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1

Toxicity evaluation of pig slurry using luminescent bacteria and zebrafish.  

PubMed

Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

2014-01-01

2

Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent.

Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

2014-01-01

3

Investigation of copper speciation in pig slurry by a multitechnique approach.  

PubMed

It is now well-known that copper (Cu) can accumulate on the surface of soils upon which pig slurry has been applied. This is due to the high quantity of Cu in pig slurry resulting from its use as a growth promoter in animal feeds. The mobility and bioavailability of Cu from pig slurry spreading can be better predicted by determining the speciation of this element in addition to its total concentration. The aim of this study was to present a multitechnique approach to investigate Cu speciation in pig slurry. First, size fractionation and chemical characterization of each size fraction were performed to complement results obtained in raw samples. Micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (?XRF) highlighted the colocalization of Cu and sulfur (S). Finally, X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) showed that Cu speciation in raw pig slurry and size fractions could be described by Cu(2)S and that its oxidation state is Cu(I). In addition, geochemical calculation demonstrated that chalcocite (Cu(2)S) was the major Cu species present under pig slurry lagoon physical-chemical conditions. This Cu speciation in pig slurry may be the main reason for the observed Cu accumulation at the soil surface. PMID:20735047

Legros, Samuel; Chaurand, Perrine; Rose, Jrme; Masion, Armand; Briois, Valrie; Ferrasse, Jean-Henry; Macary, Herv Saint; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Doelsch, Emmanuel

2010-09-15

4

Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the relationships between earthworm activity, microbial biomass and the activation and dynamics of several enzyme activities. We carried out an experiment in which low and high rates (1.5 and 3kg respectively) of pig slurry were applied to small scale reactors with and without earthworms. We found that extracellular enzyme activity increased with rate of pig slurry. In both

Manuel Aira; Fernando Monroy; Jorge Domnguez

2007-01-01

5

Clinoptilolite as an ammonia binder in pig slurry.  

PubMed

Six gilts and six barrows are used in a 2 x 2 experiment with two phase feeding versus multiphase feeding and celite addition versus clinoptilolite addition. Nitrogen and ammonia concentration in the slurry on dry matter basis was reduced by 30% and 35% respectively by multiphase feeding, together with a decreased ratio of ammonia over nitrogen. Ammonia fixation in pig slurry by clinoptilolite increased from 21% after 14 days of supplementation upto 35% at 8 weeks after the supplementation period. PMID:15954581

Janssens, G P; Debal, V; Hesta, M; Millet, S; De Wilde, R O

2001-01-01

6

N dynamics and sources of N2O production following pig slurry application to a loamy soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon (C) and Nitrogen dynamics and sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) production were investigated in a loamy soil amended with pig slurry. Pig slurry (40000kgha1) or distilled H2O was applied to intact soil cores of the upper 5cm of a loamy soil which were incubated under aerobic conditions for 28 days\\u000a at 25C. Treatments were with or without acetylene (C2H2),

L. Dendooven; E. Bonhomme; R. Merckx; K. Vlassak

1998-01-01

7

Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25C and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and Chernozem had higher volatile compounds than Regosol, with no significant differences among treatments. Changes in total weight loss of soil among treatments were small, although endothermic and exothermic calorimetric peaks were different depending on the treatment, mainly in Regosol and Luvisol, being higher in biochar amended samples. The proportion of C containing gas species below 550 C was higher in Luvisol and Kastanozem with no differences among treatments. As a general pattern, FTIR absorbance intensity followed the pattern Kastanozem > Luvisol > Regosol due to the different amount of organic matter. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkenes moieties at 3286 cm-1 and 3340 cm-1 in Luvisol and Kastanozem. Chemically refractory aromatic moieties at 1580 cm-1 and 1594 cm-1 in Luvisol and Chernozem, and at 729 cm-1 and 754 cm-1 in the three types of soils. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkane moieties at 1359 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1, alkenyl moieties at 962 cm-1 and 975 cm-1, and alkynes at 636 cm-1 and 663 cm-1 in all types of soils. The soil samples measured before incubation presented higher absorbance intensity than at the end of incubation, indicating mineralization of organic matter with incubation. No significant alterations in the functional groups were observed with the application of the amendments in any soil. This study suggested that the application of 5 g C kg-1 soil was not sufficient to modify organic functional groups at short term. Thus, different soil types behave differently in terms of amendments applications, being the Regosol more prone to alter SOC content and stability after applications. The application of biochar promoted higher SOC concentrations and stability at the end of the incubation. Keywords: Pig slurry, Pig Manure, Biochar, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, soil respiration, soil mineralization.

Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Ral; Faz, ngel; Bykkili-Yanarda?, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

2014-05-01

8

Impact of chemically amended pig slurry on greenhouse gas emissions, soil properties and leachate.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of chemical amendment of pig slurry to ameliorate phosphorus (P) losses in runoff is well studied, but research mainly has concentrated only on the runoff pathway. The aims of this study were to investigate changes to leachate nutrient losses, soil properties and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the chemical amendment of pig slurry spread at 19kg total phosphorus (TP), 90kg total nitrogen (TN), and 180kg total carbon (TC) ha(-1). The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:TP], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. Columns filled with sieved soil were incubated for 8mo at 10C and were leached with 160mL (19mm) distilled water wk(-1). All amendments reduced the Morgan's phosphorus and water extractable P content of the soil to that of the soil-only treatment, indicating that they have the ability to reduce P loss in leachate following slurry application. There were no significant differences between treatments for nitrogen (N) or carbon (C) in leachate or soil, indicating no deleterious impact on reactive N emissions or soil C cycling. Chemical amendment posed no significant change to GHG emissions from pig slurry, and in the cases of alum and PAC, reduced cumulative N2O and CO2 losses. Chemical amendment of land applied pig slurry can reduce P in runoff without any negative impact on nutrient leaching and GHG emissions. Future work must be conducted to ascertain if more significant reductions in GHG emissions are possible with chemical amendments. PMID:23850764

O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Lanigan, Gary J; Troy, Shane M; Somers, Cathal; Fenton, Owen

2013-10-15

9

Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment - Impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.  

PubMed

Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application. PMID:24821206

Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Ngri, Ophlie; Hlias, Arnaud

2014-07-01

10

Long term fate of slurry derived nitrogen in soil: a case study with a macro-lysimeter experiment having received high loads of pig slurry (Solepur).  

PubMed

In intensive livestock production areas, land application remains the traditional management of manure and slurries for nutrient recycling. For sustainable agriculture there is fear, however, that this practice may have detrimental effects, particularly on the depletion of Soil Organic Matter associated with pig slurry applications. We investigated the long-term fate of nitrogen in a reconstituted soil having received high doses of pig slurry during 5 years (1991-1995). After 5 years of intensive application rates (nearly 1000 m(3)yr(-1)), the N and C content of the soil profile (0-20 cm) had increased by about 60% and 50%, respectively. These results confirm previous findings although it seems that the particularly high rates of application may explain, in part, the relatively important N incorporation in soil. Pig slurry applications ceased in 1995 and nitrogen content in soil and drainage water have been monitored. Apparent mineralization rates were calculated from the decrease in N content of the soil. This analysis indicated that more than 50% of the added N stored in the soil at the end of the applications would eventually be mineralized, leaving nearly 50% of the stored N to be immobilized in the soil. These results are the first published of their kinds, as most reports never examine the fate of applied pig slurry N after halting applications. In addition the few reports on long-term experiments suggest that Soil Organic Matter following pig slurry applications may be unstable. Our analysis tends to show the contrary. However, this conclusion must be tempered because data on nitrate leachate patterns suggest that soil management such as ploughing and sowing may actually trigger mineralization that could eventually deplete nitrogen stored following applications. PMID:16930996

Peu, P; Birgand, F; Martinez, J

2007-12-01

11

Life cycle assessment of pig slurry treatment technologies for nutrient redistribution in Denmark.  

PubMed

Animal slurry management is associated with a range of impacts on fossil resource use and the environment. The impacts are greatest when large amounts of nutrient-rich slurry from livestock production cannot be adequately utilised on adjacent land. To facilitate nutrient redistribution, a range of different technologies are available. This study comprised a life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts from handling 1000 kg of pig slurry ex-animal. Application of untreated pig slurry onto adjacent land was compared with using four different treatment technologies to enable nutrient redistribution before land application: (a) separation by mechanical screw press, (b) screw press separation with composting of the solid fraction, (c) separation by decanter centrifuge, and (d) decanter centrifuge separation with ammonia stripping of the liquid fraction. Emissions were determined based on a combination of values derived from the literature and simulations with the Farm-N model for Danish agricultural and climatic conditions. The environmental impact categories assessed were climate change, freshwater eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, natural resource use, and soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus storage. In all separation scenarios, the liquid fraction was applied to land on the pig-producing (donor) farm and the solid fraction transported to a recipient farm and utilised for crop production. Separation, especially by centrifuge, was found to result in a lower environmental impact potential than application of untreated slurry to adjacent land. Composting and ammonia stripping either slightly increased or slightly decreased the environmental impact potential, depending on the impact category considered. The relative ranking of scenarios did not change after a sensitivity analysis in which coefficients for field emissions of nitrous oxide, ammonia and phosphorus were varied within the range cited in the literature. Therefore, the best technology to implement in a given situation depends on the environmental problem in question, local policy, cost and practicality. PMID:24291578

ten Hoeve, Marieke; Hutchings, Nicholas J; Peters, Gregory M; Svanstrm, Magdalena; Jensen, Lars S; Bruun, Sander

2014-01-01

12

Bioavailability of Cu and Zn in raw and anaerobically digested pig slurry.  

PubMed

The impact of anaerobic digestion on the bioavailability of copper and zinc from pig slurry was assessed. Both chemical and biological approaches were used independently on raw slurry (RS) and anaerobically digested pig slurry (DS). This work, using ultracentrifugation pellets from the same pig slurry before and after an anaerobic treatment, confirmed that Cu and Zn behave differently in terms of bioavailability, and contrasting results were obtained by chemical and biological assessments. A chemical approach combined a preliminary study of the pH effect on particulate/dissolved metal partitioning, sequential extraction, and biochemical fractionation. This approach tended to show a lower mobility of metals from digested slurry (DS). A biological approach was carried out with Zea mays and Vicia faba to study Cu and Zn uptake in soil amended with RS or DS. This assay could not differentiate the two slurries. PMID:19200597

Marcato, Claire-Emmanuelle; Pinelli, Eric; Cecchi, Marie; Winterton, Peter; Guiresse, Maritxu

2009-07-01

13

The role of heterotrophic microorganism Galactomyces sp. Z3 in improving pig slurry bioleaching.  

PubMed

The feasibility of removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry through bioleaching involving the fungus Galactomyces sp. Z3 and two acidophilic thiobacillus (A. ferrooxidans LX5 and A. thiooxidans TS6) was investigated. It was found that the isolated pig slurry dissolved organic matter (DOM) degrader Z3 was identified as Galactomyces sp. Z3, which could grow well at pH 2.5-7 and degrade pig slurry DOM from 1973 to 942 mg/l within 48 h. During the successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, the co-inoculation of pig slurry degrader Galactomyces sp. Z3 and the two Acidithiobacillus species could improve pig slurry bioleaching efficiency compared to the single system without Galactomyces sp. Z3. The removal efficiency of Zn and Cu exceeded 94% and 85%, respectively. In addition, the elimination efficiencies of pathogens, including both total coliform and faecal coliform counts, exceeded 99% after bioleaching treatment. However, the counts of Galactomyces sp. Z3 decreased with the fall of pH and did not restore to the initial level during successive multi-batch bioleaching systems, and it is necessary to re-inoculate Galactomyces sp. Z3 cells into the bioleaching system to maintain its role in degrading pig slurry DOM. Therefore, a bioleaching technique involving both Galactomyces sp. Z3 and Acidithiobacillus species is an efficient method for removing heavy metals and eliminating pathogens from pig slurry. PMID:23530313

Zhou, Jun; Zheng, Guanyu; Zhou, Lixiang; Liu, Fenwu; Zheng, Chaocheng; Cui, Chunhong

2013-01-01

14

Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and ?-galactosidase activity showed the biggest increment comparing to control. No pattern was observed among fertilizer doses, without big differences among them in most properties. We can conclude that the use of pig slurry as organic fertilizer incorporates great amounts of organic matter to the soil in its different forms, including soluble and microorganisms biomass, which has a positive effect encouraging the application of this agricultural management so that soil can act as C sink, in order to mitigate global warming. Thus, this procedure can be included in the strategies to increase the soil carbon sequestration. According to carbon dynamics, doses are not important, without risks of soluble carbon leaching.

Domnguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Ral; Faz, ngel

2010-05-01

15

The effects of certain antibiotics on biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pig waste slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of pigs amoxicillin trihydrate, oxytetracycline hydrochloride and thiamphenicol were added at different concentrations to aliquots of pig waste slurry plus anaerobic sludge in serum bottles. The biogas production and methane concentration in the headspace were monitored to determine the effect of the antibiotics on the anaerobic process. With thiamphenicol significant differences in

A Lallai; G Mura; N Onnis

2002-01-01

16

Concentration of pig slurry by evaporation: anaerobic digestion as the key process.  

PubMed

Nutrient redistribution between areas with a structural pig slurry surplus and those with a shortage, is limited by the high cost of transportation and spreading, due to the high water content in slurry (more than 90%) and its relative low nutrient concentration. Water can be removed from slurry by evaporation, through the application of waste heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective is to obtain clean water as condensate. The objective of this work was to study the batch vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction, to evaluate the economic feasibility and to evaluate condensate quality as a function of both pH (4, 5 and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Results showed that condensate characteristics (ammonia nitrogen, VFA, COD) were strongly dependent on these variables. Previous anaerobic digestion presented clear advantages: it provided a fraction of the required energy and it removed organic matter, preventing its volatilisation in the evaporation process and providing higher quality condensates. These advantages make the combined treatment strategy economically more feasible than the evaporation process alone. PMID:14531439

Bonmat, A; Campos, E; Flotats, X

2003-01-01

17

Process performance of anaerobic co-digestion of raw and acidified pig slurry.  

PubMed

The effect of incorporating different ratios of acidified pig slurry on methane yield was evaluated in two scales of anaerobic digesters: Thermophilic (50 C) pilot scale digester (120 l), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 20 days and thermophilic (52 C) full-scale digesters (10 and 30 m(3)), operating with an average hydraulic retention time of 30 days. In the lab-scale digester, different inclusion levels of acidified slurry (0-60%) were tested each 15 days, to determine the maximum ratio of acidified to non-acidified slurry causing inhibition and to find process state indicators helping to prevent process failure. In the full-scale digesters, the level of inclusion of the acidified slurry was chosen from the ratio causing methane inhibition in the pilot scale experiment and was carried on in a long-term process of 100 days. The optimal inclusion level of acidified pig slurry in anaerobic co-digestion with conventional slurry was 10%, which promoted anaerobic methane yield by nearly 20%. Higher inclusion levels caused methane inhibition and volatile fatty acids accumulations in both experiments. In order to prevent process failure, the most important traits to monitor in the anaerobic digestion of acidified pig slurry were found to be: sulfate content of the slurry, alkalinity parameters (especially partial alkalinity and the ratio of alkalinity) and total volatile fatty acids (especially acetic and butyric acids). PMID:22884372

Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Sutaryo, S; Mller, H B

2012-10-15

18

Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and ?-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and ?-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment, whereas, black and soluble C was decreased with PS addition. There may have been a transient positive effect of the RPS treatments on the soil biochemical parameters. However, the effect could not be detected because of less labile C content during the experiment. The beneficial effects of the PS additions were less pronounced in the 0-30 cm. soil layer. In this monoculture barley production system and under these Mediterranean climate conditions, applications of TPS should be avoided, so they were associated with a decline in microbial counts and a leveling of almost all the enzymatic activities and microbial biomass C. Keywords: Pig slurry, Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C, ?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzyme activities.

Halil Yanarda?, Ibrahim

2013-04-01

19

Impact of pig slurry amendments on phosphorus, suspended sediment and metal losses in laboratory runoff boxes under simulated rainfall.  

PubMed

Losses of phosphorus (P) when pig slurry applications to land are followed by a rainfall event or losses from soils with high P contents can contribute to eutrophication of receiving waters. The addition of amendments to pig slurry spread on high P Index soils may reduce P and suspended sediment (SS) losses. This hypothesis was tested at laboratory-scale using runoff boxes under simulated rainfall conditions. Intact grassed soil samples, 100 cm-long, 22.5 cm-wide and 5 cm-deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:total phosphorus (TP)] (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl(3)) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al(2)O(3)) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. The grassed soil was then subjected to three rainfall events (10.3 0.15 mm h(-1)) at time intervals of 48, 72, and 96 h following slurry application. Each sod received rainfall on 3 occasions. Results across three rainfall events showed that for the control treatment, the average flow weighted mean concentration (FWMC) of TP was 0.61 mg L(-1), of which 31% was particulate phosphorus (PP), and the average FWMC of SS was 38.1 mg L(-1). For the slurry treatment, there was an average FWMC of 2.2 mg TP L(-1), 47% of which was PP, and the average FWMC of SS was 71.5 mg L(-1). Ranked in order of effectiveness from best to worst, PAC reduced the average FWMC of TP to 0.64 mg L(-1) (42% PP), FeCl(3) reduced TP to 0.91 mg L(-1) (52% PP) and alum reduced TP to 1.08 mg L(-1) (56% PP). The amendments were in the same order when ranked for effectiveness at reducing SS: PAC (74%), FeCl(3) (66%) and alum (39%). Total phosphorus levels in runoff plots receiving amended slurry remained above those from soil only, indicating that, although incidental losses could be mitigated by chemical amendment, chronic losses from the high P index soil in the current study could not be reduced. PMID:22996004

O'Flynn, C J; Fenton, O; Wilson, P; Healy, M G

2012-12-30

20

Pig slurry concentration by vacuum evaporation: influence of previous mesophilic anaerobic digestion process.  

PubMed

Water can be removed from pig slurry by evaporation, through the application of wasted heat from a power plant or from other processes. Apart from obtaining a concentrate with an obviously higher nutrient concentration than the original slurry, another objective of water removal is to obtain water as condensate, which could be reused. The objective of this work was to study the vacuum evaporation of pig slurry liquid fraction and to evaluate condensate composition as a function of both pH (4, 5, and 6) and pig slurry type (fresh slurry and anaerobically digested slurry). Batch experiments showed that condensate characteristics, total ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acids (VFA), and chemical oxygen demand were strongly dependent on initial slurry pH. In addition to producing part of the required thermal energy, previous anaerobic digestion presented several other clear advantages. The consumption of VFA and other volatile organic compounds during anaerobic digestion reduced the volatilization of organic matter in the evaporation treatment and, consequently, provided a higher quality condensate. PMID:12568250

Bonmat, August; Flotats, Xavier

2003-01-01

21

N 2O emission in maize-crops fertilized with pig slurry, matured pig manure or ammonium nitrate in Brittany  

Microsoft Academic Search

N2O is a potent greenhouse gas and solutions have to be sought to reduce its emission from agriculture. This work evaluates N2O emission from maize-crop (Zea mays) fields submitted to different organic or mineral fertilizers (pig slurry, matured pig manure or ammonium nitrate) in Brittany (France). N2O emission was evaluated along a year in two experimental sites receiving 110 or

Christophe Dambreville; Thierry Morvan; Jean-Claude Germon

2008-01-01

22

Pig slurry and mineral fertilization strategies' effects on soil quality: macroaggregate stability and organic matter fractions.  

PubMed

Applying pig slurry to the land as fertilizer at appropriate agronomic rates is important to close nutrient cycles and optimize the value of organic matter. However a long-term discussion has taken place about its effects on soil quality. In the north-east of Spain, eight fertilization strategies were evaluated on the soil quality parameters' aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Six strategies used different pig slurries (PS) which provided organic matter from 1.7 to 2.6 t ha(-1)yr(-1), the rest (mineral N fertilization and a control) did not. Pig slurries were applied at sowing and/or at cereal tillering, as sidedressing. Field experiments were maintained for an 8-year period, in a silty loam soil devoted to a rainfed winter cereal. Soil samples were taken once, before the last sidedressing in 2011. Aggregate stability was quantified using the standard water-stable aggregate method but including a modification which meant that pre-wetting was avoided (WSA(MOD)). When using the WSA(MOD) method, we found a tendency for the percentage of water-stable aggregates to increase due to PS application (differences of up to 74% in the increment) and it was more marked the nearer they were measured to the application time (3 months vs. 12 months). The strategies which include PS show a positive effect on the SOM amount, mainly in the 0.05-0.2 mm light fraction, which increased by up to 34% with every 10 t ha(-1) organic C applied, and on SMB (up to 53% increment). There is a positive and significant linear relationship (p < 0.05, R(2) = 0.75) between the SOM light fraction (%) and the water-stable aggregates soil content (%, WSA(MOD)). Thus, the introduction of PS in fertilization strategies improves soil quality parameters. However, the soil quality benefits need to be balanced with any other potential environmental impact. PMID:23000547

Yage, Mara R; Bosch-Serra, ngela D; Antnez, Montserrat; Boixadera, Jaume

2012-11-01

23

Chemical amendment of pig slurry: control of runoff related risks due to episodic rainfall events up to 48h after application.  

PubMed

Losses of phosphorus (P) from soil and slurry during episodic rainfall events can contribute to eutrophication of surface water. However, chemical amendments have the potential to decrease P and suspended solids (SS) losses from land application of slurry. Current legislation attempts to avoid losses to a water body by prohibiting slurry spreading when heavy rainfall is forecast within 48h. Therefore, in some climatic regions, slurry spreading opportunities may be limited. The current study examined the impact of three time intervals (TIs; 12, 24 and 48h) between pig slurry application and simulated rainfall with an intensity of 11.0??0.59mmh(-1). Intact grassed soil samples, 1m long, 0.225m wide and 0.05m deep, were placed in runoff boxes and pig slurry or amended pig slurry was applied to the soil surface. The amendments examined were: (1) commercial-grade liquid alum (8% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al/ total phosphorus (TP)], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe/TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (10% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al/TP]. Results showed that an increased TI between slurry application and rainfall led to decreased P and SS losses in runoff, confirming that the prohibition of land-spreading slurry if heavy rain is forecast in the next 48h is justified. Averaged over the three TIs, the addition of amendment reduced all types of P losses to concentrations significantly different (p?slurry, with no significant difference between treatments. Losses from amended slurry with a TI of 12h were less than from unamended slurry with a TI of 48h, indicating that chemical amendment of slurry may be more effective at ameliorating P loss in runoff than current TI-based legislation. Due to the high cost of amendments, their incorporation into existing management practices can only be justified on a targeted basis where inherent soil characteristics deem their usage suitable to receive amended slurry. PMID:23526311

O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Wilson, Paul; Hoekstra, Nyncke J; Troy, Shane M; Fenton, Owen

2013-09-01

24

Alkaline barrier slurry applied in TSV chemical mechanical planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed a TSV (through-silicon-via) alkaline barrier slurry without any inhibitors for barrier CMP (chemical mechanical planarization) and investigated its CMP performance. The characteristics of removal rate and selectivity of Ti/SiO2/Cu were investigated under the same process conditions. The results obtained from 6.2 mm copper, titanium and silica show that copper has a low removal rate during barrier CMP by using this slurry, and Ti and SiO2 have high removal rate selectivity to Cu. Thus it may be helpful to modify the dishing. The TSV wafer results reveal that the alkaline barrier slurry has an obvious effect on surface topography correction, and can be applied in TSV barrier CMP.

Suohui, Ma; Shengli, Wang; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Yan, Yang

2014-02-01

25

Dynamics of a Pig Slurry Microbial Community during Anaerobic Storage and Management  

PubMed Central

The microbial community of a pig slurry on a farm was monitored for 6 months using both molecular and cultural approaches. Sampling was carried out at all the different stages of effluent handling, from the rearing build-up to slurry spreading. Total DNA of each sample was extracted and analyzed by PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis using primers targeting the 16S rRNA genes from the archaeal and bacterial domains and also the Eubacterium-Clostridium, Bacillus-Streptococcus-Lactobacillus, and Bacteroides-Prevotella groups. A comparison of the SSCP profiles showed that there were rapid changes in the dominant bacterial community during the first 2 weeks of anaerobic storage and that the community was relatively stable thereafter. Several bacterial populations, identified as populations closely related to uncultured Clostridium and Porphyromonas and to Lactobacillus and Streptococcus cultured species commonly isolated from pig feces, remained present and dominant from the rearing build-up to the time of spreading. Enumeration of fecal indicators (enterococci and Escherichia coli) performed in parallel using cultural methods revealed the same trends. On the other hand, the archaeal community adapted slowly during pig slurry storage, and its diversity increased. A shift between two hydrogenotrophic methanogenic Methanobrevibacter populations from the storage pit to the pond was observed. Microorganisms present in pig slurry at the time of spreading could not be detected in soil after spreading by either molecular or cultural techniques, probably because of the detection limit inherent in the two techniques.

Peu, Pascal; Brugere, Hubert; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Kerouredan, Monique; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delgenes, Jean-Philippe; Dabert, Patrick

2006-01-01

26

Optimization of pig slurry application to heavy metal polluted soils monitoring nitrification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification is often negatively affected by heavy metal pollution in soils, this limiting land revegetation. Thus, the potential use of pig slurry as a nitrogen-rich organic amendment in different heavy metal contaminated soils has been evaluated; this also being a way of recycling this waste. In order to identify the factors affecting nitrification processes in heavy metal polluted soils (soil

Carlos de la Fuente; Rafael Clemente; Jos Martinez; M. Pilar Bernal

2010-01-01

27

Oxidation of 13C-labeled methane in surface crusts of pig- and cattle slurry.  

PubMed

Storage tanks for slurry from animal production constitute important point sources for emission of CH4 into the atmosphere. Recent investigations have demonstrated that surface crust formed on top of animal slurry provides a habitat for CH4 oxidation activity, a finding which may open for new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during storage of animal wastes. In this work, 13C-labeled CH4 was used as a tracer to examine the absolute rates of CH4 oxidation and production in intact crust materials, collected from six different pig- and cattle slurry tanks in late autumn. Methane concentrations were generally reduced in the presence of surface crust samples, with the exception of a LECA-based (light expanded clay aggregates) crust from a pig slurry tank. In four samples, CH4 consumption was induced following a 2-4 days lag phase, whereas one cattle slurry crust consumed CH4 immediately and showed a 92% decline in CH4 concentration within the first week. Consumption of 13C-labeled CH4 was paralleled by the production of 13C-labeled CO2, thus providing direct evidence that microbial oxidation of CH4 to CO2 was taking place. Between 23% and 36% of the CH4-13C consumed in the active samples was accounted for in the gas phase CO2 indicating incomplete conversion of CH4 to CO2; however, comparable amounts of 13C was immobilized in the crust samples. Overall, the results showed that significant CH4 oxidation to CO2 in slurry crust samples occurs immediately or is inducible upon exposure to CH4. PMID:16191764

Ambus, Per; Petersen, Sren O

2005-06-01

28

Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in slurry applied to clay soil on a Danish swine farm.  

PubMed

A pilot study was carried out on a Danish swine farm infected with multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (MRDT104). We aimed to (1) investigate to which degree the decline of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in swine slurry applied to farmland depended on the application method; (2) estimate the survival times of E. coli and Salmonella in the soil surface following deposition of naturally contaminated pig slurry; and (3) simulate survival of Salmonella in different infection levels using E. coli data as input estimates. Slurry was deposited by four different methods: (1) hose applicator on black soil followed by ploughing and harrowing; (2) hose applicator on black soil followed only by harrowing; (3) hose applicator on a field with winter-wheat seedlings without further soil treatment; (4) slurry injector on a field with winter-wheat seedlings without further soil treatment. E. coli and Salmonella could not be detected at all in soil following treatment 1. Following the other treatments, E. coli was not detected in soil samples after day 21 and Salmonella was no longer detected after day 7. Simulation results showed that clinical (4 log CFU g(-1)) and sub-clinical Salmonella levels (2500 CFU g(-1)) would fall below the detection limit within 10 or 5 days, respectively. Analysis of samples from 62 Danish MRDT104-infected swineherds showed that nearly 75% of these herds had low levels of MRDT104 (< 10 CFU g(-1)) in their slurry. Our results show that ploughing and harrowing of soil amended with contaminated pig slurry was an effective means to reduce environmental exposure to E. coli and Salmonella on this clay-soil farm. PMID:15907571

Boes, J; Alban, L; Bagger, J; Mgelmose, V; Baggesen, D L; Olsen, J E

2005-07-12

29

Fate of phosphorus from biological aerobic treatment of pig slurry. By-products characterization and recovery.  

PubMed

The fate of phosphorus distribution in the products obtained from biological aerobic treatment of pig slurry, e.g. separated solids, liquid effluent and sludge, was monitored in three different farm-scale units. Samples of raw slurry, solid products, aerated slurry, liquid effluent and sludge were characterised and analysed for their concentration in total phosphorus, nitrogen content and heavy metals (Cu and Zn). At each treatment stage, nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals mass balance between input and output was established. Moreover, liquid products were characterised and analysed both for their total and dissolved ortho-phosphate content. Separated solids, sludge and liquid effluent represented 5%, 15-40% and 75-83% of the mass of the raw slurry, respectively. A mechanical separation step prior to aeration allowed the export of 25-30% of total phosphorus for further use as organic fertiliser. A large amount of total phosphorus (e.g. 60-70%) was located in sludge while phosphorus remaining in liquid effluent was about 15-25%. Raw slurry separation and sufficient aeration allowed phosphorus to concentrate in the sludge. Insufficient aeration resulted in the release of phosphorus as dissolved ortho-phosphate within the liquid effluent. Finally, relevance of the agronomic use of the products was discussed and improvements of biological aerobic treatment to enhance phosphorus removal and/or recovery were considered. PMID:14733385

Daumer, M L; Beline, F; Guiziou, F

2003-11-01

30

Combining size fractionation, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy to probe zinc speciation in pig slurry.  

PubMed

Zinc occurs in high quantity in pig slurry since it is used as an essential micronutrient at high concentrations in animal feeds despite the low Zn assimilation by pigs. Zinc accumulation was measured in soil surface layers that had been amended with pig slurry, while also determining the phytotoxicity as well as the extent of groundwater quality degradation. To accurately predict the mobility and bioavailability of Zn derived from pig slurry spreading, the speciation of this element has to be assessed since the total concentration is not sufficient. This study involved a combination of techniques to investigate Zn speciation in pig slurry. Size fractionation was first performed to account for the complexity of pig slurry, and 75% of total Zn was detected in the 0.45- to 20-mum particle-size range. Then X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive spectrometer, and extended X-ray absorption fine structure analyses were combined to assess Zn speciation. The findings highlighted the presence of 49% Zn bound to organic matter, 37% amorphous Zn hydroxides [Zn(OH)(2)], and 14% sphalerite (ZnS). PMID:20176826

Legros, S; Doelsch, E; Masion, A; Rose, J; Borschneck, D; Proux, O; Hazemann, J-L; Saint-Macary, H; Bottero, J-Y

2010-01-01

31

On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.  

PubMed

Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC <1.9 dS m(-1) for dilution. This method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use. PMID:22565270

Yage, M R; Qulez, D

2012-01-01

32

Ammonia emissions from cattle, pig and poultry wastes applied to pasture.  

PubMed

In four field experiments, carried out in The Netherlands, small wind-tunnels were used to make direct measurements of ammonia (NH(3)) volatilization from different types of slurry and manure applied to the surface of grassland. During periods of up to six days following application, losses of NH(3)-N often amounted to more than 40% of the NH(4)-N applied. Percentage loss was highest (83%) from a poultry slurry and least (21%) from an air-dried poultry manure. Losses of NH(3)-N were generally greater from pig slurry (36-78%) than from cattle slurry (41%). In most cases 80% or more of the total NH(3)-N loss occurred within 48 h of application. Estimates were made of total annual NH(3) emissions from four systems of poultry housing. The highest total loss (50% of the N voided in droppings) occurred with a battery house producing a slurry with a low content of dry-matter; most of the loss took place after spreading. With a second battery house, in which the droppings were air-dried, the total loss was only 12%, with much lower emissions from the housing and during spreading. PMID:15092488

Lockyer, D R; Pain, B F; Klarenbeek, J V

1989-01-01

33

Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Received 17 May 2007\\/Returned for modification 9 September 2007\\/Accepted 21 November 2008 The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for

K. G. Byrne-Bailey; W. H. Gaze; P. Kay; A. B. A. Boxall; P. M. Hawkey; E. M. H. Wellington

2009-01-01

34

Long-term Effect of Pig Slurry Application on Soil Carbon Storage, Quality and Yield Sustainability in Murcia Region, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability of agriculture is now a major global concern, especially since the 1980s. Soil organic matter is very important in the proper functions of the soil, which is also a good indicator of soil quality. This is due to its influence on many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that control the capacity of a soil to perform properly. Understanding of nutrient supply through organic matter mineralization in agricultural systems is essential for maintaining long-term quality and productivity. The composition of pig manure will have a profound impact on soil properties, quality and crop yield when used in agriculture. We studied the effects of pig slurry (PS) application as an organic fertilizer, trying to determine the optimum amount that can be added to the soil, and the effect on soil properties, quality, and productivity. We applied 3 different doses on silty loam soils: Single (D1), Double (D2), Triple (D3) and unfertilized plots (C) served as controls. Samples were collected at two different levels, surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (30-60 cm). D1 application dose, which is the agronomic rate of N-requirement (170 kg N/ha/yr) (European Directive 91/676/CEE), is very appropriate in term of sustainable agriculture and also can improve physical, chemical and biological soil properties. Therefore that the long-term use of PS with low dose may necessarily enhance soil quality in the long term. There are many factors to be considered when attempting to assess the overall net impact of a management practice on productivity. Additions of pig manure to soils at agronomic rates (170 kg N ha-1 yr-1) to match crop nutrient requirements are expected to have a positive impact on soil productivity. Therefore, the benefits from the use of application depend on the management of PS, carbon and environmental quality. However, PS have high micronutrient contents, and for this reason the application of high doses can pollute soils and damage human, animal and plant health, which is not suitable in term of sustainable agriculture. Keywords: Management, Pig slurry, Productivity, Quality, Soil.

Bykk?l? Yanarda?, Asuman

2013-04-01

35

Changes in microbial community structure and function during vermicomposting of pig slurry.  

PubMed

Most studies investigating the effects of earthworms on microorganisms have focused on the changes before and after vermicomposting rather than those that occur throughout the process. In the present study, we designed continuous feeding reactors in which new layers of pig slurry (1.5 and 3 kg) were added sequentially to form an age gradient inside the reactors in order to evaluate the impact of the earthworm species Eisenia fetida on microbial community structure and function. The activity of earthworms greatly reduced the bacterial and fungal biomass and microbial diversity relative to the control values. However, the pronounced presence of earthworms in the younger layers stimulated microbial activity and as such increased carbon mineralization probably due to the fact that the microorganisms may have been less resource-limited as a result of earthworm activity, as indicated by the ratio of monounsaturated to saturated PLFAs. PMID:21220200

Gmez-Brandn, Mara; Aira, Manuel; Lores, Marta; Domnguez, Jorge

2011-03-01

36

Simulating nitrogen dynamics in agricultural soils fertilized with pig slurry and urea.  

PubMed

Within the framework of an interregional project in the Emilia Romagna region of northern Italy, the coupled MACRO-SOILN model was chosen to estimate soil protective capacity against pollutants. The aim of our study was to evaluate the model to better identify key parameters and processes that influence N losses in agricultural soils. Nitrate N content was monitored in soil under corn (Zea mays L.) fertilized with urea and/or pig slurry, in two field experiments performed on four different soils: a Fienili clay, a Barco-like silt, a Sant'Omobono silt loam, and a La Boaria silty clay soil. Measurements were compared with model predictions. For all soils, nitrate content was underestimated on average by 24 to 88% at lower N rates; it was overestimated by 1 to 104% at higher N rates. The root mean square error (RMSE) was equal to 81.1%. Simulation of crop N uptake and soil water flow, estimation of the ammonia losses at pig slurry spreading, and N transformation parameter setting were considered as possible error sources. The calibration of crop N uptake gave rise to good model efficiency index values. The RMSE for the simulation of soil water content varied between 9.8 and 20.2%. A more accurate setting of the ammonia losses and of the feces transformation parameter values could allow the RMSE for the simulation of soil nitrate content to be reduced by no more than 10 to 15%. It is possible for the model not to include the simulation of processes that could have relevant effects on the soil N dynamics. PMID:15254103

Marchetti, Rosa; Ponzoni, Gilda; Spallacci, Pasquale

2004-01-01

37

Triggered antioxidant defense mechanism in maize grown in soil with accumulation of Cu and Zn due to intensive application of pig slurry.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in both the growth parameters and the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant systems of maize (Zea may L.) plants grown in Typic Hapludalf soil containing an accumulation of Cu and Zn. This accumulation developed because the soil received nineteen applications of pig slurry in no-tillage system over seven years. In this study, the maize plants were grown for fifteen and 25 days after emergence (DAE) in pots containing undisturbed and disturbed soil samples collected from a field experiment that received the rates 0, 20, 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry, which totalized the amount of 0, 380, 760 and 1520m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry in seven years, respectively, and phosphorus (P)+potassium (K) treatment (in disturbed soil samples). The maize plants grown in the undisturbed soil samples with an accumulation of Cu and Zn did not indicate an apparent decrease in growth. However, when compared to the treatment with PK fertilization, the maize plants grown in the disturbed soil with pig slurry treatments indicated higher lipid peroxidation and a number of senescent leaves, as well as a significant decrease in plant height. Additionally, when compared to the PK treatment, the leaf superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased and increased, respectively, with the addition of pig slurry treatments in the disturbed soil at 25 DAE. In general, when compared to the treatments with 20m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry and PK at fifteen and 25 DAE, the leaf ascorbic acid and non-protein thiol groups concentrations decreased with the addition of 40 and 80m(3)ha(-1) of pig slurry. This result suggests that the excess of Cu and Zn in the pig slurry significantly changed the antioxidant system of the maize plants. PMID:23669342

Girotto, Eduardo; Ceretta, Carlos A; Rossato, Liana V; Farias, Julia G; Tiecher, Tadeu L; De Conti, Lessandro; Schmatz, Roberta; Brunetto, Gustavo; Schetinger, Maria R C; Nicoloso, Fernando T

2013-07-01

38

Prevalence of Sulfonamide Resistance Genes in Bacterial Isolates from Manured Agricultural Soils and Pig Slurry in the United Kingdom?  

PubMed Central

The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment.

Byrne-Bailey, K. G.; Gaze, W. H.; Kay, P.; Boxall, A. B. A.; Hawkey, P. M.; Wellington, E. M. H.

2009-01-01

39

Prevalence of sulfonamide resistance genes in bacterial isolates from manured agricultural soils and pig slurry in the United Kingdom.  

PubMed

The prevalences of three sulfonamide resistance genes, sul1, sul2, and sul3 and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) resistance were determined in bacteria isolated from manured agricultural clay soils and slurry samples in the United Kingdom over a 2-year period. Slurry from tylosin-fed pigs amended with SCP and oxytetracycline was used for manuring. Isolates positive for sul genes were further screened for the presence of class 1 and 2 integrons. Phenotypic resistance to SCP was significantly higher in isolates from pig slurry and postapplication soil than in those from preapplication soil. Of 531 isolates, 23% carried sul1, 18% sul2, and 9% sul3 only. Two percent of isolates contained all three sul genes. Class 1 and class 2 integrons were identified in 5% and 11.7%, respectively, of sul-positive isolates. In previous reports, sul1 was linked to class 1 integrons, but in this study only 8% of sul1-positive isolates carried the intI1 gene. Sulfonamide-resistant pathogens, including Shigella flexneri, Aerococcus spp., and Acinetobacter baumannii, were identified in slurry-amended soil and soil leachate, suggesting a potential environmental reservoir. Sulfonamide resistance in Psychrobacter, Enterococcus, and Bacillus spp. is reported for the first time, and this study also provides the first description of the genotypes sul1, sul2, and sul3 outside the Enterobacteriaceae and in the soil environment. PMID:19064898

Byrne-Bailey, K G; Gaze, W H; Kay, P; Boxall, A B A; Hawkey, P M; Wellington, E M H

2009-02-01

40

Marble wastes and pig slurry improve the environmental and plant-relevant properties of mine tailings.  

PubMed

Poor soil fertility is often the biggest challenge to the establishment of vegetation in mine wastes deposits. We conducted field trials in the El Gorguel and El Lirio sites in SE Spain, two representative tailing ponds of similar properties except for pH, to understand the environmental and plant-relevant benefits of marble waste (MW) and pig slurry (PS) applications to mine tailings. Low pH (5.4) tailings (El Lirio) exhibit reduction of up to fourfold in bio-availability of metals as shown by the DTPA-Zn, Pb, water-soluble Zn, Pb and up to 3 for water-soluble Cd. Tailings in El Gorguel have high pH (7.4) and did not exhibit significant trends in the reductions of water-extractable Zn, Pb, Cd and Cu. Improvements to the edaphic (plant-relevant) properties of tailings after the amendments are not as sensitive to pH compared to the environmental characteristics. The two sites had increases in aggregate stability, organic matter (total N and organic C) although total N is higher in the El Gorguel (up to 212?gNkg(-1)) than the El Lirio (up to 26?gNkg(-1)). However, cation exchange capacities are similar in both sites at 15.2cmol(+)kg(-1). We conclude that the characteristics, especially pH, of tailing materials significantly influence the fate of metals but not improvements to plant-relevant properties such as cation exchange capacity and aggregate stability 1year after the application of MW and PS amendments. PMID:23479083

Kabas, S; Faz, A; Acosta, J A; Arocena, J M; Zornoza, R; Martnez-Martnez, S; Carmona, D M

2014-02-01

41

Greenhouse gas microbiology in wet and dry straw crust covering pig slurry.  

PubMed

Liquid manure (slurry) storages are sources of gases such as ammonia (NH(3)) and methane (CH(4)). Danish slurry storages are required to be covered to reduce NH(3) emissions and often a floating crust of straw is applied. This study investigated whether physical properties of the crust or crust microbiology had an effect on the emission of the potent greenhouse gases CH(4) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) when crust moisture was manipulated ("dry", "moderate", and "wet"). The dry crust had the deepest oxygen penetration (45 mm as compared to 20 mm in the wet treatment) as measured with microsensors, the highest amounts of nitrogen oxides (NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-)) (up to 36 mumol g(-1) wet weight) and the highest emissions of N(2)O and CH(4). Fluorescent in situ hybridization and gene-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to detect occurrence of bacterial groups. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were abundant in all three crust types, whereas nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were undetectable and methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) were only sparsely present in the wet treatment. A change to anoxia did not affect the CH(4) emission indicating the virtual absence of aerobic methane oxidation in the investigated 2-mo old crusts. However, an increase in N(2)O emission was observed in all crusted treatments exposed to anoxia, and this was probably a result of denitrification based on NO(x)(-) that had accumulated in the crust during oxic conditions. To reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions, floating crust should be managed to optimize conditions for methanotrophs. PMID:19398529

Hansen, Rikke R; Nielsen, Daniel Aa; Schramm, Andreas; Nielsen, Lars P; Revsbech, Niels P; Hansen, Martin N

2009-01-01

42

Oxidation of C-labeled methane in surface crusts of pig- and cattle slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage tanks for slurry from animal production constitute important point sources for emission of CH4 into the atmosphere. Recent investigations have demonstrated that surface crust formed on top of animal slurry provides a habitat for CH4 oxidation activity, a finding which may open for new opportunities to reduce greenhouse gas emissions during storage of animal wastes. In this work, C-labeled

Per Ambus; Sren O. Petersen

2005-01-01

43

Increasing energy and lysine in diets for growing-finishing pigs in hot environmental conditions: consequences on performance, digestibility, slurry composition, and gas emission.  

PubMed

The influence of dietary nutrient concentration on growth performance, manure composition, and gas emission was studied in pigs in hot environmental conditions. A total of 64 intact males and 64 females [(Landrace Large White) Pietrain] weighing 63.1 9.7 kg were divided into 2 dietary treatments: high (HD: 14.39 MJ of DE/kg and 1.11% Lys) and low (LD: 13.97 MJ of DE/kg and 1.01% Lys) in energy and Lys contents. Pigs were allocated to 32 split-sex pens with 4 pigs/pen and 16 pens/treatment. Average productive performance was recorded for 41 d (phase 1). After phase 1, 12 females of 103.3 3.15 kg (6 per treatment) were selected and housed individually, and feces and slurry were collected during 3 and 4 consecutive days, respectively, to calculate nutrient digestibility and measure gas emissions (phase 2). For gas emission measurements, slurry was pooled by treatment and stored for 76 d. Initial composition of slurry and pH were analyzed. Maximum and minimum temperatures registered in the barn throughout the growing period were 35.1 and 18.1C, respectively. Animals fed the HD diet grew more efficiently than pigs fed the LD diet (G:F, 0.43 vs. 0.40; SEM = 0.01; P < 0.05). Fat digestibility was greater in HD compared with LD pigs (88.0 vs. 84.9%; SEM = 0.9; P < 0.05). Slurry from pigs fed the LD diet showed greater DM, OM, total N, and VFA contents than slurry from pigs fed the HD diet. Cumulative NH(3), CO(2), and especially CH(4) emissions were greater in the HD slurry compared with the LD slurry (192.4 vs. 210.g of NH(3)/m(3); 2,712 vs. 3,210 g of CO(2)/m(3); 1,502 vs. 2,647 mL of CH(4)/kg of OM). Increasing feed density in the present study led to a more efficient growth, a decreased nutrient concentration in the slurry, and a greater gas emission. PMID:22147479

Cerisuelo, A; Torres, A; Lainez, M; Moset, V

2012-05-01

44

The use of agricultural substrates to improve methane yield in anaerobic co-digestion with pig slurry: effect of substrate type and inclusion level.  

PubMed

Anaerobic co-digestion of pig slurry with four agricultural substrates (tomato, pepper, persimmon and peach) was investigated. Each agricultural substrate was tested in co-digestion with pig slurry at four inclusion levels: 0%, 15%, 30% and 50%. Inclusion levels consisted in the replacement of the volatile solids (VS) from the pig slurry with the VS from the agricultural substrate. The effect of substrate type and inclusion level on the biochemical methane potential (BMP) was evaluated in a batch assay performed at 35 C for 100 days. Agricultural substrate's chemical composition was also analyzed and related with BMP. Additionally, Bacteria and Archaea domains together with the four main methanogenic archaeal orders were quantified using quantitative real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) at the end of the experiment to determine the influence of agricultural substrate on sludge's microbial composition. Results showed that vegetable substrates (pepper and tomato) had higher lipid and protein content and lower carbohydrates than fruit substrates (persimmon and peach). Among substrates, vegetable substrates showed higher BMP than fruit substrates. Higher BMP values were obtained with increasing addition of agricultural substrate. The replacement of 50% of VS from pig slurry by tomato and pepper increased BMP in 41% and 44%, respectively compared with pig slurry only. Lower increments in BMP were achieved with lower inclusion levels. Results from qPCR showed that total bacteria and total archaea gene concentrations were similar in all combinations tested. Methanomicrobiales gene concentrations dominated over the rest of individual archaeal orders. PMID:24238994

Ferrer, Pablo; Cambra-Lpez, Mara; Cerisuelo, Alba; Pearanda, David S; Moset, Vernica

2014-01-01

45

Management factors affecting ammonia volatilization from land-applied cattle slurry in the Mid-Atlantic USA.  

PubMed

Ammonia (NH3) volatilization commonly causes a substantial loss of crop-available N from surface-applied cattle slurry. Field studies were conducted with small wind tunnels to assess the effect of management factors on NH3 volatilization. Two studies compared NH3 volatilization from grass sward and bare soil. The average total NH3 loss was 1.5 times greater from slurry applied to grass sward. Two studies examined the effect of slurry dry matter (DM) content on NH3 loss under hot, summer conditions in Maryland, USA. Slurry DM contents were between 54 and 134 g kg(-1). Dry matter content did not affect total NH3 loss, but did influence the time course of NH3 loss. Higher DM content slurries had relatively higher rates of NH3 volatilization during the first 12 to 24 h, but lower rates thereafter. Under the hot conditions, the higher DM content slurries appeared to dry and crust more rapidly causing smaller rates of NH3 volatilization after 12 to 24 h, which offset the earlier positive effects of DM content on NH3 volatilization. Three studies compared immediate incorporation with different tillage implements. Total NH3 loss from unincorporated slurry was 45% of applied slurry NH4+-N, while losses following immediate incorporation with a moldboard plow, tandem-disk harrow, or chisel plow were, respectively, 0 to 3, 2 to 8, and 8 to 12%. These ground cover and DM content data can be used to improve predictions of NH3 loss under specific farming conditions. The immediate incorporation data demonstrate management practices that can reduce NH3 volatilization, which can improve slurry N utilization in crop-forage production. PMID:12175054

Thompson, R B; Meisinger, J J

2002-01-01

46

The impact of fouling on the process performance of the thermal treatment of pig slurry using tubular heat exchangers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of fouling and their influence on the performance of a thermal treatment process used for sanitisation of pig slurry. Two temperatures (55C and 80C) were investigated. One trial was carried out at 55C and 80C in which the slurry was not re-circulated and one trial at 80C in which 100% or 50% of the slurry was re-circulated. Fouling of the heat exchangers was assessed by on-line monitoring of the drop in pressure, changes in treatment temperature, heat transfer coefficients, heat recycling rate, and energy consumption. Similar energy consumption of around 38kWhm(-3) of effluent was observed at the two temperatures. The operating periods prior to excessive fouling or blockage were 18 days at 55C and four days at 80C. Recycling treated manure to obtain 50% dilution of the raw feed increased the viable operating period to 14 days at 80C but doubled energy consumption. At 55C, the significant drop in the target temperature (>7C) with fouling severely jeopardised the process. The nature of the decline in performance suggests that the main fouling mechanisms were bio-fouling at 55C and organic/mineral deposits at 80C. Recycling treated manure enabled the operating period to be extended but increased the total cost of heating. One hundred percent recycling showed that the fouling potential of the manure was largely eliminated after one thermal treatment, suggesting a pretreatment may be advantageous. PMID:23376308

Cunault, C; Burton, C H; Pourcher, A M

2013-03-15

47

Effects of Residual Hypochlorite Ion on Methane Production during the Initial Anaerobic Digestion Stage of Pig Slurry  

PubMed Central

The hypochlorite ion (OCl?) is a widely used disinfecting agent in pig rearing in Korea, but its residual effect on CH4 production from pig slurry is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the inhibition effects of residual OCl? on CH4 production during the initial anaerobic digestion stage of pig slurry. Three organic concentrations (9.9, 26.2 and 43.7 g/L) of volatile solids (VS) were tested with the addition of 52.3 mg/L OCl?, ten times of the typical concentration used in Korea, or without OCl? (Control) in anaerobic batch culture. The culture was run under mesophilic (38C) conditions for 20 d. At the lowest organic concentration with OCl?, the VS degradation was 10.3% lower (p<0.05) than Control, while at the higher organic concentration with OCl?, it did not differ from Control. CH4 yields were higher in the control treatments than their OCl? counterpart cultures, and CH4 yields of Control and OCl? treatments at the organic concentrations of 9.9, 26.2 and 43.7 g/L differed in the probability level (p) of 0.31, 0.04, and 0.06, respectively. Additionally, CH4 concentration increased steeply and reached 70.0% within 4 d in the absence OCl?, but a gradual increase up to 60.0% was observed in 6 d in the OCl? treated cultures. The Rm (the maximum specific CH4 production rate) and ? (lag phase time) of 9.9 g/L with OCl? were 8.1 ml/d and 25.6 d, while the Rm was increased to 15.1 ml/d, and ? was reduced to 11.4 d in PS-III (higher organic concentration) with OCl?. The results suggest that a prolonged fermentation time was necessary for the methanogens to overcome the initial OCl? inhibitory effect, and an anaerobic reactor operated with high organic loadings was more advantageous to mitigate the inhibitory effect of residual hypochlorite ion.

Yoon, Young-Man; Kim, Hyun-Cheol; So, Kyu-Ho; Kim, Chang-Hyun

2013-01-01

48

Extreme variability of steroid profiles in cow feces and pig slurries at the regional scale: implications for the use of steroids to specify fecal pollution sources in waters.  

PubMed

Thirty-five samples of cow feces (cowpat and cow manure) and pig slurries subjected to different treatment processes and different storage times before land spreading were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine their fecal stanol profiles. The fresh pig slurry data presented here increase considerably the classical range of values obtained for steroid ratios, resulting in an overlap with the range for cow feces. These results lead to the inability to distinguish species source of feces on the basis of steroid ratios alone. The cause of these differences is not known, although it appears likely to be related to differences in the metabolism of animals in relation to their age and/or variations in diet, rather than to secondary mechanisms of steroid degradation during storage or/and treatment of the feces. Nevertheless, the specificity of steroids to serve as a tool to differentiate cow feces from pig slurries is restored by considering the fecal stanol profile, notably, the six most diagnostic stanol compounds, which are 5?-cholestan-3?-ol (coprostanol), 5?-cholestan-3?-ol (epicoprostanol), 24-methyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (campestanol), 24-ethyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (sitostanol), 24-ethyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (24-ethylcoprostanol), and 24-ethyl-5?-cholestan-3?-ol (24-ethylepicoprostanol). In this study, chemometric analysis of the fingerprint of these six stanols using principal components analysis (PCA) distinguished pig slurries from cow feces. The application of PCA to the stanol profiles, as developed in this study, could be a promising tool for identifying the animal source in fecal contamination of waters. PMID:21604805

Derrien, Morgane; Jarde, Emilie; Gruau, Gerard; Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine

2011-07-13

49

Inactivation of Murine Norovirus 1 and Bacteroides fragilis Phage B40-8 by Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Pig Slurry ?  

PubMed Central

Mesophilic (37C) and thermophilic (52C) anaerobic digestion of pig slurry induced at least a 4-log decrease in murine norovirus 1, used as a surrogate virus for porcine norovirus, after 13 and 7 days, respectively. Bacteroides fragilis phage B40-8, employed as a universal viral model, was lowered by 2.5 log after 7 days. The viral titer declined due to temperature and matrix effects.

Baert, Leen; De Gusseme, Bart; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy; Debevere, Johan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2010-01-01

50

Rheological study of CO 2 hydrate slurry in a dynamic loop applied to secondary refrigeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An original rheological characterisation of CO2 hydrate slurries in flow is proposed in the present paper. Hydrate slurries are two-phase fluids composed of hydrate crystals in suspension in a liquid phase. One of the applications of CO2 hydrate slurries relates to secondary refrigeration, principally due to the high latent heat of melting of CO2 hydrates used as phase change materials

Anthony Delahaye; Laurence Fournaison; Sandrine Marinhas; Maria Carmen Martnez

2008-01-01

51

Modeling field-scale vertical movement of zinc and copper in a pig slurry-amended soil in Brazil.  

PubMed

Organic amendments often represent a source of trace metals (TMs) in soils, which may partly leach into the groundwater. The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Hydrus-2D for modeling the transport of Zn and Cu in an Alfisol amended with pig slurry (PS) by comparing numerical simulations and experimental field data, and (2) to model the next 50 years of TM movements under scenarios of suspended or continued PS amendments. First, between 2000 and 2008, we collected detailed Zn and Cu data from a soil profile in Santa Maria, Brazil. Two hypotheses about Zn and Cu reactivity with the solid phase were tested, considering physical, hydraulic, and chemical characteristics of six soil layers. Using a two-site sorption model with a sorption kinetic rate adjusted based on laboratory EDTA extractions, Hydrus simulations of the vertical TM transport were found to satisfactorily describe the soil Zn and Cu concentration profiles. Second, the long-term fate of Zn and Cu in the soil was assessed using the validated parameterized model. Numerical simulations showed that Zn and Cu did not present risks for groundwater pollution. However, future Cu accumulation in the surface soil layer would exceed the Brazilian threshold for agricultural soils. PMID:23141380

Mallmann, Fbio Joel Kochem; dos Santos, Danilo Rheinheimer; Ceretta, Carlos Alberto; Cella, Cesar; Sim?nek, Jirka; van Oort, Folkert

2012-12-01

52

Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium in slurry applied to clay soil on a Danish swine farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pilot study was carried out on a Danish swine farm infected with multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (MRDT104). We aimed to (1) investigate to which degree the decline of Escherichia coli and Salmonella in swine slurry applied to farmland depended on the application method; (2) estimate the survival times of E. coli and Salmonella in the soil surface following deposition

J. Boes; L. Alban; J. Bagger; V. Mgelmose; D. L. Baggesen; J. E. Olsen

2005-01-01

53

Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied DTIC-14C (NSC-45388) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The absorption of topically applied DTIC (5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno) imidazole-4-carboxamide-2-14C) (NSC-45388) was studied in female, weanling, Yorkshire white pigs. After 48 hours, an average of 9.61% of the topically applied dose was excreted in the u...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy E. S. Watson R. M. Folk K. L. Pavkov

1978-01-01

54

Methane Oxidation in Pig and Cattle Slurry Storages, and Effects of Surface Crust Moisture and Methane Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storages with liquid manure (slurry) may develop a surface crust of particulate organic matter, or an artificial crust can\\u000a be established. Slurry storages are net sources of atmospheric methane (CH4), but a potential for bacterial oxidation of CH4 in surface crusts was recently suggested in a study of experimental storages. The present study was conducted to investigate\\u000a methanotrophic activity under

Sren O. Petersen; Per Ambus

2006-01-01

55

Characteristics of volatile compounds removal in biogas slurry of pig manure by ozone oxidation and organic solvents extraction.  

PubMed

Biogas slurry is not suitable for liquid fertilizer due to its high amounts of volatile materials being of complicated composition and peculiar smell. In order to remove volatiles from biogas slurry efficiently, the dynamic headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to clear the composition of volatiles. Nitrogen stripping and superfluous ozone were also used to remove volatiles from biogas slurry. The results showed that there were 21 kinds of volatile compounds in the biogas slurry, including sulfur compounds, organic amines, benzene, halogen generation of hydrocarbons and alkanes, some of which had strong peculiar smell. The volatile compounds in biogas slurry can be removed with the rate of 53.0% by nitrogen stripping and with rate of 81.7% by the oxidization and stripping of the superfluous ozone. On this basis, the removal rate of the volatile compounds reached 99.2% by chloroform and n-hexane extraction, and almost all of odor was eliminated. The contents of some dissolved organic compounds decreased obviously and however main plant nutrients had no significant change in the biogas slurry after being treated. PMID:24520722

Wang, Yujun; Feng, Lianshuang; Zhao, Xiaosong; Ma, Xiulan; Yang, Jingmin; Liu, Huiqing; Dou, Sen; Zhou, Miping; Xie, Zhonglei

2013-09-01

56

Behavioral recovery induced by applied electric fields after spinal cord hemisection in guinea pig  

SciTech Connect

Applied electric fields were used to promote axonal regeneration in spinal cords of adult guinea pigs. A propriospinal intersegmental reflex (the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex) was used to test lateral tract function after hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord. An electrical field (200 microvolts per millimeter, cathode rostral) applied across the lesion led to functional recovery of the cutaneous trunci muscle reflex in 25 percent of experimental animals, whereas the functional deficit remained in control animals, which were implanted with inactive stimulators.

Borgens, R.B.; Blight, A.R.; McGinnis, M.E.

1987-10-16

57

Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w\\/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w\\/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w\\/w), cocoa husks

Juluri R. Rao; Miyuki Watabe; T. Andrew Stewart; B. Cherie Millar; John E. Moore

2007-01-01

58

Ultrasonic extraction of veterinary antibiotics from soils and pig slurry with SPE clean-up and LC-UV and fluorescence detection.  

PubMed

A simple and rapid analytical method is presented in which the three veterinary antibiotics oxytetracycline (OTC), sulfachloropyridazine (SCP) and tylosin (TYL) are simultaneously extracted and determined in four different soils. Extractions were carried out by a combination of ultrasonic agitation and vortex mixing using a mixture of methanol, EDTA and McIlvaine buffer at pH 7 as the extractant solution. The extracts were then cleaned-up by a tandem solid phase extraction (SPE) method using an Isolute SAX anion exchange cartridge to remove natural organic matter and an Oasis HLB polymeric cartridge to retain the study compounds. Analysis was by HPLC-UV with additional fluorescence detection for SCP. Recoveries were in the range 68-85% for SCP in all soil types, 58-75% for OTC in sandy soils, 27-51% for OTC in clay containing soils, 74-105% for TYL and 47-61% in a clay soil. OTC and SCP were also extracted from liquid pig manure using a mixture of EDTA and McIlvaine buffer at pH 7 with ultrasonic agitation and vortex mixing with SPE clean-up and HPLC-UV analysis. Recoveries were greater than 77% and 58% for OTC and SCP, respectively. Limits of detection were 18mugkg(-1) for OTC and SCP and 40mugkg(-1) for TYL in soils and 70mugL(-1) for OTC and 140mugL(-1) for SCP in pig slurry. PMID:18969712

Blackwell, Paul A; Holten Ltzhft, Hans-Christian; Ma, Hai-Ping; Halling-Srensen, Bent; Boxall, Alistair B A; Kay, Paul

2004-11-15

59

Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.  

PubMed

In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens. PMID:16971105

Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

2007-01-01

60

Modelling of the available latent heat of a CO 2 hydrate slurry in an experimental loop applied to secondary refrigeration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigates the suitability of CO2 hydrate for a use as phase change material in two-phase secondary refrigeration. Unlike the generation of the classical two-phase refrigerants, power limited by mechanical parts, hydrate slurry production has the advantage of being performed using a nonmechanical process. Nevertheless, in order to be efficient, the hydrate slurry needs to fulfil two major

Sandrine Marinhas; Anthony Delahaye; Laurence Fournaison; Didier Dalmazzone; Walter Frst; Jean-Pierre Petitet

2006-01-01

61

Ototoxic effect of daptomycin applied to the guinea pig middle ear.  

PubMed

Abstract Conclusion: Daptomycin applied topically at a concentration of 50 mg/ml caused mild but statistically significant hearing impairment. Outer hair cells were not damaged by daptomycin. Great care must be taken when there is a chance that daptomycin can reach the middle ear. Objective: Ototopic antibiotic eardrops are frequently used to treat external and middle ear infections. Daptomycin is a new anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococccus aureus (MRSA) drug with unknown ototoxicity. The current study examined the ototoxic effect of daptomycin in topical applications to guinea pig ears. Methods: Twenty-three male Hartley guinea pigs (weight, 250-640 g) were divided into three groups receiving daptomycin (50 mg/ml), gentamicin (50 mg/ml, positive control), or saline solution (negative control). After insertion of a pressure-equalizing tube, pretreatment auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) were obtained. Topical solutions of 0.1 ml were applied through the tube into the middle ear twice a day for 7 days. Post-treatment ABRs were obtained 7 days after the last treatment. Hair cell loss was investigated with whole-mount cochlear surface preparations. Results: The saline-treated (negative control) group showed no deterioration of ABR threshold. The daptomycin-treated group showed mild deterioration and the gentamicin-treated group showed severe deterioration in ABR threshold. Hair cells were preserved in the daptomycin- and saline-treated groups but severely damaged in the gentamicin group. PMID:24834938

Oshima, Hidetoshi; Nomura, Kazuhiro; Yamazaki, Muneharu; Suzuki, Jun; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu; Katori, Yukio

2014-07-01

62

Designing and signal processing of intelligent inspection pig applying magnetic flux leakage methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abshacf-Aiming at the pipeline safety evaluation, this paper describer a magnetic flux leakage(MFL) model of pipeline defects inspection, designs a MFL intelligent inspection pig to inspect different pipelines. The intelligent Pig includes driver mbof system contmUer, data pmcssor and etc. It can be used for multi-radius pipelines and various work conditions It has high sensitivity for adopting multi-sensor data fusion.

Tao Jin; Peiwen Que; Zhengsu Tao

2004-01-01

63

Lapping slurry  

DOEpatents

Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina work pieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid. 1 fig.

Simandl, R.F.; Upchurch, V.S.; Leitten, M.E.

1999-01-05

64

Lapping slurry  

DOEpatents

Improved lapping slurries provide for easier and more thorough cleaning of alumina workpieces, as well as inhibit corrosion of the lapping table and provide for easier cleaning of the lapping equipment. The unthickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, and triethanolamine. The thickened lapping slurry comprises abrasive grains such as diamond abrasive dispersed in a carrier comprising water, glycerine, triethanolamine, a water soluble silicate, and acid.

Simandl, Ronald F. (Farragut, TN); Upchurch, Victor S. (Powell, TN); Leitten, Michael E. (Frederick, MD)

1999-01-01

65

Estimation of the Nutrient Value of Agricultural Slurries by Measurement of Physical and Chemical Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype nutrient sensing system was used to investigate relationships between the nutrient status of agricultural slurries and a range of physical and chemical properties. These properties were all measured using devices suitable for possible installation in full-scale slurry handling systems. The prototype system was tested on a total of 160 slurries, comprising approximately 20 cattle and 20 pig slurries

I. M. Scotford; T. R. Cumby; R. P. White; O. T. Carton; F. Lorenz; U. Hatterman; G. Provolo

1998-01-01

66

Slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

Wasp, E.J.

1983-11-01

67

Rotary cup slurry atomization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The theory of a two-phase flow in a rotating cup atomizer is described. The analysis considers the separation of the solid and liquid media thus realistically modeling the flow of two layers along the inner cup wall: a slurry of increasing solids concentration and a supernatent liquid layer. The analysis is based on the earlier work of Hinze and Milborn (1950) which addressed the flow within a rotary cup for a homogeneous liquid. The superimposition of a settling velocity under conditions of high centrifugal acceleration permits the extended analysis of the separation of the two phases. Appropriate boundary conditions have been applied to the film's free surface and the cup wall and to match the flow characteristics at the liquid-slurry interface. The changing slurry viscosity, increasing nonlinearly with growing solid loading, was also considered. A parameter study illustrates the potential for a cup design to provide optimal slurry and liquid film thicknesses for effective atomization.

Sommer, H. T.; Marnicio, R. J.

1983-06-01

68

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied Thiotepa-14C in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution and elimination of intravenously administered Thiotepa - 14C (NSC 6396) was studied in female, weanling Yorkshire White Pigs. After 7 days an average of 53.88% was excreted via the urine and 4.76% via the feces. The urinary elimination pe...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy P. W. Wirth E. C. Harland M. S. Frick

1980-01-01

69

Mineral slurries  

SciTech Connect

A pumpable slurry of mineral particles, e.g., coal, in water contains 50 to 85% by weight of mineral particles based on the combined weight of mineral particles and water. The mineral component contains at least 30% by weight of coarse particles having a particle size in the range 5 to 50 mm, 10 to 40% by weight of fine particles having a particle size less than 200 micron and the balance to 100% of intermediate sized particles. The slurry is stable without the use of additives and can be pumped through a pipeline.

Baker, P.J.; Brookes, D.A.; Johnson, M.

1985-06-25

70

Rheology Modifiers Applied to Kaolin-Bentonite Slurries for SRNL WTP Pulse Jets Tank Pilot Work in Support of RPP at Hanford  

Microsoft Academic Search

Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to find and characterize the impact of rheological modifiers to a clay (Kaolin-Bentonite) slurry having 23.1 total wt percent solids, 1.165 g\\/ml, and Bingham Plastic yield stress of 13 Pa and plastic viscosity of 24 mPa-sec. The primary objective was to find rheological modifiers when blended with this clay slurry that would provide

William E. Daniel

2005-01-01

71

Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied KP-103 against Experimental Tinea Unguium in Guinea Pigs in Comparison with Amorolfine and Terbinafine  

PubMed Central

The therapeutic efficacy of KP-103, a novel topical triazole, in a guinea pig tinea unguium model was investigated. Experimental tinea unguium and tinea pedis were produced by inoculation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes SM-110 between the toes of the hind paw of guinea pigs. One percent solution (0.1 ml) of KP-103, amorolfine, or terbinafine was topically applied to the nails and whole sole of an infected foot once daily for 30 consecutive days, and terbinafine was also orally administered at a daily dose of 40 mg/kg of body weight for 30 consecutive days, starting on day 60 postinfection. The fungal burdens of nails and plantar skin were assessed using a new method, which makes it possible to recover infecting fungi by removing a carryover of the drug remaining in the treated tissues into the culture medium. Topically applied KP-103 inhibited the development of nail collapse, significantly reduced the fungal burden of the nails, and sterilized the infected plantar skin. On the other hand, topical amorolfine and topical or oral terbinafine were ineffective for tinea unguium, although these drugs eradicated or reduced the fungal burden of plantar skin. The in vitro activities of amorolfine and terbinafine against T. mentagrophytes SM-110 were 8- and 32-fold, respectively, decreased by the addition of 5% keratin to Sabouraud dextrose broth medium. In contrast, the activity of KP-103 was not affected by keratin because its keratin affinity is lower than those of the reference drugs, suggesting that KP-103 largely exists in the nails as an active form that was not bound to keratin and diffuses in the nail without being trapped by keratin. The effectiveness of KP-103 against tinea unguium is probably due to its favorable pharmacokinetic properties in the nails together with its potent antifungal activity.

Tatsumi, Yoshiyuki; Yokoo, Mamoru; Senda, Hisato; Kakehi, Kazuaki

2002-01-01

72

Transport of veterinary antibiotics in overland flow following the application of slurry to arable land.  

PubMed

The environment may be exposed to veterinary medicines administered to livestock due to the application of organic fertilisers to land. Slurry is often spread on to fields following the harvest of the previous crop. Despite recommendations to do so, the slurry may not be ploughed into the soil for some time. If precipitation occurs before incorporation then it is likely that the slurry and any antibiotic residues in the slurry will be transported towards surface waters in overland flow. This phenomenon has been investigated in a plot study and transport via 'tramlines' has been compared to that through crop stubble. Three veterinary antibiotics, from the tetracycline, sulphonamide and macrolide groups, were applied to the plots in pig slurry. Twenty four hours after the application the plots were irrigated. Following this the plots received natural rainfall. Sulphachloropyridazine was detected in runoff from the tramline plot at a peak concentration of 703.2 microgl(-1) and oxytetracycline at 71.7 microgl(-1). Peak concentrations from the plot that did not contain a tramline were lower at 415.5 and 32 microgl(-1), respectively. In contrast, tylosin was not detected at all. Mass losses of the compounds were also greater from the tramline plot due to greater runoff generation. These did not exceed 0.42% for sulphachloropyridazine and 0.07% for oxytetracycline however. PMID:15823328

Kay, Paul; Blackwell, Paul A; Boxall, Alistair B A

2005-05-01

73

Effects of K3[Fe(CN)6] slurry's pH value and applied potential on tungsten removal rate for chemical-mechanical planarization application  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) is an important process for building multilevel interconnections for electronic devices. Directly planarizing tungsten, which is used as via or contact in microelectronic circuits, by wear is a difficult process because of its high hardness. Therefore, an effective approach has been developed to facilitate planarizing tungsten surface by removing a continuously growing passive film on tungsten when exposed to a low-pH potassium ferricyanide slurry. Since the passive film is softer than tungsten, this chemical mechanical planarization process is effective. In this work, in order to determine effects of corrosion and wear on tungsten removal rate, attempts were made to investigate corrosion, wear, and corrosive wear behavior of tungsten in K3[Fe(CN)6] slurries. Electrochemical and tribological experiments were carried out for different slurry pH values and potentials using a rotating pin-on-disc tribometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize surface films formed at the different pH levels and potentials. It was demonstrated that the tungsten removal rate increased with increasing slurry pH and potential. Mechanisms involved are discussed.

Akonko, S.B.; Li, D.Y.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, J.A.; Miller, A.; Cadien, K.

2005-07-01

74

Slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

An estimated 72% of U.S. coal is found in seven Western States, but costs of transport to power stations outside these states (the main consumers) are high. The article examines the economic and practical advantages of a slurry pipeline for this purpose. The history of pipeline transportation of coal is outlined and the case histories of several long-distance pipelines in the U.S. are described, including the Black Mesa line, which at 273 miles is currently the longest. Plans for exploiting the Western coal (which has the environmental and economic advantages of being low in sulphur) via such a pipeline are presented. Energy Transportation Systems, Inc. (ETSI) will be responsible for the development of the next pipeline and hopes to institute a continuous system of coal preparation, pipeline transportation and dewatering.

Wasp, E.J.

1983-11-01

75

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied Procarbazine-14C (NSC-77213) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elimination of intravenously administered Procarbazine-14C was studied in female weanling Yorkshire white pigs to determine the total percentage of such a dose eliminated in the urine. Maximum elimination of 74% was seen after 48 hours. This eliminati...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy E. S. Watson R. M. Folk K. L. Pavkov

1978-01-01

76

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied Thioguanine-14C (NSC-752) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution and elimination of intravenously administered Thioguanine-14C (NSC-752) was studied in female, weanling, Yorkshire, white pigs. Approximately one-half the radioactivity was eliminated in the urine in the first six hours, and the majority ...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy E. S. Watson R. M. Folk K. L. Pavkov

1978-01-01

77

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied 5-Fluorouracil-14C (NSC 19893) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution and elimination of intravenously administered 5-Fluorouracil-14C (NSC-19893) was studied in female, weanling Yorkshire white pigs. The majority of the radioactivity eliminated in the urine was detected in the first 24 hours. After 96 hour...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy P. W. Wirth T. J. Miller R. M. Folk

1978-01-01

78

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied Hexamethylmelamine-14C (NSC-13875) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution and elimination of intravenously administered Hexamethylmelamine-14C (NSC-13875) was studied in female, weanling, Yorkshire white pigs. The majority of the radioactivity eliminated in the urine was detected in the first 24 hours. After 96...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy E. S. Watson R. M. Folk K. L. Pavkov

1978-01-01

79

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied Mercaptopurine-14C (NSC-755) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution and elimination of intravenously administered Mercaptopurine-14C (NSC-755) was studied in female, weanling, Yorkshire white pigs. Over one-half the radioactivity was eliminated in the urine in the first six hours. After 96 hours (4 days),...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy E. S. Watson R. M. Folk K. L. Pavkov

1978-01-01

80

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied 5-Azacytidine-14C (NSC 102816) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution and elimination of intravenously administered 5-Azacytidine-14C (NSC 102816) was studied in female, weanling Yorkshire White Pigs. After 7 days an average of 73.065% was excreted via the urine and 28.578% via the feces. The urinary elimin...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy P. W. Wirth T. J. Miller R. M. Folk

1979-01-01

81

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied Guanazole-14C (NSC-1895) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elimination of intravenously administered Guanazole-14C was studied in female, weanling, Yorkshire white pigs to determine the total percentage of such a dose eliminated in the urine. Ninety-six percent of the dose was eliminated after 72 hours. This ...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy E. S. Watson R. M. Folk K. L. Pavkov

1978-01-01

82

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied Methotrexate-14C (NSC 740) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The distribution and elimination of intravenously administered Methotre-14C (NSC 740) was studied in female, weaning Yorkshire White Pigs. After 7 days an average of 33.66% was excreted via the feces and 15.22% via the urine. The fecal elimination percent...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy P. W. Wirth T. J. Miller R. M. Folk

1978-01-01

83

Slurry-Mixing Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paddles and water jets create uniform, continuous flow. Slurry-mixing chamber on hydrojet-jaw mining machine ensures uniform, continuously flowing slurry of coal particles in water. By mixing coal and water at high speed and keeping resulting slurry in constant motion, chamber prevents slurry from becoming dry semisolid that blocks flow. Also prevents coal particles from settling and caking in bends, corners, and other locations where flow changes in direction or speed.

Lewis, E. V.

1985-01-01

84

Coal-Slurry Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of this conference are contained in four volumes. The third volume deals with coal slurry preparation and stabilization and coal slurry combustion and emissions. Papers deal with both coal-oil mixtures (COM) and coal-water slurries (CWS). ...

1982-01-01

85

Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry.  

PubMed

Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 C or 25 C. Initial analysis of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7.9-22.4 mM in raw slurry and 7.3-23.2 mM in liquid slurry compared to 3.2-9.5 mM in raw slurry and 2.6-9.5 mM in liquid slurry stored at 5 C. The study demonstrates that at 5 C, A. suum eggs have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops. PMID:23127297

Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan; Popovic, Olga; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders

2013-03-01

86

Slurry Utilization Efficiency Studies in Chemical Mechanical Planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The residence time distribution of slurry in the pad-wafer interface was experimentally determined and used to calculate the slurry utilization efficiency (?) of the chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. Slurry utilization efficiency represents the percentage of slurry that actually participates in the polish by entering the region bounded between the wafer and the pad. Results show that ? ranges from 2 to 22%, depending on operating conditions such as applied wafer pressure, relative pad wafer velocity, slurry flow rate and pad surface texture (i.e. type of pad grooving).

Philipossian, Ara; Mitchell, Erin

2003-12-01

87

Elemental analysis of slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Direct analysis of wet slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is challenging due to problems of sedimentation, splashing, and surface turbulence. Also, water can quench the laser plasma and suppress the LIBS signal, resulting in poor sensitivity. The effect of water on LIBS spectra from slurries was investigated. As the water content decreased, the LIBS signal was enhanced and the standard deviation was reduced. To improve LIBS slurry analysis, dried slurry samples prepared by applying slurry on PVC coated slides were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate calibration was performed on the LIBS spectra of the dried slurry samples for elemental analysis of Mg, Si, and Fe. Calibration results show that the dried slurry samples give a good correlation between spectral intensity and elemental concentration.

Eseller, Kemal E.; Tripathi, Markandey M.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

2010-05-01

88

Ultrasound Analysis Of Slurries  

DOEpatents

An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N.sub.2 gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Blackwell, Arthur G. (Duquesne, PA)

2005-11-01

89

ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS  

PubMed Central

The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology.

Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

2011-01-01

90

A single topical dose of erythropoietin applied on a collagen carrier enhances calvarial bone healing in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The osteogenic potency of erythropoietin (EPO) has been documented. However, its efficacy in a large-animal model has not yet been investigated; nor has a clinically safe dosage. The purpose of this study was to overcome such limitations of previous studies and thereby pave the way for possible clinical application. Our hypothesis was that EPO increases calvarial bone healing compared to a saline control in the same subject. Methods We used a porcine calvarial defect model. In each of 18 pigs, 6 cylindrical defects (diameter: 1 cm; height: 1 cm) were drilled, allowing 3 pairwise comparisons. Treatment consisted of either 900 IU/mL EPO or an equal volume of saline in combination with either autograft, a collagen carrier, or a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. After an observation time of 5 weeks, the primary outcome (bone volume fraction (BV/TV)) was assessed with high-resolution quantitative computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were histomorphometry and blood samples. Results The median BV/TV ratio of the EPO-treated collagen group was 1.06 (CI: 1.021.11) relative to the saline-treated collagen group. Histomorphometry showed a similar median effect size, but it did not reach statistical significance. Autograft treatment had excellent healing potential and was able to completely regenerate the bone defect independently of EPO treatment. Bony ingrowth into the PCL scaffold was sparse, both with and without EPO. Neither a substantial systemic effect nor adverse events were observed. The number of blood vessels was similar in EPO-treated defects and saline-treated defects. Interpretation Topical administration of EPO on a collagen carrier moderately increased bone healing. The dosing regime was safe, and could have possible application in the clinical setting. However, in order to increase the clinical relevance, a more potent but still clinically safe dose should be investigated.

2014-01-01

91

Coal slurry applications and technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a broad review of the ways in which coal slurries have been used, or might be used, and includes summaries of the different technologies required in order to accomodate the needs of each application. Major categories are (1) pipeline transportation slurries, (2) coal slurry fuels for direct combustion, (3) slurries used to facilitate the feeding of gasification units

1991-01-01

92

Pressurized Vessel Slurry Pumping  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes testing of an alternate ''pressurized vessel slurry pumping'' apparatus. The principle is similar to rural domestic water systems and ''acid eggs'' used in chemical laboratories in that material is extruded by displacement with compressed air.

Pound, C.R.

2001-09-17

93

Coal slurry combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and numerical results are presented from examining the combustion of coal-slurry fuels. The combustion characteristics of a coal slurry agglomeration with and without metallic additives were investigated. The kinetics of the C-CO reaction was re-examined since it has a significant influence upon the burning of the droplets. The inclusion of metallic additives influences the mass reduction rate in the

1984-01-01

94

Phosphorus losses from low-emission slurry spreading techniques.  

PubMed

Low emission slurry spreading techniques are known to improve nitrogen use efficiency, but their impact on phosphorus (P) losses in surface runoff has received little attention. The current study was designed to examine the effect of slurry spreading technique on P losses in runoff. Twelve treatments were examined on 0.5- m by 1.0-m plots in a nominal 2 6 factorial design experiment. Treatments comprised grass swards at two different stages of growth, a stubble and a 4-wk regrowth, and six different slurry application treatments: control (no slurry), and slurry applied to simulate splash-plate, injection (across and down slope), and trailing shoe (across and down slope) spreading. Slurry was applied by hand (40 m ha). Rainfall simulations (40 mm h) were conducted at 2, 9, and 28 d post-slurry application. When slurry was applied to the stubble, dissolved reactive P (DRP) concentrations in runoff at Day 2 were 47 and 37% lower ( < 0.05) from the injection and trailing shoe treatments compared with the splash-plate treatment. Similarly, at Day 2, TP concentrations in runoff from the injection treatments were 27% lower ( < 0.05) than the splash-plate treatment. In contrast, application technique had no effect ( 0.05) on P concentrations in runoff following slurry application to the regrowth treatment. Phosphorus concentrations in runoff were unaffected by direction of slurry spreading (across or down) at both applications. Our results indicate that trailing shoe and injection techniques offer the potential to reduce DRP concentrations in runoff during the period immediately after slurry application. PMID:23673837

McConnell, D A; Ferris, C P; Doody, D G; Elliott, C T; Matthews, D I

2013-01-01

95

Combinatorial study of ceramic tape-casting slurries.  

PubMed

Ceramic tape-casting slurries are complex systems composed of ceramic powder, solvent, and a number of organic components. Conventionally, the development of ceramic tape-casting slurries is time-consuming and of low efficiency. In this work, combinatorial approaches were applied to screen the ethanol and ethyl-acetate binary solvent based slurry for ceramic green tape-casting. The combinatorial libraries were designed considering the variation of the amount of PVB (Poly vinyl-butyral) binder, polyethylene-400, and butyl-benzyl-phthalate plasticizers, and glyceryl triacetate dispersant. A parallel magnetic stirring process was used to make the combinatorial slurry library. The properties mapping of the slurry library was obtained by investigating the sedimentation and rheological characteristics of the slurries. The slurry composition was refined by scaling up the experiments and comparing the microstructure, mechanical property, and sintering behavior of green tapes made from the selected slurries. Finally, a kind of ethanol-ethyl acetate binary solvent based slurry system suitable for making X7R dielectric ceramic green tapes was achieved. PMID:22283488

Liu, Zhifu; Wang, Yiling; Li, Yongxiang

2012-03-12

96

Persistence and leaching potential of microorganisms and mineral N in animal manure applied to intact soil columns.  

PubMed

Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1)) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path. PMID:23124240

Amin, M G Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, Ren K; Petersen, Sren O; Lgdsmand, Mette

2013-01-01

97

Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns  

PubMed Central

Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h?1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path.

Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, Rene K.; Petersen, S?ren O.; Laegdsmand, Mette

2013-01-01

98

Assessment of the genotoxicity of Cu and Zn in raw and anaerobically digested slurry with the Vicia faba micronucleus test.  

PubMed

Genotoxicity of Cu and Zn was assessed by use of the micronucleus (MN) test on Vicia faba roots. Plants were exposed to various leachates of raw and anaerobically digested pig slurry, with maximum total concentrations of 200microM Cu and 600microM Zn. The results indicated stabilisation of the organic matter during anaerobic digestion of the slurry and bioconversion of some phytotoxic organic compounds (e.g. phenols or p-cresol), but did not show a relationship between Cu and Zn concentrations and MN frequency. Exposure of Vicia plants to binary inorganic solutions of Cu and Zn (CuSO(4)/ZnSO(4), 1:3) showed a significant micronucleus induction at concentrations of 40microM Cu and 120microM Zn and higher. When MN frequency was plotted against dissolved Cu (<0.45microm), applied as slurry or as CuSO(4), a single curve was obtained. At concentrations lower than 10microM, modulation of the genotoxic effect of Cu was found. At concentrations up to 150microM, MN induction increased significantly, while phytotoxic symptoms appeared at higher concentrations. PMID:19101650

Marcato-Romain, C E; Pinelli, E; Pourrut, B; Silvestre, J; Guiresse, M

2009-01-31

99

Rheology of Tetraphenylborate Precipitate Slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rheological properties of tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry were determined. This nonradioactive slurry simulates the radioactive tetraphenylborate precipitate generated at the Savannah River Plant by the In-Tank Precipitation Process. The data obt...

I. D. Goren H. D. Martin M. A. McLain

1985-01-01

100

Foodborne zoonoses due to meat: a quantitative approach for a comparative risk assessment applied to pig slaughtering in Europe.  

PubMed

Foodborne zoonoses have a major health impact in industrialised countries. New European food safety regulations were issued to apply risk analysis to the food chain. The severity of foodborne zoonoses and the exposure of humans to biological hazards transmitted by food must be assessed. For meat, inspection at the slaughterhouse is historically the main means of control to protect consumers. However, the levels of detection of biological hazards during meat inspection have not been established in quantitative terms yet. Pork is the most frequently consumed meat in Europe. The aim of this study was to provide elements for quantifying levels of risk for pork consumers and lack of detection by meat inspection. Information concerning hazard identification and characterisation was obtained by the compilation and statistical analysis of data from 440 literature references. The incidence and severity of human cases due to pork consumption in Europe were assessed in order to calculate risk scores. A ratio of non-control was calculated for each biological hazard identified as currently established in Europe, i.e. the incidence of human cases divided by the prevalence of hazards on pork. Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and Campylobacter spp. were characterised by high incidence rates. Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum and Mycobacterium spp. showed the highest severity scores. The three main high risk hazards involved in foodborne infections, Y. enterocolitica, S. enterica and Campylobacter spp. are characterised by high non-control ratios and cannot be detected by macroscopic examination of carcasses. New means of hazard control are needed to complement the classical macroscopic examination. PMID:18073088

Fosse, Julien; Seegers, Henri; Magras, Catherine

2008-01-01

101

Experimental characterization of slurry bubble-column reactor hydrodynamics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sandia's program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble column reactors (SBCRs) at industrially relevant conditions is discussed. Gas liquid flow experiments are performed on an industrial scale. Ga...

K. A. Shollenberger J. R. Torczynski N. B. Jackson T. J. O'Hern

1997-01-01

102

Slurried Propellant Rocket Motor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent relates to slurried rocket propellants and a spinning rocket motor wherein the propellants have viscosities which enable them to form central cores when spun in spinning rocket motors. The motor has a diaphragm-like base plate which assists in ...

R. F. Vetter J. P. Diebold G. F. Sieg H. W. Gerrish H. H. Payne

1977-01-01

103

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous carbonaceous slurries having reduced viscosity, a stabilized network of coal in water and improved pumpability are obtained by having present a salt of naphthalenesulfonic acid formaldehyde condensate and at least one water soluble polymer selected from the group consisting of gum karaya, mixtures of gum karaya and polyacrylamide and polysaccaride modified with polyacrylate. For example, a mixture of 61.5%

M. J. Schick; K. A. Knitter

1983-01-01

104

Coal-Slurry Combustion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The proceedings of this conference are contained in four volumes. The papers in the second volume deal with bench scale and pilot testing and commercialization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) and coal-water slurries (CWS). Research studies in the US and other ...

1982-01-01

105

LNG Slurry Formation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The process of forming particles of frozen crude oil by spraying oil into LNG was originally conceived by LeFever. Analyses by Coulter have shown that the particles formed for slurry transportation must be as small as possible, on the order of 30 micromet...

D. M. Coulter

1975-01-01

106

Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts in Soil Columns following Applications of Raw and Separated Liquid Slurries  

PubMed Central

The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (<1%). Soil columns with injected liquid slurry leached 73 and 90% more oocysts compared to columns with injected and surface-applied raw slurries, respectively. Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI [4?,6?-diamidino-2-phenylindole]/propidium iodide) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r = 0.63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

Petersen, Heidi H.; Enemark, Heidi L.; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M. G. Mostofa

2012-01-01

107

Flow Injector Would Keep Slurry From Settling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ring nozzle helps to prevent choking of coal-slurry pipelines. Intended originally for use in coal mines, nozzle concept generally applicable to short-haul slurry pipelines where high-pressure water (or other slurry fluid) available. Extra water injected into flow near wall of slurry pipe to keep slurry particles from setting and blocking pipe.

Lewis, E. V.

1986-01-01

108

Intravenous Elimination and Percutaneous Absorption of Topically Applied 14C-Cytosine-Arabinoside (ARA C) (NSC-63878) in Yorkshire White Pigs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The elimination of intravenously administered 14C-Cytosine-Arabinoside (Ara-C) was studied in female, weanling, Yorkshire white pigs to determine the total percentage of such a dose eliminated in the urine. Eighty-three percent of the dose was eliminated ...

P. Skierkowski J. C. Murphy E. S. Watson R. M. Folk C. L. Litterst

1978-01-01

109

A model for slurry rheology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-empirical model has been developed to predict slurry theology from easily-measured slurry properties. The model demonstrates the complex influence of these properties on rheology, and also permits theological information to be predicted in cases where it cannot be measured. It is intended for use with slurries commonly encountered in mineral processing.The model first predicts machine output readings of the

F. N. Shi; T. J. Napier-Munn

1996-01-01

110

Pig Bel.  

PubMed

Pig Bel is a form of acute, segmental, necrotizing enteritis presenting as a common and life-threatening disease among the people (particularly the children) of the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. It relates to the consumption of pig meat and is thought to be caused by Clostridium welchii type C (an organism not usually present in the human intestine), the organism being transmitted to man by means of contaminated pig meat. Pib Bel resembles the diseases called "Darmbrand" which occurred in Northern Germany in the years that immediately followed World War II. Darmbrand was assocated with a Clostridium welchii infection, possibly precipitated by malnutrition. It disappeared within a few years of its recognition. Conditions that closely resemble the clinical and pathological features of Pig Bel have been reported from Uganda and Thailand. In these countries, only a few cases have been encountered and they have not been associated with the eating of pig meat or with a clostridial infection. PMID:575409

Cooke, R A

1979-01-01

111

Intravenous elimination and percutaneous absorption of topically applied Methotrexate-¹⁴C (NSC 740) in Yorkshire White pigs. Report for Oct-Dec 78  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution and elimination of intravenously administered Methotre-¹⁴C (NSC 740) was studied in female, weaning Yorkshire White pigs. After 7 days an average of 33.66% was excreted via the feces and 15.22% via the urine. The fecal elimination percentage was then used to determine the amount of Methotrexate-¹⁴C absorbed after topical application. Among the whole organs sampled following intravenous administration,

P. Skierkowski; J. C. Murphy; P. W. Wirth; T. J. Miller; R. M. Folk

1978-01-01

112

Slurry Atomization - a Brief Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This review provides an update on the work related to slurry atomization that has been uncovered in a search of the published literature. In contrast to that on liquid atomization, the slurry literature is naturally not very extensive. Also, as different ...

C. R. Krishna

1982-01-01

113

Experimental Study of Slurry Atomization.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The combustion process of a coal/oil slurry begins by atomization of the slurry. This project is a presentation of experimental system and results on atomiztion of coal/oil and coal/methanol mixtures with a two fluid and a wheel atomizer. The volume media...

S. J. Kim

1982-01-01

114

Additives for Coal Water Slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The production of coal slurries with a solids-content of more than 60% by wt. is impossible in practice without using chemical additives. The choice of additive will depend on the desired properties of the coal slurry. The following compounds are used as ...

1986-01-01

115

Improved coal-slurry pipeline  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High strength steel pipeline carries hot mixture of powdered coal and coal derived oil to electric-power-generating station. Slurry is processed along way to remove sulfur, ash, and nitrogen and to recycle part of oil. System eliminates hazards and limitations associated with anticipated coal/water-slurry pipelines.

Dowler, W. L.

1979-01-01

116

Rheometry of natural sediment slurries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Recent experimental analyses of natural sediment slurries yield diverse results yet exhibit broad commonality of rheological responses under a range of conditions and shear rates. Results show that the relation between shear stress and shear rate is primarily nonlinear, that the relation can display marked hysteresis, that minimum shear stress can occur following yield, that physical properties of slurries are extremely sensitive to sediment concentration, and the concept of slurry yield strength is still debated. New rheometric analyses have probed viscoelastic behavior of sediment slurries. Results show that slurries composed of particles ??? 125 ?? m exhibit viscoelastic responses, and that shear stresses are relaxed over a range of time scales rather than by a single response time.

Major, Jon, J.

1993-01-01

117

Comparative study of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement using two slurry circulation systems  

SciTech Connect

The experimental conditions associated with slurry measurements to achieve good precision by using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) are examined. LIBS analysis was applied to a special waste slurry sample that contains 85.4% water, 2.5% ferric oxide Fe2O3, 1.7% alumina Al2O3, and small quantities of oxides of boron and chromium. While liquids add challenge to LIBS measurements, the analysis was successfully performed on iron and aluminum. Two slurry circulation systems were devised to overcome the major technical problems associated with LIBS measurements of slurry samples, namely, sedimentation and change in the lens-to-sample distance during measurement. LIBS slurry measurements using both circulation systems are compared. The results show that the experimental configuration plays a crucial role for online slurry analysis.

Oh, Seong Yong; Miller, Tracy; Yueh, F.Y.; Singh, Jagdish P

2007-07-01

118

Compression ignition characteristics of coal slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow and medium speed compression ignition engines are devices with the potential for conversion to coal fueling. Recent work focuses on coal slurried in a liquid carrier. Engine studies on coal slurry to date have investigated the slurries' wear, thermal efficiency, and injection performance. Previously lacking information on the compression ignition characteristics of coal slurries, specifically, the ignition delay times

Brehob

1985-01-01

119

NACA research on slurry fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors. Small ramjet vehicles fueled with magnesium slurry were flown successfully, but the test flights indicated that further improvement of combustors and fuel systems was needed.

Pinns, M L; Olson, W T; Barnett, H C; Breitwieser, R

1958-01-01

120

The secondary slurry-zinc/air battery  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rechargeability of the slurry-Zn/air battery was demonstrated with a practical recharge cell that requires minimal hydraulic and mechanical energy for operation. A dendritic Zn was deposited on a Mg plate substrate from which it was easily, periodically and automatically scraped to regenerate dendritic Zn slurries. Excellent discharge results were obtained with the regenerated dendritic Zn slurry, comparable to those obtained with slurries made with mixtures of Zn powder. The dendritic Zn slurry allowed, however, twice the utilization of Zn.

Sierraalcazar, H. B.; Nguyen, P. D.; Mason, G. E.; Pinoli, A. A.

1989-07-01

121

Preparation of coal slurry with organic solvents  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, various organic solvents were used to prepare coal slurries and the rheological and thermal properties of coalorganic solvent slurries were examined. Solvents with molecules containing unpaired electrons (high basicity) show high extraction power and cause swelling of coal. Therefore, coalorganic solvent slurries usually showed higher viscosities compared to coalwater slurry. In addition, coal slurries prepared by alcohols

Yu-Jen Shin; Yun-Hwei Shen

2007-01-01

122

Streamline coal slurry letdown valve  

DOEpatents

A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces.

Platt, Robert J. (Dover, NJ); Shadbolt, Edward A. (Basking Ridge, NJ)

1983-01-01

123

Streamline coal slurry letdown valve  

DOEpatents

A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

1983-11-08

124

Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry.  

PubMed

The redistribution and fate of contaminants in pig slurry after direct injection were investigated at two field sites, Silstrup (sandy clay loam) and Estrup (sandy loam), in Denmark. Intact soil samples were collected for up to seven weeks after slurry injection and concentrations of Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), Escherichia coli, steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0.8%), as well as soil clay content (27 vs. 15%) and differed considerably with respect to the initial redistribution of slurry-borne contaminants in soil. The transport of microorganisms from the slurry injection slit to the surrounding soil was much lower than that of mineral N and chloride due to attachment and entrapment. The redistribution of E. coli was more affected by site-specific conditions compared to phage 28B, possibly due to the larger cell size of E. coli. The overall recovery of phage 28B was 0.8-4%, and of E. coli 0.0-1.3% in different samples, by the end of the study. Nine different steroid hormones were detected in the slurry slit, and a slow redistribution to the surrounding soil was observed. Overall recovery of estrogens was 0.0 to 6.6% in different samples. The study showed that the combination of soil and slurry properties determined the initial spreading of contaminants, and hence the potential for subsequent leaching. PMID:23994734

Amin, M G Mostofa; Bech, Tina B; Forslund, Anita; Hansen, Martin; Petersen, Sren O; Lgdsmand, Mette

2014-01-01

125

Ammonia and odour emissions from UK pig farms and nitrogen leaching from outdoor pig production. A review.  

PubMed

We reviewed specific literature for emissions of ammonia (NH3) and odours from all stages of pig production together with nitrogen (N) leaching from raising pigs outdoors. Emissions of NH3 decrease with decreases in the crude protein (CP) content of pig diets, at all stages of manure management. The CPs of pig diets have been greatly reduced by matching the CP content to the protein required at each stage of the animals' growth and by using synthetic essential amino acids to minimise total CP intake. The CP contents of the dietary ingredients needed to provide energy for the animals impose further limits to reductions in dietary CP. Housing systems have been designed and evaluated which offer potential for reducing NH3 emissions. However such designs may not be applicable at all stages of the pigs' development and the careful management needed to ensure their effective working may be costly and difficult to implement on commercial farms. The factors behind odour emissions are less well characterised. Reducing diet CP to 160 g CP kg(-1) has been shown to reduce odour emissions but further CP reductions may increase them. Some reductions in odour emissions from buildings can be achieved by careful management of the ventilation rate but the most effective measures to reduce emissions of NH3 and odours are to cover slurry stores and to inject slurry into soil. Changes in the feeding and management of outdoor pigs mean that N leaching losses may be up to 50% less than previously reported. No studies have been undertaken that compare the N leached from pigs raised outdoors, versus that arising from the application of pig manure from an equal number of housed pigs. As a precursor to any field study, current models could be used to provide a first estimate of any systematic differences. PMID:24211346

Webb, J; Broomfield, Mark; Jones, Stephanie; Donovan, Brian

2014-02-01

126

Pigs taking wing with transposons and recombinases  

PubMed Central

Swine production has been an important part of our lives since the late Mesolithic or early Neolithic periods, and ranks number one in world meat production. Pig production also contributes to high-value-added medical markets in the form of pharmaceuticals, heart valves, and surgical materials. Genetic engineering, including the addition of exogenous genetic material or manipulation of the endogenous genome, holds great promise for changing pig phenotypes for agricultural and medical applications. Although the first transgenic pigs were described in 1985, poor survival of manipulated embryos; inefficiencies in the integration, transmission, and expression of transgenes; and expensive husbandry costs have impeded the widespread application of pig genetic engineering. Sequencing of the pig genome and advances in reproductive technologies have rejuvenated efforts to apply transgenesis to swine. Pigs provide a compelling new resource for the directed production of pharmaceutical proteins and the provision of cells, vascular grafts, and organs for xenotransplantation. Additionally, given remarkable similarities in the physiology and size of people and pigs, swine will increasingly provide large animal models of human disease where rodent models are insufficient. We review the challenges facing pig transgenesis and discuss the utility of transposases and recombinases for enhancing the success and sophistication of pig genetic engineering. 'The paradise of my fancy is one where pigs have wings.' (GK Chesterton).

Clark, Karl J; Carlson, Daniel F; Fahrenkrug, Scott C

2007-01-01

127

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

128

Loose abrasive slurries for optical glass lapping  

SciTech Connect

Loose abrasive lapping is widely used to prepare optical glass before its final polishing. We carried out a comparison of 20 different slurries from four different vendors. Slurry particle sizes and morphologies were measured. Fused silica samples were lapped with these different slurries on a single side polishing machine and characterized in terms of surface roughness and depth of subsurface damage (SSD). Effects of load, rotation speed, and slurry concentration during lapping on roughness, material removal rate, and SSD were investigated.

Neauport, Jerome; Destribats, Julie; Maunier, Cedric; Ambard, Chrystel; Cormont, Philippe; Pintault, B.; Rondeau, Olivier

2010-10-20

129

RPP-WTP Slurry Wear Evaluation: Slurry Abrasivity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report deals with the task of evaluating wear in the cross-flow ultrafiltration system and specifically the need to define a representative slurry in order to obtain prototypic wear rates. The filtration system will treat many different wastes, but i...

M. R. Duignan

2002-01-01

130

Toughening of CAD/CAM all-ceramic crowns by staining slurry.  

PubMed

The ability of staining slurries containing silver and/or potassium compounds to enhance the mechanical properties of a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic (IPS Empress CAD) was investigated by measuring the Vickers hardness, median crack length, toughness, and compressive residual stress of specimens. A staining slurry containing potassium ions was found to increase the toughness of IPS specimens more than a staining slurry containing only silver ions when applied prior to sintering. None of the staining slurries produced any color changes. Thus, the results obtained in this study demonstrate that staining slurries increase the Vickers hardness and the fracture toughness of the surface and subsurface regions of all-ceramic IPS blocks fabricated by a CAD/CAM system without sacrificing their aesthetics. PMID:23037847

Uno, Mitsunori; Nonogaki, Ryugo; Fujieda, Tokushi; Ishigami, Hajime; Kurachi, Masakazu; Kamemizu, Hideo; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

2012-01-01

131

Apparatus and method for transferring slurries  

DOEpatents

Slurry is transferred to a high pressure region by pushing the slurry from the bottom of a transfer vessel with a pressurizing liquid admitted into the top of the vessel. While the pressurizing liquid is being introduced into the transfer vessel, pressurizing liquid which has mixed with slurry is drawn off from the transfer vessel at a point between its upper and lower ends.

Horton, Joel R. (Maryville, TN)

1984-01-01

132

Pastas Pesadas de Cimento (Heavy Cement Slurries).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When going deeper in an high pressure well, the only way to succesfully cement the casing of liners is through the use of heavy cement slurry. This paper shows how PETROBRAS is dealing with heavy weight slurries. The authors present slurry formulations te...

F. A. da Silva A. C. F. Conceicao C. C. S. Marins

1989-01-01

133

The secondary slurry-zinc\\/air battery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rechargeability of the slurry-Zn\\/air battery was demonstrated with a practical recharge cell that requires minimal hydraulic and mechanical energy for operation. A dendritic Zn was deposited on a Mg plate substrate from which it was easily, periodically and automatically scraped to regenerate dendritic Zn slurries. Excellent discharge results were obtained with the regenerated dendritic Zn slurry, comparable to those

H. B. Sierraalcazar; P. D. Nguyen; G. E. Mason; A. A. Pinoli

1989-01-01

134

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOEpatents

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

1991-01-01

135

Coal-water slurry combustion tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the testing of slurries of different coals prepared by various vendors in order to establish typical ranges of physical and chemical properties and to determine the effect of these and rheological properties on atomization and combustion behavior. Six slurries provided by five vendors were tested to establish typical viscosity and solids levels of currently produced slurries.

R. K. Manfred; R. W. Borio; S. J. Vecci

1983-01-01

136

EFFECT OF MULTI-YEAR SURFACE-BANDING OF DAIRY SLURRY ON GRASS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applying liquid manure by surface banding increases short-term yield compared to broadcasting pro- bably by reducing NH3 loss. However, the response to surface-banding slurry manure on grass N after several years of application has not been reported. This study compared the effects of commercial fertili- zer with drag-shoe applied dairy slurry on yield, N uptake and soil parameters of a

S. Bittman; C. G. Kowalenko; D. E. Hunt; F. Bounaix; T. Forge

137

Coal Slurry Level Monitor Developed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Investigators working on the problems of liquefaction of coal need a liquid level monitor (LLM) to track the level of a slurry of powdered coal in creosote or coal-d...

1982-01-01

138

Microexplosion of aluminum slurry droplets  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microexplosion of a slurry droplet is experimentally and theoretically investigated. The microexplosion was considered to be caused by the shell formation and the following pressure build-up in the shell which would be promoted by the suppression of evaporation, subsequent superheating and heterogeneous nucleation of a liquid carrier. Experimentally, the microexplosion phenomena was examined for various surfactant concentrations and particle

Seung Wook Baek; Ju Hyeong Cho

1999-01-01

139

Leaching of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Escherichia coli, and a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage through intact soil cores following surface application and injection of slurry.  

PubMed

Increasing amounts of livestock manure are being applied to agricultural soil, but it is unknown to what extent this may be associated with contamination of aquatic recipients and groundwater if microorganisms are transported through the soil under natural weather conditions. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate how injection and surface application of pig slurry on intact sandy clay loam soil cores influenced the leaching of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All three microbial tracers were detected in the leachate on day 1, and the highest relative concentration was detected on the fourth day (0.1 pore volume). Although the concentration of the phage 28B declined over time, the phage was still found in leachate at day 148. C. parvum oocysts and chloride had an additional rise in the relative concentration at a 0.5 pore volume, corresponding to the exchange of the total pore volume. The leaching of E. coli was delayed compared with that of the added microbial tracers, indicating a stronger attachment to slurry particles, but E. coli could be detected up to 3 months. Significantly enhanced leaching of phage 28B and oocysts by the injection method was seen, whereas leaching of the indigenous E. coli was not affected by the application method. Preferential flow was the primary transport vehicle, and the diameter of the fractures in the intact soil cores facilitated transport of all sizes of microbial tracers under natural weather conditions. PMID:21948848

Forslund, Anita; Markussen, Bo; Toenner-Klank, Lise; Bech, Tina B; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Dalsgaard, Anders

2011-11-01

140

Leaching of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts, Escherichia coli, and a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Bacteriophage through Intact Soil Cores following Surface Application and Injection of Slurry?  

PubMed Central

Increasing amounts of livestock manure are being applied to agricultural soil, but it is unknown to what extent this may be associated with contamination of aquatic recipients and groundwater if microorganisms are transported through the soil under natural weather conditions. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate how injection and surface application of pig slurry on intact sandy clay loam soil cores influenced the leaching of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All three microbial tracers were detected in the leachate on day 1, and the highest relative concentration was detected on the fourth day (0.1 pore volume). Although the concentration of the phage 28B declined over time, the phage was still found in leachate at day 148. C. parvum oocysts and chloride had an additional rise in the relative concentration at a 0.5 pore volume, corresponding to the exchange of the total pore volume. The leaching of E. coli was delayed compared with that of the added microbial tracers, indicating a stronger attachment to slurry particles, but E. coli could be detected up to 3 months. Significantly enhanced leaching of phage 28B and oocysts by the injection method was seen, whereas leaching of the indigenous E. coli was not affected by the application method. Preferential flow was the primary transport vehicle, and the diameter of the fractures in the intact soil cores facilitated transport of all sizes of microbial tracers under natural weather conditions.

Forslund, Anita; Markussen, Bo; Toenner-Klank, Lise; Bech, Tina B.; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Dalsgaard, Anders

2011-01-01

141

The effect of ilmenite plant dusts on rheological properties of Class G oil well cement slurries  

SciTech Connect

A series of experiments was conducted to evaluate two ilmenite plant dusts as an alternative to barite as weight material for oil well cement slurries. These dusts had a similar particle size distribution to ground barite. Rheological investigations show that one of the dusts could be applied if it was properly dispersed. However, a change in consistency with time resulting from chemical reactions within the slurry was observed before the initial set. Such changes in consistency was not observed for a similar slurry weighted with barite. This makes the use of ilmenite plant dusts less favorable than the use of barite as a weight material for well cements.

Saasen, A.; Log, P.A. [Hoegskolen i Stavanger (Norway). Dept. of Petroleum Technology] [Hoegskolen i Stavanger (Norway). Dept. of Petroleum Technology

1996-05-01

142

Decomposition Studies of Tetraphenylborate Slurries  

SciTech Connect

This report details the decomposition of aqueous (K,Na) slurries in concentrated salt solutions using a more complete candidate catalyst recipe, extended testing temperatures (40-70 degrees C) and test durations of approximately 1500 hours (9 weeks). This study uses recently developed High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods for analysis of tetraphenylborate (TPB-), triphenylborane (3PB) and diphenylborinic acid (2PB). All of the present tests involve non-radioactive simulants and do not include investigations of radiolysis effects.

Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-05-06

143

Coal slurries: An environmental bonus  

SciTech Connect

Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference.

Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

1994-05-01

144

Microbial examination of anaerobic sludge adaptation to animal slurry.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the microbial population of anaerobic sludge digesters during the adaptation to pig slurry (PS) using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and qualitative scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the relationship between microbial parameters and sludge physicochemical composition and methane yield was examined. Results showed that the addition of PS to an unadapted thermophilic anaerobic digester caused an increase in volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, a decrease in removal efficiency and CH4 yield. Additionally, increases in total bacteria and total archaea were observed using qPCR. Scanning electron micrographs provided a general overview of the sludge's cell morphology, morphological diversity and degree of organic matter degradation. A change in microbial morphotypes from homogeneous cell morphologies to a higher morphological diversity, similar to that observed in PS, was observed with the addition of PS by SEM. Therefore, the combination of qPCR and SEM allowed expanding the knowledge about the microbial adaptation to animal slurry in thermophilic anaerobic digesters. PMID:24645456

Moset, V; Cerisuelo, A; Ferrer, P; Jimenez, A; Bertolini, E; Cambra-Lpez, M

2014-01-01

145

Microstructures of thin and thick slurry aluminide coatings on Inconel 690  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two slurry aluminide coatings are produced on the Ni-base super alloy Inconel 690 by applying two different thicknesses of the same slurry on to the 690 substrate, followed by a two-step heat-treatment. The resulting thin aluminide coating consists of a single layer of Ni-rich ?-NiAl matrix containing few large Cr precipitates with a high P content. The thick aluminide coating

Anders Juul Rasmussen; Alina Agero; Marcos Gutierrez; Mara Jos Landeira stergrd

2008-01-01

146

Ultrasonic destruction of pesticide contaminants in slurries.  

PubMed

The use of high power ultrasound to destroy pesticide contaminants in sand slurries is reported. Small quantities of DDT, chlordane, atrazine, 2,4,5-T and endosulfan in solvent were added to washed, screened sand and deposited onto the sand by slow evaporation of the solvent. Fifty wt.% slurries for all five pesticides and 20 wt.% slurries of atrazine and 2,4,5-T were sonicated for periods up to 30 min and samples were withdrawn at various intervals and analysed to follow the kinetics of contaminant destruction. Seventy percent destruction of the contaminant was obtained for four of the 50 wt.% slurries with approximately 50% destruction of 2,4,5-T in 10 min of sonication whereas, in the 20 wt.% slurries of atrazine and 2,4,5-T, and 75% and 85% reduction, respectively, was obtained in 10 min. We postulate that better stirring of the slurry will improve these rates of contaminant destruction. PMID:19515599

Collings, A F; Gwan, P B

2010-01-01

147

Preparation of coal slurry with organic solvents.  

PubMed

In this study, various organic solvents were used to prepare coal slurries and the rheological and thermal properties of coal-organic solvent slurries were examined. Solvents with molecules containing unpaired electrons (high basicity) show high extraction power and cause swelling of coal. Therefore, coal-organic solvent slurries usually showed higher viscosities compared to coal-water slurry. In addition, coal slurries prepared by alcohols and cyclohexanone demonstrated lower settling rates but a high specific sedimentation volume presumably because these solvents swelled coal particles well and led to the formation of weak gel structures in the bulk. In addition, ethanol and cyclohexanone are capable of breaking a considerable amount of hydrogen bonds in coal and subsequently opening up the structures. Thus, more surface area is available for combustion and the combustion rate of coal slurries was increased. PMID:17276487

Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

2007-06-01

148

Low-rank coal slurry combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of this slurry combustion project is to expand scientific and engineering data base on combustion of advanced low-rank coal (LRC) fuels for residential and commercial processes by investigations into operational and environmental effects of burning slurry fuels made with LRC. To accomplish this, specific goals included bench-scale testing of a stationary, packed-bed slurry combustor; construction of a

M. D. Mann; M. D. Johnson; S. J. Selle; J. R. Gunderson

1988-01-01

149

Issues associated with coal-slurry-pipeline development. [Including brief description of 10 proposed slurry pipelines; also state water laws  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coal-slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to meet increasing requirements for coal transportation. Issues associated with the use of coal-slurry pipelines are analyzed in this report. The major topics discussed are: eminent domain for coal-slurry pipelines; water availability, both legal and physical, for coal slurry; and environmental impacts of construction and operation of coal-slurry pipelines. Currently proposed coal-slurry

R. L. Tobin; L. R. Johnson; V. A. Luner; P. Wallingford; M. Rogozen

1980-01-01

150

The slurry-column coal beneficiation process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slurry column is a second-generation process developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the beneficiation of fine (60 mesh 10 ?m) coal by a combination of the physical separation of mineral matter and the biooxidation of pyrite. The bioreactor is a slurry-type airlift, specifically designed to allow the large liberated inclusions of pyrite and other insoluble

Graham F. Andrews; Karl S. Noah

1997-01-01

151

Resin Powder Slurry Process for Composite Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potentially useful process for fabrication of fiber-reinforced resinmatrix composites is powder slurry technique. Applicability of technique demonstrated using powdered resin made from thermoplastic polyimide LaRC/ TPI (thermoplastic polyimide). Use of process circumvents need for such high-cost organic solvents as N-methylpyrrolidinone and diglyme (diglycol methyl ether). Two basic slurries for LaRC/TPI powder investigated.

Mike, R. A.

1986-01-01

152

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump\\/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with

Phatak; Ramkrishna G

1986-01-01

153

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump\\/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved

Phatak

1984-01-01

154

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine

S. H. Gehrke; Lii-Hurng. Lyu

1990-01-01

155

A Statistical Model for Slurry Thickening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thickening is the first step in the design of sustainable (cost effective, environmentally friendly, and socially viable) tailings management solutions for surface deposition, mine backfilling, and sub-aqueous discharge. The high water content slurries are converted to materials with superior dewatering properties by adding long-chain synthetic polymers. Given the solid and liquid composition of a slurry, a high settling rate alongside

Shahid Azam; Syed A. Imran

156

Apparent Benzene Solubility in Tetraphenylborate Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Personnel conducted testing to determine the apparent solubility of benzene in potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries. The lack of benzene vapor pressure suppression in these tests indicate that for a 6.5 wt percent solids KTPB slurry in 4.65 M Na+ salt solution at approximately 25 degrees Celsius, no significant difference exists between the solubility of benzene in the slurry and the solubility of benzene in salt solution without KTPB solids. The work showed similar results in slurry with 6,000 mg/L sludge and 2,000 mg/L monosodium titanate added. Slurries containing tetraphenylborate decomposition intermediates (i.e., 4,200 mg/L triphenylboron (3PB), 510 mg/L diphenylborinic acid (2PB) and 1,500 mg/L phenylboric acid (1PB) or 100 mg/L tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)) also showed no significant difference in benzene solubility form filtrate containing no KTPB solids. Slurry containing 2,000 mg/L Surfynol 420 did exhibit significant additional benzene solubility, as did irradiated slurries. The vapor pressure depression in the irradiated slurries presumably results from dissolution of biphenyl and other tetraphenylborate irradiation products in the benzene.

Swingle, R.F.; Peterson, R.A.; Crawford, C.L.

1997-11-01

157

Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

1988-01-01

158

Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

1989-01-01

159

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03

160

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03

161

The importance of the solids loading on confirming the dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO? powders by slurry method.  

PubMed

The dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO? powders was investigated by the slurry method, where two series of BaTiO? slurries with 10 vol% and 30 vol% solids loadings were prepared as model samples. Applying the Bruggeman-Hanai equation, the high-frequency limiting permittivity (?(h)) of the slurries was extracted from the dielectric spectra. The ?(h) of the 10 vol% slurry showed abnormal size independence in the range from 100 nm to 700 nm, and the ?(h) of the 30 vol% slurry exhibited good agreement with the previous prediction. Through analysing quantitatively the response of ?(h) to the changing permittivity of the powders under different solids loading, it was found that the ? h of the slurry with lower solids loading is more inclined to be interfered by the systematic and random errors. Furthermore, a high permittivity value was found in the BaTiO? powders with 50 nm particle size. PMID:23844376

Zhou, Wei; Nie, Yi Mei; Li, Shu Jing; Liang, Hai Yan

2013-01-01

162

Preparation of Coal Slurry with Alcohol Fermentation Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of substituting alcohol fermentation wastewater of maize and cassava for water to prepare coal slurries was explored. The rheological and stability properties of coal alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries were studied and compared with that of coal water slurry. The results showed that both coal maize and cassava alcohol fermentation wastewater slurries exhibited shear-thinning behavior. Because of the oxygen-containing

S. Shao; X. Chen; H. Liu; F. Wang

2012-01-01

163

Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by adopting anaerobic digestion technology on dairy, sow and pig farms in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of anaerobic digestion (AD) technology on mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from manure management on typical dairy, sow and pig farms in Finland was compared. Firstly, the total annual GHG emissions from the farms were calculated using IPCC guidelines for a similar slurry type manure management system. Secondly, laboratory-scale experiments were conducted to estimate methane (CH4) potentials and

P. Kaparaju; J. Rintala

2011-01-01

164

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOEpatents

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

1993-03-16

165

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOEpatents

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL) [Naperville, IL; Lyczkowski, Robert W. (Darien, IL) [Darien, IL; Wang, Chi-Sheng (Woodridge, IL) [Woodridge, IL

1993-01-01

166

Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.  

PubMed

Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end. PMID:21520745

Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H

2011-01-01

167

The Handmade Cloning (HMC) system for production of transgenic pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Handmade cloning (HMC) is now an established procedure used in a number of species for somatic cell nuclear transfer, but only applied in two related laboratories for pigs. The aim of this review is to facilitate widespread application by summarizing the process of establishment, and explaining the background of the incorporated special approaches. Optimized steps of traditional cloning in pigs

Gbor Vajta; Henrik Callesen

168

Compression Ignition of Coal Slurry Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Slow- and medium-speed compression ignition engines have the potential for conversion to coal fueling. Previous engine studies on coal slurries have investigated wear, thermal efficiency, and injection performance without evaluating the ignition character...

D. D. Brehob, R. F. Sawyer

1985-01-01

169

Thermoreversible Gelling Slurry for Solid Freeforming Fabrication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Direct-Ink-writing technique (DIW) can perform solid freeforming fabrication (SFF) to produce on-demand complex ceramic components. In this study, thermally gelling concentrated alumina slurry was prepared as a new ink for the direct-ink-writing technique. By employing the triblock copolymers of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly (propylene oxide) (PPO), the concentrated alumina slurry showed nearly Newtonian behavior (sol state) at cooled temperature (5C) and thickened (gel state) at room temperature (30C). These states were reversible with the temperature change. The thermally-thickened alumina slurry had enough viscoelastic response to perform direct-ink-writing of 3D periodic colloidal structures with feature sizes of around 100?m in air without any clogging. The cooled slurry can be also handled easily on its setting up for DIW due to its low viscosity.

Kondo, Akira; Kuruma, Kazuo; Abe, Hiroya; Naito, Makio

2011-05-01

170

Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Sixth international symposium on Coal Slurry Combustion was held at the Hyatt Orlando, Kissimmee, Florida, June 25-27, 1984. Papers were presented at sessions involving: pilot testing, commercial and industrial applications, combustion technology, slu...

1984-01-01

171

The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission reduction.

Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

2011-07-01

172

Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management  

PubMed Central

The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.732.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.41.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.92.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.811.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 611 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.974.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.180.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed.

Cickova, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Kozanek, Milan; Martinez-Sanchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Takac, Peter

2012-01-01

173

Biodegradation of pig manure by the housefly, Musca domestica: a viable ecological strategy for pig manure management.  

PubMed

The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500-700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.732.0 ml of eggs in a 15-day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4-1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178-444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.92.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.811.9% in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6-11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9-74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18-0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types. Recommendations for the operation of industrial-scale biodegradation facilities are presented and discussed. PMID:22431982

?i?kov, Helena; Pastor, Berta; Koznek, Milan; Martnez-Snchez, Anabel; Rojo, Santos; Tak?, Peter

2012-01-01

174

Thermoreversible Gelling Slurry for Solid Freeforming Fabrication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Direct-Ink-writing technique (DIW) can perform solid freeforming fabrication (SFF) to produce on-demand complex ceramic components. In this study, thermally gelling concentrated alumina slurry was prepared as a new ink for the direct-ink-writing technique. By employing the triblock copolymers of poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly (propylene oxide) (PPO), the concentrated alumina slurry showed nearly Newtonian behavior (sol state) at cooled

Akira Kondo; Kazuo Kuruma; Hiroya Abe; Makio Naito

2011-01-01

175

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction  

SciTech Connect

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32[degrees]C by absorbing water at 25[degrees]C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33[degrees]C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng.

1990-01-01

176

Laparoscopic Use of a Hyaluronic Acid Carboxycellulose Membrane Slurry in Gynecological Oncology  

PubMed Central

Objectives: We evaluated the use of a hyaluronic acid-carboxycellulose membrane (HAC) slurry in complex laparoscopies. Materials and Methods: A gel-like mixture of HAC was prepared and applied in 171 consecutive complex laparoscopies on a gynecologic oncology service. The HAC slurry was used to coat deperitonealized surfaces and surgical pedicals to prevent postoperative adhesions. The technique is described and the outcomes are prospectively evaluated for feasibility and safety. Results: There were no postoperative bowel obstructions, 1 pelvic hematoma in a patient on clopidogrel (Plavix) immediately prior to surgery, 8 postoperative ilea, and 1 bowel perforation. The bowel perforation occurred in a patient with extensive adhesiolysis and intraoperative bowel suturing. Conclusion: This report describes an easy approach to the laparoscopic application of HAC. Caution should be taken if HAC slurry is applied after significant bowel suturing because 1 of 9 patients with extensive adhesiolysis requiring suturing of the sigmoid colon developed sigmoid perforations.

Lipetskaia, Lioudmila

2010-01-01

177

Method and apparatus for slurry borehole mining  

SciTech Connect

A method and apparatus is provided for recovering deep subterranean ore deposits using conventional dual conduit pipe in the tool string. The drill cuttings and ore are returned to the surface by reverse circulation. A combination drilling and mining head is disclosed which permits the outer casing to be driven by the power swivel during both the drilling and mining operations. A hydraulic eductor pump located at the suction entrance to the inner conduit is used to raise drill cuttings to the surface; a separate slurry eductor pump within the inner conduit located only sufficiently below the slurry discharge of the tool to prevent cavitation at the jet is used to pump the ore slurry to the surface. Another embodiment of this invention employs both eductors to raise the drill cuttings and ore slurry to the surface. Valves controlling the flow of fluid to the drill bit, the mining jet and the slurry discharge eductor pump are located within the inner conduit and a novel valve actuating means is disclosed which employs the pressure within the annular space between the conduits to convert the tool from the drilling to the mining mode. Surface mounted flow control valves and flowmeters in the fluid feed line and in the slurry discharge line control the volume of fluid entering and discharging from the tool. These valves may be controlled by instrumentation to balance the flows, adjusted to control the mining cavity pressure or to compensate for the influx of ground water.

Coakley, J.E.; Nolan, J.J.

1982-09-07

178

Method for applying a high-temperature bond coat on a metal substrate, and related compositions and articles  

DOEpatents

A method for applying a bond coat on a metal-based substrate is described. A slurry which contains braze material and a volatile component is deposited on the substrate. The slurry can also include bond coat material. Alternatively, the bond coat material can be applied afterward, in solid form or in the form of a second slurry. The slurry and bond coat are then dried and fused to the substrate. A repair technique using this slurry is also described, along with related compositions and articles.

Hasz, Wayne Charles (Pownal, VT); Sangeeta, D (Cincinnati, OH)

2002-01-01

179

Comparison of indigenous and exogenous microbial populations during slurry phase biodegradation of long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil.  

PubMed

In this study, a number of slurry-phase strategies were trialled over a 42 day period in order to determine the efficacy of bioremediation for long-term hydrocarbon-contaminated soil (145 g kg(-1) C(10)-C(40)). The addition of activated sludge and nutrients to slurries (bioaugmentation) resulted in enhanced hydrocarbon removal (51.6 8.5 %) compared to treatments receiving only nutrients (enhanced natural attenuation [ENA]; 41.3 6.4 %) or no amendments (natural attenuation; no significant hydrocarbon removal, P < 0.01). This data suggests that the microbial community in the activated sludge inoculum contributed to the enhanced removal of hydrocarbons in ENA slurries. Microbial diversity in slurries was monitored using DGGE with dominant bands excised and sequenced for identification. Applying the different bioremediation strategies resulted in the formation of four distinct community clusters associated with the activated sludge (inoculum), bioaugmentation strategy at day 0, bioaugmentation strategy at weeks 2-6 and slurries with autoclaved sludge and nutrient additions (bioaugmentation negative control). While hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria genera (e.g. Aquabacterium and Haliscomenobacter) were associated with the hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, bioaugmentation of soil slurries with activated sludge resulted in the introduction of bacteria associated with hydrocarbon degradation (Burkholderiales order and Klebsiella genera) which presumably contributed to the enhanced efficacy for this slurry strategy. PMID:22684213

Aburto-Medina, Arturo; Adetutu, Eric M; Aleer, Sam; Weber, John; Patil, Sayali S; Sheppard, Petra J; Ball, Andrew S; Juhasz, Albert L

2012-11-01

180

Optical measurement of slurry concentration profile in a concurrent-flow gas-slurry column  

SciTech Connect

An optical technique is described which allows the measurement of steady-state slurry concentration profile in a slender concurrent-flow gas-slurry bubble column. The optically measured profile is compared with that predicted by a previously reported semiempirical dispersion model. Qualitative agreement is observed between them, and the reliability of the technique is supported by additional experimental data.

Kubota, K.; Hayashi, S.; Bitoh, Y.

1986-05-01

181

Seroprevalence of hepatitis e virus in pigs from different farming systems in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Sporadic nontravel-related hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been reported in industrialized countries. These infections are caused by zoonotic HEV genotypes 3 and 4 that circulate in swine, wild boar, and deer. In The Netherlands, HEV RNA has been detected in >50% of the pig farms, and HEV-specific antibodies were detected in ?70% of the slaughter pigs. In the current study, HEV seroprevalences were investigated in pigs raised on conventional, free-range, and organic farms in The Netherlands. Differences in seroprevalence may indicate different exposure routes or transmission dynamics within pig herds for HEV. In 2004, serum samples of 846 fattening pigs were obtained from farms that applied conventional (265 pigs at 24 farms), organic (417 pigs at 42 farms), and free-range (164 pigs at 12 farms) farming. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in samples from all conventional and free-range pig farms and in 41 of 42 organic pig farms, indicating that the probability of introducing HEV on a farm appeared to be equal for the different farming types. The estimated average within-herd seroprevalence was significantly higher for pigs raised on organic farms (89%) than for pigs raised on conventional farms (72%, P = 0.04) and nearly significant for pigs raised on free-range farms (76%, P = 0.06). Six of ten organic farms were estimated to have a withinherd seroprevalence of >95%, compared with 1 of 10 and 4 of 10 of the free-range and conventional pig farms, respectively. This suggests a higher force of infection with HEV for pigs reared on organic farms compared with pigs reared on conventional or free-range farms. This may be due to repetitive exposure to HEV caused by farming system-specific housing conditions, such as a greater contact frequency between pigs and more exposure to pig manure, increasing the transmission rate. PMID:24680077

Rutjes, S A; Bouwknegt, M; van der Giessen, J W; de Roda Husman, A M; Reusken, C B E M

2014-04-01

182

Input and leaching potential of copper, zinc, and selenium in agricultural soil from swine slurry.  

PubMed

Trace elements, such as copper, zinc, and selenium, used as feed additives were determined in samples of both fresh (N = 14) and anaerobically digested (N = 6) swine slurry collected on medium- to large-size farms in northeast Spain. Considering both fresh and anaerobically digested samples, mean concentrations of zinc (1,500 mg kg(-1) dry mass [dm]) were greater than those of copper (mean 239 mg kg(-1 )dm), and the selenium concentrations detected were even lower (mean 139 ?g kg(-1) dm). Zinc concentrations were significantly greater in anaerobically digested samples, whereas no significant differences were found for copper or selenium. In addition, the leaching potential of zinc, copper, and selenium in cropped (lettuce heart) and uncropped experimental units subject to drip irrigation was assessed in a greenhouse experiment. Generally, the addition of swine slurry to soil (1.7 g kg(-1) dm) significantly increased zinc, copper, and selenium concentrations in leachates, which decreased in accordance with the volume of leachate eluted. Under the experimental conditions, the leaching potential of zinc and selenium was more strongly correlated with bulk parameters directly associated with the composition of the pig slurry (dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity, and ammonium), whereas copper mobility was more strongly associated with the crop root exudates. Although selenium has been shown to be mobile in soil, the selenium content found in the leachates did not pose any appreciable risk according to current drinking water standards. PMID:24374934

Comas, Jordi; Domnguez, Carmen; Salas-Vzquez, Dora I; Parera, Juan; Dez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M

2014-02-01

183

Evaluating slurry broadcasting and injection to ley for phosphorus losses and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff.  

PubMed

The recent growth in the size of dairy cattle farms and the concentration of farms into smaller areas in Finland may increase local water pollution due to increased manure production and slurry application to grass. Therefore, a field study was conducted to monitor losses of total phosphorus (TP), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and fecal microorganisms in surface runoff from a perennial ley. Cattle slurry was added once a year in June 1996-1997 (Study I) and biannually in June and October 1998-2000 (Study II). The slurry was surface broadcast or injected into the clay soil. The field had a slope of 0.9 to 1.7%. Mineral fertilizer was applied on control plots. Biannual slurry broadcasting increased DRP (p < 0.001) and TP losses (p < 0.001) and numbers of fecal microorganisms in surface runoff waters. The highest losses of TP (2.7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and DRP (2.2 kg ha(-1) yr(-1)) and the highest numbers of fecal coliforms (880 colony-forming units [CFU] per 100 mL) and somatic coliphages (2700 plaque-forming units [PFU] per 100 mL) were measured after broadcasting slurry to wet soil followed by rainfall in fall 1998. Injection reduced the TP and DRP losses in surface runoff by 79 and 86%, respectively, compared with broadcasting (17 Oct. 1998-27 Oct. 1999). Corresponding numbers for fecal coliforms were 350 CFU (100 mL)(-1) and for somatic coliphages were 110 PFU (100 mL)(-1) in surface runoff after injection in October 1998. Slurry injection should be favored when spreading slurry amendments to grassland to avoid losses of P and fecal microorganisms in runoff to surface waters. PMID:18948488

Uusi-Kmpp, Jaana; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

2008-01-01

184

The Impact of Using Alternative Forages on the Nutrient Value within Slurry and Its Implications for Forage Productivity in Agricultural Systems.  

PubMed

Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha-1) with 100 kg N ha-1 inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha-1 year-1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha-1 yr-1). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P?=?0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks. PMID:24830777

Crotty, Felicity V; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R; Marley, Christina L

2014-01-01

185

The Impact of Using Alternative Forages on the Nutrient Value within Slurry and Its Implications for Forage Productivity in Agricultural Systems  

PubMed Central

Alternative forages can be used to provide valuable home-grown feed for ruminant livestock. Utilising these different forages could affect the manure value and the implications of incorporating these forages into farming systems, needs to be better understood. An experiment tested the hypothesis that applying slurries from ruminants, fed ensiled red clover (Trifolium pratense), lucerne (Medicago sativa) or kale (Brassica oleracea) would improve the yield of hybrid ryegrass (Lolium hybridicum), compared with applying slurries from ruminants fed ensiled hybrid ryegrass, or applying inorganic N alone. Slurries from sheep offered one of four silages were applied to ryegrass plots (at 35 t ha?1) with 100 kg N ha?1 inorganic fertiliser; dry matter (DM) yield was compared to plots only receiving ammonium nitrate at rates of 0, 100 and 250 kg N ha?1 year?1. The DM yield of plots treated with 250 kg N, lucerne or red clover slurry was significantly higher than other treatments (P<0.001). The estimated relative fertiliser N equivalence (FNE) (fertiliser-N needed to produce same yield as slurry N), was greatest for lucerne (114 kg) >red clover (81 kg) >kale (44 kg) >ryegrass (26 kg ha?1 yr?1). These FNE values represent relative efficiencies of 22% (ryegrass), 52% (kale), 47% (red clover) and 60% for lucerne slurry, with the ryegrass slurry efficiency being lowest (P?=?0.005). Soil magnesium levels in plots treated with legume slurry were higher than other treatments (P<0.001). Overall, slurries from ruminants fed alternative ensiled forages increased soil nutrient status, forage productivity and better N efficiency than slurries from ruminants fed ryegrass silage. The efficiency of fertiliser use is one of the major factors influencing the sustainability of farming systems, these findings highlight the cascade in benefits from feeding ruminants alternative forages, and the need to ensure their value is effectively captured to reduce environmental risks.

Crotty, Felicity V.; Fychan, Rhun; Theobald, Vince J.; Sanderson, Ruth; Chadwick, David R.; Marley, Christina L.

2014-01-01

186

The Pig as archetype  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fascination with the pig has swept across the United States. This animal is making multiple appearances in television, literature, the cinema, and in artifacts everywhere. Last spring the sweet pig-movie Babe earned seven academy award nominations. We have to wonder what is calling to us in this animal symbol.

Paula Smith-marder

1997-01-01

187

The Correlation between Thermal and Noxious Gas Environments, Pig Productivity and Behavioral Responses of Growing Pigs  

PubMed Central

Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare.

Choi, Hong Lim; Han, Sang Hwa; Albright, Louis D.; Chang, Won Kyung

2011-01-01

188

Efficient use of digested cattle slurry from biogas plant with respect to nitrogen recycling in grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A lysimeter experiment was carried out over 3years to clarify efficient use of anaerobically digested cattle slurry (ADCS) produced from a biogas plant on the basis of the efficiency of its nitrogen (N). Timothy (Phleum pratense L.) was the test crop, with ADCS applied at different rates and times. Nitrogen uptake by the grass varied from 18 to 30% of

T. Matsunaka; T. Sawamoto; H. Ishimura; K. Takakura; A. Takekawa

2006-01-01

189

Exudative Epidermitis in Pigs  

PubMed Central

The experimental production of exudative epidermitis of pigs following the inoculation of skin scrapings or cultures from field or experimentally-produced cases of the disease is described. Typical lesions of exudative epidermitis were produced following inoculation, either intravenously or by scarification, of broth cultures of 4 strains of a micrococcus isolated from field cases of the disease. The experimental inoculation of pigs with skin scrapings sterilized by filtration or antibiotic treated, yielded negative results. Cultures of CORYNEBACTERIUM PYOGENES and of STREPTOCOCCUS SP. also isolated from the affected pigs, likewise yielded negative results on experimental inoculation of pigs. The conclusion is drawn, that the micrococcus isolated from field cases and which produced the disease experimentally is the primary etiological agent of exudative epidermitis as seen in weaned pigs in this area. The histopathology of the experimentally produced disease is described. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.

L'Ecuyer, C.; Jericho, K.

1966-01-01

190

Persistence of a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT12 clone in a piggery and in agricultural soil amended with Salmonella-contaminated slurry.  

PubMed

Prevalence of Salmonella enterica on a Danish pig farm presenting recurrent infections was investigated. A comparison of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of fecal isolates from piggeries, waste slurry, and agricultural soil amended with Salmonella-contaminated animal waste (slurry) and subclinical isolates from the same farm (collected in 1996 and later) showed identical patterns, indicating long-term persistence of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 clone in the herd environment. Furthermore, when Salmonella-contaminated slurry was disposed of on the agricultural soil (a common waste disposal practice), the pathogen was isolated up to 14 days after the spread, indicating potentially high risks of transmission of the pathogen in the environment, animals, and humans. PMID:11375208

Baloda, S B; Christensen, L; Trajcevska, S

2001-06-01

191

Rheological properties of defense waste slurries  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01

192

Explaining the Bay of Pigs and Vietnam, 1965 Decisions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The alternative conceptual frameworks for analyzing governmental behavior developed by Graham T. Allison in his book, Essence of Division, Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, are applied to the questions of why the Bay of Pigs operation of 1961 was appro...

F. P. Keough

1984-01-01

193

Development of Dishing-less Slurry for Polysilicon Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dishing of polysilicon and thinning of the stopper silicon nitride films are crucial problems when the polysilicon embedded by low pressure chemical vapor deposition in the trench and the concavity with respective widths of 0.7 ?m and 20-100 ?m is simultaneously flattened by chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP). In order to suppress these two occurrences, a high polymer compound mixed slurry was developed and characterized. The pH value of the slurry measured on the polishing abrasive pad was decreased by dilution with de-ionized water, which resulted in cohesion and solidification of the slurry. By using this cohered and solidified slurry when the poly silicon surface is flattened by CMP, the dishing thickness of the polysilicon was suppressed to less than 100 nm at a concavity width of 100 ?m. The CMP process using the developed slurry is useful for the advanced trench isolation process and is currently applied to NAND flash memory and high-speed bipolar LSI devices.

Miyashita, Naoto; Uekusa, Shin-ichiro; Kodera, Masako; Matsui, Yoshitaka; Katsumata, Hiroshi

2003-09-01

194

Measuring fluid and slurry density and solids concentration non-invasively  

SciTech Connect

Staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a highly sensitive, non-invasive, self calibrating, on-line sensor to measure the density, speed of sound, and attenuation of ultrasound for a liquid or slurry flowing through a pipeline; the approach can also be applied for measurements made in vessels. The sensor transducers are mounted directly upon the stainless steel wall and the pipeline wall becomes part of the measurement system. Multiple reflections within the stainless steel wall are used to determine the acoustic impedance of the liquid, where the acoustic impedance is defined as the product of the density and the speed of sound. The probe becomes self-calibrating because variations in the pulser voltage do not affect the measurements. This feature leads to the stability of the measurements and the instrument requires much less time and effort to calibrate. Further, the calibration remains constant in time, because it does not depend upon the pulser voltage remaining at a given value. By basing the measurement upon multiple reflections, the sensitivity of the measurement is significantly increased. For slurries with wt% solids concentration of 1% or less, high sensitivity is gained by analyzing attenuation measurements obtained from multiple paths through the slurry. For slurries with higher concentrations of solids, sufficient sensitivity is obtained by analyzing data from a simple transmission. Data are presented that show probe performance for each of these cases: very dilute and highly concentrated kaolin clay slurries.

Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

2004-04-01

195

Hydraulic fracturing slurry transport in horizontal pipes  

SciTech Connect

Horizontal-well activity has increased throughout the industry in the past few years. To design a successful hydraulic fracturing treatment for horizontal wells, accurate information on the transport properties of slurry in horizontal pipe is required. Limited information exists that can be used to estimate critical deposition and resuspension velocities when proppants are transported in horizontal wells with non-Newtonian fracturing gels. This paper presents a study of transport properties of various hydraulic fracturing slurries in horizontal pipes. Flow data are gathered in three transparent horizontal pipes with different diameters. Linear and crosslinked fracturing gels were studied, and the effects of variables--e.g., pipe size; polymer-gelling-agent concentration; fluid rheological properties; crosslinking effects; proppant size, density, and concentrations; fluid density; and slurry pump rate--on critical deposition and resuspension velocities were investigated. Also, equations to estimate the critical deposition and resuspension velocities of fracturing gels are provided.

Shah, S.N.; Lord, D.L. (Halliburton Services (US))

1990-09-01

196

Fifth international technical conference on slurry transportation. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

The fifth international technical conference on slurry transportation was held March 26-28, 1980, at the Sahara Tahoe, Lake Tahoe, Nevada. The papers deal with the transport of slurries (mostly coal and iron ores) in slurry pipelines. Planned slurry pipelines in the USA are described and the legal problems in getting rights-of-way and water rights. The economics of slurry pipelines and railways are considered in some detail. Finally, technical aspects of such pipelines are considered: design, engineering, pumps, maintenance, etc. Other topics discussed are: marine transport (moorings, terminal facilities and tanker ship design, other slurry media than water (fuel oils, methanol, CO/sub 2/), coarse slurry transport, slurry preparation, water removal and pumps (pulsations and dampering). Thirty-two papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; one had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

Linderman, C.W. (ed.)

1980-01-01

197

Biotechnological Slurry Process for the Decontamination of Excavated Polluted Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the thesis the development of a new biotechnological slurry process for the decontamination of excavated polluted soils is described. The slurry process is especially designed to decontaminate soils polluted with organic compounds (e.g. oil). Crucial i...

R. Kleijntjens

1991-01-01

198

Escherichia coli contamination of lettuce grown in soils amended with animal slurry.  

PubMed

A pilot study was conducted to assess the transfer of Escherichia coli from animal slurry fertilizer to lettuce, with E. coli serving as an indicator of fecal contamination and as an indicator for potential bacterial enteric pathogens. Animal slurry was applied as fertilizer to three Danish agricultural fields prior to the planting of lettuce seedlings. At harvest, leaves (25 g) of 10 lettuce heads were pooled into one sample unit (n = 147). Soil samples (100 g) were collected from one field before slurry application and four times during the growth period (n = 75). E. coli was enumerated in slurry, soil, and lettuce on 3M Petrifilm Select E. coli Count Plates containing 16 mg/liter streptomycin, 16 mg/liter ampicillin, or no antimicrobial agent. Selected E. coli isolates (n = 83) originating from the slurry, soil, and lettuce were genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to determine the similarity of isolates. The slurry applied to the fields contained 3.0 to 4.5 log CFU/g E. coli. E. coli was found in 36 to 54% of the lettuce samples, streptomycin-resistant E. coli was found in 10.0 to 18.0% of the lettuce samples, and ampicillin-resistant E. coli in 0 to 2.0% of the lettuce samples (the detection limit was 1 log CFU/g). The concentration of E. coli exceeded 2 log CFU/g in 19.0% of the lettuce samples. No E. coli was detected in the soil before the slurry was applied, but after, E. coli was present until the last sampling day (harvest), when 10 of 15 soil samples contained E. coli. A relatively higher frequency of E. coli in lettuce compared with the soil samples at harvest suggests environmental sources of fecal contamination, e.g., wildlife. The higher frequency was supported by the finding of 21 different PFGE types among the E. coli isolates, with only a few common PFGE types between slurry, soil, and lettuce. The frequent finding of fecal-contaminated lettuce indicates that human pathogens such as Salmonella and Campylobacter can be present and represent food safety hazards. PMID:23834787

Jensen, A N; Storm, C; Forslund, A; Baggesen, D L; Dalsgaard, A

2013-07-01

199

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, Ramkrishna G. (San Antonio, TX)

1986-01-01

200

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, R.G.

1984-08-31

201

Slurry infiltration of 3-D woven composites  

SciTech Connect

Sol-gel techniques have been used to infiltrate fibrous preforms at room temperature. However, due to large shrinkage during processing, even many infiltration and heat treatment cycles fail to achieve dense composites. Slurries of alumina and silica powders were infiltrated into 3D woven preforms of mullite based fiber in order to investigate the effects of particle size and size distribution on packing. A well dispersed slurry containing agglomerate-free, submicron-sized particles significantly increased infiltration efficiency and resulted in a high packing density. 7 refs.

Sim, S.M.; Kerans, R.J.

1992-10-01

202

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the

F. W. Staub; S. G. Kimura; C. L. Spiro; M. W. Horner

1988-01-01

203

Coal-water slurry combustion in gas turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents preliminary results of a program to investigate the key technologies for burning coal-water slurries in gas turbines. Results are given for slurry atomization and combustion testing and analyses performed at conditions typical for gas turbine applications. Significant progress has been made toward the understanding of slurry combustion and ash deposition phenomena. Confidence has been gained to the

F. W. Staub; S. G. Kimura; C. L. Spiro; M. W. Horner

1989-01-01

204

Mass Detonation Tests of Agitated HMX Slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A test program was performed to determine the mass detonability of agitated HMX slurries in 1/1000 volumetric scale steel tanks (5 Gal) that were initiated on the bottom with a 100 gram Composition C-4 charge. No mass detonations were observed in each of ...

G. Petino J. D. Turner

1979-01-01

205

Survival of Rhizobium inoculum in hydroseeding slurries  

SciTech Connect

Disturbed lands such as surface mined areas generally require fertilizer, lime, mulch, and seed for revegetation. Hydroseeding is the most widely used seeding method for mountainous terrain. Where legumes are included in the mixture, Rhizobium inoculum is recommended since disturbed areas are likely to lack indigenous rhizobia. The pH and viability of rhizobia cells in hydroseeder mix slurries were determined in order to establish recommendations for hydroseeding conditions. Of the fertilizer components commonly used for hydroseeding only those containing phosphorus influenced slurry pH. Varying concentrations of triple superphosphate (TSP) and diammonium phosphate (DAP) resulted in hydroseeder mixture pH values ranging from 2.9 to 7.7, respectively. Significant loss of viability of rhizobia occurred at pH values of less than 6.0. In practice, a hydroseeding slurry should contain enough DAP in the fertilizer blend to have a pH of 6.0 or greater which is equivalent to a ratio of DAP to TSP of 4 to 6. Thus, at least 40 of each 100 kg of phosphate should be supplied by DAP. Pulverized agriculture lime did not correct slurry acidity; however, hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) if added in sufficient amounts could be used to increase the pH to a level that does not significantly alter the viability of the rhizobia.

Brown, M.B.; Wolf, D.D.; Morse, R.D.; Neal, J.L.

1982-12-01

206

Slurry Transport Properties of Graded Coal Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Bureau of Mines conducted laboratory tests to determine the slurry transport and deposition properties of coal waste. A 188.5-ft pipe test loop was constructed with instruments to measure density, flow, and power and discharge, suction, and differenti...

R. A. Busch R. R. Backer R. W. McKibbin

1983-01-01

207

Organic Solvent Dispersed Nano-Talc Slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The invention provides high surface area talc compositions by a novel hybrid milling method or soaking method. The hybrid milling method comprises dry milling talc powder followed by mixing with water and wet milling to provide a nano-talc slurry with hig...

J. He Q. Zhong

2004-01-01

208

Thermal Conductivity of Some Slurry Explosives.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A line heat source (probe) method is used to determine the thermal conductivity of slurry explosives. The method has proven to be quick and safe, with the data being reproducible. The method allows the determination of the thermal conductivity of explosiv...

E. Contestabile T. R. Craig

1980-01-01

209

SLURRY TRENCH CONSTRUCTION FOR POLLUTION MIGRATION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The handbook provides in-depth guidance on the use of slurry walls for the control of subsurface pollutants. It describes how these barriers can be employed for waste site remediation and presents the theory of their function and use. The handbook describes the essential elements...

210

Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry  

DOEpatents

In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul D. (Tucson, AZ)

2000-01-01

211

Dispersant for aqueous slurry of coal powder  

SciTech Connect

A dispersant for forming an aqueous slurry of coal powder having a good flowability, which comprises as the active ingredient at least one member selected from sulfonation products of polycyclic aromatic compounds which may have a hydrocarbon group as a substituent, salts thereof and formaldehyde condensates thereof.

Moriyama, N.; Watanabe, S.; Yamamura, M.

1982-05-18

212

Slurry Fired Heater Cold-Flow Modelling.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such a...

S. F. Moujaes

1983-01-01

213

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a fuel injector, particularly for injecting coal slurry fuel into an internal combustion engine. The injector consists of: 1.) a housing having a substantially central located opening extending through it. This opening has three different diameter sections; 2.) a needle assembly located in the opening of the housing. The housing includes three different diameter sections with a

Phatak

1986-01-01

214

Compression ignition of coal slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slow- and medium-speed compression ignition engines have the potential for conversion to coal fueling. Previous engine studies on coal slurries have investigated wear, thermal efficiency, and injection performance without evaluating the ignition characteristics. The ignition delay times and conditions for ignition of 45 mass % coal in methanol, diesel No. 2, and water are compared to diesel No. 2 and

D. D. Brehob; R. F. Sawyer

1985-01-01

215

Single droplet combustion of coal slurry fuels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion characteristics of single droplets of coal slurry fuels were experimentally investigated using both spontaneous and forced ignition. Results showed that the combustion is a sequential two-stage process, consisting of gas-phase combustion of the volatiles followed by combustion of the solid residue, which is mostly carbon. A splashing combustion phenomenon, which corresponds to the outgassing of the thermally cracked

T. Sakai; M. Saito

1983-01-01

216

Stabilized oil slurries of carbonaceous materials  

SciTech Connect

Mixtures of an alkoxylated quaternary salt and a nitrogen base having from zero to nine carbon atoms are added to carbonaceous materials in oil slurries such as a coal oil mixture (com) or a coke oil mixture in an amount sufficient to stabilize the slurries during storage and dispersing at various temperatures. Useful stabilizer mixtures include a mixture of from about 99% to about 75% by weight of an alkoxylated quaternary salt which is a reaction product of a cocoamine ethoxylate and diethyl sulfate and from about 1% to about 25% by weight of a nitrogen base such as urea. The stabilizer mixtures may be added to either the oil or slurry (or during grinding of the carbonaceous material) and are effective with or without addition of water. Coal/coke oil slurries may contain from about 40 to about 90 parts by weight of oil, about 10 to about 60 parts by weight of powdered coal or coke, about 0.01 to about 6.0 parts by weight of the stabilizer mixture and about 0 to about 10 parts by weight of water.

Knitter, K.A.; Villa, J.L.

1982-12-14

217

Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

1993-01-01

218

EOS for critical slurry and solution systems  

SciTech Connect

In a fire involving fissile material, the mixture of the fissile material ash with fire fighting water may lead to a criticality excursion if there are nearby sumps that permit a critical geometry. The severity of the resulting energy release and pressure pulse is dependent on the rate at which the mixing occurs. To calculate these excursions, a non-equilibrium equation of state for the water ash mixture or slurry is needed that accounts for the thermal non-equilibrium that occurs due to finite heat transfer rates. We are developing the slurry EOS as well as a lumped neutronic and hydrodynamic model to serve as a testing ground for the non-equilibrium EOS before its incorporation into more sophisticated neutronic-hydrodynamics codes. Though the model lacks spatial dependence, it provides estimates of energy release and pressure pulses for various mixture assembly rates. We are also developing a non-equilibrium EOS for critical solution systems in which the fissile material is dissolved in water, which accounts for chemical non-equilibrium due to finite mass transfer rates. In contrast to previously published solution EOS, our solution EOS specifically accounts for mass diffusion of dissolved radiolytic gas to bubble nucleation sites. This EOS was developed to check our overall modeling against published solution excursion experiments and to compare solution excursions with slurry excursions initiated under the same conditions. Preliminary results indicate a good match between solution EOS calculations and experiments involving premixed 60-80 g U/l solutions for both low rate and high rate reactivity insertions. Comparison between slurry and solution calculations for the same composition show comparable energy release and pressure peaks for both low and high rate reactivity insertions with the slurry releasing less energy but generating more pressure than the solution for the amount of energy released. Calculations more appropriate to actual fire fighting scenarios will also be presented.

DiPeso, G; Peterson, P

1998-10-27

219

CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF) is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM) and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF) containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone). It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

Azimian, Mehdi; Bart, Hans-Jrg

2013-04-01

220

System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries  

DOEpatents

A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

Kasper, Stanley (Pittsburgh, PA) [Pittsburgh, PA

1991-01-01

221

Slurry Molding Technologies for Novel Carbon and Graphite Materials  

SciTech Connect

The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a slurry molding technology for the manufacture of porous, high surface area, carbon fiber composites molecular sieves, and carbon-carbon composite preforms. Potentially, this technology could be applied to the manufacture of a host of novel carbon materials including porous adsorbent carbons, low-pressure drop adsorbent carbon composites, ultra-fine-grained graphite, and carbon fiber reinforced graphite. New opportunities for high surface carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS) materials are now emerging. Many of these opportunities are driven by increasingly harsh environmental pressures. Traditional granular activated carbon (GAC) is not suitable for many of these applications because of the difficulties encountered with attrition and in forming ''structures'' which have the necessary mechanical and physical properties. In addition, the electrical desorption of adsorbed species is not possible with GAC due to its low bulk electrical conductivity. Activated carbon fibers have been found to be useful in some applications. Work by ORNL has shown, for example, that CFCMS materials are capable of adsorbing various gases and desorbing them under electrical stimulation. For some applications these fibers have to be formed into a structure that can offer the desired mechanical integrity and pressure drop characteristics. To date, the work by ORNL has focused on the use of a single manufacturer's isotropic pitch fibers which, when activated, may be cost prohibitive for many applications. Fine-grained graphite is attractive for many applications including the chemical processing industry where their unique combination of properties--including high strength and chemical inertness, are particularly attractive. However, a lack of toughness can limit their utility in certain applications. The use of ultra-fine powders in conjunction with slurry molding and hot pressing offers the possibility of higher strength graphite. Moreover, the inclusion of carbon fibers may provide a toughening mechanism, resulting in tougher, stronger graphite at an attractive cost. The objective of this work was to further develop the ORNL slurry molding technology and apply it to the following tasks: (1) the development of low cost, high surface area CFCMS materials and structures; (2) the development of ultra-fine-grained graphite; and (3) to identify suitable applications for the materials developed in (1) and (2). The work was conducted jointly by SGL and ORNL.

Burchell, T.D.

2004-06-30

222

Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide  

DOEpatents

An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

Duran, E.L.

1984-11-29

223

Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide  

DOEpatents

An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM)

1985-01-01

224

Rheology of coal slurries. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Experimental investigations of suspensions of three size distributions of glass spheres in a solution of tetralin and tetrabromoethane were made using a Haake viscometer. The values of viscosity were determined over a range of shear rates from 1 to 1000 sec/sup -1/. The suspending medium is Newtonian with a viscosity of about 9.66 centipoise at 25 +- 1/sup 0/C. At phi less than or equal to 20%, the suspension exhibited Newtonian behavior but at phi greater than or equal to 30%, the suspension exhibited pronounced non-Newtonian behavior. Experimental studies of these three size distributions were also conducted in aqueous solutions of polyvinylpyrrolidone using a pipe loop apparatus. Viscosity was measured over the shear rate range from 600 to 6000 sec./sup -1/. These suspensions having non-Newtonian suspending media, exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at all concentration levels of the solid particles. In the limit of very high shear rates, the suspension viscosity was found to be independent of tube diameter over the range of shear rates and concentrations studied. The rheological behavior of slurries of irregularly-shaped anthracite coal particles was also systematically investigated. The suspending medium consisted of a mixture of anthracene oil and tetrabromoethane. The shear rate was varied from 0.01 to 1000 sec./sup -1/. Volume concentrations range from 0 to 34%. At volume concentrations greater than 29% the slurries exhibited a yield stress and pronounced thixotropic behavior. The relative viscosities of both the model and the coal slurries were found to be dependent on both the shear rate and the particle size. In the case of the coal slurries caution must be exercised with regard to the proper interpretation of the rheological data due to the influences of the measured apparent density of the coal particles, viscometric flow geometry, and time dependent effects.

Ulbrecht, J.J.; Ryan, M.E.

1982-01-01

225

Mold filling of semisolid metal slurries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A constitutive model is developed experimentally for Al-7 % Si-0.6 % Mg alloy slurry. This equation has two parts to represent flow and structure evolution. The model is then used to simulate filling of a chisel-shaped mold of cylindrical cross section. Transport equations are solved for the flow variables, and the free surface is modeled by solving the conservation equation for a scalar fluid-marker variable, which is used to update the fluid properties, including density and viscosity.

Ilegbusi, O. J.; Brown, S.

1995-08-01

226

Use of constrained mixture design for optimization of method for determination of zinc and manganese in tea leaves employing slurry sampling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A slurry suspension sampling technique has been developed for manganese and zinc determination in tea leaves by using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The proportions of liquid-phase of the slurries composed by HCl, HNO3 and Triton X-100 solutions have been optimized applying a constrained mixture design. The optimized conditions were 200mg of sample ground in a tungsten carbide balls mill (particle

Marcos Almeida Bezerra; Jacira Teixeira Castro; Reinaldo Coelho Macedo; Douglas Gonalves da Silva

2010-01-01

227

Mixture Design Optimization of an Analytical Procedure for Iron Extraction and Determination From Cassava Leaves by Slurry Sampling Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper applies statistical simplex-centroid design to mixture modeling for optimization of the liquid phase composition of cassava slurry leaves in the development of an analytical procedure for iron determination using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). This procedure is based on a slurry formation from powdered cassava leaves and a liquid mixture composed of HNO3, HCl, and H2O2 after an

Fbio De Souza Dias; Lucylia S. Alves; Walter Nei Lopes Dos Santos; Roy E. Bruns; Marcos Almeida Bezerra

2011-01-01

228

Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

Major, J. J.; Iverson, R. M.; McTigue, D. F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B. K.

1997-01-01

229

The control of erosion-corrosion in slurry pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of erosion-corrosion testing in pilot plant slurry pipelines are related to the behaviour of operating slurry pipelines and the control of erosion-corrosion in such systems by use of inhibitors, solution conditioning and adjustment of slurry parameters. The erosion-corrosion component of the total wear is oxygen-mass-transfer controlled and the magnitude of the erosion-corrosion can be estimated using well established

Postlethwaite

1987-01-01

230

Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

Rogozen, M.B.

1980-11-01

231

Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels  

DOEpatents

Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

Anderson, Chris M. (Shakopee, MN); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND); Mann, Michael D. (Thompson, ND); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Richter, John J. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); Willson, Warrack G. (Fairbanks, AK)

2000-01-01

232

Continuous concentration and constant volume washing of tetraphenylborate slurries  

SciTech Connect

SRTC has completed filtration testing of tetraphenylborate (TPB) slurries with and without sludge. These tests were slightly different from previous SRS tests in that they used continuous mode concentration and constant volume washing evolutions. The extent of TPB recovery during washing was measured. The resulting washed precipitate slurry, with sludge, was stored at ambient temperature and under a nitrogen-inerted atmosphere to study TPB stability. Samples of both unwashed and washed slurries were submitted for rheology measurements.

Siler, J.L.

1999-12-08

233

Effects of airflow on odorants' emissions in a model pig house - A laboratory study using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS).  

PubMed

Identification of different factors that affect emissions of gasses, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is necessary to develop emission abatement technology. The objectives of this research were to quantify and study temporal variation of gas emissions from a model pig house under varying ventilation rates. The used model was a 1:12.5 scale of a section of a commercial finishing pig house. The VOC concentrations at inlet, outlet, and slurry pit of the model space were measured using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). PTR-MS can measure the temporal variations of odor compounds' emission from the slurry pit in real time. The emissions of H(2)S and 14 VOCs were lower compared to real pig buildings except for ammonia, which indicated possible other sources of those compounds than the slurry in the slurry pit. The ventilation rate affected significantly on ammonia and trimethylamine emission (p<0.05). The hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) emission was independent of the ventilation rate. VFAs' emission dependency on ventilation rate increased with the increase of carbon chain. Phenols, indoles and ketones showed the positive correlation with ventilation rate to some extent. Generally, compounds with high solubility (low Henry's constant) showed stronger correlation with ventilation rates than the compounds with high Henry's constant. PMID:21978617

Saha, Chayan Kumer; Feilberg, Anders; Zhang, Guoqiang; Adamsen, Anders Peter S

2011-12-01

234

Hygienic aspects of livestock manure management and biogas systems operated by small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam.  

PubMed

Biogas digesters are widely promoted and increasingly used to treat and generate gas from pig slurry worldwide. The objective of this study was to describe manure management practices with focus on biogas digestion among small scale pig farmers in Hue (50 farmers) and Hanoi (96 farmers) and to assess fecal contamination levels in biogas effluent. Results showed that 84% of the farmers in Hanoi and 42% in Hue used both pig slurry and human excreta for biogas production. Biogas digestion only reduced E. coli concentrations by 1 to 2 log units to 3.70 0.84 Escherichia coli (log10) cfu/ml on average in effluent as compared with raw slurry. Biogas effluent was commonly used to fertilize vegetables or discharged directly into the garden or aquatic recipients. Reduced problems with bad smells and flies were reported as main reasons for establishing a biogas digester. Further studies are needed to assess human and animal health hazards associated with the discharge and use of biogas effluent from small-scale biogas systems. PMID:24140681

Huong, Luu Quynh; Madsen, Henry; Anh, Le Xuan; Ngoc, Pham Thi; Dalsgaard, Anders

2014-02-01

235

Influence of environmental composition and electrochemical potential on the slurry erosion-corrosion of aluminium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of applied electrochemical potential on the erosion-corrosion of aluminium in aqueous silica slurries containing phosphate buffer, 0.5 M NaCl, 0.1 M Na2CO3 and acetic acid was studied over a wide range of potential (from -2.7 to + 2.7 V\\/SCE) with a modified jet impingement apparatus. The results showed that the erosion-corrosion (EC) rate and resulting surface morphologies can

Y. Li; G. T. Burstein; I. M. Hutchings

1995-01-01

236

A whole-farm assessment of the efficacy of slurry acidification in reducing ammonia emissions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Livestock slurry in animal houses, in manure stores and applied on fields is in Denmark the most important source of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. The emitted NH3 is a source of NH3 and ammonium (NH4+) deposition, which causes eutrophication of N-deficient ecosystems and may form NH4+-based particles in the air, which are a risk to health. This study examines

P. Kai; P. Pedersen; J. E. Jensen; M. N. Hansen; S. G. Sommer

2008-01-01

237

Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for steelmaking flue dust analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A commercial atomic absorption graphite furnace (AAGF), with a self-made adapter and valve system, was used as a slurry sampling cell for electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The system was applied to the determination of As, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, Cd, V, Ti and Mo in steelmaking flue dusts. Experimental conditions with respect to ETV and

A. G Coedo; T Dorado; I Padilla; R Maibusch; H.-M Kuss

2000-01-01

238

Practical field repair of fused slurry silicide coating for space shuttle t.p.s.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Study of short-time high-temperature diffusion treatments as part of a program of development of methods of reapplying fused slurry silicide coating in the field. The metallographic structure and oxidation behavior of R512E applied to Cb-752 coated under simulated field repair conditions was determined. Oxidation testing in reduced pressure environment has shown that performance equivalent to furnace-processed specimens can be obtained in a two-minute diffusion at 2700 F.

Reznik, B. D.

1971-01-01

239

Ice slurry cooling research: Storage tank ice agglomeration and extraction  

SciTech Connect

A new facility has been built to conduct research and development on important issues related to implementing ice slurry cooling technology. Ongoing studies are generating important information on the factors that influence ice particle agglomeration in ice slurry storage tanks. The studies are also addressing the development of methods to minimize and monitor agglomeration and improve the efficiency and controllability of tank extraction of slurry for distribution to cooling loads. These engineering issues impede the utilization of the ice slurry cooling concept that has been under development by various groups.

Kasza, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hayashi, Kanetoshi [NKK Corp., Kawasaki (Japan)

1999-08-01

240

Ammonia volatilization from farm tanks containing anaerobically digested animal slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia (NH 3) volatilization from three full-scale tanks containing anaerobically digested animal slurry from one biogas plant was determined with a meteorological mass balance technique. No surface crust developed on the slurry. This provided an ideal system for analysing loss patterns from slurries without cover and to study the effect of a cover of straw and air-filled clay granules. Ammonia volatilization from uncovered slurry ranged from zero at subzero temperatures to 30 g N m -2 d -1 during summer. The high volatilization rate was attributed to a lack of surface cover, high slurry pH and high TAN (NH 3 + NH 4+) concentration. Ammonia volatilization from the covered slurry was insignificant. From the uncovered slurry the annual loss of NH3 was 3.3 kg N m -2 There was a significant effect of incident global radiation (ICR), air temperature at 20 cm (T_20) and rain on NH3 volatilization from the uncovered slurry. The straw covered slurry was significantly affected by T_20.

Sommer, S. G.

241

Ice slurry cooling research: Microscale study of ice particles characteristics, role of freezing point depressant, and influence on slurry fluidity  

SciTech Connect

The influences of freezing-point-depressants on ice slurry characteristics in the form of ice slurry fluidity and on the microscale ice particle features are studied. The results identify microscale features of ice particles such as surface roughness that greatly influence slurry fluidity that are altered favorably by the use of a freezing point depressant. The engineering of a workable and efficient ice slurry cooling system depends very strongly on the characteristics of the individual ice particles in the slurry and, in turn, on the method of ice production. Findings from this study provide guidance on the fluidity and handleability of slurry produced by several methods currently under development and already many achieved.

Hayashi, K.; Kasza, K.

2000-05-03

242

Slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for steelmaking flue dust analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A commercial atomic absorption graphite furnace (AAGF), with a self-made adapter and valve system, was used as a slurry sampling cell for electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS). The system was applied to the determination of As, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, Bi, Cd, V, Ti and Mo in steelmaking flue dusts. Experimental conditions with respect to ETV and ICP-MS operating parameters were optimized. Compared to aqueous solutions, slurry samples were found to present better analyte transport. Microgram amounts of Rh were used to reduce the difference in analyte response in sensitivity for aqueous solutions of the tested analytes. No such increasing effect was observed for slurry samples and aqueous standards. An added quantity of Rh acting as modifier/carrier resulted in an increase for the same analytes in matrix-slurry solutions, even the addition of an extra Rh quantity has resulted in a decrease in the signals. The effect of Triton X-100 (used as a dispersant agent) on analyte intensity and precision was also studied. External calibration from aqueous standards spiked with 100 ?g ml -1 Rh was performed to quantified 0.010 g/100 ml slurry samples. Results are presented for a certified reference electrical arc furnace flue dust (EAF): CRM-876-1 (Bureau of Analysis Samples Ltd., Cleveland, UK), a reference sample of coke ashes X-3705 (from AG der Dillinger Httenwerke, Germany), and a representative sample of EAF flue dust from a Spanish steelmaking company (CENIM-1). For the two reference materials an acceptable agreement with certificate values was achieved, and the results for the CENIM sample matched with those obtained from conventional nebulization solution.

Coedo, A. G.; Dorado, T.; Padilla, I.; Maibusch, R.; Kuss, H.-M.

2000-02-01

243

Slurry Phase Iron Catalysts for Indirect Coal LIquefaction.  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the fourth six month period of this three year grant under the University Coal Research program. During this period, we have begun the synthesis of precipitated catalysts using a bench-top spray dryer. The influence of binders on particle strength was also studied using the ultrasonic fragmentation approach to derive particle breaking stress. A similar approach was used to derive particle strength of catalysts obtained from Mr. Robert Gormley at FETC. Over the next six month period, this work will be continued while the catalysts prepared here will be examined by TPR to determine reducibility and the extent of adverse iron-silica interactions. A fundamental study of Fe/silica interactions has been performed using temperature programmed reaction and TEM to provide understanding of how the silica binders influence the activity of Fe catalysts. To understand differences in the reducibility of the iron phase caused by silica, we have set up a temperature programmed reduction facility. TPR in H, as well as in CO was performed of Fe/ SiO, catalysts prepared by impregnation as well as by precipitation. What is unique about these studies is that high resolution TEM was performed on samples removed from the reactor at various stages of reduction. This helps provide direct evidence for the phase changes that are detected by TPR. We have continued the analysis of catalysts received from slurry reactor runs at Texas A&M university (TAMU) and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER) by x-ray diffraction. The purpose of the XRD analysis was to determine the phase composition of catalysts derived from a slurry reaction run using Fe Fischer-Tropsch catalysts. We had previously described how catalyst removed in the hot wax may oxidize to magnetite if the wax is air-exposed. We have now received catalysts from CAER that were removed under a protective inert blanket, and we are in the process of analyzing them, but preliminary work presented here shows very little oxide by XRD. However, the catalyst that was used in these runs at CAER was a different composition than that used in previous runs, so the protective effect of an inert blanket will need further study. Finally, we point out how the interference by the wax can make it difficult in some cases to analyze the phases in a Fe catalyst. Several approaches have been used to remove the interference from the wax and we come to the surprising conclusion that Fe may be present in a working slurry reactor despite the high CO/ H{sub 2} ratio. Further work is underway to corroborate this finding.

Datye, A.K.

1997-08-08

244

Agronomic effects of multi-year surface-banding of dairy slurry on grass.  

PubMed

Sleigh-foot application of slurry manure is the best method for applying slurry manure on many forage fields. This study was designed to assess agronomic effectiveness of multi-year surface banding of dairy slurry on a sward of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). Our study showed that with this application technology, crop recovery of total-N from applied manure in the long-term is only about 77% that of mineral fertilizer. Despite relative inefficiency of N uptake from manure, yield response to manure equaled that to fertilizer at equivalent total-N rates although N-recovery was significantly lower. About 26-32% of applied manure-N was stored in soil organic matter and the buildup of soil-N was related to application rate of organic N. At moderate applications rates (approx. 400 kg Nha(-1)a(-1)), soil N accumulated at about 120 kg ha(-1) annually compared to 98 kg ha(-1)a(-1) of unaccounted N, much of that probably volatilized and denitrified. Alternating between manure and fertilizer improved productivity per unit land area without increasing the rate of N non-recovery per unit of feed produced. PMID:16949815

Bittman, S; Kowalenko, C G; Forge, T; Hunt, D E; Bounaix, F; Patni, N

2007-12-01

245

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments that meet the...

2010-07-01

246

Seventh International Symposium on Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization: Proceedings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Seventh International Symposium on ''Coal Slurry Fuels Preparation and Utilization'' consisted of the following fifteen sessions: (1) fundamentals of coal slurryability; (2) slurry fuel rheology; (3) slurry fuel rheology and fuel specifications; (4) c...

1985-01-01

247

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-1 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...immediately adjacent to each water, sediment or slurry impounding structure within the...

2009-07-01

248

30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-5 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...abandonment of any water, sediment, or slurry impoundment and impounding...

2009-07-01

249

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures... § 77.216-1 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...immediately adjacent to each water, sediment or slurry impounding structure within the...

2010-07-01

250

Flow velocity analysis for avoidance of solids deposition during transport of Hanford tank waste slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This engineering analysis calculates minimum slurry transport velocities intended to maintain suspensions of solid particulate in slurries. This transport velocity is also known as the slurry flow critical velocity. It is not universally recognized that a...

S. D. Estey

1999-01-01

251

Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (Milk of Magnesia) and magnesium oxide. We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

McClaine, Andrew W.

2008-09-30

252

A methodology to predict the uniformity of double-shell waste slurries based on mixer pump operation  

SciTech Connect

Dimensional analysis is used to determine the similarity parameters that describe the uniformity of radioactive slurry wastes to be suspended by mixer pumps. The results of this analysis are applied to the design of scaled experiments that will determine the operating parameters that will ensure an adequately uniform feed stream during waste retrieval from Hanford double-shell tanks. Ten dimensionless parameters describing the slurry mixing process were identified. Of these, three describe purely geometric features, three describe slurry properties only, one is a dimensionless time scale, and three describe important dynamic factors. The three parameters describing the dynamic features are the Reynolds number, which describes the degree of turbulence in the tank; the Froude number, which describes the effects of stratification on the circulation patterns; and the gravitational settling number, which describes the balance between the work done by gravity to cause settling and the work done by the pump to resuspend particles.

Liljegren, L.M.; Bamberger, J.A.

1992-08-01

253

Abundance and distribution of feral pigs at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, 2010-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 20102013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.

Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steve J.

2013-01-01

254

Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials  

DOEpatents

A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

Hed, P. Paul (San Ramon, CA) [San Ramon, CA; Fuchs, Baruch A. (Aventura, FL) [Aventura, FL

2001-01-01

255

Enamel microstructure and microstrain in the fracture of human and pig molar cusps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of microstructure in enamel strain and breakage was investigated in human molar cusps and those of the pig, Sus scrofa. Rosette strain gauges were affixed to cusp surfaces (buccal human M3, n=15, and lingual pig M1, n=13), and a compressive load was applied to individual cusps using an MTS materials testing machine. Load and strain data were recorded

T. E. Popowics; J. M. Rensberger; S. W. Herring

2004-01-01

256

Heat transfer and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns for Fischer-Tropsch clean alternative energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the increasing demand for alternative energy resources, the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process that converts synthesis gas into clean liquid fuels has attracted more interest from the industry. Slurry bubble columns are the most promising reactors for FT synthesis due to their advantages over other reactors. Successful operation, design, and scale-up of such reactors require detailed knowledge of hydrodynamics, bubble dynamics, and transport characteristics. However, most previous studies have been conducted at ambient pressure or covered only low superficial gas velocities. The objectives of this study were to experimentally investigate the heat transfer coefficient and bubble dynamics in slurry bubble columns at conditions that can mimic FT conditions. The air-C9C 11-FT catalysts/glass beads systems were selected to mimic the physical properties of the gas, liquid, and solid phases at commercial FT operating conditions. A heat transfer coefficient measurement technique was developed, and for the first time, this technique was applied in a pilot scale (6-inch diameter) high pressure slurry bubble column. The effects of superficial gas velocity, pressure, solids loading, and liquid properties on the heat transfer coefficients were investigated. Since the heat transfer coefficient can be affected by the bubble properties (Kumar et al., 1992), in this work bubble dynamics (local gas holdup, bubble chord length, apparent bubble frequency, specific interfacial area, and bubble velocity) were studied using the improved four-point optical probe technique (Xue et al., 2003; Xue, 2004). Because the four-point optical technique had only been successfully applied in a churn turbulent flow bubble column (Xue, 2004), this technique was first assessed in a small scale slurry bubble column in this study. Then the bubble dynamics were studied at the same conditions as the heat transfer coefficient investigation in the same pilot scale column. The results from four-point probe bubble dynamics study advanced the understanding of heat transfer in the slurry bubble column. This study also provides important benchmark information for the slurry bubble column design and the evaluation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations.

Wu, Chengtian

257

Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry  

DOEpatents

A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

Costantini, Michael A. (Hudson, NH); Talbott, Jonathan A. (Amherst, NH); Chandra, Mohan (Merrimack, NH); Prasad, Vishwanath (East Setauket, NY); Caster, Allison (Nashua, NH); Gupta, Kedar P. (Merrimack, NH); Leyvraz, Philippe (Nashua, NH)

2000-09-05

258

Definition of Scale Model Slurry Mixing/Distribution Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is intended to present a definition of a scale model representing a slurry mixing/distribution facility. The 1/8'' = 1'-0'' scale model described herein depicts a mock commercial coal-in-oil slurry mixing and distribution type plant. The mod...

1978-01-01

259

DWPF Decon Frit: Sump and Slurry Solids Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provide...

C. L. Crawford D. K. Peeler D. R. Click J. H. Gillam

2010-01-01

260

Ice-slurry production using direct contact heat transfer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ice slurry generation system was developed using direct contact heat transfer between water and the coolant, Fluroinert FC-84. The location of the coolant nozzle is an important design consideration to avoid clogging due to freezing of water. An ice fraction of up to about 40 percent was obtained with the nozzle located at the bottom of the ice slurry

N. E. Wijeysundera; M. N. A. Hawlader; Chan Wee Boon Andy; M. Kamal Hossain

2004-01-01

261

EVALUATION OF CARBON BLACK SLURRIES AS CLEAN BURNING FUELS  

EPA Science Inventory

Experiments were performed to examine the pumpability, atomization and combustion characteristics of slurries made of mixtures of carbon black with No. 2 fuel oil and methanol. Carbon black-No. 2 fuel oil and carbon black-methanol slurries, with carbon black contents of up to 50 ...

262

Surface Modification of Nickel Foams by a Slurry Aluminizing Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel slurry-based process for aluminizing nickel foams while improving the mechanical properties and conserving the excellent ductility is reported. Cellular unalloyed nickel foams with 92% porosity and uniform pore size and distribution were used as a starting material. Several slurries of different compositions were examined to investigate the possibility of developing an aluminide-nickel intermetallic coating on a Ni foam

H. Omar; N. Papanastasiou; P. Psyllaki; S. A. Tsipas; F. Stergioudi; N. Michailidis; D. N. Tsipas

2010-01-01

263

Environmental and Economic Implications of some Slurry Management Options  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weather-driven simulations which take account of ammonia volatilization, soil water and soil nitrogen dynamics have been carried out to demonstrate the extent of losses of nitrogenous components which pollute the environment, following the land spreading of animal slurry (liquid manure). Alternative slurry management policies concerning selection of the size of store and spreading method were considered in these simulations. Losses

M. B. McGechan; L. Wu

1998-01-01

264

Regenerating slurries for use in zinc-air batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process is described for the regeneration of an at least partially spent slurry having a dissolved phase and an undissolved phase for use in metal-air batteries which slurry comprises an admixture of at least components (a) and (b), of the following components (a) through (g): (a) zinc which has been at least partly oxidized to zinc oxide, zinc hydroxide

J. Goldstein; A. Meitav

1993-01-01

265

The Settling and Compaction of Nuclear Waste Slurries  

SciTech Connect

The settling and compaction of simulated and real nuclear waste slurries were extensively studied. Experiments were carried out with simulated wastes at laboratory and large-scale sizes, and the results compared. A model of settling was derived and a method developed to correlate and scale-up settling data for different slurries and vessel sizes.

MACLEAN, G.T.

1999-11-15

266

Continuous expression of slurry in a screw press  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approximate method is described for predicting the steadystate performance of a screw press for the continuous expression of a slurry, with the worm channel being modified as the path between two flat plates. Screw expression of a slurry involves two mechanisms of dewatering which, for a batch operation, can be analyzed by the variable-pressure, variable-rate theory of filtration and

M. Shirato; N. Hayashi; M. Iwata; T. Murase; Y. Ogawa

1985-01-01

267

Time-dependent behavior of different ice slurries during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main advantages of ice slurry as secondary refrigerant is the possibility of cold storage, which enables load shifting and peak shaving. During cold storage, ice crystals are subject to mechanisms as attrition, agglomeration and Ostwald ripening causing changes in the crystal size distribution, which are of great importance for ice slurry systems since they influence other parameters

P. Pronk; T. M. Hansen; C. A. Infante Ferreira; G. J. Witkamp

2005-01-01

268

Drying of Slurries in Fluidized Bed of Inert Particles  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fluid bed dryer with inert particles was used for drying of slurries. Experiments were performed in a cylindrical column 215mm in diameter and 1200mm in height with glass spheres as inert particles. Slurries of Zineb fungicide, copper hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and pure water were used as the feed material. The effects of operating conditions on dryer throughput and product

Zeljko B. Grbavcic; Zorana Lj Arsenijevic; Radmila V. Garic-Grulovic

2004-01-01

269

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine

S. H. Gehrke; Lii-Hurng Lyu

1990-01-01

270

Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes apparatus for injecting atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber. It comprises: vortex nozzle means, having an annular chamber with a substantially central outlet port, of fluid supplied to the fuel inlet port, in a conical sheet pattern that breaks up to atomized spray; metering means for delivering pressurized metered charges of the coal slurry

1989-01-01

271

Coal slurry ignition in a diesel engine simulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compression ignition characteristics of three coal slurry fuels are compared to diesel reference fuel in a diesel engine simulator. The three slurries are 45 wt % coal (5 micrometers mean diameter) in water, diesel No. 2, and methanol carriers. Each experiment is a single, isolated combustion event. Heat transfer losses to the cold walls and mass losses past the square

D. D. Brehob; F. Robben; R. F. Sawyer; P. M. Sherman

1985-01-01

272

A flotation study of refuse pond coal slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The flotation behavior of a refuse pond fine coal slurry sample was studied using mechanical and column flotation techniques. Flotation parameters investigated included type and dosage of frother and collector, agitation speed, scrubbing time, slurry pH, etc. for the mechanical flotation cell, and air flow rate, feed flow rate, and wash water flow rate for the column flotation. Flotation kinetics

D. Tao; B. Li; S. Johnson; B. K. Parekh

2002-01-01

273

ELECTROFORCED SEDIMENTATION OF THICK SLURRIES IN CONSOLIDATION REGION  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that the settling rates of thickened slurries can be greatly enhanced by application of D.C. voltages. It is demonstrated that the settling rates increase remarkably with increasing electric field intensity. The basic differential equation for gravitational settling of thick slurries is derived and this is extended to electroforced sedimentation. The theoretical' settling rates and the porosity distributions

T. Murase; M. Iwata; T. Aragaki; M. Shirato

1988-01-01

274

Pig production in subtropical agriculture.  

PubMed

Pig production plays an important role in farming systems worldwide, especially in subtropical areas. The past few decades have seen significant changes in swine production in such regions. However, there are regional differences in pig production, and some of these are associated with serious problems which impact production systems, the environment and human health. This review introduces the pig breeds, crops and challenge of pig production that faces subtropical areas. A detailed analysis focuses on the control of production problems that are affected by limitations in management and nutritional strategies. Then, factors that drive the major changes in the pig industry in this area are examined in detail, and some insight into pig production directions is provided. PMID:22002631

Zhang, Yong-gang; Yin, Yu-long; Fang, Jun; Wang, Qi

2012-03-30

275

The fate of antagonistic microorganisms and antimicrobial substances during anaerobic digestion of pig and dairy manure.  

PubMed

The goals of the present study were to evaluate the suppressive capability of anaerobically digested slurry (ADS) against Phytophthora capsici and to determine the key factors of disease control in ADS. This was achieved by the investigations of the changes in microbial populations and the levels of antimicrobial compound during anaerobic digestion (AD). AD had no significant impact on the numbers of antagonistic fluorescent pseudomonads or Bacillus sp. The contents of total phenolics, volatile fatty acids and sugar fed with the raw slurries to the reactors were decreased by AD. However, the bioreactor effluents had higher concentrations of humic substances and ammonia than the feedstocks. Moreover, AD had a different influence on the content of amino acid in the pig manure compared to the dairy manure. The results obtained indicated that the key inhibitory factors of ADS might be attributed to ammonia and humic substances. PMID:23570714

Cao, Yun; Chang, Zhizhou; Wang, Jidong; Ma, Yan; Fu, Guangqin

2013-05-01

276

Effects of surface chemical and electrochemical factors on the dewatering characteristics of fine particle slurry.  

PubMed

Coal suspension was employed in vacuum filtration process to observe the dewatering characteristics of fine particle slurry. Generally, as the size of coal particle decreased, the specific resistance was increased and dewatering efficiency was reduced. Slurries containing the particles with a broad size range had a higher compressibility and could not filter easily if modified process was not applied. This study also investigated the effects of an anionic and a cationic surfactants on filterability by examining the surface property of coal particles. Dewatering was observed to be more efficient when cationic surfactant was used. To improve dewatering rate and to reduce the final moisture content of slurry, electrodewatering combined with vacuum filtration was applied. The effects of some different variables were examined, such as the type of surfactants, electrode (arrangements and materials), and the electrical parameters (voltage and current). By application of electrodewatering, dewatering efficiency was found to be enhanced compared to conventional vacuum filtration. The specific resistance was represented to be 0.3815 at 0 V, whereas it was shown to be 0.2113 and 0.1631 at 20 V under direct current and alternative current, respectively. PMID:15332676

Kuh, Sung-Eun; Kim, Dong-Su

2004-01-01

277

The control of erosion-corrosion in slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

The results of erosion-corrosion testing in pilot plant slurry pipelines are related to the behaviour of operating slurry pipelines and the control of erosion-corrosion in such systems by use of inhibitors, solution conditioning and adjustment of slurry parameters. The erosion-corrosion component of the total wear is oxygen-mass-transfer controlled and the magnitude of the erosion-corrosion can be estimated using well established mass transfer correlations. There is a breakaway velocity for each slurry below which mechanical erosion of the pipe is not a problem and it is suggested that slurry pipelines may be operated below this velocity but under conditions of particle size and velocity where the pipe wall is kept free from rust and scale to prevent pitting corrosion. The erosion-corrosion would be controlled by inhibitors and/or dearation resulting in a smooth rust and scale free pipe.

Postlethwaite, J.

1987-01-01

278

Chemists report slurry breakthroughs for syngas-to-alcohol process  

SciTech Connect

Scientists at North Carolina State University (Raleigh) report that they have developed an alcohol synthesis process that uses a high-temperature slurry reactor with a conventional zinc chromite methanol catalyst. The scientists say it is the first time zinc-chromite catalysts have been used in slurry reactors at temperatures as high as 375 C. They add that it could lead to a synthesis gas (syngas)-based route to higher alcohols and to broader commercial applications for slurry reactors. Slurry reactors typically operate at less than 300 C, limiting applications for many high-volume industrial applications. By extending the temperature 100 C, says George Roberts, a chemist at North Carolina State, the work could {open_quotes}open up chemistry never run in slurry reactors before.{close_quotes} Roberts points to potential for use in partial oxidation reactions and synthesis routes involving formaldehyde.

Rotman, D.

1996-04-24

279

Rheological Modifier Testing with DWPF Process Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Rheological modification agents were tested on simulated SRAT and SME products to determine if a suitable agent could be found for the DWPF process slurries. The agents tested were dispersants that lower the rheological properties of slurries by preventing agglomerization. Dolapix CE64, an ethylene glycol, and Disperse-Ayd W28, a polyacrylate, were the most effective dispersants tested. Further evaluation and testing should be performed on Dolapix CE64 and Disperse-Ayd W28 to determine if implementation is possible in DWPF. The initial phase of future work will include optimization of the rheology modifier by the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) and development of a maximum concentration limit for the rheology modifiers. IIT has been commissioned to evaluate the properties of these chemicals to determine if the chemical makeup can be optimized to enhance the properties of these modifiers. An initial concentration limit based upon the DWPF flammability limit and other constraints should be calculated to determine the potential downstream impacts.

MICHAEL, STONE

2004-02-01

280

Improving feed slurry rheology by colloidal techniques  

SciTech Connect

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PSN) has investigated three colloidal techniques in the laboratory to improve the sedimentation and flowability of Hanford simulated (nonradioactive) current acid waste (CAW) melter feed slurry: polymer-induced bridging flocculation; manipulating glass former (raw SiO/sub 2/ or frit) particle size; and alteration of nitric acid content. All three methods proved successful in improving the rheology of the simulated CAW feed. This initially had exhibited nearly worst-case flow and clogging properties, but was transformed into a flowable, resuspendable (nonclogging) feed. While each has advantages and disadvantages, the following three specific alternatives proved successful: addition of a polyelectrolyte in 2000 ppM concentration to feed slurry; substitution of a 49 wt % SiO/sub 2/ colloidal suspension (approx. 10-micron particle size) for the -325 mesh (less than or equal to 44-micron particle size) raw-chemical SiO/sub 2/; and increase of nitric acid content from the reference 1.06 M to optimum 1.35 M. The first method, polymer-induced bridging flocculation, results in a high sediment volume, nonclogging CAW feed. The second method, involving the use of colloidal silica particles results in a nonsedimenting feed that when left unagitated forms a gel. The third method, increase in feed acidity, results in a highly resuspendable (nonclogging) melter feed. Further research is therefore required to determine which of the three alternatives is the preferred method of achieving rheological control of CAW melter feeds.

Heath, W.O.; Ternes, R.L.

1984-06-01

281

Filtration behavior of slurries with varying compressibilities  

SciTech Connect

A novel filtration apparatus allows simultaneous measurements of filtrate volume, hydraulic pressure and cake thickness using slurry volumes on the order of 100 cm/sup 3/. Differences in interparticle interactions were studied by varying the barium chloride concentration of 0.38-..mu..m polystyrene latex and filtering at pressures between 2 and 100 psi. Cakes formed from these slurries are highly compressible for concentrations between 0.01M and 0.10M, moderately compressible for the 0.005M concentration, and incompressible for the 0.001M concentration. Plots of filtrate volume versus cake thickness were linear for the incompressible cakes, whereas the compressible cakes showed significant deviations, which were pressure dependent. The pressure distribution for the incompressible cake was found to be essentially linear as predicted from the resistance plots assuming constant ..cap alpha.. and epsilon. For the highly compressible cakes, most of the pressure drop appears to occur near the cake/medium interface with only small changes occurring at the top of the cake.

Massuda, M.; Bridger, K.; Harvey, M.; Tiller, F.M.

1988-10-01

282

Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries  

SciTech Connect

Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

1993-09-01

283

Three Little Pigs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, leaners explore building techniques by recreating the story of The Three Little Pigs. They build model houses out of plastic grass, popsicle sticks, and building blocks, and then test to see how strongly their houses stand up to the huffing and puffing of a hair dryer. The activity uses the story to explore the design process of building, testing and changing, as well as the scientific method of predicting, measuring and analyzing.

Omsi

2005-01-01

284

Quantification and evaluation of antimicrobial drug use in group treatments for fattening pigs in Belgium.  

PubMed

To control the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, knowledge of antimicrobial drug consumption is essential. Because consumption data are not available in Belgium, a study was conducted between March and October 2003 to investigate the antimicrobial drug consumption in pigs, using the treatment incidence based on the animal daily dose pig (ADDpig), the treatment incidence based on the used daily dose pig (UDDpig) (number of ADDpig or UDDpig/1,000 pigs at risk/day), and the ratio UDDpig/ADDpig. The sampling frame consisted of 821 pig herds that (a) used a closed or semi-closed production system, (b) were located in the most dense pig areas of Belgium, and (c) had at least 150 sows and 600 fattening pigs each. Of 50 randomly selected herds, all group treatments with antimicrobial drugs, applied to fattening pigs that were within 2 weeks of slaughter (median age 187 days), were collected retrospectively. The treatment incidence based on ADDpig for all oral and injectable antimicrobial drugs was 178.1 per 1,000 pigs at risk per day. The treatment incidence based on UDDpig shows that in reality fewer pigs were treated, namely 170.3 per 1,000 pigs at risk per day. Proportionally, the most often applied oral antimicrobial drugs were: doxycycline, amoxicillin, combination trimethoprim-sulphonamides and polymyxin E. The most often applied injectable antimicrobial drugs were long-acting amoxicillin and ceftiofur. The distribution of the UDDpig/ADDpig ratio per antimicrobial drug shows that 50-75% of the oral formulations were underdosed. Injectable formulations were almost always overdosed (>90%). PMID:16675051

Timmerman, Tom; Dewulf, Jeroen; Catry, Boudewijn; Feyen, Bianca; Opsomer, Geert; de Kruif, Aart; Maes, Dominiek

2006-06-16

285

Stripping of Soil-Applied Hexazinone, Picloram, and Tebuthiuron for Loblolly Pine Site Preparation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Herbicides were applied to prepare two upland sites for planting of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) after clearcut harvesting: (1) picloram pellets, (2) hexazinone liquid, (3) a slurry of tebuthiuron soluble powder, and (4) following underplanting, a liqui...

J. D. Haywood

1993-01-01

286

A new Salmonella surveillance and control programme in Danish pig herds and slaughterhouses.  

PubMed

The Danish Salmonella Surveillance and Control Programme for pigs operates at all stages of the production chain and has been applied nationally since 1995. Due to the program the level of Salmonella in Danish pork has declined from 3.5% in 1993 to 0.7% in the year 2000. Simultaneously, the number of human cases with salmonellosis due to pork has declined from approximately 1,144 in 1993 to 166 in 2000. In year 2001, the programme has been improved at a number of stages. A new classification scheme for the serological surveillance of finisher herds has been developed. The individual test cut-off in the mix-ELISA has been reduced to 20 OD%. Only herds producing more than 200 finishers/year are sampled. Based on the serological result from the last 3 months a new weighted salmonella index is calculated: The Danish Bacon and Meat Council has agreed on a new stricter penalty system. Level 2 and 3 herds get a penalty of 2% and 4% of the value per slaughter carcass, respectively. A new method of Salmonella testing on carcasses has been introduced; 5 carcasses per slaughter day are swabbed at 3 defined areas at 100 cm2 for each sample. This method is more sensitive than the one used previously. Herds infected with multiresistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 have to follow special restrictions. These include a requirement for a herd intervention plan, restriction on livestock trade, and a requirement for special slurry handling. Carcasses from DT 104 herds must be heat-treated or decontaminated with hot water. PMID:11570168

Nielsen, B; Alban, L; Stege, H; Srensen, L L; Mgelmose, V; Bagger, J; Dahl, J; Baggesen, D L

2001-01-01

287

Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

1999-08-01

288

Effects of coal slurry on wastewater bacteria and bacteriophage  

SciTech Connect

Coal slurry was only mildly toxic to coliform bacteria, which serve as indicators of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater, and the fecal streptococci concentration appeared to remain essentially unchanged with respect to the wastewater control. Thus the results do not support the supposition that wastewater would be naturally disinfected in a coal slurry pipeline. On the other hand, at least 99.8% of the E. coli C-specific phage present in the wastewater became noninfective in the coal slurry. Should water-borne pathogenic viruses lose infectivity to a similar extent, use of wastewater as the slurry medium would indeed result in upgrading of the water. Depending on the method of disposing of the slurry wastewater at the terminus of the pipeline, disinfection may be required. The possibility exists that future regulations would require disinfection of viruses in addition to indicator bacteria. Under such regulations, the task of disinfecting the slurry wastewater should be greatly facilitated because viruses are generally more resistent to disinfection than are bacteria. The important question remaining and requiring further study, however, is what effect would coal slurry have on pathogenic enteric viruses.

Margler, L.W.; Rogozen, M.B.

1980-01-01

289

Interaction analysis between binder and particles in multiphase slurries.  

PubMed

A multiphase slurry for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries is prepared using an active material, a carbon conductive, a polymeric binder and a solvent, and its physicochemical characteristics is evaluated in this study. The polymer binder interacting with particles in the slurry plays a crucial role in constructing the internal configuration of slurry components. The internal structure and dispersion states of the slurry components, which affect battery fabrication processes such as coating and even determine the final performance of battery cells, are changed over time. Experimental measurements such as spectroscopic, rheological, morphological, and electrical tests are carried out. Morphological specimens are freeze-dried to fix the locations of the slurry components. The existence of a network structure (or flocculation) is verified by viscoelastic property measurements and morphological observations. Electrical properties of the slurry vary mainly depending on the dispersion state of the carbon conductive. In addition, the dispersity index is introduced as a new quantity representing the dispersion state of the slurry components. PMID:23392111

Cho, Ki Yeon; Kwon, Young Il; Youn, Jae Ryoun; Song, Young Seok

2013-04-01

290

PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

1993-11-29

291

Ice slurry cooling development and field testing  

SciTech Connect

A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

Kasza, K.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Hietala, J. (Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Wendland, R.D. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)); Collins, F. (USDOE, Washington, DC (United States))

1992-01-01

292

Ice slurry cooling development and field testing  

SciTech Connect

A new advanced cooling technology collaborative program is underway involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Northern States Power (NSP) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The program will conduct field tests of an ice slurry distributed load network cooling concept at a Northern States Power utility service center to further develop and prove the technology and to facilitate technology transfer to the private sector. The program will further develop at Argonne National Laboratory through laboratory research key components of hardware needed in the field testing and develop an engineering data base needed to support the implementation of the technology. This program will sharply focus and culminate research and development funded by both the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute on advanced cooling and load management technology over the last several years.

Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Hietala, J. [Northern States Power Co., Minneapolis, MN (United States); Wendland, R.D. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Collins, F. [USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)

1992-07-01

293

Shear-induced structures and thickening in fumed silica slurries.  

PubMed

Chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) is an essential technology used in the semiconductor industry to polish and planarize a variety of materials for the fabrication of microelectronic devices (e.g., computer chips). During the high shear (~1,000,000 s(-1)) CMP process, it is hypothesized that individual slurry particles are driven together to form large agglomerates (?0.5 ?m), triggering a shear thickening effect. These shear-induced agglomerates are believed to cause defects during polishing. In this study, we examined the shear thickening of a 25 wt % fumed silica slurry with 0.17 M added KCl using in situ small-angle light scattering during rheological characterization (rheo-SALS). The salt-adjusted slurry displays a ~3-fold increase in viscosity at a critical shear rate of 20,000 s(-1) during a stepped shear rate ramp from 100 to 25,000 s(-1). As the shear rate is reduced back to 100 s(-1), the slurry displays irreversible thickening behavior with a final viscosity that is 100-times greater than the initial viscosity. Corresponding rheo-SALS images indicate the formation of micrometer scale structures (2-3 ?m) that directly correlate with the discontinuous and irreversible shear thickening behavior of the fumed silica slurry; these micrometer scale structures are 10-times the nominal particle diameter (~0.2 ?m). The scattering patterns from the 25 wt % slurry were corroborated through rheo-SALS examination of 27 and 29 wt % slurries (C(KCl) = 0.1 M). All slurries, regardless of ionic strength and solids loading, display scattering patterns that are directly associated with the observed thickening behavior. Scattering was only observable during and after thickening (i.e., no scattering was detected in the absence of thickening). This work serves as the first in situ observation of micrometer scale structures within the fumed silica CMP slurry while under shear. PMID:24063640

Crawford, Nathan C; Williams, S Kim R; Boldridge, David; Liberatore, Matthew W

2013-10-22

294

Detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) through the different stages of pig manure composting plants  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an increasing cause of acute hepatitis in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of HEV in pig manure composting plants located in Spain. For this purpose, a total of 594 samples were taken in 54 sampling sessions from the different stages of composting treatment in these plants as follows: slurry reception ponds, anaerobic ponds, aerobic ponds, fermentation zone and composting final products. HEV was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR) in four (80%) of five plants studied, mainly in the first stages of the process. HEV was not detected in any final product (compost) sample, destined to be commercialized as a soil fertilizer, suggesting that composting is a suitable method to eliminate HEV and thus, to reduce the transmission of HEV from pigs to humans.

Garcia, M; Fernandez-Barredo, S; Perez-Gracia, M T

2014-01-01

295

Slurry fired heater cold-flow modelling  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the experimental and theoretical work leading to the scale-up of the SRC-I Demonstration Plant slurry fired heater. The scale-up involved a theoretical model using empirical relations in the derivation, and employed variables such as flow conditions, liquid viscosity, and slug frequency. Such variables have been shown to affect the heat transfer characteristics ofthe system. The model assumes that, if all other variables remain constant, the heat transfer coefficient can be scaled up proportional to D/sup -2/3/ (D = inside diameter of the fired heater tube). All flow conditions, liquid viscosities, and pipe inclinations relevant to the demonstration plant have indicated a slug flow regime in the slurry fired heater. The annular and stratified flow regimes should be avoided to minimize the potential for excessive pipe erosion and to decrease temperature gradients along the pipe cross section leading to coking and thermal stresses, respectively. Cold-flow studies in 3- and 6.75-in.-inside-diameter (ID) pipes were conducted to determine the effect of scale-up on flow regime, slug frequency, and slug dimensions. The developed model assumes that conduction heat transfer occurs through the liquid film surrounding the gas slug and laminar convective heat transfer to the liquid slug. A weighted average of these two heat transfer mechanisms gives a value for the average pipe heat transfer coefficient. The cold-flow work showed a decrease in the observed slug frequency between the 3- and 6.75-ID pipes. Data on the ratio of gas to liquid slug length in the 6.75-in. pipe are not yet complete, but are expected to yield generally lower values than those obtained in the 3-in. pipe; this will probably affect the scale-up to demonstration plant conditions. 5 references, 15 figures, 7 tables.

Moujaes, S.F.

1983-07-01

296

ANALYSIS OF VENTING OF A RESIN SLURRY  

SciTech Connect

A resin slurry venting analysis was conducted to address safety issues associated with overpressurization of ion exchange columns used in the Purex process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). If flow to these columns were inadvertently interrupted, an exothermic runaway reaction could occur between the ion exchange resin and the nitric acid used in the feed stream. The nitric acid-resin reaction generates significant quantities of noncondensable gases, which would pressurize the column. To prevent the column from rupturing during such events, rupture disks are installed on the column vent lines. The venting analysis models accelerating rate calorimeter (ARC) tests and data from tests that were performed in a vented test vessel with a rupture disk. The tests showed that the pressure inside the test vessel continued to increase after the rupture disk opened, though at a slower rate than prior to the rupture. Calculated maximum discharge rates for the resin venting tests exceeded the measured rates of gas generation, so the vent size was sufficient to relieve the pressure in the test vessel if the vent flow rate was constant. The increase in the vessel pressure is modeled as a transient phenomenon associated with expansion of the resin slurry/gas mixture upon rupture of the disk. It is postulated that the maximum pressure at the end of this expansion is limited by energy minimization to approximately 1.5 times the rupture disk burst pressure. The magnitude of this pressure increase is consistent with the measured pressure transients. The results of this analysis demonstrate the need to allow for a margin between the design pressure and the rupture disk burst pressure in similar applications.

Laurinat, J.; Hensel, S.

2012-03-27

297

Preparing polymeric matrix composites using an aqueous slurry technique  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An aqueous process was developed to prepare a consolidated composite laminate from an aqueous slurry. An aqueous poly(amic acid) surfactant solution was prepared by dissolving a poly(amic acid) powder in an aqueous ammonia solution. A polymeric powder was added to this solution to form a slurry. The slurry was deposited on carbon fiber to form a prepreg which was dried and stacked to form a composite laminate. The composite laminate was consolidated using pressure and was heated to form the polymeric matrix. The resulting composite laminate exhibited high fracture toughness and excellent consolidation.

Johnston, Norman J. (inventor); Towell, Timothy W. (inventor)

1993-01-01

298

Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries  

SciTech Connect

A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

Coleman, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-01-08

299

[Influence of bioleaching on dewaterability of cattle biogas slurry].  

PubMed

The dewaterability of cattle biogas slurry facilitated by bioleaching was investigated through batch experiments with co-inoculation of different Acidophilic thiobacilli (Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5). The experiment was set the following 5 treatments: (1) original biogas slurry (CK), (2) 4 g x L(-1) Fe(2+) (uninoculation), (3)2 g x L(-1) S(0) + 25 mL A. t, (4) 4 g x L(-1) Fe(2+) + 25 mL A. f and (5) 2 g x L(-1) S(0) + 4 g x L(-1) Fe(2+) + 12.5 mL A. t + 12.5 mL A. f. During bioleaching, dynamic changes of pH, ORP, Fe(2+), F(3+), total Fe, the settleability, the turbidity of the supernatant after settling for 12 h, and the dewaterability (expressed as specific resistance to filtration gamma or capillary suction time, CST) of biogas slurry were monitored. Results show that specific resistance gamma and CST of bioleached biogas slurry are reduced drastically for the treatments of original biogas slurry spiked with only Fe(2+), the treatment of original biogas slurry co-spiked with Fe(2+) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5, and the treatment of original biogas slurry co-spiked with Fe(2+), S(0) and two Acidophilic thiobacilli. Taking the dewaterability, settleability, the turbidity of the supernatant fluid after settle 12 h and economical cost into account, the treatment of original biogas slurry co-spiked with Fe(2+) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 is the most suitable pattern for cattle biogas slurry bioleaching. After bioleaching, 1.14% of organic matter, 0.09% of N, 0.05% of P, and 0.1% of K are lost in the bioleaching process, but it don't affect its fertilizer efficiency. Meanwhile, the 63.2% of Cu and 91.3% of Zn are removed from the biogas slurry, and elimination efficiencies of total coliforms in bioleached slurry exceed 99%. This study might provide a new approach for treatment and disposal of biogas slurry. PMID:22295641

Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Liu, Fen-Wu; Ren, Yun; Wang, Dian-Zhan

2011-11-01

300

Slurry wear and cavitation erosion of thermal-sprayed cermets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry wear tests were carried out for base metal SCS6, HP\\/HVOF thermal-sprayed DTS-W110 (1), arc-sprayed 56W2C\\/Ni\\/Cr and spray-fused coating of self-fluxing alloy material 41WC\\/Ni\\/Cr\\/Co. The slurry jet test apparatus was used for the slurry wear test. The flow velocity was 1040m\\/s, and the impingement angle ranged from 90 to 15. It was found that the volume loss rate of all

Kenichi Sugiyama; Shuhei Nakahama; Shuji Hattori; Keisuke Nakano

2005-01-01

301

Identification of flow regime in a slurry bubble column by Hilbert-Huang transform analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional (2-D) slurry bubble column, which had a length of 0.1m, a width of 0.01m and a total height of 0.8m. The gas phase was oil-free air, tap water was used as the liquid phase, glass powders with particle diameter of 58?m-75?m constituted the solid phase, which belonged to the Geldart A particles. Time-domain analysis and the Hilbert-Huang transform methods were employed to analyze the differential pressure signals obtained and to identify the transition points of the flow regimes in the slurry bubble column. Useful qualitative and quantitative information about the changes in flow structure and particle distributions were extracted. Changes in the standard deviation, skewness and flatness of measured pressure time series with superficial gas velocity are proposed. Hilbert-Huang transform was applied to extract information from signals, and flow structures of the slurry bubble column were characterized by the energy distribution of the multi-resolution signals and the EMD energy entropy. Particle distributions were obtained and analyzed from flow pattern images.

Li, Weiling; Zhong, Wenqi; Jin, Baosheng; Xiao, Rui

2013-06-01

302

Low-viscosity lignite slurries and suspensions. Final report, 1983-1984  

SciTech Connect

Interest in both the transportation of coal by slurry pipeline and in the direct combustion of coal-water mixtures (CWM) has reached a high level in recent years. The development of similar technology for lignite-water slurries and suspensions is lagging far behind that of coal. This lag is primarily due the high water-to-solids ratio required of lignite-water mixtures (LWM) which are to be pumped at reasonable energy cost or which are to be used as a substitute for oil in process heating. Transportation of lignite from the mine site to the use site (either within Alabama or across the state line into Florida, for example) could be greatly facilitated if the technology developed for slurry transportation of coal could be modified so that it applied to lignite. In addition, technology that permitted the use of lignite-water suspensions as a 'liquid' fuel for power generation boilers and for process heating could also help the development of Alabama's large lignite resources.

Sadler, L.Y.; Bethany, B.A.

1984-10-01

303

Technology And Pregnant Pigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

1978-01-01

304

The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

Arnold, Arthur

1988-01-01

305

Study on Vetiver's Purification for Wastewater from Pig Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals from pig farms are key sources of water pollution. Wastewater contains nitrogen and phosphorus which are the most important plant nutrients, but is harmful when applied to agricultural land in excess amounts, thereby leading to pollution of ground water by nitrates, surface water by phosphorous (causing eutrophication) and soil by heavy metals such as copper

Xuhui Kong; Weiwen Lin; Biqing Wang; Fuhe Luo

306

KINETICS OF SLURRY PHASE FISCHER-TROPSCH SYSTHESIS  

SciTech Connect

This report covers the third year of this research grant under the University Coal Research program. The overall objective of this project is to develop a comprehensive kinetic model for slurry phase Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) on iron catalysts. This model will be validated with experimental data obtained in a stirred tank slurry reactor (STSR) over a wide range of process conditions. The model will be able to predict molar flow rates and concentrations of all reactants and major product species (H{sub 2}O, CO{sub 2}, linear 1- and 2-olefins, and linear paraffins) as a function of reaction conditions in the STSR. During the reporting period we utilized experimental data from the STSR, that were obtained during the first two years of the project, to perform vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations and estimate kinetic parameters. We used a modified Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EOS) with estimated values of binary interaction coefficients for the VLE calculations. Calculated vapor phase compositions were in excellent agreement with experimental values from the STSR under reaction conditions. Occasional discrepancies (for some of the experimental data) between calculated and experimental values of the liquid phase composition were ascribed to experimental errors. The VLE calculations show that the vapor and the liquid are in thermodynamic equilibrium under reaction conditions. Also, we have successfully applied the Levenberg-Marquardt method (Marquardt, 1963) to estimate parameters of a kinetic model proposed earlier by Lox and Froment (1993b) for FTS on an iron catalyst. This kinetic model is well suited for initial studies where the main goal is to learn techniques for parameter estimation and statistical analysis of estimated values of model parameters. It predicts that the chain growth parameter ({alpha}) and olefin to paraffin ratio are independent of carbon number, whereas our experimental data show that they vary with the carbon number. Predicted molar flow rates of inorganic species, n-paraffins and total olefins were generally not in good agreement with the corresponding experimental values. In the future we'll use kinetic models based on non-constant value of {alpha}.

Dragomir B. Bukur; Gilbert F. Froment; Tomasz Olewski

2005-09-29

307

Slurry Burner for Mixture of Carbonaceous Material and Water.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which...

D. G. Nodd R. J. Walker

1985-01-01

308

CST Suspension Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 40.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computational fluid dynamics methods were used to develop and provide a slurry pump operating guidance for CST mixing and suspension in Tank 40. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operati...

S. Y. Lee R. A. Dimenna

2004-01-01

309

Method of removing uranium from a slurry containing molybdenum  

SciTech Connect

Disclosed is a method of removing uranium from a slurry containing a water-insoluble molybdate and a Group II element, usually calcium. The pH of the slurry is raised with an alkali metal hydroxide and maintained at a level sufficiently high to solubilize insoluble molybdenum compounds. This will generally require a pH of at least 10 which can be achieved by adding sodium hydroxide. Carbonate ion is then added to the slurry in an amount at least sufficient to precipitate the cation of the insoluble molybdenum compound. And finally, the solid portion of a slurry, which now contains calcium carbonate and sodium uranate, is separated from the liquid portion, which contains a soluble molybdenum compound.

Crossley, T.J.

1983-07-12

310

Aluminizing nickel foam by a slurry coating process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, one-step slurry coating technique was used to aluminize open cell nickel metal foam at low temperature and short hold-down time. Three slurries of different composition, heat-treated at 650C for 2h, were used to investigate the possibility of developing an aluminide coating on a commercially produced Ni foam. In all cases a dense, well-adhered to the Ni substrate aluminide

H. Omar; D. P. Papadopoulos; S. A. Tsipas; H. Lefakis

2009-01-01

311

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

Nodd, Dennis G. (West Mifflin, PA); Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

312

Slurry wear characteristics of a zinc-based alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made in this investigation to assess the wear behavior of a zinc-based alloy in slurry. The influence\\u000a of the sand content of the slurry and traversal speed and distance on the wear response of the alloy has been examined. Tests\\u000a were also conducted in the liquid-only medium to assess the role played by the suspended sand

B. K. Prasad

2003-01-01

313

Expanding the role of coal slurries. Part 2. Commercial concepts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the second part of this article it is suggested that coal slurries should not be considered only as replacement fuels. Their use in fluidized-bed boilers is seen as a probable development and successful combustion tests of coal-water mixtures and coal-oil mixtures have been carried out in atmospheric and pressurised fluidised-bed combustors. The preparation of slurry fuels is considered and

1982-01-01

314

Enhanced Scrubbing Aerosol of Cooking Fumes with Bio-Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments were carried out to scrub cooking fumes using by clean water and by bio-slurry, and the effects on the removal rate of cooking oil and particles were studied. The results showed that the scrubbing effect of cooking fumes was the best when the bio-slurry concentration was 1.2 g\\/L. The particle sizes of fumes reduced from 0.2 ~ 62?m to

Lei Liao; Aimiao Qin; Chao Zhang; Xu Ni; Xi Zhang

2010-01-01

315

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32{degrees}C by absorbing water at 25{degrees}C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33{degrees}C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng

1990-12-31

316

Investigation of the kinetics of tungsten chemical mechanical polishing in potassium iodate-based slurries. 2: Roles of colloid species and slurry chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the role of colloid species and slurry chemistry in tungsten chemical mechanical polishing. Specifically, they measured polish rate and process temperature in potassium iodate-based slurries as a function of colloid species and concentration, slurry pH, and potassium iodate concentration, as well as polish pressure and polish rotation rate. They investigated slurries containing yttrium-, zirconium-, cerium-, and aluminum-based

David J. Stein; D. L. Hetherington; J. L. Cecchi

1999-01-01

317

Polishing slurry induced surface haze on phosphate laser glasses  

SciTech Connect

The effects of residual polishing slurry on the surface topology of highly-polished, Nd-doped metaphosphate laser glasses are reported. Glass samples were pitched polished using cerium oxide or zirconium oxide slurry at different pHs and then washed by different methods that allowed varying amounts of residual slurry to ''dry'' on the surface. Upon re-washing with water, some of the samples showed surface haze (scatter), which scaled with the amount of residual slurry. Profilometry measurements showed that the haze is the result of shallow surface pits (100 nm - 20 {micro}m wide x {approx}15 nm deep). Chemical analyses of material removed during rewashing, confirmed the removal of glass components as well as the preferential removal of modifier ions (e.g. K{sup 1+} and Mg{sup 2+}). The surface pits appear to result from reaction of the glass with condensed liquid at the slurry particle-glass interface that produces water-soluble phosphate products that dissolves away with subsequent water contact. Aggressive washing, to remove residual slurry immediately following polishing, can minimize surface haze on phosphate glasses. It is desirable to eliminate haze from glass used in high-peak-power lasers, since it can cause scatter-induced optical modulation that can cause damage to downstream optics.

Suratwala, T I; Miller, P E; Ehrmann, P R; Steele, R A

2004-03-12

318

Determination of impurities in magnesium niobate by slurry introduction axially viewed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple preparation scheme is described for the quantitative analysis of a magnesium niobate sample using slurry introduction axially viewed inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Relationships between the stability of slurries and the conditions, such as particle size, pH, dispersant and amount of dispersant, were investigated experimentally. The MgNb(2)O(6) slurry sample was prepared by adding the dispersant sodium polyacrylate and agitation in an ultrasonic bath to ensure good dispersion. Under optimization of pH and amount of dispersant, an analysis of minor and trace impurities (Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb) in magnesium niobate was accomplished. Applying a paired t test, we showed that the results were in agreement at a 95% confidence level with the reference values obtained by a fusion method for a magnesium niobate sample, which verified that the calibration curves could be established by aqueous standards. Analytical results demonstrate that the factors that affected the accuracy of determination for MgNb(2)O(6) are mainly the particle size of the sample and the stability of slurry. PMID:17851651

Wu, Dongmei; Qu, Haiyun; Dong, Min; Wang, Anbao; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

2007-11-01

319

Influence of Bovine Slurry Deposition on the Structure of Nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Soil Populations in a Natural Habitat  

PubMed Central

The population of nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae in soil from a grass-covered valley area which had been used for bovine slurry deposition over a period of 5 years was analyzed. For these studies, a rapid and reproducible method based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to identify Rhizobium strains which had infected pea nodules. Soil samples were taken from different areas and further analyzed in plant tests to determine the impact of the application of slurry (polluted or nonpolluted), the slope position (summit or toe), and exposure (north or south). After comparison of all PCR fingerprint patterns, 24 strain groups were defined. Some strain groups from the nonpolluted soil were suppressed in the polluted samples, and new strain groups were detected in the slurry-polluted soil. After analyzing relationships between the strain groups, we determined the influences of local factors on the nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population. We show that one of those local parameters, slope position, had significantly greater impact on the composition of the Rhizobium population than the presence of slurry.

Labes, G.; Ulrich, A.; Lentzsch, P.

1996-01-01

320

Valine requirement of nursery pigs.  

PubMed

Six experiments were conducted to determine the true digestible valine requirement of 5- to 20-kg pigs. In Exp. 1, a valine-deficient diet for 5- to 10-kg pigs was developed and validated in terms of growth performance in response to supplemental L-valine. A different basal diet was validated for 10- to 20-kg pigs in Exp. 2. Both diets were demonstrated to be deficient in valine and to support performance equivalent to typical nursery diets when fortified with L-valine. In Exp. 3, true ileal digestibility of valine in the two basal diets was determined in eight pigs fitted with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum. Another four pigs received an enzymatically hydrolyzed casein-based diet to determine endogenous contributions to collected ileal digesta. The two diets were found to have true valine digestibilities of 82% (5- to 10-kg pigs) and 86% (10- to 20-kg pigs). In Exp. 4, 80 weaned pigs (5.8 kg) were offered the basal diet fortified with five incremental doses (0.08%) of L-valine. Weight gain increased quadratically (P < 0.05) with increasing levels of valine. Broken-line analysis revealed a true digestible valine requirement of 0.86 +/- 0.03%. In Exp. 5, the true digestible valine requirement of 10- to 20-kg pigs was estimated with 120 pigs (10.9 kg) using the second basal diet fortified with six incremental doses (0.05%) of L-valine. The data suggested a digestible valine requirement level of about 0.775%, which was reevaluated in Exp. 6, wherein pigs did not respond to levels of digestible valine higher than 0.775%. In conclusion, requirement estimates were 2.50 and 2.22 g of true digestible valine per megacalorie of ME for 5- to 10- and 10- to 20-kg pigs, respectively. These empirical estimates are in close agreement with recent estimates of the National Research Council Subcommittee on Swine Nutrition of 2.48 and 2.11 g of true digestible valine per megacalorie of ME, respectively. PMID:11374542

Mavromichalis, I; Kerr, B J; Parr, T M; Albin, D M; Gabert, V M; Baker, D H

2001-05-01

321

High-pressure intrapleural chemotherapy: feasibility in the pig model  

PubMed Central

Background The usual treatments for pleural malignancies are mostly palliative. In contrast, peritoneal malignancies are often treated with a curative intent by cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy. As pressure has been shown to increase antitumor efficacy, we applied the concept of high-pressure intracavitary chemotherapy to the pleural space in a swine model. Methods Cisplatin and gemcitabine were selected because of their antineoplasic efficacy in vitro in a wide spectrum of cancer cell lines. The pleural cavity of 21 pigs was filled with saline solution; haemodynamic and respiratory parameters were monitored. The pressure was increased to 15-25 cm H2O. This treatment was associated with pneumonectomy in 6 pigs. Five pigs were treated with chemotherapy under pressure. Results The combination of gemcitabine (100 mg/l) and cisplatin (30 mg/l) was highly cytotoxic in vitro. The maximum tolerated pressure was 20 cm H20, due to haemodynamic failure. Pneumonectomy was not tolerated, either before or after pleural infusion. Five pigs survived intrapleural chemotherapy associating gemcitabine and cisplatin with 20 cm H2O pressure for 60 min. Conclusions High-pressure intrapleural chemotherapy is feasible in pigs. Further experiments will establish the pharmacokinetics and determine whether the benefit already shown in the peritoneum is also obtained in the pleura.

2012-01-01

322

Redox Potential as a Means to Control the Treatment of Slurry to Lower H2S Emissions  

PubMed Central

Slurry can be oxidized to eliminate undesirable emissions, including malodorous hydrogen sulfide (H2S). However, it is difficult to assess the optimal amount of oxidizing agent required. In this study, one cow and one pig manure, each in three particle size ranges were oxidized with 0350 mg ozone/L manure. Redox and H2S concentration were measured continuously. During ozonation the manures gave equivalent redox potential curves. A relatively rapid rise in redox potential was observed within a range of ?275 mV to ?10 mV, with all manures changing as a minimum from ?200 mV to ?80 mV. The gaseous H2S emissions were decreased by 99.5% during the redox increase (?200 mV to ?80 mV). This is attributed to H2S oxidation by ozone and oxygen, and is not due to H2S deprotonation or gas flushing. By identifying the initiation of the final redox level following the rise, the amount of ozone required to remove H2S from the manure samples was estimated to be in the range of 624 mg O3/L manure, depending on the type of manure. Hence, continuous monitoring of redox potential (termination of the redox rise) during the oxidation treatment is a simple method of achieving cost-effective minimization of H2S emissions from slurry.

Hjorth, Maibritt; Pedersen, Christina ?; Feilberg, Anders

2012-01-01

323

Slurry sampling for the determination of arsenic, cadmium, and lead in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slurry sampling technique has been applied for the determination of As, Cd, and Pb in mainstream cigarette smoke condensate (MS CSC) by graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The MS CSC of the 1R4F Reference Cigarette was collected by electrostatic precipitation and was subsequently prepared as two slurry samples with and without the dispersing

K. M. Torrence; R. L. McDaniel; D. A. Self; M. J. Chang

2002-01-01

324

New technology improves cement-slurry design  

SciTech Connect

A promising geothermal concession is located in a tea plantation on the island of Java. A drilling project was undertaken to evaluate and harness this resource for geothermal electricity generation. The program used two slimhole rigs to drill appraisal wells to establish the potential of the field. Geothermal wells present the most severe conditions to which cements are exposed. As a result, their performance requirements are among the most stringent. Geothermal cements are usually designed to provide at least 1,000 psi compressive strength and no more than 1.0-md water permeability. While casings with tight annular clearances require that good cementing practices be observed, they also create conditions that demand much greater care and control in slurry and procedure design than regular casing cementation. Free-water and thickening-time requirements are similar for geothermal and slimhole conditions, but the use of perlite and silica flour complicate the rheology required for geothermal wells. The paper describes liquid-cement premix, applications, laboratory testing, field pilot testing, and field operations.

NONE

1997-08-01

325

Concept for slurry separation and biogas production  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention concerns an anaerobic digestion of animal manures, energy crops and similar organic substrates. The process is capable of refining nutrients comprised in the digested biomass to fertilizers of commercial quality. The invention also provides a method for oprocessing animal carcasses or fractions thereof including meat and bone meal etc., with the objective of providing an alternative means for processing the organic waste material of animal origin while at the same time facilitating the production of fertilizers. The risk of spreading BSE prions or any other prions to animals or humans is thus substantially reduced if not eliminated. The biogas and slurry separation system according to the present invention is preferably integrated with the operations of animal husbandries into a total concept in which the internal and external performances of animal husbandries are optimised. The internal performances concern quality aspects related to the management of the animal houses and include industrial hygiene, animal welfare, gaseous and dust emissions and food safety. The external performances concern mainly energy production and emissions to the environment of nutrients and greenhouse gases and the sale of high quality food product.

2011-02-08

326

Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-06-21

327

Strengthening of solidified dilute tailings slurry  

SciTech Connect

Tailings produced during mineral processing contain up to 75% or more water and are pumped into settling ponds for disposal. They often become a pollution source due to acid generation. While tailings have been used in underground backfill, the use is very limited at present. This paper presents research results on direct solidification and strengthening of the dilute tailings slurry without dewatering. Two types of tailings were tested at water/binder ratios of up to 4.5 using a special high-water binder. Adequate strength was achieved by solidifying the tailings as is. To further improve the strength, sands and fly ash were used as reinforcement materials or partial replacement of the binder. For oil sands tailings, the 3-day strength was increased by up to 114% with 10--15% additives. For hard rock tailings, up to 30% strength gain was achieved with 15% fly ash addition, and the strength was increased by up to 36% at 10% binder replacement and no strength reduction was observed at 20--25% replacement. These results indicate that higher strength can be achieved with the proper amount of additives and that the backfill process can be simplified and the operation cost reduced.

Zou, D.H.; Li, L.P. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. Mining and Metallurgical Engineering

1999-01-01

328

Evaluation of Single Column Trapping/Separation and Chemiluminescence Detection for Measurement of Methanethiol and Dimethyl Sulfide from Pig Production  

PubMed Central

Reduced sulfur compounds are considered to be important odorants from pig production due to their low odor threshold values and low solubility in slurry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of a portable method with a single silica gel column for trapping/separation coupled with chemiluminescence detection (SCTS-CL) for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to evaluate the trapping/separation. The silica gel column used for the SCTS-CL efficiently collected hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The measurement of methanethiol by SCTS-CL was clearly interfered by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide found in pig production, and a removal of hydrogen sulfide was necessary to obtain reliable results. Air samples taken from a facility with growing-finishing pigs were analyzed by SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and a gas chromatograph with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD) to evaluate the SCTS-CL. The difference between the concentrations of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide measured with SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and GC-SCD was below 10%. In conclusion, the SCTS-CL is a portable and low-cost alternative to the commercial methods that can be used to measure methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production.

Hansen, Michael J?rgen; Toda, Kei; Obata, Tomoaki; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

2012-01-01

329

Evaluation of single column trapping/separation and chemiluminescence detection for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide from pig production.  

PubMed

Reduced sulfur compounds are considered to be important odorants from pig production due to their low odor threshold values and low solubility in slurry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of a portable method with a single silica gel column for trapping/separation coupled with chemiluminescence detection (SCTS-CL) for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to evaluate the trapping/separation. The silica gel column used for the SCTS-CL efficiently collected hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The measurement of methanethiol by SCTS-CL was clearly interfered by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide found in pig production, and a removal of hydrogen sulfide was necessary to obtain reliable results. Air samples taken from a facility with growing-finishing pigs were analyzed by SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and a gas chromatograph with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD) to evaluate the SCTS-CL. The difference between the concentrations of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide measured with SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and GC-SCD was below 10%. In conclusion, the SCTS-CL is a portable and low-cost alternative to the commercial methods that can be used to measure methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. PMID:22997603

Hansen, Michael Jrgen; Toda, Kei; Obata, Tomoaki; Adamsen, Anders Peter S; Feilberg, Anders

2012-01-01

330

Aspergillosis of Pigs (Aspergillotoksikoz Svinei).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1961 there was an outbreak of disease in pigs. The following clinical symptoms were observed among the affected stock: anorexia; the affected animals were dull and depressed; diarrhea often mixed with blood, changing in course of time to constipation. ...

V. V. Zhuravlev

1971-01-01

331

Risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with persistence of Salmonella shedding in finishing swine. A longitudinal study was conducted in 18 cohorts of pigs from three finishing sites of one swine production company. Among the 446 Salmonella isolates (isolated from 187 pigs), there were 18 distinct serovars. The six most common serovars were S. enterica serovar Derby (47.3%), S. Agona (27.4%), S. Johannesburg (10.5%), S. Schwarzengrund (2.7%), S. Litchfield (2.5%) and S. Mbandaka (2.2%). Survival analysis techniques, Kaplan-Meier methods and Log-rank test were used to estimate the duration of Salmonella shedding in days and to evaluate differences in shedding associated with risk factors at different organizational levels: isolate (serovar), pig, cohort and site. The risk factors at the pig-level were: sex, age and individual health status; and the risk factors at the cohort-level were: health risk, treatment and "at risk pigs" proportions, nursery and barn environment Salmonella status and prior exposure to the same serovar in the nursery or barn environment. Survival analysis using acceleration failure time models, with a log-normal distribution, was applied to investigate risk factors associated with Salmonella persistence (175 pigs) and serovar-specific persistence (151 pigs) during the study period. Pigs detected Salmonella positive for the first time at 10 weeks of age had a longer duration of shedding, than pigs first detected at an older age. The duration of shedding was shorter among pigs infected with S. Derby, S. Johannesburg and other serovars as compared to pigs infected with S. Agona. A significant difference was observed among sites. Cohorts with pig treatment proportions greater than the median were more likely to have a shorter duration of Salmonella shedding. Pigs from cohorts with nursery positive pools greater than the overall mean had a longer duration of Salmonella shedding as compared to pigs from cohorts with nursery pools less than or equal to the mean. These results suggest that the duration of Salmonella shedding may depend on Salmonella serovar, pig age at the time of infection, farm site and cohort-level risk factors. Identification of risk factors associated with the duration of shedding may allow more targeted interventions for the control Salmonella by evaluation of control measures not only for prevalence reduction, but also to decrease the duration of shedding. Such measures may decrease the risk of contamination of pork and subsequent risk of foodborne illness. PMID:25005468

Pires, A F A; Funk, J A; Bolin, C

2014-09-01

332

Survival of faecal indicator bacteria in treated pig manure stored in clay-covered heaps in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Small-scale pig farmers in Vietnam typically store manure in heaps covered by a layer of clay. However, the hygienic quality of manure applied to agricultural soil is uncertain as storage time is determined by the need for soil fertilizer. This study aimed to assess how the storage of pig manure added straw, lime stone or urea in heaps covered by

Son Thi Thanh Dang; Dung Van Truong; Henry Madsen; Anders Dalsgaard

2011-01-01

333

Effect of high pressure homogenisation on the capacity of Lactobacillus plantarum A6 to ferment rice\\/soybean slurries to prepare high energy density complementary food  

Microsoft Academic Search

New bioprocesses to prepare high energy density (HED) gruels for complementary young child feeding are being developed based on the ability of amylolytic lactic acid bacteria (ALAB) to modify the rheological characteristics of cereal-based slurries, provided appropriate pretreatment are applied. Gelatinisation is a common pre-treatment which could be implemented to enhance the action of amylases, and has been successfully used

Thi Thanh Thuy Nguyen; Jean-Pierre Guyot; Christle Icard-Vernire; Isabelle Rochette; Grard Loiseau

2007-01-01

334

Novel techniques for slurry bubble column hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this cooperative research effort between Washington University, Ohio State University and Exxon Research Engineering Company was to improve the knowledge base for scale-up and operation of slurry bubble column reactors for syngas conversion and other coal conversion processes by increased reliance on experimentally verified hydrodynamic models. During the first year (July 1, 1995--June 30, 1996) of this three year program novel experimental tools (computer aided radioactive particle tracking (CARPT), particle image velocimetry (PIV), heat probe, optical fiber probe and gamma ray tomography) were developed and tuned for measurement of pertinent hydrodynamic quantities, such as velocity field, holdup distribution, heat transfer and bubble size. The accomplishments were delineated in the First Technical Annual Report. The second year (July, 1996--June 30, 1997) was spent on further development and tuning of the novel experimental tools (e.g., development of Monte Carlo calibration for CARPT, optical probe development), building up the hydrodynamic data base using these tools and comparison of the two techniques (PIV and CARPT) for determination of liquid velocities. A phenomenological model for gas and liquid backmixing was also developed. All accomplishments were summarized in the Second Annual Technical Report. During the third and final year of the program (July 1, 1997--June 30, 1998) and during the nine months no cost extension, the high pressure facility was completed and a set of data was taken at high pressure conditions. Both PIV, CT and CARPT were used. More fundamental hydrodynamic modeling was also undertaken and model predictions were compared to data. The accomplishments for this period are summarized in this report.

Dudukovic, M.P.

1999-05-14

335

Modeling sorption and biodegradation of phenanthrene in mangrove sediment slurry.  

PubMed

A mathematical model, combining both sorption and biodegradation process, was developed to predict the biodegradation of phenanthrene by Sphingomonas sp. in different sediment slurries. The model includes two sorption parameters, ? (the partition coefficient) and 1/K (the diffusion resistance); a kinetic parameter k (the first order rate constant); and a sediment parameter, A(V) (the specific sediment surface area in unit volume of slurry). These parameters were evaluated and verified in three types of sediment slurry systems (namely sandy clay loam Ho Chung sediment with fastest degradation, sandy Kei Ling Ha sediment with medium degradation, and clay Mai Po sediment with slowest degradation) at different initial phenanthrene concentrations. High R(2) values, ranging from 0.935 to 0.969, were obtained. Based on this integrated sorption-biodegradation model, the phenanthrene biodegradation in any sediment slurry could be predicted as long as the parameters of the specific sediment surface area in unit volume of slurry, total organic carbon and clay content were measured. PMID:21474240

Chen, Jian Lin; Wong, Ming Hung; Wong, Yuk Shan; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

2011-06-15

336

Electrophoretic Deposition Applied to Thick Metal-Ceramic Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Electrophoretic deposition was used to fabricate thick (4 mm) metalceramic deposits from a non-aqueous slurry of nickel and alumina particles. A high solid volume in the slurry was identified as the primary parameter for depositing thick cermet coatings rather than the applied electric potential or ionic additive concentration. Ionic additives (MgCl2, AlCl3, etc.) were found to adequately suspend the alumina particles and provide rapid deposition rates. The nickel particles proved to be more difficult to suspend in solution, thereby sacrificing control of the deposition composition. The use of small (3.0 m) particles and continuously pumping the slurry alleviated the suspension problems but small electric potentials (100 V/cm) were required to avoid the formation of rough, columnar deposits on the depositing electrode.

Windes, William Enoch; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Reimanis, Ivar E.

2002-08-01

337

Functionalized bio-artifact fabricated via selective slurry extrusion. Part 1: Preparation of slurry containing tourmaline superfine powders.  

PubMed

The far infrared dental porcelain slurry for fabricating artificial tooth via selective slurry extrusion (SSE) of solid freeform fabrication (also known as rapid prototyping) techniques was prepared by using tourmaline as additive and employing ball-milling approach. After characterization by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, it was found that the far infrared emission properties of the dental porcelain were apparently improved in the ranges of 2000-1201 cm(-1) and 881-600 cm(-1). This is due to the increase of the number of infrared active bonds that are from the tourmaline superfine powders. Moreover, it was also found that the tourmaline superfine powders can improve the pseudo-plastic properties of dental porcelain slurries, which results from the increase of the absolute value of zeta potential of the suspensions. Slurries with pseudo-plastic behavior are highly desirable in controlling the shape of the extrudate during solid freeform fabrication. With the functionalized material, a variety of bio-artifacts beneficial to body health can be built by using selective slurry extrusion machine. PMID:22409019

Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Qu, Yunxia; Liu, Yushan

2011-12-01

338

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

1985-11-05

339

Critical mixing parameters for good control of cement slurry quality  

SciTech Connect

The cement mixing procedure can be split into a mechanical process that includes the wetting of the powder and the deflocculation and homogenization of the resulting suspension and a physicochemical process that includes the dissolution of some cement phases, the formation of supersaturated solutions, and the precipitation of cement hydrates. The mechanical process has been validated by inert suspensions of silica and barite and by cement slurries of various reactivities and physical characteristics (particle size distribution). The physicochemical process has been investigated systematically by looking at the precipitation kinetics, inert suspensions, and finally cement slurries. The relevant mixing parameters has been found to be the residence time of the slurry in the mixer and the rotational speed.

Vidick, B. (Dowell Schlumberger, Aberdeen (GB))

1990-07-01

340

Slurry sample introduction with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The successful direct introduction of aqueous slurry samples into a highly efficient TE 101 microwave plasma has been demonstrated. Slurry samples from a spray chamber are fed directly into the cavity with no desolvation apparatus. A V-groove, clog-free Babington-type nebulizer was evaluated for use with high solids content solutions. Slurry concentrations up to 10% m/v were used for the microwave induced plasma work with calibration by the standard additions method. Results are presented for the analysis of two NRCC Standard Reference Materials, i.e. TORT-1 (Lobster Hepatopancreas) and PACS-21 (Marine Sediment). Agreement between analytical results and certified values for the test elements Cd, Cu, Fe and Zn (in the range of 28-850 ?g/g) was good. No memory effects were evident and the nebulizer system had a rapid clean-out time.

Matusiewicz, Henryk; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

1993-04-01

341

Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe2O4 thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe2O4 particles with average size of 800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe2O4 ceramic films sintered at 1150 C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of 324 emu/cm3.

Jian, Gang; Zhou, Dongxiang; Yang, Junyou; Fu, Qiuyun

2012-12-01

342

Defining the Upper Viscosity Limit for Mineral Slurries Used in Drilled Shaft Construction.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Drilled shaft construction often requires the use of drill slurry to maintain borehole stability during excavation and concreting. Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) specifications require that the mineral slurry used for all primary structures m...

D. Winters G. Mullins

2014-01-01

343

Reductive Dehalogenation of a Nitrogen Heterocyclic Herbicide in Anoxic Aquifer Slurries.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions was studied. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanog...

N. R. Adrian J. M. Suflita

1990-01-01

344

REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF A NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC HERBICIDE IN ANOXIC AQUIFER SLURRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

We studied the metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions. Liquid chromatograhy-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanogenic conditions but was not...

345

REDUCTIVE DEHALOGENATION OF A NITROGEN HETEROCYCLIC HERBICIDE IN ANOXIC AQUIFER SLURRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The metabolic fate of bromacil in anaerobic aquifer slurries held under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing, or methanogenic conditions was studied. iquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the slurries confirmed that bromacil was debrominated under methanogenic conditions but was no...

346

Chronic pleuritis in Danish slaughter pig herds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Respiratory disease is considered the most serious disease problem in modern pig production and the risk has increased with intensification of pig production. We quantified risk factors for chronic pleuritis (CP) in Danish pig herds in terms of herd and herd-owner characteristics, management and neighbourhood factors. The occurrence of CP was investigated in 540,104 slaughter pigs from 259 farrow-to-finish or

A Cleveland-Nielsen; E. O Nielsen; A. K Ersbll

2002-01-01

347

Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)  

SciTech Connect

Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman (2004b), was drafted in addition to the companion technical report to this document.

Koopman, D. c.

2005-09-01

348

Sustained utilization of the Iberian pig breed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Iberian pig is one of the scarce non-improved swine breeds which survives the modern techniques of pig production based on improved genotypes. This is attributed both to its perfect adaptation to the Mediterranean natural ecosystem and the high quality of its products. The production of meat products from Iberian pigs has very little in common with that of meat

C. J. Lopez-Bote

1998-01-01

349

Determination of Pd, Rh, Pt, Au in road dust by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling.  

PubMed

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) has been applied to determine Pd, Rh, Pt and Au in 0.5% m/v slurries of several road dust samples. 2% m/v ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC) was used as the modifier to enhance the ion count. The influence of instrument operating conditions, slurry preparation and interferences on the ion count was reported. This method has been applied to the determination of Pd, Rh, Pt and Au in BCR 723 Road Dust and NIST SRM 2709 San Joaquin Soil reference materials and two road dust samples collected locally. The analysis results of the standard reference materials agreed with the certified values. Precision between sample replicates was better than 10% for all the determinations. The method detection limits estimated from standard addition curves were 0.9, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.4ngg(-1) for Pd, Rh, Pt and Au, respectively, in original dust samples. PMID:23972970

Hsu, Wan-Hsuan; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

2013-09-10

350

Hydrodynamic models for slurry bubble column reactors. Seventh technical progress report, January--March 1996  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this investigation is to convert our ``learning gas solid-liquid`` fluidization model into a predictive design model. The IIT hydrodynamic model computes the phase velocities and the volume fractions of gas, liquid and particulate phase. Model verification involves a comparison of these computed velocities and volume fractions to experimental values. A hydrodynamic model for multiphase flows, based on the principles of mass, momentum and energy conservation for each phase, was developed and applied to model gas-liquid, gas-liquid-solid fluidization and gas-solid-solid separation. To simulate the industrial slurry bubble column reactors, a computer program based on the hydrodynamic model was written with modules for chemical reactions (e.g. the synthesis of methanol), phase changes and heat exchangers. In the simulations of gas-liquid two phases flow system, the gas hold-ups, computed with a variety of operating conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas and liquid velocities, agree well with the measurements obtained at Air Products` pilot plant. The hydrodynamic model has more flexible features than the previous empirical correlations in predicting the gas hold-up of gas-liquid two-phase flow systems. In the simulations of gas-liquid-solid bubble column reactors with and without slurry circulation, the code computes volume fractions, temperatures and velocity distributions for the gas, the liquid and the solid phases, as well as concentration distributions for the species (CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 3}0H, ... ), after startup from a certain initial state. A kinetic theory approach is used to compute a solid viscosity due to particle collisions. Solid motion and gas-liquid-solid mixing are observed on a color PCSHOW movie made from computed time series data. The steady state and time average catalyst concentration profiles, the slurry height and the rates of methanol production agree well with the measurements obtained at an Air Products` pilot plant.

Gidaspow, D.

1996-04-01

351

Reducing Nitrogen loadings to estuaries in Denmark, 1990-2010. Results and costs of measures applied in catchments to 10 Danish estuaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nitrogen loading to 10 Danish estuaries has since 1990 been reduced by on average 42%. Thirty percent of this reduction is due to a reduction in Nitrogen loss from diffuse sources. Nitrogen surplus and the change in this surplus is shown to be a strong overall indicator for the trends in Nitrogen loading to most estuaries. The Nitrogen surplus has been reduced due to general national regulations and mitigation measures applied leading to an increased efficiency of Nitrogen use in cattle slurry (30%) and in pig slurry (ca. 40%). These improvements are paralleled by a reduced application of commercial N-fertilizer. Mean flow-weighted total Nitrogen concentrations in inlet fresh waters to estuaries have been reduced by 18-56% resulting in reductions of total Nitrogen concentrations (24-62%) in the inner and middle parts of the estuaries. The large variations in total Nitrogen loadings and concentrations in estuaries are due to both attenuation and time delays of Nitrogen in groundwater aquifers depending on catchment soil type and geology. This also implies varying costs of reducing the Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land (24-94 Euro/kg N reduced). Knowledge of the outcome of responses in the form of national regulations of agricultural N management for the N cycling from field to estuaries is important for decision makers and catchment managers working with the implementation of EU Directives such as the Water Framework Directive. Based on our findings we suggest that further reductions of Nitrogen loadings from agricultural land should be based on targeted and catchment specific measures leading to the most cost efficient way to achieve good ecological quality in the individual estuaries.

Windolf, J.; Blicher-Mathiesen, G.; Carstensen, N. J.; Kronvang, B.

2012-04-01

352

SYNTHESIS OF NON-RADIOACTIVE SLURRIES TO SIMULATE THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLURRIES 626-G  

SciTech Connect

Process development using non-radioactive analogs to high-level radioactive waste slurries is an established cost effective alternative to working with actual samples of the real waste. Current simulated waste slurries, however, do not capture all of the physical behavior of real waste. New methods of preparing simulants are under investigation along with mechanisms for altering certain properties of finished simulants. These methods have achieved several notable successes recently in the areas of rheology and foaminess. Particle size is also being manipulated more effectively than in the past, though not independently of the rheological properties. The interaction between rheology and foaminess has exhibited counter-intuitive behavior with more viscous slurries being less foamy even though drainage of liquid from the foam lamellae should be inhibited by higher viscosities.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Eibling, R.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

2009-09-03

353

Viscosity and yield stress of alumina slurries containing large concentrations of electrolyte  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viscosity and yield stress measurements of AlO slurries containing high concentrations of electrolyte are reported. Contrary to what is expected from DLVO theory, the particles in coagulated slurries produced in this way are held together by weaker forces than particles in slurries brought to the isoelectric point by changing the pH. In both cases an attractive, connective particle network is

Jeanne C. Chang; Fred F. Lange; Dale S. Pearson

1994-01-01

354

Oxide slurries stability and powders dispersion: optimization with zeta potential and rheological measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurries stability and powder dispersion are highly dependent on both the pH and their density. The analysis of these parameters allows us to keep the slurries defloculated, leading to an optimum mix of powders before calcination and reaction. The present work is devoted to the mixing of the different oxide and carbonate components in slurries to be synthesized by solid

S. Vallar; D. Houivet; J. El Fallah; D. Kervadec; J.-M. Haussonne

1999-01-01

355

Preparation and rheocasting of semisolid slurry of 5083 Al alloy with indirect ultrasonic vibration process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indirect ultrasonic vibration (IUV) method, in which the horn was vibrated under the outside of the metallic cup containing alloy melt, was employed for preparing semisolid slurry of 5083 Al alloy in this work. The effect of IUV on the microstructure of semisolid slurry and mechanical properties of rheo-diecasting samples were studied. The results indicate that good semisolid slurry

Shulin L; Shusen Wu; Chong Lin; Zuqi Hu; Ping An

2011-01-01

356

Groundwater contamination due to cattle slurry: modelling infiltration on the basis of soil column experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infiltration into soil of contaminants present in cattle slurry was studied. Column experiments were performed in order to characterize the release of contaminants at the slurry-soil interface after surface application of slurry, with subsequent rainfall or irrigation. A gradual decrease of contaminant concentrations was observed at this interface. The shape of the release curves suggests that the release of substances

E. Lpez Periago; A. Nez Delgado; F Diaz-Fierros

2000-01-01

357

Explorative research into quality of slurry manure from dairy farms with different feeding strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess cattle slurry manure quality in relation to feeding strategy, a field experiment and a bio-assay were carried out with slurries from four dairy farming systems that used diets differing in protein content and digestibility. Several quality aspects were evaluated. In the field experiment the effects of slurry manure type on herbage rejection by grazing heifers and herbage yield

J. W. Reijs; W. H. Meijer; E. J. Bakker; E. A. Lantinga

2003-01-01

358

Production of Paving Asphalt by Blending RFCC Slurry in Deoiled Asphalt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment of producing paving asphalt was performed by blending the deoiled asphalt and the residue fluid catalytic cracking (RFCC) slurry according to the uniform design method. The experiment scheme was designed by choosing the full-fraction FCC, above 400C slurry, above 445C slurry, and deoiled asphalt as factors. The mathematical model of blending components and asphalt properties was established by

H.-P. Li; J. Shen

2009-01-01

359

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding...Installations § 77.216-1 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding...immediately adjacent to each water, sediment or slurry impounding structure...

2013-07-01

360

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding...Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding...program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments that meet...

2013-07-01

361

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding...Installations § 77.216-4 Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding...operating, or controlling a water, sediment, or slurry impoundment and...

2013-07-01

362

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding...Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding...maintenance of structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if...

2013-07-01

363

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an...

2010-07-01

364

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...Installations § 77.216 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures...structures which impound water, sediment, or slurry shall be required if such an...

2009-07-01

365

Influence of moisture contamination of lead-free transparent dielectric slurry for tape casting  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the process of milling glass powders of lead-free transparent dielectric materials, moisture contamination from the air affects the properties of the slurry of the green sheet and of the fired films. Several solvents used to gain suitable dispersion stability of the slurry and dispersants, such as ionic and polymeric agents, are studied for optimization of the slurry composition of

Young-Jei Oh; Byung-Koog Jang; Hyun-Oh Kim

2011-01-01

366

Why coal slurries stir worldwide interest. Part 1. State-of-the-art  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in coal slurries has grown rapidly in recent years, not least because of the comparative ease with which users of liquid and gaseous fuels can adapt their equipment to burn slurries, rather than converting to solid fuel. Slurry fuels can be prepared using well-known technology, without the need for the large, high-risk capital required for synthetic fuels production. The

Bergman

1982-01-01

367

The combustion characteristics of coal slurry fuels in diesel engines: Detailed measurements and analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A program designed to address the atomization, ignition, and combustion problems associated with the use of slurry fuels in diesel engines is described. The program involves high-pressure injection rig and engine testing of three coal slurry fuels in Phase I, and modification of an existing analytical diesel engine heat release and pollutant formation model to include provision for coal slurry

L. P. Nelson; M. T. Heap; T. W. Sampson; W. R. Seeker

1985-01-01

368

Investigation of diesel engine fuel injector response to coal slurry fuels. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report describes the research evaluation of various fuel injection systems and equipment operating with coal slurry fuels for use in open chamber direct injection medium-speed diesel engines. Research centered on the pumpability aspect of coal slurry fuels and the compatibility of coal slurry fuels with commercially available fuel injection systems. Initial testing documented many problems in close-clearance areas from

Phatak

1983-01-01

369

A new system for the delivery and combustion control of coal slurries in diesel engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a new system which has the capacity to inject and control the combustion of coal slurries in diesel engines is described. The system eliminates the negative impact of coal slurries on the injection process, improves combustion of coal slurries, eliminates or greatly reduces the wear of the fuel delivery hardware, and prevents the nozzle clogging.

Baranescu

1989-01-01

370

DWPF DECON FRIT: SUMP AND SLURRY SOLIDS ANALYSIS  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to perform analyses on samples of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) decon frit slurry (i.e., supernate samples and sump solid samples). Four 1-L liquid slurry samples were provided to SRNL by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) from the 'front-end' decon activities. Additionally, two 1-L sump solids samples were provided to SRNL for compositional and physical analysis. In this report, the physical and chemical characterization results of the slurry solids and sump solids are reported. Crawford et al. (2010) provide the results of the supernate analysis. The results of the sump solids are reported on a mass basis given the samples were essentially dry upon receipt. The results of the slurry solids were converted to a volume basis given approximately 2.4 grams of slurry solids were obtained from the {approx}4 liters of liquid slurry sample. Although there were slight differences in the analytical results between the sump solids and slurry solids the following general summary statements can be made. Slight differences in the results are also captured for specific analysis. (1) Physical characterization - (a) SEM/EDS analysis suggested that the samples were enriched in Li and Si (B and Na not detectable using the current EDS system) which is consistent with two of the four principle oxides of Frit 418 (B{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}O, Li{sub 2}O and SiO{sub 2}). (b) SEM/EDS analysis also identified impurities which were elementally consistent with stainless steel (i.e., Fe, Ni, Cr contamination). (c) XRD results indicated that the sump solids samples were amorphous which is consistent with XRD results expected for a Frit 418 based sample. (d) For the sump solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size of the sump solids were consistent with that of an as received Frit 418 sample from a current DWPF vendor. (e) For the slurry solids, SEM/EDS analysis indicated that the particle size range of the slurry solids was much broader than compared to the sump solids. More specifically, there were significantly more fines in the slurry solids as compared to the sump solids. (f) PSD results indicated that > 99% of both the sump and slurry solids were less than 350 microns. The PSD results also supported SEM/EDS analysis that there were significantly more fines in the slurry solids as compared to the sump solids. (2) Weight Percent Solids - Based on the measured supernate density and mass of insoluble solids (2.388 grams) filtered from the four liters of liquid slurry samples, the weight percent insoluble solids was estimated to be 0.060 wt%. This level of insoluble solids is higher than the ETP WAC limit of 100 mg/L, or 0.01 wt% which suggests a separation technology of some type would be required. (3) Chemical Analysis - (a) Elemental results from ICP-ES analysis indicated that the sump solids and slurry were very consistent with the nominal composition of Frit 418. There were other elements identified by ICP analysis which were either consistent with the presence of stainless steel (as identified by SEM/EDS analysis) or impurities that have been observed in 'as received' Frit 418 from the vendor. (b) IC anion analysis of the sump solids and slurry solids indicated all of the species were less than detection limits. (c) Radionuclide analysis of the sump solids also indicated that most of the analytes were either at or below the detection limits. (d) Organic analysis of the sump solids and slurry solids indicated all of the species were less than detection limits. It should be noted that the results of this study may not be representative of future decon frit solutions or sump/slurry solids samples. Therefore, future DWPF decisions regarding the possible disposal pathways for either the aqueous or solid portions of the Decon Frit system need to factor in the potential differences. More specifically, introduction of a different frit or changes to other DWPF flowsheet unit operations (e.g., different sludge batch or coupling with other process streams) ma

Crawford, C.; Peeler, D.; Click, D.

2010-10-20

371

Implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks Based Pig Farm Integrated Management System in Ubiquitous Agricultural Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wireless sensor networks (WSN) technology based on low power consumption is one of the important technologies in the realization of ubiquitous society. When the technology would be applied to the agricultural field, it can give big change in the existing agricultural environment such as livestock growth environment, cultivation and harvest of agricultural crops. This research paper proposes the 'Pig Farm Integrated Management System' based on WSN technology, which will establish the ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of pig-raising farmers. The proposed system has WSN environmental sensors and CCTV at inside/outside of pig farm. These devices collect the growth-environment related information of pigs, such as luminosity, temperature, humidity and CO2 status. The system collects and monitors the environmental information and video information of pig farm. In addition to the remote-control and monitoring of the pig farm facilities, this system realizes the most optimum pig-raising environment based on the growth environmental data accumulated for a long time.

Hwang, Jeonghwan; Lee, Jiwoong; Lee, Hochul; Yoe, Hyun

372

Isobutene hydration over Amberlyst-15 in a slurry reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) via isobutene (iB) hydration was studied over Amberlyst-15 sulfonic acid catalyst particles using pure water and aqueous TBA solutions in a bubbling slurry reactor. Preliminary studies to investigate mass transfer effects showed that pore diffusion was present for catalyst particles greater than 165 ?m in diameter. Therefore, intrinsic kinetic measurements were made using

C. M. Zhang; A. A. Adesina; M. S. Wainwright

2003-01-01

373

Secondary Slurry-Zinc/Air Battery: Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rechargeability of the slurry-Zn/air battery was demonstrated with a practical recharge cell that requires minimal hydraulic and mechanical energy for operation. A dendritic Zn was deposited on a Mg plate substrate from which it was easily, periodical...

H. B. Sierra Alcazar P. D. Nguyen G. E. Mason A. A. Pinoli

1989-01-01

374

Measurements of Slurry Film Thickness and Wafer Drag during CMP  

Microsoft Academic Search

d Intel Corporation, Santa Clara, California 95052-8119, USA Chemical mechanical planarization ~CMP! is a process widely used for the manufacture of silicon integrated circuits. In this work, we measured the thickness of the slurry film between the wafer and the pad during polish while simultaneously measuring the frictional drag. All experiments are performed on a 1:2 scale laboratory tabletop rotary

J. Lu; C. Rogers; V. P. Manno; A. Philipossian; S. Anjur; M. Moinpourd

2004-01-01

375

Monorail support apparatus for a slurry transportation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

An underground slurry transportation system for a mine is made mobile by attaching a first and a second rail to the roof of a mine tunnel. The rails are parallelly spaced and each has the general cross sectional configuration of an I beam. The rails are attached to the roof by means of roof bolts. An adjustable coupling is provided

W. B. Jamison; A. B. Coval

1975-01-01

376

Evaluation of Carbon Black Slurries as Clean Burning Fuels.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes the results of the combustion of carbon black slurries. (NOTE: The Hydrocarb process is being evaluated as a method of producing methanol hydrogen-rich fuel gas, and carbon black.) Since carbon black has significant heating value (33.7...

R. K. Srivastava W. P. Linak

1993-01-01

377

Dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene in a slurry reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The April 1990 Alternative Fuels Proposal to the Department of Energy involved the development of new technology, based on the liquid phase process, for conversion of coal-derived synthesis gas to oxygenated hydrocarbon fuels, fuel additives, and fuel intermediates. The objective of this work was to develop a slurry reactor based process for the dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The isobutene

Latshaw

1994-01-01

378

Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry  

DOEpatents

In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul D. (Tucson, AZ)

2002-01-01

379

Slurry Reactors for Gas-to-Liquid Processes: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the dramatic increase in the international oil price, gas-to-liquid processes of Fischer -Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol synthesis, and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis have become increasingly important and received much attention from both academic and industrial interests. The slurry reactor has the advantages of simple construction, excellent heat transfer performance, online catalyst addition and withdrawal, and a reasonable interphase mass

Tiefeng Wang; Jinfu Wang; Yong Jin

2007-01-01

380

Open mesh device for improved in-car slurrying  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a method for improved in-car slurrying of dry bulk powder contained in hopper compartments in a hopper car, each compartment having means for admitting air under pressure and water into the compartment at the bottom thereof comprising the steps of: providing a porous obstruction across the upper portion of the compartment at about the level of the

R. L. Younger; J. S. Coulter

1988-01-01

381

Improving the attrition resistance of slurry phase heterogeneous catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Slurry phase heterogeneous catalysts for processes such as FischerTropsch (FT) synthesis must exhibit a high degree of attrition resistance. The precipitated FeCu catalyst used for FT synthesis is quite weak in its as-prepared state. Spray-drying yields spherical particles which show some improvement in attrition resistance. However, the formation of fines (

Hien N Pham; Alexander Viergutz; Robert J Gormley; Abhaya K Datye

2000-01-01

382

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

2001-01-07

383

Oxidation-Resistant Slurry Coating for Carbon-Based Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New process uses paint sprayer and vacuum furnace to produce silicon carbide outer layer. In cross section of silicon and silicon carbide reaction zone, top layer of silicon adheres to silicon carbide layer. Crystals prominent on melted top surface of slurry coating. Process especially useful in coating repair.

Smialek, J. L.

1984-01-01

384

Combustion characterization of coal-water slurry fuel  

SciTech Connect

As a result of coal cleaning operations, a substantial amount of coal is disposed as waste into the ponds, effecting and endangering the environment. This study includes a technique to recover and utilize the waste coal fines from the preparation plant effluent streams and tailing ponds. Due to the large moisture content of the recovered coal fines, this investigation is focused on the utilization of coal fines in the coal-water slurry fuel. It is our belief that a blend of plant coal and waste coal fines can be used to produce a coal-water slurry fuel with the desired combustion characteristics required by the industry. The coal blend is composed of 85% clean coal and 15% recovered coal fines. The coal-water slurry is prepared at 60% solids with a viscosity less than 500 centipose and 80-90% of solid particles passing through 200 mesh. This paper contains analysis of clean coal, recovered coal fines, and coal-water slurry fuel as well as combustion characteristics.

Masudi, Houshang; Samudrala, S.

1996-12-31

385

Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used

Allen B

1989-01-01

386

WATER QUALITY CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EASTERN COAL SLURRY  

EPA Science Inventory

Current and projected used of coal have resulted in several proposals for coal slurry pipelines in the United States. A typical eastern coal has a greater sulfur content and a smaller percentage of alkaline minerals in the ash than a typical western coal. Thus, eastern coal slurr...

387

Model slurries for chemical mechanical planarization of copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical-Mechanical Planarization (CMP) is the most widely accepted method to achieve global planarization for fabrication of integrated circuits. A major drawback of CMP is that post-CMP wafers may have various contaminants. Since removal of particles from a dried surface is much more difficult, reduction of particulate contamination during the CMP process is desirable to alleviate post-CMP cleaning requirements. Model slurries containing different alumina abrasives, oxidizers and surfactants for the CMP of copper are investigated, using various slurry characteristics, CMP removal rate, and surface contamination as metrics. Surface tension of slurries and zeta potential of abrasive and abraded materials (CuO and Cu 2O) are measured. Alumina abrasives with the same nominal size, from different manufactures, showed appreciably different removal rates, attributed to differences in phase, size, and shape of the abrasives. CMP of Cu films with alumina, but without any chemical in the slurry, always results in a high density of particulate defects, because of the attraction between abrasive and the surface of Cu film. The influence of different oxidizers was studied by using electrochemical measurements together with CMP removal rates and static etch rates. An effective passivation layer on the surface of copper was formed with potassium dichromate. The use of potassium dichromate not only increases removal rate of copper but also decreases particulate defect density, due to the like charge developed on the surfaces of the abrasive, Cu film, and abraded material. The CMP removal rate of Cu film decreases with either nonionic or anionic surfactant in the slurry, due to the adsorbed surfactant layer which reduces the efficiency of abrasion by cushioning effect. A nonionic surfactant, Triton X, does not reduce the particulate defect density on the post-CMP copper film, even with appreciably decreased surface tension of the slurry. However, the use of an anionic surfactants, DOWFAX, not only decrease the surface tension of the slurry but also greatly decrease particulate contamination on the post-CMP copper surface by developing repulsive forces between abrasive, Cu film, and abraded material. The post-CMP surfaces of damascene patterned copper lines are in agreement with the copper CMP process concepts developed in this research.

Lee, Byung-Chan

388

Saving genetic resources of native pigs in occidental and Oriental countries - practical examples of the characterization and utilization of native pigs in Hungary and Laos.  

PubMed

Worldwide, only a few "fatty" pig breeds exist with different and/or regional utilization. Using the Hungarian Mangalica, which almost went extinct in Europe and the Lao Moo Lat pig, which still has a large population in South-East Asia as exemples, we wanted to demonstrate that indigenous (fatty) pig breeds may represent both national value and tremendous economic potential. Since these less prolific and less productive breeds cannot contribute to mass production, new market roles and methods should be established for them in the premium segment of pork trading. Thus their preservation and propagation needs the comprehensive collaboration of commercial, governmental actors and researchers. Briefly summarizing the history, we report the current results of reproductive physiology research. The commercial renaissance of Mangalica pigs is indebted to the enthusiastic efforts of basic scientists, pig breeding experts and dedicated Mangalica producers. Scientific achievements were applied to practical breeding and production of delicious pork and processed products, which ultimately made the economic success in the Mangalica sector possible. Both, research on and utilization of endangered (pig) breeds maintain not only breed diversities, but also may improve the livelihood of farmers worldwide. PMID:24162808

Rtky, Jozsef; Egerszegi, Istvan; Toth, Peter; Keonuchan, Soukanh; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Manabe, Noboru; Brssow, Klaus-Peter

2013-10-01

389

Saving Genetic Resources of Native Pigs in Occidental and Oriental Countries -- Practical Examples of the Characterization and Utilization of Native Pigs in Hungary and Laos  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, only a few fatty pig breeds exist with different and/or regional utilization. Using the Hungarian Mangalica, which almost went extinct in Europe and the Lao Moo Lat pig, which still has a large population in South-East Asia as exemples, we wanted to demonstrate that indigenous (fatty) pig breeds may represent both national value and tremendous economic potential. Since these less prolific and less productive breeds cannot contribute to mass production, new market roles and methods should be established for them in the premium segment of pork trading. Thus their preservation and propagation needs the comprehensive collaboration of commercial, governmental actors and researchers. Briefly summarizing the history, we report the current results of reproductive physiology research. The commercial renaissance of Mangalica pigs is indebted to the enthusiastic efforts of basic scientists, pig breeding experts and dedicated Mangalica producers. Scientific achievements were applied to practical breeding and production of delicious pork and processed products, which ultimately made the economic success in the Mangalica sector possible. Both, research on and utilization of endangered (pig) breeds maintain not only breed diversities, but also may improve the livelihood of farmers worldwide.

RATKY, Jozsef; EGERSZEGI, Istvan; TOTH, Peter; KEONUCHAN, Soukanh; NAGAI, Takashi; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; MANABE, Noboru; BRUSSOW, Klaus-Peter

2013-01-01

390

Development of a slurry introduction method for multi-element analysis of antibiotics by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using various types of spray chamber and nebulizer configurations.  

PubMed

A direct sample introduction inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) method, for multi-element analysis of powdered antibiotic drugs was developed using the slurry formation technique. The slurry of powdered sample is formed in dilute nitric acid solution in presence of Triton X-100 surfactant. Two different configurations of spray chamber and nebulizer were tested for direct aspiration of slurry into the plasma: (i) cyclonic spray chamber combined with babington-type nebulizer and (ii) scott-type double-pass spray chamber combined with cross-flow nebulizer. The latter configuration proved to be less tolerable to slurry aspiration. RF power generator, nebulizer argon gas flow rate, nebulizer sample uptake flow rate and slurry sample concentration were optimized. The sensitivity of the proposed method was compared to the corresponding sensitivity obtained from aqueous solutions for each analyte. The performance characteristics of the slurry aspiration method were evaluated against the complete acid-digestion method followed ICP-AES. Finally, the proposed method was applied to the analysis of commercial antibiotics. PMID:17045773

Zachariadis, G A; Michos, C E

2007-02-19

391

Determination of lead in fine particulates by slurry sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

A simple method for determining lead in fine particulates (PM2.5) by using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) has been developed. Particulates collected on Nuclepore filter by using a dichotomous sampler were suspended in diluted nitric acid after ultrasonic agitation. The dislodging efficiency is nearly 100% after agitation for 5 min. In order to study the suspension behavior of PM2.5 in solvents, a Brookhaven ZetaPlus Particle Size Analyzer was used to determine the particle size distribution and suspension behavior of air particulates in the solvent. The pre-digestion and modification effect of nitric acid would be discussed. Palladium was added as a chemical modifier and the temperature program of ETAAS was changed in order to improve the recovery. The slurry was introduced directly into a graphite tube for atomization. The metal content in the sample was determined by the standard addition method. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling method. It offers a quick and efficient alternative method for heavy metal characterization in fine particulates. PMID:11225361

Yu, J C; Ho, K F; Lee, S C

2001-01-01

392

Tantrum behavior in the pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tantrum behavior that occurred in an experimental pig when the animal was given greater freedom of motion, as well as the technique by which it was modified, is described. The quieting of the animal was brought about by clipping the flank, i.e., by \\

F. L. Marcuse; A. U. Moore

1944-01-01

393

Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.  

PubMed

Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg. PMID:24713198

Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, Mara; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

2014-08-01

394

Use of domesticated pigs by Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in northwestern Europe  

PubMed Central

Mesolithic populations throughout Europe used diverse resource exploitation strategies that focused heavily on collecting and hunting wild prey. Between 5500 and 4200 cal BC, agriculturalists migrated into northwestern Europe bringing a suite of Neolithic technologies including domesticated animals. Here we investigate to what extent Mesolithic Erteblle communities in northern Germany had access to domestic pigs, possibly through contact with neighbouring Neolithic agricultural groups. We employ a multidisciplinary approach, applying sequencing of ancient mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (coat colour-coding gene MC1R) as well as traditional and geometric morphometric (molar size and shape) analyses in Sus specimens from 17 Neolithic and Erteblle sites. Our data from 63 ancient pig specimens show that Erteblle hunter-gatherers acquired domestic pigs of varying size and coat colour that had both Near Eastern and European mitochondrial DNA ancestry. Our results also reveal that domestic pigs were present in the region ~500 years earlier than previously demonstrated.

Krause-Kyora, Ben; Makarewicz, Cheryl; Evin, Allowen; Flink, Linus Girdland; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Hartz, Sonke; Schreiber, Stefan; von Carnap-Bornheim, Claus; von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Nebel, Almut

2013-01-01

395

THE USE OF DI WATER TO MITIGATE DUSTING FOR ADDITION OF DWPF FRIT TO THE SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DPWF) presently is in the process to determine means to reduce water utilization in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) process, thus reducing effluent and processing times. The frit slurry addition system mixes the dry frit with water, yielding approximately a 50 weight percent slurry containing frit and the other fraction water. This slurry is discharged

2010-01-01

396

Numerical investigation of heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of tubefin heat exchangers in ice slurry HVAC system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a tubefin heat exchanger in ice slurry HVAC system. Ice slurry is a suspension of crystallized water based - ice solution with a freezing point depressant like ethylene glycol. The ice- slurry is pumpable, hence it is also called pumpable ice. The composition of ice slurry considered for analysis

S. Kalaiselvam; P. Karthik; S. Ranjit Prakash

2009-01-01

397

Fundamental combustion studies of low-rank coal slurries. Quarterly technical progress report No. 9, March 1May 31, 1986  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contract for fundamental combustion studies of low-rank coal slurries was initiated March 1, 1984. Slurries being studied are primarily those produced from steam-dried lignite coal provided by the Grand Forks Project Office. Contract work includes virgin coal and slurry characterization, slurry spray and atomization measurements, and parametric combustion optimization tests. Also included are detailed mapping of combustion products and

G. J. Germane; L. D. Smoot

1986-01-01

398

Slurry reactor design studies. Slurry vs. fixed-bed reactors for Fischer-Tropsch and methanol: Final report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to op...

B. D. Degen F. D. Deslate G. Cady J. M. Fox R. L. Summers

1990-01-01

399

Improved procedure and cannula design for simple-T cannulation at the distal ileum in growing pigs.  

PubMed

Inserting a device (cannula) into the ileum is a common technique for studying nutrient digestibility, determining the disappearance or synthesis of a component, live tissue sampling, and inserting compounds or therapeutic agents into a specific region of the gastrointestinal tract. The purpose of this study was to implement improved cannulation procedures and care and management practices for cannulated pigs. Using these improved procedures, we successfully cannulated and maintained 15 pigs, each with an initial body weight of 30 kg. The newly designed cannula afforded improved stability and ease of adjustment while providing increased comfort to the pigs. The cannula was exteriorized through the last two ribs, providing excellent stability and security. To increase pig comfort, the cannulation site was washed and dried thoroughly and ointment was applied to the skin twice daily throughout the 63-day experiment. These updated procedures and maintenance practices should be considered and implemented in future experiments involving intestinal cannulation in pigs. PMID:11703054

Wubben, J E; Smiricky, M R; Albin, D M; Gabert, V M

2001-11-01

400

Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs  

PubMed Central

Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilization is affected by the age of the pig and the pig breed. The use of potential prebiotic effects of dietary fiber is an attractive way to stimulate gut health and thereby minimize the use of anti-microbial growth promoters. Inclusion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet can stimulate the growth of commensal gut microbes. Inclusion of NSP from chicory results in changes in gut micro-environment and gut morphology of pigs, while growth performance remains unaffected and digestibility was only marginally reduced. The fermentation products and pH in digesta responded to diet type and were correlated with shifts in the microbiota. Interestingly, fiber intake will have an impact on the expression of intestinal epithelial heat-shock proteins in the pig. Heat-shock proteins have an important physiological role in the gut and carry out crucial housekeeping functions in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, there are increasing evidence showing that fiber can have prebiotic effects in pigs due to interactions with the gut micro-environment and the gut associated immune system.

2014-01-01

401

Click-evoked myogenic potentials recorded on alert guinea pigs.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish an animal model of acoustically evoked vestibulo-collic reflex using guinea pigs. A special clamp was applied to restrain the head and body of the guinea pigs, but leaving its four legs free. Each animal underwent vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) and caloric tests using clip electrode method without general anesthesia or decerebrate surgery. The response rates for the myogenic potentials on the neck of guinea pigs using 100, 90, 80 and 70 dB monaural acoustic stimulation with unilateral recording were 100%, 62%, 50% and 0%, respectively. The mean latencies of the positive and negative peaks for the myogenic potentials were 7.24+/-0.49 and 9.15+/-0.47 ms, 7.09+/-0.43 and 9.28+/-0.42 ms, as well as 7.03+/-0.59 and 9.14+/-0.56 ms, when elicited by 100, 90 and 80 dB acoustic stimulation, respectively. The median (minimum-maximum) peak-to-peak amplitudes were 11.93 (6.14-16.86), 10.99 (5.28-19.40), and 11.17 (5.02-20.72) microV, when elicited by 100, 90 and 80 dB acoustic stimulation, respectively. We found no significant relationship between the stimulus intensity and the mean latencies or peak-to-peak amplitude of the myogenic potentials in guinea pigs. For those treated with gentamicin unilaterally, all guinea pigs showed absent caloric responses on the lesion side, and absent myogenic potentials on the neck when using ipsi-lesional acoustic stimulation, while the hearing was preserved. Hence, the use of gentamicin-treated animals, along with normal controls and auditory brainstem responses, results in convincing results that the recorded myogenic potentials are in fact of vestibular origin. PMID:15953537

Yang, Ting-Hua; Young, Yi-Ho

2005-07-01

402

Pig but not Human Interferon-? Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-? (IFN-? ) but not human IFN-? or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-? also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-? (but not human IFN-? or heat-inactivated pig IFN-? ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

1997-08-01

403

Characterisation of the microbial diversity in a pig manure storage pit using small subunit rDNA sequence analysis.  

PubMed

The microbial community structure of pig manure slurry (PMS) was determined with comparative analysis of 202 bacterial, 44 archaeal and 33 eukaryotic small subunit (SSU) rDNA partial sequences. Based on a criterion of 97% of sequence similarity, the phylogenetic analyses revealed a total of 108, eight and five phylotypes for the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya lineages, respectively. Only 36% of the bacterial phylotypes were closely related (>or=97% similarity) to any previously known sequence in databases. The bacterial groups most often represented in terms of phylotype and clone abundance were the Eubacterium (22% of total sequences), the Clostridium (15% of sequences), the Bacillus-Lactobacillus-Streptococcus subdivision (20% of sequences), theMycoplasma and relatives (10% of sequences) and the Flexibacter-Cytophaga-Bacteroides (20% of sequences). The global microbial community structure and phylotype diversity show a close relationship to the pig gastrointestinal tract ecosystem whereas phylotypes from the Acholeplasma-Anaeroplasma and the Clostridium purinolyticum groups appear to be better represented in manure. Archaeal diversity was dominated by three phylotypes clustering with a group of uncultured microorganisms of unknown activity and only distantly related to the Thermoplasmales and relatives. Other Archaea were methanogenic H2/CO2 utilisers. No known acetoclastic Archaea methanogen was found. Eukaryotic diversity was represented by a pluricellular nematode, two Alveolata, a Blastocystis and an Entamoebidae. Manure slurry physico-chemical characteristics were analysed. Possible inhibitory effects of acetate, sulphide and ammonia concentrations on the microbial anaerobic ecosystem are discussed. PMID:16329909

Snell-Castro, Ral; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delgens, Jean-Philippe; Dabert, Patrick

2005-04-01

404

Fundamental combustion studies of low-rank coal slurries. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, September 1November 30, 1985  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contract for fundamental combustion studies of low-rank coal slurries was initiated March 1, 1984. Slurries being studied are primarily those produced from steam-dried lignite coal provided by the Grand Forks Project Office. Contract work includes virgin coal and slurry characterization, slurry spray and atomization measurements. Also included are detailed mapping of combustion products and pollutants for low-rank coal slurries

G. J. Germane; L. D. Smoot

1985-01-01

405

Fundamental combustion studies of low-rank coal slurries. Quarterly technical progress report. No. 1, March 1May 31, 1984  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contract for fundamental combustion studies of low-rank coal slurries was initiated March 1, 1984. Slurries to be studied will be primarily those produced from steam-dried lignite processed by the Grand Forks Project Office. Contract work includes virgin coal and slurry characterization, slurry spray and atomization measurements, detailed mapping of combustion products and pollutants for low-rank coal slurries in a

G. J. Germane; L. D. Smoot

1984-01-01

406

Comparative evaluation of the abrasive slurry wear behavior of alloy surfaces produced by a Plasma Transferred Arc hardfacing process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abrasive slurry wear is generally defined as a mechanical interaction in which the material becomes lost in a surface that\\u000a is in contact with moving particles, such as laden liquid. Slurry wear abrasion occurs in extruders, slurry pumps, and pipes\\u000a that carry the slurry of minerals and ores in mineral processing industries. The life of the components used under slurry

C. S. Ramachandran; V. Balasubramanian; R. Varahamoorthy

2010-01-01

407

A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)  

PubMed Central

Background Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans.

2012-01-01

408

ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and nonreacting slurry flows, and to solve a number of technologically important problems related to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel production processes. (4) To verify the validity of the developed model by comparing the predicted results with the performed and the available experimental data under idealized conditions.

Goodarz Ahmadi

2001-10-01

409

Applied Enzymology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some examples of chemical and industrial applications of enzymes. Includes a background, a discussion of structure and reactivity, enzymes as therapeutic agents, enzyme replacement, enzymes used in diagnosis, industrial applications of enzymes, and immobilizing enzymes. Concludes that applied enzymology is an important factor in

Manoharan, Asha; Dreisbach, Joseph H.

1988-01-01

410

Secretory component of the guinea-pig.  

PubMed Central

Free secretory component (FSC) was purified from guinea-pig milk by gel-filtration and immunoabsorption on anti-SC antibodies. Guinea-pig FSC cross-reacted with antisera to human FSC, and the reverse. Guinea-pig and human FSC resembled each other in molecular size, electrophoretic mobility and heterogeneity, as well as by the existence of antigenic determinants restricted to the unassociated form of the molecule. Guinea-pig FSC associates in vitro with guinea-pig IgM. Distribution of disulphide links is required to set free guinea-pig FSC from secretory IgA. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 7 FIG. 8 FIG. 9 FIG. 10

Vaerman, J P; Naccache-Corbic, M C; Heremans, J F

1975-01-01

411

Conjunctival microbial flora of clinically normal pigs.  

PubMed

Conjunctival swab specimens from healthy pigs were cultured to determine normal microbial population. Four commercial swine operations were selected for study. Pigs of 4 age groups were tested: nursing pigs, nursery pigs, feeder pigs, and sows. Swab specimens were taken from the conjunctival sac of each pig. Bacterial, fungal, and mycoplasmal growth was determined separately. Chlamydia sp was detected by use of an ELISA. Bacteria were recovered from 98% of specimens evaluated. alpha-Streptococcus sp (89%) was the most commonly recovered organism, followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (39%) and Staphylococcus sp (39%). Mycoplasma sp was not detected in any of the specimens. Chlamydia sp was identified in 28% of all specimens evaluated. These results are similar to reports of normal conjunctival flora in other domestic animals. PMID:7978633

Davidson, H J; Rogers, D P; Yeary, T J; Stone, G G; Schoneweis, D A; Chengappa, M M

1994-07-01

412

RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

Fernandez, A.

2010-02-08

413

Development of short-range repulsive potentials in aqueous, silicon nitride slurries  

SciTech Connect

The properties of aqueous, dispersed, silicon nitride slurries, with an isoelectric point of pH 5.5, can be changed with additions of NH[sub 4]Cl. At pH 10 the effect of adding NH[sub 4]Cl is similar to that suggested by DLVO theory; namely, for concentrations [<=] 0.5M, the viscosity vs shear rate behavior, the elastic modulus, and the relative packing density are identical to hose for slurries prepared at the isoelectric point. On the other hand, the effect of salt on dispersed slurries prepared at pH 2 differs from the behavior implied by classic DLVO theory; i.e., measurement of the same properties showed that the attractive interparticle potential was much weaker relative to that produced at the isoelectric point. As previously reported for alumina slurries, the results suggest that a short-range, repulsive interparticle potential is developed in salt-added slurries prepared at pH 2 which prevents attractive particles in the slurry from touching and aids particle packing. The same short-range potential apparently is not developed with salt additions at pH 10. The difference between silicon nitride and alumina slurries is apparent when the slurries are consolidated. Bodies consolidated from any silicon nitride slurry are elastic (i.e., they fracture before they flow) unlike salt-added alumina slurries, which are plastic.

Luther, E.P.; Kramer, T.M.; Lange, F.F.; Pearson, D.S. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Materials Dept.)

1994-04-01

414

Effect of cattle slurry pre-treatment by separation and addition of nitrification inhibitors on gaseous emissions and N dynamics: a laboratory study.  

PubMed

The application of untreated or treated animal manure to soils can result in increased N and C gaseous emissions contributing to ecosystem change and global warming. In the present study, dairy cattle slurry (liquid manure) was subjected first to pre-treatment by separation using a screw press to obtain a liquid (LF) and a solid fraction (SF). Then, the different fractions and the whole slurry (WS) were combined with two nitrification inhibitors (NI), dicyandiamide (DCD) or 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP), were applied to soil to assess the effect of slurry treatment by separation and NI addition on soil N dynamics and CH4, CO2, NH3, NO and N2O emissions. The WS and the two slurry fractions, combined or not with DCD or DMPP, were applied to soil at an equivalent field dosage of 120 kg total N ha(-1). Controls including a soil only, soil-DCD and soil-DMPP treatments were also included. The mixtures were incubated for 93-d at 20 degrees C. Results obtained show that NI inhibited nitrification between 16 and 30-d in WS and LF, with DMPP having a longer effect over time compared to DCD. There was no significant effect of NI on nitrification for the SF treatment. Nitrification inhibitors did not significantly affect (P>0.05) the CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions, but significantly decreased (P<0.05) NO emissions. Furthermore, the two NIs had a similar effect on gaseous emissions. Throughout the entire experiment, the greatest amount of NO was released from the LF treatment (without NI), while the greatest amount of N2O was released from the SF treatment. Slurry separation had no impact on N emissions, while the combination of this process with one of the two NI led to a small reduction in total N emissions. PMID:20202667

Pereira, Jos; Fangueiro, David; Chadwick, David R; Misselbrook, Tom H; Coutinho, Joo; Trindade, Henrique

2010-04-01

415

Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications  

SciTech Connect

This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-01

416

Fundamental combustion studies of hot water-dried low-rank coal slurries: Final report, March 1984August 1986. [Comparison of lignite and bituminous coal slurry combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

This contract for fundamental combustion studies of low-rank coal slurries was initiated March 1, 1984 and ended August 31, 1986. Slurries which were studied were primarily those produced from hot water-dried lignite coal provided by the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center through the Grand Forks Project Office of the United States Department of Energy. Contract work included virgin

G. J. Germane; L. D. Smoot

1986-01-01

417

Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport  

SciTech Connect

The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

1980-03-31

418

Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors are identified which must be considered in meeting the requirements of a transportation system for conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location neat the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located near the surface. For successful operation, the slurry haulage the system should be designed to operated in the turbulent flow regime at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity (slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe). The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the projected coal output. Partical size, solid concentration, density, and viscosity of the suspension are if importance as well as the selection of the pumps, pipes, and valves. The parameters with the greatest effect on system performance ar flow velocity, pressure coal particle size, and solids concentration.

Maynard, D. P.

1981-01-01

419

Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry  

SciTech Connect

Aerosol measurements were conducted above a half-scale air sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry. Three aerosol size fractions were measured at three sampling heights at three different sparging rates using a filter based ambient air sampling technique. Aerosol concentrations in the head space above the closed tank demonstrated a wide range, varying between 97 ?g m-3 for PM2.5 and 5650 ?g m-3 for TSP. The variation in concentrations was a function of sampling heights, size fraction and sparging rate. Measured aerosol entrainment coefficients showed good agreement with existing entrainment models. The models evaluated generally over predicted the entrainment, but were within a factor of two of the measured entrainment. This indicates that the range of applicability of the models may be extendable to include sparged slurries with Bingham plastic rheological properties.

Fritz, Brad G.

2006-08-01

420

Applying the \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automation can cause problems with the human factor. One approach is to make automation become a team player. A team player\\u000a agrees on a common ground, they show intention, they show reasoning, express their limits of performance and so on. This approach\\u000a has been applied to adaptive driver information in the present study. Ten experts on different in-vehicle systems were

Staffan Davidsson; Hkan Alm

2009-01-01

421

Blastocystis tropism in the pig intestine.  

PubMed

Blastocystis has been reported in pig feces but the sites of development in the gastrointestinal tract are unknown. The present study was undertaken to determine predilection sites of Blastocystis in 11 naturally infected pigs examined at 20 weeks of age. At necropsy, feces and contents of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and cecum were examined by immunofluorescence (IFA) microscopy and PCR and tissues from these sites as well as the proximal and distal colon were processed for histology from pigs 1 to 5. Feces were examined by IFA microscopy, and segments from the jejunum and ileum were processed for histology from pigs 6 to 11. Multiple sections were cut from each tissue segment, and each was stained with the following: hematoxylin and eosin, polyclonal rabbit antibody to Blastocystis, and ParaFlor B monoclonal antibody to Blastocystis. Blastocystis was detected in feces of all 11 pigs by IFA microscopy and determined by PCR and gene sequencing to be subtype 5 for pigs 1-5. Blastocystis was also detected in the lumen contents removed from the cecum of pigs 1-5 examined by IFA microscopy and in the cecum of pigs 4 and 5 by PCR. Blastocystis was also observed in tissue sections from the jejunum of 7 of the 11 pigs, in the proximal and distal colon of pigs 1-5, and in the cecum of 4 of these 5 pigs but was not detected in the duodenum or ileum of any pigs. In tissue sections, Blastocystis was found primarily in the lumen usually associated with digested food debris, sometimes in close proximity or appearing to adhere to the epithelium, but no stages were found to penetrate the epithelium or the lamina propria. PMID:24535732

Fayer, R; Elsasser, T; Gould, R; Solano, G; Urban, J; Santin, M

2014-04-01

422

Nutritional studies in native, Thai Kadon pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the North-East of Thailand native, so-called Kadon pigs are typically kept on small-holder farms. Kadon pig is believed to be on the edge of extinction and in 2003 it was designated as a protected species of production animals. The main objective of this thesis was to study various nutritional aspects of Kadon pigs. Chapter 1, providing quantitative information on

Kraisit Vasupen

2007-01-01

423

Valine requirement of nursery pigs1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six experiments were conducted to de- termine the true digestible valine requirement of 5- to 20-kg pigs. In Exp. 1, a valine-deficient diet for 5- to 10-kg pigs was developed and validated in terms of growth performance in response to supplemental L-va- line. A different basal diet was validated for 10- to 20- kg pigs in Exp. 2. Both diets

I. Mavromichalis; B. J. Kerr; T. M. Parr; D. M. Albin; V. M. Gabert; D. H. Baker

2009-01-01

424

Effectiveness of high energy electron beam against spore forming bacteria and viruses in slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of high energy electron beam effect against the most resistant indicators - spore forming bacteria (Clostridium sporogenes) and viruses (BPV) - which may occur in slurry. The applied doses of electron beam were 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 12 kGy. The theoretic inactivating dose of high energy electron beam for Clostridium sporogenes spores calculated based on the polynomial curve equation was 11.62 kGy, and determined on the basis of regression line equation for BPV virus was equal 23.49 kGy. The obtained results showed a quite good effectiveness of irradiation in bacterial spores inactivation, whereas relatively poor against viruses.

Skowron, Krzysztof; Paluszak, Zbigniew; Olszewska, Halina; Wieczorek, Magdalena; Zimek, Zbigniew; ?rutek, M?cis?aw

2014-08-01

425

Design and use of multiple blade slurry sawing in a production atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique and uses of the multiple blade slurry (MBS) saw are considered. Multiple bands of steel are arranged in a frame and the frame is reciprocated with the steel bands to a workpiece, while simultaneously applying abrasive at the point of contact. The blades wear slots in the workpiece and progress through the piece resulting in several parts of wafers. The transition to MBA from diamond slicing is justified by savings resulting from minimized kerf losses, minimized subsurface damage, and improved surface quality off the saw. This allows wafering much closer to finished thickness specifications. The current state of the art MBS technology must be significantly improved if the low cost solar array (LSA) goals are to be attained. It is concluded that although MBS will never be the answer to every wafering requirement, the economical production of wafers to LSA project specifications will be achieved.

Lynah, F. P., Jr.; Ross, J. B.

1982-01-01

426

Color removal from aqueous solution by biogas residual slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Acid Brilliant Blue on biogas residual slurry has been investigated. The parameters studied include dye concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH. The equilibrium data fit well with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption isotherm. Maximum removal of 99% was observed at pH 2.56. Desorption studies indicate that the dye is solubilised in 50%(v\\/v) acetic

R. T. Yamuna; C. Namasivayam

1993-01-01

427

Ice slurry on outdoor running performance in heat.  

PubMed

The efficacy of ingestion of ice slurry on actual outdoor endurance performance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate ice slurry ingestion as a cooling intervention before a 10 km outdoor running time-trial. Twelve participants ingested 8?g??kg?(-?1) of either ice slurry (?-?1.4C; ICE) or ambient temperature drink (30.9C; CON) and performed a 15-min warm-up prior to a 10 km outdoor running time-trial (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature: 28.2 0.8C). Mean performance time was faster with ICE (2?715 396 s) than CON (2?730 385 s; P=0.023). Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) reduced by 0.5 0.2C after ICE ingestion compared with 0.1 0.1C (P<0.001) with CON. During the run, the rate of rise in Tgi was greater (P=0.01) with ICE than with CON for the first 15 min. At the end of time-trial, Tgi was higher with ICE (40.2 0.6C) than CON (39.8 0.4C, P=0.005). Ratings of thermal sensation were lower during the cooling phase and for the first kilometre of the run (?-?1.2 0.8; P<0.001). Although ingestion of ice slurry resulted in a transient increase in heat strain following a warm up routine, it is a practical and effective pre-competition cooling manoeuvre to improve performance in warm and humid environments. PMID:22730052

Yeo, Z W; Fan, P W P; Nio, A Q X; Byrne, C; Lee, J K W

2012-11-01

428

Additives for Slurry Shields in Highly Permeable Ground  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.For tunneling projects in saturated soils tunnel boring machines (TBMs) with slurry shields are widely used. However, in coarse,\\u000a highly permeable soils the suspension penetrates the ground and the required support pressure cannot be built up. For the\\u000a Zimmerberg Base Tunnel near Zurich permeabilities much greater than 10?3?m\\/s were expected. This value is usually considered as the critical limit for

P. Fritz

2007-01-01

429

Micro Machine Parts Fabricated from Aqueous Based Stainless Steel Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a A fabrication process of stainless steel micro components from metallic powder is reported. The process consists of two stages.\\u000a In the first stage, high quality SU-8 master moulds and their negative replicas from soft moulds are produced using photolithography\\u000a and soft moulding techniques respectively. The second stage includes preparation of stainless steel slurry, filling the soft\\u000a mould, obtaining the green

Mohamed Imbaby; Isaac Chang; Kyle Jiang

430

Foamed cement: A second generation. [Foamed cement slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced technology in design and implementation of stable foamed cement systems now offers new solutions to critical oil-field cementing problems well beyond the original utility of lightweight slurries in reducing hydrostatic pressure across fracture-sensitive zones. Implications of new high-performance foamed cement capabilities are discussed for specialized applications such as thermal recovery, deep cementing in a narrow annular gap, lost-circulation control

Loeffler

1984-01-01

431

Synthesis gas solubility in Fischer-Tropsch slurry: Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective is to investigate the phase equilibrium behavior of synthesis gases and products in a Fischer-Tropsch slurry reactor. A semi-flow apparatus has been designed and constructed for this purpose. Measurements have been made for hydrogen, cabon monoxide, methane, ethane, ethylene, and carbon dioxide in a heavy n-paraffin at temperatures from 100 to 300)degree)C and pressures 10 to 50 atm.

K. C. Chao; H. M. Lin

1988-01-01

432

Carbochlorination of metal oxides using a fused salt slurry reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research project was a study of the carbochlorination of metal oxides of fly ash from the combustion of pulverized coal (and alumina) with carbon and chlorine in a high-temperature slurry reactor using a NaCl-AlCl fused salt as the liquid medium. Carbochlorination has been demonstrated as a method for the recovery of aluminum, titanium and other metals from traditional ores

Dobbins

1986-01-01

433

Formation of thaumasite in synthetic cement mineral slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to investigate the effect of alite polymorphism on the susceptibility of cements to thaumasite formation, slurries were prepared from magnesium sulphate solution and mixtures of calcium carbonate with synthetic cement preparations plus additions of 0%, 1% or 2% w\\/w alumina. Two synthetic cement preparations were used; a co-prepared mixture of monoclinic alite (?C54S16AM) with ?-C2S (designated A) and

P Purnell; O. J Francis; C. L Page

2003-01-01

434

Measuring the strength of slurry phase heterogeneous catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

FischerTropsch (FT) synthesis is a process used to convert coal-derived syngas to hydrocarbon liquids and waxes. A slurry phase bubble-column reactor (SBCR) is the preferred reactor type due to improved heat and mass transfer and operational simplicity in terms of catalyst loading and discharge. A potential disadvantage in the SBCR vs. a fixed-bed reactor is the attrition of the catalyst

Hien N Pham; John Reardon; Abhaya K Datye

1999-01-01

435

The Direct Contact Heat Exchanger: Experiences on Ice Slurry Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental pilot scale of direct contact heat exchanger (DCHE) for ice slurry production was fabricated and evaluated. The study investigated the DCHE of 114mm and 1000 mm height using evaporated refrigerant as disperse phase and solidified water as continuous phase. The heat transfer rate across the DCHE was varied between 3.0 and 6.5 kW while the water flow rate

Raksit Thitipatanapong; Bundit Limmeechokchai

436

WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS  

SciTech Connect

Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

Mayer, J.

2013-04-12

437

Process for gasifying carbonaceous material from a recycled condensate slurry  

DOEpatents

Coal or other carbonaceous material is gasified by reaction with steam and oxygen in a manner to minimize the problems of effluent water stream disposal. The condensate water from the product gas is recycled to slurry the coal feed and the amount of additional water or steam added for cooling or heating is minimized and preferably kept to a level of about that required to react with the carbonaceous material in the gasification reaction. The gasification is performed in a pressurized fluidized bed with the coal fed in a water slurry and preheated or vaporized by indirect heat exchange contact with product gas and recycled steam. The carbonaceous material is conveyed in a gas-solid mixture from bottom to top of the pressurized fluidized bed gasifier with the solids removed from the product gas and recycled steam in a supported moving bed filter of the resulting carbonaceous char. Steam is condensed from the product gas and the condensate recycled to form a slurry with the feed coal carbonaceous particles.

Forney, Albert J. (Coraopolis, PA); Haynes, William P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1981-01-01

438

Sample comminution for mycotoxin analysis: dry milling or slurry mixing?  

PubMed

A comparison was made between dry milling and slurry mixing as a comminuting step preceding mycotoxin analysis. Sample schemes of up to 30 kg are mandated by European Commission legislation. Cocoa, green coffee, almonds and pistachio samples of 10 kg were milled by a Romer analytical sampling mill and all three subsamples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 or ochratoxin A content. The homogenization process was evaluated in terms of the analytical results, coefficients of variation for different mills and particle size distributions. Coefficients of variation for the comminuting step were higher for dry milling than for slurry mixing. This difference was explained based on measured particle size distributions for both milling types. Measurements also showed slight differences in mycotoxin content of samples based on milling procedures. This might lead to lots being wrongly accepted or rejected based on an erroneous subsample result. It was concluded that sample comminution was best performed by slurry mixing, which produced smaller particles and, consequently, homogeneous samples with lowest coefficients of variation. Additional data are given on analytical results in 10-kg subsamples that originate from the aggregate 30-kg sample as described in Commission Directive 98/53/EC. PMID:16393817

Spanjer, M C; Scholten, J M; Kastrup, S; Jrissen, U; Schatzki, T F; Toyofuku, N

2006-01-01

439

Reductive dechlorination of chlorobenzenes in surfactant-amended sediment slurries  

SciTech Connect

Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was examined in sediment slurries amended with two classes of nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene (POE) sorbitan fatty acid esters (Tweens) and POE alcohols (Brijs). The rationale for surfactant addition was to increase the bioavailability of highly sorbed organic pollutants to degrading microorganisms by enhancing their solubility. The solubility of HCB was initially enhanced via micellar partitioning; however, primary degradation of most surfactants occurred within 10 d. Dechlorination activity was significantly reduced at POE alcohol concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), with or without the occurrence of surfactant degradation. Tween 80 decreased HCB dechlorination at concentrations significantly above the cmc. At concentrations closer to the cmc, Tween 80 increased dechlorination rate constants four- to fivefold in acclimated slurries. Additions of Tween 80 at or below the cmc stimulated dechlorination activity in unacclimated slurries that exhibited very little activity in unamended controls. An average of 89% of HCB was dechlorinated after 90 d, compared to 20% in unamended sediments. No effect was observed for POE alcohols at these sub-cmc levels. The lack of a stimulated response for the POE alcohols suggests that Tween 80 may not be acting simply as a source of carbon or energy.

Van Hoof, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Jafvert, C.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

1996-11-01

440

Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.  

PubMed

The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting. PMID:23540291

Boger, David V

2013-01-01

441

Behavioral responses of deafened guinea pigs to intracochlear electrical stimulation: a new rapid psychophysical procedure.  

PubMed

In auditory research the guinea pig is often preferred above rats and mice because of the easily accessible cochlea and because the frequency range of its hearing is more comparable to that of humans. Studies of the guinea-pig auditory system primarily apply histological and electrophysiological measures. Behavioral animal paradigms, in particular in combination with these histological and electrophysiological methods, are necessary in the development of new therapeutic interventions. However, the guinea pig is not considered an attractive animal for behavioral experiments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a behavioral task suitable for guinea pigs, that can be utilized in cochlear-implant related research. Guinea pigs were trained in a modified shuttle-box in which a stream of air was used as unconditioned stimulus (UCS). A stream of air was preferred over conventionally used methods as electric foot-shocks since it produces less stress, which is a confounding factor in behavioral experiments. Hearing guinea pigs were trained to respond to acoustic stimuli. They responded correctly within only five sessions of ten minutes. The animals maintained their performance four weeks after the right cochlea was implanted with an electrode array. After systemic deafening, the animals responded in the first session immediately to intracochlear electrical stimulation. These responses were not affected by daily chronic electrical stimulation (CES). In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that guinea pigs can be trained relatively fast to respond to acoustic stimuli, and that the training has a lasting effect, which generalizes to intracochlear electrical stimulation after deafening. Furthermore, it demonstrates that bilaterally deafened guinea pigs with substantial (?50%) lo