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1

Agronomic recycling of pig slurry and pig sewage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recycling pig slurry as organic fertilizer is a convenient and suitable way of waste elimination due to its low cost and high agronomic benefits. The objectives of this two year study are focused on improving and recycling pig slurry appropriately, and monitoring the soil-plant system at the same time. The evaluation of the agronomic effectiveness of different types of pig slurry (raw, solid, treated and depurated) in different doses (170 kg N ha-1 (legislated dose), 340 and 510 kg N ha-1) is innovative because the fertilizer value of each amendment can be balanced. Furthermore environmental issues such us volatilisation, leaching and salinisation have been considered for each treatment in order to set the viability of the study and to justify the treatments applied. Electrical conductivity, Kjeldhal nitrogen, sodium and potassium are the physico-chemical parameters most influenced in soils treated with doses 340 and 510 kg N ha-1. Additionally plant samples, especially halophyte, have shown the highest major and minor nutrients contents. Finally, pig slurry application in legislated doses could be considered a useful environmental practice; however, the development of the crop will be very influenced by the type of dose and amendment selected.

Gómez Garrido, Melisa; Sánchez García, Pablo; Faz Cano, Ángel; Büyükk?l?ç Yanardag, Asuman; Yanardag, Ibrahim; Kabas, Sebla; Ángeles Múñoz García, María; María Rosales Aranda, Rosa; Segura Ruíz, Juan Carlos

2013-04-01

2

Toxicity Evaluation of Pig Slurry Using Luminescent Bacteria and Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Biogas slurry has become a serious pollution problem and anaerobic digestion is widely applied to pig manure treatment for environmental protection and energy recovery. To evaluate environmental risk of the emission of biogas slurry, luminescent bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), larvae and embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) were used to detect the acute and development toxicity of digested and post-treated slurry. Then the ability of treatment process was evaluated. The results showed that digested slurry displayed strong toxicity to both zebrafish and luminescent bacteria, while the EC50 for luminescent bacteria and the LC50 for larvae were only 6.81% (v/v) and 1.95% (v/v) respectively, and embryonic development was inhibited at just 1% (v/v). Slurry still maintained a high level of toxicity although it had been treated by membrane bioreactor (MBR), while the LC50 of larvae was 75.23% (v/v) and there was a little effect on the development of embryos and V. fischeri; the results also revealed that the zebrafish larvae are more sensitive than embryos and luminescent bacteria to pig slurry. Finally, we also found the toxicity removal rate was higher than 90% after the treatment of MBR according to toxicity tests. In conclusion, further treatment should be used in pig slurry disposal or reused of final effluent. PMID:24995598

Chen, Wenyan; Cai, Qiang; Zhao, Yuan; Zheng, Guojuan; Liang, Yuting

2014-01-01

3

Earthworms strongly modify microbial biomass and activity triggering enzymatic activities during vermicomposting independently of the application rates of pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the relationships between earthworm activity, microbial biomass and the activation and dynamics of several enzyme activities. We carried out an experiment in which low and high rates (1.5 and 3 kg respectively) of pig slurry were applied to small scale reactors with and without earthworms. We found that extracellular enzyme activity increased with rate of pig slurry. In both

Manuel Aira; Fernando Monroy; Jorge Domínguez

2007-01-01

4

Carbon dynamics in different soil types amended with pig slurry, pig manure and its biochar  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Determining the structure and components of soil and soil organic matter is very important in terms of sustainable agriculture and forestry and greenhouse gases emissions. Organic management can increase labile C and N in the short-term, and total soil C and N in the long-term, but less is known about how management practices may affect soil organic C (SOC)quality and stability. Methods to improve the management of livestock slurries to reduce the environmental impact and carbon losses are gaining importance. There is a need to find the best wastes treatment which enhances soil fertility but also carbon sequestration, to mitigate the effects of global warming. The objective of this study was to assess the short-term changes in SOC pools, using raw pig slurry, the solid phase of pig slurry, and its biochar as amendment in different soil types (Regosol, Luvisol and Kastanozem). The three different amendments were applied at 5 g C kg-1 soil. An unamended soil for each type was used as control. Soils were incubated in triplicate for 60 days at 25ºC and at 55% of their water holding capacity. Samples were sampled to monitor the evolution of soil organic and inorganic carbon, recalcitrant carbon, soluble carbon, carbon mineralization, SOC thermal distribution (thermogravimetric analysis - differential scanning calorimetry - quadrupole mass spectrometry), and characterization of functional groups (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)). Results showed that soils amended with raw pig slurry and the solid phase of the slurry showed higher values of soluble carbon, and higher carbon mineralization rates compared to biochar application, which showed values similar to controls. SOC increased at the end of incubation with biochar and the solid phase of the slurry applications in Kastanozem and Regosol. Thermogravimetric results showed an increased weight loss of the Regosol compared to Luvisol and Kastanozem, owing to the higher content of soil carbonates. Luvisol and Chernozem had higher volatile compounds than Regosol, with no significant differences among treatments. Changes in total weight loss of soil among treatments were small, although endothermic and exothermic calorimetric peaks were different depending on the treatment, mainly in Regosol and Luvisol, being higher in biochar amended samples. The proportion of C containing gas species below 550 ºC was higher in Luvisol and Kastanozem with no differences among treatments. As a general pattern, FTIR absorbance intensity followed the pattern Kastanozem > Luvisol > Regosol due to the different amount of organic matter. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkenes moieties at 3286 cm-1 and 3340 cm-1 in Luvisol and Kastanozem. Chemically refractory aromatic moieties at 1580 cm-1 and 1594 cm-1 in Luvisol and Chernozem, and at 729 cm-1 and 754 cm-1 in the three types of soils. Areas of bands representing chemically terminal alkane moieties at 1359 cm-1 and 1380 cm-1, alkenyl moieties at 962 cm-1 and 975 cm-1, and alkynes at 636 cm-1 and 663 cm-1 in all types of soils. The soil samples measured before incubation presented higher absorbance intensity than at the end of incubation, indicating mineralization of organic matter with incubation. No significant alterations in the functional groups were observed with the application of the amendments in any soil. This study suggested that the application of 5 g C kg-1 soil was not sufficient to modify organic functional groups at short term. Thus, different soil types behave differently in terms of amendments applications, being the Regosol more prone to alter SOC content and stability after applications. The application of biochar promoted higher SOC concentrations and stability at the end of the incubation. Keywords: Pig slurry, Pig Manure, Biochar, thermogravimetric analysis, FTIR, soil respiration, soil mineralization.

Yanardag, Ibrahim H.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Büyükkiliç-Yanarda?, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet R.

2014-05-01

5

Impact of chemically amended pig slurry on greenhouse gas emissions, soil properties and leachate.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of chemical amendment of pig slurry to ameliorate phosphorus (P) losses in runoff is well studied, but research mainly has concentrated only on the runoff pathway. The aims of this study were to investigate changes to leachate nutrient losses, soil properties and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to the chemical amendment of pig slurry spread at 19 kg total phosphorus (TP), 90 kg total nitrogen (TN), and 180 kg total carbon (TC) ha(-1). The amendments examined were: (1) commercial grade liquid alum (8% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.88:1 [Al:TP], (2) commercial-grade liquid ferric chloride (38% FeCl3) applied at a rate of 0.89:1 [Fe:TP] and (3) commercial-grade liquid poly-aluminium chloride (PAC) (10% Al2O3) applied at a rate of 0.72:1 [Al:TP]. Columns filled with sieved soil were incubated for 8 mo at 10 °C and were leached with 160 mL (19 mm) distilled water wk(-1). All amendments reduced the Morgan's phosphorus and water extractable P content of the soil to that of the soil-only treatment, indicating that they have the ability to reduce P loss in leachate following slurry application. There were no significant differences between treatments for nitrogen (N) or carbon (C) in leachate or soil, indicating no deleterious impact on reactive N emissions or soil C cycling. Chemical amendment posed no significant change to GHG emissions from pig slurry, and in the cases of alum and PAC, reduced cumulative N2O and CO2 losses. Chemical amendment of land applied pig slurry can reduce P in runoff without any negative impact on nutrient leaching and GHG emissions. Future work must be conducted to ascertain if more significant reductions in GHG emissions are possible with chemical amendments. PMID:23850764

O' Flynn, Cornelius J; Healy, Mark G; Lanigan, Gary J; Troy, Shane M; Somers, Cathal; Fenton, Owen

2013-10-15

6

Nitrate leaching through the unsaturated zone following pig slurry applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the increase of nitrate concentration in groundwater has often been ascribed to an inappropriate use of liquid manure, the main purpose of this study was to better understand the factors controlling nitrate dynamics in the unsaturated zone of soils subjected to characteristic agronomic practices, and to contribute to improving Action Programmes, with reference to EU Directive 91/676, for nitrate vulnerable zones (NVZ). Water infiltration and nitrate leaching have been studied in experimental fields located inside nitrate vulnerable zones of the Emilia-Romagna region (Northern Italy), characterized by different pedological and hydrogeological properties and equipped with meteorological station, tensiometers, ceramic-cup samplers and piezometers. This article describes the results obtained from one of these sites, monitored over a 6-year period, which was cereal cropped and treated with pig slurry. MACRO and SOILN field-scale models have been used in order to verify the reliability of simulated water flow and nitrogen transport. The results demonstrate how nitrogen inputs from slurry, substantially higher than crop uptake, cause nitrate accumulation in the surface layer of the soil especially in warm periods (concentrations of up to 300 mg NO 3-N l -1 were found in soil water). Even if the soil texture was fine, the shrinking-swelling properties of clay minerals determined fast drainage conditions (related to macroporosity), so that during the early rainy periods nitrates leached through the first meters of the unsaturated zone, at least down to 4 m. This shows that nitrate accumulation should be limited before these periods, i.e. by reducing manure application rates, especially if the soil is to be left uncultivated. The model results confirm the observed role of macroporosity in accelerating the breakthrough of surface applied soluble compounds and provide evidence that MACRO and SOILN may be suitable tools for predicting such phenomena, even though their calibration requires some further refinements.

Mantovi, Paolo; Fumagalli, Letizia; Beretta, Giovanni Pietro; Guermandi, Marina

2006-01-01

7

BACTERIAL RESPONSES TO TEMPERATURE DURING AERATION OF PIG SLURRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature effect on total anaerobic and aerobic bacterial growth in pig slurry was studied using low level batch aeration treatments. Five bioreactors were built using Plexiglas tubes to perform five temperature treatments (5 °C, 10 °C, 15 °C, 20 °C, and 25 °C). An airflow rate of 0.129 L\\/min\\/L manure was used to aerate manure contained in all reactors.

Jun Zhu; Pius M. Ndegwa; Ancheng Luo

2002-01-01

8

Benefits and limitations of pig slurry to reclaim bare mine soils under Mediterranean semiarid conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the effects of pig slurry application on reclamation of mine soils from Cartagena-La Unión Mining District (SE Spain) were investigated in a field experiment. Exchangeable metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, soluble carbon, microbial biomass and three enzyme activities were periodically monitored during 67 days. In addition, one year after the application of the pig slurry, soil and developed vegetation was sampled. Results showed that only exchangeable Cd and Zn significantly decreased in the amended plots, mainly for Cd, with decreases of 98%. The rest of metals and chemical properties did not change with time after application of amendments, showing values not significantly different than those present before pig slurry application. Soluble carbon, microbial biomass carbon and the enzyme activities increased after the application of pig slurry. However, after various days these parameters started a decreasing trend until reaching values similar to the control from approximately day 25. Thus, mainly precipitation as phosphate from the waste was very effective for Cd immobilization. No increments were observed in soil organic carbon because the organic carbon applied with the slurry was too low to be significantly detected. Nonetheless, pig slurry is a good fertilizer owing to the high quantity of nutrients provided, needed to promote the development of vegetation. One year after application, a native vegetation cover (25-30%) was reached by spontaneous colonization. Triggered plant growth by the effect of amendment improved soil conditions, particularly by the help of the medium created by their rhizosphere systems. Increments in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, and decreases in the exchangeable metals fraction concentration were observed in rhizospheric soils when compared to the bare soils. This improvement in soil quality mediated by vegetation was more efficient than the direct effect of the amendment. In conclusion, the use of pig slurry to reclaim bare contaminated soils by heavy metals brings indirect positive effects by triggering a vegetation cover which can stabilize metals and increase soil quality (phytostabilization). Keywords: heavy metals, microbial biomass, enzyme activities, phytoremediation.

Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel; Acosta, Jose A.; Kabas, Sebla; Martínez-Martínez, Silvia; Ángeles Muñoz, M.

2013-04-01

9

Environmental assessment of nutrient recycling from biological pig slurry treatment--impact of fertilizer substitution and field emissions.  

PubMed

Pig slurry treatment is an important means in reducing nitrogen loads applied to farmland. Solid phase separation prior to biological treatment further allows for recovering phosphorus with the solid phase. The organic residues from the pig slurry treatment can be applied as organic fertilizers to farmland replacing mineral fertilizers. The environmental impacts of nutrient recycling from aerobic, biological pig slurry treatment were evaluated applying the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. LCA results revealed that direct field emissions from organic fertilizer application and the amount of avoided mineral fertilizers dominated the environmental impacts. A modified plant available nitrogen calculation (PAN) was introduced taking into account calculated nitrogen emissions from organic fertilizer application. Additionally, an equation for calculating the quantity of avoided mineral fertilizers based on the modified PAN calculation was proposed, which accounted for nitrogen emissions from mineral fertilizer application. PMID:24821206

Brockmann, Doris; Hanhoun, Mary; Négri, Ophélie; Hélias, Arnaud

2014-07-01

10

The inactivation of viruses in cattle and pig slurry by aeration or treatment with calcium hydroxide.  

PubMed

Porcine enterovirus type 2 or porcine adenovirus type 3 were seeded into samples of pig slurry, and a bovine enterovirus was seeded into cattle slurry, and samples of the slurry were aerated in the laboratory for 21 days. The viruses were inactivated more rapidly in the aerated slurry than in control slurry which was not aerated. The difference in inactivation rate was greatest for the porcine adenovirus and least for the bovine enterovirus. Inactivation of the porcine enterovirus in aerated distilled water and in aerated, autoclaved pig slurry proceeded at a similar rate as in the same materials which were not aerated. Ten samples of aerated slurry were collected from an aeration tank which received weekly additions of raw pig slurry which was sampled at the same times. Each sample yielded a porcine enterovirus after concentration with the polyelectrolyte PE-60, but in three comparative titrations the viral infectivity titre in concentrates of the raw slurry was at least 1000 times greater than in the aerated slurry. Porcine enterovirus type 2 and porcine adenovirus type 3, which were seeded into pig slurry, and a bovine enterovirus seeded into cattle slurry, were inactivated by treatment of the slurry with calcium hydroxide at pH 11.5. The inactivation rate was highest for the bovine enterovirus and lowest for the porcine adenovirus. PMID:219109

Derbyshire, J B; Brown, E G

1979-04-01

11

Changes in the properties of pig manure slurry.  

PubMed

The paper presents the results of analyses of samples of manure from a pig farm located near Pi?a, Poland performed between June 2011 and May 2012 using a single sampling system. The statistical analyses of the average content of chemical and biological oxide demands, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and dry mass in the slurry in various seasons allowed us to draw conclusions concerning the changes in the chemical composition of the manure in specific seasons and to determine the correlations between the chemical parameters. The average content of N, BOD, P, and dry mass content tended to decrease systematically from the spring until the winter. The highest correlation coefficient, which indicates significant interdependency among the variables tested, was consistently found for COD and BOD, whereas the smallest correlation coefficient was found consistently for K and Ca and once for Ca and N. PMID:24432344

Kowalski, Zygmunt; Makara, Agnieszka; Fijorek, Kamil

2013-01-01

12

Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a good amend and important for sustainable development, but in excess can be a risk of polluting and damaging soil, water and crop conditions. Pig slurry is a source of many nutrients and specially rich in organic matter. The main objective of this study is to determine changes in soil organic carbon dynamics resulting from raw and treated slurry amendments applied in different doses. The experimental area is an almond orchard located in Cartagena (SE Spain). The climate of the area is semiarid Mediterranean with mean annual temperature of 18°C and mean annual rainfall of 275 mm. A total of 10 plots (12 m x 30 m) were designed, one of them being the control without fertilizer. Surface soil samples (0-25 cm) were collected in September 2009. Three different treatments were applied, raw slurry, the effluent obtained after solid-liquid separation and solid manure, all of them in three doses being the first one of 170 kg N/ha, (maximum permitted in nitrates directive 91/676/CEE), and the others two and three times the first one. Soil biochemical parameters are rapid indicators of changes in soil quality. According to this, total organic carbon, soil microbial biomass carbon, soluble carbon, and ?-glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and arylesterase activities were measured in order to assess some soil biochemical conditions and carbon dynamics in terms of the different treatments. As we expected, the use of these organic fertilizers rich in organic matter, had an effect on soil carbon and soil microbial activity resulting in an increase in most of the parameters; total organic carbon and ?-galactosidase activity showed the biggest increment comparing to control. No pattern was observed among fertilizer doses, without big differences among them in most properties. We can conclude that the use of pig slurry as organic fertilizer incorporates great amounts of organic matter to the soil in its different forms, including soluble and microorganisms biomass, which has a positive effect encouraging the application of this agricultural management so that soil can act as C sink, in order to mitigate global warming. Thus, this procedure can be included in the strategies to increase the soil carbon sequestration. According to carbon dynamics, doses are not important, without risks of soluble carbon leaching.

Domínguez, Sara G.; Zornoza, Raúl; Faz, Ángel

2010-05-01

13

Pig slurry application and irrigation effects on nitrate leaching in Mediterranean soil lysimeters.  

PubMed

Land application of animal manures, such as pig slurry (PS), is a common practice in intensive-farming agriculture. However, this practice has a pitfall consisting of the loss of nutrients, in particular nitrate, toward water courses. The objective of this study was to evaluate nitrate leaching for three application rates of pig slurry (50, 100, and 200 Mg ha(-1)) and a control treatment of mineral fertilizer (275 kg N ha(-1)) applied to corn grown in 10 drainage lysimeters. The effects of two irrigation regimes (low vs. high irrigation efficiency) were also analyzed. In the first two irrigation events, drainage NO(3)-N concentrations as high as 145 and 69 mg L(-1) were measured in the high and moderate PS rate treatments, respectively, in the low irrigation efficiency treatments. This indicates the fast transformation of the PS ammonium into nitrate and the subsequent leaching of the transformed nitrate. Drainage NO(3)-N concentration and load increased linearly by 0.69 mg NO(3)-N L(-1) and 4.6 kg NO(3)-N ha(-1), respectively, for each 10 kg N ha(-1) applied over the minimum of 275 kg N ha(-1). An increase in irrigation efficiency did not induce a significant increase of leachate concentration and the amount of nitrate leached decreased about 65%. Application of low PS doses before sowing complemented with sidedressing N application and a good irrigation management are the key factors to reduce nitrate contamination of water courses. PMID:15537952

Daudén, A; Quílez, D; Vera, M V

2004-01-01

14

Influence of Pig Slurry on Microbial and Biochemical Characteristics of Soil in Albacete Region, SE Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil quality is very important in terms of agricultural sustainability, ecosystem and terrestrial carbon (C) cycle. In turn, soil microbial and biochemical characteristics are indicative of nutrient cycling and soil organic matter dynamics. We investigated the effects of the pig slurries (raw pig slurry (RPS) and treated pig slurry (TPS) from liquid and solid feeding diets) on microbial and biochemical characteristics of soil under barley cropping system. Application doses of slurries are identified with legal doses of Castilla La Mancha Region, which is 210 kg N ha-1 year-1. Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C and three soil enzymes (?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzymes) are studied to determine effect slurry on soil biochemical characteristics, which are very important in terms of C cycle in soil. Black carbon content and ?-Glucosidase enzyme activities are increased with all pig slurry applications from liquid and traditional feeding diet, as well as microbial biomass and organic carbon content and ?-galactosidase enzyme activities are increased with slurry from liquid feeding diet doses. However, pig slurry application from liquid feeding diet doses have increased yield, quality, length and total biomass content of barley. Bioavailable metal contents are increased with all slurry application and with using high doses of slurry can be caused soil pollution. Pig slurries from liquid feeding diet had positive impacts on microbial and biochemical characteristics in terms of soil quality in comparison to the different feeding diets. PS addition to soil had a very significant stimulating effect on the enzyme activities, microbial biomass, soluble and black C compared with different kind of PS and control plots on Mediterranean soil in barley monoculture. This effect may originate from the organic C, N, P and S compounds added with PS. The highest enzyme activity and microbial biomass were observed on the soil samples from the RPS treatment, whereas, black and soluble C was decreased with PS addition. There may have been a transient positive effect of the RPS treatments on the soil biochemical parameters. However, the effect could not be detected because of less labile C content during the experiment. The beneficial effects of the PS additions were less pronounced in the 0-30 cm. soil layer. In this monoculture barley production system and under these Mediterranean climate conditions, applications of TPS should be avoided, so they were associated with a decline in microbial counts and a leveling of almost all the enzymatic activities and microbial biomass C. Keywords: Pig slurry, Microbial biomass C, soluble C, black C, ?-Glucosidase, ?-galactosidase and Arylesterase enzyme activities.

Halil Yanarda?, Ibrahim

2013-04-01

15

Pig slurry and mineral fertilization strategies' effects on soil quality: macroaggregate stability and organic matter fractions.  

PubMed

Applying pig slurry to the land as fertilizer at appropriate agronomic rates is important to close nutrient cycles and optimize the value of organic matter. However a long-term discussion has taken place about its effects on soil quality. In the north-east of Spain, eight fertilization strategies were evaluated on the soil quality parameters' aggregate stability, soil organic matter (SOM) physical fractions and soil microbial biomass (SMB). Six strategies used different pig slurries (PS) which provided organic matter from 1.7 to 2.6 t ha(-1)yr(-1), the rest (mineral N fertilization and a control) did not. Pig slurries were applied at sowing and/or at cereal tillering, as sidedressing. Field experiments were maintained for an 8-year period, in a silty loam soil devoted to a rainfed winter cereal. Soil samples were taken once, before the last sidedressing in 2011. Aggregate stability was quantified using the standard water-stable aggregate method but including a modification which meant that pre-wetting was avoided (WSA(MOD)). When using the WSA(MOD) method, we found a tendency for the percentage of water-stable aggregates to increase due to PS application (differences of up to 74% in the increment) and it was more marked the nearer they were measured to the application time (3 months vs. 12 months). The strategies which include PS show a positive effect on the SOM amount, mainly in the 0.05-0.2 mm light fraction, which increased by up to 34% with every 10 t ha(-1) organic C applied, and on SMB (up to 53% increment). There is a positive and significant linear relationship (p < 0.05, R(2) = 0.75) between the SOM light fraction (%) and the water-stable aggregates soil content (%, WSA(MOD)). Thus, the introduction of PS in fertilization strategies improves soil quality parameters. However, the soil quality benefits need to be balanced with any other potential environmental impact. PMID:23000547

Yagüe, María R; Bosch-Serra, Àngela D; Antúnez, Montserrat; Boixadera, Jaume

2012-11-01

16

Response of maize yield, nitrate leaching, and soil nitrogen to pig slurry combined with mineral nitrogen.  

PubMed

The application of pig (Sus scrofa) slurry (PS) is a common fertilization practice that may affect nitrate concentrations and loads in drainage and receiving water bodies. To protect water resources, many agricultural areas are being designated as vulnerable to nitrate contamination, and there is a need for scientific data aiming at reducing nitrate exports from these vulnerable zones by optimizing N fertilization strategies. The objective of this work, conducted in drainage lysimeters in a 4-yr monoculture maize (Zea mays L.) crop, is to assess the effects of four fertilization strategies combining PS (30, 60, 90, and 120 t ha(-1)) and mineral N on yield, changes in soil mineral N, and concentration and mass of nitrate in drainage waters. Grain yield was not affected by treatments in the four experimental years, nor was the soil mineral N at the end of the experiment. Effects of fertilization strategies on nitrate concentration and mass in drainage waters were detected only after 3 yr of repeated PS applications. The mass of nitrate leached over the 4 yr was positively related to the total amount of N applied, either organic or mineral. In year 2003, precipitation in spring reduced N availability for the crop in treatments with rates > or = 60 t PS ha(-1). The N-budget revealed that the transport pathways for 25% of N inputs to the system are unknown. The presowing application of pig slurry at 30 t ha(-1) complemented with mineral N at side-dressing, was the most efficient from an environmental standpoint (4-yr average of 145 kg grain yield kg(-1) N leached). PMID:20176841

Yagüe, María R; Quílez, Dolores

2010-01-01

17

Total and faecal coliform bacteria persistence in a pig slurry amended soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of the application of pig slurry on potential pathogen (total and faecal coliform bacteria) presence in a Typic Xerofluvent soil. The experiment was conducted in field conditions, in the Segura River valley in the South East of Spain. Four treatments, in a fully-randomised design with three replicates per treatment, were

B. Rufete; M. D. Perez-Murcia; A. Perez-Espinosa; R. Moral; J. Moreno-Caselles; C. Paredes

2006-01-01

18

Carbon dynamics in an almond orchard soil amended with raw and treated pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In SE Spain, intensive farming is very common which supposes the generation of great amounts of pig slurries. These residues cause many storage problems due to their pollution capacity. A good management of them is necessary to avoid damages to the environment. The use of this effluent as fertilizer is a usual practice that in the correct dose is a

Sara G. Domínguez; Raúl Zornoza; Ángel Faz

2010-01-01

19

Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports an average ammonia (NH3) emission factor (EF) by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique or measurement plot size and year of measurement. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius) generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method)). Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002). More recent measurements show substantially lower EFs which calls for new measurement series in order to validate the various measurement approaches against each other and to derive revised inputs for inclusion into emission inventories.

Sintermann, J.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Häni, C.; Hensen, A.; Loubet, B.; Flechard, C. R.

2012-05-01

20

Are ammonia emissions from field-applied slurry substantially over-estimated in European emission inventories?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The EMEP/EEA guidebook 2009 for agricultural emission inventories reports average ammonia (NH3) emission factors (EF) by volatilisation of 55% of the applied total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content for cattle slurry, and 35% losses for pig slurry, irrespective of the type of surface or slurry characteristics such as dry matter content and pH. In this review article, we compiled over 350 measurements of EFs published between 1991 and 2011. The standard slurry application technique during the early years of this period, when a large number of measurements were made, was spreading by splash plate, and as a result reference EFs given in many European inventories are predominantly based on this technique. However, slurry application practices have evolved since then, while there has also been a shift in measurement techniques and investigated plot sizes. We therefore classified the available measurements according to the flux measurement technique, measurement plot size, the year of measurement, and the year of publication. Medium size plots (usually circles between 20 to 50 m radius) generally yielded the highest EFs. The most commonly used measurement setups at this scale were based on the Integrated Horizontal Flux method (IHF or the ZINST method (a simplified IHF method)). Several empirical models were published in the years 1993 to 2003 predicting NH3 EFs as a function of meteorology and slurry characteristics (Menzi et al., 1998; Søgaard et al., 2002). More recent measurements that appeared subsequently show substantially lower EFs, and appear to indicate a need for a revision of the EF in emission inventories.

Sintermann, J.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.; Häni, C.; Hensen, A.; Loubet, B.; Flechard, C. R.

2011-10-01

21

Environmental evaluation of transfer and treatment of excess pig slurry by life cycle assessment.  

PubMed

Slurry management is a central topic in the agronomic and environmental analysis of intensive livestock production systems. The objective of this study is to compare the environmental performance of two scenarios of collective slurry management for the disposal of excess nitrogen from animal manure. The scenarios are the transfer of slurry and its injection to crop land, and the treatment of slurry in a collective biological treatment station. The study is based on a real case in the West of France, where a group of farmers is developing a collective plan for the disposal of almost 7000 m(3) of excess pig slurry. The evaluation is carried out by Life Cycle Assessment, where emissions and resource consumption are quantified and aggregated into four environmental impact categories: eutrophication, acidification, climate change, and non-renewable energy use. Ammonia emitted is the most important contributor to acidification and eutrophication, while methane contributes most to climate change. Both ammonia and methane are mostly emitted during the storage of slurry and, in the case of the treatment scenario, also during composting the solid fraction of the slurry. The two management strategies are similar with respect to climate change, whereas eutrophication and acidification are twice as large for treatment relative to transfer. Electricity needed for the treatment process is the main contributor to non-renewable energy use for the treatment scenario, while the transfer scenario represents a net energy saving, as energy saved by the reduction of mineral fertiliser use more than compensates for the energy needed for transport and injection of slurry. The overall environmental performance of transfer is better than that of treatment, as it involves less acidification, eutrophication and non-renewable energy use. The method employed and the results obtained in this study can provide elements for a transparent discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of contrasting excess slurry management scenarios as well as the identification of the main aspects determining their environmental performance. PMID:18793822

Lopez-Ridaura, Santiago; Werf, Hayo van der; Paillat, Jean Marie; Le Bris, Bertrand

2009-02-01

22

The effects of certain antibiotics on biogas production in the anaerobic digestion of pig waste slurry.  

PubMed

Antibiotics commonly used in the treatment of pigs - amoxicillin trihydrate, oxytetracycline hydrochloride and thiamphenicol were added at different concentrations to aliquots of pig waste slurry plus anaerobic sludge in serum bottles. The biogas production and methane concentration in the headspace were monitored to determine the effect of the antibiotics on the anaerobic process. With thiamphenicol significant differences in methane production were found for concentrations of 80 and 160 mg l(-1) slurry. Compared to the control, only minor differences in methane production were noted in the bottles to which amoxicillin (60 and 120 mg l(-1)) had been added. Methane production was about the same for the bottles with different oxytetracycline concentrations (125 and 250 mg l(-1)) and for the control. PMID:12003325

Lallai, A; Mura, G; Onnis, N

2002-04-01

23

Water-soluble organic matter and biological activity of a degraded soil amended with pig slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of pig slurry (PS) addition at rates of 30, 90 and 150 m3 ha?1 per year for five consecutive years on total organic C (TOC), water-soluble organic C (WSOC), soil microbial biomass C (MBC), basal respiration (BR) and dehydrogenase (DEH) and ?-glucosidase (GLU) activities of soil were investigated in a field experiment conducted under barley cultivation and semiarid conditions.

Diana Hernández; José M. Fernández; César Plaza; Alfredo Polo

2007-01-01

24

On-farm measurement of electrical conductivity for the estimation of ammonium nitrogen concentration in pig slurry.  

PubMed

Pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) slurry (PS) is commonly applied as fertilizer to agricultural fields. Knowledge of PS nitrogen content is essential for good management, but PS nitrogen content is highly variable, not only between farms but also within a farm. Laboratory analysis of animal slurries is often expensive and impractical for routine farmer use. Therefore, when slurry is spread on land, its fertilizer value is generally unknown, resulting in the risk of pollution. In this work, two rapid and suitable for field use methods for determining PS ammonium N (NH(4)+-N) concentration (Quantofix and conductimetry) are evaluated. The electrical conductivity of a dilution 1 PS:9 distilled water had better results than Quantofix, did not need reagents, and gave a direct value of NH(4)+-N concentrations (range, 1.0-7.6 kg NH(4)+-N m(-3)). The conductimetry method allows the use of alternative waters with EC <1.9 dS m(-1) for dilution. This method is being introduced to farmers in northeast Spain to improve PS management and has been well received due to its low cost and ease of use. PMID:22565270

Yagüe, M R; Quílez, D

2012-01-01

25

Nitrous oxide emissions from clayey soils amended with paper sludges and biosolids of separated pig slurry.  

PubMed

Wastes from animal production and from the paper industry are often used as amendments to agricultural soils. Although data exist on the impacts of raw animal wastes on NO production, little is known regarding the effects of paper wastes and biosolids from treated animal waste. We measured NO emissions for two consecutive snow-free seasons (mid-May through the end of October) from poorly drained clayey soils under corn ( L.). Soils were amended with raw pig slurry (PS) or biosolids (four PS-derived and two paper sludges) and compared with soils with mineral N fertilizer (CaNHNO) or without N addition (Control). Area-based NO emissions from the mineral N fertilizer (average, 8.2 kg NO-N ha; 4.2% of applied N) were higher ( < 0.001) than emissions from the organic amendments, which ranged from 1.5 to 6.1 kg NO-N ha (-0.4 to 2.5% of applied N). The NO emissions were positively correlated with mean soil NO availability (calculated as "NO exposure"), which was highest with mineral N fertilizer. In plots treated with organic amendments (i.e., biosolids and raw PS), NO exposure was negatively correlated to the C:N ratio of the amendment. This resulted in lower NO emissions from the higher C:N ratio biosolids, especially compared with the low C:N ratio PS. Application of paper sludge or PS-derived biosolids to these fine-textured soils, therefore, reduced NO emissions compared with raw PS and/or mineral N fertilizers ( < 0.01). PMID:23673736

Chantigny, Martin H; Pelster, David E; Perron, Marie-Hélène; Rochette, Philippe; Angers, Denis A; Parent, Léon-Étienne; Massé, Daniel; Ziadi, Noura

2013-01-01

26

Chemical and spectroscopic characterization of organic matter during the anaerobic digestion and successive composting of pig slurry.  

PubMed

In this work, anaerobic digestion of pig slurry and successive composting of the digestate after centrifugation were studied by means of chemical analysis, FTIR and fluorescence spectroscopy as excitation-emission matrix (EEM). Chemical analysis highlighted the organic matter transformation occurring during the processes. A decrease of volatile solids and total organic carbon were observed in the digestate with respect to the fresh pig slurry as a consequence of the consumption of sugars, proteins, amino acids and fatty acids used by microorganisms as a C source. Water Extractable Organic Matter (WEOM) was obtained for all samples and fractionated into a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic fraction. The highest WEOM value was found in the pig slurry indicating a high content of labile organic C. The digestate centrifuged and the digestate composted showed lower hydrophilic and higher hydrophobic contents because of the decrease of labile C. Total phenolic content was lower in the digestate with respect to fresh pig slurry sample (36.7%) as a consequence of phenolic compounds degradation. The strong decrease of total reducing sugars in the digestate (76.6%) as compared to pig slurry confirmed that anaerobic process proceed mainly through consumption of sugars which represent a readily available energy source for microbial activity. FTIR spectra of pig slurry showed bands indicative of proteins and carbohydrates. A drop of aliphatic structures and a decrease of polysaccharides was observed after the anaerobic process along with the increase of the peak in the aromatic region. The composted substrate showed an increase of aromatic and a relative decrease of polysaccharides. EEM spectra provided tryptophan:fulvic-like fluorescence ratios which increased from fresh substrate to digestate because of the OM decompostion. Composted substrate presented the lowest ratio due to the humification process. PMID:24411986

Provenzano, Maria Rosaria; Malerba, Anna D; Pezzolla, Daniela; Gigliotti, Giovanni

2014-03-01

27

Slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With magnetic heads operating closer to hard disks, the hard disks must be ultra-smooth. The abrasive-free polishing (AFP) performance of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) as the initiator in H2O2-based slurry for hard disk substrate was investigated in our work, and the results showed that the slurry including CHP could improve the material removal rate (MRR) and also reduce surface roughness. Electron spin-resonance spectroscopy (EPR), electrochemical measurement and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) were conducted to investigate the acting mechanism with CHP during the polishing process. Compared with the H2O2 slurry, the EPR analysis shows that the CHP-H2O2 slurry provides a higher concentration of the HOO free radical. In addition, the AES analysis shows the oxidization reaction occurs in the external layer of the substrate surface. Furthermore, electrochemical measurements reveal that CHP can promote the electrochemical effect in AFP and lead to the increase of MRR.

Jiang, Ting; Lei, Hong

2014-11-01

28

Long-term Effect of Pig Slurry Application on Soil Carbon Storage, Quality and Yield Sustainability in Murcia Region, Spain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability of agriculture is now a major global concern, especially since the 1980s. Soil organic matter is very important in the proper functions of the soil, which is also a good indicator of soil quality. This is due to its influence on many of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that control the capacity of a soil to perform properly. Understanding of nutrient supply through organic matter mineralization in agricultural systems is essential for maintaining long-term quality and productivity. The composition of pig manure will have a profound impact on soil properties, quality and crop yield when used in agriculture. We studied the effects of pig slurry (PS) application as an organic fertilizer, trying to determine the optimum amount that can be added to the soil, and the effect on soil properties, quality, and productivity. We applied 3 different doses on silty loam soils: Single (D1), Double (D2), Triple (D3) and unfertilized plots (C) served as controls. Samples were collected at two different levels, surface (0-30 cm) and subsurface (30-60 cm). D1 application dose, which is the agronomic rate of N-requirement (170 kg N/ha/yr) (European Directive 91/676/CEE), is very appropriate in term of sustainable agriculture and also can improve physical, chemical and biological soil properties. Therefore that the long-term use of PS with low dose may necessarily enhance soil quality in the long term. There are many factors to be considered when attempting to assess the overall net impact of a management practice on productivity. Additions of pig manure to soils at agronomic rates (170 kg N ha-1 yr-1) to match crop nutrient requirements are expected to have a positive impact on soil productivity. Therefore, the benefits from the use of application depend on the management of PS, carbon and environmental quality. However, PS have high micronutrient contents, and for this reason the application of high doses can pollute soils and damage human, animal and plant health, which is not suitable in term of sustainable agriculture. Keywords: Management, Pig slurry, Productivity, Quality, Soil.

Büyükk?l?ç Yanarda?, Asuman

2013-04-01

29

Modelling the potential of slurry management technologies to reduce the constraints of environmental legislation on pig production.  

PubMed

Limits on land applications of slurry nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) are used to restrict losses of nutrients caused by livestock production. Here, we used a model to assess technologies that enable a more even geographic distribution of slurry nutrients to land. Technologies included were screw press slurry separation, with or without solid fraction composting, centrifuge separation with or without liquid fraction ammonia (NH3) stripping, and anaerobic digestion. Regulatory constraints were placed first on the application in slurry of N, then P, then N and P both on the producing (donor) and receiving (recipient) farms. Finally, a constraint preventing an increase in donor farm NH3 emissions was imposed. Separation had little effect on N losses per unit mass of slurry, but NH3 stripping led to a reduction. Centrifuge separation allowed a greater increase in pig production than a screw press, especially with P regulation. NH3 stripping was only advantageous with N regulation or when combined with NH3 scrubbing of pig housing ventilation air, when donor farm NH3 emissions were a constraint. There was a production penalty for using composting or anaerobic digestion. The choice of appropriate slurry management option therefore depends on the focus of the regulation. Nuanced and therefore complex regulations are necessary to take advantage of synergies and avoid cross-policy conflicts and incongruencies. PMID:24184986

Hutchings, Nicholas J; ten Hoeve, Marieke; Jensen, Rikke; Bruun, Sander; Søtoft, Lene F

2013-11-30

30

Phosphorus availability from the solid fraction of pig slurry is altered by composting or thermal treatment.  

PubMed

The alteration of easily available phosphorus (P) from the separated solid fraction of pig slurry by composting and thermal processing (pyrolysis or combustion at 300-1000 °C) was investigated by water and acidic extractions and the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique. Temporal changes in P availability were monitored by repeated DGT application in three amended temperate soils over 16 weeks. P availability was found to decrease in the order: drying>composting>pyrolysis>combustion with increasing degree of processing. Water extractions suggested that no P would be available after pyrolysis above 700 °C or combustion above 400 °C, respectively, but during soil incubation, even char and ash, processed at 800 °C, increased P availability. Low-temperature pyrolysis vs. combustion was found to favor P availability as did application to acidic vs. neutral soil. Composting and thermal treatment produced a slow-release P fertilizer, with P availability being governed by abiotic and biotic mechanisms. PMID:25089896

Christel, Wibke; Bruun, Sander; Magid, Jakob; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

2014-10-01

31

A full-scale study of treatment of pig slurry by composting: kinetic changes in chemical and microbial properties.  

PubMed

Since the indiscriminate disposal of pig slurry can cause not only air pollution and bad odours but also nutrient pollution of ground waters and superficial waters, composting is sometimes used as one environmentally acceptable method for recycling pig manure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of composting pig slurry on its sanitation (evaluated by ecotoxicity assays and pathogen content determination), as well as to determine the effect of a carbon-rich bulking agent (wood shavings, WS) and the starting C/N ratio on the changes undergone by different chemical (volatile organic matter, C and N fractions) and microbiological (microbial biomass C, ATP, dehydrogenase activity, urease, protease, phosphatase, and beta-glucosidase activities) parameters during composting. Pig slurry mixed with bulking agent (P+WS) and the solid faction separated from it, both with (PSF+WS) and without bulking agent (PSF), were composted for 13 weeks. Samples for analysis were taken from composting piles at the start of the process and at 3, 6, 9, and 13 weeks after the beginning of composting. The total organic carbon, water soluble C and ammonium content decreased with composting, while Kjeldahl N and nitrate content increased. The nitrification process in the PSF+WS pile was more intense than in the PSF or P+WS composting piles. The pathogen content decreased with composting, as did phytotoxic compounds, while the germination index increased with compost age. Piles with bulking agent showed higher values of basal respiration, microbial biomass carbon, ATP and hydrolase activities during the composting process than piles without bulking agent. PMID:16293406

Ros, M; García, C; Hernández, T

2006-01-01

32

Evolution of temperature and chemical parameters during composting of the pig slurry solid fraction amended with natural zeolite.  

PubMed

A 3-month experiment was conducted at a 300 kg scale to observe decomposition processes in pig slurry solids amended with two different doses of natural Slovak zeolite-clinoptilolite (substrates S1 and S2, 1% and 2% of zeolite by weight, respectively) in comparison with the control (unamended solids). The experimental and control substrates were stored outdoors in sheltered static piles at ambient temperatures ranging from 8.0 to 34.7 degrees C. The solid fraction (SF) of pig slurry was obtained by separation on vibration sieves prior to slurry treatment with activated sludge. The initial water content of the SF was 77.1% and no water was added to the piles during the storage. The temperature in the core of the piles was recorded throughout the experiment. By day 3 and 5 of storage (1% and 2% zeolite, resp.), the temperature in the substrates S1 and S2 exceeded 55 degrees C and remained above this level for 15 days while the highest temperature recorded in the control during the experiment was 29.8 degrees C. Samples from the core of the piles were taken periodically to determine pH, dry matter at 105 degrees C (DM), ash (550 degrees C/4 h), ammonia nitrogen (N-NH(4)(+)), nitrate nitrogen (N-NO(3)(-)), total nitrogen (N(t)), total phosphorus (P(t)); total organic carbon (TOC) was computed. The results showed that pH levels in S1 and S2 remained below that in the control for most of the thermophilic stage. This may be related to water-soluble ammonia and the affinity of zeolites to ammonium ions. A significant decrease in the level of ammonia nitrogen in water extracts from S1 and S2 was observed between days 5 and 35 in comparison with the control. The values of ash also differed and corresponded to the intensity of the decomposition processes in the respective substrates. PMID:15381214

Venglovsky, J; Sasakova, N; Vargova, M; Pacajova, Z; Placha, I; Petrovsky, M; Harichova, D

2005-01-01

33

The impact of fouling on the process performance of the thermal treatment of pig slurry using tubular heat exchangers.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the kinetics of fouling and their influence on the performance of a thermal treatment process used for sanitisation of pig slurry. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. One trial was carried out at 55 °C and 80 °C in which the slurry was not re-circulated and one trial at 80 °C in which 100% or 50% of the slurry was re-circulated. Fouling of the heat exchangers was assessed by on-line monitoring of the drop in pressure, changes in treatment temperature, heat transfer coefficients, heat recycling rate, and energy consumption. Similar energy consumption of around 38 kWh m(-3) of effluent was observed at the two temperatures. The operating periods prior to excessive fouling or blockage were 18 days at 55 °C and four days at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure to obtain 50% dilution of the raw feed increased the viable operating period to 14 days at 80 °C but doubled energy consumption. At 55 °C, the significant drop in the target temperature (>7 °C) with fouling severely jeopardised the process. The nature of the decline in performance suggests that the main fouling mechanisms were bio-fouling at 55 °C and organic/mineral deposits at 80 °C. Recycling treated manure enabled the operating period to be extended but increased the total cost of heating. One hundred percent recycling showed that the fouling potential of the manure was largely eliminated after one thermal treatment, suggesting a pretreatment may be advantageous. PMID:23376308

Cunault, C; Burton, C H; Pourcher, A M

2013-03-15

34

Sulphur fate and anaerobic biodegradation potential during co-digestion of seaweed biomass (Ulva sp.) with pig slurry.  

PubMed

Seaweed (Ulva sp.) stranded on beaches were utilized as co-substrate for anaerobic digestion of pig slurry in three-month co-digestion tests in pilot scale anaerobic digesters in the laboratory. The methanogenic potential of Ulva sp. was low compared to that of other potential co-substrates available for use by farmers: 148 N m3CH4/t of volatile solids or 19 N m3CH4/t of crude product. When used as a co-substrate with pig manure (48%/52% w/w), Ulva sp. seaweed did not notably disrupt the process of digestion; however, after pilot stabilisation, biogas produced contained 3.5% H2S, making it unsuitable for energy recovery without treatment. Sequentially addition of the sulphate reduction inhibitor, potassium molybdate, to a final concentration of 3mM, temporarily reduced H2S emissions, but was unable to sustain this reduction over the three-month period. According to these pilot tests, the use of seaweed stranded on beaches as co-substrate in farm-based biogas plants shows some limitations. PMID:21982451

Peu, P; Sassi, J-F; Girault, R; Picard, S; Saint-Cast, Patricia; Béline, F; Dabert, P

2011-12-01

35

Degradation of Sulfadiazine by Microbacterium lacus Strain SDZm4, Isolated from Lysimeters Previously Manured with Slurry from Sulfadiazine-Medicated Pigs  

PubMed Central

Sulfadiazine (SDZ)-degrading bacterial cultures were enriched from the topsoil layer of lysimeters that were formerly treated with manure from pigs medicated with 14C-labeled SDZ. The loss of about 35% of the applied radioactivity after an incubation period of 3 years was attributed to CO2 release due to mineralization processes in the lysimeters. Microcosm experiments with moist soil and soil slurries originating from these lysimeters confirmed the presumed mineralization potential, and an SDZ-degrading bacterium was isolated. It was identified as Microbacterium lacus, denoted strain SDZm4. During degradation studies with M. lacus strain SDZm4 using pyrimidine-ring labeled SDZ, SDZ disappeared completely but no 14CO2 was released during 10 days of incubation. The entire applied radioactivity (AR) remained in solution and could be assigned to 2-aminopyrimidine. In contrast, for parallel incubations but with phenyl ring-labeled SDZ, 56% of the AR was released as 14CO2, 16% was linked to biomass, and 21% remained as dissolved, not yet identified 14C. Thus, it was shown that M. lacus extensively mineralized and partly assimilated the phenyl moiety of the SDZ molecule while forming equimolar amounts of 2-aminopyrimidine. This partial degradation might be an important step in the complete mineralization of SDZ by soil microorganisms. PMID:23396336

Herbst, Michael; Hofmann, Diana; Koeppchen, Stephan; Kummer, Sirgit; Thiele, Bjorn; Groeneweg, Joost

2013-01-01

36

Inactivation of Murine Norovirus 1 and Bacteroides fragilis Phage B40-8 by Mesophilic and Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion of Pig Slurry ?  

PubMed Central

Mesophilic (37°C) and thermophilic (52°C) anaerobic digestion of pig slurry induced at least a 4-log decrease in murine norovirus 1, used as a surrogate virus for porcine norovirus, after 13 and 7 days, respectively. Bacteroides fragilis phage B40-8, employed as a universal viral model, was lowered by 2.5 log after 7 days. The viral titer declined due to temperature and matrix effects. PMID:20080994

Baert, Leen; De Gusseme, Bart; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy; Debevere, Johan; Uyttendaele, Mieke

2010-01-01

37

Changes in microbial biomass and microbial activity of pig slurry after the transit through the gut of the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae (Kinberg, 1867)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we studied the effects of gut transit through the earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae, on the physicochemical, biochemical, and microbial characteristics of pig slurry, by analyzing fresh casts. The reduction\\u000a in the dissolved organic C contents in casts we recorded suggests that during digestion, earthworms assimilated labile organic\\u000a C preferentially, which is a limiting growth factor for them. Furthermore, both microbial

Manuel Aira; Fernando Monroy; Jorge Domínguez

2006-01-01

38

Characteristics and composition of fouling caused by pig slurry in a tubular heat exchanger--recommended cleaning systems.  

PubMed

The structure and composition of the fouling deposits caused by pig slurry heated in a tubular heat exchanger were characterized to understand their formation and thus be able to minimize fouling and define effective routine cleaning methods. Two temperatures (55 °C and 80 °C) were investigated. Two types of fouling were identified: organic/mineral and biofilm. The first only formed at temperatures above 50 °C, often during the heating phase, and was the main problem encountered in treatments at 80 °C. Organic/mineral deposits formed a thin compact sub-layer and a thick porous top layer composed of 67-76% minerals, 9-15% proteins, 8-20% carbohydrates and 0-5% fats. Biofilms formed at temperatures between 25 °C and 70 °C in both the cooling and heating sections of the exchanger. This type of fouling predominated at temperatures below 55 °C. The biofilm covered a thin mineral base layer. Strongly acidic or alkaline washing cycle are recommended to clean Type I deposits, while in-line gas-rumbling is recommended for Type II fouling. PMID:23334456

Cunault, C; Coquinot, Y; Burton, C H; Picard, S; Pourcher, A M

2013-03-15

39

[The effect of various doses of zeolite on counts of salmonellae, coliform and fecal coliform microorganisms in pig slurry in laboratory conditions].  

PubMed

The possibilities of utilization of two types of natural zeolite and three samples of synthetic zeolite in the treatment of pig slurry in various stages of waste water treatment process were investigated from the microbiological and chemical points of view at various amounts of zeolite and different contact time. Results obtained indicate that the addition of zeolites resulted in a decrease in the number of microorganisms in the supernatant during the period of investigation in all types of zeolites tested. Per cent of decrease varied considerably in dependence on the time of contact. This observation gains an importance in connection with a considerable decrease in chemical pollution. PMID:9297332

Pacajová, Z; Venglovský, J

1997-06-01

40

Algorithm for estimating the crop height effect on ammonia emission from slurry applied to cereal fields and grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia (NH3) emission following the application of livestock slurry to agricultural land is a significant source of atmospheric NH3, and not only poses a risk to the environment through eutrophication and acidification of sensitive ecosystems, but may also\\u000a result in a loss of plant-available nitrogen (N). The band-spread slurry application technologies of trailing hose and trailing\\u000a shoe have been shown

R. E. Thorman; M. N. Hansen; T. H. Misselbrook; S. G. Sommer

2008-01-01

41

Slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

Slurry pipelines are now transporting metal ores and coal/water suspensions. Their greatest potential is for transporting coal from Western states to power stations in other parts of the country. The physics of slurry transport encompases the principles of fluid dynamics and hydrostatics that were studied by Archimedes, but commercial slurry systems date only since World War II. An overview of their development covers policy debates and technological problems associated with existing and proposed pipeline projects. The author examines the tradeoffs of low sulfur content versus longer distances for transport, and describes the process of preparing coal slurries. 7 figures.

Wasp, E.J.

1983-11-01

42

Modeling and simulation of a pseudo-three-phase slurry bubble column reactor applied to the process of petroleum hydrodesulfurization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a new CFD model for the hydrodesulfurization process in the petroleum industry. The new model considers the loss of effectiveness of the catalyst by coupling a model that considers the physical structure of the catalyst. The hydrodesulfurization process takes place in a pseudo-three-phase fluidized-bed slurry bubble column reactor with liquid and gas flowing upwards. This reactor presents

E. M. Matos; Reginaldo Guirardello; M. Mori; J. R. Nunhez

2009-01-01

43

Preservation of brewers years slurry by a simple on-farm adaptable technology and its effect on performance of weaner pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ten batches of brewers yeast slurry (BYS) were analysed for proximate chemical composition, then mixed with ground maize grain (GMG) at 1:2, 1:1.5 and 1:1 w\\/w ratios; and with cassava root meal (CRM) and cassava peels meal (CPM), both at 1:1 w\\/w ratio. The mixtures were sun-dried to moisture content of 100 g kg?1 or less, then packed and stored.

S. A. Ikurior

1995-01-01

44

Mineral slurries  

SciTech Connect

A pumpable slurry of mineral particles, e.g., coal, in water contains 50 to 85% by weight of mineral particles based on the combined weight of mineral particles and water. The mineral component contains at least 30% by weight of coarse particles having a particle size in the range 5 to 50 mm, 10 to 40% by weight of fine particles having a particle size less than 200 micron and the balance to 100% of intermediate sized particles. The slurry is stable without the use of additives and can be pumped through a pipeline.

Baker, P.J.; Brookes, D.A.; Johnson, M.

1985-06-25

45

Estimation of Pig Fecal Contamination in a River Catchment by Real-Time PCR Using Two Pig-Specific Bacteroidales 16S rRNA Genetic Markers?  

PubMed Central

The microbiological quality of coastal or river water can be affected by fecal contamination from human or animal sources. To discriminate pig fecal pollution from other pollution, a library-independent microbial source tracking method targeting Bacteroidales host-specific 16S rRNA gene markers by real-time PCR was designed. Two pig-specific Bacteroidales markers (Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac) were designed using 16S rRNA gene Bacteroidales clone libraries from pig feces and slurry. For these two pig markers, 98 to 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity were obtained when tested by TaqMan real-time PCR. A decrease in the concentrations of Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac markers was observed throughout the slurry treatment chain. The two newly designed pig-specific Bacteroidales markers, plus the human-specific (HF183) and ruminant-specific (BacR) Bacteroidales markers, were then applied to river water samples (n = 24) representing 14 different sites from the French Daoulas River catchment (Brittany, France). Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were quantified in 25% and 62.5%, respectively, of samples collected around pig farms, with concentrations ranging from 3.6 to 4.1 log10 copies per 100 ml of water. They were detected in water samples collected downstream from pig farms but never detected near cattle farms. HF183 was quantified in 90% of water samples collected downstream near Daoulas town, with concentrations ranging between 3.6 and 4.4 log10 copies per 100 ml of water, and BacR in all water samples collected around cattle farms, with concentrations ranging between 4.6 and 6.0 log10 copies per 100 ml of water. The results of this study highlight that pig fecal contamination was not as frequent as human or bovine fecal contamination and that fecal pollution generally came from multiple origins. The two pig-specific Bacteroidales markers can be applied to environmental water samples to detect pig fecal pollution. PMID:19329663

Mieszkin, Sophie; Furet, Jean-Pierre; Corthier, Gérard; Gourmelon, Michèle

2009-01-01

46

Filtering reprecipitated slurry  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

Morrissey, M.F.

1992-01-01

47

Filtering reprecipitated slurry  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher permeate fluxes than non reprecipitated slurry. Washing reprecipitated slurry may require a defoamer because reprecipitation encourages foaming.

Morrissey, M.F.

1992-12-31

48

Monitoring the diffusion of topically applied drugs through human and pig skin using fiber evanescent wave spectroscopy (FEWS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this study was to examine if the diffusion process of topically applied drugs can reliably be monitored using FEWS in respect to timely distribution of the drug and chemical alterations of the drug during the diffusion process. In order to do this, recently excised human and pig skin was cut into slices of different thickness while also taking into account the different layers skin is composed of (e.g. Dermis, Stratum Corneum). These layers were first characterized spectroscopically and optically using a microscope before the drug itself was applied topically. The diffusion process was monitored by placing the sample on an ATR (attenuated total reflection) element. Time series from 1 - 4 hours were taken and the characteristic absorption bands of the drug were analyzed in the mid-infrared. By using a first order approach on Fick's diffusion equations (skin assumed to be homogeneous) we were able to fit these experimental values and to obtain diffusion constants, e.g. for water at 3376 cm-1 in the order of 10-5 cm2/s, which compare well with previously published values. The results indicate that this technique can be applied to the prediction of transdermal drug delivery.

Spielvogel, Juergen; Reuter, Susanne; Hibst, Raimund; Katzir, Abraham

1999-04-01

49

People, pigs and pollution – Experiences with applying participatory learning and action (PLA) methodology to identify problems of pig-waste management at the village level in Fiji  

Microsoft Academic Search

Participatory learning and action (PLA) methodology was used at the village level in Fiji to identify and understand factors that influence two selected communities in implementing changes to current pig-waste management practices. The focus area was the Coral Coast in the south of Viti Levu island, where international tourism is expanding but stream and coastal waters are under threat of

James P. Terry; Kamal Khatri

2009-01-01

50

Effects of K3[Fe(CN)6] slurry's pH value and applied potential on tungsten removal rate for chemical-mechanical planarization application  

SciTech Connect

Chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) is an important process for building multilevel interconnections for electronic devices. Directly planarizing tungsten, which is used as via or contact in microelectronic circuits, by wear is a difficult process because of its high hardness. Therefore, an effective approach has been developed to facilitate planarizing tungsten surface by removing a continuously growing passive film on tungsten when exposed to a low-pH potassium ferricyanide slurry. Since the passive film is softer than tungsten, this chemical mechanical planarization process is effective. In this work, in order to determine effects of corrosion and wear on tungsten removal rate, attempts were made to investigate corrosion, wear, and corrosive wear behavior of tungsten in K3[Fe(CN)6] slurries. Electrochemical and tribological experiments were carried out for different slurry pH values and potentials using a rotating pin-on-disc tribometer. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to characterize surface films formed at the different pH levels and potentials. It was demonstrated that the tungsten removal rate increased with increasing slurry pH and potential. Mechanisms involved are discussed.

Akonko, S.B.; Li, D.Y.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, J.A.; Miller, A.; Cadien, K.

2005-07-01

51

Filtering reprecipitated slurry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As part of the Late Washing Demonstration at Savannah River Technology Center, Interim Waste Technology has filtered reprecipitated and non reprecipitated slurry with the Experimental Laboratory Filter (ELF) at TNX. Reprecipitated slurry generates higher ...

M. F. Morrissey

1992-01-01

52

Elemental analysis of slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Direct analysis of wet slurry samples with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is challenging due to problems of sedimentation, splashing, and surface turbulence. Also, water can quench the laser plasma and suppress the LIBS signal, resulting in poor sensitivity. The effect of water on LIBS spectra from slurries was investigated. As the water content decreased, the LIBS signal was enhanced and the standard deviation was reduced. To improve LIBS slurry analysis, dried slurry samples prepared by applying slurry on PVC coated slides were evaluated. Univariate and multivariate calibration was performed on the LIBS spectra of the dried slurry samples for elemental analysis of Mg, Si, and Fe. Calibration results show that the dried slurry samples give a good correlation between spectral intensity and elemental concentration.

Eseller, Kemal E.; Tripathi, Markandey M.; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Singh, Jagdish P.

2010-05-01

53

Ultrasound Analysis of Slurries  

DOEpatents

An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N, gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

Soong, Yee and Blackwell, Arthur G.

2005-11-01

54

Ultrasound Analysis Of Slurries  

DOEpatents

An autoclave reactor allows for the ultrasonic analysis of slurry concentration and particle size distribution at elevated temperatures and pressures while maintaining the temperature- and pressure-sensitive ultrasonic transducers under ambient conditions. The reactor vessel is a hollow stainless steel cylinder containing the slurry which includes a stirrer and a N.sub.2 gas source for directing gas bubbles through the slurry. Input and output transducers are connected to opposed lateral portions of the hollow cylinder for respectively directing sound waves through the slurry and receiving these sound waves after transmission through the slurry, where changes in sound wave velocity and amplitude can be used to measure slurry parameters. Ultrasonic adapters connect the transducers to the reactor vessel in a sealed manner and isolate the transducers from the hostile conditions within the vessel without ultrasonic signal distortion or losses.

Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Blackwell, Arthur G. (Duquesne, PA)

2005-11-01

55

CLONING: Pigs Is Pigs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. As Prather discusses in his Perspective, pigs can now be added to the august list of cloned animals, which includes cows, goats, and mice. This is a particularly spectacular achievement because pig cloning has turned out to be notoriously difficult. The pig is also a valuable domestic animal to have cloned because, being physiologically close to humans, its organs can be used in xenotransplantation.

Randall S. Prather (University of Missouri-Columbia;Department of Animal Sciences)

2000-09-15

56

ENGINEERING BULLETIN: SLURRY WALLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Slurry walls are used at Superfund sites to contain the waste or contamination and to reduce the potential of future migration of waste constituents. n many cases slurry walls are used in conjunction with other waste treatment technologies, such as covers and ground water pump-an...

57

ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS.  

PubMed

The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

Kauffeld, M; Wang, M J; Goldstein, V; Kasza, K E

2010-12-01

58

ICE SLURRY APPLICATIONS  

PubMed Central

The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. PMID:21528014

Kauffeld, M.; WANG, M. J.; Goldstein, V.; Kasza, K. E.

2011-01-01

59

CHARACTERIZING PULSATING MIXING OF SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the physical properties for defining the operation of a pulse jet mixing system. Pulse jet mixing operates with no moving parts located in the vessel to be mixed. Pulse tubes submerged in the vessel provide a pulsating flow due to a controlled combination of applied pressure to expel the fluid from the pulse tube nozzle followed by suction to refill the pulse tube through the same nozzle. For mixing slurries nondimensional parameters to define mixing operation include slurry properties, geometric properties and operational parameters. Primary parameters include jet Reynolds number and Froude number; alternate parameters may include particle Galileo number, particle Reynolds number, settling velocity ratio, and hindered settling velocity ratio. Rating metrics for system performance include just suspended velocity, concentration distribution as a function of elevation, and blend time.

Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.

2007-12-01

60

Anaerobic digestion of acidified slurry fractions derived from different solid-liquid separation methods.  

PubMed

Batch assays investigating the ultimate methane yields (B(0)) of acidified slurry fractions produced with different solid-liquid slurry separation techniques were done. The result showed that the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was inhibited when raw and liquid fractions of sow, pig and dairy cow acidified slurry are digested, but AD treating solid fractions (SF) acidified slurry showed no sulphide inhibition. The B(0) of SF acidified sow slurry increased significantly with increasing screen size in the screw press. No significant effect of acidification processes on B(0) of SF dairy cow slurry (DCS) was observed. The ultimate methane yields of SF acidified DCS and SF non acidified DCS were 278±13 and 289±1LkgVS(-1), while in term of fresh weigh substrate were 59±2.8 and 59±0.3Lkgsubstrate(-1), respectively. PMID:23313767

Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Ward, Alastair James; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

2013-02-01

61

The influence of additives on rheological properties of limestone slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Limestone slurry appears in the lime production process as the result of rinsing the processed material. It consists of particles with diameter smaller than 2 mm and the water that is a carrier of solid fraction. Slurry is directed to the settling tank, where the solid phase sediments and the excess water through the transfer system is recovered for re-circulation. Collected at the bottom of the tank sludge is deposited in a landfill located on the premises. Rheological properties of limestone slurry hinder its further free transport in the pipeline due to generated flow resistance. To improve this state of affairs, chemical treatment of drilling fluid, could be applied, of which the main task is to give the slurry properties suitable for the conditions encountered in hydrotransport. This treatment consists of applying chemical additives to slurry in sufficient quantity. Such additives are called as deflocculants or thinners or dispersants, and are chemical compounds which added to aqueous solution are intended to push away suspended particles from each other. The paper presents the results of research allowing reduction of shear stress in limestone slurry. Results demonstrate rheological properties of limestone slurry with and without the addition of modified substances which causes decrease of slurry viscosity, and as a consequence slurry shear stress for adopted shear rate. Achieving the desired effects increases the degree of dispersion of the solid phase suspended in the carrier liquid and improving its ability to smooth flow with decreased friction.

Jaworska, B.; Bartosik, A.

2014-08-01

62

Protective effect of topically applied polypeptide from Chlamys farreri against ultraviolet radiation-induced chronic skin damage in guinea pig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polypeptide from Chlamys farreri (PCF), a topical polypeptide isolated from Chlamys farreri, was used in this experiment aimed to investigate the photoprotective effect of PCF against chronic skin damage induced by ultraviolet A (UVA) and ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation. The chronic ultraviolet-irradiated guinea pig model was established, and visible changes in the skin including wrinkling, sagging and erythema were observed. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) in the dorsal skin were determined using biochemical methods. The results showed: (1) PCF (5 % and 20%) could greatly protect the dorsal skin of guinea pig against wrinkling, sagging and erythema induced by UV radiation in a concentration-dependent manner. (2) PCF could reduce MDA formation in the dorsal skin caused by UV irradiation, while increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-px. (3) The differences among the PCF groups and UV model group were significant ( P<0.05, P<0.01). These results indicated that topical application, of PCF provided broad solar UV spectrum photoprotection; and that the antioxidant property of PCF might play a role in photoprotection.

Chi, Mingliang; Cao, Pengli; Yu, Guoying; Zhu, Li; Wang, Yuejun; Wang, Chunbo

2003-12-01

63

Slurry walls and slurry trenches - construction quality control  

SciTech Connect

Slurry (panel) walls and slurry trenches have become conventional methods for construction of deep underground structures, interceptor trenches and hydraulic (cutoff) barriers. More recently polymers mixed with water are used to stabilize the excavation instead of bentonite slurry. Slurry walls are typically excavated in short panel segments, 2 to 7 m (7 to 23 ft) long, and backfilled with structural materials; whereas slurry trenches are fairly continuous excavations with concurrent backfilling of blended soils, or cement-bentonite mixtures. Slurry trench techniques have also been used to construct interceptor trenches. Currently no national standards exist for the design and/or construction of slurry walls/trenches. Government agencies, private consultants, contractors and trade groups have published specifications for construction of slurry walls/trenches. These specifications vary in complexity and quality of standards. Some place excessive emphasis on the preparation and control of bentonite or polymer slurry used for excavation, with insufficient emphasis placed on quality control of bottom cleaning, tremie concrete, backfill placement or requirements for the finished product. This has led to numerous quality problems, particularly with regard to identification of key depths, bottom sediments and proper backfill placement. This paper will discuss the inspection of slurry wall/trench construction process, identifying those areas which require special scrutiny. New approaches to inspection of slurry stabilized excavations are discussed.

Poletto, R.J.; Good, D.R. [Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (United States)

1997-12-31

64

A single topical dose of erythropoietin applied on a collagen carrier enhances calvarial bone healing in pigs  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose The osteogenic potency of erythropoietin (EPO) has been documented. However, its efficacy in a large-animal model has not yet been investigated; nor has a clinically safe dosage. The purpose of this study was to overcome such limitations of previous studies and thereby pave the way for possible clinical application. Our hypothesis was that EPO increases calvarial bone healing compared to a saline control in the same subject. Methods We used a porcine calvarial defect model. In each of 18 pigs, 6 cylindrical defects (diameter: 1 cm; height: 1 cm) were drilled, allowing 3 pairwise comparisons. Treatment consisted of either 900 IU/mL EPO or an equal volume of saline in combination with either autograft, a collagen carrier, or a polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. After an observation time of 5 weeks, the primary outcome (bone volume fraction (BV/TV)) was assessed with high-resolution quantitative computed tomography. Secondary outcome measures were histomorphometry and blood samples. Results The median BV/TV ratio of the EPO-treated collagen group was 1.06 (CI: 1.02–1.11) relative to the saline-treated collagen group. Histomorphometry showed a similar median effect size, but it did not reach statistical significance. Autograft treatment had excellent healing potential and was able to completely regenerate the bone defect independently of EPO treatment. Bony ingrowth into the PCL scaffold was sparse, both with and without EPO. Neither a substantial systemic effect nor adverse events were observed. The number of blood vessels was similar in EPO-treated defects and saline-treated defects. Interpretation Topical administration of EPO on a collagen carrier moderately increased bone healing. The dosing regime was safe, and could have possible application in the clinical setting. However, in order to increase the clinical relevance, a more potent but still clinically safe dose should be investigated. PMID:24564750

2014-01-01

65

Slurry transport medium  

SciTech Connect

This invention provides for an improvement in slurry transport systems, especially coal slurry lines. Instead of the usual use of fresh water resources which, in some geographic areas, are scarce for slurry transport, concentrated brine is used which is prepared from abundant salt water resources. Because of the higher density of this concentrated brine, it is a superior carrier of pulverized material. It diminishes the separation and settling tendency of slurry components during transport and particularly during shutdown. Other advantages in the use of concentrated brine include: freezing point depression which permits ease of transport during winter and at lower temperatures; dust suppression of stored coal; avoidance of spontaneous combustion of stored coal; inhibit freeze packing of dewatered pipeline coal; and diminished extent of corrosion in ferrous metal pipelines as compared to that which might occur with lower concentration brines. Important in the economy of the process is that the concentrated brine can be recycled. An inexpensive method for producing the concentrated brine is given.

Rosenthal, W.; Schiffman, L.

1980-06-03

66

Slurry reactor design studies  

SciTech Connect

The objective of these studies was to perform a realistic evaluation of the relative costs of tublar-fixed-bed and slurry reactors for methanol, mixed alcohols and Fischer-Tropsch syntheses under conditions where they would realistically be expected to operate. The slurry Fischer-Tropsch reactor was, therefore, operated at low H{sub 2}/CO ratio on gas directly from a Shell gasifier. The fixed-bed reactor was operated on 2.0 H{sub 2}/CO ratio gas after adjustment by shift and CO{sub 2} removal. Every attempt was made to give each reactor the benefit of its optimum design condition and correlations were developed to extend the models beyond the range of the experimental pilot plant data. For the methanol design, comparisons were made for a recycle plant with high methanol yield, this being the standard design condition. It is recognized that this is not necessarily the optimum application for the slurry reactor, which is being proposed for a once-through operation, coproducing methanol and power. Consideration is also given to the applicability of the slurry reactor to mixed alcohols, based on conditions provided by Lurgi for an Octamix{trademark} plant using their standard tubular-fixed reactor technology. 7 figs., 26 tabs.

Fox, J.M.; Degen, B.D.; Cady, G.; Deslate, F.D.; Summers, R.L. (Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, CA (USA)); Akgerman, A. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (USA)); Smith, J.M. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA))

1990-06-01

67

Persistence and Leaching Potential of Microorganisms and Mineral N in Animal Manure Applied to Intact Soil Columns  

PubMed Central

Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h?1) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path. PMID:23124240

Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, Rene K.; Petersen, S?ren O.; Laegdsmand, Mette

2013-01-01

68

Persistence and leaching potential of microorganisms and mineral N in animal manure applied to intact soil columns.  

PubMed

Pathogens may reach agricultural soils through application of animal manure and thereby pose a risk of contaminating crops as well as surface and groundwater. Treatment and handling of manure for improved nutrient and odor management may also influence the amount and fate of manure-borne pathogens in the soil. A study was conducted to investigate the leaching potentials of a phage (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B) and two bacteria, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus species, in a liquid fraction of raw pig slurry obtained by solid-liquid separation of this slurry and in this liquid fraction after ozonation, when applied to intact soil columns by subsurface injection. We also compared leaching potentials of surface-applied and subsurface-injected raw slurry. The columns were exposed to irrigation events (3.5-h period at 10 mm h(-1)) after 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks of incubation with collection of leachate. By the end of incubation, the distribution and survival of microorganisms in the soil of each treatment and in nonirrigated columns with injected raw slurry or liquid fraction were determined. E. coli in the leachates was quantified by both plate counts and quantitative PCR (qPCR) to assess the proportions of culturable and nonculturable (viable and nonviable) cells. Solid-liquid separation of slurry increased the redistribution in soil of contaminants in the liquid fraction compared to raw slurry, and the percent recovery of E. coli and Enterococcus species was higher for the liquid fraction than for raw slurry after the four leaching events. The liquid fraction also resulted in more leaching of all contaminants except Enterococcus species than did raw slurry. Ozonation reduced E. coli leaching only. Injection enhanced the leaching potential of the microorganisms investigated compared to surface application, probably because of a better survival with subsurface injection and a shorter leaching path. PMID:23124240

Amin, M G Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bui, Xuan Thanh; Juhler, René K; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

2013-01-01

69

Manifold Coal-Slurry Transport System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Feeding several slurry pipes into main pipeline reduces congestion in coal mines. System based on manifold concept: feeder pipelines from each working entry joined to main pipeline that carries coal slurry out of panel and onto surface. Manifold concept makes coal-slurry haulage much simpler than existing slurry systems.

Liddle, S. G.; Estus, J. M.; Lavin, M. L.

1986-01-01

70

Tribological Properties Of Coal Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report describes study of tribological properties of coal/methanol slurries with pin-on-disk tribometer. Coefficients of friction, rates of wear of steel pin, and morphological studies of worn surfaces conducted on pins and disks of AISI 440C HT stainless steel and M-50 tool steel, both used as bearing steels. Coal slurries considered as replacement fuels in terrestrial oil-burning facilities and possible fuels for future aircraft turbine engines. Rates of wear of metallic components through which slurries flow limit such practical applications.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

1988-01-01

71

NACA Research on Slurry Fuels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An extensive program was conducted to investigate the use of concentrated slurries of boron and magnesium in liquid hydrocarbon as fuels for afterburners and ramjet engines. Analytical calculations indicated that magnesium fuel would give greater thrust and that boron fuel would give greater range than are obtainable from jet hydrocarbon fuel alone. It was hoped that the use of these solid elements in slurry form would permit the improvement to be obtained without requiring unconventional fuel systems or combustors. Small ramjet vehicles fueled with magnesium slurry were flown successfully, but the test flights indicated that further improvement of combustors and fuel systems was needed.

Pinns, M L; Olson, W T; Barnett, H C; Breitwieser, R

1958-01-01

72

Development of ice slurry for cold storage of foods in wide temperature range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to popularize use of ice slurry, authors have been proposed application of ice slurry to cold storage of foods in place of an air conditioning. For use of the ice slurry in the wide temperature range a new harmless ice slurry to human being was developed by cooling a W/O emulsion made from tap water-edible oil mixture with small amounts of edible emulsifier and food additive. The edible emulsifier is essential to form W/O emulsion, and the food additive is used to dissolve in tap water. In this paper the optimal concentrations of emulsifiers were determined, and the fundamental characteristics such as viscosity, effective latent heat of fusion and usable temperature of ice slurry were clarified. Finally, it was concluded that new ice slurry could be fully applied to cold storage of foods in the wide temperature range because its lower limit usable temperature was about -18°C.

Matsumoto, Koji; Kaneko, Atsushi; Teraoka, Yoshikazu; Igarashi, Yoshito

73

Fate and transport of antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry.  

PubMed

Due to the use of antimicrobials in livestock production, residual antimicrobials and antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) could enter the environment following the land application of animal wastes and could further contaminate surface and groundwater. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of various manure land application methods on the fate and transport of antimicrobials and ARGs in soil and runoff following land application of swine manure slurry. Swine manure slurries were obtained from facilities housing pigs that were fed chlortetracyline, tylosin or bacitracin and were land applied via broadcast, incorporation, and injection methods. Three rainfall simulation tests were then performed on amended and control plots. Results show that land application methods had no statistically significant effect on the aqueous concentrations of antimicrobials in runoff. However, among the three application methods tested broadcast resulted in the highest total mass loading of antimicrobials in runoff from the three rainfall simulation tests. The aqueous concentrations of chlortetracyline and tylosin in runoff decreased in consecutive rainfall events, although the trend was only statistically significant for tylosin. For ARGs, broadcast resulted in significantly higher erm genes in runoff than did incorporation and injection methods. In soil, the effects of land application methods on the fate of antimicrobials in top soil were compound specific. No clear trend was observed in the ARG levels in soil, likely because different host cells may respond differently to the soil environments created by various land application methods. PMID:24044357

Joy, Stacey R; Bartelt-Hunt, Shannon L; Snow, Daniel D; Gilley, John E; Woodbury, Bryan L; Parker, David B; Marx, David B; Li, Xu

2013-11-01

74

Technical Report on NETL's Non Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Workshop: A path forward to understanding non-Newtonian multiphase slurry flows  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.

Edited by Guenther, Chris; Garg, Rahul

2013-08-19

75

Urine acidification and mineral metabolism in growing pigs fed diets supplemented with dietary methionine and benzoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Benzoic acid (BA) reduces pH of urine and thereby reduces the emission of ammonia and possibly also odorous sulphur-compounds from slurry. The effect of BA on mineral metabolism in growing pigs is not clear. The objective was therefore to study the effect of BA and methionine (Met) as a sulphur (S) source in diets for pigs on urine acidification and

J. V. Nørgaard; J. A. Fernández; J. Eriksen; O. H. Olsen; D. Carlson; H. D. Poulsen

2010-01-01

76

Streamline coal slurry letdown valve  

DOEpatents

A streamlined coal slurry letdown valve is featured which has a two-piece throat comprised of a seat and seat retainer. The two-piece design allows for easy assembly and disassembly of the valve. A novel cage holds the two-piece throat together during the high pressure letdown. The coal slurry letdown valve has long operating life as a result of its streamlined and erosion-resistance surfaces. 5 figs.

Platt, R.J.; Shadbolt, E.A.

1983-11-08

77

Comparative testing of slurry monitors  

SciTech Connect

The US Department of Energy (DOE) has millions of gallons of radioactive liquid and sludge wastes that must be retrieved from underground storage tanks, transferred to treatment facilities, and processed to a final waste form. The wastes will be removed from the current storage tanks by mobilizing the sludge wastes and mixing them with the liquid wastes to create slurries. Each slurry would then be transferred by pipeline to the desired destination. To reduce the risk of plugging a pipeline, the transport properties (e.g., density, suspended solids concentration, viscosity, particle size range) of the slurry should be determined to be within acceptable limits prior to transfer. These properties should also be monitored and controlled within specified limits while the slurry transfer is in progress. The DOE issued a call for proposals for developing on-line instrumentation to measure the transport properties of slurries. In response to the call for proposals, several researchers submitted proposals and were funded to develop slurry monitoring instruments. These newly developed DOE instruments are currently in the prototype stage. Before the instruments were installed in a radioactive application, the DOE wanted to evaluate them under nonradioactive conditions to determine if they were accurate, reliable, and dependable. The goal of this project was to test the performance of the newly developed DOE instruments along with several commercially available instruments. The baseline method for comparison utilized the results from grab-sample analyses.

Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, M.S. [Ames Lab., IA (United States); Van Essen, D.C. [Advanced Integrated Management Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1998-05-01

78

Medical ice slurry production device  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to an apparatus for producing sterile ice slurries for medical cooling applications. The apparatus is capable of producing highly loaded slurries suitable for delivery to targeted internal organs of a patient, such as the brain, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, pancreas, and others, through medical size diameter tubing. The ice slurry production apparatus includes a slurry production reservoir adapted to contain a volume of a saline solution. A flexible membrane crystallization surface is provided within the slurry production reservoir. The crystallization surface is chilled to a temperature below a freezing point of the saline solution within the reservoir such that ice particles form on the crystallization surface. A deflector in the form of a reciprocating member is provided for periodically distorting the crystallization surface and dislodging the ice particles which form on the crystallization surface. Using reservoir mixing the slurry is conditioned for easy pumping directly out of the production reservoir via medical tubing or delivery through other means such as squeeze bottles, squeeze bags, hypodermic syringes, manual hand delivery, and the like.

Kasza, Kenneth E. (Palos Park, IL); Oras, John (Des Plaines, IL); Son, HyunJin (Naperville, IL)

2008-06-24

79

Carbon black slurries preparation and characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the preparation procedures and characteristics of slurries of carbon black with water, methanol and oil. The physical, thermal and rheological properties of the slurries are presented. The methods of measurements and analysis of the slurries are described. The slurries of greater than 50% carbon appear to be stable and particularly useful environmentally and economically as fuel for stationary electrical power and steam generating plants. The carbon black slurries can also be useful in heavy automotive engines, e.g., turbines and diesels. Carbon black slurries are potentially an improved alternative to petroleum based fuels. 3 refs., 17 figs., 16 tabs.

Wei, Gang; Steinberg, M.

1989-12-01

80

Rheological properties of concentrated aqueous injectable calcium phosphate cement slurry.  

PubMed

In this paper, the steady and dynamic rheological properties of concentrated aqueous injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) slurry were investigated. The results indicate that the concentrated aqueous injectable CPC showed both plastic and thixotropic behavior. As the setting process progressed, the yield stress of CPC slurry was raised, the area of the thixotropic hysteresis loop was enlarged, indicating that the strength of the net structure of the slurry had increased. The results of dynamic rheological behavior indicate that the slurry presented the structure similar to viscoelastic body and the property of shear thinning at the beginning. During the setting process, the slurry was transformed from a flocculent structure to a net structure, and the strength increased. Different factors had diverse effects on the rheological properties of the CPC slurry in the setting process, a reflection of the flowing properties (or injection), and the microstructure development of this concentrated suspension. Raising the powder-to-liquid ratio decreased the distance among the particles, increased the initial strength, and shortened the setting time. In addition, raising the temperature improved the initial strength, increased the order of reaction, and shortened the setting time, which was favorable to the setting process. The particle size of the raw material had much to do with the strength of original structure and setting time. The storage module G' of CPC slurry during the setting process followed the rule of power law function G'=A exp(Bt), which could be applied to forecast the setting time, and the calculated results thereafter are in agreement with the experimental data. PMID:16787661

Liu, Changsheng; Shao, Huifang; Chen, Feiyue; Zheng, Haiyan

2006-10-01

81

Development of biodiesel slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect

As an alternative to diesel, the DOE has recently supported research which developed coal-water-slurries to the extent that they have demonstrated in low-, medium-, and high-speed diesel engines. Coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuels would be an American-made alternative to diesel distilled from imported crude oil. Such alternatives to imported oil are particularly desirable as 1994 crude oil imports will most likely exceed those disastrously high levels of the early 1980`s which led to a major recession. This paper is on the testing and development of biodiesel slurry fuels (e.g. corn flour and water) as an alternative to diesel for use in a modified diesel engine. While the economics for CWS`s are not favorable until bulk, tax-free diesel prices exceed $0.80 per gallon, a preliminary analysis of biodiesel slurries shows economic viability at today`s diesel prices. This paper presents advantages of biodiesel slurries over CWS`s due to different ash compositions and economics specific to applications on farm tractors. Engine modifications, fuel costs, fuel processing, fuel performance, and on-going research are discussed.

Suppes, G.J.; Ng, C.; Srinivasan, B. [Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States)

1994-12-31

82

Redistribution and persistence of microorganisms and steroid hormones after soil-injection of swine slurry.  

PubMed

The redistribution and fate of contaminants in pig slurry after direct injection were investigated at two field sites, Silstrup (sandy clay loam) and Estrup (sandy loam), in Denmark. Intact soil samples were collected for up to seven weeks after slurry injection and concentrations of Salmonella Typhimurium Bacteriophage 28B (phage 28B), Escherichia coli, steroid hormones and other slurry components (water, volatile solids, chloride and mineral N) determined in and around the injection slit. The two experiments at Silstrup and Estrup differed with respect to slurry solid content (6.3 vs. 0.8%), as well as soil clay content (27 vs. 15%) and differed considerably with respect to the initial redistribution of slurry-borne contaminants in soil. The transport of microorganisms from the slurry injection slit to the surrounding soil was much lower than that of mineral N and chloride due to attachment and entrapment. The redistribution of E. coli was more affected by site-specific conditions compared to phage 28B, possibly due to the larger cell size of E. coli. The overall recovery of phage 28B was 0.8-4%, and of E. coli 0.0-1.3% in different samples, by the end of the study. Nine different steroid hormones were detected in the slurry slit, and a slow redistribution to the surrounding soil was observed. Overall recovery of estrogens was 0.0 to 6.6% in different samples. The study showed that the combination of soil and slurry properties determined the initial spreading of contaminants, and hence the potential for subsequent leaching. PMID:23994734

Amin, M G Mostofa; Bech, Tina B; Forslund, Anita; Hansen, Martin; Petersen, Søren O; Lægdsmand, Mette

2014-01-01

83

Coal-oil slurry preparation  

DOEpatents

A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1983-01-01

84

Microparticulate ICE slurry for renal hypothermia: laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.  

SciTech Connect

Previously, we described the feasibility of renal hypothermia using microparticulate ice slurry during laparoscopy. In the present study, we compared surface cooling with the ice slurry versus near-frozen saline or warm ischemia (WI) during laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) in a porcine model. We used a single-kidney porcine model. Animals in 5 equal groups (n = 6 each) underwent right laparoscopic complete nephrectomy. In Phase I, left LPN was performed under 90 minutes of ischemia and 90-minute renal cooling with either slurry (Slurry group 1) or saline (Saline group 1). No cooling was applied in the WI group. In Phase II, to simulate more extreme condition, ischemia time was extended to 120 minutes and cooling shortened to 10 minutes (Slurry group 2 and Saline group 2). The study endpoints were renal and core temperature during the surgery and serum creatinine at baseline and days 1, 3, 7, and 14 after the procedure. The ice slurry was easily produced and delivered. Nadir renal temperature (mean {+-} SD) was 8 {+-} 4 C in Slurry group 1 vs. 22.5 {+-} 3 C in Saline group 1 (P < .0001). Renal rewarming to 30 C occurred after 61 {+-} 7 minutes in Slurry group 2 vs. 24 {+-} 6 minutes in Saline group 2 (P < .0001). Core temperature decreased on average to 35 C in the Saline groups compared with 37 C in the Slurry groups (P < .0001). Serum creatinine did not differ between the Saline and Slurry groups in Phases I and II at any time point. Ice slurry provides superior renal cooling compared with near-frozen saline during LPN without associated core hypothermia.

Shikanov, S; Wille, M; Large, M; Razmaria, A; Lifshitz, D; Chang, A; Wu, Y; Kasza, K; Shalhav, A (Nuclear Engineering Division); (University of Chicago Medical Center)

2010-10-01

85

DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: SLURRY BIODEGRADATION, International Technology Corporation  

EPA Science Inventory

This technology uses a slurry-phase bioreactor in which the soil is mixed with water to form a slurry. Microorganisms and nutrients are added to the slurry to enhance the biodegradation process, which converts organic wastes into relatively harmless byproducts of microbial metabo...

86

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

DOEpatents

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, Frederick E. (Reading, MA); Smolensky, Leo A. (Concord, MA); Balsavich, John (Foxborough, MA)

1991-01-01

87

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

SciTech Connect

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Balsavich, J.

1991-09-03

88

Tribological properties of coal slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A pin-on-disk tribometer was used to study the tribological properties of methyl alcohol-coal slurries. Friction coefficients, steel pin wear rates and wear surface morphological studies were conducted on AISI 440C HT and M-50 bearing steels which were slid dry and in solutions of methyl alcohol, methyl alcohol-fine coal particles, and methyl alcohol-fine coal particles-flocking additive. The latter was an oil derived from coal and originally intended to be added to the coal slurry to improve the sedimentation and rheology properties. The results of this study indicated that the addition of the flocking additive to the coal slurry markedly improved the tribological properties, especially wear. In addition, the type of steel was found to be very important in determining the type of wear that took place. Cracks and pits were found on the M-50 steel pin wear surfaces that slid in the coal slurries while 440C HT steel pins showed none.

Fusaro, Robert L.; Schrubens, Dale L.

1987-01-01

89

Preparation of coal slurry with 2-propanol.  

PubMed

This study explored the feasibility of using waste organic solvents as substitutes for water to prepare coal slurries. The rheological properties of coal-2-propanol slurries were examined and compared with that of coal-water slurry (CWS). The good compatibility between coal particles and 2-propanol resulted in stable particle suspension in slurry which usually exhibit Newtonian behaviour. However, coal-2-propanol slurries usually shown higher viscosities comparing to CWSs at a fixed solid loading due to swelling of coal by 2-propanol. In addition, coal-2-propanol slurries demonstrated lower settling rates (higher stability) compared to CWSs presumably due to good compatibility between coal particles and 2-propanol. Finally, coal-2-propanol slurries formed bulky sediment with loose structure even coal particles suspended in 2-propanol were more stable than coal particles in CWSs. PMID:16762500

Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

2006-09-01

90

Leaching of Cryptosporidium parvum Oocysts, Escherichia coli, and a Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Bacteriophage through Intact Soil Cores following Surface Application and Injection of Slurry?  

PubMed Central

Increasing amounts of livestock manure are being applied to agricultural soil, but it is unknown to what extent this may be associated with contamination of aquatic recipients and groundwater if microorganisms are transported through the soil under natural weather conditions. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate how injection and surface application of pig slurry on intact sandy clay loam soil cores influenced the leaching of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium bacteriophage 28B, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts. All three microbial tracers were detected in the leachate on day 1, and the highest relative concentration was detected on the fourth day (0.1 pore volume). Although the concentration of the phage 28B declined over time, the phage was still found in leachate at day 148. C. parvum oocysts and chloride had an additional rise in the relative concentration at a 0.5 pore volume, corresponding to the exchange of the total pore volume. The leaching of E. coli was delayed compared with that of the added microbial tracers, indicating a stronger attachment to slurry particles, but E. coli could be detected up to 3 months. Significantly enhanced leaching of phage 28B and oocysts by the injection method was seen, whereas leaching of the indigenous E. coli was not affected by the application method. Preferential flow was the primary transport vehicle, and the diameter of the fractures in the intact soil cores facilitated transport of all sizes of microbial tracers under natural weather conditions. PMID:21948848

Forslund, Anita; Markussen, Bo; Toenner-Klank, Lise; Bech, Tina B.; Jacobsen, Ole Stig; Dalsgaard, Anders

2011-01-01

91

Effect of temperature and water on gaseous emissions from soils treated with animal slurry  

SciTech Connect

Microbial respiration and denitrification are greatly affected by abiotic factors, but they are difficult to assess in natural environments. Under controlled conditions the interactions between temperature and soil water content on microbial respiration, N{sub 2}O production, and denitrification in soil amended with animal slurries were studied. The effects of the abiotic factors on the biological processes were monitored for 8 wk in repacked soil cores amended with pig or cattle slurry. The soil cores were incubated at 43, 57, and 72% water-filled pore space (WFPS) and at 10, 15, and 20 C with or without addition of 10% acetylene. The amount of N{sub 2}O lost at 72% WFPS corresponded to 8 to 22% of the slurry's NH{sub 4}{sup +} content, but for only 0.01 to 1.2% at 43 to 57% WFPS. The amount of available C accounted for by denitrification was 8 to 16% of total respiration at 72% WFPS, but only 0.03 to 0.4% at 43 to 57% WFPS. Both N{sub 2}O production and denitrification peaked earlier in the cattle-slurry treated soil than in the pig-slurry treated soil, whereas the total N loss was greatest from the latter. Neither amendments nor soil water contents seemed to affect the Q{sub 10}-values for the CO{sub 2} production, resulting in values between 1.6 and 2.6. At 72% WFPS, N{sub 2}O production and denitrification had Q{sub 10}-values ranging between 3.3 and 5.4. High temperatures enhanced both aerobic respiration and denitrification, and aerobic respiration further enhanced denitrification by consuming oxygen, resulting in strong sensitivity of denitrification to temperature.

Maag, M.; Vinther, F.P.

1999-08-01

92

Instrumentation for transport and slurries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many advanced fossil energy processes require the continuous transport of crushed coal into high pressure vessels. The most common methods of doing this are sequenced pneumatic injection from pressurized lock hoppers and pumping of a coal-liquid slurry. Operation of these and other coal feeding systems is outlined and standard instrumentation for monitoring coal feed is reviewed. Applicable new and developmental instrumentation is discussed.

O'Fallon, Nancy M.

1981-02-01

93

Decomposition Studies of Tetraphenylborate Slurries  

SciTech Connect

This report details the decomposition of aqueous (K,Na) slurries in concentrated salt solutions using a more complete candidate catalyst recipe, extended testing temperatures (40-70 degrees C) and test durations of approximately 1500 hours (9 weeks). This study uses recently developed High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) methods for analysis of tetraphenylborate (TPB-), triphenylborane (3PB) and diphenylborinic acid (2PB). All of the present tests involve non-radioactive simulants and do not include investigations of radiolysis effects.

Crawford, C.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-05-06

94

GPR measurements for the distribution of thixotropic slurry behind segments in large diameter and long distance pipe-jacking construction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is very important to form an integrated ring of thixotropic slurry around the pipe segments to reduce resistance during large diameter and long distance pipe jacking. Furthermore, the integrated slurry ring between the pipe and the excavated soil can effectively reduce the soil disturbance caused by the pipes, and minimize ground settlement. It is necessary to real-time monitor the spatial distribution of the thixotripic slurry during jacking process. The traditional solution to estimate the outlines of slurry ring is the jacking load and the injecting pressure. If the jacking load increases, which means more slurry should be injected to reduce the jacking load. However, this solution couldn't provide the distribution of the slurry beneath pipe segments, and locate the zones which need to be injected enough slurry. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has been successfully used to detect the thickness of the grouting behind the shield tunnel segments in last several years. An important factor is the dielectric difference between grouting and soil. Similarly, the interface between the liquid slurry with high relative electric permittivity and surrounding soil, should be recognized from GPR image due to the distinct dielectric difference. Here, GPR experiment has been conducted on a sewage pipe jacking engineering. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the distribution of the thixotropic slurry through GPR image. In this sewage jacking engineering, the width and the thickness of each pipe segments is 200 cm and 30 cm, respectively. Considering the resolution and propagation range of radar wave, ground coupled bowtie antenna of 900 MHz frequency has been selected for GPR data acquisition. A series of circular GPR data have been collected along the inner surface of pipe segments. In addition, sampling of slurry has been performed on four different segments. The relative electric permittivity and conductivity of the thixotropic slurry have been measured by using time domain reflectometer (TDR). The velocity of propagation in slurry is calculated by dielectric characteristics, which extremely improves the resolution of time-depth conversion. Some process methods, including moving average, AGC and migration, have been applied to improve the quality of each GPR images. It's possible to recognize the reflection wave from the slurry-soil interface from the processed images. Combined the exact velocity estimation, the two-way travel time between pipe-slurry and slurry-soil interfaces can be converted to the thickness of the slurry ring. The experiment results show that GPR is able to evaluate the distribution of the liquid thixotropic slurry behind pipe segments in large diameter and long distance jacking. The velocity measured by TDR can significantly reduce the error caused by the time-depth conversion.

Zhao, Yonghui; Wu, Jiansheng; Xie, Xiongyao; Zeng, Chenchao

2013-04-01

95

Preparation of coal slurry with organic solvents.  

PubMed

In this study, various organic solvents were used to prepare coal slurries and the rheological and thermal properties of coal-organic solvent slurries were examined. Solvents with molecules containing unpaired electrons (high basicity) show high extraction power and cause swelling of coal. Therefore, coal-organic solvent slurries usually showed higher viscosities compared to coal-water slurry. In addition, coal slurries prepared by alcohols and cyclohexanone demonstrated lower settling rates but a high specific sedimentation volume presumably because these solvents swelled coal particles well and led to the formation of weak gel structures in the bulk. In addition, ethanol and cyclohexanone are capable of breaking a considerable amount of hydrogen bonds in coal and subsequently opening up the structures. Thus, more surface area is available for combustion and the combustion rate of coal slurries was increased. PMID:17276487

Shin, Yu-Jen; Shen, Yun-Hwei

2007-06-01

96

Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics  

E-print Network

Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. ...

Botero, Cristina

97

Effect of cattle slurry in grassland on microbial biomass and on activities of various enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the long-term effects of cattle slurry, applied at high rates, on microbial biomass, respiration, the microbial quotient (qCO2) and various soil enzyme activities. In March, June, July, and October 1991, slurry-amended grassland soils (0–10 cm) contained significantly higher levels of microbial biomass, N mineralization and enzyme activities involved in N, P, and C cycling. With microbial biomass as

Ellen Kandeler; Gerfried Eder

1993-01-01

98

Supersonic coal water slurry fuel atomizer  

SciTech Connect

A supersonic coal water slurry atomizer utilizing supersonic gas velocities to atomize coal water slurry is provided wherein atomization occurs externally of the atomizer. The atomizer has a central tube defining a coal water slurry passageway surrounded by an annular sleeve defining an annular passageway for gas. A converging/diverging section is provided for accelerating gas in the annular passageway to supersonic velocities. 3 figs.

Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.S.; Balsavich, J.

1989-11-01

99

Rheological Characterization of Unusual DWPF Slurry Samples (U)  

SciTech Connect

A study was undertaken to identify and clarify examples of unusual rheological behavior in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) simulant slurry samples. Identification was accomplished by reviewing sludge, Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product, and Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product simulant rheological results from the prior year. Clarification of unusual rheological behavior was achieved by developing and implementing new measurement techniques. Development of these new methods is covered in a separate report, WSRC-TR-2004-00334. This report includes a review of recent literature on unusual rheological behavior, followed by a summary of the rheological measurement results obtained on a set of unusual simulant samples. Shifts in rheological behavior of slurries as the wt. % total solids changed have been observed in numerous systems. The main finding of the experimental work was that the various unusual DWPF simulant slurry samples exhibit some degree of time dependent behavior. When a given shear rate is applied to a sample, the apparent viscosity of the slurry changes with time rather than remaining constant. These unusual simulant samples are more rheologically complex than Newtonian liquids or more simple slurries, neither of which shows significant time dependence. The study concludes that the unusual rheological behavior that has been observed is being caused by time dependent rheological properties in the slurries being measured. Most of the changes are due to the effect of time under shear, but SB3 SME products were also changing properties while stored in sample bottles. The most likely source of this shear-related time dependence for sludge is in the simulant preparation. More than a single source of time dependence was inferred for the simulant SME product slurries based on the range of phenomena observed. Rheological property changes were observed on the time-scale of a single measurement (minutes) as well as on a time scale of hours to weeks. The unusual shape of the slurry flow curves was not an artifact of the rheometric measurement. Adjusting the user-specified parameters in the rheometer measurement jobs can alter the shape of the flow curve of these time dependent samples, but this was not causing the unusual behavior. Variations in the measurement parameters caused the time dependence of a given slurry to manifest at different rates. The premise of the controlled shear rate flow curve measurement is that the dynamic response of the sample to a change in shear rate is nearly instantaneous. When this is the case, the data can be fitted to a time independent rheological equation, such as the Bingham plastic model. In those cases where this does not happen, interpretation of the data is difficult. Fitting time dependent data to time independent rheological equations, such as the Bingham plastic model, is also not appropriate.

Koopman, D. C.

2005-09-01

100

Resin Powder Slurry Process for Composite Fabrication  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Potentially useful process for fabrication of fiber-reinforced resinmatrix composites is powder slurry technique. Applicability of technique demonstrated using powdered resin made from thermoplastic polyimide LaRC/ TPI (thermoplastic polyimide). Use of process circumvents need for such high-cost organic solvents as N-methylpyrrolidinone and diglyme (diglycol methyl ether). Two basic slurries for LaRC/TPI powder investigated.

Mike, R. A.

1986-01-01

101

Slurry discharge management-beach profile prediction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mine tailings dams, are embankments used by the mining industry to retain the tailings products after the mineral preparation process. Based on the “acid-waste” stereotype that all coal slurry is acid producing, current reclamation requires a four foot soil cover for inactive slurry disposal areas. Compliance with this requirement is both difficult and costly and in some case unnecessary, as

Rolando Bravo; Jack R. Nawrot

1996-01-01

102

A Statistical Model for Slurry Thickening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thickening is the first step in the design of sustainable (cost effective, environmentally friendly, and socially viable) tailings management solutions for surface deposition, mine backfilling, and sub-aqueous discharge. The high water content slurries are converted to materials with superior dewatering properties by adding long-chain synthetic polymers. Given the solid and liquid composition of a slurry, a high settling rate alongside

Shahid Azam; Syed A. Imran

103

Slurry-pressing consolidation of silicon nitride  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A baseline slurry-pressing method for a silicon nitride material is developed. The Si3N4 composition contained 5.8 wt percent SiO2 and 6.4 wt percent Y2O3. Slurry-pressing variables included volume percent solids, application of ultrasonic energy, and pH. Twenty vol percent slurry-pressed material was approximately 11 percent stronger than both 30 vol percent slurry-pressed and dry-pressed materials. The Student's t-test showed the difference to be significant at the 99 percent confidence level. Twenty volume percent (300 h) slurry-pressed test bars exhibited strengths as high as 980 MPa. Large, columnar beta-Si3N4 grains caused failure in the highest strength specimens. The improved strength correlated with better structural uniformity as determined by radiography, optical microscopy, and image analysis.

Sanders, William A.; Kiser, James D.; Freedman, Marc R.

1988-01-01

104

Pig: a scholarly view  

Microsoft Academic Search

In George Orwell’s Animal Farm, the pigs infamously changed the law to read: “some animals are more equal than others” (108). From Charlotte’s Web to Babe, there are a plethora of contemporary cultural references, as well as expressions of their intelligence and worth, which would seem to support the pigs’ cause. However, simultaneously, the term “pig” is also synonymous with

Donna Lee Brien; Adele Wessell

2010-01-01

105

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec.sup. -1. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72.

Braunlin, Walter A. (Spring, TX); Gorski, Alan (Lovington, NM); Jaehnig, Leo J. (New Orleans, LA); Moskal, Clifford J. (Oklahoma City, OK); Naylor, Joseph D. (Houston, TX); Parimi, Krishnia (Allison Park, PA); Ward, John V. (Arvada, CO)

1984-01-03

106

Process for heating coal-oil slurries  

DOEpatents

Controlling gas to slurry volume ratio to achieve a gas holdup of about 0.4 when heating a flowing coal-oil slurry and a hydrogen containing gas stream allows operation with virtually any coal to solvent ratio and permits operation with efficient heat transfer and satisfactory pressure drops. The critical minimum gas flow rate for any given coal-oil slurry will depend on numerous factors such as coal concentration, coal particle size distribution, composition of the solvent (including recycle slurries), and type of coal. Further system efficiency can be achieved by operating with multiple heating zones to provide a high heat flux when the apparent viscosity of the gas saturated slurry is highest. Operation with gas flow rates below the critical minimum results in system instability indicated by temperature excursions in the fluid and at the tube wall, by a rapid increase and then decrease in overall pressure drop with decreasing gas flow rate, and by increased temperature differences between the temperature of the bulk fluid and the tube wall. At the temperatures and pressures used in coal liquefaction preheaters the coal-oil slurry and hydrogen containing gas stream behaves essentially as a Newtonian fluid at shear rates in excess of 150 sec[sup [minus]1]. The gas to slurry volume ratio should also be controlled to assure that the flow regime does not shift from homogeneous flow to non-homogeneous flow. Stable operations have been observed with a maximum gas holdup as high as 0.72. 29 figs.

Braunlin, W.A.; Gorski, A.; Jaehnig, L.J.; Moskal, C.J.; Naylor, J.D.; Parimi, K.; Ward, J.V.

1984-01-03

107

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in pigs and pig farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has recently been identified in pigs and people that work with pigs, raising concerns about the role of pigs as reservoirs of MRSA for human infection. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of MRSA colonization in pigs and pig farmers in Ontario, Canada and to characterize MRSA strains. Nasal and

T. Khanna; R. Friendship; C. Deweya; J. S. Weese

2008-01-01

108

Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries  

DOEpatents

An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Lyczkowski, Robert W. (Darien, IL); Wang, Chi-Sheng (Woodridge, IL)

1993-01-01

109

Improved design practices for slurry piping systems  

SciTech Connect

Although there are numerous articles and several good books on the hydrodynamic aspects of slurry handling and piping design, there is little information in the open technical literature on practical layout and mechanical-design practices. This article corrects that situation for slurry piping systems. Much of what is presented here was gathered from the technical literature and from design manuals produced by several engineering contractors and engineering departments of chemical manufacturers. The focus is on aboveground slurry piping systems, which are the most common type found in chemical, petrochemical and pharmaceutical plants.

Grossel, S.S. [Process Safety and Design, Inc., Clifton, NJ (United States)

1998-04-01

110

Microbiological aspects of methane production during pig manure storage DABERT Patrick, VEDRENNE Fabien, BRARD Camille and BELINE Fabrice  

E-print Network

according to the animal type, its diet or the related manure management practices (Martinez et al., 2000 slurries covering various animal types (pig, bovine and duck), age classes, feed regimes and manure amplified again using the RedTaq polymerase (Sigma) and cloned into E.coli using a TOPO-TA vector cloning

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

111

Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.  

PubMed

Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end. PMID:21520745

Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H

2011-01-01

112

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction  

SciTech Connect

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32[degrees]C by absorbing water at 25[degrees]C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33[degrees]C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng.

1990-01-01

113

Biodegradation of Pig Manure by the Housefly, Musca domestica: A Viable Ecological Strategy for Pig Manure Management  

E-print Network

The technology for biodegradation of pig manure by using houseflies in a pilot plant capable of processing 500–700 kg of pig manure per week is described. A single adult cage loaded with 25,000 pupae produced 177.7632.0 ml of eggs in a 15day egg-collection period. With an inoculation ratio of 0.4–1.0 ml eggs/kg of manure, the amount of eggs produced by a single cage can suffice for the biodegradation of 178–444 kg of manure. Larval development varied among four different types of pig manure (centrifuged slurry, fresh manure, manure with sawdust, manure without sawdust). Larval survival ranged from 46.962.1%, in manure without sawdust, to 76.8611.9 % in centrifuged slurry. Larval development took 6–11 days, depending on the manure type. Processing of 1 kg of wet manure produced 43.9–74.3 g of housefly pupae and the weight of the residue after biodegradation decreased to 0.18–0.65 kg, with marked differences among manure types.

Helena ?i?ková; Berta Pastor; Milan Kozánek; Anabel Martínez-sánchez; Santos Rojo

2012-01-01

114

Monitoring Plan for the Pig-nosed Turtle  

E-print Network

Monitoring Plan for the Pig-nosed Turtle in the Daly River, Northern Territory Unpublished report prepared by the Applied Ecology Research Group, University of Canberra, for the Parks and Wildlife Commission of the Northern Territory, June 2000. #12;2 Monitoring Plan for the Pig-nosed Turtle in the Daly

Canberra, University of

115

Keeping Show Pigs Healthy  

E-print Network

, it is much easier to prevent swine diseas- es by using good management practices rather than trying to treat the pigs after they have become sick. Injecting them with antibiotics in order to prevent diseases usually does not work. For example, if pigs..., it is much easier to prevent swine diseas- es by using good management practices rather than trying to treat the pigs after they have become sick. Injecting them with antibiotics in order to prevent diseases usually does not work. For example, if pigs...

Lawhorn, D. Bruce

2006-10-13

116

Behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs provided with straw in various amounts and frequencies.  

PubMed

Straw possesses many characteristics that make it attractive to pigs and can therefore be effective in preventing negative penmate-directed behaviours. However, straw is difficult to handle in current vacuum slurry systems under most commercial conditions and can therefore only be used in limited amounts. To occupy pigs effectively, straw must remain attractive to pigs throughout the whole day; hence, have a certain degree of novelty. We investigated the penmate-directed behaviour of liquid-fed growing pigs in a production herd, assigned to five experimental treatments: 1×25, 1×50, 1×100, 2×50 and 4×25 g of chopped straw/pig per day, with 20 replicates of each treatment (pen was regarded as experimental unit). Behaviour was observed at two different growth stages; ~40 and 80 kg live weight of the pigs. Activity and exploratory behaviour directed at penmates, straw, pen components and the slatted floor were registered continuously for 15 min of each hour during day time (0600 to 2200 h) by use of video observation of three focal pigs per pen. The pigs were active for about one-third of the day corresponding to ~5 h/day. Of the active time, an average of 7% (35 min) was spent on penmate-directed behaviour. The pigs were more active and increased their straw-directed behaviour when provided with 100 g straw/pig per day compared with 25 and 50 g (P<0.001). However, penmate-directed behaviour was not reduced with an increased amount of straw (P>0.05), and there was no effect on pigs' behaviour when straw provision was increased per day (P>0.05). Pigs became less active and reduced their straw-directed activities when their weight increased from 40 to 80 kg live weight (P<0.001), but the amount of penmate-directed behaviour was similar (P>0.05). Further, the residual straw results indicated that perhaps a more frequent straw provision could help establish a more even level of fresh available straw during the day. However, the frequent straw provision did not occupy pigs more than one daily allocation did. In conclusion, there was no difference in penmate-directed behaviour of the pigs when given 25 or 50 g of straw/pig per day compared with 100 g of straw/pig per day, nor were there any difference when 100 g of straw/pig per day was provided more frequently. PMID:25076383

Oxholm, L C; Steinmetz, H V; Lahrmann, H P; Nielsen, M B F; Amdi, C; Hansen, C F

2014-11-01

117

Effect of Al additive in Si slurry coating on liquid Si infiltration into carbon–carbon composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two-dimensional carbon–carbon composites (2D-C\\/C) applied with a pure Si pre-coating or a Si–6 wt.%Al pre-coating by dipping slurry method were heated above Si melting point to perform liquid Si infiltration. For pure Si slurry pre-coating, liquid Si excessively infiltrated into the C\\/C composite and many cracks were formed inside resulting in serious degradation of the flexural strength of the C\\/C

Hai-Tao Fang; Zhong-Da Yin; Jing-Chuan Zhu; Jae-Ho Jeon; Yoo-Dong Hahn

2001-01-01

118

Yield stress and effusion rates in model cryovolcanic slurries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent publication on the low temperature viscometry of methanol-water slurries [Zhong et al, Icarus 202, 607-619 (2009)] has provided the first experimental evidence for the likely presence of a ‘yield stress’ in putative cryomagmas - a precursor for levee formation and steep sided volcanic structures on icy planets. This paper serves to build on this approach by applying a range of rheometrical techniques routinely employed in materials science. The system water-sucrose was used as a model ‘cryomagma’. This has the practical advantage of allowing experiments to be undertaken at 253 - 273K, prior to the planned construction of a low temperature measuring system capable of operating down to 120K. The ‘peritectic’ for the model system has a composition close to 66.3:33.7 sucrose:water and a viscosity at 255 K of ~ 15 Pa s - not dissimilar from regions of the ammonia-water-methanol phase diagram. The ice crystal volume fraction was varied in the range 0.05 - 0.35, by variation in the water:sucrose ratio prior to freezing - giving consistencies ranging from a ‘fluid slurry’ to a ‘soft solid’. A vane and serrated cup measuring geometry was employed to avoid artefacts from wall slip. Data from a range of experiments are presented - including flow curves (controlled stress and controlled rate), creep studies (‘static’ yield stress) and stress ramps (‘dynamic’ yield stress), linear viscoelastic measurements (varying strain, frequency, temperature) and assessments of time-dependent structural recovery (thixotropy) - and their geophysical significance highlighted. Rheometrical experiments were also performed using a novel extrusion flow cell that allows observation of slurry flow through a cylindrical channel. Combination of dynamic yield stress data from rotational experiments and pressure drop measurements from extrusion studies allows the prediction of the slurry effusion rate, following the treatments commonly employed in industrial extrusion situations. Initial results suggest that the slurry under shear deviates from published models used to predict the relative viscosity of suspensions (see Figure). Novel numerical approaches are being developed in parallel that have potential to explore the multi-phase rheological aspects of these systems in more detail.

English, R.; Petford, N.; Heyes, D. G.

2009-12-01

119

Input and leaching potential of copper, zinc, and selenium in agricultural soil from swine slurry.  

PubMed

Trace elements, such as copper, zinc, and selenium, used as feed additives were determined in samples of both fresh (N = 14) and anaerobically digested (N = 6) swine slurry collected on medium- to large-size farms in northeast Spain. Considering both fresh and anaerobically digested samples, mean concentrations of zinc (1,500 mg kg(-1) dry mass [dm]) were greater than those of copper (mean 239 mg kg(-1 )dm), and the selenium concentrations detected were even lower (mean 139 ?g kg(-1) dm). Zinc concentrations were significantly greater in anaerobically digested samples, whereas no significant differences were found for copper or selenium. In addition, the leaching potential of zinc, copper, and selenium in cropped (lettuce heart) and uncropped experimental units subject to drip irrigation was assessed in a greenhouse experiment. Generally, the addition of swine slurry to soil (1.7 g kg(-1) dm) significantly increased zinc, copper, and selenium concentrations in leachates, which decreased in accordance with the volume of leachate eluted. Under the experimental conditions, the leaching potential of zinc and selenium was more strongly correlated with bulk parameters directly associated with the composition of the pig slurry (dissolved organic carbon, electrical conductivity, and ammonium), whereas copper mobility was more strongly associated with the crop root exudates. Although selenium has been shown to be mobile in soil, the selenium content found in the leachates did not pose any appreciable risk according to current drinking water standards. PMID:24374934

Comas, Jordi; Domínguez, Carmen; Salas-Vázquez, Dora I; Parera, Juan; Díez, Sergi; Bayona, Josep M

2014-02-01

120

Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in pigs from different farming systems in The Netherlands.  

PubMed

Sporadic nontravel-related hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been reported in industrialized countries. These infections are caused by zoonotic HEV genotypes 3 and 4 that circulate in swine, wild boar, and deer. In The Netherlands, HEV RNA has been detected in >50% of the pig farms, and HEV-specific antibodies were detected in ?70% of the slaughter pigs. In the current study, HEV seroprevalences were investigated in pigs raised on conventional, free-range, and organic farms in The Netherlands. Differences in seroprevalence may indicate different exposure routes or transmission dynamics within pig herds for HEV. In 2004, serum samples of 846 fattening pigs were obtained from farms that applied conventional (265 pigs at 24 farms), organic (417 pigs at 42 farms), and free-range (164 pigs at 12 farms) farming. HEV-specific antibodies were detected in samples from all conventional and free-range pig farms and in 41 of 42 organic pig farms, indicating that the probability of introducing HEV on a farm appeared to be equal for the different farming types. The estimated average within-herd seroprevalence was significantly higher for pigs raised on organic farms (89%) than for pigs raised on conventional farms (72%, P = 0.04) and nearly significant for pigs raised on free-range farms (76%, P = 0.06). Six of ten organic farms were estimated to have a withinherd seroprevalence of >95%, compared with 1 of 10 and 4 of 10 of the free-range and conventional pig farms, respectively. This suggests a higher force of infection with HEV for pigs reared on organic farms compared with pigs reared on conventional or free-range farms. This may be due to repetitive exposure to HEV caused by farming system-specific housing conditions, such as a greater contact frequency between pigs and more exposure to pig manure, increasing the transmission rate. PMID:24680077

Rutjes, S A; Bouwknegt, M; van der Giessen, J W; de Roda Husman, A M; Reusken, C B E M

2014-04-01

121

Rheological properties of defense waste slurries  

SciTech Connect

The major objective of this two-year project has been to obtain refined and reliable experimental data about the rheological properties of melter feeds. The research has involved both experimental studies and model development. Two experimental facilities have been set up to measure viscosity and pressure drop. Mathematical models have been developed as a result of experimental observation and fundamental rheological theory. The model has the capability to predict the viscosity of melter slurries in a range of experimental conditions. The final results of the investigation could be used to enhance the current design base for slurry transportation systems and improve the performance of the slurry mixing process. If successful, the cost of this waste treatment will be reduced, and disposal safety will be increased. The specific objectives for this project included: (1) the design, implementation, and validation of the experimental facility in both batch and continuous operating modes; (2) the identification and preparation of melter feed samples of both the SRS and Hanford waste slurries at multiple solids concentration levels; (3) the measurement and analysis of the melter feeds to determine the effects of the solids concentration, pH value, and other factors on the rheological properties of the slurries; (4) the correlation of the rheological properties as a function of the measured physical and chemical parameters; and (5) transmission of the experimental data and resulting correlation to the DOE site user to guide melter feed preparation and transport equipment design.

Ebadian, M.A.

1998-01-01

122

Chlamydiaceae infections in pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to

Katelijn Schautteet; Daisy Vanrompay

2011-01-01

123

Pig in the Middle.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores themes relating to human transition as they appear in "Charlotte's Web" and four other stories using pigs as a subject. Discusses the motifs common to all these texts that recur in the film "Babe." Considers how the cycle of life and death is ceaseless, and pigs symbolize the necessary transitions that people must all make. (NH)

Mills, Sophie

2000-01-01

124

Persistence of a Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT12 clone in a piggery and in agricultural soil amended with Salmonella-contaminated slurry.  

PubMed

Prevalence of Salmonella enterica on a Danish pig farm presenting recurrent infections was investigated. A comparison of the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of fecal isolates from piggeries, waste slurry, and agricultural soil amended with Salmonella-contaminated animal waste (slurry) and subclinical isolates from the same farm (collected in 1996 and later) showed identical patterns, indicating long-term persistence of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT12 clone in the herd environment. Furthermore, when Salmonella-contaminated slurry was disposed of on the agricultural soil (a common waste disposal practice), the pathogen was isolated up to 14 days after the spread, indicating potentially high risks of transmission of the pathogen in the environment, animals, and humans. PMID:11375208

Baloda, S B; Christensen, L; Trajcevska, S

2001-06-01

125

Uncertainty analysis of hygrometer-obtained water activity measurements of saturated salt slurries and food materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water activity is a critical food stability parameter. Thus, assessment of the uncertainty associated with the instruments and measurement procedures used to obtain aw data is critical and can be accomplished using uncertainty analysis. Uncertainty analysis was applied to aw data obtained for two saturated salt slurries (potassium acetate and potassium chloride) and two food materials (corn flakes and grape

Xin Yu; Arthur R. Schmidt; Shelly J. Schmidt

2009-01-01

126

Modeling PAH mass transfer in a slurry of contaminated soil or sediment amended with organic sorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-compartment kinetic partitioning model was employed to assess contaminant mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion in systems comprising dense slurries of polluted soil or aquifer sediment with or without sorbent amendments to sequester polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The model was applied to simulate temporal changes in aqueous and particle-bound PAH concentrations comparing different pollution sources (heavy oil or tar sludge)

Sungwoo Ahn; David Werner; Richard G. Luthy

2008-01-01

127

The Correlation between Thermal and Noxious Gas Environments, Pig Productivity and Behavioral Responses of Growing Pigs  

PubMed Central

Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare. PMID:22016700

Choi, Hong Lim; Han, Sang Hwa; Albright, Louis D.; Chang, Won Kyung

2011-01-01

128

The correlation between thermal and noxious gas environments, pig productivity and behavioral responses of growing pigs.  

PubMed

Correlations between environmental parameters (thermal range and noxious gas levels) and the status (productivity, physiological, and behavioral) of growing pigs were examined for the benefit of pig welfare and precision farming. The livestock experiment was conducted at a Seoul National University station in South Korea. Many variations were applied and the physiological and behavioral responses of the growing pigs were closely observed. Thermal and gas environment parameters were different during the summer and winter seasons, and the environments in the treatments were controlled in different manners. In the end, this study finds that factors such as Average Daily Gain (ADG), Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH), stress, posture, and eating habits were all affected by the controlled environmental parameters and that appropriate control of the foregoing could contribute to the improvement of precision farming and pig welfare. PMID:22016700

Choi, Hong Lim; Han, Sang Hwa; Albright, Louis D; Chang, Won Kyung

2011-09-01

129

Biotechnological Slurry Process for the Decontamination of Excavated Polluted Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the thesis the development of a new biotechnological slurry process for the decontamination of excavated polluted soils is described. The slurry process is especially designed to decontaminate soils polluted with organic compounds (e.g. oil). Crucial i...

R. Kleijntjens

1991-01-01

130

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, Ramkrishna G. (San Antonio, TX)

1986-01-01

131

Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector  

DOEpatents

A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

Phatak, R.G.

1984-08-31

132

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing

Dennis G. Nodd; Richard J. Walker

1987-01-01

133

SCOPING STUDIES TO DEVELOP A METHOD TO DETERMINE PARTICLE SIZE IN SIMULANT SLUDGE SLURRIES BY SIEVING  

SciTech Connect

A physical separation method (i.e. sieving) was investigated to determine particle size distribution in non-radioactive sludge slurry simulants with the goal of implementation into the SRNL (Savannah River National Laboratory) shielded cells for use with radioactive sludge slurries. The investigation included obtaining the necessary experimental equipment, developing accessory equipment for use with the sieve shaker (to be able to sieve simulant slurries with aqueous solutions), sieving three different simulant slurries through a number of sieves and determining the particle size distribution gravimetrically, and developing a sufficient cleaning protocol of the sieves for re-use. The experimental protocol involved successive sieving of a NIST standard (to check the particle size retention of the sieves) and three non-radioactive slurry simulants (Batch 3 Tank 40 Test 3, Tank 40 Drum 3 and CETL Sludge Batch 2, which had been previously characterized by Microtrac analysis) through smaller and smaller sieves (150 microns x 5 microns) via use of the wet sieving system or by hand. For each of the three slurries, duplicate experiments were carried out using filtered supernate and DI water (to check the accuracy of the method versus Microtrac data) to sieve the slurry. Particle size determinations using the wet sieving system with DI water agree well with Microtrac data on a volume basis and in some cases the sieving data may be more accurate particularly if the material sieved had large particles. A correction factor had to be applied to data obtained from experiments done with supernate due to the dissolved solids which dried upon the sieves in the drying stage of the experiments. Upon subtraction of the correction factors, the experimental results were very similar to those obtained with DI water. It should be noted that approximately 250 mL of each of three simulant slurries was necessary to have enough filtered supernate available to carry out the experiments. The experimental results for the slurries are below with Microtrac data. The design of the experimental equipment was sufficient initially, but some pieces of the equipment began failing over time due to the caustic nature of the supernate and the vibrations from the sieve shaker. It is therefore recommended that upgrades to the experimental equipment be done before implementation into the SRNL shielded cells. Theses upgrades include using manipulator friendly connections, changing brass parts for stainless steel parts, using Teflon rather than polycarbonate, and possibly a change of pumps used to re-circulate the sieving fluid.

DAMON, CLICK

2005-02-07

134

District cooling: Phase 2, Direct freeze ice slurry system testing  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this research are to: extend the range of pressure drop data for ice-water slurry flows, and design and build a prototypical ice slurry distribution system which demonstrates ice slurry handling at an end user's heat exchanger, without sending ice slurry directly through the heat exchanger. The results of Phase 1 work demonstrated a 40% reduction in pump power required to move an ice-water slurry versus the same mass flow of water only. In addition to lower pressure drop, pumping ice slurries is advantageous because of the large latent and sensible heat cooling capacity stored in the ice compared to only sensible heat in chilled water. For example, an ice-water slurry with a 20% ice fraction (by mass) has a mass flow rate that is 70% less than the mass flow rate required for a chilled water system cooling and equivalent load. The greatly reduced mass flow combined with the friction reducing effects of ice-water slurries results in a total savings of 83% in pumping power. Therefore, a substantial savings potential exists for capital costs and system operating costs in ice-water slurry district cooling systems. One potential disadvantage of an ice-slurry district cooling system is the introduction of ice into equipment not so designed, such as air handlers at end user locations. A prototypic ice slurry distribution loop will demonstrate a cooling network which will provide ice slurry to an end user but sends ice free water into the actual heat transfer.

Winters, P.J.

1991-01-02

135

Effect of fermentation temperature on hydrogen production from cow waste slurry by using anaerobic microflora within the slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined hydrogen production from a dairy cow waste slurry (13.4 g of volatile solids per liter) by batch cultures in a\\u000a temperature range from 37 to 85°C, using microflora naturally present within the slurry. Without the addition of seed bacteria,\\u000a hydrogen was produced by simply incubating the slurry, using the microflora within the slurry. Interestingly, two peaks of\\u000a fermentation temperatures

Hiroshi Yokoyama; Miyoko Waki; Naoko Moriya; Tomoko Yasuda; Yasuo Tanaka; Kiyonori Haga

2007-01-01

136

Infectious Swine Hepatitis E Virus Is Present in Pig Manure Storage Facilities on United States Farms, but Evidence of Water Contamination Is Lacking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fresh feces, manure slurry (from earthen lagoons and\\/or concrete pits), and drinking and surface water samples were collected from 28 pig farms in the Midwestern United States. All samples were tested for hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. Seven of 28 farms had fecal samples that contained HEV. Of 22 farms where pit samples were accessible, 15 contained

C. Kasorndorkbua; T. Opriessnig; F. F. Huang; D. K. Guenette; P. J. Thomas; X.-J. Meng; P. G. Halbur

2005-01-01

137

Flue Gas Scrubbing with Limestone Slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scrubbing process for flue gas desulfurization, based upon naturally occurring carbonate rocks, has been developed from laboratory to pilot plant scale. Calcitic limestones are better sulfur dioxide absorbents than dolomitic ones when used in the slurry form. The process was tested on a 200-cfm pilot plant on a coal-fired boiler. Various types of scrubbing equipment were evaluated. Up to

A. Saleem

1972-01-01

138

Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry  

SciTech Connect

In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

Cesarano, J. III; Calvert, P.D.

2000-02-22

139

Slurry pipeline program number 1. Technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) pipeline program of Coulter's thesis, was modified to include the properties of slurry flow. This report outlines modifications, equations, and assumptions. An example run is included as Appendix A. The following is to be noted: (1) The analysis is a steady state one using an analytical expression for ground heat flux; (2) A LNG flow

Coulter

1975-01-01

140

LNG slurry formation. Preliminary technical memo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process of forming particles of frozen crude oil by spraying oil into LNG was originally conceived by LeFever. Analyses by Coulter have shown that the particles formed for slurry transportation must be as small as possible, on the order of 30 micrometers (.001 inch). Such small pellets can be achieved by freezing oil spray, but direct spraying of crude

Coulter

1975-01-01

141

Catalyst Complexed Carbon Slurry Fuel Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Catalyzed carbon blacks and a control sample were prepared for the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness of the catalyst in the improvement of carbon slurry combustion. Two batches (100 pounds each) of carbon black containing 0.2 and 0.99 percent iron c...

R. A. Johnson, R. L. Linard

1981-01-01

142

Fractal analysis of crystallization slurry images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Image analysis is increasingly used for monitoring the evolution of crystallization. The aim of these techniques is to track crystal growth through the quantification of shape changes. However, images for samples taken directly from the crystallization slurry show that crystals are not isolated, but display a complex pattern with an irregular packing of small and large particles. This work explores

Oscar Velazquez-Camilo; Eusebio Bolaños-Reynoso; Eduardo Rodriguez; Jose Alvarez-Ramirez

2010-01-01

143

Aerated atomization of coal water slurry  

SciTech Connect

In order to better understand the process of slurry atomization, it is important to observe the influence of fluid non-Newtonian rheological behavior on the spray formation process. As a first step, glycerin-water solutions have been atomized. This report describes findings of photographs taken during atomization. 19 figs.

Buckner, H.N.; Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

1989-01-05

144

SLURRY TRENCH CONSTRUCTION FOR POLLUTION MIGRATION CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The handbook provides in-depth guidance on the use of slurry walls for the control of subsurface pollutants. It describes how these barriers can be employed for waste site remediation and presents the theory of their function and use. The handbook describes the essential elements...

145

Freeforming objects with low-binder slurry  

DOEpatents

In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul D. (Tucson, AZ)

2000-01-01

146

Coal slurry combustion and technology. Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions of the Coal Slurry Combustion and Technology Symposium: (1) bench-scale testing; (2) pilot testing; (3) combustion; and (4) rheology and characterization. Thirty-three papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01

147

Low Cost Dewatering of Waste Slurries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a technique for dewatering mineral waste slurries which utilizes polymer and a static screen. A variety of waste slurries from placer gold mines and crushed stone operations have been successfully treated using the system. Depending on the waste, a number of polymers have been used successfully with polymer costs ranging from $0.05 to $0.15 per 1,000 gal treated. The dewatering is accomplished using screens made from either ordinary window screen or wedge wire. The screens used are 8 ft wide and 8 ft long. The capacity of the screens varies from 3 to 7 gpm/sq. ft. The water produced is acceptable for recycling to the plant or for discharge to the environment. For example, a fine grain dolomite waste slurry produced from a crushed stone operation was dewatered from a nominal 2.5 pct solids to greater than 50 pct solids using $0.10 to $0.15 worth of polymer per 1,000 gal of slurry. The resulting waste water had a turbidity of less than 50 NTU and could be discharged or recycled. The paper describes field tests conducted using the polymer-screen dewatering system.

Peterson, J. B.; Sharma, S. K.; Church, R. H.; Scheiner, B. J.

1993-01-01

148

Virtual Pig Dissection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dissection can be an aspect of scientific education that can make some parties queasy, but it is a fascinating way to learn more about the different body systems, their operations, and basic animal anatomy. Entering the world of pig dissection can make budding scientists even more squeamish, but they need never fear, as this site allows these individuals the opportunity to engage in a bit of virtual pig dissection. Originally created by Professor Earl W. Fleck of Whitman CollegeâÂÂs biology department, the site lets users go inside the pig to learn about its various systems, via a set of high-quality color photographs, which can be viewed at different angles and perspectives. Of course, what would a lab be without a quiz? Rounding out the site, visitors can take short quizzes on the pigâÂÂs anatomy and such.

Fleck, Earl W.

149

Hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble-column reactors for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Fischer-Tropsch approach to indirect liquefaction, slurry bubble-column reactors (SBCRs) are used to convert coal syngas into the desired product. Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of SBCRs at industrially relevant conditions is discussed.Gas-liquid flow experiments are performed in an industrial-scale stainless steel vessel. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to make spatially resolved gas

N. B. Jackson; J. R. Torczynski; K. A. Shollenberger; D. R. Adkins

1996-01-01

150

Ammonia volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on a volcanic soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Agriculture is the largest source of ammonia (NH3) emission to the atmosphere. Within the agricultural sector, the application of slurry to grasslands as fertilizer is one of the main emission sources. This is a common practice in southern Chile, where most dairy production systems are grazing-based. In Chile, there are few published data of gaseous emissions following slurry application to grassland. The aim of this study was to evaluate NH3 volatilization following dairy slurry application to a permanent grassland on an Andosol soil. Ammonia volatilization was measured in four field experiments (winters of 2009 and 2011 and early and late springs of 2011) using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers following dairy slurry application at a target rate of 100 kg total N ha-1. The accumulated N loss was equivalent to 7, 8, 16 and 21% of the total N applied and 22, 34, 88 and 74% of total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied for winters 2009 and 2011, and early and late spring 2011, respectively. Ammonia emission rates were high immediately after application and declined rapidly with time, with more than 50% of the total emissions within the first 24 h. Losses were highly influenced by environmental conditions, increasing with temperature and lack of rainfall. Taking into consideration the low N losses via leaching and nitrous oxide emissions reported for the study area, results indicate that NH3 volatilization is the main pathway of N loss in fertilized grasslands of southern Chile. However, dairy slurry application could be an important source of nutrients, if applied at a suitable time, rate and using an appropriate technique, and if soil and climate conditions are taken into consideration. This could improve N use efficiency and reduce N losses to the wider environment.

Martínez-Lagos, J.; Salazar, F.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

2013-12-01

151

System for pressure letdown of abrasive slurries  

DOEpatents

A system and method for releasing erosive slurries from containment at high pressure without subjecting valves to highly erosive slurry flow. The system includes a pressure letdown tank disposed below the high-pressure tank, the two tanks being connected by a valved line communicating the gas phases and a line having a valve and choke for a transfer of liquid into the letdown tank. The letdown tank has a valved gas vent and a valved outlet line for release of liquid. In operation, the gas transfer line is opened to equalize pressure between tanks so that a low level of liquid flow occurs. The letdown tank is then vented, creating a high-pressure differential between the tanks. At this point, flow between tanks is controlled by the choke. High-velocity, erosive flow through a high-pressure outlet valve is prevented by equalizing the start up pressure and thereafter limiting flow with the choke.

Kasper, Stanley (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-01-01

152

Chlamydiaceae infections in pig  

PubMed Central

Chlamydiaceae are Gram-negative obligate intracellular bacteria. They are responsible for a broad range of diseases in animals and humans. In pigs, Chlamydia suis, Chlamydia abortus, Chlamydia pecorum and Chlamydia psittaci have been isolated. Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs are associated with different pathologies such as conjunctivitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, polyarthritis, polyserositis, pseudo-membranous or necrotizing enteritis, periparturient dysgalactiae syndrome, vaginal discharge, return to oestrus, abortion, mummification, delivery of weak piglets, increased perinatal and neonatal mortality and inferior semen quality, orchitis, epididymitis and urethritis in boars. However, Chlamydiaceae are still considered as non-important pathogens because reports of porcine chlamydiosis are rare. Furthermore, Chlamydiaceae infections are often unnoticed because tests for Chlamydiaceae are not routinely performed in all veterinary diagnostic laboratories and Chlamydiaceae are often found in association with other pathogens, which are sometimes more easily to detect. However, recent studies have demonstrated that Chlamydiaceae infections in breeding sows, boars and piglets occur more often than thought and are economically important. This paper presents an overview on: the taxonomy of Chlamydiaceae occurring in pigs, diagnostic considerations, epidemiology and pathology of infections with Chlamydiaceae in pigs, public health significance and finally on prevention and treatment of Chlamydiaceae infections in pigs. PMID:21314912

2011-01-01

153

CFD simulation and experimental analysis of erosion in a slurry tank test rig  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Erosion occurring in equipment dealing with liquid-solid mixtures such as pipeline parts, slurry pumps, liquid-solid stirred reactors and slurry mixers in various industrial applications results in operational failure and economic costs. A slurry erosion tank test rig is designed and was built to investigate the erosion rates of materials and the influencing parameters such as flow velocity and turbulence, flow angle, solid particle concentration, particles size distribution, hardness and target material properties on the material loss and erosion profiles. In the present study, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool is used to simulate the erosion rate of sample plates in the liquid-solid slurry mixture in a cylindrical tank. The predictions were made in a steady state and also transient manner, applying the flow at the room temperature and using water and sand as liquid and solid phases, respectively. The multiple reference frame method (MRF) is applied to simulate the flow behavior and liquid-solid interactions in the slurry tank test rig. The MRF method is used since it is less demanding than sliding mesh method (SM) and gives satisfactory results. The computational domain is divided into three regions: a rotational or MRF zone containing the mixer, a rotational zone (MRF) containing the erosion plates and a static zone (outer liquid zone). It is observed that changing the MRF zone diameter and height causes a very low impact on the results. The simulated results were obtained for two kinds of hard metals namely stainless steel and ST-50 under some various operating conditions and are found in good agreement with the experimental results.

Azimian, Mehdi; Bart, Hans-Jörg

2013-04-01

154

Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide  

DOEpatents

An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

Duran, E.L.

1984-11-29

155

Abrasive slurry composition for machining boron carbide  

DOEpatents

An abrasive slurry particularly suited for use in drilling or machining boron carbide consists essentially of a suspension of boron carbide and/or silicon carbide grit in a carrier solution consisting essentially of a dilute solution of alkylaryl polyether alcohol in octyl alcohol. The alkylaryl polyether alcohol functions as a wetting agent which improves the capacity of the octyl alcohol for carrying the grit in suspension, yet without substantially increasing the viscosity of the carrier solution.

Duran, Edward L. (Santa Fe, NM)

1985-01-01

156

Optimizing contaminant desorption and bioavailability in dense slurry systems. 1. Rheology, mechanical mixing, and PAH desorption.  

PubMed

Intermittently mixed batch reactor (IMBR) systems were employed to evaluate the effects of mechanical mixing and corresponding power consumption on rates of phenanthrene desorption from natural and synthetic model sorbent phases to the aqueous phase in dense slurry reactors. Sorbent slurries comprising 57-67% (w/w) solids exhibited non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic) fluid behaviors, with apparent viscosities varying with shear rate. Dimensionless power numbers varied inversely with the Reynolds number under laminar flow conditions, indicating that small increases in mixing revolution number and auger size effect significant increases in power and torque requirements for the mechanical mixing of dense slurries. Rates of release of phenanthrene associated with rapidly desorbing or labile fractions of sorbent organic matter (SOM) to the aqueous phase were markedly enhanced by relatively low-level auger mixing, but significantly less further enhancement was observed as higher levels of mixing were applied. Conversely, desorption of phenanthrene associated with slowly desorbing or resistant fractions of SOM was relatively unaffected by auger mixing, being limited as it is by slow intraparticle-scale diffusion processes that are not enhanced by reactor-scale mixing. The experimental results lead to and support a conclusion that auger mixing at relatively low intensity is an attractive strategy for optimizing dense slurry reactor systems for remediation of hydrophobic organic contaminants associated with labile (rapidly desorbing) fractions of SOM with respect to performance efficiency and cost-effectiveness. PMID:15871263

Weber, Walter J; Kim, Han S

2005-04-01

157

Geotechnical properties of debris-flow sediments and slurries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Measurements of geotechnical properties of various poorly sorted debris-flow sediments and slurries (??? 32 mm diameter) emphasize their granular nature, and reveal that properties of slurries can differ significantly from those of compacted sediments. Measurements show that: (1) cohesion probably offers little resistance to shear in most debris flows under low confining stresses normally found in nature; (2) intrinsic hydraulic permeabilities of compacted debris-flow sediments vary from about 10-14-10-9 m2; permeabilities of 'typical' debris-flow slurries fall toward the low end of the range; (3) debris-flow slurries are characterized by very large values of 'elastic' compressibility (C approx. 10-2 kPa-1); and (4) hydraulic diffusivities of quasistatically consolidating slurries are approx. 10-4-10-7 m2/s. Low hydraulic diffusivity of debris slurries permits excess fluid pressure and low effective strength to persist during sediment transport and deposition.

Major, J. J.; Iverson, R. M.; McTigue, D. F.; Macias, S.; Fiedorowicz, B. K.

1997-01-01

158

When Pigs Fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners explore probability. Learners brainstorm activities that are possible and impossible, make a flap book, and read and discuss the book, "Cloudy With a Chance of Meatballs." Learners also investigate the probability of selecting a pink "pig" (pink cotton ball) from a bag containing varying amounts of pink and white "pigs" (cotton balls). Learners make predictions, record data, and graph the results. This activity is written as a four day lesson, but can be shortened into a one-time activity.

Lessonplans, Utah

2012-10-22

159

ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX MISCIBLE AND IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H  

SciTech Connect

Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). At present, Tank 50H contains two standard slurry pumps and two Quad Volute slurry pumps. Current requirements and mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste would like to move one or both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that are failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to blend miscible and immiscible liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Salt Disposition Integration Project (SDIP) and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters needed to blend the tank contents. The conclusions from this analysis are: (1) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will be able to blend miscible liquids (i.e., salt solution) in Tank 50H within 4.4 hours. (2) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 3.1 hours. (3) Three rotating standard slurry pumps will be able to blend miscible liquids in Tank 50H within 2.5 hours. (4) A single rotating standard slurry pump (with a 13.6 ft{sup 2}/s U{sub 0}D) will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets that are less than or equal to 15 micron in diameter. If the droplets are less than 15 micron, they will be dispersed within 4.4 hours. Isopar L{reg_sign} provides a lower bound on the maximum size of droplets that will be dispersed by the slurry pumps in Tank 50H. (5) Two rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron within 3.1 hours, and three rotating standard slurry pumps will disperse Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets less than 15 micron within 2.5 hours. (6) If the Isopar L{reg_sign} droplets are drawn through the pump, they will be further reduced in size, with a maximum drop size less than 15 micron.

Poirier, M.

2011-06-15

160

Survey of state water laws affecting coal slurry pipeline development  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes state water laws likely to affect the development of coal slurry pipelines. It was prepared as part of a project to analyze environmental issues related to energy transportation systems. Coal slurry pipelines have been proposed as a means to expand the existing transportation system to handle the increasing coal shipments that will be required in the future. The availability of water for use in coal slurry systems in the coal-producing states is an issue of major concern.

Rogozen, M.B.

1980-11-01

161

Slurry Nebulization in Plasmas for Analysis of Inorganic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review summarizes and discusses the preparation of slurries for analysis of inorganic materials by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP?OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP?MS). Details about the grinding step for slurry preparation, the stabilization of slurries, and the calibration strategies are critically discussed. Typical applications described in the literature and the state?of?the?art including advantages and

Mirian C. Santos; Joaquim A. Nóbrega

2006-01-01

162

Methods to enhance the characteristics of hydrothermally prepared slurry fuels  

DOEpatents

Methods for enhancing the flow behavior and stability of hydrothermally treated slurry fuels. A mechanical high-shear dispersion and homogenization device is used to shear the slurry fuel. Other improvements include blending the carbonaceous material with a form of coal to reduce or eliminate the flocculation of the slurry, and maintaining the temperature of the hydrothermal treatment between approximately 300.degree. to 350.degree. C.

Anderson, Chris M. (Shakopee, MN); Musich, Mark A. (Grand Forks, ND); Mann, Michael D. (Thompson, ND); DeWall, Raymond A. (Grand Forks, ND); Richter, John J. (Grand Forks, ND); Potas, Todd A. (Plymouth, MN); Willson, Warrack G. (Fairbanks, AK)

2000-01-01

163

By-pass pig passes test for two-phase pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simulation model of the dynamics of a by-pass pig and related two-phase flow behavior along with field trials of the pig in a dry-gas pipeline have revealed significant gains in use of a by-pass pig in modifying gas and liquid production rates. The method can widen the possibility of applying two-phase flow pipeline transportation to cases in which separator

H. L. Wu; G. van Spronsen; E. H. Klaus; D. M. Stewart

1996-01-01

164

Purification and crystallization of yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol transamidase subunit PIG-S (PIG-S71–467)  

PubMed Central

The transfer of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors onto eukaryotic proteins is catalyzed by the transamidase complex, which is composed of at least five subunits (PIG-K, PIG-S, PIG-T, PIG-U and GPAA1). Here, the recombinant protein PIG-S71–467 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, including residues 71–467 of the entire 534-residue protein, was cloned, expressed and purified to homogeneity. The monodisperse protein was crystallized by the vapour-diffusion method. A diffraction data set was collected to 3.2?Å resolution with 91.6% completeness. The crystals belonged to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 106.72, b = 59.33, c = 124.3?Å, ? = 114.19°, and contained two molecules in the asymmetric unit. PMID:21821889

Kamariah, Neelagandan; Eisenhaber, Frank; Adhikari, Sharmila; Eisenhaber, Birgit; Grüber, Gerhard

2011-01-01

165

Evolution of microstructure in semi-solid slurries of rheocast aluminum alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Semi-solid metal processing is being developed in die casting applications to give several cost benefits. To efficiently apply this emerging technology, it is important to understand the evolution of microstructure in semi-solid slurries for the control of the rheological behavior in semi-solid state. An experimental apparatus was developed which can capture the grain structure at different times at early stages

R. CANYOOK; S. PETSUT; S. WISUTMETHANGOON; M. C. FLEMINGS; J. WANNASIN

2010-01-01

166

Experimental techniques for hydrodynamic characterization of multiphase flows in slurry-phase bubble-column reactors  

SciTech Connect

Slurry-phase bubble-column Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactors are recognized as one of the more promising technologies for converting synthesis gas from coal into liquid fuel products (indirect liquefaction). However, hydrodynamic effects must be considered when attempting to scale these reactors to sizes of industrial interest. The objective of this program is to facilitate characterization of reactor hydrodynamics by developing and applying noninvasive tomographic diagnostics capable of measuring gas holdup spatial distribution in these reactors.

Torczynski, J.R.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Mondy, L.A.; Jackson, N.B.

1994-09-01

167

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification...or slurry impoundment and impounding structure that has not been abandoned in...

2014-07-01

168

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification...or slurry impoundment and impounding structure that has not been abandoned in...

2013-07-01

169

30 CFR 77.216-5 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. 77.216-5 Section...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; abandonment. (a) Prior to abandonment...or slurry impoundment and impounding structure which meets the requirements of...

2011-07-01

170

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification...or slurry impoundment and impounding structure that has not been abandoned in...

2011-07-01

171

30 CFR 77.216-4 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; reporting requirements; certification...or slurry impoundment and impounding structure that has not been abandoned in...

2010-07-01

172

A Simple "Pig" Game  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Our pig game involves a series of tosses of a die with the possibility of a player's score improving with each additional toss. With each additional toss, however, there is also the chance of losing the entire score accumulated so far. Two different strategies for deciding how many tosses a player should attempt are developed and then compared in…

Johnson, Roger W.

2008-01-01

173

Pig Poop Power  

E-print Network

Koreans have opened up a power plant that uses pig poop to produce electricity. Really. Right now, the model plant has the capability of burning 20 tons of poop a day to produce 30 kilowatts of electricity--enough to light up about 100 homes. The goal...

Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

2007-04-11

174

Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. ? During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under a

McClaine, Andrew W.

2008-09-30

175

Theoretical model for a slurry pipeline. Technical memo. [Frozen crude oil slurry in LNG  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model for describing the theoretical behavior of frozen crude oil slurry in liquid natural gas (LNG) is presented in two modules in the following. The 'Pressure Module' is derived from the Newitt equations and the 'Temperature Module' is derived from the 'Design Considerations and Optimization of a Liquified Natural Gas Pipeline' by Coulter. A final section describes the

Rennert

1975-01-01

176

Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts  

SciTech Connect

A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

McDaniel, E. W.

1980-10-01

177

Fundamental considerations for coal slurry atomization  

SciTech Connect

Presented herein are the results of an investigation of theoretical models of atomization, which can be used for a phenomenological theory for coal slurry atomization. This investigation was conducted in several phases. The primary phase involved an intensive analysis of the rheological properties of coal slurry fuels. Analysis was performed including viscosity as a function of shear rate, the extensional viscosity, and the viscoelastic properties. During the second phase, atomization was studied over a sufficiently wide range of rheological properties. During this phase, simulated fluids as well as coal slurries were studied. Three basic theoretical models were analyzed to determine the best approach to characterizing these complex fluids. The first model was a linearized Navier-Stokes equation for a cylindrical fluid stream breaking up into drops under the impact of a high-velocity air stream. The second model was a collisional model, by which the collision of the airstream and the fluid stream produced droplets. Energy and momentum conservation were used to derive relationships between the drop size and the relevant physical parameters. A third model studied was a statistical model using a Boltzmann-type transport equation for the propagation of drops under the interactions of a high-velocity airstream. The effects of drop coalescence and breakup are incorporated into this model. By comparing the various theoretical models with the atomization data and the rheological data, a phenomenological model was constructed that correctly predicted the trends of the Sauter mean diameter as a function of air/fuel ratio, rheological properties, and spray angle. An elective viscosity was defined that included the effects of viscous losses, extensional properties, and viscoelastic properties. In addition, the effects of yield point were incorporated and shown to be important in predicting atomization properties.

Dooher, J.P. [Adelphi University, Garden City, NY (United States)

2005-10-01

178

The effect of local or general anesthesia on the physiology and behavior of tail docked pigs.  

PubMed

Tail docking of pigs is a routine procedure on farms to help control tail-biting behavior; however, docking can cause pain. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of local or general anesthesia on the physiology (experiment 1) and behavior (experiment 2) of tail docked pigs. Pigs were allocated to one of six treatment groups: (i) sham docking (CON); (ii) docking using conventional cutting (CUT) with side-cutting pliers; (iii) CUT docking plus local anesthesia injected immediately before docking (LA); (iv) CUT docking plus short-acting local anesthesia applied topically to the tail wound (SHORT); (v) CUT docking plus long-acting anesthesia applied topically to the tail wound (LONG) and (vi) CUT docking while the pig was anesthetized with carbon dioxide gas (CO(2)). In experiment 1, blood samples were collected from pigs (10 pigs per treatment) before and 30, 60 and 120 min after docking to measure leukocyte counts and percentages and cortisol concentrations. In experiment 2, the above treatments were repeated (10 pigs per treatment); the percentage of stress vocalizations were recorded during the administration of the treatments and behavior was recorded for up to 120 min after docking or handling. All pigs were weighed before and 24 h after docking and wound healing was recorded until weaning. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in CUT, LA, SHORT and LONG compared with CON pigs. At 30 min, cortisol concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in CUT, LA, LONG and CO(2) compared with CON pigs. Cortisol concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) between SHORT and CON pigs 30 min after docking. Cortisol concentrations did not differ (P > 0.05) among pigs given pain relief at the time of docking compared with pigs' docked without pain relief. Body weight change and wound scores did not differ (P > 0.05) among treatments. The percentage of stress vocalizations increased (P < 0.05) in CUT, SHORT and LONG, but not in CON, LA and CO(2) pigs in response to docking or handling. The percentage of time pigs spent lying without contact after docking tended to be greater (P = 0.06) in CUT pigs compared with all other docking treatments and CON pigs. In this study, none of the anesthesia treatments tested were effective at significantly changing the physiological or behavioral response to tail docking in pigs. PMID:22440176

Sutherland, M A; Davis, B L; McGlone, J J

2011-06-01

179

CST/Water Slurry Mixing and Resuspension  

SciTech Connect

Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) was selected as one of the alternatives to the In-Tank Precipitation Process (ITP) for removal of cesium from the salt waste at Savannah River Site. The proposed salt waste treatment process using CST would involve passing a filtered salt waste through a fixed bed of CST. The CST would remove the cesium from the salt waste by ion exchange and the decontaminated salt would be incorporated into the Saltstone Process. This report documents the results of investigations into the mixing and re-suspension characteristics of two 10 wt percent CST slurries.

Baich, M.A.

2001-02-13

180

Rheology of zirconia-alumina gelcasting slurries  

SciTech Connect

The rheology of zirconia-alumina composite slurries for gelcasting was studied in order to maximize the solids loading. The viscosity and yield stress were controlled by adjusting the pH. This approach allows the solids loading to be maximized for the gelcasting of near-net-shape composites. A strong correspondence exists among the rheological behavior, the surface charge on the particles, colloidal stability, and the maximum solids loading. The best pH conditions for gelcasting composites depends on the specific binary composition.

Bleier, A.; Omatete, O.O.; Westmoreland, C.G.

1992-01-01

181

Rheology of zirconia-alumina gelcasting slurries  

SciTech Connect

The rheology of zirconia-alumina composite slurries for gelcasting was studied in order to maximize the solids loading. The viscosity and yield stress were controlled by adjusting the pH. This approach allows the solids loading to be maximized for the gelcasting of near-net-shape composites. A strong correspondence exists among the rheological behavior, the surface charge on the particles, colloidal stability, and the maximum solids loading. The best pH conditions for gelcasting composites depends on the specific binary composition.

Bleier, A.; Omatete, O.O.; Westmoreland, C.G.

1992-07-01

182

Abundance and distribution of feral pigs at Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge, 2010-2013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Hakalau Forest Unit of the Big Island National Wildlife Refuge Complex has intensively managed feral pigs (Sus scrofa) and monitored feral pig presence with surveys of all managed areas since 1988. Results of all available data regarding pig management activities through 2004 were compiled and analyzed, but no further analyses had been conducted since then. The objective of this report was to analyze recent feral ungulate surveys at the Hakalau Forest Unit to determine current pig abundance and distribution. Activity indices for feral pigs, consisting of the presence of fresh or intermediate sign at 422 stations, each with approximately 20 sample plots, were compiled for years 2010–2013. A calibrated model based on the number of pigs removed from one management unit and concurrent activity surveys was applied to estimate pig abundance in other management units. Although point estimates appeared to decrease from 489.1 (±105.6) in 2010 to 407.6 (±88.0) in 2013, 95% confidence intervals overlapped, indicating no significant change in pig abundance within all management units. Nonetheless, there were significant declines in pig abundance over the four-year period within management units 1, 6, and 7. Areas where pig abundance remained high include the southern portion of Unit 2. Results of these surveys will be useful for directing management actions towards specific management units.

Hess, Steven C.; Leopold, Christina R.; Kendall, Steve J.

2013-01-01

183

Definition of Scale Model Slurry Mixing/Distribution Facility.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document is intended to present a definition of a scale model representing a slurry mixing/distribution facility. The 1/8'' = 1'-0'' scale model described herein depicts a mock commercial coal-in-oil slurry mixing and distribution type plant. The mod...

1978-01-01

184

Analysis of constant rate period of spray drying of slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A model has been developed for spray drying of slurry droplets with proper high solid content during the constant-rate period. The equations governing mass and heat transfer phenomena were numerically solved using the finite element method. The model is able to predict the crust formation as a function of slurry properties and operating parameters. For water-based suspension droplets of monodisperse

H. Liang; K. Shinohara; H. Minoshima; K. Matsushima

2001-01-01

185

Concentrated biogas slurry enhanced soil fertility and tomato quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas slurry is a cheap source of plant nutrients and can offer extra benefits to soil fertility and fruit quality. However, its current utilization mode and low content of active ingredients limit its further development. In this paper, a one-growing-season field study was conducted to assess the effects of concentrated biogas slurry on soil property, tomato fruit quality, and composition

Fang-Bo Yu; Xi-Ping Luo; Cheng-Fang Song; Miao-Xian Zhang; Sheng-Dao Shan

2010-01-01

186

Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility  

SciTech Connect

The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

Rice, L.E. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Hughes, R.W. [Professional Services Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Baggett, G. [Genex/Praxair, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-01

187

Method and apparatus for improved wire saw slurry  

DOEpatents

A slurry recycle process for use in free-abrasive machining operations such as for wire saws used in wafer slicing of ingots, where the used slurry is separated into kerf-rich and abrasive-rich components, and the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry. During the process, the average particle size of the makeup slurry is controlled by monitoring the condition of the kerf and abrasive components and making necessary adjustments to the separating force and dwell time of the separator apparatus. Related pre-separator and post separator treatments, and feedback of one or the other separator slurry output components for mixing with incoming used slurry and recirculation through the separator, provide further effectiveness and additional control points in the process. The kerf-rich component is eventually or continually removed; the abrasive-rich component is reconstituted into a makeup slurry with a controlled, average particle size such that the products of the free-abrasive machining method using the recycled slurry process of the invention are of consistent high quality with less TTV deviation from cycle to cycle for a prolonged period or series of machining operations.

Costantini, Michael A. (Hudson, NH); Talbott, Jonathan A. (Amherst, NH); Chandra, Mohan (Merrimack, NH); Prasad, Vishwanath (East Setauket, NY); Caster, Allison (Nashua, NH); Gupta, Kedar P. (Merrimack, NH); Leyvraz, Philippe (Nashua, NH)

2000-09-05

188

CST Suspension Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 40  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tank 40 simulation models with four submersible slurry pumps available for the CST suspension operations have been developed to provide operational guidance of slurry pumps for an efficient sludge removal. A series of the modeling calculations have been performed for key operational parameters such as pump operation mode, number of operating pumps, and to provide a recommendation for CST suspension

2004-01-01

189

Numerical modeling of a slurry droplet containing a spherical particle  

Microsoft Academic Search

A numerical investigation of the fundamental processes governing the momentum, energy, and mass exchanges between the solid, liquid, and gas phases of a vaporizing slurry droplet is presented. The axisymmetric configuration consists of an isolated slurry droplet with a large spherical solid particle in its core that is suddenly injected in a gaseous high-temperature, laminar, convective environmental. The model allows

Constantine M. Megaridis; William A. Sirignano

1993-01-01

190

Ammonia emission from a permanent grassland on volcanic soil after the treatment with dairy slurry and urea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia (NH3) is an air pollutant largely emitted from agricultural activities including the application of livestock manures and fertilizers to grassland. This gas has been linked with important negative impacts on natural ecosystems. In southern Chile, the use of inorganic and organic fertilizers (e.g. slurries) has increased in cattle production systems over recent years, heightening the risk of N losses to the wider environment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate on permanent grasslands on a volcanic ash soil in southern Chile: 1) the N loss due to NH3 volatilization following surface application of dairy slurry and urea fertilizer; and 2) the effect of a urease inhibitor on NH3 emissions from urea fertilizer application. Small plot field experiments were conducted over spring, fall, winter and summer seasons, using a system of wind tunnels to measure ammonia emissions. Ammonia losses ranged from 1.8 (winter) to 26.0% (fall) and 3.1 (winter) to 20.5% (summer) of total N applied for urea and slurry, respectively. Based on the readily available N applied (ammoniacal N for dairy slurry and urea N for urea fertilizer), losses from dairy slurry were much greater, at 16.1 and 82.0%, for winter and summer, respectively. The use of a urease inhibitor proved to be an effective option to minimize the N loss due NH3 volatilization from urea fertilizer, with an average reduction of 71% across all seasons. The results of this and other recent studies regarding N losses suggest that ammonia volatilization is the main pathway of N loss from grassland systems in southern Chile on volcanic ash soils when urea and slurry are used as an N source. The use of good management practices, such as the inclusion of a urease inhibitor with urea fertilizer could have a beneficial impact on reducing N losses due NH3 volatilization and the environmental and economic impact of these emissions.

Salazar, F.; Martínez-Lagos, J.; Alfaro, M.; Misselbrook, T.

2014-10-01

191

Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries  

SciTech Connect

Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

1993-09-01

192

Fuel injection of coal slurry using vortex nozzles and valves  

DOEpatents

Injection of atomized coal slurry fuel into an engine combustion chamber is achieved at relatively low pressures by means of a vortex swirl nozzle. The outlet opening of the vortex nozzle is considerably larger than conventional nozzle outlets, thereby eliminating major sources of failure due to clogging by contaminants in the fuel. Control fluid, such as air, may be used to impart vorticity to the slurry and/or purge the nozzle of contaminants during the times between measured slurry charges. The measured slurry charges may be produced by a diaphragm pump or by vortex valves controlled by a separate control fluid. Fluidic circuitry, employing vortex valves to alternatively block and pass cool slurry fuel flow, is disclosed.

Holmes, Allen B. (Rockville, MD)

1989-01-01

193

Characterization of slurry infiltrated SiCf/SiC prepared by electrophoretic deposition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid process of SiC slurry impregnation (SI) and hot pressing (HP) has an advantage for the fabrication of dense SiCf/SiC (silicon carbide fiber reinforced/silicon carbide matrix) composite. An effective impregnation of the SiC slurry into the voids of a fiber preform is important to fill the dense matrix phase in the SI and HP processes. An electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was applied to effectively increase the densification of the matrix phases by a fast, simple, and efficient impregnation of the SiC slurry. An EPD was performed using a dual electrode system under an applied voltage of 10 V for 30 min with/without ultrasonification. The maximum density of SiCf/SiC composite fabricated by an EPD with ultrasonification was 3.14 ± 0.04 g/cm3. The flexural strength was 531 ± 26 MPa for a composite with a single interlayer of (200 nm PyC (pyrolytic carbon) + 600 nm SiC).

Park, Ji Yeon; Jeong, Myung Hoon; Kim, Weon-Ju

2013-11-01

194

Continuous Production of Ice Slurry by Control of Solute Concentration with Ultrasonic Vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method to making ice slurry is one of key technology for cold-energy Storage system. This study has been conducted to clarify continuous production of ice slurry by utilizing constitutional supercooling promoted by mixing of two aqueous solutions whose solute concentrations are different. In this technique, fine ice crystals are made under volume-catalyzed nucleation without heat transfer surface. In the experiments, cooled sucrose solution and water were mixed in the cylindrical vessel, and ultrasonic vibration was applied to promote nucleation in the supercooled solution. It was found that the ice making process is classified into three characteristic patterns; stable ice making, ice making in stratified concentration layer due to defect in solute-mixing, and no ice making due to no supercooling by mixing. The characteristics of ice making were discussed with the mixing ratio and total flow rate of solutions.

Tada, Yukio; Takimoto, Akira; Miyamoto, Tomoaki; Mikami, Hiroko; Hayashi, Yujiro

195

Multi-stage slurry system used for grinding and polishing materials  

SciTech Connect

A slurry system draws slurry from a slurry tank via one of several intake pipes, where each pipe has an intake opening at a different depth in the slurry. The slurry is returned to the slurry tank via a bypass pipe in order to continue the agitation of the slurry. The slurry is then diverted to a delivery pipe, which supplies slurry to a polisher. The flow of shiny in the bypass pipe is stopped in order for the slurry in the slurry tank to begin to settle. As the polishing continues, slurry is removed from shallower depths in order to pull finer grit from the slurry. When the polishing is complete, the flow in the delivery pipe is ceased. The flow of slurry in the bypass pipe is resumed to start agitating the slurry. In another embodiment, the multiple intake pipes are replaced by a single adjustable pipe. As the slurry is settling, the pipe is moved upward to remove the finer grit near the top of the slurry tank as the polishing process continues.

Hed, P. Paul; Fuchs, Baruch A.

2000-03-01

196

Removing solids improves response of grass to surface-banded dairy manure slurry: a multiyear study.  

PubMed

Removing solids from slurry manure helps balance nutrients to plant needs and may increase soil infiltration rate toreduce loss of ammonia. The long-term effects of applying the separated liquid fraction (SLF) of dairy slurry with surface banding applicators are not well known. This 6-yr study compared the yield, N recovery, and stand persistence of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) receiving SLF at 300 (SLF300) and 400 (SLF400) kg ha(-1) yr(-1) of total ammoniacal N (TAN); whole dairy slurry (WS) at 200 (WS200), 300 (WS300), and 400 (WS400) kg TAN ha(-1) yr(-1); and mineral fertilizerat 300 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). The slurries were applied four times per year by surface banding, a technique that reduces ammonia emission and canopy contamination. Grass yield and N uptake were significantly higher for SLF300 than WS300 atequivalent rates of TAN. At similar total N, yield and N uptake were much greater for SLF than WS (2 Mg DM ha(-1) and 75 kg N ha(-1), respectively). Apparent total N recoverywas 63% greater for SLF300 than WS300 due to less ammonia loss and less immobile N. The apparent recovery of total N was 31% higher for Fert300 than for SLF300. Yield and N uptake for SLF300 and WS300 were similar in Harvests 1 and4, but SLF had higher values under hot and dry conditions in Harvests 2 and 3. Using SLF rather than WS will increase crop yield and allow higher application volumes near barns, whichwill reduce hauling costs. PMID:21520746

Bittman, S; Hunt, D E; Kowalenko, C G; Chantigny, M; Buckley, K; Bounaix, F

2011-01-01

197

Testing of In-Line Slurry Monitors and Pulsair Mixers with Radioactive Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Three in-line slurry monitoring instruments were demonstrated, tested, and evaluated for their capability to determine the transport properties of radioactive slurries. The instruments included the Endress + Hauser Promass 63M Coriolis meter for measuring density, the Lasentec M600P for measuring particle size distribution, and a prototype ultrasonic monitor that was developed by Argonne National Laboratory for measuring suspended solids concentration. In addition, the power consumption of the recirculation pump was monitored to determine whether this parameter could be used as a tool for in-line slurry monitoring. The Promass 63M and the M600P were also evaluated as potential indicators of suspended solids concentration. In order to use the Promass 63M as a suspended solids monitor, the densities of the fluid phase and the dry solid particle phase must be known. In addition, the fluid phase density and the dry solids density must remain constant, as any change will affect the correlation between the slurry density and the suspended solids concentration. For the M600P, the particle size distribution would need to remain relatively constant. These instruments were demonstrated and tested at the Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The testing of the instruments was conducted in parallel with the testing of a Pulsair mixing system, which was used to mix the contents of the selected tank. A total of six tests were performed. A submersible pump was positioned at two depths, while the Pulsair system was operated at three mixing rates.

Hylton, T.D.; Bayne, C.K.

1999-08-01

198

Effects of coal slurry on wastewater bacteria and bacteriophage  

SciTech Connect

Coal slurry was only mildly toxic to coliform bacteria, which serve as indicators of pathogenic microorganisms in wastewater, and the fecal streptococci concentration appeared to remain essentially unchanged with respect to the wastewater control. Thus the results do not support the supposition that wastewater would be naturally disinfected in a coal slurry pipeline. On the other hand, at least 99.8% of the E. coli C-specific phage present in the wastewater became noninfective in the coal slurry. Should water-borne pathogenic viruses lose infectivity to a similar extent, use of wastewater as the slurry medium would indeed result in upgrading of the water. Depending on the method of disposing of the slurry wastewater at the terminus of the pipeline, disinfection may be required. The possibility exists that future regulations would require disinfection of viruses in addition to indicator bacteria. Under such regulations, the task of disinfecting the slurry wastewater should be greatly facilitated because viruses are generally more resistent to disinfection than are bacteria. The important question remaining and requiring further study, however, is what effect would coal slurry have on pathogenic enteric viruses.

Margler, L.W.; Rogozen, M.B.

1980-01-01

199

PCB dechlorination in anaerobic soil slurry reactors  

SciTech Connect

Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges, including mixed wastes; however, a practical remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBS. The onset of dechlorination activity can be accelerated by addition of nutritional amendments and inducers. After 15 weeks of incubation with PCB-contaminated soil and nutrient solution, dechlorination has been observed under several working conditions. The best results show that the average chlorine content steadily dropped from 4.3 to 3.5 chlorines per biphenyl over a 15-week period.

Klasson, K.T.; Evans, B.S.

1993-11-29

200

Secondary breakup of coal water slurry drops  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To investigate secondary atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), deformation and breakup of eight kinds of CWS drops are presented using high speed digital camera. Based on morphology, deformation and breakup regimes of CWS drops can be termed some different modes: deformation, multimode breakup (including two sub-modes: hole breakup and tensile breakup), and shear breakup. Correlations on the ranges of breakup modes are also obtained. The conventional Weber number and Ohnesorge number are found to be insufficient to classify all breakup modes of CWS drops, so two other non-dimensional numbers based on rheology of CWS are suggested to use in the deformation and breakup regime map. Finally, total breakup time is studied and correlated, which increases with Ohnesorge number.

Zhao, Hui; Liu, Hai-Feng; Xu, Jian-Liang; Li, Wei-Feng

2011-11-01

201

Sandia support for PETC Fischer-Tropsch research: Experimental characterization of slurry-phase bubble-column reactor hydrodynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble-column reactors (SBCRs) at industrially relevant conditions is discussed. Gas-liquid flow experiments are performed in an industrial-scale 48 cm ID stainless steel vessel. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to make spatially resolved gas holdup measurements. Both water and Drakeol 10 with air sparging are examined at ambient

N. B. Jackson; J. R. Torczynski; K. A. Shollenberger; D. R. Adkins

1996-01-01

202

Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the basic parameters which directly influence the behavior of a coal slurry pipeline transportation system and determine the limitations of the system performance. The purpose of this technology assessment is to provide an identification and understanding of the critical factors which must be given consideration in the design and evaluation of such a slurry haulage system intended for use in an underground coal mine. The slurry haulage system will be utilized to satisfy the transportation requirements of conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location near the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located on the surface. Coal-water slurries, particularly those consisting of homogeneous suspensions of small particles, frequently behave as non-Newtonian, Bingham-plastic fluids. For successful operation, slurry transport systems should be designed to operate in the turbulent flow regime and at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity. The deposition velocity is defined as the slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe. Due to the importance of accurately determining the deposition velocity and the uncertainties of current methods for predicting the deposition velocity of coarse particle slurries, it is recommended that experimental efforts be performed as a part of the system design. The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the mine's projected coal output in order to avoid operational delays and the necessity for in-mine coal storage. The slurry pumps must generate sufficient discharge pressure to overcome the resultant friction losses in horizontal and vertical pipe sections and to satisfy the slurry hoisting requirements.

Maynard, D.P.

1981-02-15

203

[Influence of bioleaching on dewaterability of cattle biogas slurry].  

PubMed

The dewaterability of cattle biogas slurry facilitated by bioleaching was investigated through batch experiments with co-inoculation of different Acidophilic thiobacilli (Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans TS6 or Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5). The experiment was set the following 5 treatments: (1) original biogas slurry (CK), (2) 4 g x L(-1) Fe(2+) (uninoculation), (3)2 g x L(-1) S(0) + 25 mL A. t, (4) 4 g x L(-1) Fe(2+) + 25 mL A. f and (5) 2 g x L(-1) S(0) + 4 g x L(-1) Fe(2+) + 12.5 mL A. t + 12.5 mL A. f. During bioleaching, dynamic changes of pH, ORP, Fe(2+), F(3+), total Fe, the settleability, the turbidity of the supernatant after settling for 12 h, and the dewaterability (expressed as specific resistance to filtration gamma or capillary suction time, CST) of biogas slurry were monitored. Results show that specific resistance gamma and CST of bioleached biogas slurry are reduced drastically for the treatments of original biogas slurry spiked with only Fe(2+), the treatment of original biogas slurry co-spiked with Fe(2+) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5, and the treatment of original biogas slurry co-spiked with Fe(2+), S(0) and two Acidophilic thiobacilli. Taking the dewaterability, settleability, the turbidity of the supernatant fluid after settle 12 h and economical cost into account, the treatment of original biogas slurry co-spiked with Fe(2+) and Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans LX5 is the most suitable pattern for cattle biogas slurry bioleaching. After bioleaching, 1.14% of organic matter, 0.09% of N, 0.05% of P, and 0.1% of K are lost in the bioleaching process, but it don't affect its fertilizer efficiency. Meanwhile, the 63.2% of Cu and 91.3% of Zn are removed from the biogas slurry, and elimination efficiencies of total coliforms in bioleached slurry exceed 99%. This study might provide a new approach for treatment and disposal of biogas slurry. PMID:22295641

Zhou, Jun; Zhou, Li-Xiang; Liu, Fen-Wu; Ren, Yun; Wang, Dian-Zhan

2011-11-01

204

Effects of mineral fillers in slurry seal mixtures  

E-print Network

-off squeegee and leave a long streak in the surface. This can be prevented by screening the aggregate before it enters the mixer (1) ~ 10 CHAPTER III PREVIOUS DESIGN METHODS Existing Specifications In general the design of slurry seal mixtures is an art... appears to be "dry" and porous, that is, the slurry seal contains an insufficient quantity of residual asphalt. The consistency of a slurry seal mixture is estimated in the labo- ratory, but it is controlled by field ad)ustments. The basic method...

Harper, William Joe

2012-06-07

205

Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries  

SciTech Connect

A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples.

Coleman, C.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1998-01-08

206

Identification of flow regime in a slurry bubble column by Hilbert-Huang transform analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments were conducted in a two-dimensional (2-D) slurry bubble column, which had a length of 0.1m, a width of 0.01m and a total height of 0.8m. The gas phase was oil-free air, tap water was used as the liquid phase, glass powders with particle diameter of 58?m-75?m constituted the solid phase, which belonged to the Geldart A particles. Time-domain analysis and the Hilbert-Huang transform methods were employed to analyze the differential pressure signals obtained and to identify the transition points of the flow regimes in the slurry bubble column. Useful qualitative and quantitative information about the changes in flow structure and particle distributions were extracted. Changes in the standard deviation, skewness and flatness of measured pressure time series with superficial gas velocity are proposed. Hilbert-Huang transform was applied to extract information from signals, and flow structures of the slurry bubble column were characterized by the energy distribution of the multi-resolution signals and the EMD energy entropy. Particle distributions were obtained and analyzed from flow pattern images.

Li, Weiling; Zhong, Wenqi; Jin, Baosheng; Xiao, Rui

2013-06-01

207

A Process for Composite Fabrication by Silicon Slurry Coating of Continuous Fiber Tows  

SciTech Connect

A process is described for coating continuous small-diameter fiber tows with silicon-filled polymer slurries. This can enable fabrication of complex shaped ceramic matrix composites such as those based on reaction-bonded silicon-nitride matrices. The coating process sequence includes sizing removal, drying, spreading, dip-coating, drying, and die consolidation to infiltrate a silicon-filled polymer slurry into interstices of the fiber tows. Sizing removal from the as-received fibers was accomplished by using an ultrasonic cleaner with water-isopropyl alcohol solutions at elevated temperatures (30 to 60 C). Measurements of surface tension, viscosity, and density of various slurry concentrations are listed. The coating thickness applied on the fiber surface can be correlated with the modified small wire theory. Optical microscopy of cross-sections of coated samples showed the degree of infiltration achieved. The overall diameters of the coated tows depended primarily on the drying (die) temperatures used in the drying furnace, which in turn appears related to the vapor pressure of the solvent evaporating at those temperatures. Finally, the effect of the coating process on the tensile strength of Nicalon fiber is also examined.

Chan, R.C.

1996-01-01

208

Forced convection heat transfer with phase-change-material slurries: Turbulent flow in circular tube  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present study investigates the increase in the convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the increase in the thermal capacity of a working fluid by using the latent heat from a solid-liquid phase change of particles. A long heating test section (627 diameters) with a uniform heat flux boundary condition is constructed in order to study the effects of the phase-change phenomenon produced by a phase-change-material (PCM) -- water slurry on the convective heat transfer coefficient in a turbulent flow. The study introduces a method to generate very fine PCM particles inside a flow loop using an emulsifier. With such fine PCM particles, the flow loop did not clog. Local pressure drops and local heat transfer coefficients are measured along the test section. The pressure drop significantly decreased at the point where the PCM particles in the slurry melted. The local convective heat transfer coefficient was found to vary significantly when the particles melted. This made it difficult to apply the log-mean-temperature-difference (LMTD) method to the analysis of the PCM slurry flow heat transfer. The study proposes a new three-region melting model, and provides an explanation of the physical mechanism of the convective heat transfer enhancement due to the PCM particles.

Choi, Eunsoo; Cho, Young I.; Lorsch, Harold G.

1994-01-01

209

Technology And Pregnant Pigs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the interesting things about aerospace spinoff is the way it keeps cropping up in uncommon applications unimaginably remote from the original technology. For example, the pig pregnancy detector. The pig pregnancy detector? City folk may be surprised to learn that there is such a thing-and wonder why. The why is because it is a sow's job to produce piglets and farmers can't afford to keep those who don't; it costs about a half-dollar a day in feed, labor and facilities, and even in small herds that's intolerable. So the barren sow must go. Until recently, the best method of determining pig pregnancy was "eyeballing," daily visual examination over a period of time. The problem with eyeballing is that pregnancy is not evident until well advanced; when there is no pregnancy, the farmer learns too late that he has been feeding a sow that won't give him a litter. Advancing technology provided an answer: the quick, easy-to-use, accurate automatic detector for early evaluation of pregnancy status. Among the most popular of these devices are Scanopreg and Scanoprobe, to whose development NASA technology contributed. Scanopreg is an ultrasonic system which detects pregnancy about 30 days after breeding, long before eyeballing can provide an answer. The companion Scanoprobe is a dual-function unit which not only determines pregnancy but also gives farmers an analysis of a hog's meat-fat ratio, an important factor in breeding. Only a short time on the market, Scanopreg and Scanoprobe have already found wide acceptance among meat producers because they rapidly repay their cost.

1978-01-01

210

The influence of corrosion on the erosion of aluminium by aqueous silica slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The slurry erosion-corrosion behaviour of aluminium in aqueous silica slurries containing 0.5 M NaCl, acetic acid and 0.1 M Na2CO3 at open circuit has been investigated using a modified slurry erosion rig. The erosion rates of aluminium in the NaCl and acetic acid slurries were much higher than those in an aqueous slurry without electrolyte additives even though the pure

Y. Li; G. T. Burstein; I. M. Hutchings

1995-01-01

211

The Pig--Pet, Pork or Sacrifice?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the various roles of the pig in children's books, including E. B. White's CHARLOTTE'S WEB and Nina Bawden's PEPPERMINT PIG. Notes that, although pigs are often used as metaphors for greed, gluttony, and squalor, the portrayal of pigs in children's literature is typically positive. (MM)

Arnold, Arthur

1988-01-01

212

Cost estimate for a coal slurry pipeline in western Sumatra  

SciTech Connect

Contents: Introduction to pipeline slurry transport; Calculation of pressure drop due to friction; Calculation of the total pressure drop; Determination of the type of pumps; Wall thickness and the cost of the pipe; Storage capacity; Dewatering; Grinding; Cost evaluation.

Kappelle, H.J.

1982-08-01

213

CST Suspension Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 40.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Computational fluid dynamics methods were used to develop and provide a slurry pump operating guidance for CST mixing and suspension in Tank 40. Flow patterns calculated by the model were used to evaluate the performance of various combinations of operati...

S. Y. Lee, R. A. Dimenna

2004-01-01

214

Ultrasonic techniques for measuring rheological properties of rice slurries  

E-print Network

systems during food processing, resulting in poorly processed foods or production delays in processing plants. This research describes the development of a ultrasonic sensor to measure viscoelastic properties of rice slurries and dough. This inexpensive...

Howell, Terry Allen

2012-06-07

215

Modeling the structure of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays  

E-print Network

This thesis describes a model of coal water slurry (CWS) sprays and presents new experimental data for CWS viscosities. The model is based on the aerodynamic theory of spray atomization which has been successfully used for Diesel sprays. However...

Prithiviraj, Manikandan

2012-06-07

216

Economics of a commercial slurry-phase biological treatment process  

SciTech Connect

Slurry-phase bioremediation is an engineered process for treating contaminated soils or sludges in a slurry of water at 10 to 40% solids. Slurry-phase treatment relies on the mobilization of contaminants to the aqueous phase, where they are susceptible to microbial degradation. The mobilization or dissolution step can be the result of either microbial or physical/chemical action. Operating parameters are maintained to provide optimal conditions for biological treatment of the contaminants. OHM Remediation Services Corp. has completed the full-scale slurry-phase biological treatment of 10,500 yd{sup 3} of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act-K001 wastes at the Southeastern Wood Preserving Superfund site in Canton, Mississippi. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in the untreated material ranged from 8,000 mg/kg to 12,000 mg/kg dry-weight. A 95% reduction in total PAH concentration was achieved following treatment.

Jerger, D.E.; Woodhull, P.M. [OHM Remediation Services Corp., Findlay, OH (United States)

1995-12-31

217

View of south slurry wall in Section A, looking southeast, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of south slurry wall in Section A, looking southeast, substation in foreground. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

218

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

A carbonaceous material-water slurry burner includes a high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer for directing a carbonaceous material-water slurry into a combustion chamber for burning therein without requiring a support fuel or oxygen enrichment of the combustion air. Introduction of the carbonaceous material-water slurry under pressure forces it through a fixed atomizer wherein the slurry is reduced to small droplets by mixing with an atomizing air flow and directed into the combustion chamber. The atomizer includes a swirler located immediately adjacent to where the fuel slurry is introduced into the combustion chamber and which has a single center channel through which the carbonaceous material-water slurry flows into a plurality of diverging channels continuous with the center channel from which the slurry exits the swirler immediately adjacent to an aperture in the combustion chamber. The swirler includes a plurality of slots around its periphery extending the length thereof through which the atomizing air flows and by means of which the atomizing air is deflected so as to exert a maximum shear force upon the carbonaceous material-water slurry as it exits the swirler and enters the combustion chamber. A circulating coolant system or boiler feed water is provided around the periphery of the burner along the length thereof to regulate burner operating temperature, eliminate atomizer plugging, and inhibit the generation of sparklers, thus increasing combustion efficiency. A secondary air source directs heated air into the combustion chamber to promote recirculation of the hot combustion gases within the combustion chamber.

Nodd, Dennis G. (West Mifflin, PA); Walker, Richard J. (Bethel Park, PA)

1987-01-01

219

Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel

C. P. Chen; T. P. Odonnell

1982-01-01

220

Dewatering fine coal slurries by gel extraction. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A new technology called gel extraction has been evaluated to determine its economic viability in dewatering the fine and ultrafine coal slurries generated upon separation of sulfur and ash from clean coal during the physical coal cleaning process. Water must be removed from such slurries prior to transportation and combustion but the dewatering costs are substantial, especially for the fine particles below 28 mesh (0.6 mm). Gel extraction is a potential breakthrough in slurry dewatering technology. The goal of this project was to acquire the qualitative and quantitative data needed to estimate the potential of gel extraction for dewatering coal slurries. The specific objectives were to determine the maximum extents of dewatering (minimum surface moisture in the coal product), the clarity of the water removed (minimum solids content), the speed of the dewatering cycles, the service lifetime of the gels, and the factors which influence all of these. With the results obtained, an economic analysis of Ohio coal cleaning plant dewatering technologies was carried out. The polymer gel at the heart of this project, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPA), can swell several times its shrunken weight at 32{degrees}C by absorbing water at 25{degrees}C. In gel extraction, a shrunken NIPA gel is contacted with a slurry at ambient temperature or cooler; the gel swells by absorbing water from the slurry. The gel is then removed from the dewatered slurry and warmed above its critical temperature of 33{degrees}C, which returns it to the shrunken state by releasing the absorbed water. The facts that the gel is reusable and the process is simple and driven by low-grade energy (warm temperatures), and not inherently limited by particle size, made the process an attractive possible alternative to centrifugation, screening, filtration, etc. for slurry dewatering.

Gehrke, S.H.; Lyu, Lii-Hurng

1990-12-31

221

[The pig sty].  

PubMed

A first-page picture of the journal O Estado de S. Paulo on October, 1993, depicts 3 children playing in the ruins of a school building in Bahia. They are dressed in rags, just like the immense majority of children begotten in recent years. They are disgracefully filthy, with dishevelled hair, in the company of a pig content to share its habitat with such animalistic beings. In the inside pages of the same edition are profuse photos of other pigs dressed in suits and ties. This ostentation mocks the people and mainly the 3 children who do not attend school because the money for it has been embezzled from their pockets. Decent journalists, conscious of these piggish humans, endeavor every day to make this country a decent place to live. In the fight for a dignified and decent country, the journal Planejamento Agora, edited by ABEPF, makes an important statement with its slogan that the fight is true when the spirit is unabated. Planejamento Agora stoically battles to make every animal child alive today a human child who is wanted. The work and team of Planejamento Agora are saluted, and they are urged to continue the struggle on behalf of such children. PMID:12346085

Pires, J C

1993-11-01

222

Study on Vetiver's Purification for Wastewater from Pig Farm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals from pig farms are key sources of water pollution. Wastewater contains nitrogen and phosphorus which are the most important plant nutrients, but is harmful when applied to agricultural land in excess amounts, thereby leading to pollution of ground water by nitrates, surface water by phosphorous (causing eutrophication) and soil by heavy metals such as copper

Xuhui Kong; Weiwen Lin; Biqing Wang; Fuhe Luo

223

Seroprevalence of enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. in pig batches at slaughter.  

PubMed

Enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. are one of the main causes of foodborne bacterial infections in Europe. Slaughter pigs are the main reservoir and carcasses are contaminated during a sub-optimal hygienically slaughtering-process. Serology is potentially an easy option to test for the Yersinia-status of the pig (batches) before slaughter. A study of the variation in activity values (OD%) of Yersinia spp. in pigs and pig batches when applying a serological test were therefore conducted. In this study, pieces of the diaphragm of 7047 pigs, originating from 100 farms, were collected and meat juice was gathered, where after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) Pigtype Yopscreen (Labor Diagnostik Leipzig, Qiagen, Leipzig, Germany) was performed. The results were defined positive if the activity values exceeded the proposed cut-off value of 30 OD%. Results at pig level displayed a bimodal-shaped distribution with modes at 0-10% (n=879) and 50-60% (n=667). The average OD% was 51% and 66% of the animals tested positive. The within-batch seroprevalence ranged from 0 to 100% and also showed a bimodal distribution with modes at 0% (n=7) and 85-90% (n=16). On 7 farms, no single seropositive animal was present and in 22 farms, the mean OD% was below 30%. Based on the results obtained at slaughter, 66% of the pigs had contact with enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. at farm level. The latter occurred in at least 93% of the farms indicating that most farms are harboring enteropathogenic Yersinia spp. PMID:24931128

Vanantwerpen, Gerty; Van Damme, Inge; De Zutter, Lieven; Houf, Kurt

2014-09-01

224

Influence of Bovine Slurry Deposition on the Structure of Nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae Soil Populations in a Natural Habitat  

PubMed Central

The population of nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae in soil from a grass-covered valley area which had been used for bovine slurry deposition over a period of 5 years was analyzed. For these studies, a rapid and reproducible method based on enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was applied to identify Rhizobium strains which had infected pea nodules. Soil samples were taken from different areas and further analyzed in plant tests to determine the impact of the application of slurry (polluted or nonpolluted), the slope position (summit or toe), and exposure (north or south). After comparison of all PCR fingerprint patterns, 24 strain groups were defined. Some strain groups from the nonpolluted soil were suppressed in the polluted samples, and new strain groups were detected in the slurry-polluted soil. After analyzing relationships between the strain groups, we determined the influences of local factors on the nodulating R. leguminosarum bv. viciae population. We show that one of those local parameters, slope position, had significantly greater impact on the composition of the Rhizobium population than the presence of slurry. PMID:16535318

Labes, G.; Ulrich, A.; Lentzsch, P.

1996-01-01

225

Exporting Colorado water in coal slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

The San Marco Pipeline Company has proposed a 1000 mile (1610 km) pipeline system to move coal slurry from southeastern Colorado to several electrical generating plants in the Texas Gulf Coast area. This area of Colorado is experiencing severe water shortage problems due to the large amount of water used for irrigation. Colorado statutes restrict the diversion of both surface and ground water for out-of-state use unless such water is credited to interstate compacts. Water has been found by the courts to be a commodity or article of commerce, therefore subject to federal constitutional scrutiny under the commerce clause. The constitutionality of Colorado's statutes, depends upon the nature of the restrictions imposed, the severity of the burden created, and the local purposes served by the statutes. Statutes will be upheld only where they incidentally burden or discriminate against interstate commerce. States may impose severe restrictions on diverting water for out-of-state uses provide the same type of restrictions are imposed on in state use.

Massey, D.T.

1985-04-01

226

New technology improves cement-slurry design  

SciTech Connect

A promising geothermal concession is located in a tea plantation on the island of Java. A drilling project was undertaken to evaluate and harness this resource for geothermal electricity generation. The program used two slimhole rigs to drill appraisal wells to establish the potential of the field. Geothermal wells present the most severe conditions to which cements are exposed. As a result, their performance requirements are among the most stringent. Geothermal cements are usually designed to provide at least 1,000 psi compressive strength and no more than 1.0-md water permeability. While casings with tight annular clearances require that good cementing practices be observed, they also create conditions that demand much greater care and control in slurry and procedure design than regular casing cementation. Free-water and thickening-time requirements are similar for geothermal and slimhole conditions, but the use of perlite and silica flour complicate the rheology required for geothermal wells. The paper describes liquid-cement premix, applications, laboratory testing, field pilot testing, and field operations.

NONE

1997-08-01

227

Slurry combustion. Volume 1, Text: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The project described in this Report was to investigate the possibility of using sorbent added to coal-water fuel (CWF) mixtures as a means of reducing SOX emissions when burning Ohio coal. The results are significantly encouraging, with SOX concentrations reduced by amounts ranging from 25% to 65%, depending on the sorbent type and the firing conditions, where one major condition identified was the residence time in the flame gases. With the sorbent-loaded slurrys, the trend generally showed increasing SO{sub 2} capture with increasing sorbent loading. There were significant differences between the two different mixture formulations, however: The calcite/No. 8-seam mixture showed significantly higher SO{sub 2} capture at all times (ranging from 45% to 65%) than did the dolomite/No. 5 seam mixture (ranging from 25% to 45%). If the successes so far achieved are not to be wasted, advantage should be taken of these encouraging results by extending the work at both the present scale to determine the other unknown factors controlling sorption efficiency, and at larger scale to start implementation in commercial systems.

Essenhigh, R. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1993-06-21

228

Evaluation of Single Column Trapping/Separation and Chemiluminescence Detection for Measurement of Methanethiol and Dimethyl Sulfide from Pig Production  

PubMed Central

Reduced sulfur compounds are considered to be important odorants from pig production due to their low odor threshold values and low solubility in slurry. The objective of the present study was to investigate the use of a portable method with a single silica gel column for trapping/separation coupled with chemiluminescence detection (SCTS-CL) for measurement of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to evaluate the trapping/separation. The silica gel column used for the SCTS-CL efficiently collected hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. The measurement of methanethiol by SCTS-CL was clearly interfered by the high concentration of hydrogen sulfide found in pig production, and a removal of hydrogen sulfide was necessary to obtain reliable results. Air samples taken from a facility with growing-finishing pigs were analyzed by SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and a gas chromatograph with sulfur chemiluminescence detection (GC-SCD) to evaluate the SCTS-CL. The difference between the concentrations of methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide measured with SCTS-CL, PTR-MS, and GC-SCD was below 10%. In conclusion, the SCTS-CL is a portable and low-cost alternative to the commercial methods that can be used to measure methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide in sample air from pig production. PMID:22997603

Hansen, Michael J?rgen; Toda, Kei; Obata, Tomoaki; Adamsen, Anders Peter S.; Feilberg, Anders

2012-01-01

229

Pig shipping container test sequence  

SciTech Connect

This test plan outlines testing of the integrity of the pig shipping container. It is divided into four sections: (1) drop test requirements; (2) test preparations; (3) perform drop test; and (4) post-test examination.

Adkins, H.E. Jr.

1995-01-13

230

Three Little Pigs Construction Company  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about problem-solving, learners build a house for the Three Little Pigs using twenty straws and two index cards. Learners then use a fan to simulate a tornado and shake the table three times to simulate an earthquake. Learners must alter their house design to make it sturdy enough to withstand the elements and house the pigs. This activity guide contains sample questions to ask, literary connections, extensions, and alignment to local and national standards.

Houston, Children'S M.

2014-09-19

231

APPLIED PHYSICS APPLIED PHYSICS  

E-print Network

MSc APPLIED PHYSICS #12;MSc APPLIED PHYSICS This taught Masters course is based on the strong research in Applied Physics in the University's Department of Physics. The department has an impressive photonics and quantum optics, Physics and the Life Sciences, and solid state physics. The knowledge gained

Mottram, Nigel

232

Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells are an attractive donor cell type for production of cloned pigs as well as genetically modified cloned pigs by somatic cell nuclear transfer.  

PubMed

The somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) technique has been widely applied to clone pigs or to produce genetically modified pigs. Currently, this technique relies mainly on using terminally differentiated fibroblasts as donor cells. To improve cloning efficiency, only partially differentiated multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), thought to be more easily reprogrammed to a pluripotent state, have been used as nuclear donors in pig SCNT. Although in vitro-cultured embryos cloned from porcine MSCs (MSCs-embryos) were shown to have higher preimplantation developmental ability than cloned embryos reconstructed from fibroblasts (Fs-embryos), the difference in in vivo full-term developmental rate between porcine MSCs-embryos and Fs-embryos has not been investigated so far. In this study, we demonstrated that blastocyst total cell number and full-term survival abilities of MSCs-embryos were significantly higher than those of Fs-embryos cloned from the same donor pig. The enhanced developmental potential of MSCs-embryos may be associated with their nuclear donors' DNA methylation profile, because we found that the methylation level of imprinting genes and repeat sequences differed between MSCs and fibroblasts. In addition, we showed that use of transgenic porcine MSCs generated from transgene plasmid transfection as donor cells for SCNT can produce live transgenic cloned pigs. These results strongly suggest that porcine bone marrow MSCs are a desirable donor cell type for production of cloned pigs and genetically modified cloned pigs via SCNT. PMID:24033142

Li, Zicong; He, Xiaoyan; Chen, Liwen; Shi, Junsong; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Weihua; Liu, Dewu; Wu, Zhenfang

2013-10-01

233

Development of slurry erosion resistant materials by laser-based direct metal deposition process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current research deals with the development of slurry erosion resistant materials by the laser-based direct metal deposition (LBDMD) process for different industrial applications. The work started with the development of functionally graded materials using nickel-tungsten carbide (Ni-Tung) powders and finally produced a better erosion resistant materials system by reinforcing nano-tungsten carbide particles with nickel-tungsten carbide powders. Functionally graded materials (FGMs) consisting of Ni-Tung) powders with different concentrations of tungsten carbide particles are successfully deposited by the LBDMD process on 4140 Steel substrates. The slurry erosion behavior of the Ni-Tung FGMs is studied at different impingement angles. The slurry erosion tests are performed at Southern Methodist University's Center for Laser Aided Manufacturing using a centrifugal force driven erosion testing machine. For the purpose of comparison, Ni-Tung 40 depositions and 4140 steel samples are also tested. The results indicate that the LBDMD process is able to deposit defect-free Ni-Tung FGMs with a uniform distribution of tungsten carbide particles in a nickel-based matrix. The slurry erosion resistance of Ni-Tung FGMs is observed to be much better than that of the Ni-Tung 40 and 4140 steels. The superior slurry erosion resistance of Ni-Tung FGMs is attributed to the presence of large amounts of very hard tungsten carbide particles. The material removal rate (MRR) from erosion decreases with a decrease in the impingement angle, except at a 45 degree impingement angle on 4140 steel. The relationship among the material removal rates, the craters depth of penetration, the areas of the craters formed, the average surface roughness values, and the impingement angles is established for Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. The surface profiles of the eroded samples are analyzed by measuring the depth of penetration of the craters formed by the slurry jet using a needle-shaped probe and a linear scale with a digital readout. The damaged surfaces are characterized by scanning electron microscopy to investigate the possible application of a material failure model, called damage initiation and damage propagation, to the case of the impingement of a mixture of solid and liquid particles on the Ni-Tung FGMs, Ni-Tung 40, and 4140 steels. Potentiodynamic polarization curves are generated for the three tested materials to illustrate the susceptibility of the materials for an erosive environment. Further, a nano-based material system resistant to the impingement of solid and liquid particles on solid surfaces was developed by the LBDMD process. The nano-based materials system contains five percent tungsten carbide (WC) nano-particles that are agglomerated with nickel-tungsten carbide 60 (Ni-Tung 60) by a ball mill operation for slurry erosion resistance applications. Slurry erosion tests are performed on the LBDMD processed depositions with a ceramic proppant delivered at different impingement angles using an abrasive water jet machine. From these tests, the amount of material removed, depth of penetration, and profile of the formed crater are computed as a function of the abrasive water jet impingement angles. The nano-based materials system exhibited better performance for slurry erosion resistance than the monolithic Ni-Tung 60 depositions and 4140 steels. In order to understand the role of the WC-nano particles influence on slurry erosion resistance and to understand the characteristic features of erosion surfaces, subsurfaces, and the erosion mechanism, different advanced characterization tools are used. This nano-based materials system was applied for the restoration of damaged oil drilling crossover tools. A material failure model (MFM) called progressive damage initiation and propagation for the impingement of solid and liquid particles on the solid surfaces has been used to numerically simulate the slurry erosion process by using the commercially available 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) package ABAQUS/Explicit. The proposed model u

Yarrapareddy, Eswar

234

Functionalized bio-artifact fabricated via selective slurry extrusion. Part 1: Preparation of slurry containing tourmaline superfine powders.  

PubMed

The far infrared dental porcelain slurry for fabricating artificial tooth via selective slurry extrusion (SSE) of solid freeform fabrication (also known as rapid prototyping) techniques was prepared by using tourmaline as additive and employing ball-milling approach. After characterization by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, it was found that the far infrared emission properties of the dental porcelain were apparently improved in the ranges of 2000-1201 cm(-1) and 881-600 cm(-1). This is due to the increase of the number of infrared active bonds that are from the tourmaline superfine powders. Moreover, it was also found that the tourmaline superfine powders can improve the pseudo-plastic properties of dental porcelain slurries, which results from the increase of the absolute value of zeta potential of the suspensions. Slurries with pseudo-plastic behavior are highly desirable in controlling the shape of the extrudate during solid freeform fabrication. With the functionalized material, a variety of bio-artifacts beneficial to body health can be built by using selective slurry extrusion machine. PMID:22409019

Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Qu, Yunxia; Liu, Yushan

2011-12-01

235

Commerce clause and water availability issues concerning coal slurry pipelines  

SciTech Connect

As is the case with nearly every major energy development proposal today, the coal slurry pipeline debate is tremendously complex, impacting many traditional legal concepts of water rights, land ownership, and industrial/environmental regulation. And, as with too many of those issues, wherein lies both short and long-term solutions to the national energy problem, this debate may well outlast the usefulness of the technology. The regulation of the use of water in the coal slurry pipeline under a significant limitation, the commerce clause of the federal constitution, is examined in depth. The Wyoming regulatory approach will be used as a case study because of Wyoming's potential development of coal resources using the slurry pipeline to transport the coal and because of Wyoming's recent involvement in addressing the pipeline issues.

McDaniel, R.

1980-01-01

236

Tape casting of cobalt ferrite from nonaqueous slurry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the fabrication of CoFe2O4 thick films using the tape casting method from nonaqueous slurry. CoFe2O4 particles with average size of ˜800 nm were prepared by the solid-state reaction method. Sediment volumes and viscosity were tested to study the effects of dispersant in reducing aggregations in slurry. Slurry with 0.25 wt% dispersant amounts and 41.3 wt% solid content showed the optimal stability and rheological properties. A tape velocity of 8 cm/s was used in this study considering the non-Newtonian flow behavior at low shear rate. CoFe2O4 ceramic films sintered at 1150 °C for 2 h have dense structure (relative density of 94%) and exhibited ferromagnetic properties with in-plane saturation magnetization of ˜324 emu/cm3.

Jian, Gang; Zhou, Dongxiang; Yang, Junyou; Fu, Qiuyun

2012-12-01

237

Slurry burner for mixture of carbonaceous material and water  

DOEpatents

The present invention is intended to overcome the limitations of the prior art by providing a fuel burner particularly adapted for the combustion of carbonaceous material-water slurries which includes a stationary high pressure tip-emulsion atomizer which directs a uniform fuel into a shearing air flow as the carbonaceous material-water slurry is directed into a combustion chamber, inhibits the collection of unburned fuel upon and within the atomizer, reduces the slurry to a collection of fine particles upon discharge into the combustion chamber, and regulates the operating temperature of the burner as well as primary air flow about the burner and into the combustion chamber for improved combustion efficiency, no atomizer plugging and enhanced flame stability.

Nodd, D.G.; Walker, R.J.

1985-11-05

238

Exploring mobilisation and transport of diffuse substances using multiple sediment and colloid tracers applied to a temperate grassland catchment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mobilisation and transport of diffuse substances from livestock grassland systems to surface water bodies is known to impact aquatic ecology and human health. Diffuse substances include sediment and colloidal material detached from the soil surface and subsurface and colloidal material solubilised by water travelling across and through the soil matrix. Improving understanding of the dominant processes controlling the mobilisation and transport of sediment and colloid associated materials requires the application of established and novel tracing methods. In this study our objective was to link mobilisation from the plot to head water catchment scales by tracing the movement of slurry material delivered to a first order stream through the application of natural and artificial fluorescence and rare earth oxide (REO) tracing techniques. Slurry treated with fluorescent beads or REO's was applied to a hydrologically isolated field within a ~40 ha catchment. Novel natural fluorescence techniques were used to assess the presence of dissolved slurry material through the distinctive signature of samples in drainage waters. The particulate phase of slurry was traced using artificial fluorescent beads manufactured to represent two particulate phases of slurry: organic and mineral. The bead treated slurry was applied homogeneously across the entire field. REO treated slurry was applied in five 1 ha contour zones across the field, each zone receiving slurry labelled with different REOs. Surface drainage was monitored and sampled at a v-notch weir placed at the hydrological outlet of the field and at a trapezoidal flume at the catchment outlet.

Granger, S.; Hawkins, J.

2009-04-01

239

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing...sediment or slurry impounding structures, markers shall be placed before May 1, 1976...sediment, or slurry impounding structures, markers shall be placed within 30 days from...

2010-07-01

240

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. 77.216 Section...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. (a) Plans for...construction, and maintenance of structures which impound water,...

2013-07-01

241

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. 77.216-1 ...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. A permanent identification...identification number of the impounding structure as assigned by the District...

2014-07-01

242

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. 77.216-1 ...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. A permanent identification...identification number of the impounding structure as assigned by the District...

2011-07-01

243

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. 77.216 Section...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. (a) Plans for...construction, and maintenance of structures which impound water,...

2011-07-01

244

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements; correction...potential and performance of the impounding structure, and shall include a requirement...

2013-07-01

245

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. 77.216 Section...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. (a) Plans for...construction, and maintenance of structures which impound water,...

2014-07-01

246

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. 77.216 Section...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. (a) Plans for...construction, and maintenance of structures which impound water,...

2012-07-01

247

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. 77.216-1 ...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. A permanent identification...identification number of the impounding structure as assigned by the District...

2013-07-01

248

30 CFR 77.216 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. 77.216 Section...slurry impoundments and impounding structures; general. (a) Plans for...construction, and maintenance of structures which impound water,...

2010-07-01

249

30 CFR 77.216-1 - Water, sediment or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. 77.216-1 ...or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; identification. A permanent identification...identification number of the impounding structure as assigned by the District...

2012-07-01

250

Development of Alternative Rheological Measurements for DWPF Slurry Samples (U)  

SciTech Connect

Rheological measurements are used to evaluate the fluid dynamic behavior of Defense Waste Processing Facility, DWPF, slurry samples. Measurements are currently made on non-radioactive simulant slurries using two state-of-the-art rheometers located at the Aiken County Technical Laboratory, ACTL. Measurements are made on plant samples using a rheometer in the Savannah River National Laboratory, SRNL, Shielded Cells facility. Low activity simulants or plant samples can be analyzed using a rheometer located in a radioactive hood in SRNL. Variations in the rheology of SB2 simulants impacted the interpretation of results obtained in a number of related studies. A separate rheological study was initiated with the following four goals: (1) Document the variations seen in the simulant slurries, both by a review of recent data, and by a search for similar samples for further study. (2) Attempt to explain the variations in rheological behavior, or, failing that, reduce the number of possible causes. In particular, to empirically check for rheometer-related variations. (3) Exploit the additional capabilities of the rheometers by developing new measurement methods to study the simulant rheological properties in new ways. (4) Formalize the rheological measurement process for DWPF-related samples into a series of protocols. This report focuses on the third and fourth goals. The emphasis of this report is on the development and formalization of rheological measurement methods used to characterize DWPF slurry samples. The organization is by rheological measurement method. Progress on the first two goals was documented in a concurrent technical report, Koopman (2005). That report focused on the types and possible causes of unusual rheological behavior in simulant slurry samples. It was organized by the sample being studied. The experimental portion of this study was performed in the period of March to April 2004. A general rheology protocol for routine DWPF slurry samples, Koopman (2004b), was drafted in addition to the companion technical report to this document.

Koopman, D. c.

2005-09-01

251

The physiological and behavioral response of pigs castrated with and without anesthesia or analgesia.  

PubMed

Surgical castration is a common management practice performed on male pigs to prevent the occurrence of boar taint. Surgical castration is known to cause physiological and behavioral changes in pigs indicative of pain-induced distress; however, it is commonly performed without pain relief. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of carbon dioxide gas (CO(2)) anesthesia and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) to alleviate the pain caused by castration. At 3 d of age, male pigs were either control handled (CON), castrated without pain relief (CAS), given an NSAID and then immediately castrated (CAS+NSAID), anesthetized with CO(2) and then castrated (CAS+CO2), or anesthetized with CO(2) and given an NSAID at the time of castration (CAS+BOTH). Blood samples were collected before castration, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 min, 24 h, and 3 d after castration or handling for analysis of cortisol, C-Reactive protein (CRP), and substance-P (SP) concentrations. This study was then repeated using the same treatment groups, and the behavioral response to castration and handling were measured using a 1-min scan sampling procedure. The percentage of stress vocalizations was recorded during the administration of all treatments. Anesthesia and analgesia did not effectively reduce (P > 0.05) the cortisol response to surgical castration. Overall, CRP concentrations were greater (P < 0.05) in CAS+CO2 pigs as compared with CON pigs. Sixty minutes after castration or handling, SP concentrations were greater (P < 0.08) in pigs given CO(2) anesthesia (CO2, CAS+CO2, and CAS+BOTH) than CON, CAS, and CAS+NSAID pigs. Pigs castrated without pain relief spent more (P < 0.001) time lying without contact than all other treatments during the first 30 min after castration, but thereafter CAS+CO2 pigs spent more (P < 0.001) time lying without contact than other treatments. During the first 30 min after the treatments were applied, CAS+CO2 pigs spent more (P < 0.01) time displaying pain-like behaviors than CON, CAS, CAS+NSAID, and CAS+BOTH pigs. The percentage of stress vocalizations was greater (P < 0.05) in CAS and CAS+NSAID pigs than all other treatments. Neither CO(2) anesthesia nor a NSAID, given separately or combined, markedly reduced the pain-induced distress caused by castration in pigs. More research is needed to evaluate practical methods of on-farm pain relief for pigs. PMID:22266989

Sutherland, M A; Davis, B L; Brooks, T A; Coetzee, J F

2012-07-01

252

Concentration and Velocity Measurements of Both Phases in Liquid-Solid Slurries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural and industrial slurry flows abound. They are difficult to calculate and to measure. We demonstrate a simple technique for studying steady slurries. We previously used time-of-flight techniques to study pressure driven slurry flow in pipes. Only the continuous phase velocity and concentration fields were measured. The discrete phase concentration was inferred. In slurries composed of spherical, oil-filled pills and

Stephen Altobelli; Kimberly Hill; Arvind Caprihan

2007-01-01

253

SYNTHESIS OF NON-RADIOACTIVE SLURRIES TO SIMULATE THE PROCESSING BEHAVIOR OF PARTICLES IN RADIOACTIVE WASTE SLURRIES 626-G  

SciTech Connect

Process development using non-radioactive analogs to high-level radioactive waste slurries is an established cost effective alternative to working with actual samples of the real waste. Current simulated waste slurries, however, do not capture all of the physical behavior of real waste. New methods of preparing simulants are under investigation along with mechanisms for altering certain properties of finished simulants. These methods have achieved several notable successes recently in the areas of rheology and foaminess. Particle size is also being manipulated more effectively than in the past, though not independently of the rheological properties. The interaction between rheology and foaminess has exhibited counter-intuitive behavior with more viscous slurries being less foamy even though drainage of liquid from the foam lamellae should be inhibited by higher viscosities.

Koopman, D.; Lambert, D.; Eibling, R.; Newell, J.; Stone, M.

2009-09-03

254

Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by anaerobic digestion of cattle slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biogas treatment of animal manures is an upcoming technology because it is a way of producing renewable energy (biogas). However, little is known about effects of this management strategy on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during fermentation, storage, and field application of the substrates compared to untreated slurries. In this study, we compared cattle slurry and cattle slurry with potato starch

Joachim Clemens; Manfred Trimborn; Peter Weiland; Barbara Amon

2006-01-01

255

Experimental Study of Erosion Wear in a Centrifugal Slurry Pump Using Coriolis Wear Test Rig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The erosion wear in slurry pumps has been identified as a major problem during transportation of slurry as it affects the equipment performance and reduces its reliability and operation life. To simulate the erosion mechanism in slurry equipments mainly in casing and impeller, the Coriolis erosion test rig on the lines proposed by Pagalthivarthi and Helmly (1992) has been suitably

Sunil Chandel; S. N. Singh; V. Seshadri

2012-01-01

256

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...operator based on the hazard potential and performance of the...

2014-07-01

257

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...operator based on the hazard potential and performance of the...

2010-07-01

258

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...operator based on the hazard potential and performance of the...

2012-07-01

259

30 CFR 77.216-3 - Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments and impounding structures; inspection requirements...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...Installations § 77.216-3 Water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...program requirements. (a) All water, sediment, or slurry impoundments...operator based on the hazard potential and performance of the...

2011-07-01

260

Slurry pumping techniques for feeding high-pressure coal gasification reactors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Operating experience in pumping coal and coal char slurries at pressures up to 1500 psig is discussed. The design specifications for the mixing tanks, pumps, piping, and slurry heaters are given along with pressure drop and minimum flow velocity data on water-lignite slurries.

Bair, W. G.; Tarman, P. B.

1977-01-01

261

Analysis of high-level radioactive slurries as a method to reduce DWPF turnaround times  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) samples as slurries rather than as dried or vitrified samples is an effective way to reduce sample turnaround times. Slurries can be dissolved with a mixture of concentrated acids to yield solutions for elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Slurry analyses can be performed in eight hours, whereas analyses of

C. J. Coleman; N. E. Bibler; D. M. Ferrara; M. S. Hay

1996-01-01

262

Interaction effects of slurry chemistry on chemical mechanical planarization of electroplated copper  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have been conducted investigating the effects of slurry chemistry on the copper CMP process. Slurry pH and hydrogen peroxide concentration are two important variables that must be carefully formulated in order to achieve desired removal rates and uniformity. In applications such as through-wafer vertical interconnects, slurry chemistry effects must be thoroughly understood when copper plating thicknesses can measure

P. A. Miranda; J. A. Imonigie; A. J. Moll

2004-01-01

263

Determination of bismuth in environmental samples by slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using combined chemical modifiers.  

PubMed

Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry technique was applied for the determination of Bi in environmental samples. The study focused on the effect of Zr, Ti, Nb and W carbides, as permanent modifiers, on the Bi signal. Because of its highest thermal and chemical stability and ability to substantially increase Bi signal, NbC was chosen as the most effective modifier. The temperature programme applied for Bi determination was optimized based on the pyrolysis and atomization curves obtained for slurries prepared from certified reference materials (CRMs) of the soil and sediments. To overcome interferences caused by sulfur compounds, Ba(NO3)2 was used as a chemical modifier. Calibration was performed using the aqueous standard solutions. The analysis of the CRMs confirmed the reliability of the proposed analytical method. The characteristic mass for Bi was determined to be 16 pg with the detection limit of 50 ng/g for the optimized procedure at the 5 % (w/v) slurry concentration. PMID:25384374

Dobrowolski, Ryszard; Dobrzy?ska, Joanna; Gawro?ska, Barbara

2015-01-01

264

Experimental chlamydial pneumonia in pigs.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring disease in pigs associated with chlamydial infections has not been reported in Britain, though evidence of chlamydial challenge has been demonstrated in two separate serological surveys. An isolate of Chlamydia psittaci (28/68) from an ovine pneumonia produced pneumonia in pigs following intratracheal inoculation. Transient pyrexia at 24 hr was followed by increased respiratory rates and inappetance which lasted for a further 48 hr in challenged pigs. Histologically acute exudative reactions were present in the lungs by 24 hr with proliferative changes predominating after 10 days. While variations in the concentrations of inocula were reflected by corresponding increases and/or decreases in gross lung damage, clinical signs and histological reactions were unaltered. Chlamydial organisms were recovered only from lung tissues. PMID:6744810

Harris, J W; Hunter, A R; McMartin, D A

1984-01-01

265

Experimental syphilis: guinea pig model.  

PubMed Central

Outbred Hartley male guinea pigs (300-400 g) were infected intradermally with various concentrations of Treponema pallidum Nichols strain in the pubic region. The median lethal dose (ID50) was approximately 10(5). The animals produced lesions visible by darkfield microscopy, treponemal antibodies (IgG only), and histopathological changes in the lymphoid organs. Though less susceptible to T pallidum infection than the rabbit when infected with a sufficient number of organisms, the guinea pig may be a useful model in experimental syphilis. Images PMID:6342707

Pierce, C S; Wicher, K; Nakeeb, S

1983-01-01

266

Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength,  

E-print Network

Characterizing Curing-Cement Slurries by Permeability, Tensile Strength, and Shrinkage K.R. Backe, permeability, tensile strength, and total chemical shrinkage during hydration. We will in turn discuss, such as gel- ling, shrinkage, temperature, pressure, filter loss, cement structure and strength buildup

Backe, Knut

267

Commerce Clause and Water Availability Issues Concerning Coal Slurry Pipelines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Practical politics are identified as one of the reasons why state legislatures have singled out coal-slurry pipelines in their regulation of water resources. The western states face a complex problem in establishing water-appropriation systems that can meet future as well as present needs. Wyoming's Water Export Law and the Commerce Clause are examined as a potential model for other states

RODGER McDANIEL

1979-01-01

268

Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction  

E-print Network

Hydraulic and slurry flows through a channel contraction Onno Bokhove o, Twente #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction Outline · 1. Introduction · 2. Experiments · 3. Conclusions · References ISSF 2008 University of Twente Page 2 #12;Hydraulic flow through channel contraction

Al Hanbali, Ahmad

269

Rail transportation of coal-water slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect

In view of the anticipated near-term appearance of commercial coal-water slurry (CWS) fuels, least-cost modes of their transportation should be considered now. Unlike dilute pipeline transport slurries (typically 50 percent solids) a CWS fuel is a stable, highly-loaded (typically 70 percent or more solids) with vastly different rheological properties. The high solids loading and stabilization against settling produce effective viscosities one or more orders of magnitude greater than those of dilute slurries. Pipeline transportation of such fuels for more than a few miles thus becomes economically unattractive. In the future, further physical refinement or slight dilution of CWS fuels may permit long-range transmission by slurry pipeline once they become available. In the meantime, distribution of these fuels to serve widely dispersed industrial users will be accomplished by barge or rail. In the latter case the high flow-friction characteristics will preclude use of the unit ''Tank Train'' system designed for loading and unloading via a single connection at high rates of flow. This limitation does not rule out assembly of unit trains of individually-loaded tank cars if desired. The optimum location of CWS fuel plants relative to mine-mouth coal preparation plants and/or pipeline terminals will require modeling of multi-mode transportation networks in order to determine the least-cost combination for serving the needs of industrial as well as utility CWS users.

Green, L.

1982-12-01

270

Modelling slurry particle dynamics in the Coriolis erosion tester  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Coriolis erosion tester consists of a rotor with a diametrical passage in which two flat specimens are located equidistant from the centre. At high rotation speeds, slurry flows outwards from the centre by centrifugal force while the erodent particles are directed towards the specimen surfaces by the Coriolis force. This test mode offers a quick, simple and reproducible means

Y Xie; H. McI Clark; H. M Hawthorne

1999-01-01

271

Bentonite-water slurry rheology and cutoff wall trench stability  

SciTech Connect

The rheological behavior of bentonite-water slurry is responsible for its ability to stabilize trenches that are made for construction of subsurface barriers to ground water flow. This paper reviews the rheology of bentonite-water slurries and presents property values for a range of bentonite concentrations. Test results indicate that, if the D{sub 15} size of the native ground is less than 0.4 mm, it is likely that a bentonite filter cake will form on the face of an excavation supported by bentonite-water slurry. For soils that are too coarse for a filter cake to form, it was found that the penetration distance of slurry into the soil increases as the D{sub 5} size and void ratio of the soil increase. An expression for the factor of safety against local sloughing failure of the trench wall is presented. Local sloughing failures that occurred during construction of the cutoff wall at Island Copper Mine, Vancouver Island, BC, are discussed, and calculated factors of safety are in good agreement with the observed performance.

Filz, G.M. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Boyer, R.D. [Langan Engineering and Environmental Services, Elmwood Park, NJ (United States); Davidson, R.R. [Woodward-Clyde Consultants, Denver, CO (United States)

1997-12-31

272

Apparatus for converting biomass to a pumpable slurry  

DOEpatents

An apparatus used in the pretreatment of wood chips in a process for converting biomass to a liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel. The apparatus functions to break down the wood chips to a size distribution that can be readily handled in a slurry form. Low maintenance operation is obtained by hydrolyzing the chips in a pressure vessel having no moving parts.

Ergun, Sabri (Hillsborough, CA); Schaleger, Larry L. (Oakland, CA); Wrathall, James A. (Berkeley, CA); Yaghoubzadeh, Nasser (El Cerrito, CA)

1986-01-01

273

Outlook improving for U. S. coal slurry lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two coal slurry line proposals show promise for quicker construction than other current proposals Energy Transportation Systems Inc. (ETSI) has proposed to move 25 million tons\\/yr coal from near Gillette, Wyo., to terminals at Pryor, Okla., and Newport and Redfield, Ark., with a spur to barge-loading facilities on the Mississippi River at Penton, Miss. ETSI has estimated that the 1355

Sumpter

1979-01-01

274

NOVEL SLURRY PHASE DIESEL CATALYSTS FOR COAL-DERIVED SYNGAS  

SciTech Connect

This report describes research conducted to support the DOE program in novel slurry phase catalysts for converting coal-derived synthesis gas to diesel fuels. The primary objective of this research program is to develop attrition resistant catalysts that exhibit high activities for conversion of coal-derived syngas.

Dr. Dragomir B. Bukur; Dr. Ketil Hanssen; Alec Klinghoffer; Dr. Lech Nowicki; Patricia O'Dowd; Dr. Hien Pham; Jian Xu

2001-01-07

275

Breakup of evaporating/burning slurry drops by additives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Single drops of silicon carbide-cumene slurry were suspended from a quartz fiber and ignited. An inert material such as silicon carbide was chosen so that the droplets can be burned until all the fuel is consumed and only the inert residue is left on the quartz fiber. Benzoyl peroxide was added to cumene and the time to disruption of the liquid drop was measured. In the case of benzoyl peroxide, the breaking up of the drop resulting from its thermal decomposition produced CO 2. Both the drop disruption time and the burning of the slurry to dryness were predicted theoretically. Radiation absorption was found to be an important factor in the case of the slurry. Benzoyl peroxide and carbamide peroxide were investigated as additives to a boron slurry to determine if effective drop break-up could be achieved. Both additives produced drop shattering. The carbamide peroxide was particularly effective due to the production of O 2. The green flame associated with boron burning was clearly evident.

Choudhury, P. Roy; Gerstein, M.

276

Design and construction of a deep slurry trench barrier  

SciTech Connect

A 24 m (80 ft) deep slurry trench surrounding a former chromium manufacturing facility on the Patapsco River in Baltimore, Maryland was constructed in 1995 to contain groundwater and site Soils, and to reduce the volume of groundwater extracted to maintain an inward gradient. In 1992, an embankment made of crushed stone was constructed in the Patapsco River to make land for barrier construction outboard of the bulkheads, and to protect the barrier. Stability of the slurry-supported trench excavation in the embankment required construction from an elevated work platform. An extended reach backhoe was used to excavate the deep slurry trench and to clean the trench bottom. Soil-Bentonite backfill was prepared at a central mixing area and transported by truck to the perimeter barrier. A synthetic membrane was inserted partially into the backfill for connection to a multimedia cap, and for redundancy and erosion control in the tidal zone. Hydraulic testing of the aquitard contained by the barrier demonstrated excellent performance of the barrier and bottom closure. Detailed definition of subsurface conditions and the closure stratum was necessary for the design and successful construction of the barrier, and is recommended for comparable slurry trench construction projects.

Deming, P.W. [Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, New York, NY (United States)

1997-12-31

277

Method for freeforming objects with low-binder slurry  

DOEpatents

In a rapid prototyping system, a part is formed by depositing a bead of slurry that has a sufficient high concentration of particles to be pseudoplastic and almost no organic binders. After deposition the bead is heated to drive off sufficient liquid to cause the bead to become dilatant.

Cesarano, III, Joseph (Albuquerque, NM); Calvert, Paul D. (Tucson, AZ)

2002-01-01

278

Section A, view at parking structure of the slurry wall ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Section A, view at parking structure of the slurry wall tiebacks with rods exposed from level B2, looking east/northeast. (BH) - World Trade Center Site, Bounded by Vesey, Church, Liberty Streets, & Route 9A, New York, New York County, NY

279

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding

Bernard A. Toseland

2001-01-01

280

COMPUTATIONAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MODELING OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTORS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This project is a collaborative effort between the University of Akron, Illinois Institute of Technology and two industries: UOP and Energy International. The tasks involve the development of transient two and three dimensional computer codes for slurry bubble column reactors, optimization, comparison to data, and measurement of input parameters, such as the viscosity and restitution coefficients. To understand turbulence, measurements

Paul Lam; Dimitri Gidaspow

2001-01-01

281

Mass transfer limitations in slurry photocatalytic reactors: Experimental validation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work the existence of mass transfer limitations in slurry, photocatalytic reactors is studied. Experimental validation is made in a flat plate reactor that is part of a recycling system. The reactor is described with a mathematical model previously developed [Ballari et al., 2008a. Chemical Engineering Journal 136, 50], considering a transient, two-dimensional mass balance (TDM). The complete

María de los Milagros Ballari; Orlando M. Alfano; Alberto E. Cassano

2010-01-01

282

Solid dispersion in the slurry reactor with multiple impellers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A whole series of significant catalytic processes are carried out in a slurry reactor with multiple impellers. The selective hydrogenation of sunflower seed oil is the characteristic example of such a process. The liquid phase is the main medium into stirred tank and an investigation of a fluid dynamics of one just as transient regime of solid distribution in liquid

O. P. Klenov; A. S. Noskov

283

Implementation of Wireless Sensor Networks Based Pig Farm Integrated Management System in Ubiquitous Agricultural Environments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wireless sensor networks (WSN) technology based on low power consumption is one of the important technologies in the realization of ubiquitous society. When the technology would be applied to the agricultural field, it can give big change in the existing agricultural environment such as livestock growth environment, cultivation and harvest of agricultural crops. This research paper proposes the 'Pig Farm Integrated Management System' based on WSN technology, which will establish the ubiquitous agricultural environment and improve the productivity of pig-raising farmers. The proposed system has WSN environmental sensors and CCTV at inside/outside of pig farm. These devices collect the growth-environment related information of pigs, such as luminosity, temperature, humidity and CO2 status. The system collects and monitors the environmental information and video information of pig farm. In addition to the remote-control and monitoring of the pig farm facilities, this system realizes the most optimum pig-raising environment based on the growth environmental data accumulated for a long time.

Hwang, Jeonghwan; Lee, Jiwoong; Lee, Hochul; Yoe, Hyun

284

Sandia support for PETC Fischer-Tropsch research: Experimental characterization of slurry-phase bubble-column reactor hydrodynamics  

SciTech Connect

Sandia`s program to develop, implement, and apply diagnostics for hydrodynamic characterization of slurry bubble-column reactors (SBCRs) at industrially relevant conditions is discussed. Gas-liquid flow experiments are performed in an industrial-scale 48 cm ID stainless steel vessel. Gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) is applied to make spatially resolved gas holdup measurements. Both water and Drakeol 10 with air sparging are examined at ambient and elevated pressures. Gas holdup increases with gas superficial velocity and pressure, and the GDT values are in good agreement with values from differential pressure measurements. Other diagnostic techniques are also discussed.

Jackson, N.B.; Torczynski, J.R.; Shollenberger, K.A.; O`Hern, T.J.; Adkins, D.R.

1996-06-01

285

Aerosols generated by spills of viscous solutions and slurries  

SciTech Connect

Safety assessments and environmental impact statements for nuclear fuel cycle facilities require an estimate of potential airborne releases caused by accidents. Aerosols generated by accidents are being investigated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop methods for estimating source terms from these accidents. Experiments were run by spilling viscous solutions and slurries to determine the mass and particle-size distribution of the material made airborne. In all cases, 1 L of solution was spilled from a height of 3 m. Aqueous solutions of sucrose (0 to 56%) gave a range of viscosities from 1.3 to 46 cp. The percent of spill mass made airborne from the spills of these solutions ranged from 0.001 to 0.0001. The mass of particles made airborne decreased as solution viscosity increased. Slurry loading ranged from 25 to 51% total solids. The maximum source airborne (0.0046 wt %) occurred with the slurry that had the lightest loading of soluble solids. The viscosity of the carrying solution also had an impact on the source term from spilling slurries. The effect of surface tension on the source term was examined in two experiments. Surface tension was halved in these spills by adding a surfactant. The maximum weight percent airborne from these spills was 0.0045, compared to 0.003 for spills with twice the surface tension. The aerodynamic mass medium diameters for the aerosols produced by spills of the viscous solutions, slurries, and low surface tension liquids ranged from 0.6 to 8.4 ..mu..m, and the geometric standard deviation ranged from 3.8 to 28.0.

Ballinger, M Y; Hodgson, W H

1986-12-01

286

Indian Creek-AML: Coal slurry reclamation (Kansas case history)  

SciTech Connect

Black and Veatch, assisted by Jack Nawrot, developed conceptual and final designs and provided construction assistance to create grasslands and wetlands in order to reclaim an abandoned coal mine for the state of Kansas. The mine included spoils, a coal refuse dump, and slurry pond in the Indian Creek drainage basin in east central Kansas. The Indian Creek flowed from an off-site abandoned mine and through the coal slurry pond where its waters became more polluted. The intent of the reclamation project was to improve water quality and create a wildlife refuge. The coal refuse was covered and seeded with a diversity of vegetation including several grasses and legume. The slurry pond was developed into a series of large wetland cells to improve water quality. Prior to reclamation, the water leaving the site had a typical pH of 3.3, ranging from 2.4 to 5.6, an iron content which typically over 22 mg/L and ranging over 100 mg/L, and contained large amounts of coal slurry. The acid sediment in the slurry killed fish and caused visible damage to a new large concrete box culvert several miles downstream of the site. Post-reclamation water quality leaving the Indian Creek site showed immediate improvement even before vegetation was reestablished. The existing wetland treatment systems have been successfully treating water for over seven years with the pH of the water leaving the wetlands above 7 and soluble iron content less than 1 mg/L. Fish in the constructed wetlands support waterfowl which now nest onsite.

Witthar, S.R. [Black and Veatch, Overland Park, KS (United States)

1998-12-31

287

Effect of resonant microwave power on a PIG ion source  

SciTech Connect

We have investigated the effect of applying microwave power at the electron cyclotron frequency on the characteristics of the ion beam extracted from a hotcathode PIG ion source. No change was seen in the ion charge state distribution. A small but significant reduction in the beam noise level was seen, and it is possible that the technique may find application in situations where beam quiescence is important.

Brown, I.G.; Galvin, B.F.; Galvin, J.E.; MacGill, R.A.

1985-10-01

288

Saving Genetic Resources of Native Pigs in Occidental and Oriental Countries -- Practical Examples of the Characterization and Utilization of Native Pigs in Hungary and Laos  

PubMed Central

Worldwide, only a few “fatty” pig breeds exist with different and/or regional utilization. Using the Hungarian Mangalica, which almost went extinct in Europe and the Lao Moo Lat pig, which still has a large population in South-East Asia as exemples, we wanted to demonstrate that indigenous (fatty) pig breeds may represent both national value and tremendous economic potential. Since these less prolific and less productive breeds cannot contribute to mass production, new market roles and methods should be established for them in the premium segment of pork trading. Thus their preservation and propagation needs the comprehensive collaboration of commercial, governmental actors and researchers. Briefly summarizing the history, we report the current results of reproductive physiology research. The commercial renaissance of Mangalica pigs is indebted to the enthusiastic efforts of basic scientists, pig breeding experts and dedicated Mangalica producers. Scientific achievements were applied to practical breeding and production of delicious pork and processed products, which ultimately made the economic success in the Mangalica sector possible. Both, research on and utilization of endangered (pig) breeds maintain not only breed diversities, but also may improve the livelihood of farmers worldwide. PMID:24162808

RATKY, Jozsef; EGERSZEGI, Istvan; TOTH, Peter; KEONUCHAN, Soukanh; NAGAI, Takashi; KIKUCHI, Kazuhiro; MANABE, Noboru; BRUSSOW, Klaus-Peter

2013-01-01

289

Saving genetic resources of native pigs in Occidental and Oriental countries - practical examples of the characterization and utilization of native pigs in Hungary and Laos.  

PubMed

Worldwide, only a few "fatty" pig breeds exist with different and/or regional utilization. Using the Hungarian Mangalica, which almost went extinct in Europe and the Lao Moo Lat pig, which still has a large population in South-East Asia as exemples, we wanted to demonstrate that indigenous (fatty) pig breeds may represent both national value and tremendous economic potential. Since these less prolific and less productive breeds cannot contribute to mass production, new market roles and methods should be established for them in the premium segment of pork trading. Thus their preservation and propagation needs the comprehensive collaboration of commercial, governmental actors and researchers. Briefly summarizing the history, we report the current results of reproductive physiology research. The commercial renaissance of Mangalica pigs is indebted to the enthusiastic efforts of basic scientists, pig breeding experts and dedicated Mangalica producers. Scientific achievements were applied to practical breeding and production of delicious pork and processed products, which ultimately made the economic success in the Mangalica sector possible. Both, research on and utilization of endangered (pig) breeds maintain not only breed diversities, but also may improve the livelihood of farmers worldwide. PMID:24162808

Rátky, Jozsef; Egerszegi, Istvan; Toth, Peter; Keonuchan, Soukanh; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Manabe, Noboru; Brüssow, Klaus-Peter

2013-10-01

290

Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure  

DOEpatents

The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

Loth, John L. (Morgantown, WV); Smith, William C. (Morgantown, WV); Friggens, Gary R. (Morgantown, WV)

1982-01-01

291

Oxfendazole flukicidal activity in pigs.  

PubMed

Although oxfendazole (OFZ) is a well know broad-spectrum benzimidazole anthelmintic, the assessment of its potential trematodicidal activity remains unexplored. OFZ administration at single high doses has been recommended to control Taenia solium cysticercus in pigs. The current study investigated the flukicidal activity obtained after a single high (30mg/kg) oral dose of OFZ in pigs harbouring a natural Fasciola hepatica infection. Sixteen (16) local ecotype pigs were randomly allocated into two (2) experimental groups of 8 animals each named as follow: Untreated control and OFZ treated, in which animals received OFZ (Synanthic(®), Merial Ltd., 9.06% suspension) orally at 30mg/kg. At seven (7) days post-treatment, all the animals were sacrificed and direct adult liver fluke counts were performed following the WAAVP guidelines. None of the animals involved in this experiment showed any adverse event during the study. OFZ treatment as a single 30mg/kg oral dose showed a 100% efficacy against F. hepatica. In conclusion, the trial described here demonstrated an excellent OFZ activity against F. hepatica in naturally infected pigs, after its administration at a single oral dose of 30mg/kg. PMID:24713198

Ortiz, Pedro; Terrones, Susana; Cabrera, María; Hoban, Cristian; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Donadeu, Meritxell; Lanusse, Carlos; Alvarez, Luis

2014-08-01

292

Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs  

PubMed Central

Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilization is affected by the age of the pig and the pig breed. The use of potential prebiotic effects of dietary fiber is an attractive way to stimulate gut health and thereby minimize the use of anti-microbial growth promoters. Inclusion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet can stimulate the growth of commensal gut microbes. Inclusion of NSP from chicory results in changes in gut micro-environment and gut morphology of pigs, while growth performance remains unaffected and digestibility was only marginally reduced. The fermentation products and pH in digesta responded to diet type and were correlated with shifts in the microbiota. Interestingly, fiber intake will have an impact on the expression of intestinal epithelial heat-shock proteins in the pig. Heat-shock proteins have an important physiological role in the gut and carry out crucial housekeeping functions in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, there are increasing evidence showing that fiber can have prebiotic effects in pigs due to interactions with the gut micro-environment and the gut associated immune system. PMID:24580966

2014-01-01

293

Fiber effects in nutrition and gut health in pigs.  

PubMed

Dietary fiber is associated with impaired nutrient utilization and reduced net energy values. However, fiber has to be included in the diet to maintain normal physiological functions in the digestive tract. Moreover, the negative impact of dietary fiber will be determined by the fiber properties and may differ considerably between fiber sources. Various techniques can be applied to enhance nutritional value and utilization of available feed resources. In addition, the extent of fiber utilization is affected by the age of the pig and the pig breed. The use of potential prebiotic effects of dietary fiber is an attractive way to stimulate gut health and thereby minimize the use of anti-microbial growth promoters. Inclusion of soluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) in the diet can stimulate the growth of commensal gut microbes. Inclusion of NSP from chicory results in changes in gut micro-environment and gut morphology of pigs, while growth performance remains unaffected and digestibility was only marginally reduced. The fermentation products and pH in digesta responded to diet type and were correlated with shifts in the microbiota. Interestingly, fiber intake will have an impact on the expression of intestinal epithelial heat-shock proteins in the pig. Heat-shock proteins have an important physiological role in the gut and carry out crucial housekeeping functions in order to maintain the mucosal barrier integrity. Thus, there are increasing evidence showing that fiber can have prebiotic effects in pigs due to interactions with the gut micro-environment and the gut associated immune system. PMID:24580966

Lindberg, Jan Erik

2014-01-01

294

Pig but not Human Interferon-? Initiates Human Cell-Mediated Rejection of Pig Tissue in vivo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Split-thickness pig skin was transplanted on severe combined immunodeficient mice so that pig dermal microvessels spontaneously inosculated with mouse microvessels and functioned to perfuse the grafts. Pig endothelial cells in the healed grafts constitutively expressed class I and class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Major histocompatibility complex molecule expression could be further increased by intradermal injection of pig interferon-? (IFN-? ) but not human IFN-? or tumor necrosis factor. Grafts injected with pig IFN-? also developed a sparse infiltrate of mouse neutrophils and eosinophils without evidence of injury. Introduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells into the animals by intraperitoneal inoculation resulted in sparse perivascular mononuclear cell infiltrates in the grafts confined to the pig dermis. Injection of pig skin grafts on mice that received human peripheral blood mononuclear cells with pig IFN-? (but not human IFN-? or heat-inactivated pig IFN-? ) induced human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and macrophages to more extensively infiltrate the pig skin grafts and injure pig dermal microvessels. These findings suggest that human T cell-mediated rejection of xenotransplanted pig organs may be prevented if cellular sources of pig interferon (e.g., passenger lymphocytes) are eliminated from the graft.

Sultan, Parvez; Murray, Allan G.; McNiff, Jennifer M.; Lorber, Marc I.; Askenase, Philip W.; Bothwell, Alfred L. M.; Pober, Jordan S.

1997-08-01

295

ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

In the second year of the project, the Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column is further developed. The approach uses an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and makes use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. An experimental set for studying a two-dimensional bubble column is also developed. The operation of the bubble column is being tested and diagnostic methodology for quantitative measurements is being developed. An Eulerian computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column is also being developed. The liquid and bubble motions are being analyzed and the results are being compared with the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures is also being studied. Further progress was also made in developing a thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion. The balance laws are obtained and the constitutive laws are being developed. Progress was also made in measuring concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. The general objective of this project is to provide the needed fundamental understanding of three-phase slurry reactors in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel synthesis. The other main goal is to develop a computational capability for predicting the transport and processing of three-phase coal slurries. The specific objectives are: (1) To develop a thermodynamically consistent rate-dependent anisotropic model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction for application to coal liquefaction. Also establish the material parameters of the model. (2) To provide experimental data for phasic fluctuation and mean velocities, as well as the solid volume fraction in the shear flow devices. (3) To develop an accurate computational capability incorporating the new rate-dependent and anisotropic model for analyzing reacting and nonreacting slurry flows, and to solve a number of technologically important problems related to Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquid fuel production processes. (4) To verify the validity of the developed model by comparing the predicted results with the performed and the available experimental data under idealized conditions.

Goodarz Ahmadi

2001-10-01

296

Salmonella in slaughter pigs: the effect of logistic slaughter procedures of pigs on the prevalence of Salmonella in pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial part of the finishing pigs in the Netherlands is infected with Salmonella. Infection of pigs with Salmonella can occur already on the farm. Pigs can also get infected or contaminated during transport, lairage or slaughter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of separating pigs from Salmonella-infected farms from pigs from Salmonella-free farms during transport,

M. Swanenburg; P. J. van der Wolf; H. A. P. Urlings; J. M. A. Snijders; F. van Knapen

2001-01-01

297

RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES  

SciTech Connect

The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg(OH){sub 2} and Mn(OH){sub 2} caused the increase in yield stress. The low pH run exhibited as much as an order of magnitude greater B and Li (frit components) leachate concentrations in the supernate. At high pH a decrease of B leaching was found and this was attributed to adsorption onto Mg(OH){sub 2}. A second leaching experiment was performed without any sludge to deconvolute the leach rate behavior of Frit 418 from those of the SB5 sludge-Frit 418 system. At high pH, the sludgeless system demonstrated very fast leaching of all the frit components, primarily due to fast dissolution of the main component, silica, by hydroxide anion; various semiconductor studies have established this reactivity. Overall, the frit-water system exhibited greater leaching from a factor two to almost three orders of magnitude (varying by conditions and species). The slower leaching of the sludge system is possibly due to a greater ionic strength or smaller driving force. Another possible reason is a physical effect, coating of the frit particles with sludge; this would increase the mass transfer resistance to leaching. Based on this study, the cause of clogs in the melter feed loop is still unknown. A possible explanation is that the SME product, like the simulant, is too thin and could contribute to a loss of two-phase flow which could cause plugging of a restricted and poorly mixed zone like the melter feed loop. This is feasible since a previous study of a slurry showed an increase in resistance to flow at lower flow rates. Testing with a radioactive SME sample is underway and should help understand this potential mechanism.

Fernandez, A.

2010-02-08

298

Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport  

SciTech Connect

The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

1980-03-31

299

Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications. A supplement to final report: Design of slurry reactor for indirect liquefaction applications  

SciTech Connect

This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-01

300

A comparative analysis of the intestinal metagenomes present in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and humans (Homo sapiens)  

PubMed Central

Background Guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is an important model for human intestinal research. We have characterized the faecal microbiota of 60 guinea pigs using Illumina shotgun metagenomics, and used this data to compile a gene catalogue of its prevalent microbiota. Subsequently, we compared the guinea pig microbiome to existing human gut metagenome data from the MetaHIT project. Results We found that the bacterial richness obtained for human samples was lower than for guinea pig samples. The intestinal microbiotas of both species were dominated by the two phyla Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, but at genus level, the majority of identified genera (320 of 376) were differently abundant in the two hosts. For example, the guinea pig contained considerably more of the mucin-degrading Akkermansia, as well as of the methanogenic archaea Methanobrevibacter than found in humans. Most microbiome functional categories were less abundant in guinea pigs than in humans. Exceptions included functional categories possibly reflecting dehydration/rehydration stress in the guinea pig intestine. Finally, we showed that microbiological databases have serious anthropocentric biases, which impacts model organism research. Conclusions The results lay the foundation for future gastrointestinal research applying guinea pigs as models for humans. PMID:23020652

2012-01-01

301

Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

Niezgoda-?elasko, B.; ?elasko, J.

2014-08-01

302

Critical parameters for coarse coal underground slurry haulage systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Factors are identified which must be considered in meeting the requirements of a transportation system for conveying, in a pipeline, the coal mined by a continuous mining machine to a storage location neat the mine entrance or to a coal preparation plant located near the surface. For successful operation, the slurry haulage the system should be designed to operated in the turbulent flow regime at a flow rate at least 30% greater than the deposition velocity (slurry flow rate at which the solid particles tend to settle in the pipe). The capacity of the haulage system should be compatible with the projected coal output. Partical size, solid concentration, density, and viscosity of the suspension are if importance as well as the selection of the pumps, pipes, and valves. The parameters with the greatest effect on system performance ar flow velocity, pressure coal particle size, and solids concentration.

Maynard, D. P.

1981-01-01

303

New cement additive improves slurry properties and saves cost  

SciTech Connect

A new cement additive has been developed which improves slurry performance and reduces cost. The additive is a vitrified aggregate of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicates with potential cementitious reactivity, hereafter abbreviated CMAS. CMAS has been used successfully on oil and gas wells throughout Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the technical enhancements and cost effectiveness of slurries incorporating CMAS. Laboratory data is presented and working mechanisms are defined to highlight CMAS`s positive effect on; compressive strength, fluid loss control, free water control, gas migration control, resistance to strength retrogression and aggressive fluids. Finally, case studies and an economic analysis are presented to show the cost savings for actual well applications.

Pollard, R.; Hibbeler, J.; DiLullo, G.; Shotton, E.A.

1994-12-31

304

Freeforming of Ceramics and Composites from Colloidal Slurries  

SciTech Connect

This report is a summary of the work completed for an LDRD project. The objective of the project was to develop a solid freeform fabrication technique for ceramics and composites from fine particle slurries. The work was successful and resulted in the demonstration of a manufacturing technique called robocasting. Some ceramic components may pow be fabricated without the use of molds or tooling by dispensing colloidal suspensions through an orifice and stacking two-dimensional layers into three-dimensional shapes. Any conceivable two-dimensional pattern may be ''written'' layer by layer into a three-dimensional shape. Development of the robocasting technique required the materials expertise for fabrication and theological control of very highly concentrated fine particle slurries, and development of robotics for process control and optimization. Several ceramic materials have been manufactured and characterized. Development of techniques for robocasting multiple materials simultaneously have also been developed to build parts with unique structures or graded compositions.

CESARANO III,JOSEPH; DENHAM,HUGH B.; STUECKER,JOHN N.; BAER,THOMAS A.; GRIFFITH,MICHELLE L.

1999-12-01

305

Corrosion inhibitors for water-base slurry in multiblade sawing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of a water-base slurry instead of the standard PC oil vehicle was proposed for multiblade sawing (MBS) silicon wafering technology. Potential cost savings were considerable; however, significant failures of high-carbon steel blades were observed in limited tests using a water-based slurry during silicon wafering. Failures were attributed to stress corrosion. A specially designed fatigue test of 1095 steel blades in distilled water with various corrosion inhibitor solutions was used to determine the feasibility of using corrosion inhibitors in water-base MBS wafering. Fatigue tests indicate that several corrosion inhibitors have significant potential for use in a water-base MBS operation. Blade samples tested in these specific corrosion-inhibitor solutions exhibited considerably greater lifetime than those blades tested in PC oil.

Chen, C. P.; Odonnell, T. P.

1982-02-01

306

Specific mixing energy: A key factor for cement slurry quality  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, the relationships between cement mixing and cement slurry quality are investigated. Laboratory mixing conditions, using a high shear mixer, are compared to field mixing conditions, including conventional jet mixer, recirculating type mixer and batch mixer. All the mixing conditions can be reduced according to a single parameter, the specific mixing energy, that allows the comparison of laboratory and field mixing with confidence. Typical cement slurry properties, like rheology, free water, fluid loss, thickening time and compressive strength, are measured as a function of the specific mixing energy. All these properties improve when the specific mixing energy increases. The efficiency of cement additives, like dispersants and fluid-loss agents, is also found to vary significantly with the energy. A tentative explanation is proposed through a mechanism of particle deflocculation and dissolution, leading to an increase in the available specific surface area.

Orban, J.A.; Parcevaux, P.A.; Guillot, D.J.

1986-01-01

307

Ice slurry on outdoor running performance in heat.  

PubMed

The efficacy of ingestion of ice slurry on actual outdoor endurance performance is unknown. This study aimed to investigate ice slurry ingestion as a cooling intervention before a 10 km outdoor running time-trial. Twelve participants ingested 8?g?·?kg?(-?1) of either ice slurry (?-?1.4°C; ICE) or ambient temperature drink (30.9°C; CON) and performed a 15-min warm-up prior to a 10 km outdoor running time-trial (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature: 28.2 ± 0.8°C). Mean performance time was faster with ICE (2?715 ± 396 s) than CON (2?730 ± 385 s; P=0.023). Gastrointestinal temperature (Tgi) reduced by 0.5 ± 0.2°C after ICE ingestion compared with 0.1 ± 0.1°C (P<0.001) with CON. During the run, the rate of rise in Tgi was greater (P=0.01) with ICE than with CON for the first 15 min. At the end of time-trial, Tgi was higher with ICE (40.2 ± 0.6°C) than CON (39.8 ± 0.4°C, P=0.005). Ratings of thermal sensation were lower during the cooling phase and for the first kilometre of the run (?-?1.2 ± 0.8; P<0.001). Although ingestion of ice slurry resulted in a transient increase in heat strain following a warm up routine, it is a practical and effective pre-competition cooling manoeuvre to improve performance in warm and humid environments. PMID:22730052

Yeo, Z W; Fan, P W P; Nio, A Q X; Byrne, C; Lee, J K W

2012-11-01

308

Color removal from aqueous solution by biogas residual slurry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of Acid Brilliant Blue on biogas residual slurry has been investigated. The parameters studied include dye concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and pH. The equilibrium data fit well with both the Langmuir and Freundlich models of adsorption isotherm. Maximum removal of 99% was observed at pH 2.56. Desorption studies indicate that the dye is solubilised in 50%(v\\/v) acetic

R. T. Yamuna; C. Namasivayam

1993-01-01

309

Interaction of organic additives with ceramic surfaces in colloidal slurries  

SciTech Connect

Three different dispersants, a low molecular weight compound (aminoalkanol), a polymer (polyelectrolyte) and a block-co-polymer (block polyethylenoxide-polyacrylic acid) were investigated with AFM and rheology in an aqueous system in order to elucidate the influence of the size and structure of the molecule on the dispersion stabilization. The AFM studies indicate that the aminoalkanol gives repulsive forces due to electrostatic repulsion only. The polyelectrolyte seems to stabilize the dispersion with both steric and electrostatic repulsive forces. A new compound that was designed for pure steric stabilization in aqueous media a block-co-polymer consisting of a polar anchor block and a stabilizing neutral chain was investigated for its behavior. The AFM measurements show that it is likely that this compound causes repulsion of silicon nitride surfaces due to steric repulsion only. Rheological measurements of aqueous powder slurries show that the adsorption of the organic additives is of great importance. Due to a more silicon dioxide like acidic surface of the investigated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-powder the carboxylate anions of the block-co-polymer adsorb badly. Therefore, no sterically repulsive forces can be built up. This then causes an increase in the slurry`s viscosity.

Sigmund, W.M.; Wang, L.; Sindel, J.; Rotov, M.; Aldinger, F. [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Nichtmetallische Anorganische Materialien

1997-08-01

310

Oxygenated fatty acids isolated from wheat bran slurries.  

PubMed

Abstract Oxygenated fatty acids are classified as secondary metabolites in wheat, produced by oxidation of free fatty acids (FFAs). Oxygenated fatty acids have significant impact on the organoleptic and sensory properties of food products and participate in regulation of defense and developmental processes in plants. The objective of this study was to identify oxygenated fatty acids from wheat flour slurries. Wheat bran/water slurries were incubated for 4?h and freeze dried. Total lipids were extracted in chloroform/methanol/water; and methylated and silylated FFAs were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Seven oxygenated fatty acids were identified, (A) 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, (B) 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid, (C) 13-hydroxy-9cis,11trans-octadecadienoic acid, (D) 9,10,13-trihydroxy-11trans-octadecenoic acid, (E) 9,12,13-trihydroxy-10trans,15cis-octadecadienoic acid, (F) 10-oxo-13-hydroxy-11trans-octadecenoic acid and (G) 12-oxo-13-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid, in wheat bran slurries. Our results are important for whole wheat food applications since oxygenated fatty acids can result in bitter flavors in the final product. PMID:24934850

Simsek, Senay; Doehlert, Douglas C

2014-11-01

311

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOEpatents

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01

312

Warm season grass establishment on limestone-amended coal slurry  

SciTech Connect

Direct seeding of limestone amended areas can be an effective alternative to soil covering. Both wetland and upland plant communities have been established on post law (PL 95-87) slurry areas by the Wildlife Research Laboratory of Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. Terrestrial habitat reclamation has emphasized both cool and warm season grass species, using a 3-year program of limestone amendment (40-50 tons/acre/year) and cover crop (years 1 and 2) and perennial grass (year 3) establishment. Warm season grasses have been included in Midwest slurry reclamation projects since 1984. Vegetation monitoring of three Midwest sites (Illinois and Kentucky), ranging in age from 3 to 12 years since planting, identified current ground cover in excess of 100 percent. Warm season grasses accounted for 48 to 73 percent of the ground cover. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) was the dominant warm season species at all sites, with vegetative cover values ranging from 48 to more than 56 percent. Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans) accounted for 12 to 16 percent of the ground cover at the two Kentucky sites 3 years after establishment. Vegetative density for all species (forbs and grasses) ranged from 539 to 622 stems/m{sup 2} while above ground biomass values ranged from 404 to over 900 gm/m{sup 2}. Warm season grass establishment practices on these direct seeded slurry areas have been successful in providing excellent ground cover and diverse upland wildlife habitat.

Nawrot, J.R.; Skeel, V.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States); Gray, B. [Peabody Coal Company, Graham, KY (United States); Newton, R.

1997-12-31

313

Treatment of brewery slurry in thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

Treatment of brewery slurry in a thermophilic anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was studied using conventional fully mixed semi-continuous digestion as a control. The process phases were adapted to fit the brewery slurry discharge schedule. ASBR experiments were conducted under different organic loading rates (OLR) from 3.23 to 8.57 kg of COD/m(3)day of reactor and control was conducted with OLR of 3.0 kg of COD/m(3)day. The ASBR COD degradation efficiency was from 79.6% to 88.9%, control experiment efficiency was 65%. ASBR VSS removal efficiency was from 78.5% to 90.5%, control experiment efficiency was 54%. The ASBR methane production yield was from 371 to 418 L/kg COD inserted, control experiment methane yield was 248 L/kg COD inserted. The ASBR process was superior to conventional fully mixed digestion, and is fully adaptable to brewery slurry discharge, needs no additional collection and settling pools and experiences no solids settling problems. PMID:17126547

Zupancic, Gregor D; Straziscar, Matej; Ros, Milenko

2007-10-01

314

Rheology of slurries and environmental impacts in the mining industry.  

PubMed

The world's resource industries are the largest producers of waste. Much of this waste is produced as a fine particle slurry, which is pumped to a storage area, generally at a low concentration, where it behaves like a Newtonian fluid. Simply removing, reusing, and recycling water from the slurry represents a step toward a more sustainable practice in this industry. As the concentration of such a slurry is increased as a result of dewatering, the materials exhibit non-Newtonian behavior, which is characterized by shear thinning, a yield stress, and in some instances thixotropic behavior. Such high-concentration, nonideal (dirty) suspensions in the resource industries have meant that new rheological methods and techniques have been needed to measure and interpret the basic flow properties. Also, some older empirical techniques have needed to be modified and interpreted in a more fundamental way so that the results could be used in design. This article reviews these techniques and illustrates how the industry itself has motivated their development. Understanding and exploiting this rheology has resulted in dramatic improvement in the waste-disposal strategy for some industries, but many have failed to embrace the available technology. The reasons for this are discussed. The article concludes that a greater positive change in waste-management practice will occur in the future, motivated by several factors, including public perception, tighter regulation, and perhaps even commonsense life cycle accounting. PMID:23540291

Boger, David V

2013-01-01

315

Reductive dechlorination of chlorobenzenes in surfactant-amended sediment slurries  

SciTech Connect

Microbial anaerobic dechlorination of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was examined in sediment slurries amended with two classes of nonionic surfactant, polyoxyethylene (POE) sorbitan fatty acid esters (Tweens) and POE alcohols (Brijs). The rationale for surfactant addition was to increase the bioavailability of highly sorbed organic pollutants to degrading microorganisms by enhancing their solubility. The solubility of HCB was initially enhanced via micellar partitioning; however, primary degradation of most surfactants occurred within 10 d. Dechlorination activity was significantly reduced at POE alcohol concentrations above the critical micelle concentration (cmc), with or without the occurrence of surfactant degradation. Tween 80 decreased HCB dechlorination at concentrations significantly above the cmc. At concentrations closer to the cmc, Tween 80 increased dechlorination rate constants four- to fivefold in acclimated slurries. Additions of Tween 80 at or below the cmc stimulated dechlorination activity in unacclimated slurries that exhibited very little activity in unamended controls. An average of 89% of HCB was dechlorinated after 90 d, compared to 20% in unamended sediments. No effect was observed for POE alcohols at these sub-cmc levels. The lack of a stimulated response for the POE alcohols suggests that Tween 80 may not be acting simply as a source of carbon or energy.

Van Hoof, P.L. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States); Jafvert, C.T. [Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

1996-11-01

316

Additive for coal water slurry made from weak slurryability coal  

SciTech Connect

Surface treatment of weak slurryability coal and preparation of highly concentrated coal water slurry (CWS) have been investigated using wettability and rheology measurements. By adding 0.5{approximately}10 wt.% (based on coal) pitch during dry milling coal surface became more hydrophobic and the coal could be easily prepared for CWS which had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the untreated coal. The reasons of this result is high degree of hydrophobic surface of coal particles made surfactant adsorption easier compared with high degree of hydrophilic surface of coal particles. Another important reason in hydrophobic surface impeded the penetration of water into the inner pores of coal particles which resulted in decreasing swelling ability of coal and enhancing the fluidity of CWS. Four different additives have been investigated including three nonionic ethoxylated surfactants and one mixture of anionic surfactants (sodium humate derivative and naphthalenesulfonic acid-HCHO condensate). Both rheological and thixotropic properties showed that nonionic surfactant G2 was the most efficient additive for preparation of highly concentrated CWS. The results of dynamic experiment illustrated that the slurry had good dynamic stability, in other words, the viscosity of the slurry decreased very slowly at constant stir. The pitch treated coal powders were beneficiated coal had much lower viscosity compared with CWS of the unbeneficiated coal.

Zi-xiu Zang; Lin Zhang; Xino-an Fu; Long Jiang [Institute of Photographic Chemistry, Beijing (China)

1993-12-31

317

Sample comminution for mycotoxin analysis: dry milling or slurry mixing?  

PubMed

A comparison was made between dry milling and slurry mixing as a comminuting step preceding mycotoxin analysis. Sample schemes of up to 30 kg are mandated by European Commission legislation. Cocoa, green coffee, almonds and pistachio samples of 10 kg were milled by a Romer analytical sampling mill and all three subsamples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 or ochratoxin A content. The homogenization process was evaluated in terms of the analytical results, coefficients of variation for different mills and particle size distributions. Coefficients of variation for the comminuting step were higher for dry milling than for slurry mixing. This difference was explained based on measured particle size distributions for both milling types. Measurements also showed slight differences in mycotoxin content of samples based on milling procedures. This might lead to lots being wrongly accepted or rejected based on an erroneous subsample result. It was concluded that sample comminution was best performed by slurry mixing, which produced smaller particles and, consequently, homogeneous samples with lowest coefficients of variation. Additional data are given on analytical results in 10-kg subsamples that originate from the aggregate 30-kg sample as described in Commission Directive 98/53/EC. PMID:16393817

Spanjer, M C; Scholten, J M; Kastrup, S; Jörissen, U; Schatzki, T F; Toyofuku, N

2006-01-01

318

Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges  

SciTech Connect

Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period.

Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J. [Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States); McFarland, B. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1995-12-31

319

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOEpatents

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19

320

Design and use of multiple blade slurry sawing in a production atmosphere  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technique and uses of the multiple blade slurry (MBS) saw are considered. Multiple bands of steel are arranged in a frame and the frame is reciprocated with the steel bands to a workpiece, while simultaneously applying abrasive at the point of contact. The blades wear slots in the workpiece and progress through the piece resulting in several parts of wafers. The transition to MBA from diamond slicing is justified by savings resulting from minimized kerf losses, minimized subsurface damage, and improved surface quality off the saw. This allows wafering much closer to finished thickness specifications. The current state of the art MBS technology must be significantly improved if the low cost solar array (LSA) goals are to be attained. It is concluded that although MBS will never be the answer to every wafering requirement, the economical production of wafers to LSA project specifications will be achieved.

Lynah, F. P., Jr.; Ross, J. B.

1982-01-01

321

3 trillion pigs down, Angry Birds  

E-print Network

thriving 12/09/2010 ABC 7 Morning News at 5 AM - KGO-TV Televisio n program 0 96 3 trillion pigs down 78 3 trillion pigs down, Angry Birds keeps thriving 12/10/2010 KFSN-TV - Online Online, consume r 178,181 96 3 trillion pigs down, Angry Birds keeps thriving 12/10/2010 WLS-TV - Online Online, consume r 2

Way, Thomas

322

Association between pig activity and environmental factors in pig confinement buildings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the aerial contaminants affecting pig activity and evaluate the correlation between pig activity and aerial contaminants in a pig confinement building. This experiment was performed in a confinement growing and finishing room, and the data presented in this article was collected over a period of 50 days, with sampling every 2 days

Ki Youn Kim; Han Jong; Hyeon Tae; Chi Nyon

2008-01-01

323

Propionibacterium from Liver and Lung of Pigs and Guinea Pigs. 1: Physiological Identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 231 Propionibacterium strains originated from animals were identified based on key physiological properties. They comprised 218 strains derived from livers of pigs with or without milk spots, eight from lungs of pigs used in parasitic infection experiments (including controls), and three from livers and two from lungs of guinea pigs in experimental parasitic infection. All identification tests

Hiroaki Oomi; Ryozo Azuma; Shinichi Suzuki; Tadao Watanabe; Satoshi Murakami

2002-01-01

324

WILD PIG ATTACKS ON HUMANS  

SciTech Connect

Attacks on humans by wild pigs (Sus scrofa) have been documented since ancient times. However, studies characterizing these incidents are lacking. In an effort to better understand this phenomenon, information was collected from 412 wild pig attacks on humans. Similar to studies of large predator attacks on humans, data came from a variety of sources. The various attacks compiled occurred in seven zoogeographic realms. Most attacks occurred within the species native range, and specifically in rural areas. The occurrence was highest during the winter months and daylight hours. Most happened under non-hunting circumstances and appeared to be unprovoked. Wounded animals were the chief cause of these attacks in hunting situations. The animals involved were typically solitary, male and large in size. The fate of the wild pigs involved in these attacks varied depending upon the circumstances, however, most escaped uninjured. Most human victims were adult males traveling on foot and alone. The most frequent outcome for these victims was physical contact/mauling. The severity of resulting injuries ranged from minor to fatal. Most of the mauled victims had injuries to only one part of their bodies, with legs/feet being the most frequent body part injured. Injuries were primarily in the form of lacerations and punctures. Fatalities were typically due to blood loss. In some cases, serious infections or toxemia resulted from the injuries. Other species (i.e., pets and livestock) were also accompanying some of the humans during these attacks. The fates of these animals varied from escaping uninjured to being killed. Frequency data on both non-hunting and hunting incidents of wild pig attacks on humans at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, showed quantitatively that such incidents are rare.

Mayer, J.

2013-04-12

325

Electrophoretic Deposition Applied to Thick Metal-Ceramic Coatings  

SciTech Connect

Electrophoretic deposition was used to fabricate thick (4 mm) metal–ceramic deposits from a non-aqueous slurry of nickel and alumina particles. A high solid volume in the slurry was identified as the primary parameter for depositing thick cermet coatings rather than the applied electric potential or ionic additive concentration. Ionic additives (MgCl2, AlCl3, etc.) were found to adequately suspend the alumina particles and provide rapid deposition rates. The nickel particles proved to be more difficult to suspend in solution, thereby sacrificing control of the deposition composition. The use of small (3.0 µm) particles and continuously pumping the slurry alleviated the suspension problems but small electric potentials (100 V/cm) were required to avoid the formation of rough, columnar deposits on the depositing electrode.

Windes, William Enoch; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Reimanis, Ivar E.

2002-08-01

326

Burning of suspended coal-water slurry droplet with oil as combustion additive  

SciTech Connect

Coal-water slurries have been regarded as a potential substitute for heavy fuel oil. Various demonstrations of coal-water slurry combustion have been performed; however, a fundamental understanding of how the combustion process of a slurry fuel is enhanced is still not adequate. The combustion of coal-water mixture droplets suspended on microthermocouples has been investigated. It was found that droplets of lignite coal (which is a noncaking coal) burn effectively; however, droplets of bituminous coal (which is a caking coal) are relatively difficult to burn. During the heat-up of bituminous coal-water slurry droplets may turn to ''popcorn'' and show significant agglomeration. The incomplete combustion of coal-water slurry droplets in furnaces has been reported, and this is a drawback of this process. The objective of the present study is to explore the possibility of enhancing the combustion of coal-water slurry droplets with the use of a combustible emulsified oil.

Yao, S.C.; Manwani, P.

1986-10-01

327

Bioremediation of solid TNT particles in a soil slurry reactor: Mass transfer considerations  

SciTech Connect

The bioreduction of solid TNT by a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain was investigated in a stirred tank reactor. Experiments in which TNT beads were the only solids present indicated that the biodegradation mechanism is dissolution followed by degradation in bulk solution. Dissolution may limit the overall rate, in which case degradation can be enhanced through increased agitation. Since soil slurries may contain high concentrations of solids other than TNT, Teflon chips were added to investigate two separate effects on TNT dissolution in slurries. First, Teflon solids increase the viscosity of the slurry, resulting in lower solid-liquid mass transfer coefficients. Second, the agitated Teflon slurry can grind or comminute TNT particles, creating additional surface area for mass transfer. Enhanced dissolution rates were observed for TNT beads in a Teflon slurry at higher agitator speeds. This suggests that the biodegradation of solid TNT nuggets in a soil slurry bioreactor may be enhanced under conditions that promote particle attrition.

Gilcrease, P.C.; Murphy, V.G.; Reardon, K.F. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1996-12-31

328

dsPIG: a tool to predict imprinted genes from the deep sequencing of whole transcriptomes  

PubMed Central

Background Dysregulation of imprinted genes, which are expressed in a parent-of-origin-specific manner, plays an important role in various human diseases, such as cancer and behavioral disorder. To date, however, fewer than 100 imprinted genes have been identified in the human genome. The recent availability of high-throughput technology makes it possible to have large-scale prediction of imprinted genes. Here we propose a Bayesian model (dsPIG) to predict imprinted genes on the basis of allelic expression observed in mRNA-Seq data of independent human tissues. Results Our model (dsPIG) was capable of identifying imprinted genes with high sensitivity and specificity and a low false discovery rate when the number of sequenced tissue samples was fairly large, according to simulations. By applying dsPIG to the mRNA-Seq data, we predicted 94 imprinted genes in 20 cerebellum samples and 57 imprinted genes in 9 diverse tissue samples with expected low false discovery rates. We also assessed dsPIG using previously validated imprinted and non-imprinted genes. With simulations, we further analyzed how imbalanced allelic expression of non-imprinted genes or different minor allele frequencies affected the predictions of dsPIG. Interestingly, we found that, among biallelically expressed genes, at least 18 genes expressed significantly more transcripts from one allele than the other among different individuals and tissues. Conclusion With the prevalence of the mRNA-Seq technology, dsPIG has become a useful tool for analysis of allelic expression and large-scale prediction of imprinted genes. For ease of use, we have set up a web service and also provided an R package for dsPIG at http://www.shoudanliang.com/dsPIG/. PMID:23083219

2012-01-01

329

Bioavailability of amoxycillin in pigs.  

PubMed

Amoxycillin was administered to pigs intravenously (i.v.), intramuscularly (i.m.) and orally (p.o.), in a cross-over design to examine the bioavailability (F) of various drug formulations. These included: a sodium salt for reconstitution in water and administration i.v.; trihydrate salt in an oil base for intramuscular administration producing 'conventional' duration of plasma concentrations; a trihydrate salt in oil base giving prolonged (LA) duration, and a trihydrate powder for oral administration in solution. The concentration of amoxycillin in plasma was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and its pharmacokinetic variables were assessed for the individual pigs by use of noncompartmental methods. Following i.v. administration (8.6 mg/kg), amoxycillin was eliminated rapidly with a mean residence time (MRT) of 1.4 h. After i.m. administration of the conventional formulation (14.7 mg/kg), the plasma amoxycillin concentration peaked at 2 h at 5.1 micrograms/mL. The bioavailability was 0.83. Intramuscular administration (14.1 mg/kg) of the long acting formulation (i.m. LA), lead to two peaks in plasma at 1.3 and 6.6 h. The bioavailability was calculated to be 1.11. After p.o. administration to fasted pigs, peak concentration was reached after 1.9 h, and the bioavailability was 0.33. In fed pigs, the corresponding values were 3.6 h and 0.28. Data showed that treatment of respiratory tract diseases in pigs by p.o. dosing alone, may not be optimal, because of the relatively low bioavailability and the fact that infections often result in reduced feed and water consumption. A rational treatment regime for susceptible respiratory pathogens includes an initial i.m. injection, followed by p.o. dosing every 12 h. Alternatively, the long acting formulation may be administered i.m. in a dose of 15 mg/kg, which would lead to active plasma concentrations for approximately 48 h. PMID:9507456

Agersø, H; Friis, C

1998-02-01

330

Thorium oxide slurries as blankets in fissile producing fusion- fission hybrids  

E-print Network

not to significantly reduce the breeding ratio. A neutron multiplier was added to the slurry-based blanket to extend the concept to Deuterium-Tritium fueled hybrids. A fissile breeding ratio of 1. AS was thus achieved which should enable adequate tritium breeding... circulating slurry. Spheres formed in slurries with prolonged circulation tend to reach an equilibrium size which is dependent on ci. rculating conditions and the solid material. Control or elimination of the colloidal and flocculating properties...

Geer, Thomas Charles

2012-06-07

331

Slurry 15 NH 4 -N recovery in herbage and soil: effects of application method and timing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of slurry application method and weather conditions after application on ammonia volatilisation are well documented,\\u000a however, the effect on slurry N recovery in herbage is less evident due to large variability of results. The objective of\\u000a this field experiment was to determine the recovery of cattle slurry NH4-N in herbage and soil in the year of application as

Nyncke J. Hoekstra; Stan T. J. Lalor; Karl G. Richards; Norma O’Hea; Gary J. Lanigan; Jens Dyckmans; Rogier P. O. Schulte; Olaf Schmidt

2010-01-01

332

ASSESSMENT OF THE ABILITY OF STANDARD SLURRY PUMPS TO MIX SOLIDS WITH LIQUIDS IN TANK 50H  

SciTech Connect

Tank 50H is the feed tank for the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). In the summer of 2011, Tank 50H contained two standard slurry pumps and two quad volute slurry pumps. Current requirements for mixing operation is to run three pumps for one hour prior to initiating a feed transfer to SPF. Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste moved both of the Quad Volute pumps from Tank 50H to Tank 51H to replace pumps in Tank 51H that were failing. In addition, one of the standard pumps in Tank 50H exhibits high seal leakage and vibration. SRS Liquid Waste requested Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to conduct a study to evaluate the feasibility of mixing the contents of Tank 50H with one to three standard slurry pumps. To determine the pump requirements to mix solids with liquids in Tank 50H, the author reviewed the pilot-scale blending work performed for the Small Column Ion Exchange Process (SCIX), SRNL computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, Tank 50H operating experience, and the technical literature, and applied the results to Tank 50H to determine the number, size, and operating parameters of pumps needed to mix the solid particles with the liquid in Tank 50H. The analysis determined pump requirements to suspend the solids with no 'dead zones', but did not determine the pump requirements to produce a homogeneous suspension. In addition, the analysis determined the pump requirements to prevent the accumulation of a large amount of solid particles under the telescoping transfer pump. The conclusions from this analysis follow: (1) The analysis shows that three Quad Volute pumps should be able to suspend the solid particles expected ({approx}0.6 g/L insoluble solids, {approx}5 micron) in Tank 50H. (2) Three standard slurry pumps may not be able to suspend the solid particles in Tank 50H; (3) The ability of two Quad Volute pumps to fully suspend all of the solid particles in Tank 50H is marginal; and (4) One standard slurry pump should be able to achieve a cleaning radius larger than 43.5 feet, which will prevent large amounts of solid particles from settling under the telescoping transfer pump (TTP). The report recommends a pump operating approach to maximize the achieved cleaning radius.

Poirier, M.

2011-11-11

333

The General Composition of the Faecal Virome of Pigs Depends on Age, but Not on Feeding with a Probiotic Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Background The pig faecal virome, which comprises the community of viruses present in pig faeces, is complex and consists of pig viruses, bacteriophages, transiently passaged plant viruses and other minor virus species. Only little is known about factors influencing its general composition. Here, the effect of the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) NCIMB 10415 on the pig faecal virome composition was analysed in a pig feeding trial with sows and their piglets, which received either the probiotic bacterium or not. Results From 8 pooled faecal samples derived from the feeding trial, DNA and RNA virus particles were prepared and subjected to process-controlled Next Generation Sequencing resulting in 390,650 sequence reads. In average, 14% of the reads showed significant sequence identities to known viruses. The percentage of detected mammalian virus sequences was highest (55–77%) in the samples of the youngest piglets and lowest (8–10%) in the samples of the sows. In contrast, the percentage of bacteriophage sequences increased from 22–44% in the youngest piglets to approximately 90% in the sows. The dominating mammalian viruses differed remarkably among 12 day-old piglets (kobuvirus), 54 day-old piglets (boca-, dependo- and pig stool-associated small circular DNA virus [PigSCV]) and the sows (PigSCV, circovirus and “circovirus-like” viruses CB-A and RW-A). In addition, the Shannon index, which reflects the diversity of sequences present in a sample, was generally higher for the sows as compared to the piglets. No consistent differences in the virome composition could be identified between the viromes of the probiotic bacterium-treated group and the control group. Conclusion The analysis indicates that the pig faecal virome shows a high variability and that its general composition is mainly dependent on the age of the pigs. Changes caused by feeding with the probiotic bacterium E. faecium could not be demonstrated using the applied metagenomics method. PMID:24586429

Sachsenroder, Jana; Twardziok, Sven O.; Scheuch, Matthias; Johne, Reimar

2014-01-01

334

Heat transfer characteristics of forced convection flow of slurry ice inside horizontal pipe  

SciTech Connect

This study concerns development of a heat transportation system using slurry ice that contributes to district heating/cooling system. The heat density of transportation using ice is larger than that of cold water by 3.3 times. The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of forced convection flow of slurry ice that contains ice particles with 0.5--1 mm diameter was experimentally presented in this paper. The heat transfer coefficients agreed with Dittus-Boelter's equation. The pressure drop agreed with Blasius' equation at high velocity and low IPF of slurry ice. The increase in the pressure drop of slurry ice however rose with decreasing velocity and decreasing IPF.

Osa, N.; Watanabe, C.; Shin-no, Y.; Kawada, A.; Kakutani, S.; Otani, Y.

1999-07-01

335

Flow velocity analysis for avoidance of solids deposition during transport of Hanford tank waste slurries  

SciTech Connect

This engineering analysis calculates minimum slurry transport velocities intended to maintain suspensions of solid particulate in slurries. This transport velocity is also known as the slurry flow critical velocity. It is not universally recognized that a transfer line flow velocity in excess of the slurry critical velocity is a requirement to prevent solids deposition and possible line plugging. However, slurry critical velocity seems to be the most prevalent objective measure to prevent solids deposition in transfer lines. The following critical velocity correlations from the literature are investigated: Durand (1953), Spells (1955), Sinclair (1962), Zandi and Gavatos (1967), Babcock (1968), Shook (1969), and Oroskar and Turian (1980). The advantage of these critical velocity correlations is that their use is not reliant upon any measure of bulk slurry viscosity. The input parameters are limited to slurry phase densities and mass fractions, pipe diameter, particle diameter, and viscosity of the pure liquid phase of the slurry. Consequently, the critical velocity calculation does not require determination of system pressure drops. Generalized slurry properties can, therefore, be recommended if the slurry can be adequately described by these variables and if the liquid phase viscosity is known. Analysis of these correlations are presented, indicating that the Oroskar and Turian (1980) models appear to be more conservative for smaller particulate sizes, typically those less than 100 microns diameter. This analysis suggests that the current Tank Farms waste compatibility program criteria may be insufficient to prevent particulate solids settling within slurry composition ranges currently allowed by the waste compatibility program. However, in order to relate a critical velocity associated with a certain slurry composition to a system limit, a means of relating the system capabilities to the slurry composition must be found. Generally, this means expressing the bulk or effective viscosity of the slurry being transferred to some more readily obtainable variable, such as slurry density or solids concentration. No universally recognized model exists to accomplish this, and there is great uncertainty among results from those models that do exist. Following this analysis of critical velocity correlations, a recommendation is made to revise the waste transfer compatibility program criteria relating to solids transport. The new criteria states that a special engineering evaluation is required for any waste transfer that involves particulate solid transport. This evaluation is needed to gain a measure of confidence that the critical velocity for a given slurry composition is within the capabilities of the transfer system.

ESTEY, S.D.

1999-02-25

336

The effects of glutathione on the production of free fatty acids in Cheddar cheese slurries  

E-print Network

: 6. 5" x 8. 5" consisting of I mil of mylar and 2 mi 1 of polyethylene saran . Poucnes containing 50 gram portions of slurry were vacuum sealed using a Multivac 1000 packaging machine using apporximately 9UU mm kg of vacuum. Slurries were...: 6. 5" x 8. 5" consisting of I mil of mylar and 2 mi 1 of polyethylene saran . Poucnes containing 50 gram portions of slurry were vacuum sealed using a Multivac 1000 packaging machine using apporximately 9UU mm kg of vacuum. Slurries were...

Broussard, Jane Marguerite

2012-06-07

337

Evaluation of the transport and resuspension of a simulated nuclear waste slurry: Nuclear Waste Treatment Program  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Idaho conducted research on the transport and resuspension of a simulated high-level nuclear waste slurry. In the United States, the reference process for treating both defense and civilian HLLW is vitrification using the liquid-fed ceramic melter process. The non-Newtonian behavior of the slurry complicates the evaluation of the transport and resuspension characteristics of the slurry. The resuspension of a simulated (nonradioactive) melter feed slurry was evaluated using a slurry designated as WV-205. The simulated slurry was developed for the West Valley Demonstration Project and was used during a pilot-scale ceramic melter (PSCM) experiment conducted at PNL in July 1985 (PSCM-21). This study involved determining the transport characteristics of a fully suspended slurry and the resuspension characteristics of settled solids in a pilot-scale pipe loop. The goal was to predict the transport and resuspension of a full-scale system based on rheological data for a specific slurry. The rheological behavior of the slurry was evaluated using a concentric cylinder rotational viscometer, a capillary tube viscometer, and the pilot-scale pipe loop. The results obtained from the three approaches were compared. 40 refs., 74 figs., 15 tabs.

Carleson, T.E.; Drown, D.C.; Hart, R.E.; Peterson, M.E.

1987-09-01

338

Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

Pinns, Murray L

1955-01-01

339

Vitrification of SRP waste by a slurry-fed ceramic melter  

SciTech Connect

Savannah River Plant (SRP) high-level waste (HLW) can be vitrified by feeding a slurry, instead of a calcine, to a joule-heated ceramic melter. Potential advantages of slurry feeding include (1) use of simpler equipment, (2) elimination of handling easily dispersed radioactive powder, (3) simpler process control, (4) effective mixing, (5) reduced off-gas volume, and (6) cost savings. Assessment of advantages and disadvantages of slurry feeding along with experimental studies indicate that slurry feeding is a promising way of vitrifying waste.

Wicks, G.G.

1980-01-01

340

Co-digestion of dairy cattle slurry and industrial meat-processing by-products – effect of ultrasound and hygienization pre-treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic co-digestion of a mixture of industrial animal by-products (ABP) from meat-processing in conjunction with dairy cattle slurry (mixed in a ratio of 1:3; w.w.) was evaluated at 35 °C focusing on methane production and stabilization. Three pre-treatments were applied 1) digestion with no pre-treatment (control) 2) ultrasound 3) thermal hygienization (70 °C, 60 min). Methane production potentials (MPP) of

Sami Luste; Helvi Heinonen-Tanski; Sari Luostarinen

341

RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge  

E-print Network

-011-0077-2 #12;mainly because of the growing role of algae in biofuel production and RESEARCH ARTICLE Algae production on pig sludge Attila Bai & László Stündl & Péter Bársony & Milán pollution. This issue may be solved by using pig sludge for algal biofuel production. Therefore, we stud

Boyer, Edmond

342

Genetically Modified Pigs for Medicine and Agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to genetically modify pigs has enabled scientists to create pigs that are beneficial to humans in ways that were previously unimaginable. Improvements in the methods to make genetic modifications have opened up the possibilities of introducing transgenes, knock-outs and knock-ins with precision. The benefits to medicine include the production of pharmaceuticals, the provision of organs for xenotransplantation into

RANDALL S. PRATHER; MIAODA SHEN; YIFAN DAI

2008-01-01

343

Histotripsy for Pediatric Cardiac Applications: In Vivo Neonatal Pig Model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the in vivo feasibility of using histotripsy to non-invasively create a flow channel between the ventricles by generating a perforation of the ventricular septum, clinically referred to as a ventricular septum defect (VSD). The overall goal is to develop a non-invasive procedure to aid in the treatment of neonatal patients with complex congenital heart diseases such as Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS). Histotripsy is a therapeutic ultrasound technique that produces mechanical fractionation of soft tissue through controlled cavitation. The study was conducted in a live and intact neonatal pig model. The ventricular septum in the neonatal pig heart was treated with histotripsy delivered by a spherically focused 1 MHz transducer positioned outside the chest wall. Histotripsy treatment was applied using 5-cycle ultrasound pulses at 1 kHz pulse repetition frequency with 12-18 MPa peak negative pressure. The treatment was guided and monitored with ultrasound imaging. In all nine subjects treated, a bubble cloud was generated on the ventricular septum using histotripsy, and visualized with ultrasound imaging. Within 20 seconds to 4 minutes following the initiation of a bubble cloud, a VSD was created in all nine pigs and confirmed by the detection of blood flow through the ventricular septum with color Doppler ultrasound. Gross morphology and histology on all hearts showed a demarcated perforation in the ventricular septum. This study shows that a VSD can be created in an intact neonatal animal using extracorporeal histotripsy under real-time ultrasound guidance.

Miller, Ryan M.; Owens, Gabe; Ensing, Gregory; Ludomirsky, Achiau; Cain, Charles; Xu, Zhen

2010-03-01

344

Development of rapid methods for estimating the fertilizing ability (nitrogen and potassium) of pig slurry and its changes during storage  

E-print Network

and immediately appliable in practice. Selective electrodes (gas sensing electrodes for NH3 and ion selective electrodes for K+) could be used in .situ, but their utilisation was more difficult. The main elements

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

345

Development of rapid methods for estimating the fertilizing ability (nitrogen and potassium) of pig slurry and its changes during storage  

E-print Network

studied. The volume of biogas produced, the biogas required for the maintenance of fermentation (self. The digester output expressed as ml biogas/M3 tank/day ranged from 0.4 to 1.3 m"11' m3. d over a period of 9 can be checked #12;by the ratio of biogas production to organic matter input : 0.20 to 0.3 M3/kg

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

346

Soil slurry reactors for the assessment of contaminant biodegradation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Slurry reactors are frequently used in the assessment of feasibility of biodegradation in natural soil systems. The rate of contaminant removal is usually quantified by zero- or first-order kinetics decay constants. The significance of such constants for the evaluation of removal rate in the field could be questioned because the slurry reactor is a water-saturated, well-stirred system without resemblance with an unsaturated fixed bed of soil. Nevertheless, a kinetic study with soil slurry reactors can still be useful by means of only slightly more sophisticated kinetic models than zero-/first-order decay. The use of kinetic models taking into account the role of degrading biomass, even in the absence of reliable experimental methods for its quantification, provides further insight into the effect of nutrient additions. A real acceleration of biodegradation processes is obtained only when the degrading biomass is in the growth condition. The apparent change in contaminant removal course can be useful to diagnose biomass growth without direct biomass measurement. Even though molecular biology techniques are effective to assess the presence of potentially degrading microorganism in a "viable-but-nonculturable" state, the attainment of conditions for growth is still important to the development of enhanced remediation techniques. The methodology is illustrated with reference to data gathered for two test sites, Oslo airport Gardermoen in Norway (continuous contamination by aircraft deicing fluids) and the Trecate site in Italy (aged contamination by crude oil spill). This research is part of SoilCAM project (Soil Contamination, Advanced integrated characterisation and time-lapse Monitoring 2008-2012, EU-FP7).

Toscano, G.; Colarieti, M. L.; Greco, G.

2012-04-01

347

Reactions and surface interactions of saccharides in cement slurries.  

PubMed

Glucose, maltodextrin, and sucrose exhibit significant differences in their alkaline reaction properties and interactions in aluminate/silicate cement slurries that result in diverse hydration behaviors of cements. Using 1D solution- and solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), the structures of these closely related saccharides are identified in aqueous cement slurry solutions and as adsorbed on inorganic oxide cement surfaces during the early stages of hydration. Solid-state 1D (29)Si and 2D (27)Al{(1)H} and (13)C{(1)H} NMR techniques, including the use of very high magnetic fields (18.8 T), allow the characterization of the hydrating silicate and aluminate surfaces, where interactions with adsorbed organic species influence hydration. These measurements establish the molecular features of the different saccharides that account for their different adsorption behaviors in hydrating cements. Specifically, sucrose is stable in alkaline cement slurries and exhibits selective adsorption at hydrating silicate surfaces but not at aluminate surfaces in cements. In contrast, glucose degrades into linear saccharinic or other carboxylic acids that adsorb relatively weakly and nonselectively on nonhydrated and hydrated cement particle surfaces. Maltodextrin exhibits intermediate reaction and sorption properties because of its oligomeric glucosidic structure that yields linear carboxylic acids and stable ring-containing degradation products that are similar to those of the glucose degradation products and sucrose, respectively. Such different reaction and adsorption behaviors provide insight into the factors responsible for the large differences in the rates at which aluminate and silicate cement species hydrate in the presence of otherwise closely related saccharides. PMID:22834946

Smith, Benjamin J; Roberts, Lawrence R; Funkhouser, Gary P; Gupta, Vijay; Chmelka, Bradley F

2012-10-01

348

Stress susceptibility in pigs supplemented with ractopamine.  

PubMed

Ractopamine is a ?-adrenergic agonist used as an energy repartitioning agent in the diets of finishing pigs. Most ractopamine studies are limited to evaluations of growth performance and meat quality, and there is little information on the effects of this additive on the behavior and welfare of pigs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate various indicators of stress caused by feeding diets containing ractopamine. One hundred seventy barrows and 170 gilts weighing 107.3 kg were allocated to 30 pens with 10 to 12 barrows or gilts per pen. Pigs were offered 1 of the 3 dietary treatments (0, 5, or 10 mg ractopamine/kg) for 28 d with 5 barrow pens and 5 gilt pens per treatment. Pigs were evaluated for behavior 3 d per week 1 wk before the initiation of the experiment and throughout the experiment. Each pig was classified into 1 of the 13 activities (drinking water, lying alone, lying in clusters, standing, nosing pig, sitting, feeding, biting pig, walking, exploring, running away, playing, and mounting pen mates) and also grouped into 1 of the 3 categories (calm, moving, and feeding themselves) based on those activities. At the end of the experiment, 3 pigs from each pen were slaughtered, and blood samples were collected during exsanguination to determine physiological indicators of stress (cortisol, lactate, and creatine-kinase enzymes). The incidence of skin and carcass lesions was determined at shoulder, loin, and ham. Ractopamine had no effect (P > 0.05) on pig behavior, total number of skin and carcass lesions, or blood concentrations of cortisol or lactate. However, there was an increase (P < 0.05) of creatine kinase concentrations in pigs receiving ractopamine-supplemented feed. This finding is consistent with the concept that ractopamine may cause muscular disorders, and this warrants further investigation. PMID:23825348

Athayde, N B; Dalla Costa, O A; Roça, R O; Guidoni, A L; Ludtke, C B; Oba, E; Takahira, R K; Lima, G J M M

2013-09-01

349

Prevalence and risk factors associated with adventitious bursitis in live growing and finishing pigs in south-west England.  

PubMed

The prevalence and risk factors associated with adventitious bursitis in 912 growing and finishing pigs, originating from 20 different housing systems in south-west England, were investigated in this study. The overall prevalence of bursal lesions was 63.4%. Bursae were seen at different aspects of the hock: lateroplantar, plantar, medial and point of the hock. The most frequently affected site was lateroplantar (54.4%) followed by plantar (12.5%), medial (2.0%) and finally the point of the hock (0.7%). There was no difference in the proportions of left and right hocks affected. Bursal lesions were seen in pigs from 8 to 28 weeks of age and prevalence increased with age. Also, the longer the period pigs spent in the pen, the more likely they were to have bursitis. After accounting for the effect of herd of origin, bedding which covered the whole pen (OR 0.11) or only the lying area (OR 0.29) was the most important factor which reduced the risk of bursitis. A wet slurry film in the dunging area (OR 1.67) and a difference between the solid area and the concrete slats greater than 3 cm (OR 3.11) were significantly associated with an increased risk of bursal lesions. PMID:10081787

Mouttotou, N; Hatchell, F M; Green, L E

1999-03-12

350

Thermal steam explosion pretreatment to enhance anaerobic biodegradability of the solid fraction of pig manure.  

PubMed

The assessment of the biodegradability of thermal steam-exploded pig manure was performed compared to untreated samples. The pre-treatment was performed under different combinations of temperature and time, ranging 150-180 °C and 5-60 min, and used as substrate in a series of batch biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. Results were analyzed in terms of methane yield, kinetic parameters and severity factor. In all the pre-treatment conditions, methane yield and degradation rates increased when compared to untreated pig slurry. An ANOVA study determined that temperature was the main factor, and the optimum combination of temperature-time of pretreatment was 170 °C -30 min, doubling methane production from 159 to 329 mL CH4/gVSfed. These operation conditions correspond to a severity factor of 3.54, which was considered an upper limit for the pretreatment due to the possible formation of inhibitory compounds, hindering the process if this limit is exceeded. PMID:24321605

Ferreira, L C; Souza, T S O; Fdz-Polanco, F; Pérez-Elvira, S I

2014-01-01

351

Slurry-based fabrication of chopped fiberglass composite preforms  

SciTech Connect

A water-based process for the fabrication of chopped fiberglass preforms is being developed in collaboration with the Automotive Composite Consortium (ACC) and The Budd Company. This slurry process uses hydraulic pressure to form highly compacted fiberglass preforms on contoured, perforated metal screens. The preforms will be used in the development of structural automotive composites. A key objective is to produce preforms having uniform areal density. Computational simulation of variable open area screens, and areal density mapping using a gamma densitometer are discussed.

Moore, G.A.; Johnson, R.W.; Landon, M.D.; Stoots, C.M.; Anderson, J.L.

1995-12-01

352

Slurry-based fabrication of chopped fiberglass composite preforms  

SciTech Connect

A water-based process for the fabrication of chopped fiberglass preforms is being developed by researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in collaboration with the Automotive Composite Consortium (ACC) and The Budd Company. This slurry process uses hydraulic pressure to form highly compacted fiberglass preforms on contoured, perforated metal screens. The preforms will be used in the development of structural automotive composites. A key objective is to produce preforms having uniform areal density. Computational simulation and optimization tools used to model fiber build up on a perforated pattern, design and fabrication of variable open area screens, and areal density mapping using a gamma densitometer are discussed.

Moore, G.A.; Johnson, R.W.; Landon, M.D.; Stoots, C.M.; Anderson, J.L. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

1996-12-31

353

A study of ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated coal water slurry droplet using digital image processing technique  

E-print Network

A digital image processing technique is used to investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of an isolated coal water slurry droplet in low Re flow. Coal water slurry droplet study is useful for dilute coal suspensions based...

Bhadra, Tanmoy

2012-06-07

354

Ceramic slurry concentration measurement based on the theory of particle backscattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the present, the concentration of ceramic slurry is measured using the traditional physical method. The measuring accuracy of this method is not high and the efficiency is low. In order to measure the concentration of ceramic slurry quickly and easily, a new type of detection equipment need to be developed. Based on Mie scattering theory, the integral formula of

Lixiu Ma; Cuixia Sheng; Tianze Li

2010-01-01

355

Fluidized bed heat exchangers to prevent fouling in ice slurry systems and industrial crystallizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ozon layer depletion and global warming by synthetic refrigerants forces refrigeration industries to switch over to natural but hazardous refrigerants like ammonia and hydrocarbons. A promising technology to safely use the latter refrigerants is the application of indirect refrigeration systems with ice slurry as heat transfer fluid. Ice slurry, a suspension of aqueous solution and small ice crystals, has a

P. Pronk

2006-01-01

356

Method of preparing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry  

DOEpatents

A method for producing a high solids content, low viscosity ceramic slurry composition comprises turbomilling a dispersion of a ceramic powder in a liquid to form a slurry having a viscosity less than 100 centipoise and a solids content equal to or greater than 48 volume percent.

Tiegs, T.N.; Wittmer, D.E.

1995-10-10

357

RESTORATION DESIGN OF COLDWATER FORK FOLLOWING THE OCTOBER 11, 2000 SLURRY SPILL1  

Microsoft Academic Search

On Wednesday morning, October 11, 2000, a breach in the 72-acre Big Branch slurry impoundment caused the release of approximately 250 million gallons of coal slurry, a substance consisting of coal fines, other particles and water, into the Coldwater Fork and Wolf Creek Watersheds, through two mine portals ultimately affecting more than 100 miles of stream. Arguably, the most severly

Michael F. Adams; J. George Athanasakes

358

Effect of Adding Alum or Zeolite to Dairy Slurry on Ammonia Volatilization and Chemical Composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of cost-effective amendments for treat- ing dairy slurry has become a critical problem as the number of cows on farms continues to grow and the acreage available for manure spreading continues to shrink. To determine effectiveness and optimal rates of addition of either alum or zeolite to dairy slurry, we measured ammonia emissions and resulting chemical changes in the

A. M. Lefcourt; J. J. Meisinger

2001-01-01

359

Intense Mechanoluminescence and Gas Phase Reactions from the Sonication of an Organic Slurry  

E-print Network

reported ML from sonication of slurries of piezoelectric organic crystals in long chain alkanes,5 and the NIntense Mechanoluminescence and Gas Phase Reactions from the Sonication of an Organic Slurry Nathan of mechanical stress to a crystal.1 This light is the result of a dielectric breakdown of the intervening gas

Suslick, Kenneth S.

360

Slurry Chemical Corrosion and Galvanic Corrosion during Copper Chemical Mechanical Polishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Copper (Cu) corrosion during chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) was controlled in order to improve the Cu damascene interconnect process. Slurry chemical corrosion was found to be enhanced when the slurry was diluted by deionized (DI) water during rinsing just after CMP@. Since the corrosion inhibitor, benzotriazole (BTA), reduces the Cu removal rate, adding it to the rinse solution prevents chemical

Seiichi Kondo; Noriyuki Sakuma; Yoshio Homma; Naofumi Ohashi

2000-01-01

361

Influence of the processing parameters of slurries for the deposit of nickelate thick films  

SciTech Connect

Thick films cathodes for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) are prepared by dip-coating slurries made of several lanthanum nickelate oxide powders onto yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. The processing parameters for the slurries preparation and the multilayers coating have been optimized to obtain homogeneous, crack-free, thick and adherent films after heat treatment.

Castillo, S. [CIRIMAT Laboratory, UMR CNRS 5085, Paul Sabatier University, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)], E-mail: castillo@chimie.ups-tlse.fr; Cienfuegos, R.F. [CIRIMAT Laboratory, UMR CNRS 5085, Paul Sabatier University, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Fontaine, M.L. [SINTEF, Pb. 124 Blindern, NO-0314 Oslo (Norway); Lenormand, P. [CIRIMAT Laboratory, UMR CNRS 5085, Paul Sabatier University, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Bacchin, P. [LGC UMR CNRS 5503, Paul Sabatier University, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Ansart, F. [CIRIMAT Laboratory, UMR CNRS 5085, Paul Sabatier University, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

2007-12-04

362

Comparison of slurry versus fixed-bed reactor costs for indirect liquefaction applications  

SciTech Connect

This work is a comparative evaluation of slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors, with special emphasis on cost. Relative differences between slurry reactors and fixed-bed reactors have been pointed out in previous reviews; the differences pertinent to indirect liquefaction are summarized here. Design of both types is outlined.

Prakash, A.; Bendale, P.G.

1991-12-01

363

Effect of novel alkaline copper slurry on 300 mm copper global planarization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The copper removal rate and uniformity of two types copper slurries were investigated, which was performed on the 300 mm chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) platform. The experiment results illustrate that the removal rate of the two slurries is nearly the same. Slurry A is mainly composed of a FA/OII type chelating agent and the uniformity reaches to 88.32%. While the uniformity of slurry B is 96.68%, which is mainly composed of a FA/OV type chelating agent. This phenomenon demonstrates that under the same process conditions, the uniformity of different slurries is vastly different. The CMP performance was evaluated in terms of the dishing and erosion values. In this paper, the relationship between the uniformity and the planarization was deeply analyzed, which is mainly based on the endpoint detection mechanism. The experiment results reveal that the slurry with good uniformity has low dishing and erosion. The slurry with bad uniformity, by contract, increases Cu dishing significantly and causes copper loss in the recessed region. Therefore, the following conclusions are drawn: slurry B can improve the wafer leveling efficiently and minimize the resistance and current density along the line, which is helpful to improve the device yield and product reliability. This investigation provides a guide to improve the uniformity and achieve the global and local planarization. It is very significant to meet the requirements for 22 nm technology nodes and control the dishing and erosion efficiently.

Weijuan, Liu; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Guodong, Chen; Mengting, Jiang; Haobo, Yuan; Pengfei, Cheng

2014-09-01

364

Upland and wetland vegetation establishment on coal slurry in northern Missouri  

SciTech Connect

Since the Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory`s (CWRL) Mined Land Reclamation Program`s first establishment of a wetland on slurry in 1976, industry, state, and federal agency interest in reclamation alternatives for inactive slurry has increased. CWRL has been involved in pre-reclamation site characterization and monitoring for inactive slurry impoundments throughout Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Missouri, and Washington. Geochemical site characterization of three slurry impoundments at the AECI Bee Veer Mine located near Macon, Missouri began in April 1990. A substrate sampling grid was established for all slurry impoundments with a centerline orientated parallel to the discharge to decant flow pattern. Surface (0--6 in.) and subsurface (30--36 in.) slurry samples were collected annually and analyzed for acid-base balance, immediate acidity macro- and micro-nutrients, potential phytotoxic metallic ions and salts, and texture. Water table elevations and water quality were monitored quarterly from shallow ({le}12 ft.) piezometers. General reclamation plans included annual (3 years) incremental limestone amendments (35--50 tons/acre) and direct vegetation establishment. Cool and warm season grasses dominate vegetation cover in upland habitats (slurry cell RDA1) while wetland habitats (palustrine emergent seasonally-permanently inundated) have been established in slurry cells (RDA2 and RDA3). Isolated hot spots continue to be amended with limestone and supplemental vegetation establishment is scheduled.

Skeel, V.A.; Nawrot, J.R. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab.

1998-12-31

365

Heat transfer and pressure drop of ice slurries in plate heat exchangers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ice slurries can be used both for cold storage in place of chilled water or ice and as a secondary refrigerant since, up to certain concentrations, they can be pumped directly through distribution pipeworks and heat exchangers. For ice slurries to become more widely accepted, however, more engineering information is required on fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics.This paper reports

J. Bellas; I. Chaer; S. A. Tassou

2002-01-01

366

Effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of total solids concentrations of poultry, cattle and piggery waste slurries on biogas yield was investigated. Twelve laboratory-size anaerobic batch digesters with 25 L volume were constructed and used for the experiments. Three replicates of 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% TS concentrations of poultry, cattle, and piggery waste slurries were anaerobically digested for a 30-day detention period and

I. N. Itodo; J. O. Awulu

1999-01-01

367

Evaluating animal welfare with choice experiments: an application to Swedish pig production  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the demand for animal welfare attributes when buying pork fillet is investigated among Swedish respondents. The issue is of importance in order to ensure an economically viable pig industry while applying an increasing number of animal friendly practices. In order to obtain information about consumer demand, an indirect utility function and willingness to pay (WTP) for animal

Carolina Liljenstolpe

2008-01-01

368

A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect

Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

1990-05-01

369

Shooting slurries with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: sampling is the name of the game.  

PubMed

Analyses of iron ore slurries in industrial and laboratory environments showed that many physical and geometric parameters affect the stability and reproducibility of the response to laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. A thorough reexamination of the sampling strategy led to a revised sampling layout that ensures a true representative sampling of the slurry and significantly improves the sensitivity and repeatability of the sampling method. An examination of the characteristics of slurries revealed that the mean particulate size and the concentration of solids in a slurry influence the measurement of silica, whereas the magnetite content is responsible for a matrix effect. On-line monitoring of iron ore slurries should be practicable, provided that these variables are controlled within a few percent or that some means of correction is implemented. PMID:14594082

Michaud, Daniel; Proulx, Eric; Chartrand, Jean-Guy; Barrette, Louis

2003-10-20

370

Flocculation and filtration dewatering of coal slurries aided by a hydrophobic polymeric flocculant  

SciTech Connect

This study investigated the adsorption behavior of a totally hydrophobic polymer, FR-7A, and its role in the flocculation and filtration of fine coal slurries. Adsorption of FR-7A on coal, pyrite, and shale minerals revealed that: (a) FR-7A had a higher adsorption affinity to coal and pyrite than that on shale; (b) an acidic slurry condition favored unselective adsorption of FR-7A on coal minerals, leading to improved total flocculation and filtration of fine coal slurries, while alkaline pH and the presence of SMP favored selective adsorption and flocculation of coal from associated minerals in the slurry; and (c) FR-7A aided the flocculation of coal slurries and improved the moisture removal by filtration from 42.4 to 37%.

Attia, Y.A.; Yu, S. (Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1991-01-01

371

PCR-DGGE analysis of the bacterial composition of a kaolin slurry showing altered rheology.  

PubMed

Kaolin is an important industrial raw material and a basis of a range of different products. Microbial spoilage is a detrimental process observed especially in kaolin slurries, leading to low quality products and economic loss. Although the alteration of kaolin slurries in ceramic industry was observed, the process and the microbial background have not been analyzed in details. This study provides the first data using a cultivation independent molecular biological approach (PCR-DGGE) regarding the bacterial composition of an altered kaolin slurry. The results show that potential exopolymer (EPS) producer bacteria (e.g. Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas) appear in the altered kaolin slurry, which may have an important role in the modification of kaolin slurries. PMID:22805970

Papp, Ildikó; Balázs, Margit; Tombácz, Etelka; Babcsán, Norbert; Kesser?, Péter; Kiss, István; Szvetnik, Attila

2012-04-01

372

Continuous odour measurement from fattening pig units  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study in experimental slatted-system fattening pig units was conducted with the aim of estimating the odour emission factor (in ou s.pig-1), which can subsequently be used in dispersion models to assess the odour annoyance zone. Dynamic olfactometry measurements carried out at different development stages of pigs showed a logical trend of the mean assessed odour emission factor with the pig mass. However, the variation within the same mass class was much larger than variation between classes. Possible causes of such variation were identified as the evolution of ventilation rate during the day and the circadian rhythm of pig. To be able to monitor continuously the daily variation of the odour, an electronic nose was used with suitable regression model calibrated against olfactometric measurements. After appropriate validation check, the electronic nose proved to be convenient, as a complementary tool to dynamic olfactometry, to record the daily variation of the odour emission factor in the pig barn. It was demonstrated that, in the controlled conditions of the experimental pens, the daily variation of the odour emission rate could be mainly attributed to the sole influence of the circadian rhythm of pig. As a consequence, determining a representative odour emission factor in a real case cannot be based on a snapshot odour sampling.

Romain, Anne-Claude; Nicolas, Jacques; Cobut, Pierre; Delva, Julien; Nicks, Baudouin; Philippe, François-Xavier

2013-10-01

373

CST Suspension Analysis for Slurry Pumps of Tank 40  

SciTech Connect

Tank 40 simulation models with four submersible slurry pumps available for the CST suspension operations have been developed to provide operational guidance of slurry pumps for an efficient sludge removal. A series of the modeling calculations have been performed for key operational parameters such as pump operation mode, number of operating pumps, and to provide a recommendation for CST suspension and mixing operations in Tank 40. Reference design and operating conditions shown in Table 1 were used to perform the modeling analysis of the tank CST mixing. In the analysis, the pump was assumed to be stationary or rotating. Solid obstructions including the pump housing, the 14 inches riser, and 6.75-ft tank support column were included in the simulation models. Free surface motion of the tank liquid was neglected for high tank liquid level using the literature information. Steady-state and transient analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed with FLUENTTM. All analyses we re based on three-dimensional results. A suspension capability was evaluated assuming that local fluid velocity can be used as a measure of CST suspension and mixing. For a minimum suspension velocity of 1.1 ft/sec for the largest CST size of 700 microns, the results indicated that at least two existing slurry mixers running at 3800 gpm flowrate per nozzle could keep CST solids suspended from the tank with a 200 in liquid level. In this case, the exception is for the fluid region with less than 20 wt contents of CST material. This is based on the conservative assumption that the largest CST size of 700 micron diameter remains unchanged neglecting a friable effect during the entire period of pump operations. The length of time that the CST material is exposed to the liquid stream lower than minimum suspension velocity is also important in affecting the ability of the liquid stream to suspend CST particle, and this effect is quantified in the present analysis by using the literature result s. The model results show that at least two pumps on opposite sides could keep suspending the CST material based on the slurry with 35 wt contents, but that at lower concentrations, particles larger than about 400 microns would tend to settle quickly and probably not remain in suspension long enough for the opposite jet to come around and stir that region of the tank. The main conclusions are as follows: The steady-state flow patterns on the horizontal discharge plane follow a series of parabolic curves similar to that of a free jet available in the literature. For the simulations, a series of the modeling calculations was performed with indexed stationary and rotating pump operations. The calculated results demonstrated that the existing slurry pumps running at 7600 gpm could suspend the CST particles from the tank with a 200 in liquid level, based on a minimum sludge suspension velocity of about 1.1 ft/sec for 700 micron CST particle. The suspension distance for the transient model with pump rotations is smaller than that of the steady-state model with indexed pump orientations for given operating conditions. However, total suspension extents for the two modeling cases have about the same area.

LEE, SIY.

2004-04-01

374

Successive and conditional discrimination learning in pigs.  

PubMed

We studied the ability of pigs to discriminate tone cues using successive and conditional discrimination tasks. Pigs (n = 8) were trained in a successive discrimination Go/No-Go task (Experiment 1) to associate a Go-cue with a reward at the end of a runway and a No-Go-cue with the absence of reward. Latency to reach the goal-box was recorded for each cue-type. Learning of a conditional discrimination task was compared between low-birthweight (LBW, n = 5) and normal-birthweight (NBW, n = 6) pigs (Experiment 2) and between conventional farm (n = 7) and Göttingen miniature (n = 8) pigs (Experiment 3). In this active-choice task, one cue signalled a response in a right goal-box was correct and a second cue signalled a response in a left goal-box was correct. Cues were differentially rewarded. The number of sessions to learn the discrimination and number of correct choices per cue-type were recorded. In Experiment 1, four out of eight pigs showed learning on the task, that is, a higher latency to respond to the No-Go-cue, within 25 sessions. In Experiment 2, eight out of 11 pigs learned the discrimination within 46 sessions. LBW learners learned faster than NBW learners. In Experiment 3, all 15 pigs learned the task within 16 sessions. Göttingen miniature pigs learned faster than conventional farm pigs. While some methodological issues may improve the Go/No-Go design, it is suggested that an active-choice task yields clearer and more consistent results than one relying on latency alone. PMID:23525688

Murphy, Eimear; Kraak, Lynn; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

2013-11-01

375

Efficacy of Active Carbon towards the Absorption of Deoxynivalenol in Pigs.  

PubMed

In order to assess the in vivo efficacy of mycotoxin binders, specific toxicokinetic parameters should be measured according to European guidelines. For this purpose, an absorption model in pigs is described with emphasis on absorption kinetics. Pigs received a single oral bolus of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol alone or in combination with active carbon (applied as mycotoxin binder). After administration of deoxynivalenol alone, significant plasma amounts of deoxynivalenol were detected and kinetic parameters were calculated using a one compartmental model. Activated carbon completely prevented the absorption of deoxynivalenol as no plasma amounts could be detected. PMID:25337799

Devreese, Mathias; Antonissen, Gunther; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

2014-01-01

376

Efficacy of Active Carbon towards the Absorption of Deoxynivalenol in Pigs  

PubMed Central

In order to assess the in vivo efficacy of mycotoxin binders, specific toxicokinetic parameters should be measured according to European guidelines. For this purpose, an absorption model in pigs is described with emphasis on absorption kinetics. Pigs received a single oral bolus of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol alone or in combination with active carbon (applied as mycotoxin binder). After administration of deoxynivalenol alone, significant plasma amounts of deoxynivalenol were detected and kinetic parameters were calculated using a one compartmental model. Activated carbon completely prevented the absorption of deoxynivalenol as no plasma amounts could be detected. PMID:25337799

Devreese, Mathias; Antonissen, Gunther; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

2014-01-01

377

Rheology of corn stover slurries at high solids concentrations--effects of saccharification and particle size.  

PubMed

The rheological characteristics of untreated and dilute acid pretreated corn stover (CS) slurries at high solids concentrations were studied under continuous shear using plate-plate type measurements. Slurry rheological behavior was examined as a function of insoluble solids concentration (10-40%), extent of pretreatment (0-75% removal of xylan) and particle size (-20 and -80 mesh). Results show that CS slurries exhibit shear-thinning behavior describable using a Casson model. Further, results demonstrate that the apparent viscosity and yield stress increase with increasing solids concentration (which corresponds to a decrease in free water). Dilute acid pretreatment leads to lower viscosity and yield stresses at equivalent solids concentrations, as does smaller particle size. Taken together, these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the availability of free water in the slurry plays a significant role in determining its rheological behavior. In particular, as the free water content of the slurry decreases, e.g., with increasing solids concentration, the greater interaction among particles likely increases the apparent viscosity and yield stress properties of the slurry. The results also suggest that the availability of free water, and thereby slurry rheological properties, depend on the chemical composition of the corn stover as well as its physical characteristics such as particle size and porosity. Hydrophilic polymers within the cell wall, such as xylan or pectin, or larger pores within bigger particles, facilitate sequestration of water in the solid phase resulting in decreased availability of free water. Thus, dilute acid pretreated slurries, which contain smaller size particles having significantly lower xylan content than slurries of untreated milled stover, exhibit much lower viscosities and yield stresses than untreated slurries containing large particles at similar solid concentrations. PMID:18760597

Viamajala, Sridhar; McMillan, James D; Schell, Daniel J; Elander, Richard T

2009-01-01

378

Rheological Behavior Xanthan and SlurryPro Polymer Solutions Evaluated as Shear Thinning Delivery Fluids for Subsurface Remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shear thinning fluids can be applied as a delivery means to enhance the uniformity of remedial amendment distribution in heterogeneous aquifers, thereby to improve remediation performance. The rheological behavior of biopolymer xanthan gum and synthetic polymer SlurryPro were tested, and their influence on the amendment delivery performance was evaluated. The impact of polymer concentration, basic water chemistry, salinity (e.g., Br-, Na+, Ca2+ concentrations), remedial amendments (phosphate, sodium lactate, ethyl lactate, lactate oil, whey), sediments, and the mixing approach on the rheological properties of the polymer solutions was determined. The SlurryPro polymer lost shear-thinning properties even at relatively low solution ionic strength. However, the xanthan gum polymer maintained shear-thinning properties under most of the tested conditions, though with some loss in absolute viscosity with increasing ionic strength. Xanthan appeared to be the better candidate for enhanced amendment delivery. Increasing in xanthan concentration not only increased the solution viscosity, but also increased degree of shear thinning. Addition of salt decreased the solution viscosity and the degree of shear thinning, while the influence was diminished when the polymer concentration was higher. After reaching a critical xanthan concentration, addition of salt increased solution viscosity. The degradation of xanthan and SlurryPro in the presence of site aquifer materials and microbes was studied in batch tests in which the field sediment/water ratio was simulated. The viscosity of the polymer solutions dropped 85% or more in the first week, while the solution chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreasing occurred at a much slower rate.

Zhong, L.; Oostrom, M.; Truex, M.; Vermeul, V.

2011-12-01

379

Comparative study of pig-rodent somatic cell hybrids.  

PubMed

The pig chromosome complement of six different types of pig-rodent hybrid cell lines was examined by means of fluorescence in situ hybridization with a porcine SINE probe. The cell lines were obtained by fusing pig lymphocytes with cells of the Chinese hamster cell lines wg3h, BK14-150 and E36, and of the mouse cell lines NSO, PU and LMTK-. The hybrids were analysed with respect to: (1) the number of pig chromosomes, (2) the type of pig chromosomes, (3) the occurrence of pig-rodent chromosome translocations, and (4) the presence of pig chromosome fragments. The results show that the number of pig chromosomes varied within and among hybrid cell lines. The pig-hamster hybrids mainly retained nontelocentric pig chromosomes, whereas the pig-mouse hybrids also retained telocentric pig chromosomes. Pig-rodent chromosome translocations were found in all types of hybrids, but the incidence was in general low. Chromosome fragments were abundant in BK14-150 hybrids, and rare in most other hybrid cell lines. It is concluded that the SINE probe is a useful tool to make a preliminary characterization of the porcine chromosome complement of pig-rodent somatic cell hybrids. The results of this characterization can be used to select hybrids for further cytogenetic analysis. Furthermore, our data show that different rodent cell lines will have to be used as fusion partners for the production of hybrids when constructing a panel informative for all pig chromosomes. PMID:7818166

Zijlstra, C; Bosma, A A; de Haan, N A

1994-10-01

380

Electrovestibulogram: first results in the guinea pig.  

PubMed

This paper describes a method of investigation of the peripheral vestibular system. Electrical stimulations (ES) are applied on the round window of chronically implanted guinea pigs, with and without vestibular stimulation (either per or post rotational accelerations). The whole nerve action potential recorded at the output of the internal auditory meatus, the difference between the two conditions, reveals the change in electrical excitability and thus presumably in discharge rate of vestibular fibres determined by rotational stimuli. This electrical vestibular action potential (EVAP) presents as a mainly monophasic potential with a peak latency to ES of about 0.3 ms. Right and left accelerations versus rest are shown to give responses with opposite polarity, reflecting the inhibitory and excitatory influences of these opposite accelerations, whereas the transfer function of EVAP versus acceleration amplitude appears roughly linear. These observations appear altogether coherent with published mechano-physiological data about individual discharge rates of canal fibres. Also relative amplitudes of acoustical and vestibular responses are in agreement with related number of fibres in the two systems. This EVAP could be the basis of a quantitative evaluation method for the vestibular system, the electrovestibulogram (EVG). PMID:2756842

Charlet de Sauvage, R C; Erre, J P; Aran, J M

1989-01-01

381

Production of carbon dioxide in a fattening pig house under field conditions. I. Exhalation by pigs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exhalation of carbon dioxide (CO 2) by pigs was investigated under field conditions in a mechanically ventilated commercial fattening house. The tranquil CO 2 exhalation rate (TCER) by pigs was defined and methodology was developed to study it. The experiments were conducted by moving groups of pigs in and out of one of the compartments in the house and comparing differences of measured CO 2 production rates. The measured TCERs ranged from 41.5 to 73.9 g CO 2 h -1 per pig for pigs from 32 to 105 kg. When pigs were very active, the CO 2 exhalation rate could be about 200% of the TCER but did not last for long time. A TCER mathematical model was developed based on 4 sets of experiments. It calculated the CO 2 exhalation by a pig at tranquil time as a function of its weight. Daily mean CO 2 exhalation rate (CER) by a pig was about 110% of the TCER. The TCER/CER model related the CO 2 exhalation to some aspects of pigs' behaviours and was the first reported model developed with direct measurement of CO 2 production rates. Five models of CO 2 exhalation in available literature were reviewed and the CER model was compared with them. There was a clear disparity among these models. The average CO 2 exhalation rate calculated with the "Ouwerkerk Model" was about three times as that obtained by the "Anderson Model" for pigs from 35 to 120 kg. The CER model produced the same CO 2 exhalation rate as the "Ouwerkerk Model" for a pig of 35 kg and a close rate to the "Klooster Model" for a pig of 85 kg.

Ni, Ji-Qin; Hendriks, Jos; Coenegrachts, Jan; Vinckier, Christiaan

382

Neurulation in the pig embryo.  

PubMed

Neurulation is based on a multitude of factors and processes generated both inside and outside the neural plate. Although there are models for a general neurulation mechanism, specific sets of factors and processes have been shown to be involved in neurulation depending on developmental time and rostro-caudal location at which neurulation occurred in the species under investigation. To find a common thread amongst these apparently divergent modes of neurulation another representative mammalian species, the pig, was studied here by scanning electron microscopy. The data are compared to a series of descriptions in other species. Furthermore, the relation of axial curvature and neural tube closure rate is investigated. In the pig embryo of 7 somites, the first apposition of the neural folds occurs at somite levels 5-7. This corresponds to closure site I in the mouse embryo. At the next stage the rostral and caudal parts of the rhombencephalic folds appose, leaving an opening in between. Therefore, at this stage four neuropores can be distinguished, of which the anterior and posterior ones will remain open longest. The two rhombencephalic closure sites have no counterpart in the mouse, but do have some resemblance to those of the rabbit. The anterior neuropore closes in three phases: (1) the dorsal folds slowly align and then close instantaneously, the slow progression being likely due to a counteracting effect of the mesencephalic flexure; (2) the dorso-lateral folds close in a zipper-like fashion in caudo-rostral direction; (3) the final round aperture is likely to close by circumferential growth. At the stage of 22 somites the anterior neuropore is completely closed. In contrast to the two de novo closure sites for the anterior neuropore in the mouse embryo, none of these were detected in the pig embryo. The posterior neuropore closes initially very fast in the somitic region, but this process almost stops thereafter. We suggest that the somites force the neural folds to elevate precociously. Between the stages of 8-20 somites the width of the posterior neuropore does not change, while the rate of closure gradually increases; this increase may be due to a catch-up of intrinsic neurulation processes and to the reduction of axial curvature. At the stage of 20-22 somites the posterior neuropore suddenly reduces in size but thereafter a small neuropore remains for 5 somite stages. The closure of the posterior neuropore is completed at the stage of 28 somites. PMID:10985427

van Straaten, H W; Peeters, M C; Hekking, J W; van der Lende, T

2000-08-01

383

The phylogenetic status of typical Chinese native pigs: analyzed by Asian and European pig mitochondrial genome sequences.  

PubMed

China is one of the most diverse countries, which have developed 88 indigenous pig breeds. Several studies showed that pigs were independently domesticated in multiple regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the origin and evolution of Chinese pigs using complete mitochondrial genomic sequences (mtDNA) from Asian and European domestic pigs and wild boars. Thirty primer pairs were designed to determine the mtDNA sequences of Xiang pig, Large White, Lantang, Jinhua and Pietrain. The phylogenetic status of Chinese native pigs was investigated by comparing the mtDNA sequences of complete coding regions and D-loop regions respectively amongst Asian breeds, European breeds and wild boars. The analyzed results by two cluster methods contributed to the same conclusion that all pigs were classified into two major groups, European clade and Asian clade. It revealed that Chinese pigs were only recently diverged from each other and distinctly different from European pigs. Berkshire was clustered with Asian pigs and Chinese pigs were involved in the development of Berkshire breeding. The Malaysian wild boar had distant genetic relationship with European and Asian pigs. Jinhua and Lanyu pigs had more nucleotide diversity with Chinese pigs although they all belonged to the Asian major clade. Chinese domestic pigs were clustered with wild boars in Yangtze River region and South China. PMID:23497624

Yu, Guanghui; Xiang, Hai; Wang, Jikun; Zhao, Xingbo

2013-01-01

384

The phylogenetic status of typical Chinese native pigs: analyzed by Asian and European pig mitochondrial genome sequences  

PubMed Central

China is one of the most diverse countries, which have developed 88 indigenous pig breeds. Several studies showed that pigs were independently domesticated in multiple regions of the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate the origin and evolution of Chinese pigs using complete mitochondrial genomic sequences (mtDNA) from Asian and European domestic pigs and wild boars. Thirty primer pairs were designed to determine the mtDNA sequences of Xiang pig, Large White, Lantang, Jinhua and Pietrain. The phylogenetic status of Chinese native pigs was investigated by comparing the mtDNA sequences of complete coding regions and D-loop regions respectively amongst Asian breeds, European breeds and wild boars. The analyzed results by two cluster methods contributed to the same conclusion that all pigs were classified into two major groups, European clade and Asian clade. It revealed that Chinese pigs were only recently diverged from each other and distinctly different from European pigs. Berkshire was clustered with Asian pigs and Chinese pigs were involved in the development of Berkshire breeding. The Malaysian wild boar had distant genetic relationship with European and Asian pigs. Jinhua and Lanyu pigs had more nucleotide diversity with Chinese pigs although they all belonged to the Asian major clade. Chinese domestic pigs were clustered with wild boars in Yangtze River region and South China. PMID:23497624

2013-01-01

385

RNAi-based inhibition of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication in transgenic pigs.  

PubMed

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically devastating viral disease causing heavy losses to the swine industry worldwide. Many studies have shown that transient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) or adenovirus-mediated RNA interfere (RNAi) could potentially inhibit porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication in vivo and in vitro. Here, we applied RNAi to produce transgenic (TG) pigs that constitutively expressed PRRSV-specific siRNA derived from small hairpin RNA (shRNA). First, we evaluated siRNA expression in the founding and F1 generation pigs and confirmed stable transmission. Then, we detected the expression of IFN-? and protein kinase R (PKR) and found no difference among TG, non-transgenic (NTG), and wild-type pigs. Lastly, the F1 generation pigs, including TG and NTG piglets, were challenged with 3×10?·? TCID?? of JXA1, a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV). Our results showed that the in vivo siRNA expression substantially reduced the serum HP-PRRSV titers and increased survival time by 3 days when TG pigs were compared with the NTG controls. These data suggested that RNAi-based genetic modification might be used to breed viral-resistant livestock with stable siRNA expression with no complications of siRNA toxicity. PMID:24333125

Li, Li; Li, Qiuyan; Bao, Yonghua; Li, Jinxiu; Chen, Zhisheng; Yu, Xiuling; Zhao, Yaofeng; Tian, Kegong; Li, Ning

2014-02-10

386

Proline metabolism in enterocytes of neonatal pigs  

E-print Network

Sow's milk is remarkably deficient in arginine (an raphics. essential amino acid for neonates) but is rich in proline and glutamine plus glutamate. In neonatal pigs, enterocytes play an important role in synthesizing citrulline and arginine from...

Dillon, Edgar Lichar

2012-06-07

387

Pig transgenesis by Sleeping Beauty DNA transposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modelling of human disease in genetically engineered pigs provides unique possibilities in biomedical research and in studies\\u000a of disease intervention. Establishment of methodologies that allow efficient gene insertion by non-viral gene carriers is\\u000a an important step towards development of new disease models. In this report, we present transgenic pigs created by Sleeping\\u000a Beauty DNA transposition in primary porcine fibroblasts in

Jannik E. Jakobsen; Juan Li; Peter M. Kragh; Brian Moldt; Lin Lin; Ying Liu; Mette Schmidt; Kjeld Dahl Winther; Brian Dall Schyth; Ida E. Holm; Gábor Vajta; Lars Bolund; Henrik Callesen; Arne Lund Jørgensen; Anders Lade Nielsen; Jacob Giehm Mikkelsen

2011-01-01

388

Mechanism of demyelination in the guinea pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), accompanied by demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) lesions, can be induced\\u000a in guinea pigs sensitized with whole guinea pig CNS tissue, but not in animals sensitized with purified myelin basic protein\\u000a (BP). This type of chronic demyelinating EAE is presumably a result of a combination of a cell-mediated immune response to\\u000a the encephalitogenic BP and a

Bernard F. Driscoll; Junichi Kira; Marian W. Kies; Ellsworth C. Alvord

1986-01-01

389

Assessing pig body language: agreement and consistency between pig farmers, veterinarians, and animal activists.  

PubMed

This study investigates the interobserver and intraobserver reliability of qualitative behavior assessments (QBA) of individual pigs by 3 observer groups selected for their diverging backgrounds, experience, and views of pigs. Qualitative behavior assessment is a "whole animal" assessment approach that characterizes the demeanor of an animal as an expressive body language, using descriptors such as relaxed, anxious, or content. This paper addresses the concern that use of such descriptors in animal science may be prone to distortion by observer-related bias. Using a free-choice profiling methodology, 12 pig farmers, 10 large animal veterinarians, and 10 animal protectionists were instructed to describe and score the behavioral expressions of 10 individual pigs (sus scrofa) in 2 repeat sets of 10 video clips, showing these pigs in interaction with a human female. They were also asked to fill in a questionnaire gauging their experiences with and views on pigs. Pig scores were analyzed with generalized procrustes analysis and effect of treatment on these scores with ANOVA. Questionnaire scores were analyzed with a ?(2) test or ANOVA. Observers achieved consensus both within and among observer groups (P < 0.001), identifying 2 main dimensions of pig expression (dim1: playful/confident-cautious/timid; dim2: aggressive/nervous-relaxed/bored), on which pig scores for different observer groups were highly correlated (pearson r > 0.90). The 3 groups also repeated their assessments of individual pigs with high precision (r > 0.85). Animal protectionists used a wider quantitative range in scoring individual pigs on dimension 2 than the other groups (P < 0.001); however, this difference did not distort the strong overall consistency of characterizations by observers of individual pigs. Questionnaire results indicated observer groups to differ in various ways, such as daily and lifetime contact with pigs (P < 0.001), some aspects of affection and empathy for pigs (P < 0.05), and confidence in the validity of personal QBA descriptors (P < 0.02). The main finding of this study is that despite such differences in background and outlook, the 3 observer groups showed high interobserver and intraobserver reliability in their characterizations of pig body language. This supports the empirical nature of QBA in context of the wider anthropomorphism debate. PMID:22745187

Wemelsfelder, F; Hunter, A E; Paul, E S; Lawrence, A B

2012-10-01

390

A Pipeline Transport Correlation for Slurries with Small but Dense Particles  

SciTech Connect

Most correlations/models for minimum transport or critical velocity of slurry were developed for slurries composed of particles greater than ~100-200 ?m diameter with narrow particle-size distributions which is typical of the minerals industry. Many other process industries handle smaller particles. In particular waste slurries at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site have broad size distributions and significant fractions of smaller particles. Despite the size of these wastes, recent PNNL studies indicate that the small particles might be of sufficient density to pose a significant risk for pipeline deposition and plugging. To allow predictive assessment of deposition of fine dense particles for waste slurry transport at the U.S. DOE Hanford site, a pipeline-transport correlation for critical velocity was developed using a simple power-law between two dimensionless numbers important for slurry transport, the deposition Froude and Archimedes numbers. The correlation accords well with experimental data for slurries with Archimedes numbers <80 and is an adequate pipeline design guide for processing Hanford waste slurry.

Poloski, Adam P.; Etchells, Arthur W.; Chun, Jaehun; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Minette, Michael J.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

2010-04-01

391

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Bernard A. Toseland

2002-09-30

392

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

1999-01-01

393

Oxidation resistant slurry coating for carbon-based materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An oxidation resistant coating is produced on carbon-base materials, and the same processing step effects an infiltration of the substrate with silicon containing material. The process comprises making a slurry of nickel and silicon powders in a nitrocellulose lacquer, spraying onto the graphite or carbon-carbon substrate, and sintering in vacuum to form a fused coating that wets and covers the surface as well as penetrates into the pores of the substrate. Optimum wetting and infiltration occurs in the range of Ni-60 w/o Si to Ni-90 w/o Si with deposited thicknesses of 25-100 mg/sq. cm. Sintering temperatures of about 1200 C to about 1400 C are used, depending on the melting point of the specific coating composition. The sintered coating results in Ni-Si intermetallic phases and SiC, both of which are highly oxidation resistant.

Smialek, J. L.; Rybicki, G. C. (inventors)

1985-01-01

394

Enhanced photocatalysis in a pilot laminar falling film slurry reactor  

SciTech Connect

Laminar falling film slurry (LFFS) photocatalytic reactors are one of the most efficient reactor configurations for conducting heterogeneous photocatalytic reactions, particularly for wastewater treatment. This paper presents a study on the oxidation of an aqueous salicylic acid waste in a pilot continuous flow LFFS photocatalytic reactor which has an optimum design for light absorption. In conducting the oxidation reaction, heterogeneous photocatalysis was supplemented with other photon-assisted processes. The effect of light intensity, radiation wavelength, oxidizing-enhancing agents, substrate and photocatalyst concentration, and exposure time were studied. A comparison of six different photon-based processes showed that higher oxidation rates of salicylic acid were obtained when there was concomitant photocatalysis, photolysis, and UV peroxidation. The oxidation rates of salicylic acid with this combined process were at least 1 order of magnitude higher in comparison with those for UVA photocatalysis and 3-fold higher in comparison with homogeneous UVC photolysis/UVC peroxidation.

Puma, G.L.; Yue, P.L. [Hong Kong Univ. of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

1999-09-01

395

Engineering Development of Slurry Bubble Column Reactor (SBCR) Technology  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Toseland, B.A.

1998-10-29

396

ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF SLURRY BUBBLE COLUMN REACTOR (SBCR) TECHNOLOGY  

SciTech Connect

The major technical objectives of this program are threefold: (1) to develop the design tools and a fundamental understanding of the fluid dynamics of a slurry bubble column reactor to maximize reactor productivity, (2) to develop the mathematical reactor design models and gain an understanding of the hydrodynamic fundamentals under industrially relevant process conditions, and (3) to develop an understanding of the hydrodynamics and their interaction with the chemistries occurring in the bubble column reactor. Successful completion of these objectives will permit more efficient usage of the reactor column and tighter design criteria, increase overall reactor efficiency, and ensure a design that leads to stable reactor behavior when scaling up to large diameter reactors.

Bernard A. Toseland, Ph.D.

2002-01-01

397

Method of burning lightly loaded coal-water slurries  

DOEpatents

In a preferred arrangement of the method of the invention, a lightly loaded coal-water slurry, containing in the range of approximately 40% to 52% + 2% by weight coal, is atomized to strip water from coal particles in the mixture. Primary combustor air is forced around the atomized spray in a combustion chamber of a combustor to swirl the air in a helical path through the combustion chamber. A flame is established within the combustion chamber to ignite the stripped coal particles, and flame temperature regulating means are provided for maintaining the flame temperature within a desired predetermined range of temperatures that is effective to produce dry, essentially slag-free ash from the combustion process.

Krishna, C.R.

1984-07-27

398

Effect of adding alum or zeolite to dairy slurry on ammonia volatilization and chemical composition.  

PubMed

Development of cost-effective amendments for treating dairy slurry has become a critical problem as the number of cows on farms continues to grow and the acreage available for manure spreading continues to shrink. To determine effectiveness and optimal rates of addition of either alum or zeolite to dairy slurry, we measured ammonia emissions and resulting chemical changes in the slurry in response to the addition of amendments at 0.4, 1.0, 2.5, and 6.25% by weight. Ammonia volatilization over 96 h was measured with six small wind tunnels with gas scrubbing bottles at the inlets and outlets. Manure samples from the start and end of trials were analyzed for total nitrogen and phosphorus, and were extracted with 0.01 M CaCl2, 1.0 M KCl, and water with the extracts analyzed for ammonium nitrogen, phosphorous, aluminum, and pH. The addition of 6.25% zeolite or 2.5% alum to dairy slurry reduced ammonia emissions by nearly 50 and 60%, respectively. Alum treatment retained ammonia by reducing the slurry pH to 5 or less. In contrast, zeolite, being a cation exchange medium, adsorbed ammonium and reduced dissolved ammonia gas. In addition, alum essentially eliminated soluble phosphorous. Zeolite also reduced soluble phosphorous by over half, but the mechanism for this reduction is unclear. Alum must be carefully added to slurry to avoid effervescence and excess additions, which can increase soluble aluminum in the slurry. The use of alum or zeolites as on-farm amendment to dairy slurry offers the potential for reducing ammonia emissions and soluble phosphorus in dairy slurry. PMID:11518305

Lefcourt, A M; Meisinger, J J

2001-08-01

399

Biological treatment of soils contaminated with hydrophobic organics using slurry- and solid-phase techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both slurry-phase and solid-phase bioremediation are effective ex situ soil decontamination methods. Slurrying is energy intensive relative to solid-phase treatment, but provides homogenization and uniform nutrient distribution. Limited contaminant bioavailability at concentrations above the required cleanup level reduces biodegradation rates and renders solid phase bioremediation more cost effective than complete treatment in a bio-slurry reactor. Slurrying followed by solid-phase bioremediation combines the advantages and minimizes the weaknesses of each treatment method when used alone. A biological treatment system consisting of slurrying followed by aeration in solid phase bioreactors was developed and tested in the laboratory using a silty clay loam contaminated with diesel fuel. The first set of experiments was designed to determine the impact of the water content and mixing time during slurrying on the rate an extent of contaminant removal in continuously aerated solid phase bioreactors. The second set of experiments compared the volatile and total diesel fuel removal in solid phase bioreactors using periodic and continuous aeration strategies. Results showed that slurrying for 1.5 hours at a water content less than saturation markedly increased the rate and extent of contaminant biodegradation in the solid phase bioreactors compared with soil having no slurry pretreatment. Slurrying the soil at or above its saturation moisture content resulted in lengthy dewatering times which prohibited aeration, thereby delaying the onset of biological treatment in the solid phase bioreactors. Results also showed that properly operated periodic aeration can provide less volatile contaminant removal and a grater fraction of biological contaminant removal than continuous aeration.

Cassidy, Daniel H.; Irvine, Robert L.

1995-10-01

400

Interim report: Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant  

SciTech Connect

At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form a 4-wt% KTPB/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing. While the release of benzene certainly poses both flammability and toxicological safety concerns, the magnitude of the hazard depends on the rate of release. Currently, the mechanisms controlling the benzene release rates are not well understood, and predictive models for estimating benzene release rates are not available. The overall purpose of this study is to obtain quantitative measurements of benzene release rates from a series of ITP slurry stimulants. This information will become a basis for developing a quantitative mechanistic model of benzene release rates. The transient benzene release rate was measured from the surface of various ITP slurry (solution) samples mixed with benzene. The benzene release rate was determined by continuously purging the headspace of a sealed sample vessel with an inert gas (nitrogen) and analyzing that purged headspace vapor for benzene every 3 minutes. The following 75-mL samples were measured for release rates: KTPB slurry with 15,000 ppm freshly added benzene that was gently mixed with the slurry, KTPB slurry homogenized (energetically mixed) with 15,000 ppm and 5,000 ppm benzene, clear and filtered KTPB salt solution saturated with benzene (with and without a pure benzene layer on top of the solution), and a slurry sample from a large demonstration experiment (DEMO slurry) containing-benzene generated in situ.

Rappe, K.G.; Gauglitz, P.A.

1997-09-01

401

ADVANCED COMPUTATIONAL MODEL FOR THREE-PHASE SLURRY REACTORS  

SciTech Connect

In this project, an Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation for analyzing three-phase slurry flows in a bubble column was developed. The approach used an Eulerian analysis of liquid flows in the bubble column, and made use of the Lagrangian trajectory analysis for the bubbles and particle motions. The bubble-bubble and particle-particle collisions are included the model. The model predictions are compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found An experimental setup for studying two-dimensional bubble columns was developed. The multiphase flow conditions in the bubble column were measured using optical image processing and Particle Image Velocimetry techniques (PIV). A simple shear flow device for bubble motion in a constant shear flow field was also developed. The flow conditions in simple shear flow device were studied using PIV method. Concentration and velocity of particles of different sizes near a wall in a duct flow was also measured. The technique of Phase-Doppler anemometry was used in these studies. An Eulerian volume of fluid (VOF) computational model for the flow condition in the two-dimensional bubble column was also developed. The liquid and bubble motions were analyzed and the results were compared with observed flow patterns in the experimental setup. Solid-fluid mixture flows in ducts and passages at different angle of orientations were also analyzed. The model predictions were compared with the experimental data and good agreement was found. Gravity chute flows of solid-liquid mixtures were also studied. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data and discussed A thermodynamically consistent model for multiphase slurry flows with and without chemical reaction in a state of turbulent motion was developed. The balance laws were obtained and the constitutive laws established.

Goodarz Ahmadi

2004-10-01

402

Performance of a diesel engine; operating on raw coal-diesel engine; solvent refined coal-diesel fuel slurries. Quarterly report  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been difficult to obtain stable experimental slurries of coal or solvent-refined coal for testing in diesel engines. Attempts to burn the 40 percent by weight raw coal-fuel oil slurry were hampered from the outset. First the transfer pump would not deliver the slurry to the injection pump. This problem was overcome by raising the slurry storage tank to

1979-01-01

403

A circulatory system and method of slurry delivery in long-distance pipeline transportation of iron ore  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-distance pipeline transportation of iron ore is a very good method to solve the iron ore delivering outside, and also suitable for the western complicated terrain and convenient traffic. Before the pipeline transporting the slurry, you need a low concentration of slurry (slurry concentration of less than 68%) that is concentrated and then transport to the mixing tank to mix uniformly. There will be a small amount of selected birth to mine in the upper reaches of the production process, which resulting concentration of slurry concentrated pool is low, and thus it can not meet the requirements that we have set concentration of slurry concentration, so the slurry can not be sent to the mixing tank, and the production is affected ultimately. Therefore, this paper presents a method of circulatory system and slurry delivery to solve such problems. It has been proved in practice that the system effectively improve the production and generalization efficiently.

Li, Youling; Wang, Hua

2011-10-01

404

Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01

405

Investigating Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Reflection Techniques for Characterizing Slurry Properties  

SciTech Connect

The particle size of a slurry and the viscosity of a liquid or slurry are both difficult to measure on-line and in real time. The objectives of this research are to develop the following methods for such measurements: (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) to measure the particle size and concentration of a slurry, (2) develop theoretical models and computer codes to describe the passage of ultrasound through a grating surface in order to increase the sensitivity of the particle size measurement.

Greenwood, Margaret S.; Salahuddin Ahmed

2006-06-01

406

HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT Pig pathology in relation with the evaluation of pig houses  

E-print Network

sparing. Testing of two ways of keeping up a minimal rate of ventilation in a fattening house R. GRANIER BVI. - HOUSING AND ENVIRONMENT Pig pathology in relation with the evaluation of pig houses J Housing conditions may have an unfavorable effect on animal health, especially in intensive rearing

Boyer, Edmond

407

Pig and guinea pig skin as surrogates for human in vitro penetration studies: a quantitative review.  

PubMed

Both human and animal skin in vitro models are used to predict percutaneous penetration in humans. The objective of this review is a quantitative comparison of permeability and lag time measurements between human and animal skin, including an evaluation of the intra and inter species variability. We limit our focus to domestic pig and rodent guinea pig skin as surrogates for human skin, and consider only studies in which both animal and human penetration of a given chemical were measured jointly in the same lab. When the in vitro permeability of pig and human skin were compared, the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r) was 0.88 (P<0.0001), with an intra species average coefficient of variation of skin permeability of 21% for pig and 35% for human, and an inter species average coefficient of variation of 37% for the set of studied compounds (n=41). The lag times of pig skin and human skin did not correlate (r=0.35, P=0.26). When the in vitro permeability of guinea pig and human skin were compared, r=0.96 (P<0.0001), with an average intra species coefficient of variation of 19% for guinea pig and 24% for human, and an inter species coefficient of variation of permeability of 41% for the set of studied compounds (n=15). Lag times of guinea pig and human skin correlated (r=0.90, P<0.0001, n=12). When permeability data was not reported a factor of difference (FOD) of animal to human skin was calculated for pig skin (n=50) and guinea pig skin (n=25). For pig skin, 80% of measurements fell within the range 0.3pig skin, 65% fell within that range. Both pig and guinea pig are good models for human skin permeability and have less variability than the human skin model. The skin model of choice will depend on the final purpose of the study and the compound under investigation. PMID:19013230

Barbero, Ana M; Frasch, H Frederick

2009-02-01

408

Study of matrix effects and spectral interferences in the determination of lead in sediments, sludges and soils by SR-ETAAS using slurry sampling.  

PubMed

An interference-free, fast, and simple method is proposed for Pb determination in environmental solid samples combining slurry sampling and electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were ground to an adequate particle size and slurries were prepared by weighing from 0.05 g to 0.20 g of dry sediment, adding nitric acid, and a solution containing 0.1% Triton X-100. Ultrasonic agitation was employed for slurries homogenization. Analytical variables including acid pre-treatment conditions, particle size, slurry stability, temperature program of the graphite furnace, and type and concentration of the chemical modifier were studied. The undesirable effects of potential non-specific and spectral interferences on Pb signal were also taken into account. Continuum source and self-reversal methods for background correction were evaluated and compared. For calibration, synthetic acid solutions of Pb were employed. Calibration was linear within the range 1-30 microg L(-1) and 5-30 microg L(-1) when the 217.0 nm and 283.3 nm analytical lines were used. Correlation coefficients of 0.9992 and 0.9997 were obtained. Using optimized conditions, limits of detection (3sigma) of 0.025 microg g(-1) and 0.1 microg g(-1) were achieved for the 217.0 nm and 283.3 nm analytical lines, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead in soil, contaminated soil, municipal sludge, and sediment samples. The accuracy was assessed by the analysis of two certified reference materials: municipal sludge (QC MUNICIPAL SLUDGE A) and lake sediment (TRAP-LRM from IJS). PMID:20602930

Savio, Marianela; Cerutti, Soledad; Martinez, Luis D; Smichowski, Patricia; Gil, Raúl A

2010-07-15

409

Estimation of body composition of pigs  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to evaluate the use of deuterium oxide (D2O) for in vivo estimation of body composition of diverse types of pigs. Obese (Ob, 30) and contemporary Hampshire X Yorkshire (C, 30) types of pigs used in the study were managed and fed under typical management regimens. Indwelling catheters were placed in a jugular vein of 6 Ob and 6 C pigs at 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 wk of age. The D2O was infused (.5 g/kg body weight) as a .9% NaCl solution into the jugular catheter. Blood samples were taken immediately before and at .25, 1, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h after the D2O infusion and D2O concentration in blood water was determined. Pigs were subsequently killed by euthanasia injection. Contents of the gastrointestinal tract were removed and the empty body was then frozen and later ground and sampled for subsequent analyses. Ground body tissue samples were analyzed for water, fat, N, fat-free organic matter and ash. Pig type, age and the type X age interaction were significant sources of variation in live weight, D2O pool size and all empty body components, as well as all fat-free empty body components. Relationships between age and live weight or weight of empty body components, and between live weight, empty body weight, empty body water or D2O space and weight of empty components were highly significant but influenced, in most cases, by pig type. The results of this study suggested that, although relationships between D2O space and body component weights were highly significant, they were influenced by pig type and were little better than live weight for the estimation of body composition.

Ferrell, C.L.; Cornelius, S.G.

1984-04-01

410

Applying pesticides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fertilizer is one way to provide crops with the nutrients they need. Pesticides can also be applied to crops to keep them healthy and free of insects. However, applying too much fertilizer or pesticide protection could harm the environment and organisms.

Scott Bauer (USDA-ARS;Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory)

2006-05-23

411

Studies on contact hypersensitivity in the guinea pig.  

PubMed

A method to determine the quantitative induction and challenge of the allergenicity of externally applied toiletories and cosmetics, including their components, is described. The experiment used oil-soluble cinnamic aldehyde and water-soluble formalin as allergens, and guinea pigs as the experimental animals. A high sensitization method resulted, carried out as follows. A 24-h closed patch is attached to the skin every other day over a period of 2 weeks (a total of 4 applications). Freund's complete adjuvant is administered intradermally just before the 3rd application of the patch. The challenge step is performed by directly applying the test material. This method was compared with other allergenicity evaluation methods. As a result, this method was found to be in no way inferior in sensitization performance to the other methods. The method was used on perfume mixtures and tested for its evaluation effectiveness. It proved to be satisfactory. PMID:7105687

Tsuchiya, S; Kondo, M; Okamoto, K; Takase, Y

1982-07-01

412

Effect of nystatin on Guinea Pigs' inner ear.  

PubMed

Nystatin is a topical antifungal agent. Its wide spectrum of action and low cost make it a treatment of choice. Though it is safe for external ear use, no study has proven its safety in cases of tympanic membrane perforation (TMP). We aim to test the safety of Nystatin when applied directly to the middle ear of a Guinea Pig model. We performed an experimental study with 18 Hartley Guinea Pigs that were divided into two groups. All tympanic membranes were perforated at the beginning of the study. Exposing one group to Nystatin and the other to the ototoxic Neomycin, we compared results of auditory brainstem response testing at three intervals. Each animals' contralateral ear was used as a negative control. At the end, we performed a histological analysis of the animals' cochleae using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Average hearing loss in the Nystatin group was 13.0 dB which was similar to the results obtained in the negative control group (13.1 dB). Average hearing loss in the Neomycin group was 39.3 dB, which represents a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). SEM evaluation revealed intact cochlear hair cell architecture in the Nystatin and normal saline groups, whereas significant hair cell losses were noted in the Neomycin group was noted. Nystatin does not cause hearing impairment or cochlear hair cell damage when exposed directly to the middle ear of a Guinea Pig model. It is therefore a safe treatment option for otomycosis with presence of TMP. PMID:21384237

Woods, Owen; Saliba, Issam

2011-11-01

413

Coal-water slurry fuel internal combustion engine and method for operating same  

DOEpatents

An internal combustion engine fueled with a coal-water slurry is described. About 90 percent of the coal-water slurry charge utilized in the power cycle of the engine is directly injected into the main combustion chamber where it is ignited by a hot stream of combustion gases discharged from a pilot combustion chamber of a size less than about 10 percent of the total clearance volume of main combustion chamber with the piston at top dead center. The stream of hot combustion gases is provided by injecting less than about 10 percent of the total coal-water slurry charge into the pilot combustion chamber and using a portion of the air from the main combustion chamber that has been heated by the walls defining the pilot combustion chamber as the ignition source for the coal-water slurry injected into the pilot combustion chamber.

McMillian, Michael H. (Fairmont, WV)

1992-01-01

414

Studies on preparation of coal water slurry using a natural additive  

SciTech Connect

An eco-friendly additive isolated from a natural plant has been developed in the laboratory for preparation of coal water slurry (CWS) of some specific Indian coal. The effect of additive concentration, the rheological behavior of CWS at weight concentrations varying from 55-63.7% using a rotational viscometer, the static stability tests, etc., have been investigated. The nature of the slurries followed Bingham plastic behavior in these range of concentrations, and the slurry viscosity recorded over these solid weight concentrations varied between 0.42-0.97 PaS by using the natural additive. The rheological behavior of CWS was compared with commercial additives with a possibility to replace it with the natural additive. The static stability studies on CWS of the low- and medium-ash coal water slurries were found to be 27 and 21 days, respectively.

Senapati, P.K.; Das, D.; Nayak, A.; Mishra, P.K. [CSIR, Bhubaneswar (India)

2008-07-01

415

Development of laboratory and process sensors to monitor particle size distribution of industrial slurries  

SciTech Connect

In this paper we present a novel measurement technique for monitoring particle size distributions of industrial colloidal slurries based on ultrasonic spectroscopy and mathematical deconvolution. An on-line sensor prototype has been developed and tested extensively in laboratory and production settings using mineral pigment slurries. Evaluation to date shows that the sensor is capable of providing particle size distributions, without any assumptions regarding their functional form, over diameters ranging from 0.1 to 100 micrometers in slurries with particle concentrations of 10 to 50 volume percents. The newly developed on-line sensor allows one to obtain particle size distributions of commonly encountered inorganic pigment slurries under industrial processing conditions without dilution.

Pendse, H.P.

1992-10-01

416

EVALUATION OF A METHOD TO MEASURE CONJUGAL TRANSFER OF RECOMBINANT DNA IN SOIL SLURRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Release of recombinant microbes into the environment necessitates an evaluation of their ability to transfer genetic material. he present report evaluates a method to detect conjugal DNA plasmid transfer in soil slurries under various environmental conditions. onor Pseudomonas ce...

417

Development of carbon slurry fuels for transportation (hybrid fuels, phase 2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Slurry fuels of various forms of solids in diesel fuel are developed and evaluated for their relative potential as fuel for diesel engines. Thirteen test fuels with different solids concentrations are formulated using eight different materials. A variety of properties are examined including ash content, sulfur content, particle size distribution, and rheological properties. Attempts are made to determine the effects of these variations on these fuel properties on injection, atomization, and combustion processes. The slurries are also tested in a single cylinder CLR engine in both direct injection and prechamber configurations. The data includes the normal performance parameters as well as heat release rates and emissions. The slurries perform very much like the baseline fuel. The combustion data indicate that a large fraction (90 percent or more) of the solids are burning in the engine. It appears that the prechamber engine configuration is more tolerant of the slurries than the direct injection configuration.

Ryan, T. W., III; Dodge, L. G.

1984-01-01

418

TECHNICAL NOTE: Rapid patterning of slurry-like elastomer composites using a laser-cut tape  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a cleanroom-free, simple and low-cost fabrication approach utilizing a laser-cut tape for rapidly patterning slurry-like elastomer composites. A conductive polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite was chosen for demonstration in this paper due to its wide use of sensing and heating in many applications. Two fabrication schemes were developed: embedding in a PDMS matrix and relieving on a PDMS substrate. In both schemes, the patterns were first inscribed on adhesive tape using a CO2 laser. The patterned tape then served as a positive mask when spreading the conductive PDMS over it. The patterns were eventually transferred to a substrate after scraping the excessive composite with a razor blade and then removing the tape. The feature resolution of the technique was about 90-100 µm primarily determined by the laser beam diameter, the translational speed and the power. The height of the patterned structures was associated with the thickness of the tape, which ranged from 76.1 ± 4.3 µm to 168.9 ± 8.2 µm in this study. A thicker structure can be achieved by stacking more adhesive tapes. For a practical demonstration, the conductive PDMS was patterned on a PDMS substrate serving as a heating element. The elastomeric microheater was successfully heated to 92 °C with a power of 210 ± 12 mW applied.

Chuang, Han-Sheng; Wereley, Steven T.

2009-09-01

419

Nitrous oxide production from soils amended with biogas residues and cattle slurry.  

PubMed

The amount of residues generated from biogas production has increased dramatically due to the worldwide interest in renewable energy. A common way to handle the residues is to use them as fertilizers in crop production. Application of biogas residues to agricultural soils may be accompanied with environmental risks, such as increased NO emission. In 24-d laboratory experiments, NO dynamics and total production were studied in arable soils (sandy, clay, and organic) amended with one of two types of anaerobically digested biogas residues (BR-A and BR-B) generated from urban and agricultural waste and nondigested cattle slurry (CS) applied at rates corresponding to 70 kg NH-N ha. Total NO-N losses from the sandy soil were higher after amendment with BR-B (0.32 g NO-N m) than BR-A or CS (0.02 and 0.18 g NO-N m, respectively). In the clay soil, NO-N losses were very low for CS (0.02 g NO-N m) but higher for BR-A and BR-B (0.25 and 0.15 g NO-N m, respectively). In the organic soil, CS gave higher total NO-N losses (0.31 g NO-N m) than BR-A or BR-B (0.09 and 0.08 g NO-N m, respectively). Emission peaks differed considerably between soils, occurring on Day 1 in the organic soil and on Days 11 to 15 in the sand, whereas in the clay the peak varied markedly (Days 1, 6, and 13) depending on residue type. In all treatments, NH concentration decreased with time, and NO concentration increased. Potential ammonium oxidation and potential denitrification activity increased significantly in the amended sandy soil but not in the organic soil and only in the clay amended with CS. The results showed that fertilization with BR can increase NO emissions and that the size is dependent on the total N and organic C content of the slurry and on soil type. In conclusion, the two types of BR and the CS are not interchangeable regarding their effects on NO production in different soils, and, hence, matching fertilizer type to soil type could reduce NO emissions. For instance, it could be advisable to avoid fertilization of organic soils with CS containing high amounts or organic C and instead use BR. In clay soil, however, the risk of NO emissions could be lowered by choosing a CS. PMID:24216356

Abubaker, J; Odlare, M; Pell, M

2013-07-01

420

Slurry Sampling—An Analytical Strategy for the Determination of Metals and Metalloids by Spectroanalytical Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article critically overviews the state-of-the-art of slurry sampling as an approach for the minimization of sample preparation prior to the determination of metals and metalloids in complex matrices by spectroanalytical techniques. Relevant factors involved in the optimization of slurry-based analytical procedures and the dependence of the quality of the results on the calibration method selected are discussed in detail.

Sergio Luis Costa Ferreira; Manuel Miró; Erik Galvão Paranhos da Silva; Geraldo Domingues Matos; Pedro Sanches dos Reis; Geovani Cardoso Brandao; Walter Nei Lopes dos Santos; Alvaro Tavares Duarte; Maria Goreti Rodrigues Vale; Rennan Geovanny Oliveira Araujo

2010-01-01

421

Effects of friction factor and slip factor on the performance of a centrifugal slurry pump  

E-print Network

EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Ma]or Sub]ect: Mechanical Engineering EFFECTS OF FRICTION FACTOR AND SLIP FACTOR ON THE PERFORMANCE OF A CENTRIFUGAL SLURRY PUMP A Thesis by KETANKUMAR KANTILAL SHETH Approved as to style and content by...

Sheth, Ketankumar Kantilal

2012-06-07

422

Permeability of flowable slurry materials containing foundry sand and fly ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of foundry sand and fly ash on permeability of flowable slurry mixtures. In this work, two reference flowable fly ash slurry mixtures were proportioned for strength levels in the range of 0.34--0.69 MPa (50--100 psi) at 28 d using two different sources of ASTM Class F fly ash. Other mixtures contained

Tarun R. Naik; Shiw S. Singh

1997-01-01

423

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF DICHLOROAROMATIC COMPOUNDS IN NONADAPTED AND ADAPTED FRESHWATER SEDIMENT SLURRIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Nonadapted freshwater sediment slurries and sediment slurries adapted to dechlorinate 2,3-dichloropyridine (2,3-Cl2Pyd), 2,3-dichloroaniline (2,3-Cl2Anl), 2,3-dichlorophenol (2,3C12PhOH), 3,5-dichloropyridine (3,5-Cl2Pyd), 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-Cl2Anl) and 3,5-dichlorophenol (...

424

Rheological study of comingled biomass and coal slurries with hydrothermal pretreatment  

SciTech Connect

Gasification of comingled biomass and coal feedstock is an effective means of reducing the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions in the coal gasification process while maintaining its inherent benefits of abundance and high-energy density. However, feeding a comingled biomass and coal feedstock into a pressurized gasification reactor poses a technical problem. Conventional dry feeding systems, such as lock hoppers and pressurized pneumatic transport, are complex and operationally expensive. A slurry formation of comingled biomass and coal feedstock can be easily fed into the gasification reactor but, in normal conditions, only allows for a small portion of biomass in the mixture. This is a consequence of the hydroscopic and hydrophilic nature of the biomass. The College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology (CE-CERT) at the University of California, Riverside, has developed a process producing high solid content biomass-water slurry using a hydrothermal pretreatment process. In this paper, the systematic investigation of the rheological properties (e.g., shear rate, shear stress, and viscosity) of coal-water slurries, biomass-water slurries, and comingled biomass and coal-water slurries is reported. The solid particle size distribution in the slurry and the initial solid/water ratio were investigated to determine the impact on shear rate and viscosity. This was determined using a rotational rheometer. The experimental results show that larger particle size offers better pumpability. The presence of a high percentage of biomass in solid form significantly decreases slurry pumpability. It is also shown that the solid loading of the biomass-water slurry can be increased to approximately 35 wt % with viscosity of less than 0.7 Pa.s after the pretreatment process. The solid loading increased to approximately 45 wt % when the biomass is comingled with coal. 18 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Wei He; Chan S. Park; Joseph M. Norbeck [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States). Bourns College of Engineering Center for Environmental Research and Technology

2009-09-15

425

Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Technical report, March 1- May 31, 1996  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams Technologies, Inc. And Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI\\/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be, concentrated

M. Rajchel; H. P. Ehrlinger; A. Fonseca; R. Mauer

1996-01-01

426

Study of benzene release from Savannah River in-tank precipitation process slurry simulant  

Microsoft Academic Search

At the Savannah River Site, the in-tank precipitation (ITP) process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) to precipitate radioactive cesium from alkaline wastes. During this process, potassium is also precipitated to form 4-wt% KTPB\\/CsTPB slurry. Residual NaTPB decomposes to form benzene, which is retained by the waste slurry. The retained benzene is also readily released from the waste during subsequent waste processing.

K. G. Rappe; P. A. Gauglitz

1998-01-01

427

Eulerian simulation strategy for scaling up a bubble column slurry reactor for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

CFD simulations were carried out in the Eulerian framework using both two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric and transient three-dimensional (3D) strategies to describe the influence of column diameter on the hydrodynamics and dispersion characteristics of the bubble column slurry reactor for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. Interactions between the bubbles and the slurry were taken into account by means of a momentum-exchange, or drag,

Baten van J. M; R. Krishna

2004-01-01

428