSCHAERT, B. DELMAS Institut National de la in European pig producing countries. The infection results in the induction of antibodies neutralizing

  5. ATP-induced currents in submucous plexus neurons of the guinea pig small intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Glushakov; A. I. Melishchuk; V. I. Skok

    1996-01-01

    ATP-induced membrane durrents in the submucous neurons of the guinea pig small intestine were studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique. Being applied at ?50 mV. ATP activated an inward non-selective cationic current in 68.3% of the investigated neurons. An increase in ATP concentration within the 1–1,000 µM range resulted in the s-like increase in the amplitude of ATP-induced current.

  6. Research on integrated automatic system of pig feeding based on PLC and C++ Builder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Ming; Shen Guoqiang; Ni Jing

    2011-01-01

    An integrated automatic system of pig feeding is presented. It includes the mechanical structure and control module. In the mechanical structure, the system is composed of supplying-screws, sending-screw, feed-tanks, buffer-tank, medicine-tank, water pump, medicine pump, feeding pumps, motors, ring distribution and control valves et al. In the control module, PLC is applied to implement centralized control of the above motors

  7. Demonstration of Mixing and Transferring Settling Cohesive Slurry Simulants in the AY-102 Tank - 12323

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, South Carolina 29808 (United States); Gauglitz, Phillip A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    In support of Hanford's feed delivery of high level waste (HLW) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), pilot-scale testing and demonstrations with simulants containing cohesive particles were performed as a joint collaboration between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants, and the resulting non- Newtonian rheology, have on tank mixing and batch transfer of large and dense seed particles. The work addressed the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance in a pilot-scale system. Kaolin slurries with a range of wt% concentrations to vary the Bingham yield stress were used in all the non-Newtonian simulants. To study the effects of just increasing the liquid viscosity (no yield stress) on mixing and batch transfers, a glycerol/water mixture was used. Stainless steel 100 micron particles were used as seed particles due to their density and their contrasting color to the kaolin and glycerol. Testing results show that water always transfers less seed particles, and is conservative when compared to fluids with a higher yield stress and/or higher viscosity at the same mixing/transfer parameters. The impact of non-Newtonian fluid properties depends on the magnitude of the yield stress. A higher yield stress in the carrier fluid resulted in more seed particles being transferred to the RTs. A dimensional analysis highlighting the role of a yield stress (due to cohesive particle interactions) defined four regions of behavior and indicates how the results obtained in this study can be applied to the full-scale mixing behavior of a high level waste tank. The analysis indicates that the regions of behavior for full-scale mixing have been adequately represented by the current small-scale tests. (authors)

  8. SUCCESSES AND EMERGING ISSUES IN SIMULATING THE MIXING BEHAVIOR OF LIQUID-PARTICLE NUCLEAR WASTE SLURRIES AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE - 211B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.; Pickenheim, B.; Lambert, D.; Stone, M.

    2009-09-02

    Aqueous radioactive high-level waste slurries are combined during processing steps that ultimately produce a stable borosilicate glass waste form. Chemically treated waste slurries are combined with each other and with glass frit-water slurries to produce the melter feed. Understanding the evolution of the rheological properties of the slurries is an important aspect of removing and treating the stored waste. To a first approximation, combinations of colloidal waste slurry with {approx}0.1-mm mean diameter glass frit or glass beads act in an analogous matter to slurries of spherical beads in Newtonian liquids. The non-Newtonian rheological properties of the waste slurries without frit, however, add complexity to the hydrodynamic analysis. The use of shear rate dependent apparent viscosities with the modified Einstein equation was used to model the rheological properties of aqueous frit-waste slurries.

  9. The British pig health schemes: integrated systems for large-scale pig abattoir lesion monitoring.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vazquez, M J; Strachan, W D; Armstrong, D; Nielen, M; Gunn, G J

    2011-10-15

    Pig health schemes based on abattoir inspections provide an integrated system to optimise the postmortem detection and the reporting of pathological lesions. In Great Britain, two initiatives have been implemented by the pig industry: Wholesome Pigs Scotland (WPS) and the BPEX Pig Health Scheme (BPHS). These schemes record the presence of a range of pathological lesions detected by means of detailed inspection of the pluck and the skin of the slaughtered pigs. The lesions are those associated with a reduction in performance traits or are indicators of animal welfare problems. This paper aims to provide an overview of the objectives behind the BPHS and their activities, outlining similarities and differences between WPS and BPHS on five main operational topics: the lesions monitored, the administration of the schemes, flow of the information, inspection strategies and the major idiosyncratic characteristics of the schemes. These initiatives inform individual producers and their veterinarians of the occurrence of pathological conditions affecting their pig herds. Additionally, they offer the added value of providing nationwide disease monitoring information and have the potential to be a useful surveillance tool for emerging and enzootic conditions. PMID:21881022

  10. Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

  11. Preliminary Toxicological Analysis of the Effect of Coal Slurry Impoundment Water on Human Liver Cells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bunnell, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    Coal is usually 'washed' with water and a variety of chemicals to reduce its content of sulfur and mineral matter. The 'washings' or 'coal slurry' derived from this process is a viscous black liquid containing fine particles of coal, mineral matter, and other dissolved and particulate substances. Coal slurry may be stored in impoundments or in abandoned underground mines. Human health and environmental effects potentially resulting from leakage of chemical substances from coal slurry into drinking water supplies or aquatic ecosystems have not been systematically examined. Impoundments are semipermeable, presenting the possibility that inorganic and organic substances, some of which may be toxic, may contaminate ground or surface water. The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, has concluded that well water in Mingo County, West Virginia, constitutes a public health hazard.

  12. Cavitation and Sand Slurry Erosion Resistances of WC-10Co-4Cr Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qun; Tang, Zhaoxi; Cha, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Two WC-10Co-4Cr coatings were deposited by high-velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) and high-velocity air fuel (HVAF) spray processes, respectively, and their basic mechanical properties, cavitation and sand slurry erosion resistances were investigated. The results show that the HVAF-sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr coating exhibited a lower degree of decarburization and better properties in terms of hardness, fracture toughness, porosity, cavitation and sand slurry erosion resistances than those of the HVOF-sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr coatings, respectively. Therefore, HVAF-sprayed WC-10Co-4Cr coatings may be better employed for the protection of hydro-turbine component surfaces against cavitation and sand slurry erosion.

  13. Mixing analysis of PCS slurries in a horizontal scraped surface bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanian, Mahyar; Russ, David C; Berson, R Eric

    2014-10-01

    Horizontal rotating reactors offer many advantages for enzymatic hydrolysis of viscous biomass slurries; however, they do not provide homogenous mixtures since motion is only in the angular direction. Multi-directional mixing is important for dispersing enzymes and carrying products away from reaction sites. The objective here was to experimentally quantify mixing times and axial dispersion coefficients in a horizontal rotating bioreactor. Mixing times were of the same order as reaction times, indicating that enzymatic hydrolysis could be as much controlled by diffusion and mixing effects as by the complex reaction mechanism. The dispersion coefficient for the highest solids slurry was 20× less than the lowest solids slurry, which is indicative of the difference in free water and the magnitude change of viscosity with relatively small addition of solids. The slow mixing times and low dispersion may be an acceptable tradeoff with significantly lower power requirements compared to a conventional vertical reactor. PMID:24760172

  14. Method and apparatus for determining solids conveyed in a slurry moving in a pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Scheid, C.H.

    1981-04-14

    The invention is an improved method and apparatus for determining the quantity of solids being conveyed in a slurry that is moving in a pipe. The method and apparatus combines a density-sensitive flowmeter (Elbow meter) with a densityinsensitive flowmeter (Ultrasonic doppler flowmeter) to determine the quantity of solids conveyed in a slurry that is moving in a pipe. Velocity is determined by using a sonic flowmeter which is not affected by slurry specific gravity. Specific gravity is determined by dividing the signal from an elbow meter, which is a linear function of specific gravity, by the square of the sonic flowmeter signal. Numerous methods and apparatus are included to improve the accuracy of both the sonic flowmeter and the elbow meter.

  15. REPRODUCTION About sex ratio in pigs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    II. - REPRODUCTION About sex ratio in pigs J. LOUGNON, M. PICARD ..1,L.C, fSorric /!(!'('/(!/!r;7!Ct?sex ratio at birth were studied. Combination (4) gave a significantly higher number of males. The lowest sex ratio was registered

  16. http://pig.sagepub.com/ Engineering

    E-print Network

    Damaren, Christopher J.

    Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering J K Eyer and C J Damaren eXperiment-4&5 formation flyinghttp://pig.sagepub.com/ Engineering Engineers, Part G: Journal of Aerospace Proceedings Published by: http://www.sagepublications.com On behalf of: Institution of Mechanical Engineers can be found

  17. Subcutaneous fibrosarcoma in an aged guinea pig.

    PubMed Central

    Steele, H

    2001-01-01

    A 9-year-old, female guinea pig was diagnosed with a subcutaneous fibrosarcoma overlying the ventral thorax. The mass was invasive within the subcutis without extension into surrounding structures or organ systems. Other findings included cystic ovaries, renal cortical cysts, nodular hyperplasia of the liver, and myocardial fibrosis with pulmonary hypertension. Images Figure 1. PMID:11326636

  18. Pigs duck out of the influenza mix

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    simple changes in their genetic sequence, can jump to humans. Genetic studies have suggested that another can recombine to produce a strain that infects humans. But K. S. Li et al. suggest that pigs may, damping down the most problematic vibrational modes of the guitar body, as well as altering the wave shape

  19. The Sulawesi Warty Pig (Sus celebensis) 

    E-print Network

    Macdonald, Alastair A

    1993-01-01

    S. celebensis is a medium sized pig which is common in north, central and eastern Sulawesi, but it is now scarce in south Sulawesi and may be extinct on nearby Selayar Island, both of which areas have been largely deforested. It also occurs as a...

  20. Feeding biofuels co-products to pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and other co-products from the fuel ethanol industry may be included in diets fed to pigs in all phases of production. The concentration of digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) in DDGS and corn germ is similar to corn, but high protein dis...

  1. Pig genome sequence - analysis and publication strategy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan L Archibald; Lars Bolund; Carol Churcher; Merete Fredholm; Martien AM Groenen; Barbara Harlizius; Kyung-Tai Lee; Denis Milan; Jane Rogers; Max F Rothschild; Hirohide Uenishi; Jun Wang; Lawrence B Schook

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pig genome is being sequenced and characterised under the auspices of the Swine Genome Sequencing Consortium. The sequencing strategy followed a hybrid approach combining hierarchical shotgun sequencing of BAC clones and whole genome shotgun sequencing. RESULTS: Assemblies of the BAC clone derived genome sequence have been annotated using the Pre-Ensembl and Ensembl automated pipelines and made accessible through

  2. Pre-Cookian Pigs in Australia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Baldwin

    1983-01-01

    The dingo, a distinct variety of dog, is generally considered to have been the only domestic animal present in Australia when Captain James Cook explored that continent's eastern coast in 1770. Nevertheless, there is evidence to suggest that a variety of pig was introduced to Australia from neighboring New Guinea, perhaps at a time prior to Cook's visit, and that

  3. Using property values of aqueous solutions and ice to estimate ice concentrations and enthalpies of ice slurries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Å. Melinder; E. Granryd

    2005-01-01

    For ice slurry calculations and modeling, it is important that they are performed with accurate thermophysical property values of the aqueous solution and of ice. For ice slurry applications there is a need for accurate freezing point data and for more basic thermophysical property data at low concentrations. The article covers some phenomena in connection with freezing of aqueous solutions.

  4. The generation of surface roughness during slurry erosion-corrosion and its effect on the pitting potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sasaki; G. T. Burstein

    1996-01-01

    Results of experiments performed to isolate the effect of surface roughness generated during slurry erosion-corrosion of 304L stainless steel are presented. Surfaces prepared by grinding to different finishes show that increasing the roughness lowers the pitting potential in chloride solution. Subsequent erosion by an aqueous sand slurry then alters this pitting potential (Ep), as measured in the solution phase alone,

  5. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a pilot-scale test of a slurry-phase biological reactor for treatment of creosote-contaminated soil. he technology used was a reactor system in which an aqueous slurry of soil was mixed with appropriate nutrients and seeded with microorganisms to enhance the...

  6. Characterization of coal-water slurry fuel sprays generated by an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injector 

    E-print Network

    Payne, Stephen Ellis

    1993-01-01

    was developed. For the base case conditions, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Results of this research and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry....

  7. Variation in beta-glucan fine structure, extractability, and flour slurry viscosity in oats due to genotype and environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of genotype and environment on oats on beta-glucan extractability,flour slurry viscosity, and beta-glucan polymer fine structure were tested. Certain environments had unpredictable catastrophic effects on slurry viscosity. Learning the cause of such viscosity loss should be of high priority ...

  8. Effect of impingement angle on slurry erosion behaviour and mechanisms of 1017 steel and high-chromium white cast iron

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Al-Bukhaiti; S. M. Ahmed; F. M. F. Badran; K. M. Emara

    2007-01-01

    In the present work a series of systematic erosion tests were carried out to investigate the influence of impingement angle on erosion mechanisms of 1017 steel and high-Cr white cast iron using a slurry whirling-arm test rig. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), image analysis system, optical microscopy as well as gravimetric and microhardness measurements were utilized to identify the slurry erosion

  9. Simultaneous determination of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in sewage sludge by slurry introduction ICP-OES method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Danuta Bara?kiewicz; Anetta Han?; Hanka Gramowska

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the slurry nebulisation method as an alternative method for analysis of sewage sludge, the metal content of sludge samples of different origins was determined. The concentrations of six elements: Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were determined by introducing the sludge as a slurry into an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Calibration was performed

  10. Determination of chromium, manganese and vanadium in sediments and soils by modifier—free slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mierzwa; Yuh-Chang Sun; Mo-Hsiung Yang

    1998-01-01

    Slurried sediment and soil samples of the certified reference materials with a highly elevated level of the metals of interest (Mn, Cr and V) were analysed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) with Zeeman effect background correction. The method of slurry preparation and time-temperature programmes were optimized and, finally, the use of chemical modifiers was not necessary. The effect of

  11. A quantitative evaluation of the production performance of ice slurry by the oscillatory moving cooled wall method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiko Yamada; Shoichiro Fukusako; Hiromichi Kawabe

    2002-01-01

    Ice slurry has recently been utilized for a variety of engineering fields such as thermal energy storage and high-density energy transportation. In this paper, as a production method of ice slurry, the oscillatory rotating cooled tube method was proposed. A vertical cooled tube was installed in a test vessel that was filled with ethylene glycol solution being forced to move

  12. Centrifugal slurry pump wear and hydraulic studies. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1987March 31, 1987

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonney

    1987-01-01

    The following report marks the third quarter of the third phase of the centrifugal slurry pump improvement program. The program was begun in 1982 for the purpose of improving the operating life of centrifugal slurry pumps for coal liquefaction service. This phase of work will verify the design of a pump at higher speed operation. Eventual scale-up of the prototype

  13. Particle velocity and size effects in laboratory slurry erosion measurements OR… do you know what your particles are doing?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mc I. Clark

    2002-01-01

    The major factors which determine the erodent particle impact wear process are described. Thus, particle impact velocity, impact angle and impact frequency are dictated by the slurry flow regime about the specimen. The influence of these factors on erosion rates (or on erosion–corrosion rates) can only be understood in terms of a quantitative model for slurry flow and particle impact

  14. Fundamental Study of Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Slurry of Cobalt Barrier Metal for the Next-Generation Interconnect Process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideaki Nishizawa; Haruki Nojo; Akira Isobe

    2010-01-01

    A chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) slurry was developed for use in copper (Cu) damascene interconnects with cobalt (Co) barrier metal by optimizing the corrosion potentials and removal rate selectivities of Cu and Co. A passivation layer was formed on Co surface in an alkaline solution, while no passivation layer was formed in an acidic one even with benzotriazole. In the slurry

  15. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids

    SciTech Connect

    Dreher, G.B.

    1991-01-01

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to SO{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in the Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The ultimate of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be slurry pond reclamation.

  16. BEHAVIOR AND PERFORMANCE OF WEANLING PIGS IN PENS EQUIPPED WITH HIDE AREAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John J. McGlone; Stanley E. Curtis

    Summary Two-hundred eighty crossbred pigs were used to determine (a) the efficacy of hide areas (hides) in reducing young pigs' aggressive activity during social stress and (b) the effect of access to hides on young pigs' productive performance. In Exp. 1, 80 pigs were kept in littermate groups of five\\/pen in 16 home pens. Then one pig was randomly selected

  17. Cytokine mRNA profiles in pigs exposed prenatally and postnatally to Schistosoma japonicum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michala E. Techau; Maria V. Johansen; Bent Aasted; Peter Lind; Niel Ornbjerg; Isabelle P. Oswald

    2007-01-01

    The pig is a natural host for Schistosoma japonicum and a useful animal model of human infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the differences between the cytokine profiles in prenatally or postnatally S. japonicum exposed pigs. Seven prenatally exposed pigs, 7 postnatally exposed pigs and 4 uninfected control pigs were compared 27 weeks post exposure. Variables

  18. Determination of mercury in sewage sludge by direct slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baralkiewicz, Danuta; Gramowska, Hanka; Kózka, Ma?gorzata; Kanecka, Anetta

    2005-03-01

    Ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) method was elaborated to the determination of Hg in sewage sludge samples with the use of KMnO 4+Pd modifier. The minimum sample amount required for slurry preparation with respect to sample homogeneity was evaluated by weighting masses between 3 and 30 mg directly into the autosampler cups. Validation of the proposed method was performed with the use of Certified Reference Materials of sewage sludge, CRM 007-040 and CRM 144R. Two sewage sludge samples from Poznañ (Poland) city were analysed using the present direct method and a method with sample digestion, resulting in no difference within statistical error.

  19. Volatile sulfhydryl compounds produced in Cheddar cheese slurries upon the addition of whey protein and casein

    E-print Network

    Sheffield, Amelia Rose

    1992-01-01

    with 400 ml distilled water. A 100 p. l sample of diluted slurry was added 24 to cuvets containing 2 ml of assay solution. The sample was vortexed and percent transmittance was read after 0, 30, and 60 min at room temperature. Enzyme activity.... . . . . 16 19 19 20 21 23 23 25 26 26 31 32 40 Page Concentration of Reactive Sulfhydryl Groups in Slurries. . . . . 43 Effects of Added Milk Proteins on VSH Production. . . CONCLUSIONS. APPENDIX. VITA. 47 66 69 78 132 LIST OF TABLES...

  20. The role of microorganisms in the production of volatile sulfhydryl compounds in cheddar cheese slurries

    E-print Network

    Ponce-Trevino, Raul

    1988-01-01

    of Kristoffersen (24). Each batch of slurry consisted of 500 g of cheese curd and a NaC1 solution. The volume of water and the weight of NaC1 for the solution added to the curd were calculated from the equations below to give a 60 4 moisture and 5 4 NaC1...V and remained relatively constant. The oxidation- reduction potential of slurries with added antibiotics decreased from 190 mV to -100 mV during the first 2 d of storage. The oxidation-reduction potential then slowly decreased to approximately -125 mV after...