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Sample records for pigment production antibiotic

  1. Antibiotics in Animal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão, Amílcar C.

    The administration of antibiotics to animals to prevent or treat diseases led us to be concerned about the impact of these antibiotics on human health. In fact, animal products could be a potential vehicle to transfer drugs to humans. Using appropri ated mathematical and statistical models, one can predict the kinetic profile of drugs and their metabolites and, consequently, develop preventive procedures regarding drug transmission (i.e., determination of appropriate withdrawal periods). Nevertheless, in the present chapter the mathematical and statistical concepts for data interpretation are strictly given to allow understanding of some basic pharma-cokinetic principles and to illustrate the determination of withdrawal periods

  2. Antibiotic use in livestock production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotic usage is a useful and commonly implemented practice in livestock and production agriculture that has progressively gained attention in recent years from consumers of animal products due to concerns about human and environmental health. Sub-therapeutic usage of antibiotics has led to a con...

  3. Expedient antibiotics production: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Byers, C.H.; Lee, D.D.

    1988-05-01

    The literature on the manufacture, separation and purification, and clinical uses of antibiotics was reviewed, and a bibliography of the pertinent material was completed. Five antimicrobial drugs, penicillin V and G, (and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid), Cephalexin (a cephalosporin), tetracycline and oxytetracycline, Bacitracin (topical), and sulfonamide (chemically produced) were identified for emergency production. Plants that manufacture antibiotics in the continental United States, Mexico, and Puerto Rico have been identified along with potential alternate sites such as those where SCP, enzyme, and fermentation ethanol are produced. Detailed process flow sheets and process descriptions have been derived from the literature and documented. This investigation revealed that a typical antibiotic-manufacturing facility is composed of two main sections: (1) a highly specialized, but generic, fermentation unit and (2) a multistep, complex separation and purification unit which is specific to a particular antibiotic product. The fermentation section requires specialized equipment for operation in a sterile environment which is not usually available in other industries. The emergency production of antibiotics under austere conditions will be feasible only if a substantial reduction in the complexity and degree of separation and purity normally required can be realized. Detailed instructions were developed to assist state and federal officials who would be directing the resumption of antibiotic production after a nuclear attack. 182 refs., 54 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Identification of an anthraquinone pigment and a hydroxystilbene antibiotic from Xenorhabdus luminescens.

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, W H; Schmidt, T M; Nealson, K H

    1988-01-01

    The entomopathogenic bacterium Xenorhabdus luminescens produces a red pigment and an antibiotic in insect carcasses in which it grows and in axenic cultures. The pigment was purified and identified as the anthraquinone derivative 1,6-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-9,10-anthraquinone, which exhibits a pH-sensitive color change, i.e., it is yellow below pH 9 and red above pH 9. The antibiotic was also purified and identified as the hydroxystilbene derivative 3,5-dihydroxy-4-isopropylstilbene. PMID:3415225

  5. Production of a Sporulation Pigment by Streptomyces venezuelae

    PubMed Central

    Scribner, H. E.; Tang, Terry; Bradley, S. G.

    1973-01-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae S13 produced a pH-indicating sporulation pigment on a glucose-salts-agar medium consisting of glucose, KNO3, MgSO4, and Na2HPO4, pH 7. Pigmentation on this medium appeared to be closely associated with sporulation, which normally required 5 to 7 days at 30 C. The pigment was soluble in water as well as in a number of organic solvents. Butanol-extracted pigment exhibited absorption maxima at 430 and 520 nm at pH 3 and 12, respectively. Although many salts of organic acids and amino acids could replace glucose as the sole carbon source in basal salts-agar medium for growth and pigmentation, most sugars that were tested supported good growth but negligible pigmentation. Among the nitrogenous substances tested, KNO3 was most desirable for pigmentation. The organism did not exhibit any specific requirements for divalent cations with respect to growth and pigmentation. In the absence of MgSO4, however, glucose-salts-agar prepared by autoclaving all components together failed to support growth. The production of the sporulation pigment on glucose-salts-agar was comparable to that obtained on tomato paste-oatmeal-agar medium. Incorporation of partially purified pigment material into broth medium that did not normally support sporulation induced sporulation, and amino acid-salts-agar medium could induce vegetative mycelia to pigment when transferred from medium that did not support either pigmentation or sporulation. Images PMID:4577487

  6. Violacein: Properties and Production of a Versatile Bacterial Pigment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Seong Yeol; Yoon, Kyoung-hye; Lee, Jin Il; Mitchell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Violacein-producing bacteria, with their striking purple hues, have undoubtedly piqued the curiosity of scientists since their first discovery. The bisindole violacein is formed by the condensation of two tryptophan molecules through the action of five proteins. The genes required for its production, vioABCDE, and the regulatory mechanisms employed have been studied within a small number of violacein-producing strains. As a compound, violacein is known to have diverse biological activities, including being an anticancer agent and being an antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus and other Gram-positive pathogens. Identifying the biological roles of this pigmented molecule is of particular interest, and understanding violacein's function and mechanism of action has relevance to those unmasking any of its commercial or therapeutic benefits. Unfortunately, the production of violacein and its related derivatives is not easy and so various groups are also seeking to improve the fermentative yields of violacein through genetic engineering and synthetic biology. This review discusses the recent trends in the research and production of violacein by both natural and genetically modified bacterial strains. PMID:26339614

  7. Phototrophic pigment production with microalgae: biological constraints and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Kim J M; Lamers, Packo P; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H

    2014-04-01

    There is increasing interest in naturally produced colorants, and microalgae represent a bio-technologically interesting source due to their wide range of colored pigments, including chlorophylls (green), carotenoids (red, orange and yellow), and phycobiliproteins (red and blue). However, the concentration of these pigments, under optimal growth conditions, is often too low to make microalgal-based pigment production economically feasible. In some Chlorophyta (green algae), specific process conditions such as oversaturating light intensities or a high salt concentration induce the overproduction of secondary carotenoids (β-carotene in Dunaliella salina (Dunal) Teodoresco and astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis (Flotow)). Overproduction of all other pigments (including lutein, fucoxanthin, and phycocyanin) requires modification in gene expression or enzyme activity, most likely combined with the creation of storage space outside of the photosystems. The success of such modification strategies depends on an adequate understanding of the metabolic pathways and the functional roles of all the pigments involved. In this review, the distribution of commercially interesting pigments across the most common microalgal groups, the roles of these pigments in vivo and their biosynthesis routes are reviewed, and constraints and opportunities for overproduction of both primary and secondary pigments are presented. PMID:26988181

  8. Production of a Blue Pigment (Glaukothalin) by Marine Rheinheimera spp.

    PubMed Central

    Grossart, Hans-Peter; Thorwest, Marc; Plitzko, Inken; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Simon, Meinhard; Zeeck, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Two γ-Proteobacteria strains, that is, HP1 and HP9, which both produce a diffusible deep blue pigment, were isolated from the German Wadden Sea and from the Øresund, Denmark, respectively. Both strains affiliate with the genus Rheinheimera. Small amounts of the pigment could be extracted from HP1 grown in a 50 L fermenter and were purified chromatographically. Chemical analysis of the pigment including NMR and mass spectrometry led to a molecular formula of C34H56N4O4 (m.w. 584.85) which has not yet been reported in literature. The molecule is highly symmetrically and consists of two heterocyclic halves to which aliphatic side chains are attached. The pigment has been named glaukothalin due to its blue color and its marine origin (glaukos, gr. = blue, thalatta, gr. = sea). Production of glaukothalin on MB2216 agar plates by our Rheinheimera strains is affected in the presence of other bacterial strains either increasing or decreasing pigment production. The addition of a single amino acid, arginine (5 gl−1), greatly increases pigment production by our Rheinheimera strains. Even though the production of glaukothalin leads to inhibitory activity against three bacterial strains from marine particles, our Rheinheimera isolates are inhibited by various bacteria of different phylogenetic groups. The ecological role of glaukothalin production by Rheinheimera strains, however, remains largely unknown. PMID:20016676

  9. The Biogeography of Putative Microbial Antibiotic Production.

    PubMed

    Morlon, Hélène; O'Connor, Timothy K; Bryant, Jessica A; Charkoudian, Louise K; Docherty, Kathryn M; Jones, Evan; Kembel, Steven W; Green, Jessica L; Bohannan, Brendan J M

    2015-01-01

    Understanding patterns in the distribution and abundance of functional traits across a landscape is of fundamental importance to ecology. Mapping these distributions is particularly challenging for species-rich groups with sparse trait measurement coverage, such as flowering plants, insects, and microorganisms. Here, we use likelihood-based character reconstruction to infer and analyze the spatial distribution of unmeasured traits. We apply this framework to a microbial dataset comprised of 11,732 ketosynthase alpha gene sequences extracted from 144 soil samples from three continents to document the spatial distribution of putative microbial polyketide antibiotic production. Antibiotic production is a key competitive strategy for soil microbial survival and performance. Additionally, novel antibiotic discovery is highly relevant to human health, making natural antibiotic production by soil microorganisms a major target for bioprospecting. Our comparison of trait-based biogeographical patterns to patterns based on taxonomy and phylogeny is relevant to our basic understanding of microbial biogeography as well as the pressing need for new antibiotics. PMID:26102275

  10. The Biogeography of Putative Microbial Antibiotic Production

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Jessica A.; Charkoudian, Louise K.; Docherty, Kathryn M.; Jones, Evan; Kembel, Steven W.; Green, Jessica L.; Bohannan, Brendan J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding patterns in the distribution and abundance of functional traits across a landscape is of fundamental importance to ecology. Mapping these distributions is particularly challenging for species-rich groups with sparse trait measurement coverage, such as flowering plants, insects, and microorganisms. Here, we use likelihood-based character reconstruction to infer and analyze the spatial distribution of unmeasured traits. We apply this framework to a microbial dataset comprised of 11,732 ketosynthase alpha gene sequences extracted from 144 soil samples from three continents to document the spatial distribution of putative microbial polyketide antibiotic production. Antibiotic production is a key competitive strategy for soil microbial survival and performance. Additionally, novel antibiotic discovery is highly relevant to human health, making natural antibiotic production by soil microorganisms a major target for bioprospecting. Our comparison of trait-based biogeographical patterns to patterns based on taxonomy and phylogeny is relevant to our basic understanding of microbial biogeography as well as the pressing need for new antibiotics. PMID:26102275

  11. Production and chemical characterization of pigments in filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Souza, Patrícia Nirlane da Costa; Grigoletto, Tahuana Luiza Bim; de Moraes, Luiz Alberto Beraldo; Abreu, Lucas M; Guimarães, Luís Henrique Souza; Santos, Cledir; Galvão, Luciano Ribeiro; Cardoso, Patrícia Gomes

    2016-01-01

    Production of pigments by filamentous fungi is gaining interest owing to their use as food colourants, in cosmetics and textiles, and because of the important biological activities of these compounds. In this context, the objectives of this study were to select pigment-producing fungi, identify these fungi based on internal transcribed spacer sequences, evaluate the growth and pigment production of the selected strains on four different media, and characterize the major coloured metabolites in their extracts. Of the selected fungal strains, eight were identified as Aspergillus sydowii (CML2967), Aspergillus aureolatus (CML2964), Aspergillus keveii (CML2968), Penicillium flavigenum (CML2965), Penicillium chermesinum (CML2966), Epicoccum nigrum (CML2971), Lecanicillium aphanocladii (CML2970) and Fusarium sp. (CML2969). Fungal pigment production was influenced by medium composition. Complex media, such as potato dextrose and malt extract, favoured increased pigment production. The coloured compounds oosporein, orevactaene and dihydrotrichodimerol were identified in extracts of L. aphanocladii (CML2970), E. nigrum (CML2971), and P. flavigenum (CML2965), respectively. These results indicate that the selected fungal strains can serve as novel sources of pigments that have important industrial applications. PMID:26341482

  12. Protocol optimization for enhanced production of pigments in Spirulina.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Neeraj; Pabbi, Sunil; Walia, Suresh; Dhar, Dolly Wattal

    2013-01-01

    Spirulina has attracted special attention due to its importance as human foodstuff and natural colours with specific functional properties. These functional properties have been attributed to phycobilins, carotenoids, phenolics and unsaturated fatty acids. Present study was conducted under controlled phytotron conditions to identify the efficient strains of Spirulina in terms of pigment synthesis and to optimize their enhanced production. Methodology for enhanced production was standardized by varying specific environmental parameters (light intensity, temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, pH and NaCl level). Different strains of Spirulina depicted variability and environmental parameters showed distinct influence on pigments. Growth and pigment production was recorded to be most efficient under optimized conditions of light intensity (70 μmol m(-2) s(-1)), temperature (30 °C), CO2 concentration (550 ppm and 750 ppm), pH (10.5) and NaCl level (2 g L(-1)). PMID:24764599

  13. Environmental impacts of antibiotic use in the animal production industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are routinely used in the livestock industry to treat and prevent disease. At subtherapeutic concentrations, antibiotics can select for resistant bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract of production animals, providing a potential reservoir for dissemination of drug resistant bacteria int...

  14. Physics and the production of antibiotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbrother, Robert; Riddle, Wendy; Fairbrother, Neil

    2006-01-01

    This article is the first in a series that describe some of the physics involved in the production of antibiotics. The field is often referred to as biochemical engineering but this does not indicate the considerable part played by physics and physicists. It is a process that undergoes continual research and development. Penicillin has been selected for the focus of this article, although the engineering principles and underlying physics apply to the production of other microbial products such as amino acids (which can be used as food additives), bulk chemicals such as ethanol (used in everything from hair spray and aftershave to solvents for paints and explosives) and the well-known processes of brewing and baking. In this article the application of physics to the design of the fermenter—the giant vessel in which the production of these products occurs—is discussed.

  15. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  16. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  17. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  18. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  19. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  2. 40 CFR 415.340 - Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... chrome pigments production subcategory. 415.340 Section 415.340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.340 Applicability; description of the chrome pigments production subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges to waters of the United States...

  3. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 40 CFR 415.640 - Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. 415.640 Section 415.640 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.640 Applicability; description of the cadmium pigments and salts production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. Botanical alternatives to antibiotics for use in organic poultry production.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; D'Souza, Doris; Biswas, Debrabrata; Hanning, Irene

    2015-06-01

    The development of antibiotic resistant pathogens has resulted from the use of sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics delivered in poultry feed. Furthermore, there are a number of consumer concerns regarding the use of antibiotics in food animals including residue contamination of poultry products and antibiotic resistant bacterial pathogens. These issues have resulted in recommendations to reduce the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in livestock in the United States. Unlike conventional production, organic systems are not permitted to use antibiotics. Thus, both conventional and organic poultry production need alternative methods to improve growth and performance of poultry. Herbs, spices, and various other plant extracts are being evaluated as alternatives to antibiotics and some do have growth promoting effects, antimicrobial properties, and other health-related benefits. This review aims to provide an overview of herbs, spices, and plant extracts, currently defined as phytobiotics as potential feed additives. PMID:25743421

  6. Candida glabrata tryptophan-based pigment production via the Ehrlich pathway.

    PubMed

    Brunke, Sascha; Seider, Katja; Almeida, Ricardo Sergio; Heyken, Antje; Fleck, Christian Benjamin; Brock, Matthias; Barz, Dagmar; Rupp, Steffen; Hube, Bernhard

    2010-04-01

    Pigments contribute to the pathogenicity of many fungi, mainly by protecting fungal cells from host defence activities. Here, we have dissected the biosynthetic pathway of a tryptophan-derived pigment of the human pathogen Candida glabrata, identified key genes involved in pigment production and have begun to elucidate the possible biological function of the pigment. Using transcriptional analyses and a transposon insertion library, we have identified genes associated with pigment production. Targeted deletion mutants revealed that the pigment is a by-product of the Ehrlich pathway of tryptophan degradation: a mutant lacking a tryptophan-upregulated aromatic aminotransferase (Aro8) displayed significantly reduced pigmentation and a recombinantly expressed version of this protein was sufficient for pigment production in vitro. Pigment production is tightly regulated as the synthesis is affected by the presence of alternative nitrogen sources, carbon sources, cyclic AMP and oxygen. Growth of C. glabrata on pigment inducing medium leads to an increased resistance to hydrogen peroxide, an effect which was not observed with a mutant defective in pigmentation. Furthermore, pigmented yeast cells had a higher survival rate when exposed to human neutrophils and caused increased damage in a monolayer model of human epithelia, indicating a possible role of pigmentation during interactions with host cells. PMID:20199593

  7. Effect of light on growth, intracellular and extracellular pigment production by five pigment-producing filamentous fungi in synthetic medium.

    PubMed

    Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Yong Hoon; Venil, Chidambaram Kulandaisamy; Lakshmanaperumalsamy, Perumalsamy; Chae, Jong-Chan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2010-04-01

    The competence of the living creatures to sense and respond to light is well known. The effect of darkness and different color light quality on biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment yield of five potent pigment producers Monascus purpureus, Isaria farinosa, Emericella nidulans, Fusarium verticillioides and Penicillium purpurogenum, with different color shades such as red, pink, reddish brown and yellow, were investigated. Incubation in total darkness increased the biomass, extracellular and intracellular pigment production in all the fungi. Extracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 36.75 + or - 2.1 OD and minimum in white unscreened light 5.90 + or - 1.1 OD. Similarly, intracellular red pigment produced by M. purpureus resulted maximum in darkness 18.27 + or - 0.9 OD/g and minimum in yellow light 8.03 + or - 0.6 OD/g of substrate. The maximum biomass production was also noticed in darkness 2.51 g/L and minimum in yellow light 0.5 g/L of dry weight. In contrast, growth of fungi in green and yellow wavelengths resulted in low biomass and pigment yield. It was found that darkness, (red 780-622 nm, blue 492-455 nm) and white light influenced pigment and biomass yield. PMID:20226375

  8. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives.

    PubMed

    Diarra, Moussa S; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  9. Antibiotics in Canadian poultry productions and anticipated alternatives

    PubMed Central

    Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, François

    2014-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in food-producing animals has significantly increased animal health by lowering mortality and the incidence of diseases. Antibiotics also have largely contributed to increase productivity of farms. However, antibiotic usage in general and relevance of non-therapeutic antibiotics (growth promoters) in feed need to be reevaluated especially because bacterial pathogens of humans and animals have developed and shared a variety of antibiotic resistance mechanisms that can easily be spread within microbial communities. In Canada, poultry production involves more than 2600 regulated chicken producers who have access to several antibiotics approved as feed additives for poultry. Feed recipes and mixtures vary greatly geographically and from one farm to another, making links between use of a specific antibiotic feed additive and production yields or selection of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria difficult to establish. Many on-farm studies have revealed the widespread presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in broiler chickens. While some reports linked the presence of antibiotic-resistant organisms to the use of feed supplemented with antibiotics, no recent studies could clearly demonstrate the benefit of antimicrobial growth promoters on performance and production yields. With modern biosecurity and hygienic practices, there is a genuine concern that intensive utilization of antibiotics or use of antimicrobial growth promoters in feed might no longer be useful. Public pressure and concerns about food and environmental safety (antibiotic residues, antibiotic-resistant pathogens) have driven researchers to actively look for alternatives to antibiotics. Some of the alternatives include pre- and probiotics, organic acids and essential oils. We will describe here the properties of some bioactive molecules, like those found in cranberry, which have shown interesting polyvalent antibacterial and immuno-stimulatory activities. PMID:24987390

  10. Production and biological activities of yellow pigments from Monascus fungi.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gong; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2016-08-01

    Monascus yellow pigments (MYPs), are azaphilone compounds and one of the three main components of total Monascus pigments (MPs). Thirty-five hydrophilic or hydrophobic MYPs have been identified, with the majority being hydrophobic. Apart from screening special Monascus strains, some advanced approaches, such as extractive and high-cell-density fermentations, have been applied for developing or producing new MYPs, especially extracellular hydrophilic MYPs. The outstanding performance of MYPs in terms of resistance to photodegradation, as well as tolerance for temperature and pH, give natural MYPs reasonable prospects, compared with the orange and red MPs, for practical use in the present and future. Meanwhile, MYPs have shown promising potential for applications in the food and pharmaceutical industries based on their described bioactivities. This review briefly summarizes the reports to date on chemical structures, biological activities, biosynthetic pathways, production technologies, and physicochemical performances of MYPs. The existing problems for MYPs are discussed and research prospects proposed. PMID:27357404

  11. Switching antibiotics production on and off in actinomycetes by an IclR family transcriptional regulator from Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Amit Kumar; Singh, Bijay; Maharjan, Sushila; Jha, Amit Kumar; Kim, Byung-Gee; Sohng, Jae Kyung

    2014-08-01

    Doxorubicin, produced by Streptomyces peucetius ATCC 27952, is tightly regulated by dnrO, dnrN, and dnrI regulators. Genome mining of S. peucetius revealed the presence of the IclR (doxR) type family of transcription regulator mediating the signal-dependent expression of operons at the nonribosomal peptide synthetase gene cluster. Overexpression of doxR in native strain strongly repressed the drug production. Furthermore, it also had a negative effect on the regulatory system of doxorubicin, wherein the transcript of dnrI was reduced to the maximum level in comparision with the other two. Interestingly, the overexpression of the same gene also had strong inhibitory effects on the production of actinorhodin (blue pigment) and undecylprodigiosin (red pigment) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145, herboxidiene production in Streptomyces chromofuscus ATCC 49982, and spinosyn production in Saccharopolyspora spinosa NRRL 18395, respectively. Moreover, DoxR exhibited pleiotropic effects on the production of blue and red pigments in S. coelicolor when grown in different agar media, wherein the production of blue pigment was inhibited in R2YE medium and the red pigment was inhibited in YEME medium. However, the production of both blue and red pigments from S. coelicolor harboring doxR was halted in ISP2 medium, whereas S. coelicolor produced both pigmented antibiotics in the same plate. These consequences demonstrate that the on and off production of these antibiotics was not due to salt stress or media compositions, but was selectively controlled in actinomycetes. PMID:24786531

  12. Ultraviolet radiation directly induces pigment production by cultured human melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, P.S.; Gilchrest, B.A.

    1987-10-01

    In humans the major stimulus for cutaneous pigmentation is ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Little is known about the mechanism underlying this response, in part because of the complexity of interactions in whole epidermis. Using a recently developed culture system, human melanocytes were exposed daily to a physiologic range of UVR doses from a solar simulator. Responses were determined 24 hours after the last exposure. There was a dose-related increase in melanin content per cell and uptake of /sup 14/C-DOPA, accompanied by growth inhibition. Cells from donors of different racial origin gave proportionately similar increases in melanin, although there were approximately tenfold differences in basal values. Light and electron microscopy revealed UVR-stimulated increases in dendricity as well as melanosome number and degree of melanization, analogous to the well-recognized melanocyte changes following sun exposure of intact skin. Similar responses were seen with Cloudman S91 melanoma cells, although this murine cell line required lower UVR dosages and fewer exposures for maximal stimulation. These data establish that UVR is capable of directly stimulating melanogenesis. Because cyclic AMP elevation has been associated in some settings with increased pigment production by cultured melanocytes, preliminary experiments were conducted to see if the effects of UVR were mediated by cAMP. Both alpha-MSH and isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX), as positive controls, caused a fourfold increase in cAMP level in human melanocytes and/or S91 cells, but following a dose of UVR sufficient to stimulate pigment production there was no change in cAMP level up to 4 hours after exposure. Thus, it appears that the UVR-induced melanogenesis is mediated by cAMP-independent mechanisms.

  13. Pigment Production on L-Tryptophan Medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans

    PubMed Central

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin. PMID:24736553

  14. Pigment production on L-tryptophan medium by Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Chaskes, Stuart; Cammer, Michael; Nieves, Edward; Casadevall, Arturo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years strains previously grouped within Cryptococcus neoformans have been divided into two species C. neoformans and C. gattii, with Cryptococcus neoformans comprising serotypes A, D, and AD and C. gattii comprising serotypes B and C. Cryptococcus neoformans have also been subdivided into two varieties C. neoformans var. grubii, serotype A, and C. neoformans var. neoformans, serotype D. We analyzed the growth and pigment production characteristics of 139 strains of Cryptococcus spp. in L-tryptophan containing media. Nearly all strains of Cryptococcus, including each variety and serotype tested produced a pink water-soluble pigment (molecular weight of 535.2 Da) from L-tryptophan. Consequently, the partial separation of the species was based on whether the pink pigment was secreted into the medium (extracellular) or retained as an intracellular pigment. On L-tryptophan medium C. neoformans var. grubii and serotype AD produced a pink extracellular pigment. In contrast, for C. gattii, the pink pigment was localized intracellularly and masked by heavy production of brown pigments. Pigment production by C. neoformans var. neoformans was variable with some strains producing the pink extracellular pigment and others retained the pink pigment intracellularly. The pink intracellular pigment produced by strains of C. neoformans var. neoformans was masked by production of brown pigments. Cryptococcus laccase mutants failed to produce pigments from L-tryptophan. This is the first report that the enzyme laccase is involved in tryptophan metabolism. Prior to this report Cryptococcus laccase produced melanin or melanin like-pigments from heterocyclic compounds that contained ortho or para diphenols, diaminobenzenes and aminophenol compounds. The pigments produced from L-tryptophan were not melanin. PMID:24736553

  15. Efforts to slacken antibiotic resistance: Labeling meat products from animals raised without antibiotics in the United States.

    PubMed

    Centner, Terence J

    2016-09-01

    As bacteria and diseases spread due to climatic change, greater amounts of antibiotics will be used thereby exacerbating the problem of antibiotic resistance. To help slacken the development of resistant bacteria, the medical community is attempting to reduce unnecessary and excessive usage of antibiotics. One of the targets is the use of antibiotics for enhancing animal growth and promoting feed efficiency in the production of food animals. While governments can adopt regulations prohibiting nontherapeutic uses of antibiotics in food animals and strategies to reduce antibiotic usage, another idea is to publicize when antibiotics are used in food animal production by allowing labeled meat products. This paper builds upon existing labeling and marketing efforts in the United States to show how a government can develop a verified antibiotic-free labeling program that would allow consumers to purchase meat products from animals that had never received antibiotics. PMID:27236477

  16. Physics and the Production of Antibiotics: 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairbrother, Robert; Riddle, Wendy; Fairbrother, Neil

    2006-01-01

    In an article in the preceding issue we discussed the design and construction of fermenters in which antibiotics are cultured. For industrial purposes these fermenters can range in size up to 500 m[cube]. They have to be sterilized, filled with sterile culture medium and the culture itself and supplied with oxygen continuously. In some cases they…

  17. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective August 23, 2005, the waste specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste Number K181, and soil and.../or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment...

  18. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective August 23, 2005, the waste specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste Number K181, and soil and.../or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment...

  19. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective August 23, 2005, the waste specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste Number K181, and soil and.../or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment...

  20. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective August 23, 2005, the waste specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste Number K181, and soil and.../or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment...

  1. 40 CFR 268.20 - Waste specific prohibitions-Dyes and/or pigments production wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Disposal § 268.20 Waste specific prohibitions—Dyes and/or pigments production wastes. (a) Effective August 23, 2005, the waste specified in 40 CFR part 261 as EPA Hazardous Waste Number K181, and soil and.../or pigments production wastes. 268.20 Section 268.20 Protection of Environment...

  2. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  3. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  4. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  5. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products... First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products § 333.150 Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. (a... identifies the product as a “first aid antibiotic.” (b) Indications. The labeling of the product...

  6. Different classes of antibiotics differentially influence shiga toxin production.

    PubMed

    McGannon, Colleen Marie; Fuller, Cynthia Ann; Weiss, Alison Ann

    2010-09-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx) in Escherichia coli O157:H7 is encoded as a late gene product by temperate bacteriophage integrated into the chromosome. Phage late genes, including stx, are silent in the lysogenic state. However, stress signals, including some induced by antibiotics, trigger the phage to enter the lytic cycle, and phage replication and Stx production occur concurrently. In addition to the Stx produced by O157:H7, phage produced by O157:H7 can infect harmless intestinal E. coli and recruit them to produce Shiga toxin. To understand how antibiotics influence Stx production, Stx lysogens were treated with different classes of antibiotics in the presence or absence of phage-sensitive E. coli, and Stx-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis was monitored using luciferase-expressing Vero cells. Growth-inhibitory levels of antibiotics suppressed Stx production. Subinhibitory levels of antibiotics that target DNA synthesis, including ciprofloxacin (CIP) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, increased Stx production, while antibiotics that target the cell wall, transcription, or translation did not. More Stx was produced when E. coli O157:H7 was incubated in the presence of phage-sensitive E. coli than when grown as a pure culture. Remarkably, very high levels of Stx were detected even when growth of O157:H7 was completely suppressed by CIP. In contrast, azithromycin significantly reduced Stx levels even when O157:H7 viability remained high. PMID:20585113

  7. Counteraction of antibiotic production and degradation stabilizes microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Kelsic, Eric D.; Zhao, Jeffrey; Vetsigian, Kalin; Kishony, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Summary A major challenge in theoretical ecology is understanding how natural microbial communities support species diversity1-8, and in particular how antibiotic producing, sensitive and resistant species coexist9-15. While cyclic “rock-paper-scissors” interactions can stabilize communities in spatial environments9-11, coexistence in unstructured environments remains an enigma12,16. Here, using simulations and analytical models, we show that the opposing actions of antibiotic production and degradation enable coexistence even in well-mixed environments. Coexistence depends on 3-way interactions where an antibiotic degrading species attenuates the inhibitory interactions between two other species. These 3-way interactions enable coexistence that is robust to substantial differences in inherent species growth rates and to invasion by “cheating” species that cease producing or degrading antibiotics. At least two antibiotics are required for stability, with greater numbers of antibiotics enabling more complex communities and diverse dynamical behaviors ranging from stable fixed-points to limit cycles and chaos. Together, these results show how multi-species antibiotic interactions can generate ecological stability in both spatial and mixed microbial communities, suggesting strategies for engineering synthetic ecosystems and highlighting the importance of toxin production and degradation for microbial biodiversity. PMID:25992546

  8. Monascus: a Reality on the Production and Application of Microbial Pigments.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Meinicke Bühler, Rose Marie; Cesar de Carvalho, Júlio; de Oliveira, Débora; Moritz, Denise Estevez; Schmidell, Willibaldo; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Monascus species can produce yellow, orange, and red pigments, depending on the employed cultivation conditions. They are classified as natural pigments and can be applied for coloration of meat, fishes, cheese, beer, and pates, besides their use in inks for printer and dyes for textile, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. These natural pigments also present antimicrobial activity on pathogenic microorganisms and other beneficial effects to the health as antioxidant and anticholesterol activities. Depending on the substrates, the operational conditions (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen), and fermentation mode (state solid fermentation or submerged fermentation), the production can be directed for one specific color dye. This review has a main objective to present an approach of Monascus pigments as a reality to obtaining and application of natural pigments by microorganisms, as to highlight properties that makes this pigment as promising for worldwide industrial applications. PMID:26472672

  9. Production of diagnostic pigment by phenoloxidase activity of cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Shaw, C E; Kapica, L

    1972-11-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans produces brown pigmented colonies when grown on agar media made from an extract of potatoes and carrots, broad beans (Vicia faba), or Guizotia abyssinica seeds. Since other yeasts do not produce the pigment, these media are useful as differential isolation media for C. neoformans. Similar specific pigment was produced by C. neoformans on chemically defined agar media which contained six different substrates of phenoloxidase (o-diphenol: oxygen oxidoreductase EC 1.10.3.1) an enzyme which catalyses the oxidation of o-diphenols to melanin. Substrates were incorporated singly into the media and included L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, catechol, norepinephrine, and 3-hydroxytyramine hydrochloride (dopamine). No pigment was produced on media without substrate. Phenoloxidase activity in (NH(4))(2)SO(4) precipitates of C. neoformans cell-free extract was assayed by measuring increases in absorbance at 480 nm produced in solutions of L-DOPA. This reaction showed oxygen uptake and was effectively inhibited by copper chelators, but not by catalase. The enzyme also oxidized the five other substrates which induced pigment formation. Electron micrographs of cells incubated in L-DOPA showed deposition of the pigment in the cell wall. PMID:4118328

  10. Effect of Monascus purpureus inoculum concentration on pigment production in jackfruit seed flour substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdiyati, Yanti; Kusnadi, Yuliani, Lia Amelia

    2016-02-01

    The used of synthetic dyes have various negative effects on human health. Roomates pigment produced by Monascus purpureus mold can be used as an alternative natural food coloring. The research on the effect of inoculum concentration's M. purpureus to pigment production on the jackfruit seed flour has been done. The objective of research to is to investigate the effect of inoculum concentration's M. purpureus to the production of red, yellow and orange pigment on the jackfruit seed flour. The concentrations used were 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (v/w). The result of the data analysed using One-Way ANOVA showed that the inoculum concentration affected the production of red pigment M. purpureus, as well as the data analysis using the Kruskal-Wallis showed that inoculum concentration has influence on the production of yellow and orange pigments. Inoculum concentration of 15% is the optimum concentration for the production of red, yellow and orange pigments with 0:10, 0:50 and 0:20 absorbance units per gram of sample respectively. Based on the results of the research, it can be concluded that inoculum concentration of M. purpureus influenced the production of red, yellow and orange pigments.

  11. Antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    ... or not using them properly, can add to antibiotic resistance. This happens when bacteria change and become able ... survive and re-infect you. Do not save antibiotics for later or use someone else's prescription. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  12. Controlled Antibiotic use during Fuel Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of fuel ethanol from corn feedstock is a rapidly growing industry in the US. The ability to make a profit in ethanol production from corn is marginal, and depends heavily on the sale of byproducts of the fermentation process. The fermentation reaction is optimized for yeast growth a...

  13. PLANT PIGMENT PRODUCTION AS AN INDICATOR OF PTGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    “Co-suppression” associated loss of flower pigmentation in petuna plants engineered to over-express chalcone synthase was one of the first clear indicators of the natural process of RNA-associated gene silencing in plants. We have been exploring the possible use of engineered anthocyanin over-produ...

  14. Background antibiotic resistance patterns in antibiotic-free pastured poultry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a significant public health issue, and agroecosystems are often viewed as major environmental sources of antibiotic resistant foodborne pathogens. While the use of antibiotics in agroecosystems can potentially increase AR, appropriate background resistance levels in th...

  15. Influence of Light Intensity on Growth and Pigment Production by Monascus ruber in Submerged Fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Rose Marie Meinicke; Müller, Bruna Luíse; Moritz, Denise Esteves; Vendruscolo, Francielo; de Oliveira, Debora; Ninow, Jorge Luiz

    2015-07-01

    To reduce environmental problems caused by glycerine accumulation and to make the production of biodiesel more profitable, crude glycerin without treatment was used as substrate for obtaining higher value-added bioproducts. Monascus ruber is a filamentous fungus that produces pigments, particularly red ones, which are used for coloring foods (rice wine and meat products). The interest in developing pigments from natural sources is increasing due to the restriction of using synthetic dyes. The effects of temperature, pH, microorganism morphology, aeration, nitrogen source, and substrates have been studied in the cultivation of M. ruber. In this work, it was observed that light intensity is also an important factor that should be considered for understanding the metabolism of the fungus. In M. ruber cultivation, inhibition of growth and pigment production was observed in Petri dishes and blaffed flasks exposed to direct illumination. Growth and pigment production were higher in Petri dishes and flasks exposed to red light and in the absence of light. Radial growth rate of M. ruber in plates in darkness was 1.50 mm day(-1) and in plates exposed to direct illumination was 0.59 mm day(-1). Maximum production of red pigments (8.32 UA) and biomass (8.82 g L(-1)) were obtained in baffled flasks covered with red film and 7.17 UA of red pigments, and 7.40 g L(-1) of biomass was obtained in flasks incubated in darkness. Under conditions of 1248 lux of luminance, the maximum pigment production was 4.48 UA, with production of 6.94 g L(-1) of biomass, indicating that the fungus has photoreceptors which influence the physiological responses. PMID:25957271

  16. Enhanced photo-fermentative hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus with pigment content manipulation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chao; Wang, Xueqing; Guo, Liejin; Wu, Xiaomin; Yang, Honghui

    2012-08-01

    High content of pigment in purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria hinders its photo-hydrogen production rate under intense light irradiation. In order to alleviate the light shielding effect and improve its photo-fermentative hydrogen production performance, pufQ, which is the regulatory gene of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis in Rhodobacter capsulatus, was cloned and relocated in the genome under cbb3 promoter by homologous recombination. The UV-vis spectra indicated that the light absorption of the mutant between 300 and 900 nm was reduced. Photo-hydrogen production experiments by the recombinant and wild type strain were carried out in 350 mL photo bioreactors using acetic and butyric acid as substrate. The results showed that the hydrogen production of recombinant with reduced pigment was 27% higher than that of its parental strain, indicating that it is effective on enhancing photo-fermentative hydrogen production by manipulating pigment biosynthesis in purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria. PMID:22717568

  17. Screening and productivity of penicillin antibiotic from Penicillium sp.

    PubMed

    Sivakumari, V; Dhinakaran, J; Rajendran, A

    2009-10-01

    This paper highlights the antagonism effect of Penicillium isolates, which were screened against the test organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Penicillium sp. Penicillium notatum and Penicillium chrysogenum isolates were used for penicillin biosynthesis. The antibacterial activities of fermented crude penicillin extract were assayed by disc diffusion method. Maximum antibacterial activity was observed in Gram positive organisms (Staphylococcus aureus) when compared with Gram negative organisms. The isolated Penicillium chrysogenum can be used for large-scale penicillin antibiotic production. PMID:21117415

  18. Distributions of pigments and primary production in a Gulf Stream meander

    SciTech Connect

    Lohrenz, S.E.; Cullen, J.J.; Phinney, D.A.; Olson, D.B.; Yentsch, C.S.

    1993-08-15

    An investigation was made of physical effects of Gulf Stream meandering on the vertical and horizontal distributions of photosynthetic pigments and primary production. Cruises were conducted in the vicinity of a meander east of 73{degrees}W and north of 37{degrees}N from September 21 to October 5 (leg 1) and October 12-21, 1988 (leg 2), on the R/V Cape Hatteras. Relationships of photosynthesis (normalized to chlorophyll) to irradiance (P-I) did not show large horizontal variation, and water column composite P-I curves from leg 1 and leg 2 were similar. Therefore, a single P-I curve derived from pooled data was used to model distributions of primary production. Distributions of photosynthetic pigments were characterized on the basis of in vivo fluorescence profiles and empirical relationships with extracted pigment concentrations. Subsurface irradiance was described using a spectral irradiance model. Cross sections of the Gulf Stream revealed consistently higher pigment concentrations and primary production on the slope water side. Along-stream variations in pigment distributions and primary production were apparently related to density structure influenced by meander circulation. Such variations were less pronounced during leg 2, which came after a transition from a well-defined meander interacting with a warm-core ring (leg 1) to a more linear stream (leg 2). Higher water-column-integrated primary production during leg 2 was attributed to mixing-induced nutrient injection and redistribution of chlorophyll in the photic zone. 47 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Luminescent photobioreactor design for improved algal growth and photosynthetic pigment production through spectral conversion of light.

    PubMed

    Mohsenpour, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Willoughby, Nik

    2013-08-01

    Growth characteristics of two strains of microalgae in bubble column photobioreactors were investigated under different cultivation conditions. Chlorella vulgaris and Gloeothece membranacea were cultivated in luminescent acrylic photobioreactors at different seed culture densities. Luminescent acrylic photobioreactors in blue, green, yellow, orange, and red colours capable of spectral conversion of light were used. The results indicated that the red luminescent photobioreactor enhanced biomass production in both strains of microalgae while pigmentation was induced under different light colours. Green light promoted chlorophyll production in C. vulgaris however chlorophyll production in G. membranacea cultures was less influenced by the light condition or culture density. Phycobiliproteins were the dominant pigments in G. membranacea and red light favoured synthesis of these pigments. PMID:23735796

  20. Stochastic modelling and control of antibiotic subtilin production.

    PubMed

    Thalhofer, V; Annunziato, M; Borzì, A

    2016-09-01

    A stochastic hybrid model for the production of the antibiotic subtilin by the Bacillus subtilis is investigated. This model consists of 5 variables with four possible discrete dynamical states and this high dimensionality represents a bottleneck for using statistical tools that require to solve the corresponding Fokker-Planck problem. For this reason, a suitable reduced model with 3 variables and two dynamical states is proposed. The corresponding Fokker-Planck hyperbolic system is used to validate the evolution statistics and to construct a robust feedback control strategy to increase subtilin production. Results of numerical experiments are presented that show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. PMID:26837869

  1. Photostability and breakdown products of pigments currently used in tattoo inks.

    PubMed

    Hauri, Urs; Hohl, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Tattoos fade with time. Part of this fading can be attributed to the photodegradation of pigments. When people get tired of their tattoos, removal by laser irradiation is the method of choice. In vivo laser irradiation of tattoos on mice has shown that the degradation of pigments can result in toxic compounds. Various in vitro studies on photodegradation by sunlight or laser have shown similar degradation products for both irradiations. Even visible light was shown to be able to decompose some pigments to toxic degradation products in vitro. Whereas the investigated phthalocyanins (C.I. 74160, 74260), quinacridones (C.I. 73915) or dioxazines (C.I. 51319) were fairly photostable in vitro, all azo pigments exposed to sunlight or laser were degraded into a variety of products, some of which were toxic or even carcinogenic, such as 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine and o-toluidine. Up to now, the absence of specific toxicological data is the reason why legal restrictions for tattoo inks are derived from those for cosmetics, toys and textiles. Photodegradation has not been considered. In light of the present analytical findings, even with their possible shortcomings, the evidence weighs heavily enough to consider banning azo pigments containing carcinogenic aromatic amines or allergens in their structure from use in tattoo inks. PMID:25833639

  2. PP-O and PP-V, Monascus pigment homologues, production, and phylogenetic analysis in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    PubMed

    Arai, Teppei; Kojima, Ryo; Motegi, Yoshiki; Kato, Jun; Kasumi, Takafumi; Ogihara, Jun

    2015-12-01

    The production of pigments as secondary metabolites by microbes is known to vary by species and by physiological conditions within a single strain. The fungus strain Penicillium purpurogenum IAM15392 has been found to produce violet pigment (PP-V) and orange pigment (PP-O),Monascus azaphilone pigment homologues, when grown under specific culture conditions. In this study, we analysed PP-V and PP-O production capability in seven strains of P. purpurogenum in addition to strain IAM15392 under specific culture conditions. The pigment production pattern of five strains cultivated in PP-V production medium was similar to that of strain IAM15392, and all violet pigments produced by these five strains were confirmed to be PP-V. Strains that did not produce pigment were also identified. In addition, two strains cultivated in PP-O production medium produced a violet pigment identified as PP-V. The ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences from the eight P. purpurogenum strains were sequenced and used to construct a neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree. PP-O and PP-V production of P. purpurogenum was shown to be related to phylogenetic placement based on rDNA ITS sequence. Based on these results, two hypotheses for the alteration of pigment production of P. purpurogenum in evolution were proposed. PMID:26615745

  3. Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Hariprasad, Seenu M; Mieler, William F

    2016-01-01

    The Endophthalmitis Vitrectomy Study (EVS) provided ophthalmologists with evidence-based management strategies to deal with endophthalmitis for the first time. However, since the completion of the EVS, numerous unresolved issues remain. The use of oral antibiotics has important implications for the ophthalmologist, particularly in the prophylaxis and/or management of postoperative, posttraumatic, or bleb-associated bacterial endophthalmitis. One can reasonably conclude that significant intraocular penetration of an antibiotic after oral administration may be a property unique to the newer-generation fluoroquinolones. Prophylactic use of mupirocin nasal ointment resulted in significant reduction of conjunctival flora with or without preoperative topical 5% povidone-iodine preparation. Ocular fungal infections have traditionally been very difficult to treat due to limited therapeutic options both systemically and intravitreally. Because of its broad spectrum of coverage, low MIC90 levels for the organisms of concern, good tolerability, and excellent bioavailability, voriconazole through various routes of administration may be useful to the ophthalmologist in the primary treatment of or as an adjunct to the current management of ocular fungal infections. PMID:26501865

  4. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: effects of light sources.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming

    2015-03-01

    This study is aimed at enhancing biomass and pigments production together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via different light sources. Red, yellow, blue, white LED and incandescent lamp were used. Results showed different light sources had great effects on the PSB. PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield with red LED. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2580 mg/L, 88.6% and 0.49 mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. The hydraulic retention time of wastewater treatment could be shortened to 72 h with red LED. Mechanism analysis showed higher ATP was produced with red LED than others. Light sources could significantly affect the pigments production. The pigments productions were greatly higher with LED than incandescent lamp. Yellow LED had the highest pigments production while red LED produced the highest carotenoid/bacteriochlorophyll ratio. Considering both efficiency and energy cost, red LED was the optimal light source. PMID:25575211

  5. From Discovery to Production: Biotechnology of Marine Fungi for the Production of New Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Silber, Johanna; Kramer, Annemarie; Labes, Antje; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics. Methods and technologies applied in marine fungal biotechnology largely derive from analogous terrestrial processes and rarely reflect the specific demands of the marine fungi. The current developments in metabolic engineering and marine microbiology are not yet transferred into processes, but offer numerous options for improvement of production processes and establishment of new process chains. This review summarises the current state in biotechnological production of marine fungal antibiotics and points out the enormous potential of biotechnology in all stages of the discovery-to-development pipeline. At the same time, the literature survey reveals that more biotechnology transfer and method developments are needed for a sustainable and innovative production of marine fungal antibiotics. PMID:27455283

  6. From Discovery to Production: Biotechnology of Marine Fungi for the Production of New Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Silber, Johanna; Kramer, Annemarie; Labes, Antje; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are well known for their capability of producing antibiotic natural products. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential of antimicrobials with vast chemodiversity from marine fungi. Development of such natural products into lead compounds requires sustainable supply. Marine biotechnology can significantly contribute to the production of new antibiotics at various levels of the process chain including discovery, production, downstream processing, and lead development. However, the number of biotechnological processes described for large-scale production from marine fungi is far from the sum of the newly-discovered natural antibiotics. Methods and technologies applied in marine fungal biotechnology largely derive from analogous terrestrial processes and rarely reflect the specific demands of the marine fungi. The current developments in metabolic engineering and marine microbiology are not yet transferred into processes, but offer numerous options for improvement of production processes and establishment of new process chains. This review summarises the current state in biotechnological production of marine fungal antibiotics and points out the enormous potential of biotechnology in all stages of the discovery-to-development pipeline. At the same time, the literature survey reveals that more biotechnology transfer and method developments are needed for a sustainable and innovative production of marine fungal antibiotics. PMID:27455283

  7. In Search of the E. coli Compounds that Change the Antibiotic Production Pattern of Streptomyces coelicolor During Inter-species Interaction.

    PubMed

    Mavituna, Ferda; Luti, Khalid Jaber Kadhum; Gu, Lixing

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the interaction between E.coli and Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) for the increased production of undecylprodigiosin and identify the E. coli actives mediating this inter-species interaction. The antibiotics of interest were the red-pigmented undecylprodigiosin and blue-pigmented actinorhodin. Pure cultures of S. coelicolor in a defined medium produced higher concentrations of actinorhodin compared to those of undecylprodigiosin. The latter however, is more important due to its immunosuppressive and antitumor properties. As a strategy to increase undecylprodigiosin production, we added separately, live cells and heat-killed cells of E. coli C600, and the cell-free supernatant of E. coli culture to S. coelicolor cultures in shake flasks. The interaction with live cells of E. coli altered the antibiotic production pattern and undecylprodigiosin production was enhanced by 3.5-fold compared to the pure cultures of S. coelicolor and actinorhodin decreased by 15-fold. The heat-killed cells of E. coli however, had no effect on antibiotic production. In all cases, growth and glucose consumption of S. coelicolor remained almost the same as those observed in the pure culture indicating that the changes in antibiotic production were not due to nutritional stress. Results with cell-free supernatant of E. coli culture indicated that the interaction between S. coelicolor and E. coli was mediated via diffusible molecule(s). Using a set of extraction procedures and agar-well diffusion bioassays, we isolated and preliminarily identified a class of compounds. For the preliminary verification, we added the compound which was the common chemical structural moiety in this class of compounds to the pure S. coelicolor cultures. We observed similar effects on antibiotic production as with the live E. coli cells and their supernatant indicating that this class of compounds secreted by E. coli indeed could act as actives during interspecies

  8. Effects of oxidative stress on the production of carotenoid pigments byPhaffia rhodozyma (Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous).

    PubMed

    Santopietro, L M; Spencer, J F; Spencer, D M; Siñeriz, F

    1998-01-01

    The resistance to killing by free radicals of two mutants ofPhaffia rhodozyma was determined. Mutant 5-7 did not produce astaxanthin but produced beta-carotene, while mutant 3-4 did not produce any carotenoid pigments. The resistance of mutant 5-7 was the same as that of the wild type but mutant 3-4 was rapidly killed. Carotenoid pigments increased the resistance to killing by free radicals. We investigated the effects of free radicals, generated by H(2)O(2) and Fe(2+) added to the medium, on wild-type cells and mutants ofP. rhodozyma. Unpigmented mutants of basidiomycetous yeasts (Rhodotorula spp. and others) are more susceptible to killing by UV-irradiation than the pigmented, wild-type strains. Therefore, we investigated the effect of free radicals on a similar basidiomycetous yeast,P. rhodozyma, a species of economic importance, in the biological production of astaxanthin. PMID:18470490

  9. Biological role of pigment production for the bacterial phytopathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mojtaba; Burbank, Lindsey; Roper, M Caroline

    2012-10-01

    Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii, the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, produces a yellow carotenoid pigment. A nonpigmented mutant was selected from a bank of mutants generated by random transposon mutagenesis. The transposon insertion site was mapped to the crtB gene, encoding a putative phytoene synthase, an enzyme involved in the early steps of carotenoid biosynthesis. We demonstrate here that the carotenoid pigment imparts protection against UV radiation and also contributes to the complete antioxidant pathway of P. stewartii. Moreover, production of this pigment is regulated by the EsaI/EsaR quorum-sensing system and significantly contributes to the virulence of the pathogen in planta. PMID:22820327

  10. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women Antibiotic Resistance Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... these products really help. To Learn More about Antibiotic Resistance Get Smart About Antibiotics (Video) Fact Sheets and ...

  11. Effect of oxygen supply on Monascus pigments and citrinin production in submerged fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; Chen, Qi; Wang, Weiping; Hu, Jiajun; Hu, Chuan

    2015-05-01

    The influence of oxygen supply on Monascus pigments and citrinin production by Monascus ruber HS.4000 in submerged fermentation was studied. For Monascus cultivation with high pigments and low citrinin production, the initial growth phase, mid-stage phase, and later-stage production phase were separated by shifting oxygen supply. The optimal condition for the fermentation process in shake-flask fermentation was a three-stage rotating rate controlled strategy (0-48 h at 150 rpm, 48-108 h at 250 rpm, 108-120 h at 200 rpm) with medium volume of 100 mL added to 250 mL Erlenmeyer flasks at 30°C for 120 h cultivation. Compared to constant one-stage cultivation (medium volume of 100 mL, rotating rate of 250 rpm), the pigments were reduced by 40.4%, but citrinin was reduced by 64.2%. The most appropriate condition for the fermentation process in a 10 L fermentor is also a three-stage aeration process (0-48 h at 300 L/h, 48-96 h at 500 L/h, 96-120 h at 200 L/h) with agitation of 300 rpm at 30°C for 120 h cultivation, and 237.3 ± 5.7 U/mL pigments were produced in 120 h with 6.05 ± 0.19 mg/L citrinin in a 10 L fermentor. Compared to aeration-constant (500 L/h) cultivation, pigment production was increased by 29.6% and citrinin concentration was reduced by 79.5%. PMID:25488498

  12. Biomass and pigments production in photosynthetic bacteria wastewater treatment: Effects of photoperiod.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qin; Zhang, Panyue; Zhang, Guangming; Peng, Meng

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at enhancing the bacterial biomass and pigments production in together with pollution removal in photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) wastewater treatment via using different photoperiods. Different light/dark cycles and light/dark cycle frequencies were examined. Results showed that PSB had the highest biomass production, COD removal and biomass yield, and light energy efficiency with light/dark cycle of 2h/1h. The corresponding biomass, COD removal and biomass yield reached 2068mg/L, 90.3%, and 0.38mg-biomass/mg-COD-removal, respectively. PSB showed higher biomass production and biomass yield with higher light/dark cycle frequency. Mechanism analysis showed within a light/dark cycle from 1h/2h to 2h/1h, the carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll production increased with an increase in light/dark cycle. Moreover, the pigment contents were much higher with lower frequency of 2-4 times/d. PMID:25958142

  13. The relationship between the violet pigment PP-V production and intracellular ammonium level in Penicillium purpurogenum.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Ryo; Arai, Teppei; Matsufuji, Hiroshi; Kasumi, Takafumi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Ogihara, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Penicillium purpurogenum is the fungus that produces an azaphilone pigment. However, details about the pigment biosynthesis pathway are unknown. The violet pigment PP-V is the one of the main pigments biosynthesized by this fungus. This pigment contains an amino group in a pyran ring as its core structure. We focused on this pigment and examined the relationship between intracellular ammonium concentration and pigment production using glutamine as a nitrogen source. The intracellular ammonium level decreased about 1.5-fold in conditions favoring PP-V production. Moreover, P. purpurogenum was transferred to medium in which it commonly produces the related pigment PP-O after cultivating it in the presence or absence of glutamine to investigate whether this fungus biosynthesizes PP-V using surplus ammonium in cells. Only mycelia cultured in medium containing 10 mM glutamine produced the violet pigment, and simultaneously intracellular ammonium levels decreased under this condition. From comparisons of the amount of PP-V that was secreted with quantity of surplus intracellular ammonium, it is suggested that P. purpurogenum maintains ammonium homeostasis by excreting waste ammonium as PP-V. PMID:27368914

  14. A New Method for Production of Titanium Dioxide Pigment - Eliminating CO2 Emission

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Zhigang Zak

    2013-11-05

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate the potential of a new process technology to reduce the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission from the production of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) pigment. TiO{sub 2} is one of the most commonly used minerals in the chemical manufacturing industry. It has been commercially processed as a pigment since the early 1900's, and has a wide variety of domestic and industrial applications. TiO{sub 2} pigment is currently produced primarily by the use of the so called chloride process. A key step of the chloride process relies on high temperature carbo-chlorination of TiO{sub 2} bearing raw materials, hence producing large quantities of CO{sub 2}. The new method uses a chemical/metallurgical sequential extraction methodology to produce pigment grade TiO{sub 2} from high-TiO{sub 2} slag. The specific project objectives were to 1) study and prove the scientific validity of the concept, 2) understand the primary chemical reactions and the efficiency of sequential extraction schemes, 3) determine the properties of TiO{sub 2} produced using the technology, and 4) model the energy consumptions and environmental benefits of the technology. These objectives were successfully met and a new process for producing commercial quality TiO{sub 2} pigment was developed and experimentally validated. The process features a unique combination of established metallurgical processes, including alkaline roasting of titania slag followed by leaching, solvent extraction, hydrolysis, and calcination. The caustic, acidic, and organic streams in the process will also be regenerated and reused in the process, greatly reducing environmental waste. The purpose and effect of each of these steps in producing purified TiO{sub 2} is detailed in the report. The levels of impurities in our pigment meet the requirements for commercial pigment, and are nearly equivalent to those of two commercial pigments. Solvent extraction with an amine extractant proved to

  15. Report: antibiotic production by thermophilic Bacillus specie SAT-4.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Syed Aun; Ahmad, Safia; Hameed, Abdul

    2009-07-01

    Production of antimicrobial compounds seems to be a general phenomenon for most bacteria. The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among key microbial pathogens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Current solutions involve development of a more rationale approach to antibiotic use and discover of new antimicrobials. Bacillus species produce a large number of biological compounds active against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The process of production usually involves screening of wide range of microorganisms, testing and modification. Production is carried out using fermentation. Thermophilic spore-forming, gram positive, motile rod bacterial strains were isolated from the Thar Desserts, Sindh Province, Pakistan. These strains were screened and checked for antibacterial activity. The best activity was observed by SAT4 against Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. The activity was only observed against gram positive bacteria and no activity was seen against Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Thermophilic Bacillus specie SAT4 was found to be active in the fermentation process to produce the antimicrobial agents. Further optimizations of different conditions (time of incubation, media, pH, glucose concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, and temperature) for antimicrobial production by the selected bacterial strain was performed. Agar diffusion assay was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity. Optimum conditions for the production of antimicrobials by selected isolate were observed to be 48 hour, pH 5, temperature 55 degrees C, 2% glucose and 1.5% nitrogen concentration. This newly isolated bacterial strain has great potential for antimicrobial production at industrial scale. PMID:19553186

  16. Presence and biological activity of antibiotics used in fuel ethanol and corn co-product production.

    PubMed

    Compart, D M Paulus; Carlson, A M; Crawford, G I; Fink, R C; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Dicostanzo, A; Shurson, G C

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotics are used in ethanol production to control bacteria from competing with yeast for nutrients during starch fermentation. However, there is no published scientific information on whether antibiotic residues are present in distillers grains (DG), co-products from ethanol production, or whether they retain their biological activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to quantify concentrations of various antibiotic residues in DG and determine whether residues were biologically active. Twenty distillers wet grains and 20 distillers dried grains samples were collected quarterly from 9 states and 43 ethanol plants in the United States. Samples were analyzed for DM, CP, NDF, crude fat, S, P, and pH to describe the nutritional characteristics of the samples evaluated. Samples were also analyzed for the presence of erythromycin, penicillin G, tetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin M1, using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Additionally, virginiamycin residues were determined, using a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved bioassay method. Samples were extracted and further analyzed for biological activity by exposing the sample extracts to 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/mL concentrations of sentinel bacterial strains Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Extracts that inhibited bacterial growth were considered to have biological activity. Physiochemical characteristics varied among samples but were consistent with previous findings. Thirteen percent of all samples contained low (≤1.12 mg/kg) antibiotic concentrations. Only 1 sample extract inhibited growth of Escherichia coli at 10(4) CFU/mL, but this sample contained no detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues. No extracts inhibited Listeria monocytogenes growth. These data indicate that the likelihood of detectable concentrations of antibiotic residues in DG is low; and if detected, they are found in very low concentrations. The inhibition in only 1 DG

  17. [Influence of personal attitude of the manager on antibiotic use in pig production].

    PubMed

    Malik, J; Kaufmann, G; Hirsiger, P; Kümmerlen, D; Arnold, C; Spring, P; Sidler, X

    2015-12-01

    The attitude as well as the expertise of a person affect the behavior and actions in daily life. To investigate the influence of attitude and knowledge of pig producers on the use of antibiotics in farms, 220 Swiss pig producers were questioned on health awareness, attitude towards sustainable production, risk behavior, intrinsic motivation and knowledge about antibiotics and resistance development. In addition, the strategy of antibiotic use (therapeutic or prophylactic) and the business practice (single or group therapy) for the amount of antibiotics on one hand and for the risk of antibiotic resistance development on the other hand, were determined in a personal interview. Farmers using antibiotics only therapeutically had a better business practice. A direct link between the personal attitude and the antibiotic use or a higher risk of development of antibiotic resistance was not found in this investigation. PMID:26891573

  18. Identification of serum and urine proteins responsible for enhanced pigment production by group B streptococci as amylases.

    PubMed

    Rosa-Fraile, M; Sampedro, A; Ruiz-Bravo, A; Sanbonmatsu, S; Gimenez-Gallego, G

    1996-09-01

    The serum and urine proteins responsible for enhanced pigment production in Streptococcus agalactiae in culture media were purified by chromatography and were identified as amylases by comparison of their amino acid composition with that calculated for proteins with known sequences. Similar pigment-enhancing activity was displayed by other amylases of nonanimal origin and by maltooligosaccharides. PMID:8877142

  19. 21 CFR 333.150 - Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labeling of first aid antibiotic drug products. 333.150 Section 333.150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE TOPICAL ANTIMICROBIAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE First Aid Antibiotic Drug Products §...

  20. Production of brown and black pigments by using flotation waste from copper slag.

    PubMed

    Ozel, Emel; Turan, Servet; Coruh, Semra; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2006-04-01

    One of the major problems in copper-producing countries is the treatment of the large amount of copper slag or copper flotation waste generated from copper slag which contains significant amounts of heavy metals such as Cu, Zn, Pb and Co. Dumping or disposal of such large quantities of flotation waste from copper slag causes environmental and space problems. In this study, the treatment of flotation waste from copper slag by a thermal method and its use as an iron source in the production of inorganic brown and black pigments that are used in the ceramic industry were investigated. The pigments were produced by calcining different amounts of flotation waste and chromite, Cr2O3, ZnO and CoO mixtures. The pigments obtained were added to transparent ceramic glazes and porcelainized tile bodies. Their colours were defined by L*a*b* measurements with a spectrophotometer. The results showed that flotation waste from copper slag could be used as an iron source to produce brown and black pigments in both ceramic body and glazes. PMID:16634227

  1. Algal pigments record shifts in dominant primary productivity through the Holocene in an arctic lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florian, C.; Miller, G. H.; Fogel, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The character and magnitude of primary productivity in arctic lakes is largely controlled by climate. Organic compounds derived from pigments and preserved in lake sediments allow reconstruction of past abundances of algae that do not leave silicious microfossils. Fossil algal pigments are abundant in lake sediment and can be accurately quantified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Several groups of algae produce unique pigments that can be used to reconstruct their past abundance. In Qivitu Highlands Lake, eastern central Baffin Island, the ratio of pigments diatoxantin and lutein exhibits coherent changes through the Holocene. Diatoxanthin is produced by diatoms and chrysophytes, whereas lutein is produced by green algae and higher plants. Because these pigments are the dominant carotenoids in the sediment, they serve as proxies for the dominant group of primary producers. During the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the past century, lutein is much more abundant than diatoxanthin. During Neoglacial cooling and into the Little Ice Age, diatoxanthin becomes the dominant carotenoid. This shift reveals that there was a change in not only the magnitude of algal production, but also the most abundant type. The adaptation of aquatic algal assemblages to changing climate suggests that gross changes in primary productivity may not be suitable to track the abundance of one type of algal microfossil (such as diatoms) without considering the other algal groups. Higher plants also produce lutein, and its abundance is additionally influenced by the presence of terrestrial organic matter as well as aquatic macrophyte plants. We hypothesize that the prevalence of lutein during warm summers is due to a longer ice-free season, allowing the development of a greater biomass of green algae and macrophyte plants as well as possible increases of terrestrial higher plant communities. This is part of a larger study where the lutein to diatoxanthin ratio is compared to organic

  2. Measurements of respirable dust and nanoparticle concentrations in a titanium dioxide pigment production factory.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng-Hsiung; Tai, Chih-Yuan; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Chen, Chun-Wan; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Shih, Tung-Sheng

    2010-08-01

    This study compared respirable dust and nanoparticle concentrations measured by different sampling devices at a titanium dioxide pigment factory. Respirable particle mass concentrations, nanoparticle concentrations, particle size distribution and particle metallic content were measured at different sampling locations. The sampling results of the Multi-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) showed that the particle size distribution at this titanium dioxide production factory fell in the range of 1-10 mu m. Generally, the higher levels of the respirable particle mass concentrations and nanoparticle number concentrations were near the packing site of the pigment titanium dioxide production factory. Metal analysis results revealed that the titanium dioxide concentrations in respirable dust and nanoparticles were within the limits specified by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). During sampling, particle metallic content analysis is essential for identifying the source of particles and for measuring respirable dust and nanoparticle concentrations. PMID:20623401

  3. Isolation, characterization, and production of red pigment from Cercospora piaropi a biocontrol agent for waterhyacinth.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Maricela Martínez; Bahena, Selenia Miranda; Espinoza, César; Trigos, Angel

    2010-04-01

    A red pigment produced by a Mexican isolate of Cercospora piaropi (waterhyacinth pathogen) has been isolated and identified as cercosporin. The kinetic of cercosporin production in culture media during dark/light regimes was evaluated. When C. piaropi was cultivated in continuous light and potato dextrose broth culture, a maximum of cercosporin production was observed (72.59 mg/l). Despite other reports, C piaropi Mexican isolate produce cercosporin in dark conditions (25.70 mg/l). The results suggest that production of cercosporin in C. piaropi-waterhyacinth pathogenesis is an important factor to take into account in biocontrol strategies. PMID:19941166

  4. Biomass Productivities in Wild Type and Pigment Mutant of Cyclotella sp. (Diatom)

    SciTech Connect

    Huesemann, Michael H.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Bartha, Richard; Aksoy, M.; Weissman, Joseph C.; Benemann, John

    2008-07-03

    Microalgae are expected to play a significant role in greenhouse gas mitigation because they can utilize CO2 from powerplant flue gases directly while producing a variety of renewable carbon-neutral biofuels. In order for such a microalgal climate change mitigation strategy to become economically feasible, it will be necessary to significantly improve biomass productivities. One approach to achieve this objective is to reduce, via mutagenesis, the number of light harvesting pigments, which, according to theory, should significantly improve the light utilization efficiency, primarily by increasing the light intensity at which photosynthesis saturates (Is). Employing chemical (ethylmethylsulfonate, EMS) and UV mutagenesis of a wild type strain of the diatom Cyclotella, approximately 10,000 pigment mutants were generated, and two of the most promising ones (CM1 and CM1-1) were subjected to further testing in both laboratory cultures and outdoor ponds. Measurements of photosynthetic oxygen production rates as a function of light intensity (i.e., P-I curves) of samples taken from laboratory batch cultures during the exponential and linear growth phase indicated that the light intensity at which photosynthesis saturates (Is) was two to three times greater in the pigment mutant CM1-1 than in the wild type, i.e., 355-443 versus 116-169 μmole/m2∙sec, respectively. While theory, i.e., the Bush equation, predicts that such a significant gain in Is should increase light utilization efficiencies and thus biomass productivities, particularly at high light intensities, no improvements in biomass productivities were observed in either semi-continuous laboratory cultures or outdoor ponds. In fact, the maximum biomass productivity in semi-continuous laboratory culture was always greater in the wild type than in the mutant, namely 883 versus 725 mg/L∙d, respectively at low light intensity (200 μmole/m2∙sec) and 1229 versus 1043 mg/L∙d, respectively at high light intensity

  5. Spectroscopic detection of a ubiquitous dissolved pigment degradation product in subsurface waters of the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röttgers, R.; Koch, B. P.

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of light absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from subsurface waters of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans showed a distinct absorption shoulder at 410-415 nm. This indicates an underlying absorption of a pigment whose occurrence is partly correlated with the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) but also found in the deep chlorophyll maximum. A similar absorption maximum at ~415 nm was also found in the particulate fraction of samples taken below the surface mixing layer and is usually attributed to absorption by respiratory pigments of heterotrophic unicellular organisms. In our study, fluorescence measurements of pre-concentrated dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples from 200-6000 m confirmed a previous study suggesting that the absorption at ~415 nm was related to fluorescence at 650 nm in the oxygen minimum zone. The absorption characteristics of this fluorophore was examined by fluorescence emission/excitation analysis and showed a clear excitation maximum at 415 nm that could be linked to the absorption shoulder in the CDOM spectra. The spectral characteristics of the substance found in the dissolved and particulate fraction did not match with those of chlorophyll a degradation products (as found in a sample from the sea surface) but can be explained by the occurrence of porphyrin pigments from either heterotrophs or autotrophs. Combining the observations of the fluorescence and the 415-nm absorption shoulder suggests that there are high concentrations of a pigment degradation product in subsurface DOM of all major oceans. Most pronouncedly we found this signal in the deep chlorophyll maximum and the oxygen minimum zone of tropical regions. The origin, chemical nature, turnover rate, and fate of this molecule is so far unknown.

  6. Indications for a ubiquitous dissolved pigment degradation product in subsurface waters of the global ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röttgers, R.; Koch, B. P.

    2011-10-01

    Measurements of light absorption by chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) from sub-surface waters of the tropical Atlantic and Pacific showed a distinct absorption shoulder at 410-415 nm, indicating an underlying absorption of a pigment. A similar absorption maximum at ~410 nm was also found in the particulate fraction and is usually attributed to absorption by respiratory pigments of heterotrophic unicellular organisms. The CDOM absorption shoulder was described earlier in the Indian Ocean at 600 m depth and was related to a "deep red fluorescence" found in the same depth, i.e. in the oxygen minimum zone (Breves et al., 2003; Broenkow et al., 1983). In our study, fluorescence measurements of pre-concentrated DOM samples confirmed that the absorption at ~410 nm was related to a specific fluorescence at 650 nm. The absorption characteristic of this specific fluorophor was examined by fluorescence emission/excitation analysis and this showed a clear excitation maximum at 415 nm (in methanol) that can explain the absorption shoulder in the CDOM spectra. The spectral characteristics of the substance found in the dissolved and particulate fraction did not match with those of chlorophyll a degradation products (as found in a sample from the sea surface) but can be explained by the occurrence of respiratory pigments from heterotrophs. Combining the observations of the "deep red fluorescence" and the 410 nm-absorption shoulder suggests that there are high concentrations of a pigment degradation product (cytochrome c) in DOM of all major oceans. Most pronouncedly we found this signal in the deep chlorophyll maximum and the oxygen minimum zone of tropical regions. The origin, chemical nature, turn-over rate, and fate of this molecule is so far unknown.

  7. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or unhealthy, it affects melanin production. Some pigmentation disorders affect just patches of ...

  8. Mobile antibiotic resistance - the spread of genes determining the resistance of bacteria through food products.

    PubMed

    Godziszewska, Jolanta; Guzek, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, more and more antibiotics have become ineffective in the treatment of bacterial nfections. The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is associated with circulation of genes in the environment. Determinants of antibiotic resistance may be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. It has been shown that conjugation is one of the key mechanisms responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance genes, which is highly efficient and allows the barrier to restrictions and modifications to be avoided. Some conjugative modules enable the transfer of plasmids even between phylogenetically distant bacterial species. Many scientific reports indicate that food is one of the main reservoirs of these genes. Antibiotic resistance genes have been identified in meat products, milk, fruits and vegetables. The reason for such a wide spread of antibiotic resistance genes is the overuse of antibiotics by breeders of plants and animals, as well as by horizontal gene transfer. It was shown, that resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements, which are isolated from food products, can easily be transferred to another niche. The antibiotic resistance genes have been in the environment for 30 000 years. Their removal from food products is not possible, but the risks associated with the emergence of multiresistant pathogenic strains are very large. The only option is to control the emergence, selection and spread of these genes. Therefore measures are sought to prevent horizontal transfer of genes. Promising concepts involve the combination of developmental biology, evolution and ecology in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27383577

  9. Use of 'natural' products as alternatives to antibiotic feed additives in ruminant production.

    PubMed

    Jouany, J-P; Morgavi, D P

    2007-11-01

    The banning in 2006 of the use of antibiotics as animal growth promoters in the European Union has increased demand from producers for alternative feed additives that can be used to improve animal production. This review gives an overview of the most common non-antibiotic feed additives already being used or that could potentially be used in ruminant nutrition. Probiotics, dicarboxylic acids, enzymes and plant-derived products including saponins, tannins and essential oils are presented. The known modes of action and effects of these additives on feed digestion and more especially on rumen fermentations are described. Their utility and limitations in field conditions for modern ruminant production systems and their compliance with the current legislation are also discussed. PMID:22444918

  10. Antibiotic resistance—consequences for animal health, welfare, and food production

    PubMed Central

    Bengtsson, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Most of the literature on the consequences of emergence and spread of bacteria resistant to antibiotics among animals relate to the potential impact on public health. But antibiotics are used to treat sick animals, and resistance in animal pathogens may lead to therapy failure. This has received little scientific attention, and therefore, in this article, we discuss examples that illustrate the possible impact of resistance on animal health and consequences thereof. For all animals, there may be a negative effect on health and welfare when diseases cannot be treated. Other consequences will vary depending on why and how different animal species are kept. Animals kept as companions or for sports often receive advanced care, and antibiotic resistance can lead to negative social and economic consequences for the owners. Further, spread of hospital-acquired infections can have an economic impact on the affected premises. As to animals kept for food production, antibiotics are not needed to promote growth, but, if infectious diseases cannot be treated when they occur, this can have a negative effect on the productivity and economy of affected businesses. Antibiotic resistance in animal bacteria can also have positive consequences by creating incentives for adoption of alternative regimes for treatment and prevention. It is probable that new antibiotic classes placed on the market in the future will not reach veterinary medicine, which further emphasizes the need to preserve the efficacy of currently available antibiotics through antibiotic stewardship. A cornerstone in this work is prevention, as healthy animals do not need antibiotics. PMID:24678738

  11. Evaluation of residual antibacterial potency in antibiotic production wastewater using a real-time quantitative method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Yu; Yang, Min; Liu, Miaomiao

    2015-11-01

    While antibiotic pollution has attracted considerable attention due to its potential in promoting the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment, the antibiotic activity of their related substances has been neglected, which may underestimate the environmental impacts of antibiotic wastewater discharge. In this study, a real-time quantitative approach was established to evaluate the residual antibacterial potency of antibiotics and related substances in antibiotic production wastewater (APW) by comparing the growth of a standard bacterial strain (Staphylococcus aureus) in tested water samples with a standard reference substance (e.g. oxytetracycline). Antibiotic equivalent quantity (EQ) was used to express antibacterial potency, which made it possible to assess the contribution of each compound to the antibiotic activity in APW. The real-time quantitative method showed better repeatability (Relative Standard Deviation, RSD 1.08%) compared with the conventional fixed growth time method (RSD 5.62-11.29%). And its quantification limits ranged from 0.20 to 24.00 μg L(-1), depending on the antibiotic. We applied the developed method to analyze the residual potency of water samples from four APW treatment systems, and confirmed a significant contribution from antibiotic transformation products to potent antibacterial activity. Specifically, neospiramycin, a major transformation product of spiramycin, was found to contribute 13.15-22.89% of residual potency in spiramycin production wastewater. In addition, some unknown related substances with antimicrobial activity were indicated in the effluent. This developed approach will be effective for the management of antibacterial potency discharge from antibiotic wastewater and other waste streams. PMID:26395288

  12. Effect of algae pigmentation on photobioreactor productivity and scale-up: A light transfer perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Thomas E.; Berberoğlu, Halil

    2011-12-01

    This paper reports a numerical study coupling light transfer with photosynthetic rate models to determine the size and microorganism concentration of photobioreactors based on the pigmentation of algae to achieve maximum productivity. The wild strain Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and its transformant tla1 with 63% lower pigmentation are used as exemplary algae. First, empirical models of the specific photosynthetic rates were obtained from experimental data as a function of local irradiance using inverse methods. Then, these models were coupled with the radiative transfer equation (RTE) to predict both the local and total photosynthetic rates in a planar photobioreactor (PBR). The optical thickness was identified as the proper scaling parameter. The results indicated that under full sunlight corresponding to about 400 W/m2 photosynthetically active irradiation, enhancement of PBR productivity up to 30% was possible with tla1. Moreover, under similar irradiation, optical thicknesses above 169 and 275 for the wild strain and tla1, respectively, did not further enhance PBR productivity. Based on these results guidelines are provided for maximizing PBR productivity from a light transport perspective.

  13. Strain Diversity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Group with Potential Blue Pigment Phenotype Isolated from Dairy Products.

    PubMed

    Chierici, Margherita; Picozzi, Claudia; La Spina, Marisa Grazia; Orsi, Carla; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambrini, Vittorio; Foschino, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    The blue discoloration in Mozzarella cheese comes from bacterial spoilage due to contamination with Pseudomonas. Fourteen Pseudomonas fluorescens strains from international collections and 55 new isolates of dominant bacterial populations from spoiled fresh cheese samples were examined to assess genotypic and phenotypic strain diversity. Isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and tested for the production of the blue pigment at various temperatures on Mascarpone agar and in Mozzarella preserving fluid (the salty water in which the cheese is conserved, which becomes enriched by cheese minerals and peptides during storage). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis after treatment with the endonuclease SpeI separated the isolates into 42 genotypes at a similarity level of 80%. Based on the pulsotype clustering, 12 representative strains producing the blue discoloration were chosen for the multilocus sequence typing targeting the gyrB, glnS, ileS, nuoD, recA, rpoB, and rpoD genes. Four new sequence typing profiles were discovered, and the concatenated sequences of the investigated loci grouped the tested strains into the so-called ''blue branch'' of the P. fluorescens phylogenetic tree, confirming the linkage between pigment production and a specific genomic cluster. Growth temperature affected pigment production; the blue discoloration appeared at 4 and 14°C but not at 30°C. Similarly, the carbon source influenced the phenomenon; the blue phenotype was generated in the presence of glucose but not in the presence of galactose, sodium succinate, sodium citrate, or sodium lactate. PMID:27497132

  14. Termite usage associated with antibiotic therapy: enhancement of aminoglycoside antibiotic activity by natural products of Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky 1855)

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Henrique DM; Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Lima, Micheline A; Almeida-Filho, Geraldo G; Alves, Rômulo RN

    2009-01-01

    Background Several species from Insecta are used as remedies. Among these species, the termite Nasutitermes corniger is commonly used in traditional medicine in Northeast Brazil. The present work tests the modifying antibiotic activity of Nasutitermes corniger, a termite used in folk medicine in Northeastern region of Brazil. Methods Chlorpromazine and decocts of N. corniger were collected from two different plant species used in the traditional medicine were tested for their antimicrobial activity against strains of Escherichia coli resistant to aminoglycosides. The growth of two bacterial strains of E. coli was tested using decocts and chlorpromazine alone or associeted with aminogycosides. Results The MIC and MBC values were ≥1024 μg/ml for both strains of E. coli assayed. A significant synergism was observed between both decocts and chlorpromazine when assyed with neomycin. This synergism with neomycin indicates the involvement of an efflux system in the resistance to this aminoglycoside. Conclusion Therefore it is suggested that natural products from N. corniger could be used as a source of zoo-derived natural products with modifying antibiotic activity to aminoglycosides, being a new weapon against the bacterial resistance to antibiotics. PMID:19761599

  15. Matrix Production, Pigment Synthesis, and Sporulation in a Marine Isolated Strain of Bacillus pumilus

    PubMed Central

    Di Luccia, Blanda; Riccio, Antonio; Vanacore, Adele; Baccigalupi, Loredana; Molinaro, Antonio; Ricca, Ezio

    2015-01-01

    The ability to produce an extracellular matrix and form multicellular communities is an adaptive behavior shared by many bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the model system for spore-forming bacteria, matrix production is one of the possible differentiation pathways that a cell can follow when vegetative growth is no longer feasible. While in B. subtilis the genetic system controlling matrix production has been studied in detail, it is still unclear whether other spore formers utilize similar mechanisms. We report that SF214, a pigmented strain of Bacillus pumilus isolated from the marine environment, can produce an extracellular matrix relying on orthologs of many of the genes known to be important for matrix synthesis in B. subtilis. We also report a characterization of the carbohydrates forming the extracellular matrix of strain SF214. The isolation and characterization of mutants altered in matrix synthesis, pigmentation, and spore formation suggest that in strain SF214 the three processes are strictly interconnected and regulated by a common molecular mechanism. PMID:26506360

  16. Antibiotics production by an actinomycete isolated from the termite gut.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Toru; Tanaka, Junichi; Namihira, Tomoyuki; Shinzato, Naoya

    2012-12-01

    As well as the search for new antibiotics, a new resource or strains for the known antibiotics is also important. Microbial symbionts in the gut of termites could be regarded as one of the feasible resource for such purpose. In this study, antibiotic-producing actinomycetes were screened from symbionts of the termite gut. 16SrRNA sequence analysis for the 10 isolates revealed that they belong to actinomycetes such as Streptomyces sp., Kitasatospora sp., and Mycobacterium sp. A culture broth from one of the isolate, namely strain CA1, belonging to the genera Streptomyces exhibited antagonistic activity against actinomycetes (Micrococcus spp.), gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.), and yeast (Candida spp.). The structures of 2 compounds isolated from the culture broth of the strain CA1 were identified as those of actinomycin X2 and its analog, D. This study is the first to report that some symbionts of the termite gut are antibiotic-producing actinomycetes, and suggest that the termite gut is a feasible resource for bioprospecting. PMID:22359219

  17. Regulation of production of the blue pigment indigoidine by the pseudo γ-butyrolactone receptor FarR2 in Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Yohanes Novi; Kitani, Shigeru; Iida, Aya; Maeda, Asa; Lycklama A Nijeholt, Jelger; Lee, Yong Jik; Nihira, Takuya

    2016-04-01

    The γ-butyrolactone autoregulator signaling cascade is widely distributed among Streptomyces species as an important regulatory system of secondary metabolism. In Streptomyces lavendulae FRI-5, a γ-butyrolactone autoregulator IM-2 and the IM-2 specific receptor FarA control production of the blue pigment indigoidine together with two types of antibiotics: d-cycloserine and the nucleoside antibiotics. Here, we demonstrated by in silico analysis that farR2 (a farA homologue), which is located in a cluster of regulatory genes including farA, belongs to the family of pseudoreceptor regulator genes, and that the expression of farR2 is controlled by the IM-2/FarA regulatory system. Disruption of farR2 resulted in delayed production of indigoidine and in transcriptional derepression of the clustered far regulatory genes. Moreover, FarR2 bound to the FarA-binding sequences in the promoter regions of the regulatory genes that were downregulated by FarR2. PMID:26375200

  18. The transport of antibiotic resistance genes and residues in groundwater near swine production facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. F.; Yannarell, A. C.; Mackie, R. I.; Krapac, I. G.; Chee-Sanford, J. S.; Koike, S.

    2008-12-01

    The use of antibiotics at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) for disease prevention, disease treatment, and growth promotion can contribute to the spread of antibiotic compounds, their breakdown products, and antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or the genes that confer resistance. In addition, constitutive use of antibiotics at sub-therapeutic levels can select for antibiotic resistance among the bacteria that inhabit animal intestinal tracts, onsite manure treatment facilities, and any environments receiving significant inputs of manure (e.g. through waste lagoon leakage or fertilizer amendments to farm soils). If the antibiotic resistant organisms persist in these new environments, or if they participate in genetic exchanges with the native microflora, then CAFOs may constitute a significant reservoir for the spread of antibiotic resistance to the environment at large. Our results have demonstrated that leakage from waste treatment lagoons can influence the presence and persistence of tetracycline resistance genes in the shallow aquifer adjacent to swine CAFOs, and molecular phylogeny allowed us to distinguish "native" tetracycline resistance genes in control groundwater wells from manure-associated genes introduced from the lagoon. We have also been able to detect the presence of erythromycin resistance genes in CAFO surface and groundwater even though erythromycin is strictly reserved for use in humans and thus is not utilized at any of these sites. Ongoing research, including modeling of particle transport in groundwater, will help to determine the potential spatial and temporal extent of CAFO-derived antibiotic resistance.

  19. Pigment production and isotopic fractionations in continuous culture: okenone producing purple sulfur bacteria Part II.

    PubMed

    Smith, D A; Steele, A; Fogel, M L

    2015-05-01

    Okenone is a carotenoid pigment unique to certain members of Chromatiaceae, the dominant family of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) found in euxinic photic zones. Diagenetic alteration of okenone produces okenane, the only recognized molecular fossil unique to PSB. The in vivo concentrations of okenone and bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) on a per cell basis were monitored and quantified as a function of light intensity in continuous cultures of the purple sulfur bacterium Marichromatium purpuratum (Mpurp1591). We show that okenone-producing PSB have constant bacteriochlorophyll to carotenoid ratios in light-harvesting antenna complexes. The in vivo concentrations of Bchl a, 0.151 ± 0.012 fmol cell(-1), and okenone, 0.103 ± 0.012 fmol cell(-1), were not dependent on average light intensity (10-225 Lux) at both steady and non-steady states. This observation revealed that in autotrophic continuous cultures of Mpurp1591, there was a constant ratio for okenone to Bchl a of 1:1.5. Okenone was therefore constitutively produced in planktonic cultures of PSB, regardless of light intensity. This confirms the legitimacy of okenone as a signature for autotrophic planktonic PSB and by extrapolation water column euxinia. We measured the δ(13)C, δ(15)N, and δ(34)S bulk biomass values from cells collected daily and determined the isotopic fractionations of Mpurp1591. There was no statistical relationship in the bulk isotope measurements or stable isotope fractionations to light intensity or cell density under steady and non-steady-state conditions. The carbon isotope fractionation between okenone and Bchl a with respect to overall bulk biomass ((13)ε pigment - biomass) was 2.2 ± 0.4‰ and -4.1 ± 0.9‰, respectively. The carbon isotopic fractionation (13ε pigment-CO2) for the production of pigments in PSB is more variable than previously thought with our reported values for okenone at -15.5 ± 1.2‰ and -21.8 ± 1.7‰ for Bchl a. PMID:25857754

  20. Spectral conversion of light for enhanced microalgae growth rates and photosynthetic pigment production.

    PubMed

    Mohsenpour, Seyedeh Fatemeh; Richards, Bryce; Willoughby, Nik

    2012-12-01

    The effect of light conditions on the growth of green algae Chlorella vulgaris and cyanobacteria Gloeothece membranacea was investigated by filtering different wavelengths of visible light and comparing against a model daylight source as a control. Luminescent acrylic sheets containing violet, green, orange or red dyes illuminated by a solar simulator produced the desired wavelengths of light for this study. From the experimental results the highest specific growth rate for C. vulgaris was achieved using the orange range whereas violet light promoted the growth of G. membranacea. Red light exhibited the least efficiency in conversion of light energy into biomass in both strains of microalgae. Photosynthetic pigment formation was examined and maximum chlorophyll-a production in C. vulgaris was obtained by red light illumination. Green light yielded the best chlorophyll-a production in G. membranacea. The proposed illumination strategy offers improved microalgae growth without resorting to artificial light sources, reducing energy use and costs of cultivation. PMID:23023239

  1. Simultaneous determination of red and yellow artificial food colourants and carotenoid pigments in food products.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yixiao; Zhang, Xiumei; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Xu, Zhimin

    2014-08-15

    A method for simultaneously determining four artificial food colourants [Red Nos. 2 (R2) and 40 (R40), Yellow Nos. 5 (Y5) and 6 (Y6)] and three carotenoids [lycopene, lutein, and β-carotene] was developed. They were successfully separated by the developed high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) method combined with a photo diode array detector. The detection limit (at signal to noise>4) was from the lowest of 0.2 ng/mL for lutein to the highest of 50.0 ng/mL for R40. With a two-phase solvent and ultrasound-assisted extraction, the recoveries of the artificial and natural pigments in fifteen different types of food products were between 80.5-97.2% and 80.1-98.4%, respectively. This HPLC method with the ultrasound-assisted extraction protocol could be used as a sensitive and reliable analysis technique in simultaneously identifying and quantifying the reddish and yellowish pigments in different foods regardless of they are artificial food colourants or/and natural carotenoids. PMID:24679817

  2. Novel Two-Component Systems Implied in Antibiotic Production in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Yepes, Ana; Rico, Sergio; Rodríguez-García, Antonio; Santamaría, Ramón I.; Díaz, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    The abundance of two-component systems (TCSs) in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) genome indicates their importance in the physiology of this soil bacteria. Currently, several TCSs have been related to antibiotic regulation, and the purpose in this study was the characterization of five TCSs, selected by sequence homology with the well-known absA1A2 system, that could also be associated with this important process. Null mutants of the five TCSs were obtained and two mutants (ΔSCO1744/1745 and ΔSCO4596/4597/4598) showed significant differences in both antibiotic production and morphological differentiation, and have been renamed as abr (antibiotic regulator). No detectable changes in antibiotic production were found in the mutants in the systems that include the ORFs SCO3638/3639, SCO3640/3641 and SCO2165/2166 in any of the culture conditions assayed. The system SCO1744/1745 (AbrA1/A2) was involved in negative regulation of antibiotic production, and acted also as a negative regulator of the morphological differentiation. By contrast, the system SCO4596/4597/4598 (AbrC1/C2/C3), composed of two histidine kinases and one response regulator, had positive effects on both morphological development and antibiotic production. Microarray analyses of the ΔabrC1/C2/C3 and wild-type transcriptomes revealed downregulation of actII-ORF4 and cdaR genes, the actinorhodin and calcium-dependent antibiotic pathway-specific regulators respectively. These results demonstrated the involvement of these new two-component systems in antibiotic production and morphological differentiation by different approaches. One is a pleiotropic negative regulator: abrA1/A2. The other one is a positive regulator composed of three elements, two histidine kinases and one response regulator: abrC1/C2/C3. PMID:21625497

  3. YS-822A, a new polyene macrolide antibiotic. I. Production, isolation, characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Itoh, A; Ido, J; Iwamoto, Y; Goshima, E; Miki, T; Hasuda, K; Hirota, H

    1990-08-01

    A new polyene macrolide antibiotic, YS-822A was isolated from the culture filtrate of a mutant strain H-8 of Streptoverticillium eurocidicum var. asterocidicus S-822. Whereas the original S-822 strain produced not only YS-822 substances but also teleocidin as by-product which is well-known as a strong carcinogenic promoter, the mutagenized H-8 strain produced the antibiotic with only a trace amount of teleocidin. Chemical and biological characterizations of the antibiotic revealed that YS-822A (molecular formula: C37H59NO14) is a new polyene macrolide with a wide antifungal spectrum and a low acute toxicity. PMID:2211361

  4. Occurrence of antibiotics and their impacts to primary productivity in fishponds around Tai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Chao; Zhang, Cong; Fan, Limin; Qiu, Liping; Wu, Wei; Meng, Shunlong; Hu, Gengdong; Kamira, Barry; Chen, Jiazhang

    2016-10-01

    Antibiotics are widely used to improve the health and yields of farmed animals, including fish, but their use is accompanied by undesirable ecological effects. Relatively little is known about the water-body burden of antibiotics and their influence on primary productivity in aquaculture ecosystem. In this study, antibiotics usage within 24 fishponds, covering 4 areas, sampled 5 times, and having 5 fish species, was investigated surrounding Tai Lake in China. The study analyzed 15 antibiotics (including 5 sulfonamides, 2 quinolones, 3 β-lactams, 3 tetracyclines, 1 amphenicol, and 1 macrolide), and all of them were detected in water samples, with a detection frequency of 2-60%. Sulfonamides were the most prevalent, and concentrations of sulfamethoxazole, sulfamonomethoxine, and florfenicol being over 2000 ng L(-1) in some samples, while the other antibiotics levels ranged from ND (no detection) to 551.18 ng L(-1). Significant differences were observed in antibiotic burden among different regions for total antibiotics, sulfonamides, quinolones, and amphenicols; among time points for quinolones, β-lactams, and tetracyclines; and among species for quinolones and macrolides. Furthermore, basing on the risk quotient (RQ) method, the assessment revealed that florfenicol was of highest risk to algae with RQ values exceeding 0.1, while macrolide erythromycin posed the second highest risk. The partial correlation coefficient between total antibiotics and chlorophyll (a) was -0.035 that clearly indicated total antibiotics were detrimental to green algae growth, while the nutrient input and other physical - chemical factors were much more beneficial. Overall, holistic far-reaching measures of antibiotics control are recommended to preserve aquaculture ecosystem health. PMID:27424054

  5. The comparison of laser surface designing and pigment printing methods for the product quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozguney, Arif Taner

    2007-07-01

    Developing new designs by using the computer and transferring the designs that are obtained to textile surfaces will not only increase and facilitate the production in a more practical manner, but also help you create identical designs. This means serial manufacturing of the products at standard quality and increasing their added values. Moreover, creating textile designs using the laser will also contribute to the value of the product as far as the consumer is concerned because it will not cause any wearing off and deformation in the texture of the fabric unlike the other methods. In the system that has been designed, the laser beam at selected wavelength and intensity was directed onto a selected textile surface and a computer-controlled laser beam source was used to change the colour substances on the textile surface. Pigment printing is also used for designing in textile and apparel sector. In this method, designs are transferred to the fabric manually by using dyestuff. In this study, the denim fabric used for the surfacing trial was 100% cotton, with a weft count per centimeter of 20 and a warp count per centimeter of 27, with fabric weight of 458 g/m 2. The first step was to prepare 40 pieces of denim samples, half of which were prepared manually pigment printing and the other half by using the laser beam. After this, some test applications were done. The tensile strength, tensile extension and some fastness values of designed pieces with two methods were compared according to the international standards.

  6. A chalcone isomerase-like protein enhances flavonoid production and flower pigmentation.

    PubMed

    Morita, Yasumasa; Takagi, Kyoko; Fukuchi-Mizutani, Masako; Ishiguro, Kanako; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Nitasaka, Eiji; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Saito, Norio; Kagami, Takashi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Iida, Shigeru

    2014-04-01

    Flavonoids are major pigments in plants, and their biosynthetic pathway is one of the best-studied metabolic pathways. Here we have identified three mutations within a gene that result in pale-colored flowers in the Japanese morning glory (Ipomoea nil). As the mutations lead to a reduction of the colorless flavonoid compound flavonol as well as of anthocyanins in the flower petal, the identified gene was designated enhancer of flavonoid production (EFP). EFP encodes a chalcone isomerase (CHI)-related protein classified as a type IV CHI protein. CHI is the second committed enzyme of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, but type IV CHI proteins are thought to lack CHI enzymatic activity, and their functions remain unknown. The spatio-temporal expression of EFP and structural genes encoding enzymes that produce flavonoids is very similar. Expression of both EFP and the structural genes is coordinately promoted by genes encoding R2R3-MYB and WD40 family proteins. The EFP gene is widely distributed in land plants, and RNAi knockdown mutants of the EFP homologs in petunia (Petunia hybrida) and torenia (Torenia hybrida) had pale-colored flowers and low amounts of anthocyanins. The flavonol and flavone contents in the knockdown petunia and torenia flowers, respectively, were also significantly decreased, suggesting that the EFP protein contributes in early step(s) of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway to ensure production of flavonoid compounds. From these results, we conclude that EFP is an enhancer of flavonoid production and flower pigmentation, and its function is conserved among diverse land plant species. PMID:24517863

  7. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established. PMID:26686009

  8. Skin Pigment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Pigment Disorders Overview of Skin Pigment Albinism Vitiligo Hyperpigmentation Melasma Melanin is the brown pigment ... dark-skinned people produce the most. People with albinism have little or no melanin and thus their ...

  9. Monitoring of Antibiotic Residues in Aquatic Products in Urban and Rural Areas of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Kotaro; Konishi, Yoshimasa; Harada, Kazuo; Okihashi, Masahiro; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Do, Mai Hoang Ngoc; Thi Bui, Long; Duc Nguyen, Thinh; Do Nguyen, Phuc; Thi Khong, Diep; Thi Tran, Hoa; Nam Nguyen, Thang; Viet Le, Ha; Van Chau, Vien; Thi Van Dao, Khanh; Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Hue; Kajimura, Keiji; Kumeda, Yuko; Tran Pham, Khanh; Ngoc Pham, Khai; Trong Bui, Chien; Quang Vien, Mai; Hoang Le, Ninh; Van Dang, Chinh; Hirata, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2016-08-10

    Antibiotic residues in aquatic products in Vietnam were investigated. A total of 511 fish and shrimp samples were collected from markets in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Thai Binh (TB), and Nha Trang (NT) from July 2013 to October 2015. The samples were extracted with 2% formic acid in acetonitrile and washed with dispersive C18 sorbent. Thirty-two antibiotics were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Of the 362 samples from HCMC, antibiotic residues were found in 53 samples. Enrofloxacin was commonly detected, at a rate of 10.8%. In contrast, samples from TB and NT were less contaminated: only 1 of 118 analyzed samples showed residues in TB and only 1 of 31 showed residues in NT. These differences were attributed to the local manufacturing/distribution systems. To understand the current status of antibiotic use and prevent adverse effects that may be caused by their overuse, continual monitoring is required. PMID:27160655

  10. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O’Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi. PMID:27143514

  11. Identification and manipulation of the pleuromutilin gene cluster from Clitopilus passeckerianus for increased rapid antibiotic production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Andy M.; Alberti, Fabrizio; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Collins, Catherine M.; de Mattos-Shipley, Kate; Hartley, Amanda J.; Hayes, Patrick; Griffin, Alison; Lazarus, Colin M.; Cox, Russell J.; Willis, Christine L.; O’Dwyer, Karen; Spence, David W.; Foster, Gary D.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-synthetic derivatives of the tricyclic diterpene antibiotic pleuromutilin from the basidiomycete Clitopilus passeckerianus are important in combatting bacterial infections in human and veterinary medicine. These compounds belong to the only new class of antibiotics for human applications, with novel mode of action and lack of cross-resistance, representing a class with great potential. Basidiomycete fungi, being dikaryotic, are not generally amenable to strain improvement. We report identification of the seven-gene pleuromutilin gene cluster and verify that using various targeted approaches aimed at increasing antibiotic production in C. passeckerianus, no improvement in yield was achieved. The seven-gene pleuromutilin cluster was reconstructed within Aspergillus oryzae giving production of pleuromutilin in an ascomycete, with a significant increase (2106%) in production. This is the first gene cluster from a basidiomycete to be successfully expressed in an ascomycete, and paves the way for the exploitation of a metabolically rich but traditionally overlooked group of fungi.

  12. [Use of hydrogen peroxide in the treatment of sewage in antibiotic production].

    PubMed

    Polunina, E E; Zav'ialova, E V; Shchipanov, N P; Savina, N N

    1996-03-01

    The possible use of hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant in the local treatment of the sewage in antibiotic production was investigated. The data on oxidation of SASs and other pollutants in antibiotic production by hydrogen peroxide alone or in the presence of ferrous sulfate as a homogenous catalyst are presented. The influence of the sewage preliminary treatment by hydrogen peroxide on the foaming was studied. It was shown advisable to use the described process for the local treatment as the first stage followed by the sewage electrochemical treatment. PMID:8967796

  13. Prevalence of Veterinary Antibiotics and Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in the Surface Water of a Livestock Production Region in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuelian; Li, Yanxia; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing; Feng, Chenghong; Gao, Min; Wang, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs) and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L−1. The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment. PMID:25372873

  14. Relative contributions of pigments and biophotonic nanostructures to natural color production: a case study in budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) feathers.

    PubMed

    D'Alba, Liliana; Kieffer, Leah; Shawkey, Matthew D

    2012-04-15

    Understanding the mechanistic bases of natural color diversity can provide insight into its evolution and inspiration for biomimetic optical structures. Metazoans can be colored by absorption of light from pigments or by scattering of light from biophotonic nanostructures, and these mechanisms have largely been treated as distinct. However, the interactions between them have rarely been examined. Captive breeding of budgerigars (Aves, Psittacidae, Melopsittacus undulatus) has produced a wide variety of color morphs spanning the majority of the spectrum visible to birds, including the ultraviolet, and thus they have been used as examples of hypothesized structure-pigment interactions. However, empirical data testing these interactions in this excellent model system are lacking. Here we used ultraviolet-visible spectrometry, light and electron microscopy, pigment extraction experiments and optical modeling to examine the physical bases of color production in seven budgerigar morphs, including grey and chromatic (purple to yellow) colors. Feathers from all morphs contained quasi-ordered air-keratin 'spongy layer' matrices, but these were highly reduced and irregular in grey and yellow feathers. Similarly, all feathers but yellow and grey had a layer of melanin-containing melanosomes basal to the spongy layer. The presence of melanosomes likely increases color saturation produced by spongy layers whereas their absence may allow increased expression of yellow colors. Finally, extraction of yellow pigments caused some degree of color change in all feathers except purple and grey, suggesting that their presence and contribution to color production is more widespread than previously thought. These data illustrate how interactions between structures and pigments can increase the range of colors attainable in birds and potentially in synthetic systems. PMID:22442364

  15. ARS Research Review on "Recent progress in developing alternative strategies to antibiotics in poultry production"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global animal industry needs to address the increasing regulatory restrictions on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in animal production. Many AGPs have already been restricted by animal farms in the European Union and soon other countries are expected to be under increasing scrutin...

  16. Nannochloropsis sp. biomass recovery by Electro-Coagulation for biodiesel and pigment production.

    PubMed

    Matos, C T; Santos, M; Nobre, B P; Gouveia, L

    2013-04-01

    Biofuel production from microalgal biomass could be an alternative solution to conventional biofuels typically dependent on food and high land/water demanding crops. However, the economic and energetic viability of microalgal biofuels is limited by their harvesting processes. The finding of innovative, low cost and efficient harvesting method(s) is imperative. In this study, the Electro-Coagulation (EC) was studied as a process to harvest the marine Nannochloropsis sp. microalga. Several EC operational conditions were studied and the best EC recovery efficiency (>97%) was achieved using a current density of 8.3 mA cm(-2) for 10 min. The quality of the recovered microalgal biomass was evaluated in terms of total lipids, fatty acid and pigment profile where no significant differences were observed after EC treatment. The energy requirements of the harvesting process were estimated and the combination of EC and centrifugation processes proved to decrease significantly the energy demand when compared with the individual process. PMID:23500578

  17. High value pigment production from Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis cultured in seawater.

    PubMed

    Leema, J T Mary; Kirubagaran, R; Vinithkumar, N V; Dheenan, P S; Karthikayulu, S

    2010-12-01

    The prospects of utilizing pretreated seawater for the culture of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis was evaluated under laboratory conditions with three seawater media and a control: (1) Zarrouk media (freshwater-control) (2) seawater media SW 1 (3) seawater media SW2 and (4) seawater media SW 3. The relative performance of these media were investigated with respect to their biomass production, pigment production (phycocyanin, lutein and betacarotene), and biochemical composition. A. platensis grown in media SW 2 had a biomass production (2.99+/-0.145 g L(-1)) comparable to that of control media (3.114+/-0.085 g L(-1)); highest specific growth rate (0.255 d(-1)) and lowest doubling time (2.720 days). Phycocyanin content of the cells grown in seawater media SW 3(81.85%) was closer to that of control. Similarly the purity ratio of phycocyanin produced from cells grown in seawater media SW 3 and control were closer to 4, while the phycocyanin obtained from cells grown in other two media exhibited lower purity ratios due to accumulation of lower molecular weight carbohydrates. The phycocyanin/Chl-a ratio and the betacarotene/Chl-a ratio of the cells grown in seawater media were higher than control. The lutein content of A. platensis cells grown in seawater media SW 2 was higher than that of control. The cells grown in seawater media had a slightly modified biochemical composition than the control with a higher carbohydrate and lower protein content. All the three seawater based media with fewer chemicals than the control (Zarrouk media) supported the growth of A. platensis as good as the control. PMID:20655201

  18. Nutrient availability affects pigment production but not growth in lichens of biological soil crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowker, M.A.; Koch, G.W.; Belnap, J.; Johnson, N.C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that micronutrients such as Mn may limit growth of slow-growing biological soil crusts (BSCs) in some of the drylands of the world. These soil surface communities contribute strongly to arid ecosystem function and are easily degraded, creating a need for new restoration tools. The possibility that Mn fertilization could be used as a restoration tool for BSCs has not been tested previously. We used microcosms in a controlled greenhouse setting to investigate the hypothesis that Mn may limit photosynthesis and consequently growth in Collema tenax, a dominant N-fixing lichen found in BSCs worldwide. We found no evidence to support our hypothesis; furthermore, addition of other nutrients (primarily P, K, and Zn) had a suppressive effect on gross photosynthesis (P = 0.05). We also monitored the growth and physiological status of our microcosms and found that other nutrients increased the production of scytonemin, an important sunscreen pigment, but only when not added with Mn (P = 0.01). A structural equation model indicated that this effect was independent of any photosynthesis-related variable. We propose two alternative hypotheses to account for this pattern: (1) Mn suppresses processes needed to produce scytonemin; and (2) Mn is required to suppress scytonemin production at low light, when it is an unnecessary photosynthate sink. Although Mn fertilization does not appear likely to increase photosynthesis or growth of Collema, it could have a role in survivorship during environmentally stressful periods due to modification of scytonemin production. Thus, Mn enrichment should be studied further for its potential to facilitate BSC rehabilitation. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Antibiotics and bioactive natural products in treatment of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A brief review

    PubMed Central

    Kali, Arunava

    2015-01-01

    Infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus strains with Methicillin resistance are associated with increased mortality and morbidity, aggressive course, multiple drug resistance and hospital outbreaks. Several first and second line antibiotics are rapidly becoming ineffective for treatment due to emergence of resistance. Extracts of medicinal plants are rich source of unique phytochemicals. Plants used in traditional medicine have been reported to have significant anti-MRSA activity. The objective of this review is to provide a brief overview of antibiotics as well as anti-MRSA natural products and their future prospect. PMID:26009690

  20. Cold drugs. Circulation, production and intelligence of antibiotics in post-WWII years.

    PubMed

    Capocci, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The paper details how the earliest antibiotics were subject to a strict control during the earliest phase of the Cold War. Because of antibiotics strategic and economic value, Anglo-American Governments restricted circulation of scientists, techno-scientific know-how and technology related to penicillin production, as well as closely controlling the circulation of the drugs in the Communist countries. These efforts are documented by archival documents, testifying how drugs were actual instruments of propaganda and political strategies, affecting pharmaceutical development both in the Western and the Eastern bloc. PMID:26054208

  1. 37 CFR 1.775 - Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... Review § 1.775 Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological... drug or human biological product is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time...

  2. 37 CFR 1.775 - Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... Review § 1.775 Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological... drug or human biological product is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time...

  3. 37 CFR 1.775 - Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... Review § 1.775 Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological... drug or human biological product is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time...

  4. 37 CFR 1.775 - Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... Review § 1.775 Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological... drug or human biological product is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time...

  5. 37 CFR 1.775 - Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological product. 1.775 Section 1.775 Patents... Review § 1.775 Calculation of patent term extension for a human drug, antibiotic drug or human biological... drug or human biological product is eligible for extension, the term shall be extended by the time...

  6. Production of peptide antibiotics by Bacillus sp. GU 057 indigenously isolated from saline soil

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Ehsanullah, Malik; Haroon, Uzma; Azam, Sheikh Muhammad Farooq; Hameed, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    A total of 112 soil samples were taken from differents areas of district D.I.Khan and Kohat (KPK) Pakistan and screened for production of antibiotics against the Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. Widest zone of inhibition (18mm) was produced by microorganism isolated from saline soil. The strain was later identified as Bacillus GU057 by standard biochemical assays. Maximum activity (18mm inhibition zone) was observed against Staphylococcus aureus after 48 hours of incubation at pH 8 and 4% concentration of glucose. The antibiotic was identified by autobiography as bacitracin. The Bacillus strain GU057 was confirmed as good peptide antibiotic producer and can effectively be indulged as biocontrol agent. PMID:24031962

  7. Production of peptide antibiotics by Bacillus sp. GU 057 indigenously isolated from saline soil.

    PubMed

    Amin, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Ehsanullah, Malik; Haroon, Uzma; Azam, Sheikh Muhammad Farooq; Hameed, Abdul

    2012-10-01

    A total of 112 soil samples were taken from differents areas of district D.I.Khan and Kohat (KPK) Pakistan and screened for production of antibiotics against the Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus. Widest zone of inhibition (18mm) was produced by microorganism isolated from saline soil. The strain was later identified as Bacillus GU057 by standard biochemical assays. Maximum activity (18mm inhibition zone) was observed against Staphylococcus aureus after 48 hours of incubation at pH 8 and 4% concentration of glucose. The antibiotic was identified by autobiography as bacitracin. The Bacillus strain GU057 was confirmed as good peptide antibiotic producer and can effectively be indulged as biocontrol agent. PMID:24031962

  8. Lysozyme as an alternative to growth promoting antibiotics in swine production.

    PubMed

    Oliver, W T; Wells, J E

    2015-01-01

    Lysozyme is a naturally occurring enzyme found in bodily secretions such as tears, saliva, and milk. It functions as an antimicrobial agent by cleaving the peptidoglycan component of bacterial cell walls, which leads to cell death. Antibiotics are also antimicrobials and have been fed at subtherapeutic levels to swine as growth promoters. These compounds benefit swine producers by minimizing production losses by increasing feed efficiency and decreasing susceptibility to bacterial infection and disease. This manuscript reviews the knowledge of the effects of lysozyme, as compared to traditional subtherapeutic antibiotics in swine feed, on pig performance and health. It is clear from decades of studies that antibiotic use in feeds increases pig performance, particularly in the nursery. Similarly, lysozyme, as a feed additive, increases growth and feed efficiency. While the mechanism by which antibiotics and lysozyme improve performance is not clearly understood, both of these feed additives improve gastrointestinal health, improve the metabolic profile, and alter the gastrointestinal bacteria ecology of swine. Therefore, lysozyme is a suitable alternative to growth-promoting subtherapeutic antibiotic use in swine feed. PMID:26273432

  9. The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites

    PubMed Central

    Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Mareckova-Sagova, Marketa; Hubert, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and associated bacterial community structure were assessed. Mites were treated by antibiotic supplementation (1 mgg−1 of diet) for 21 days and numbers of mites and bacterial communities were analyzed and compared to the untreated control. Bacterial quantities, determined by real-time PCR, significantly decreased in antibiotic treated specimens from 5 to 30 times in A. siro and T. putrescentiae, while no decline was observed in L. destructor. Streptomycin treatment eliminated Bartonella-like bacteria in the both A. siro and T. putrescentiae and Cardinium in T. putrescentiae. Solitalea-like bacteria proportion increased in the communities of neomycin and streptomycin treated A. siro specimens. Kocuria proportion increased in the bacterial communities of ampicillin and streptomycin treated A. siro and neomycin and streptomycin treated L. destructor. Conclusions/Significance The work demonstrated the changes of mite associated bacterial community under antibiotic pressure in pests of medical importance. Pre-treatment of mites by 1 mgg−1 antibiotic diets improved mite fitness as indicated accelerated population growth of A. siro pretreated streptomycin and neomycin and L. destructor pretreated by neomycin. All tested antibiotics supplemented to diets caused the decrease of mite growth rate in comparison to the control diet. PMID:25387104

  10. Skin pigmentation evaluation in broilers fed natural and synthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-01-01

    Broiler carcass skin color is important in the United States and Mexico. This study evaluated the use of natural and synthetic pigments in broiler diets at commercial levels. Birds were fed natural or synthetic pigments at low or high levels, simulating US and Mexican commercial practices. Skin color was measured during live production (3 to 7 wk of age) and after slaughter and chilling. The natural pigments had consistently greater skin b* values (yellowness) than the synthetic pigments. The high levels produced greater skin b* values than the low levels, regardless of source. The synthetic pigments had a slower increase in skin b* but reached the same level as the natural low by 7 wk. There was no difference in skin a* values (redness) due to pigment source or level or the age of the bird. By 7 wk, all pigment sources approached plateau levels in the blood, but the synthetic pigment diet produced higher blood levels of yellow and red pigments than the natural pigment diets. Processing intensified skin yellowness and reduced skin redness. These data suggest that although synthetic pigments might have been absorbed better than natural ones, natural pigments were more efficient at increasing skin yellowness and there were only small differences between high and low levels for each pigment source. This finding may allow reduction in pigment use and feed cost to achieve the same skin acceptance by the consumer. PMID:15685954

  11. Production of phycocyanin--a pigment with applications in biology, biotechnology, foods and medicine.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Niels T

    2008-08-01

    C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a blue pigment in cyanobacteria, rhodophytes and cryptophytes with fluorescent and antioxidative properties. C-PC is presently extracted from open pond cultures of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis although these cultures are not very productive and open for contaminating organisms. C-PC is considered a healthy ingredient in cyanobacterial-based foods and health foods while its colouring, fluorescent or antioxidant properties are utilised only to a minor extent. However, recent research and developments in C-PC synthesis and functionality have expanded the potential applications of C-PC in biotechnology, diagnostics, foods and medicine: The productivity of C-PC has been increased in heterotrophic, high cell density cultures of the rhodophyte Galdieria sulphuraria that are grown under well-controlled and axenic conditions. C-PC purification protocols based on various chromatographic principles or novel two-phase aqueous extraction methods have expanded in numbers and improved in performance. The functionality of C-PC as a fluorescent dye has been improved by chemical stabilisation of C-PC complexes, while protein engineering has also introduced increased stability and novel biospecific binding sites into C-PC fusion proteins. Finally, our understanding of the physiological functions of C-PC in humans has been improved by a mechanistic hypothesis that links the chemical properties of the phycocyanobilin chromophores of C-PC to the natural antioxidant, bilirubin, and may explain the observed health benefits of C-PC intake. This review outlines how C-PC is produced and utilised and discusses the novel C-PC synthesis procedures and applications. PMID:18563408

  12. Natural Products as a Source for Novel Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Mark G

    2016-08-01

    Natural products have historically been of crucial importance in the identification and development of antibacterial agents. Interest in these systems has waned in recent years, but the rapid emergence of resistant bacterial strains has forced their re-evaluation as a route to identify novel chemical skeletons with antibacterial activity for elaboration in drug development. This overview examines the current situation, highlights new natural product systems which have been found, together with re-examination of some old ones, and new technologies for their identification. While natural products certainly have the potential to re-emerge as a key start-point in antibacterial drug discovery, reports of new or reinvestigated structures need to be supported with sufficient quality chemical (solubility, stability), biochemical (including toxicity in particular, along with target information) and microbiological [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and resistance frequency] validation data to assist in the identification of promising hit structures and to avoid wasted effort from trawling over already cultivated territory. This is particularly important in a resource-limited research environment. PMID:27267698

  13. Novel Approach for Improving the Productivity of Antibiotic-Producing Strains by Inducing Combined Resistant Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haifeng; Ochi, Kozo

    2001-01-01

    We developed a novel approach for improving the production of antibiotic from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) by inducing combined drug-resistant mutations. Mutants with enhanced (1.6- to 3-fold-higher) actinorhodin production were detected at a high frequency (5 to 10%) among isolates resistant to streptomycin (Strr), gentamicin (Genr), or rifampin (Rifr), which developed spontaneously on agar plates which contained one of the three drugs. Construction of double mutants (str gen and str rif) by introducing gentamicin or rifampin resistance into an str mutant resulted in further increased (1.7- to 2.5-fold-higher) actinorhodin productivity. Likewise, triple mutants (str gen rif) thus constructed were found to have an even greater ability for producing the antibiotic, eventually generating a mutant able to produce 48 times more actinorhodin than the wild-type strain. Analysis of str mutants revealed that a point mutation occurred within the rpsL gene, which encodes the ribosomal protein S12. rif mutants were found to have a point mutation in the rpoB gene, which encodes the β-subunit of RNA polymerase. Mutation points in gen mutants still remain unknown. These single, double, and triple mutants displayed in hierarchical order a remarkable increase in the production of ActII-ORF4, a pathway-specific regulatory protein, as determined by Western blotting analysis. This reflects the same hierarchical order observed for the increase in actinorhodin production. The superior ability of the triple mutants was demonstrated by physiological analyses under various cultural conditions. We conclude that by inducing combined drug-resistant mutations we can continuously increase the production of antibiotic in a stepwise manner. This new breeding approach could be especially effective for initially improving the production of antibiotics from wild-type strains. PMID:11282646

  14. Community structure and antibiotic production of Streptomyces nodosus bioreactors cultured in liquid environments

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Tanya; Nikodinovic, Jasmina; Nakazono, Chojin; Dennis, Gary R.; Barrow, Kevin D.; Chuck, Jo‐Anne

    2008-01-01

    Summary Immobilized bacteria are being assessed by industry for drug delivery, novel fermentation systems and the protection of organisms in harsh environments. Alginate bioreactors containing Streptomyces nodosus were examined for community structure, cell viability and amphotericin production under different growth conditions. When cell proliferation was encouraged, substrate hyphae were found inside the alginate matrix and within multicellular projections on the surface of the capsule. The periphery of these projections had erect and branched hyphae, morphologically identical to aerial hyphae. Antibiotic production from immobilized organisms was assessed using conditioned culture medium to eliminate the emergence of a free‐dwelling population. These organisms sporulated with reduced antibiotic production compared with free‐dwelling cultures. The commitment to sporulate was independent of a surface but dependent on community size and nutritional status. This is the first report of the sporulation of S. nodosus in liquid cultures and description of the multicellular community the organism adopts at a solid–liquid interface. PMID:21261857

  15. Relationship of bacteriocin-like inhibitor production to the pigmentation and hemolytic activity of mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Crooks, M; James, S M; Tagg, J R

    1987-03-01

    An inhibitor production typing (P-typing) scheme originally devised for hemolytic streptococci of Lancefield groups A-G has been successfully applied to 35 mutans streptococcus isolates recovered from plaque cultures of 60 Dunedin schoolchildren. Thirteen different P-type designations were identified. Although 11 (31%) of the isolates failed to produce detectable inhibitory activity on the conventional blood agar medium used for P-typing, four of these isolates were inhibitor-positive on Trypticase Soy agar supplemented with 2% yeast extract and 0.5% calcium carbonate (TSYCa). Four mutans strains displayed strong beta-hemolysis on Columbia agar base containing human blood when incubated in a 5% CO2 in air atmosphere. Three of these also produced weak beta-hemolysis on sheep blood-supplemented medium and were further distinctive in that they were the only inhibitor P-type 767 strains to be detected in the present study. Five mutans isolates were pigment producers and this property seemed to occur independently of both the beta-hemolytic activity and the P-type designation. Upon testing an additional collection of 18 mutans strains of various serotypes, only seven (39%) were inhibitor-positive. However, three of the four serotype c strains were inhibitor producers. Two strains of serotype d and one of serotype g were more hemolytic on sheep than on human blood agar medium. In general, it seems that the most common human mutans streptococci (serotype c strains) are more likely than are other mutans strains to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory activity and to be hemolytic for human rather than sheep erythrocytes. PMID:3604497

  16. The Functional Significance of Black-Pigmented Leaves: Photosynthesis, Photoprotection and Productivity in Ophiopogon planiscapus ‘Nigrescens’

    PubMed Central

    Hatier, Jean-Hugues B.; Clearwater, Michael J.; Gould, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    Black pigmented leaves are common among horticultural cultivars, yet are extremely rare across natural plant populations. We hypothesised that black pigmentation would disadvantage a plant by reducing photosynthesis and therefore shoot productivity, but that this trait might also confer protective benefits by shielding chloroplasts against photo-oxidative stress. CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll a fluorescence, shoot biomass, and pigment concentrations were compared for near isogenic green- and black-leafed Ophiopogonplaniscapus ‘Nigrescens’. The black leaves had lower maximum CO2 assimilation rates, higher light saturation points and higher quantum efficiencies of photosystem II (PSII) than green leaves. Under saturating light, PSII photochemistry was inactivated less and recovered more completely in the black leaves. In full sunlight, green plants branched more abundantly and accumulated shoot biomass quicker than the black plants; in the shade, productivities of the two morphs were comparable. The data indicate a light-screening, photoprotective role of foliar anthocyanins. However, limitations to photosynthetic carbon assimilation are relatively small, insufficient to explain the natural scarcity of black-leafed plants. PMID:23826347

  17. Increasing antibiotic resistance in preservative-tolerant bacterial strains isolated from cosmetic products.

    PubMed

    Orús, Pilar; Gomez-Perez, Laura; Leranoz, Sonia; Berlanga, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    To ensure the microbiological quality, consumer safety and organoleptic properties of cosmetic products, manufacturers need to comply with defined standards using several preservatives and disinfectants. A drawback regarding the use of these preservatives is the possibility of generating cross-insusceptibility to other disinfectants or preservatives, as well as cross resistance to antibiotics. Therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the adaptive mechanisms of Enterobacter gergoviae, Pseudomonas putida and Burkholderia cepacia that are involved in recurrent contamination in cosmetic products containing preservatives. Diminished susceptibility to formaldehyde-donors was detected in isolates but not to other preservatives commonly used in the cosmetics industry, although increasing resistance to different antibiotics (β-lactams, quinolones, rifampicin, and tetracycline) was demonstrated in these strains when compared with the wild-type strain. The outer membrane protein modifications and efflux mechanism activities responsible for the resistance trait were evaluated. The development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms due to the selective pressure from preservatives included in cosmetic products could be a risk for the emergence and spread of bacterial resistance in the environment. Nevertheless, the large contribution of disinfection and preservation cannot be denied in cosmetic products. PMID:26415667

  18. Changes in GE2270 antibiotic production in Planobispora rosea through modulation of methylation metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gastaldo, Luciano; Marinelli, Flavia

    2003-06-01

    Thiazolylpeptide GE2270 is a potent antibiotic inhibiting protein synthesis in Gram-positive bacteria. It is produced as a complex of 10 related metabolites, differing mainly in the degree of methylation, by fermentation of the rare actinomycete Planobispora rosea ATCC 53773. Addition of vitamin B12 to the fermentation medium doubled total complex production and markedly changed the relative production of the various GE2270 metabolites, enhancing the biosynthesis of the more methylated component A. Among methylation inhibitors, the addition of sinefungin increased the amount of factor D2, which differs from component A in the lack of a methyl group. Since sinefungin is an S-adenosyl-L-methionine methyltransferase-specific inhibitor, these results indicate that the methylation step converting D2 into A involves an S-adenosyl-L-methionine methyltransferase. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin B12 and sinefungin led to a twofold increase in D2 concentration, showing that vitamin B12, in addition to having an effect on the late methylation step, exerts a stimulating action on antibiotic backbone synthesis. This is possibly due to its role in an unusual pathway of serine synthesis peculiar to P. rosea metabolism. Finally, fermentation medium modifications were shown to be useful for the production of industrially valuable levels of components A or D2 in the GE2270 complex as starting points for the production of new interesting semi-synthetic antibiotics. PMID:12777492

  19. Hfq regulates antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic-enzyme production in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaoge; Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Liangcheng; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2015-01-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is an important biocontrol agent with the ability to produce a variety of lytic enzymes and novel antibiotics. Little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. Understanding these will be helpful for improving biocontrol of crop diseases and potential medical application. In the present study, we generated an hfq (encoding a putative ribonucleic acid chaperone) deletion mutant, and then utilized a new genomic marker-free method to construct an hfq-complemented strain. We showed for the first time that Hfq played a pleiotropic role in regulating the antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic enzyme activity in L. enzymogenes. Mutation of hfq significantly increased the yield of WAP-8294A2 (an antibacterial antibiotic) as well as the transcription of its key biosynthetic gene, waps1. However, inactivation of hfq almost abolished the extracellular chitinase activity and remarkably decreased the activity of both extracellular protease and cellulase in L. enzymogenes. We further showed that the regulation of hfq in extracellular chitinase production was in part through the impairment of the secretion of chitinase A. Collectively, our results reveal the regulatory roles of hfq in antibiotic metabolite and extracellular lytic enzymes in the underexplored genus of Lysobacter. PMID:25683974

  20. Hfq regulates antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic-enzyme production in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11.

    PubMed

    Xu, Gaoge; Zhao, Yuxin; Du, Liangcheng; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2015-05-01

    Lysobacter enzymogenes is an important biocontrol agent with the ability to produce a variety of lytic enzymes and novel antibiotics. Little is known about their regulatory mechanisms. Understanding these will be helpful for improving biocontrol of crop diseases and potential medical application. In the present study, we generated an hfq (encoding a putative ribonucleic acid chaperone) deletion mutant, and then utilized a new genomic marker-free method to construct an hfq-complemented strain. We showed for the first time that Hfq played a pleiotropic role in regulating the antibacterial antibiotic biosynthesis and extracellular lytic enzyme activity in L. enzymogenes. Mutation of hfq significantly increased the yield of WAP-8294A2 (an antibacterial antibiotic) as well as the transcription of its key biosynthetic gene, waps1. However, inactivation of hfq almost abolished the extracellular chitinase activity and remarkably decreased the activity of both extracellular protease and cellulase in L. enzymogenes. We further showed that the regulation of hfq in extracellular chitinase production was in part through the impairment of the secretion of chitinase A. Collectively, our results reveal the regulatory roles of hfq in antibiotic metabolite and extracellular lytic enzymes in the underexplored genus of Lysobacter. PMID:25683974

  1. NTBC treatment of the pyomelanogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate PA1111 inhibits pigment production and increases sensitivity to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ketelboeter, Laura M; M Ketelboeter, Laura; Potharla, Vishwakanth Y; Y Potharla, Vishwakanth; Bardy, Sonia L; L Bardy, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Pyomelanin is a brown/black extracellular pigment with antioxidant and iron acquisition properties that is produced by a number of different bacteria. Production of pyomelanin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa contributes to increased resistance to oxidative stress and persistence in chronic infections. We demonstrate that pyomelanin production can be inhibited by 2-[2-nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl) benzoyl]-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC). This treatment increases sensitivity of pyomelanogenic P. aeruginosa strains to oxidative stress, without altering the growth rate or resistance to aminoglycosides. As such, NTBC has potential to function as an anti-virulence factor in treating pyomelanogenic bacterial infections. PMID:24801336

  2. Antibiotic resistance modulation by natural products obtained from Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky, 1855) and its nest.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Thiago P; Clementino, Elaine L C; Felismino, Delcio C; Alves, Rômulo R N; Vasconcellos, Alexandre; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Medeiros, Ana Cláudia D

    2015-07-01

    Insects and their products are included in the traditional pharmacopoeia of various ethnic groups worldwide. In the Brazilian semiarid region can be highlighted the use of the termite Nasutitermes corniger for the treatment of various diseases. This study evaluated the ethanol extract of N. corniger and its nest as an antimicrobial agent and as a modulator of bacterial resistance against multidrug strains. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extract on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli by microdilution was determined, as well as MIC of antibiotics in the presence and absence of extract. Despite having no significant antimicrobial activity (MIC ⩾ 1000 μg mL(-1)), the extract showed additive activity to the antibiotic efficacy, significantly reducing its MIC. These results suggest that N. corniger and its nest are promising natural products for use in antimicrobial therapy. PMID:26150745

  3. [Simultaneous determination of polyether antibiotics and macrolide anthelmintics in livestock products by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Mizuka; Kakimoto, Kensaku; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Obana, Hirotaka

    2011-01-01

    A method using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of polyether antibiotics and macrolide anthelmintics in livestock products. The polyether antibiotics and macrolide anthelmintics were extracted from livestock products with acetonitrile and cleaned up with dispersive solid-phase extractions and a silica gel column. The quantification limits of polyether antibiotics and macrolide anthelmintics were 0.00005-0.0005 µg/g. Except for narasin and lasalocid in bovine liver and milk, the recoveries were 70 to 117%. The relative standard deviations met the required guideline. The developed method was applied to six kinds of livestock products. PMID:22200746

  4. Spatial patterns of phytoplanktonic pigments and primary production in a semi-enclosed periantarctic ecosystem: the Strait of Magellan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saggiomo, V.; Goffart, A.; Carrada, G. C.; Hecq, J. H.

    1994-07-01

    The spatial patterns of nitrate, phytoplankton size-fractionated chlorophyll a, photosynthetic pigments detected by HPLC and primary production were studied at the end of the austral summer (February-March 1991), in the Strait of Magellan to provide insight into the mechanisms governing this seemi-enclosed periantartic ecosystem. Climatological peculiarities, hydrodynamic constraints, runoff and land forcing were considered. The most important features identified for this area were the confinement of the microphytoplankton fraction to the external parts of the Strait and the rather uniform dimensional structure of the phytoplankton communities (< 5 μm) within the internal sectors. In particular, the nanoplanktonic fraction (10-2 μm) comprised 33%, while the picoplanktonic one (2-0.5 μm) represented 62% of the total. The concentration of active Chl. a and plant pigments detected by HPLC, nitrate and primary production showed an uneven but similar distribution, allowing for the characterization of different sectors within the Strait, according to different types and intensities of forcing factors. The different ecological sectors identified along the Strait were associated with distinct hydrographic typologies: an oligotrophic, wind-mixed coastal area, adjacent to the Pacific opening; a high runoff fjord and a divergence zone in the Andean sectors; a stratified inland sea in the basin-like part of the channel (Paso Ancho) and a shallow, tidally mixed system in the Patagonian sectors. Areas of relatively low and high phytoplankton biomass and primary production alternate along the Strait, according to the hydrographic structures of the different sectors. Phytoplankton biomass, in terms of active Chl. a (spectrofluorometric determination) ranged between 10 and 51 mg m -2 and primary production between 275 and 1170 mg C m -2 d -1. The assemblage of plant pigments detected by HPLC indicated that the high levels of phytoplankton pigments and production were most likely

  5. 60Co irradiation for sterilization of veterinary mastitis products containing antibiotics and steroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, K.; Kane, M. P.; Rahn, P. D.; Steindler, K. A.

    Effects of 60Co irradiation for sterilization of veterinary mastitis products were evaluated. The mastitis products which were examined contained various combinations of antibiotics and steroids suspended in peanut oil vehicle. Bioburden data indicated that the unirradiated products were only occasionally contaminated with microorganisms. The D-values of the nonsterile product and environmental isolates were 0.028, 0.15, 0.017, and 0.018 Mrads for Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium oxalicum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pseudomonas maltophilia, respectively. The D-value of the biological indicator organism, Bacillus pumilus spores, in the vehicle was 0.27 Mrads. Thus, an irradiation dose of 1.6 Mrads would be sufficient to achieve six log cycles of destruction of the biological indicator organism. The minimum absorbed irradiation dose of 2.5 Mrads preferred by many countries for sterilization would achieve 9.3 log cycle destruction of the indicator organism and guarantee a probability of 1 × 10 -15 assurance for the most radio-resistant product isolate, Penicillium oxalicum. In order to examine short and long term chemical stabilities of active components, stability indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods for the determination of the following antibiotics and steroids were developed. They were: dihydrostreptomycin, neomycin, novobiocin, penicillin G, hydrocortisone acetate, hydrocortisone sodium succinate, and prednisolone. The rates of degradation and radiolytic degradation schemes for the majority of these compounds were elucidated. Formation of new compounds was not observed in these antibiotics and steroids upon 60Co irradiation. The compounds that increased by irradiation were inherently present in commercially available non-irradiated lots and/or can easily be formed by either acidic, basic, or thermal treatment.

  6. Degradation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by ferrate(VI): Effects of water constituents and oxidized products.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mingbao; Wang, Xinghao; Chen, Jing; Qu, Ruijuan; Sui, Yunxia; Cizmas, Leslie; Wang, Zunyao; Sharma, Virender K

    2016-10-15

    The degradation of five fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics (flumequine (FLU), enrofloxacin (ENR), norfloxacin (NOR), ofloxacin (OFL) and marbofloxacin (MAR)) by ferrate(VI) (Fe(VI)O4(2-), Fe(VI)) was examined to demonstrate the potential of this iron-based chemical oxidant to treat antibiotics in water. Experiments were conducted at different molar ratios of Fe(VI) to FQs at pH 7.0. All FQs, except FLU, were degraded within 2 min at [Fe(VI)]:[FQ] ≤ 20.0. Multiple additions of Fe(VI) improved the degradation efficiency, and provided greater degradation than a single addition of Fe(VI). The effects of anions, cations, and humic acid (HA), usually present in source waters and wastewaters, on the removal of FLU were investigated. Anions (Cl(-), SO4(2-), NO3(-), and HCO3(-)) and monovalent cations (Na(+) and K(+)) had no influence on the removal of FLU. However, multivalent cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+)) in water decreased the efficiency of FLU removal by Fe(VI). An increase in the ionic strength of the solution, and the presence of HA in the water, also decreased the percentage of FLU removed by Fe(VI). Experiments on the removal of selected FQs, present as co-existing antibiotics in pure water, river water, synthetic water and wastewater, were also conducted to demonstrate the practical application of Fe(VI) to remove the antibiotics during water treatment. The seventeen oxidized products (OPs) of FLU were identified using solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. The reaction pathways are proposed, and are theoretically confirmed by molecular orbital calculations. PMID:27429354

  7. Persistence of Pigment Production by Yeast Isolates Grown on CHROMagar Candida Medium

    PubMed Central

    Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Green, Judith A.; Dooley, David P.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the persistence of pigmentation in yeast isolates grown on the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida over 7 days. Candida, Cryptococcus, and Trichosporon isolates were inoculated alone or mixed onto duplicate sets of plates and incubated at 30 and 35°C. Candida albicans and Candida krusei were readily identified throughout the reading period, but Candida glabrata was difficult to differentiate from other species until the 3- or 4-day time point. Candida tropicalis produced colonies similar to those of rare Cryptococcus and Trichosporon species, and mixed cultures were often difficult to identify as such. PMID:12454192

  8. Potentiation of antibiotic activity of aminoglycosides by natural products from Cordia verbenacea DC.

    PubMed

    Matias, Edinardo F F; Alves, Erivania F; Silva, Maria K N; Carvalho, Victoria R A; Medeiros, Cassio R; Santos, Francisco A V; Bitu, Vanessa C N; Souza, Celestina E S; Figueredo, Fernando G; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    Medicinal plants are often the only therapeutic resource for many communities and ethnic groups. Cordia verbenacea DC., "Erva-baleeira," is one of the species of plants currently used to produce a phytotherapeutic product extracted from its leaves. The present study aimed to establish its chemical profile, antibacterial activity and resistance-modulating potential. The C. verbenacea extracts were prepared from fresh leaves using solvents as methanol and hexane. Ethyl Acetate was used for the preparation of the fraction. Phytochemical screening was carried out using HPLC-DAD for determination and quantification of the secondary metabolites present in the fractions. Antibacterial and resistance-modulation assays were performed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using a microdilution assay. The data were subjected to statistical analysis with two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni posttests. Results of phytochemical prospecting and HPLC analysis of the fractions were in agreement with the literature. The natural products presented moderate antibacterial activity when considering the clinical relevance of a MIC of 256 μg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 512 μg/mL against P. aeruginosa. However, when the fractions were combined with antibiotics we observed a synergic effect, as natural products enhanced the antibacterial effect of aminoglycosides, significantly decreasing the MIC of antibiotics at 12.5%-98.4%. We believe that the data obtained from phytochemical analysis and from antibacterial and resistance modulation assays of C. verbenacea extracts new can open perspectives in the search for new alternatives for the treatment of bacterial infections and stimulate the renewed use of antibiotics with reduced effectiveness due to resistance. PMID:27033000

  9. Production of fungal antibiotics using polymeric solid supports in solid-state and liquid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Bigelis, Ramunas; He, Haiyin; Yang, Hui Y; Chang, Li-Ping; Greenstein, Michael

    2006-10-01

    The use of inert absorbent polymeric supports for cellular attachment in solid-state fungal fermentation influenced growth, morphology, and production of bioactive secondary metabolites. Two filamentous fungi exemplified the utility of this approach to facilitate the discovery of new antimicrobial compounds. Cylindrocarpon sp. LL-Cyan426 produced pyrrocidines A and B and Acremonium sp. LL-Cyan416 produced acremonidins A-E when grown on agar bearing moist polyester-cellulose paper and generated distinctly different metabolite profiles than the conventional shaken or stationary liquid fermentations. Differences were also apparent when tenfold concentrated methanol extracts from these fermentations were tested against antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria, and zones of inhibition were compared. Shaken broth cultures of Acremonium sp. or Cylindrocarpon sp. showed complex HPLC patterns, lower levels of target compounds, and high levels of unwanted compounds and medium components, while agar/solid support cultures showed significantly increased yields of pyrrocidines A and B and acremonidins A-E, respectively. This method, mixed-phase fermentation (fermentation with an inert solid support bearing liquid medium), exploited the increase in surface area available for fungal growth on the supports and the tendency of some microorganisms to adhere to solid surfaces, possibly mimicking their natural growth habits. The production of dimeric anthraquinones by Penicillium sp. LL-WF159 was investigated in liquid fermentation using various inert polymeric immobilization supports composed of polypropylene, polypropylene cellulose, polyester-cellulose, or polyurethane. This culture produced rugulosin, skyrin, flavomannin, and a new bisanthracene, WF159-A, after fermentation in the presence and absence of polymeric supports for mycelial attachment. The physical nature of the different support systems influenced culture morphology and relative

  10. Pigmented casts.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Mariya; Romanelli, Paolo; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented casts have been reported with variable frequency in scalp biopsies from alopecia areata, trichotillomania, chemotherapy-induced alopecia and postoperative (pressure induced) alopecia. Their presence and morphology in other scalp disorders has not been described. The authors assessed for the presence and morphology of pigmented casts in 308 transversely bisected scalp biopsies from nonscarring and scarring alopecia, referred to the Department of Dermatology, University of Miami within a year. The pigmented casts were present in 21 of 29 cases of alopecia areata (72%), 7 of 7 cases of trichotillomania (100%), 1 case of friction alopecia, 4 of 28 cases of central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (14%), and 4 of 4 cases of dissecting cellulitis (100%). They did not show any distinguishing features except for the morphology in trichotillomania, which included twisted, linear (zip), and "button"-like pigment aggregation. The linear arrangement was found also in friction alopecia and dissecting cellulitis. Pigmented casts in the hair canals of miniaturized/vellus hairs was a clue to alopecia areata. Pigmented casts can be observed in biopsies of different hair disorders, but they are not specific for the diagnosis. Horizontal sections allow to better assess their morphology and the follicular level of presence of pigmented casts, which in the context of the other follicular findings may be a clue to the diagnosis. PMID:23823025

  11. Characterization of major betalain pigments -gomphrenin, betanin and isobetanin from Basella rubra L. fruit and evaluation of efficacy as a natural colourant in product (ice cream) development.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Sravan; Manoj, P; Shetty, N P; Prakash, Maya; Giridhar, P

    2015-08-01

    Basella rubra L. (Basellaceae) commonly known as Malabar spinach is a leafy vegetable which accumulates pigments in its fruits. To find out the feasibility of utilizing pigment rich extracts of its fruit as natural food colourant, fruits at different stages were analysed for pigment profiling, carbohydrate content, physical dimensions and weight. Total betalains content increased rapidly from early (green) through intermediate (half-done red-violet) to matured stage (red-violet). Maximum pigment content was observed in ripened fruits (143.76 mg/100 g fresh weight). The major betalain pigment characterized was gomphrenin I in ripened fruits (26.06 mg), followed by intermediate fruits (2.15 mg) and least in early fruits (0.23 mg) in 100 g of fresh deseeded fruits. Total carbohydrates content and the chroma values (redness) were also increased during ontogeny of B. rubra fruits. The textural characters of developing fruits showed the smoothness of green fruits with lower rupture force (0.16 N/s) than ripe ones (0.38 N/s). The pigment-rich fruit extract was used as natural colourant in ice-cream, to evaluate its effect on physicochemical properties and acceptability of the product. After six months of storage at -20 °C, 86.63 % colour was retained in ice-cream. The ice-cream had good overall sensorial quality and was liked by consumers indicating that addition of B. rubra fruit extract did not alter the sensory quality of the product. The colour values also indicate that there was no significant decrease of this pigment-rich extracts of fruits for its incorporation in food products. PMID:26243919

  12. Prevalence of LRTI in Patients Presenting with Productive Cough and Their Antibiotic Resistance Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Vijay, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Aim To find out the prevalence of Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI) such as bacterial, fungal, mycobacterial infections etc. in patients with productive cough of duration less than 15 days and to rule out the patients having previous history of tuberculosis or having treatment of tuberculosis. Materials and Methods Outdoor and Indoor patients of Department of Medicine and Chest & TB, SRG hospital and Jhalawar Medical College, Jhalawar were included. After sample collection the specimens were sent to the Microbiology department, for processing of Gram staining, Acid fast staining, KOH mount and bacteriological culture and sensitivity. Results A total of 200 samples were obtained from the outpatient and inpatient Department of Medicine and Chest & TB of which 66% were male and 34% were female. Seventy seven percent of samples were culture positive for both single pathogen and mixed infection of which 56.5% were male and 20.5% were female as males are more at risk for LRTI. Klebsiella pneumoniae was the most prevalent pathogen (71/193), followed by coagulase positive Staphylococci i.e. COPS (43/193). More resistant pattern was found in coagulase negative Staohylococci (CONS) showed 61.11% Methicillin Resistant Staohylococci (MRS) incidence compared to 41.86% in COPS, also regarding Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) production Escherichia coli showed incidence of 36.36% as compared to other gram negative bacilli. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most resistant organism found based on the antibiotic susceptibility pattern while Proteus mirabilis was the most sensitive organism. Conclusion Lower respiratory tract infections can spread easily among community and indiscriminate use of antibiotics contributes to their therapeutic failure. Area-wise studies on antimicrobial susceptibility profiles are essential to guide policy on the appropriate use of antibiotics to reduce the morbidity and mortality and also to control the emergence of antimicrobial resistance

  13. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  14. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  15. Resistance to colistin: what is the fate for this antibiotic in pig production?

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Mohamed; Beaudry, Francis; Letellier, Ann

    2016-08-01

    Colistin, a cationic polypeptide antibiotic, has reappeared in human medicine as a last-line treatment option for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). Colistin is widely used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal infections caused by Enterobacteriaceae. GNB resistant to colistin owing to chromosomal mutations have already been reported both in human and veterinary medicine, however several recent studies have just identified a plasmid-mediated mcr-1 gene encoding for colistin resistance in Escherichia coli colistin resistance. The discovery of a non-chromosomal mechanism of colistin resistance in E. coli has led to strong reactions in the scientific community and to concern among physicians and veterinarians. Colistin use in food animals and particularly in pig production has been singled out as responsible for the emergence of colistin resistance. The present review will focus mainly on the possible link between colistin use in pigs and the spread of colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae. First we demonstrate a possible link between Enterobacteriaceae resistance emergence and oral colistin pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics and its administration modalities in pigs. We then discuss the potential impact of colistin use in pigs on public health with respect to resistance. We believe that colistin use in pig production should be re-evaluated and its dosing and usage optimised. Moreover, the search for competitive alternatives to using colistin with swine is of paramount importance to preserve the effectiveness of this antibiotic for the treatment of MDR-GNB infections in human medicine. PMID:27234675

  16. Engineering a Platform for Photosynthetic Pigment, Hormone and Cembrane-Related Diterpenoid Production in Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongying; Niu, Dexin; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Songtao; Yang, Yongxia; Jia, Hongfang; Cui, Hong

    2015-11-01

    Plants synthesize a large number of isoprenoids that are of nutritional, medicinal and industrial importance. 1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) catalyzes the first committed step for plastidial isoprenoid biosynthesis. Here, we identified two DXR isogenes, designated NtDXR1 and NtDXR2, from tetraploid common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Southern blotting and genotyping analysis revealed that two NtDXR genes existed in the tetraploid tobacco genome; NtDXR1 and NtDXR2 were separately derived from N. tomentosiformis and N. sylvestris. Both NtDXRs were localized in chloroplasts. Expression patterns indicated that NtDXR1 and NtDXR2 had similar expression profiles. NtDXR genes were highly expressed in leaves with or without trichomes; expression was relatively reduced in flowers and stems, weak in leaf trichomes and marginal in roots and seeds. Overexpressing NtDXR1 under control of the 35S promoter resulted in longer primary roots and enhancement of various photosynthetic pigments and hormones in leaves. In contrast, there were no significant changes in cembrane-related diterpenoids synthesized in glandular trichomes. To elucidate further the function of DXR in the biosynthesis of diterpenoids, overexpression vectors for NtDXR1 under the control of a trichome-specific CYP promoter were transferred to tobacco plants. CYP:NtDXR1 tobacco exhibited larger glandular cells and increased cembrane-related diterpenoids in leaf glandular trichomes. Moreover, transcripts of eight MEP (2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate) pathway genes were significantly up-regulated in NtDXR1-overexpressing tobacco plants, indicating that overexpression of NtDXR could boost the expression of downstream genes in the MEP pathway. Our results suggested that overexpression of NtDXR1 could increase the levels of photosynthetic pigments, leaf surface exudates and hormones though the MEP pathway. PMID:26363359

  17. Disruption of cagA, the apoprotein gene of chromoprotein antibiotic C-1027, eliminates holo-antibiotic production, but not the cytotoxic chromophore.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhihui; Wang, Lifei; Wang, Songmei; Li, Guangwei; Hong, Bin

    2009-11-01

    C-1027 is a chromoprotein of the nine-membered enediyne antitumour antibiotic family, comprising apoprotein to stabilize and transport the enediyne chromophore. The disruption of apoprotein gene cagA within the C-1027 biosynthetic gene cluster abolished C-1027 holo-antibiotic production detected by an antibacterial assay, as well as the expression of the apoprotein and C-1027 chromophore extracted following protein precipitation of the culture supernatant. Complementation of the cagA-disrupted mutant AKO with the intact cagA gene restored C-1027 production, suggesting that cagA is indispensable for holo-antibiotic production. Overexpression of cagA in the wild-type strain resulted in a significant increase in C-1027 production as expected. Surprisingly, electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS and ESI-MS/MS analyses suggested that the AKO mutant still produced the C-1027 enediyne chromophore [m/z=844 (M+H)(+)] and its aromatized product [m/z=846 (M+H)(+)]. Consistent with this, the results from gene expression analysis using real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR showed that transcripts of the positive regulator sgcR3 and the structural genes sgcA1, sgcC4, sgcD6 and sgcE were readily detected in the AKO mutant as well as in the wild-type and the complementation strain. These results provided, for the first time, evidence suggesting that the apoprotein of C-1027 is not essential in the self-resistance mechanism for the enediyne chromophore. PMID:19845765

  18. Pigment distribution and primary production in the western Mediterranean as derived and modeled from coastal zone color scanner observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, André; André, Jean-Michel

    1991-07-01

    A set of 114 coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images of the western Mediterranean (mainly in the year 1981) have been processed and analyzed to describe the algal biomass evolution and estimate its potential carbon fixation. For that, the pigment concentration in the top layer, Csat, is used through empirical relationships to infer the depth-integrated pigment content of the productive column, tot. A spectral light-photosynthesis model driven by tot is operated with additional information, namely, about sea temperature and photosynthetically available radiation (computed from astronomical and atmospherical parameters then combined with a cloud climatology). This model also includes a standard set of physiological parameters which account for the light capture by algae and for the use of this radiant energy in photosynthesis. This model allows a climatology of ψ* the cross section for photosynthesis per unit of areal chlorophyll, to be produced and then convoluted with the biomass maps after they have been averaged and composited. On average and for the whole western Mediterranean, the pigment concentration in the upper layer is about 0.25 mg Chl m-3, leading to an areal mean concentration of 21 mg Chl m-2. The maximum (bloom) occurs in early May in all zones. Seasonal variations in algal biomass are much more marked in the northern part than in the southern part (apart from Alboran Sea); the south Tyrrhenian basin and the central part of the Algerian basin are steadily oligotrophic. The mean annual carbon fixation rate for the whole basin is about 94 g C m-2 yr-1, or 106 and 87, for the northern and southern basins when separately considered. The seasonality is expressed by a six-fold change in the production rate (between February and May) within the northern zone, whereas only a two-fold change occurs in the southern zone between the same months. These estimates, which compare well with previous episodic field data, considerably extend our knowledge of

  19. cmdABCDEF, a cluster of genes encoding membrane proteins for differentiation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Streptomyces coelicolor is the most studied Streptomyces species and an excellent model for studying differentiation and antibiotic production. To date, many genes have been identified to be required for its differentiation (e.g. bld genes for aerial growth and whi genes for sporulation) and antibiotics production (including actII-orf4, redD, cdaR as pathway-specific regulatory genes and afsR, absA1/A2 as pleiotropic regulatory genes). Results A gene cluster containing six genes (SCO4126-4131) was proved to be co-transcribed in S. coelicolor. Deletions of cmdABCDEF (SCO4126-4131) displayed defective sporulation including formation of aberrant branches, and abnormalities in chromosome segregation and spore septation. Disruption mutants of apparently orthologous genes of S. lividans and S. avermitilis also showed defective sporulation, implying that the role of these genes is similar among Streptomyces. Transcription of cmdB, and therefore presumably of the whole operon, was regulated developmentally. Five of the encoded proteins (CmdA, C, D, E, F) were predicted membrane proteins. The other, CmdB, a predicted ATP/GTP-binding protein with an ABC-transporter-ATPase domain shown here to be essential for its function, was also located on the cell membrane. These results indicate that CmdABCDEF proteins mainly affect Streptomyces differentiation at an early stage of aerial hyphae formation, and suggest that these proteins may form a complex on cell membrane for proper segregation of chromosomes. In addition, deletions of cmdABCDEF also revealed over-production of blue-pigmented actinorhodin (Act) via activation of transcription of the pathway-specific regulatory gene actII-orf4 of actinorhodin biosynthesis. Conclusion In this study, six co-transcribed genes cmdABCDEF were identified by their effects on differentiation and antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). These six membrane-located proteins are possibly assembled into a complex to

  20. Antibiotics and sweeteners in the aquatic environment: biodegradability, formation of phototransformation products, and in vitro toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bergheim, Marlies; Gminski, Richard; Spangenberg, Bernd; Debiak, Malgorzata; Bürkle, Alexander; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker; Kümmerer, Klaus; Gieré, Reto

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, in vitro toxicity as well as biopersistence and photopersistence of four artificial sweeteners (acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharine, and sucralose) and five antibiotics (levofloxacin, lincomycin, linezolid, marbofloxacin, and sarafloxacin) and of their phototransformation products (PTPs) were investigated. Furthermore, antibiotic activity was evaluated after UV irradiation and after exposure to inocula of a sewage treatment plant. The study reveals that most of the tested compounds and their PTPs were neither readily nor inherently biodegradable in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)-biodegradability tests. The study further demonstrates that PTPs are formed upon irradiation with an Hg lamp (UV light) and, to a lesser extent, upon irradiation with a Xe lamp (mimics sunlight). Comparing the nonirradiated with the corresponding irradiated solutions, a higher chronic toxicity against bacteria was found for the irradiated solutions of linezolid. Neither cytotoxicity nor genotoxicity was found in human cervical (HeLa) and liver (Hep-G2) cells for any of the investigated compounds or their PTPs. Antimicrobial activity of the tested fluoroquinolones was reduced after UV treatment, but it was not reduced after a 28-day exposure to inocula of a sewage treatment plant. This comparative study shows that PTPs can be formed as a result of UV treatment. The study further demonstrated that UV irradiation can be effective in reducing the antimicrobial activity of antibiotics, and consequently may help to reduce antimicrobial resistance in wastewaters. Nevertheless, the study also highlights that some PTPs may exhibit a higher ecotoxicity than the respective parent compounds. Consequently, UV treatment does not transform all micropollutants into harmless compounds and may not be a large-scale effluent treatment option. PMID:26169816

  1. Improvement of production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A using fish protein.

    PubMed

    Zohora, Umme Salma; Rahman, Mohammad Shahedur; Khan, Abdul Wahab; Okanami, Masahiro; Ano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    To enhance the production of lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A, nutrient contents of the culture mediums were investigated in both submerged and biofilm fermentations. As a carbon source maltose and as nitrogen source, fish protein was used. In submerged fermentation maltose uptake was found lower (12%) compared to biofilm fermentation (15%) that was associated with higher cellular growth in biofilm. However, requirement of nitrogen (fish protein) concentration was found similar in both submerged and biofilm fermentations. Production of iturin A in submerged fermentation with 12% maltose and 5% fish protein was 4450 mg/L, and in biofilm fermentation it was 5050 mg/L when 15% maltose and 5% fish protein was used. PMID:25078830

  2. Chemoreactive Natural Products that Afford Resistance Against Disparate Antibiotics and Toxins.

    PubMed

    Du, Lin; You, Jianlan; Nicholas, Kenneth M; Cichewicz, Robert H

    2016-03-18

    Microorganisms use chemical inactivation strategies to circumvent toxicity caused by many types of antibiotics. Yet in all reported cases, this approach is limited to enzymatically facilitated mechanisms that each target narrow ranges of chemically related scaffolds. The fungus-derived shikimate analogues, pericoxide and pericosine A, were identified as chemoreactive natural products that attenuate the antagonistic effects of several synthetic and naturally derived antifungal agents. Experimental and computational studies suggest that pericoxide and pericosine A readily react via SN 2' mechanisms against a variety of nucleophilic substances under both in vitro aqueous and in situ co-culture conditions. Many of the substitution products from this reaction were highly stable and exhibited diminished toxicities against environmental fungal isolates, including the Tolypocladium sp. strain that produced pericoxide and pericosine A. PMID:26928999

  3. Stigmatellin, a new antibiotic from Stigmatella aurantiaca (Myxobacterales). I. Production, physico-chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Kunze, B; Kemmer, T; Höfle, G; Reichenbach, H

    1984-05-01

    An antibiotic activity was extracted from the cell mass of the myxobacterium, Stigmatella aurantiaca strain Sg a15. The antibiotic was toxic for yeasts and filamentous fungi, but not for most bacteria. The compound had the molecular formula C30H42O7, appears to be a new antibiotic, and was named stigmatellin. In addition to stigmatellin, the strain produced relatively large quantities of a second, structurally unrelated antibiotic, a mixture of three myxalamid homologues. PMID:6429114

  4. Complex marine natural products as potential epigenetic and production regulators of antibiotics from a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bin; Waters, Amanda L.; Sims, James W.; Fullmer, Alexis; Ellison, Serena; Hamann, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Marine microbes are capable of producing secondary metabolites for defense and competition. Factors exerting an impact on secondary metabolite production of microbial communities included bioactive natural products and co-culturing. These external influences may have practical applications such as increased yields or the generation of new metabolites from otherwise silent genes in addition to reducing or limiting the production of undesirable metabolites. In this paper, we discuss the metabolic profiles of a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the presence of a number of potential chemical epigenetic regulators, adjusting carbon sources and co-culturing with other microbes to induce a competitive response. As a result of these stressors certain groups of antibiotics or antimalarial agents were increased most notably when treating P. aeruginosa with sceptrin and co-culturing with another Pseudomonas sp. An interesting cross-talking event between these two Pseudomonas species when cultured together and exposed to sceptrin was observed. PMID:23563743

  5. Bacterial production of sunscreen pigments increase arid land soil surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couradeau, Estelle; Karaoz, Ulas; Lim, HsiaoChien; Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; Northern, Trent; Brodie, Eoin; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran

    2015-04-01

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are desert top soils formations built by complex microbial communities and dominated by the filamentous cyanobacterium Microcoleus sp. BSCs cover extensive desert areas where they correspond to millimeters size mantles responsible of soil stability and fertility. Despite their ecological importance, little is known about how these communities will endure climate change. It has been shown in North America that different species of Microcoleus showed distinct temperature preferences and that their continental biogeography may be susceptible to small changes in temperature with unknown consequences for the ecosystem function. Using a combination of physical, biochemical and microbiological analyses to characterize a successional gradient of crust maturity from light to dark BSCs (Moab, Utah) we found that the concentration of scytonemin (a cyanobacterial sunscreen pigment) increased with crust maturity. We also confirmed that scytonemin was by far the major pigment responsible of light absorption in the visible spectrum in BSCs, and is then responsible of the darkening of the BSCs (i.e decrease of albedo) with maturity. We measured the surface temperature and albedo and found, as predicted, a negative linear relationship between these two parameters. The decrease in albedo across the gradient of crust maturity corresponded to an increase in surface temperature up to 10° C. Upon investigation of microbial community composition using SSU rRNA gene analysis, we demonstrate that warmer crust surface temperatures (decreased albedo) are associated with a replacement of the dominant cyanobacterium; the thermosensitive Microcoleus sp. being replaced by a thermotolerant Microcoleus sp. in darker BSCs. This study supports at the local scale a finding previously made at the continental scale, but also sheds light on the importance of scytonemin as a significant warmer of soils with important consequences for BSC composition and function. Based on

  6. Production of polypeptide antibiotic from Streptomyces parvulus and its antibacterial activity

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Prakasham Reddy; Buddana, Sudheer Kumar; Tatipamula, Vinay Bharadwaj; Naga, Yaswanth Varanasi Venkata; Ahmad, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    A highly potent secondary metabolite producing actinomycetes strain is isolated from marine soil sediments of Visakhapatnam sea coast, Bay of Bengal. Over all ten strains are isolated from the collected soil sediments. Among the ten actinomycetes strains the broad spectrum strain RSPSN2 was selected for molecular characterization, antibiotic production and its purification. The nucleotide sequence of the 1 rRNA gene (1261 base pairs) of the most potent strain evidenced a 96% similarity with Streptomyces parvulus 1044 strain, Streptomyces parvulus NBRC 13193 and Streptomyces parvulus BY-F. From the taxonomic features, the actinomycetes isolate RSPSN2 matches with Streptomyces parvulus in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. Thus, it was given the suggested name Streptomyces parvulus RSPSN2. The active metabolite was extracted using ethyl acetate (1:3, v/v) at pH 7.0. The separation of active ingredient and its purification was performed by using both thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography (CC) techniques. Spectrometric studies such as UV-visible, FTIR, and NMR and mass were performed. The antibacterial activity of pure compound was performed by cup plate method against some pathogenic bacteria including of streptomycin resistant bacteria like (Pseudomonas mirabilis, Pseudomonas putida and Bacillus cereus). In conclusion, the collected data emphasized the fact that a polypeptide antibiotic (Actinomycin D) was produced by Streptomyces parvulus RSPSN2. PMID:24948949

  7. Growth and pigment production on D-tryptophan medium by Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Chaskes, Stuart; Frases, Susana; Cammer, Michael; Gerfen, Gary; Casadevall, Arturo

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus gattii (serotypes B and C) strains, there is a need for rapid and reliable tests that discriminate C. gattii from Cryptococcus neoformans (serotypes A, D, and AD). Seventy-two C. neoformans strains, sixty-seven C. gattii strains, and five Candida albicans strains were analyzed for their ability to grow and produce pigment on minimal D-tryptophan D-proline (m-DTDP) medium, on yeast carbon base D-tryptophan D-proline (YCB-DTDP) medium, and on fructose D-tryptophan glycine (m-FDTG) medium. Of the C. gattii and C. neoformans isolates, 94% and 0% grew on m-DTDP agar, respectively, and 98% and 0% grew in YCB-DTDP medium, respectively. C. gattii produced large amounts of brown intracellular pigment(s) on m-DTDP agar and smaller amounts of yellow-brown (amber) extracellular pigment(s). C. albicans grew on both media and produced a pink photoactivated pigment on m-DTDP agar. C. gattii produced large amounts of brown intracellular pigments on the differential medium m-FDTG, whereas C. neoformans produced smaller amounts of the brown pigments and C. albicans produced a pink pigment. The pigments produced by C. gattii from D-tryptophan were distinct and were not related to melanin formation from 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine. Thin-layer chromatography of the methanol-extracted C. gattii cells detected four different pigments, including brown (two types), yellow, and pink-purple compounds. We conclude that tryptophan-derived pigments are not melanins and that growth on m-DTDP or YCB-DTDP agar can be used to rapidly differentiate C. gattii from C. neoformans. PMID:17989195

  8. Finding alternatives to antibiotics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens requires new treatments. The availability of new antibiotics has severely declined, and so alternatives to antibiotics need to be considered in both animal agriculture and human medicine. Products for disease prevention are different than products for d...

  9. Potential Impact of Increased Use of Biocides in Consumer Products on Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Peter; McBain, Andrew J.

    2003-01-01

    There has recently been much controversy surrounding the increased use of antibacterial substances in a wide range of consumer products and the possibility that, as with antibiotics, indiscriminate use of biocides might contribute to the overall pattern of susceptibility in the general environment and in the clinic. Such speculation, based on the isolation of resistant mutants from in vitro monoculture experiments, is not reflected by an emergence of biocide-resistant strains in vivo. This review provides a broad coverage of the biocide and resistance literature and evaluates the potential risks, perceived from such laboratory monoculture experiments, against evidence gathered over 50 years of field studies. An explanation for the continued effectiveness of broad-spectrum biocidal agents against the decline in efficacy of therapeutic agents is provided based on the fitness costs of resistance and the ubiquity of naturally occurring substances that possess antibacterial effect. While we conclude from this review of the literature that the incorporation of antibacterial agents into a widening sphere of personal products has had little or no impact on the patterns of microbial susceptibility observed in the environment, the associated risks remain finite. The use of such products should therefore be associated with a clear demonstration of added value either to consumer health or to the product life. Hygienic products should therefore be targeted to applications for which the risks have been established. PMID:12692093

  10. Gold nanostructure-integrated silica-on-silicon waveguide for the detection of antibiotics in milk and milk products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozhikandathil, Jayan; Badilescu, Simona; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran

    2012-10-01

    Antibiotics are extensively used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases. The use of antibiotics for the treatment of animals used for food production raised the concern of the public and a rapid screening method became necessary. A novel approach of detection of antibiotics in milk is reported in this work by using an immunoassay format and the Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance property of gold. An antibiotic from the penicillin family that is, ampicillin is used for testing. Gold nanostructures deposited on a glass substrate by a novel convective assembly method were heat-treated to form a nanoisland morphology. The Au nanostructures were functionalized and the corresponding antibody was absorbed from a solution. Solutions with known concentrations of antigen (antibiotics) were subsequently added and the spectral changes were monitored step by step. The Au LSPR band corresponding to the nano-island structure was found to be suitable for the detection of the antibody antigen interaction. The detection of the ampicillin was successfully demonstrated with the gold nano-islands deposited on glass substrate. This process was subsequently adapted for the integration of gold nanostructures on the silica-on-silicon waveguide for the purpose of detecting antibiotics.

  11. Theagalloflavic Acid, a New Pigment Derived from Hexahydroxydiphenoyl Group, and Lignan Oxidation Products Produced by Aerobic Microbial Fermentation of Green Tea.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yosuke; Matsuda, Tomoko; Sugihara, Keisuke; Saito, Yoshinori; Zhang, Ying-Jun; Yang, Chong-Ren; Tanaka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Chinese ripe pu-erh tea is produced by aerobic microbial fermentation of green tea. To clarify the microbial degradation of tea polyphenols, Japanese commercial green tea was mixed with Chinese ripe pu-erh tea, which retains microorganisms, and fermented for 5 d. Chromatographic separation yielded a novel water-soluble yellow pigment termed theagalloflavic acid. Spectroscopic and chemical evidence suggested that this pigment was produced by oxidative ring cleavage of hexahydroxydiphenoyl esters. In addition, two new oxygenated lignin metabolites, (+)-5,5'-dihydroxypinoresinol and 5-hydroxydihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, were also isolated together with known degradation products of quercetin and tea catechins. PMID:27373646

  12. Enhancement of yellow pigment production by intraspecific protoplast fusion of Monascus spp. yellow mutant (ade(-)) and white mutant (prototroph).

    PubMed

    Klinsupa, Worawan; Phansiri, Salak; Thongpradis, Panida; Yongsmith, Busaba; Pothiratana, Chetsada

    2016-01-10

    To breed industrially useful strains of a slow-growing, yellow pigment producing strain of Monascus sp., protoplasts of Monascus purpureus yellow mutant (ade(-)) and rapid-growing M. purpureus white mutant (prototroph) were fused and fusants were selected on minimal medium (MM). Preliminary conventional protoplast fusion of the two strains was performed and the result showed that only white colonies were detected on MM. It was not able to differentiate the fusants from the white parental prototroph. To solve this problem, the white parental prototroph was thus pretreated with 20mM iodoacetamide (IOA) for cytoplasm inactivation and subsequently taken into protoplast fusion with slow-growing Monascus yellow mutant. Under this development technique, only the fusants, with viable cytoplasm from Monascus yellow mutant (ade(-)), could thus grow on MM, whereas neither IOA pretreated white parental prototroph nor yellow auxotroph (ade(-)) could survive. Fifty-three fusants isolated from yellow colonies obtained through this developed technique were subsequently inoculated on complete medium (MY agar). Fifteen distinguished yellow colonies from their parental yellow mutant were then selected for biochemical, morphological and fermentative properties in cassava starch and soybean flour (SS) broth. Finally, three most stable fusants (F7, F10 and F43) were then selected and compared in rice solid culture. Enhancement of yellow pigment production over the parental yellow auxotroph was found in F7 and F10, while enhanced glucoamylase activity was found in F43. The formation of fusants was further confirmed by monacolin K content, which was intermediate between the two parents (monacolin K-producing yellow auxotroph and non-monacolin K producing white prototroph). PMID:26562446

  13. Cytokine regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by human retinal pigment epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Crane, I J; Kuppner, M C; Mckillop-Smith, S; Wallace, C A; Forrester, J V

    1999-01-01

    GM-CSF is an important regulator of macrophage, granulocyte and dendritic cell behaviour and function. These cell types have been implicated in the retinal damage characteristic of endogenous posterior uveitis. Dendritic cells in the choroid have access to retinal antigens processed by the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the blood–retinal barrier and are thought to be candidates for the presentation of antigen in uveoretinitis. We therefore investigated the production of GM-CSF and its regulation in human RPE cells. IL-1β, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) all stimulated GM-CSF production by RPE cells and a combination of these cytokines increased GM-CSF production over five-fold compared with that with the individual cytokines alone. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) rapidly down-regulated these responses. IFN-γ did not appear to be acting directly on IL-1β or via the synthesis of another protein. GM-CSF mRNA expression showed the same pattern of response to these cytokines, indicating transcriptional or pre-transcriptional regulation, and there was no evidence that IFN-γ was acting by destabilizing GM-CSF mRNA. These results are generally important in understanding the ways in which cytokine regulation differs between different cell types and also more specifically for determining ways in which a cytokine with a significant role in the development of autoimmune uveoretinitis may be manipulated. PMID:9933455

  14. Somatic embryogenesis, pigment accumulation, and synthetic seed production in Digitalis davisiana Heywood.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sandeep Kumar; Sahin, Gunce; Gurel, Ekrem

    2016-04-01

    Digitalis davisiana, commonly called Alanya foxglove, from Turkey, is an important medicinal herb as the main source of cardiac glycosides, cardenolides, anthraquinones, etc. It is also known in the Indian Medicine for treatment of wounds and burns. It has ornamental value as well. Overexploitation of D. davisiana has led this species to be declared protected, and thereby encouraged various methods for its propagation. In this study, an optimized and efficient plant tissue culture protocol was established using cotyledonary leaf, hypocotyl and root explants of D. davisiana. Callus tissues were obtained from the cotyledonary leaf, hypocotyl and root segments cultured on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators. The maximum number of somatic embryos were achieved by the MS medium containing 6-benzyladenine (1.0 mg/L BAP) or 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acids (0.1 mg/L 2,4-D), which produced an average of 8.3 ± 1.5 or 5.3 ± 1.5 embryos per cotyledonary leaf, respectively. After 3 wk of culture in MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 2,4-D, callus showed a clear accumulation of orange pigmentation. Shoot regeneration was remarkably higher (14.3 indirect shoots) in a combination of α-naphthalene acetic acid (0.25 mg/L NAA) plus 3.0 mg/L BAP than 2.0 mg/L zeatin (10.3 ± 0.5 direct shoots) alone. The shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium supplemented with NAA (0.1-1.0 mg/L). In addition, synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating shoot tips in 4% sodium alginate solution. Maximum conversion frequency of 76.6% was noted from encapsulated shoot tips cultured on 0.25 mg/L NAA with 1.0 mg/L BAP. The encapsulated shoot tips could be stored up to 60 days at 4 °C. Regenerated plantlets of D. davisiana were successfully acclimatized and transferred to soil. This study has demonstrated successful preservation of elite genotypes of D. davisiana. PMID:27295921

  15. Bacteria subsisting on antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Gautam; Sommer, Morten O A; Oluwasegun, Rantimi D; Church, George M

    2008-04-01

    Antibiotics are a crucial line of defense against bacterial infections. Nevertheless, several antibiotics are natural products of microorganisms that have as yet poorly appreciated ecological roles in the wider environment. We isolated hundreds of soil bacteria with the capacity to grow on antibiotics as a sole carbon source. Of 18 antibiotics tested, representing eight major classes of natural and synthetic origin, 13 to 17 supported the growth of clonal bacteria from each of 11 diverse soils. Bacteria subsisting on antibiotics are surprisingly phylogenetically diverse, and many are closely related to human pathogens. Furthermore, each antibiotic-consuming isolate was resistant to multiple antibiotics at clinically relevant concentrations. This phenomenon suggests that this unappreciated reservoir of antibiotic-resistance determinants can contribute to the increasing levels of multiple antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. PMID:18388292

  16. Birthmarks - pigmented

    MedlinePlus

    ... its own appearance: Cafe-au-lait spots are light tan, the color of coffee with milk. Moles are small clusters of colored skin cells. Mongolian spots (also called Mongolian blue ... dark or light skin Growth of hair from pigmented skin Skin ...

  17. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725 Food... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  19. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  20. 21 CFR 178.3725 - Pigment dispersants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Pigment dispersants. 178.3725 Section 178.3725... Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3725 Pigment dispersants. Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the substances listed in this section may be safely used as pigment dispersants in...

  1. Identification of gene clusters associated with fusaric acid, fusarin, and perithecial pigment production in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Fusarium is of concern to agricultural production and food/feed safety because of its ability to cause crop disease and to produce mycotoxins, secondary metabolites (SMs) that are toxic to humans and other animals. Understanding the genetic basis for production of mycotoxins and other SMs ...

  2. Antibiotic resistant in microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antimicrobial agents are necessary for use in veterinary medicine including the production of food producing animals. Antibiotic use is indicated for the treatment of bacterial target organisms and/or disease for which the antibiotic was developed. However, an unintended consequence of antibiotic ...

  3. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able ... resistant to several common antibiotics. To help prevent antibiotic resistance Don't use antibiotics for viruses like colds ...

  4. Antibiotic production by Pseudomonas: Insights into biosynthesis, diversity, and environmental consequences.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our current understanding of the biochemistry and environmental consequences of antibiotic biosynthesis by Pseudomonas is derived largely from studies of root-associated strains inhibitory to plant pathogens. Such strains often produce one or more antibiotics including pyoluteorin, pyrrolnitrin, 2,4...

  5. Alternatives to antibiotics: a symposium on the challenges and solutions for animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are one of the most important medical discoveries of the 20th century and will remain an essential tool for treating animal and human diseases in the 21st century. However, antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens and concerns over their prudent use in animals has garnered global...

  6. Luminamicin, a new antibiotic. Production, isolation and physico-chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Omura, S; Iwata, R; Iwai, Y; Taga, S; Tanaka, Y; Tomoda, H

    1985-10-01

    A new antibiotic, luminamicin, was isolated from the culture broth of an actinomycete strain OMR-59. It exhibits antibacterial activity against anaerobic bacteria, especially against Clostridium sp. The molecular formula of the antibiotic was determined as C32H38O12 on the basis of high resolution mass spectrum, elemental analysis and NMR spectrum. PMID:3840790

  7. New approaches to the measurement of chlorophyll, related pigments and productivity in the sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, C. R.; Keifer, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    In the 1984 SBIR Call for Proposals, NASA solicited new methods to measure primary production and chlorophyll in the ocean. Biospherical Instruments Inc. responded to this call with a proposal first to study a variety of approaches to this problem. A second phase of research was then funded to pursue instrumentation to measure the sunlight stimulated naturally occurring fluorescence of chlorophyll in marine phytoplankton. The monitoring of global productivity, global fisheries resources, application of above surface-to-underwater optical communications systems, submarine detection applications, correlation, and calibration of remote sensing systems are but some of the reasons for developing inexpensive sensors to measure chlorophyll and productivity. Normally, productivity measurements are manpower and cost intensive and, with the exception of a very few expensive multiship research experiments, provide no contemporaneous data. We feel that the patented, simple sensors that we have designed will provide a cost effective method for large scale, synoptic, optical measurements in the ocean. This document is the final project report for a NASA sponsored SBIR Phase 2 effort to develop new methods for the measurements of primary production in the ocean. This project has been successfully completed, a U.S. patent was issued covering the methodology and sensors, and the first production run of instrumentation developed under this contract has sold out and been delivered.

  8. Effects of returning NF concentrate on the MBR-NF process treating antibiotic production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Kun; Cheng, Yutao; Wang, Jianxing; Zhang, Junya; Liu, Jibao; Yu, Dawei; Li, Mingyue; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-07-01

    The optimization of the nanofiltration (NF) concentrate backflow ratio (R cb) and the influence of the NF concentrate on the performance of membrane bioreactor-nanofiltration (MBR-NF) process treating antibiotic production wastewater were investigated on a laboratory scale. The R cb was optimized at 60 % based on the removal rates of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and NH4 (+)-N by MBR. Data analyses indicated that salinity brought by NF concentrate is the major driver leading to the decrease of sludge activity, especially at a high R cb. EPS analysis showed that electric conductivity (EC), proteins in soluble microbial products (SMP), and SMP brought by NF concentrate are the dominant factors causing the severe membrane fouling in MBR. Furthermore, undegradable substances including fulvic acid-like and humic acid-like compounds accumulated in NF concentrate showed significant influence on fouling of NF. MBR could well degrade small MW compounds in NF concentrate, which confirmed the enhancement of organic removal efficiency by recycling the NF concentrate to MBR. The MBR-NF process showed a relatively stable performance at the R cb of 60 % (volume reduction factor (VRF) = 5), and the NF permeate could satisfy the water quality standard for fermentation process with a water recovery rate of 90.9 %. PMID:27000117

  9. Effect of retS gene on antibiotics production in Pseudomonas fluorescens FD6.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxia; Xiao, Qi; Xu, Jingyou; Tong, Yunhui; Wen, Jia; Chen, Xijun; Wei, Lihui

    2015-11-01

    A hybrid sensor kinase termed RetS (regulator of exopolysaccharide and Type III secretion) controls expression of numerous genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. To investigate the function of RetS in P. fluorescens FD6, the retS gene was disrupted. Genetic inactivation of retS resulted in enhanced production of 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, and pyoluteorin. The retS mutant also exhibited significant increase in phlA-lacZ, prnA-lacZ, and pltA-lacZ transcription levels, influencing expression levels of the small regulatory RNAs RsmX and RsmZ. In the gacSretS double mutant, all the phenotypic changes caused by the retS deletion were reversed to the level of gacS single mutant. Furthermore, the retS mutation drastically elevated biofilm formation and improved the colonization ability of strain FD6 on wheat rhizospheres. Based on these results, we proposed that RetS negatively controlled the production of antibiotics through the Gac/Rsm pathway in P. fluorescens FD6. PMID:26505308

  10. Enhanced antibiotic production by Streptomyces sindenensis using artificial neural networks coupled with genetic algorithm and Nelder-Mead downhill simplex.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, C K M; Khan, Mahvish; Praveen, Vandana; Khan, Saif; Srivastava, Akanksha

    2012-07-01

    Antibiotic production with Streptomyces sindenensis MTCC 8122 was optimized under submerged fermentation conditions by artificial neural network (ANN) coupled with genetic algorithm (GA) and Nelder-Mead downhill simplex (NMDS). Feed forward back-propagation ANN was trained to establish the mathematical relationship among the medium components and length of incubation period for achieving maximum antibiotic yield. The optimization strategy involved growing the culture with varying concentrations of various medium components for different incubation periods. Under non-optimized condition, antibiotic production was found to be 95 microgram/ml, which nearly doubled (176 microgram/ml) with the ANN-GA optimization. ANN-NMDS optimization was found to be more efficacious, and maximum antibiotic production (197 microgram/ml) was obtained by cultivating the cells with (g/l) fructose 2.7602, MgSO4 1.2369, (NH4)2PO4 0.2742, DL-threonine 3.069%, and soyabean meal 1.952%, for 9.8531 days of incubation, which was roughly 12% higher than the yield obtained by ANN coupled with GA under the same conditions. PMID:22580313

  11. [Utilization of mycelial waste of antibiotic production in the technology of kilned construction materials].

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, V F; Krymskiĭ, M V; Ivanov, I A; Makridin, N I; Kalashnikov, V I

    1985-01-01

    At present the main part of the mycelial waste of antibiotic production is collected in sludge lagoones, discarded to the sewage treatment system or burnt. The mycelial waste is one of the causes of the environmental pollution. It contains a significant quantity of valuable substances, such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids. The inorganic portion of the waste includes the compounds of calcium, magnesium, sodium, iron, silicium and phosphorus. The levels of the above substances in the mycelial waste allow using it as organic mineral additives in making expanded clay aggregate gravel with the use of low quality clay and loam. It may be also used as the burn-out of the raw material charge in making burnt bricks and other burnt building materials. By its calorific value the mycelial waste is equal to brown coal or peat. It was shown that the structural and mechanical properties of the mixtures of the mycelium and clay depended on the moisture content of the composition and the proportion of its components. The mycelial waste provided a decrease in the optimal temperature of burning by 40-50 degrees C. The production tests at the expanded clay aggregate plants showed that the bulk weight of expanded clay aggregate might be lowered by 50-100 kg/m3 and the usual additives with the use of petroleum products might be completely excluded from the technological process. The use of the mycelial waste for manufacture of burnt building materials provides saving of the fuel energy sources and improvement of the quality of the finished product. It is also important from the ecological viewpoint. PMID:3994341

  12. Intronic Sequence Regulates Sugar-Dependent Expression of Arabidopsis thaliana Production of Anthocyanin Pigment-1/MYB75

    PubMed Central

    Broeckling, Bettina E.; Watson, Ruth A.; Steinwand, Blaire; Bush, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose-specific regulation of gene expression is recognized as an important signaling response, distinct from glucose, which serves to modulate plant growth, metabolism, and physiology. The Arabidopsis MYB transcription factor Production of Anthocyanin Pigment-1 (PAP1) plays a key role in anthocyanin biosynthesis and expression of PAP1 is known to be regulated by sucrose. Sucrose treatment of Arabidopsis seedlings led to a 20-fold induction of PAP1 transcript, which represented a 6-fold increase over levels in glucose-treated seedlings. The PAP1 promoter was not sufficient for conferring a sucrose response to a reporter gene and did not correctly report expression of PAP1 in plants. Although we identified 3 putative sucrose response elements in the PAP1 gene, none were found to be necessary for this response. Using deletion analysis, we identified a 90 bp sequence within intron 1 of PAP1 that is necessary for the sucrose response. This sequence was sufficient for conferring a sucrose response to a minimal promoter: luciferase reporter when present in multiple copies upstream of the promoter. This work lays the foundation for dissecting the sucrose signaling pathway of PAP1 and contributes to understanding the interplay between sucrose signaling, anthocyanin biosynthesis, and stress responses. PMID:27248141

  13. Pigment epithelium-derived factor stimulates skeletal muscle glycolytic activity through NADPH oxidase-dependent reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Carnagarin, Revathy; Carlessi, Rodrigo; Newsholme, Philip; Dharmarajan, Arun M; Dass, Crispin R

    2016-09-01

    Pigment epithelium-derived factor is a multifunctional serpin implicated in insulin resistance in metabolic disorders. Recent evidence suggests that exposure of peripheral tissues such as skeletal muscle to PEDF has profound metabolic consequences with predisposition towards chronic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome. Chronic inflammation shifts muscle metabolism towards increased glycolysis and decreased oxidative metabolism. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel effect of PEDF on cellular metabolism in mouse cell line (C2C12) and human primary skeletal muscle cells. PEDF addition to skeletal muscle cells induced enhanced phospholipase A2 activity. This was accompanied with increased production of reactive oxygen species in a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase-dependent manner that triggered a shift towards a more glycolytic phenotype. Extracellular flux analysis and glucose consumption assays demonstrated that PEDF treatment resulted in enhanced glycolysis but did not change mitochondrial respiration. Our results demonstrate that skeletal muscle cells express a PEDF-inducible oxidant generating system that enhances glycolysis but is sensitive to antioxidants and NADPH oxidase inhibition. PMID:27343430

  14. Quorum sensing: a non-conventional target for antibiotic discovery.

    PubMed

    Naik, Varsha; Mahajan, Girish

    2013-10-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is known to regulate different functions viz. pathogenesis, biofilm formation, and host colonization, along with other functions by regulating bacterial virulence determinants. Therefore, QS is deemed to be an interesting target to modulate pathogenesis. Also, there have been global reports of continuous emergence of antibiotic-resistant microbes; hence, an alternative treatment that compliments antibiotic activity is highly desirable. One such approach is to look for QS inhibitors, which can quench the virulence phenotypes exerted by pathogenic bacteria and compliment antibiotic treatment. In the present study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain was used as the model organism which produces three pigments viz. pyocyanin, pyoverdin and pyorubin. Pyocyanin synthesis is reported to be QS dependent and is one of the virulence factors of P. aeruginosa. Hence, we envisage inhibition of pyocyanin pigment would indicate QS inhibition (QSI). Auto-inducers like N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (OdDHL/3-oxo-C12-HSL) and N-butyryl-L- homoserine lactone (BHL/C4-HSL) were used to enhance the pyocyanin pigment production by the model strain at different doses and time points. BHL, at 25 microM was found to be a better inducer of pyocyanin. Tannic acid (TA) was tested to suppress this pigment synthesis and it was found to be effective when assessed at different time points. About 5.12 mg/mL TA was found to be the optimum concentration at which pyocyanin was inhibited by 77.3%. Thus, we confirm that TA can be used as a QSI, either in its purest form or in the crude form found in various plant species, and could be considered for development to compliment antibiotic therapy. PMID:24354200

  15. Eubacterial Diterpene Cyclase Genes Essential for Production of the Isoprenoid Antibiotic Terpentecin

    PubMed Central

    Dairi, Tohru; Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Itoh, Nobuya; Furihata, Kazuo; Seto, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    A gene cluster containing the mevalonate pathway genes (open reading frame 2 [ORF2] to ORF7) for the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate and a geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) synthase gene (ORF1) had previously been cloned from Streptomyces griseolosporeus strain MF730-N6, a diterpenoid antibiotic, terpentecin (TP) producer (Y. Hamano, T. Dairi, M. Yamamoto, T. Kawasaki, K Kaneda, T. Kuzuyama, N. Itoh, and H. Seto, Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 65:1627–1635, 2001). Sequence analysis in the upstream region of the cluster revealed seven new ORFs, ORF8 to ORF14, which were suggested to encode TP biosynthetic genes. We constructed two mutants, in which ORF11 and ORF12, which encode a protein showing similarities to eukaryotic diterpene cyclases (DCs) and a eubacterial pentalenene synthase, respectively, were inactivated by gene disruptions. The mutants produced no TP, confirming that these cyclase genes are essential for the production of TP. The two cyclase genes were also expressed in Streptomyces lividans together with the GGDP synthase gene under the control of the ermE* constitutive promoter. The transformant produced a novel cyclic diterpenoid, ent-clerod-3,13(16),14-triene (terpentetriene), which has the same basic skeleton as TP. The two enzymes, each of which was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity, converted GGDP into terpentetriene. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a eubacterial DC. PMID:11567009

  16. A comparison of the effects of different yeast products and antibiotic on broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Owens, B; McCracken, K J

    2007-02-01

    1. The objectives of this experiment were to compare the effects of different yeast products, with different nucleotide contents and inclusion rates, on broiler performance and to compare the effects to those observed with an antibiotic growth promoter. 2. Two experiments were carried out over two time replicates, one in individual wire cages and one in group pens. 3. Birds were given a diet based on a commercial formulation, which was split into 7 batches. One batch (C) contained no growth promoter and acted as a negative control, another (AV) contained the antibiotic growth promoter Avilomycin (5 g/tonne) and acted as the positive control. The other batches contained yeast extract 2012 at 100 g/tonne (Y21), yeast extract 2012 at 500 g/tonne (Y25), standard yeast 18 at 100 g/tonne (Y81), standard yeast 18 enriched in nucleotides at 100 g/tonne (Y8N1) and standard yeast 18 enriched in nucleotides at 500 g/tonne (Y8N5). 4. In the penned experiment, 280 Cobb broiler chicks (40 birds/treatment) were randomised to diet and pen position on day of hatch. Birds were fed ad libitum until slaughter at 28 d. Bird performance was monitored during the experimental period. 5. In the individual cage experiment, 63 Cobb broiler chicks (9 birds/treatment) were taken from the pens at 7 d of age and randomised to diet and cage position. Birds were fed ad libitum from d 7 to d 28. A 7-d excreta collection was carried out to determine apparent metabolisable energy (AME) content and nutrient digestibility between d 14 and d 21. Bird intake and weight were monitored weekly during the experimental period. At 28 d the birds were killed and viscosity of jejunal digesta supernatant was determined. 6. In the penned experiment, diet had no significant effect on dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain (LWG) or gain:feed values during any individual week of the experiment or for the entire experimental period. In the caged experiment, DMI was numerically highest for birds fed Y25 diet over

  17. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-value by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.

  18. Screening of industrial wastewaters as feedstock for the microbial production of oils for biodiesel production and high-quality pigments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneider, Teresa; Graeff-Honninger, Simone; French, William Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Claupein, Wilhelm; Holmes, William E.; Merkt, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    The production of biodiesel has notably increased over the past decade. Currently, plant oil is the main feedstock for biodiesel production, but, due to concerns related to the competition with food production, alternative oil feedstocks have to be found. Oleaginous yeasts are known to produce high amounts of lipids, but no integrated process from microbial fermentation to final biodiesel production has reached commercial realization yet due to economic constraints. Therefore, growth and lipid production of red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was tested on low-cost substrates, namely, wastewaters from potato, fruit juice, and lettuce processing. Additionally, the production of carotenoids as high-valuemore » by-products was examined. All evaluated wastewaters met the general criteria for microbial lipid production. However, no significant increase in lipid content was observed, probably due to lack of available carbon in wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing, and excess of available nitrogen in potato processing wastewater, respectively. During growth on wastewaters from fruit juice and lettuce processing the carotenoid content increased significantly in the first 48 hours. The relations between carbon content, nitrogen content, and carotenoid production need to be further assessed. For economic viability, lipid and carotenoid production needs to be increased significantly. Lastly, the screening of feedstocks should be extended to other wastewaters.« less

  19. Availability and Utilization of Pigments from Microalgae.

    PubMed

    Begum, Hasina; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Banerjee, Sanjoy; Khatoon, Helena; Shariff, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    Microalgae are the major photosynthesizers on earth and produce important pigments that include chlorophyll a, b and c, β-carotene, astaxanthin, xanthophylls, and phycobiliproteins. Presently, synthetic colorants are used in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical industries. However, due to problems associated with the harmful effects of synthetic colorants, exploitation of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors becomes an attractive option. There are various factors such as nutrient availability, salinity, pH, temperature, light wavelength, and light intensity that affect pigment production in microalgae. This paper reviews the availability and characteristics of microalgal pigments, factors affecting pigment production, and the application of pigments produced from microalgae. The potential of microalgal pigments as a source of natural colors is enormous as an alternative to synthetic coloring agents, which has limited applications due to regulatory practice for health reasons. PMID:25674822

  20. Assessment Of The Production Of Antiquity Pigments Through Experimental Treatment Of Ochres And Other Iron Based Precursors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrotheodoros, G.; Beltsios, K. G.; Zacharias., N.

    In this work we explore the effects of various grinding and thermal-oxidative treatments applied to natural and artificial iron-based materials available (or related to those available) during GraecoRoman antiquity. The raw materials examined are: (a) commercial natural iron pigments (ochres, natrojarosite, caput mortum), (b) artificial melanterite (FeSO4.7H2O), (c) mineral pyrite (FeS2) and mineral metallic hematite. Additionally explored are: (a) the non-attested in surviving sources, yet highly probable during antiquity, route of pigment preparation from iron (or steel) plates exposed to vinegar vapors, (b) a Vitruvius recipe for purplish pigment via vinegar quenching of hot ochre. We obtain oxide pigments with colors ranging from yellowish and red to brownish and purplish. The puzzling variation of colors obtained by subjecting iron-oxide containing materials to identical oxidative heat treatments is found to be explainable on the basis of starting grain size and possible size modifications. We also show, by using highly purity starting materials, that purplish colors obtainable in certain cases by heat treatment do not necessitate, as often claimed, the presence of impurities such as manganese etc. A framework of antiquity color possibilities for iron-oxide based pigments obtainable under the conditions explored is included. All samples prepared are examined via scanning electron microscopy for micromorphology coupled with EDAX for composition, and X-Rays Diffraction for mineralogy.

  1. Acquired Genetic Mechanisms of a Multiresistant Bacterium Isolated from a Treatment Plant Receiving Wastewater from Antibiotic Production

    PubMed Central

    Johnning, Anna; Moore, Edward R. B.; Svensson-Stadler, Liselott; Shouche, Yogesh S.; Larsson, D. G. Joakim

    2013-01-01

    The external environment, particularly wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), where environmental bacteria meet human commensals and pathogens in large numbers, has been highlighted as a potential breeding ground for antibiotic resistance. We have isolated the extensively drug-resistant Ochrobactrum intermedium CCUG 57381 from an Indian WWTP receiving industrial wastewater from pharmaceutical production contaminated with high levels of quinolones. Antibiotic susceptibility testing against 47 antibiotics showed that the strain was 4 to >500 times more resistant to sulfonamides, quinolones, tetracyclines, macrolides, and the aminoglycoside streptomycin than the type strain O. intermedium LMG 3301T. Whole-genome sequencing identified mutations in the Indian strain causing amino acid substitutions in the target enzymes of quinolones. We also characterized three acquired regions containing resistance genes to sulfonamides (sul1), tetracyclines [tet(G) and tetR], and chloramphenicol/florfenicol (floR). Furthermore, the Indian strain harbored acquired mechanisms for horizontal gene transfer, including a type I mating pair-forming system (MPFI), a MOBP relaxase, and insertion sequence transposons. Our results highlight that WWTPs serving antibiotic manufacturing may provide nearly ideal conditions for the recruitment of resistance genes into human commensal and pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24038701

  2. Die Pigmente der antiken Malerei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riederer, J.

    1982-02-01

    Scientific analysis of painted antique objects provides us with information about the pigments used in earlier periods of history. Beginning in prehistoric times, coloured earths and minerals were used exclusively until the 3rd millenium B.C. when an extensive production of artificial pigments started. Following Egyptian Blue, a potassium copper chloride, cobalt blue, and a cobalt aluminium oxide was invented but used only over a short period, until it was reinvented 200 years ago. In the Greecian and Roman times the palette was considerably enlarged by the use of other coloured minerals and artificially prepared pigments.

  3. Overproduction and identification of butyrolactones SCB1-8 in the antibiotic production superhost Streptomyces M1152.

    PubMed

    Sidda, John D; Poon, Vincent; Song, Lijiang; Wang, Weishan; Yang, Keqian; Corre, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Gamma-butyrolactones (GBLs) are signalling molecules that control antibiotic production in Streptomyces bacteria. The genetically engineered strain S. coelicolor M1152 was found to overproduce GBLs SCB1-3 as well as five novel GBLs named SCB4-8. Incorporation experiments using isotopically-labelled precursors confirmed the chemical structures of SCB1-3 and established those of SCB4-8. PMID:27180870

  4. Degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a halotolerant strain of Penicillium chrysogenum: antibiotic production.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Guedes, Sumaya; Mendes, Benilde; Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2012-01-01

    The extensive use of pesticides in agriculture has prompted intensive research on chemical and biological methods in order to protect contamination of water and soil resources. In this paper the degradation of the pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid by a Penicillium chrysogenum strain previously isolated from a salt mine was studied in batch cultures. Co-degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid with additives such as sugar and intermediates of pesticide metabolism was also investigated. Penicillium chrysogenum in solid medium was able to grow at concentrations up to 1000 mg/L of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) with sucrose. Meanwhile, supplementation of the solid medium with glucose and lactose led to fungal growth at concentrations up to 500 mg/L of herbicide. Batch cultures of 2,4-D at 100 mg/L were developed under aerobic conditions with the addition of glucose, lactose and sucrose, showing sucrose as the best additional carbon source. The 2,4-D removal was quantified by liquid chromatography. The fungus was able to use 2,4-D as the sole carbon and energy source under 0%, 2% and 5.9% NaCl. The greatest 2,4-D degradation efficiency was found using alpha-ketoglutarate and ascorbic acid as co-substrates under 2% NaCl at pH 7. Penicillin production was evaluated in submerged cultures by bioassay, and higher amounts of beta-lactam antibiotic were produced when the herbicide was alone. Taking into account the ability of P. chrysogenum CLONA2 to degrade aromatic compounds, this strain could be an interesting tool for 2,4-D herbicide remediation in saline environments. PMID:22629643

  5. Skin Pigmentation Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Pigmentation means coloring. Skin pigmentation disorders affect the color of your skin. Your skin gets its color from a pigment called melanin. Special cells in the skin make melanin. When these cells become damaged or ...

  6. Production and biological activities of a new antifungal antibiotic, TAN-950 A.

    PubMed

    Hakoda, S; Tsubotani, S; Iwasa, T; Suzuki, M; Kondo, M; Harada, S

    1992-06-01

    A novel antifungal antibiotic, TAN-950 complex, was isolated from the culture filtrate of Streptomyces platensis A-136 (IFO 14603, FERM BP-1786). The water-soluble amphoteric substances in this complex were purified by chromatography using ion-exchange resins, QAE-Sephadex and adsorptive resins and were designated TAN-950 A and TAN-950 A-E mixture. The molecular formula of TAN-950 A was determined to be C6H7N2O4Na for the sodium salt. This new amino acid antibiotic showed antifungal activity against Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo, and had low toxicity in mice. PMID:1500350

  7. A dominant-negative mutation within AtMYB90 blocks flower pigment production in transgenic tobacco.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During de novo shoot induction in cultured transgenic tobacco callus a spontaneous mutation within the coding region of a AtMYB90 transgene produced a plant line in which the original transgene-induced over-pigmented phenotype (dark red/purple from anthocyanin overproduction in most tissues) was los...

  8. Formation of primary production in the reservoirs of the Volga chain of hydroelectric stations under present conditions: Phytoplankton pigments

    SciTech Connect

    Mineeva, N.M.

    1995-11-01

    Data of field observations of 1989-1991 on the content of photosynthetic pigments in the reservoirs of the Volga chain of hydroelectric stations are given. The effect of biogenic elements on the development of the Volga River phytoplankton is discussed. The present state of the water bodies is assessed in terms of chlorophyll content.

  9. Replacement for antibiotics: Lysozyme

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics have been fed at subtherapeutic levels to swine as growth promoters for more than 60 years, and the majority of swine produced in the U.S. receive antibiotics in their feed at some point in their production cycle. These compounds benefit the producers by minimizing production losses by ...

  10. A Regulatory Gene SCO2140 is Involved in Antibiotic Production and Morphological Differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingjun; Pan, Yuanyuan; Liu, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Streptomyces coelicolor is the soil-dwelling bacterium with a complex life cycle and a strong ability to produce plenty of secondary metabolites which are strictly regulated by a variety of regulators. Amino acid alignment shows that the deduced protein of SCO2140 belongs to the family of Leucine-responsive regulatory proteins (Lrps). Disruption of SCO2140 significantly decreased the yields of actinorhodin and calcium-dependent antibiotics, and the complemented strain restored the antibiotic productions to the wild-type level. In contrast, overexpression of SCO2140 increased the actinorhodin production. In agreement with it, the transcriptions of actII-ORF4 and cdaR remarkably reduced in the SCO2140 disruption mutant. The aerial mycelium formation of the SCO2140 disruption mutant was clearly delayed in R2YE medium due to the decrease of ramS expression while its complemented strain could restore the normal formation of aerial mycelia. These results indicated that SCO2140 was involved in antibiotic biosynthesis and morphological differentiation of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). PMID:27113590

  11. Variability of antibiotic susceptibility and toxin production of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus is an opportunistic commensal bacterium that mostly colonizes the skin and soft tissues. The pathogenicity of S. aureus is due to both its ability to resist antibiotics, and the production of toxins. Here, we characterize a group of genes responsible for toxin production and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus strains isolated from skin, soft tissue, and bone related infections. Results A total of 136 S. aureus strains were collected from five different types of infection: furuncles, pyomyositis, abscesses, Buruli ulcers, and osteomyelitis, from hospital admissions and out-patients in Benin. All strains were resistant to benzyl penicillin, while 25% were resistant to methicillin, and all showed sensitivity to vancomycin. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) was the most commonly produced virulence factor (70%), followed by staphylococcal enterotoxin B (44%). Exfoliative toxin B was produced by 1.3% of the strains, and was only found in isolates from Buruli ulcers. The tsst-1, sec, and seh genes were rarely detected (≤1%). Conclusions This study provides new insight into the prevalence of toxin and antibiotic resistance genes in S. aureus strains responsible for skin, soft tissue, and bone infections. Our results showed that PVL was strongly associated with pyomyositis and osteomyelitis, and that there is a high prevalence of PVL-MRSA skin infections in Benin. PMID:23924370

  12. Performance and fate of organics in a pilot MBR-NF for treating antibiotic production wastewater with recycling NF concentrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxing; Li, Kun; Wei, Yuansong; Cheng, Yutao; Wei, Dongbin; Li, Mingyue

    2015-02-01

    A double membrane system comprising a membrane bioreactor (MBR) combined with a nanofiltration (NF) membrane was investigated on a pilot scale for the treatment of antibiotic production wastewater over a three-month period at a pharmaceutical company in Wuxi, China. By recycling the NF concentrate, the combined MBR-NF process was shown to be effective for the treatment of antibiotic production wastewater, resulting in excellent water quality and a high water yield of 92±5.6%. The water quality of the pilot-scale MBR-NF process was excellent; e.g., the concentrations of TOC, NH4(+)-N, TP were stable at 5.52, 0.68, 0.34 mg L(-1), respectively, and the values of turbidity and conductivity of the NF permeate were 0.15 NTU and 2.5 mS cm(-1), respectively; these values meet China's water quality standard requirements for industrial use (GB21903-2008). Not only were the antibiotic removal rates of spiramycin (SPM) and new spiramycin (NSPM) over 95%, the acute toxicity was also drastically reduced by the MBR-NF pilot system. The main organics in the MBR effluent were proteins, polysaccharides, and humic-like substances; they were almost completely retained by the NF membrane and further biodegraded in the MBR because the NF concentrate was recycled. The microbial community of the MBR did not significantly change with the recycling of the NF concentrate. PMID:25475971

  13. Deciphering the Regulon of Streptomyces coelicolor AbrC3, a Positive Response Regulator of Antibiotic Production

    PubMed Central

    Rico, Sergio; Santamaría, Ramón I.; Yepes, Ana; Rodríguez, Héctor; Laing, Emma; Bucca, Giselda; Smith, Colin P.

    2014-01-01

    The atypical two-component system (TCS) AbrC1/C2/C3 (encoded by SCO4598, SCO4597, and SCO4596), comprising two histidine kinases (HKs) and a response regulator (RR), is crucial for antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor and for morphological differentiation under certain nutritional conditions. In this study, we demonstrate that deletion of the RR-encoding gene, abrC3 (SCO4596), results in a dramatic decrease in actinorhodin (ACT) and undecylprodiginine (RED) production and delays morphological development. In contrast, the overexpression of abrC3 in the parent strain leads to a 33% increase in ACT production in liquid medium. Transcriptomic analysis and chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray technology (ChIP-chip) analysis of the ΔabrC3 mutant and the parent strain revealed that AbrC3 directly controls ACT production by binding to the actII-ORF4 promoter region; this was independently verified by in vitro DNA-binding assays. This binding is dependent on the sequence 5′-GAASGSGRMS-3′. In contrast, the regulation of RED production is not due to direct binding of AbrC3 to either the redZ or redD promoter region. This study also revealed other members of the AbrC3 regulon: AbrC3 is a positive autoregulator which also binds to the promoter regions of SCO0736, bdtA (SCO3328), absR1 (SCO6992), and SCO6809. The direct targets share the 10-base consensus binding sequence and may be responsible for some of the phenotypes of the ΔabrC3 mutant. The identification of the AbrC3 regulon as part of the complex regulatory network governing antibiotic production widens our knowledge regarding TCS involvement in control of antibiotic synthesis and may contribute to the rational design of new hyperproducer host strains through genetic manipulation of such systems. PMID:24509929

  14. Amplification of the housekeeping sigma factor in Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 enhances antibiotic production and improves biocontrol abilities.

    PubMed Central

    Schnider, U; Keel, C; Blumer, C; Troxler, J; Défago, G; Haas, D

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0 produces a variety of secondary metabolites, in particular the antibiotics pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, and protects various plants from diseases caused by soilborne pathogenic fungi. The rpoD gene encoding the housekeeping sigma factor sigma 70 of P. fluorescens was sequenced. The deduced RpoD protein showed 83% identity with RpoD of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 67% identity with RpoD of Escherichia coli. Attempts to inactivate the single chromosomal rpoD gene of strain CHA0 were unsuccessful, indicating an essential role of this gene. When rpoD was carried by an IncP vector in strain CHA0, the production of both antibiotics was increased severalfold and, in parallel, protection of cucumber against disease caused by Pythium ultimum was improved, in comparison with strain CHA0. PMID:7665535

  15. Advanced oxidation of the antibiotic sulfapyridine by UV/H₂O₂: Characterization of its transformation products and ecotoxicological implications.

    PubMed

    García-Galán, Ma Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Comas, Joaquim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate, under lab-scale conditions, the removal and transformation of the antibiotic sulfapyridine (SPY) upon advanced oxidation with UV/H2O2. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analyses by means of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-linear ion trap high resolution Orbitrap instrument (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) were carried out in order to elucidate the different transformation products (TPs) generated. The abatement (>99%) of the antibiotic was only achieved after 180 min, highlighting its resilience to elimination and its potential persistence in the environment A total of 10 TPs for SPY were detected and their molecular structures elucidated by means of MS(2) and MS(3) scans. Finally, the combined ecotoxicity at different treatment times was evaluated by means of bioluminescence inhibition assays with the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. PMID:26789837

  16. A Spontaneous Dominant-Negative Mutation within a 35S::AtMYB90 Transgene Inhibits Flower Pigment Production in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Velten, Jeff; Cakir, Cahid; Cazzonelli, Christopher I.

    2010-01-01

    Background In part due to the ease of visual detection of phenotypic changes, anthocyanin pigment production has long been the target of genetic and molecular research in plants. Specific members of the large family of plant myb transcription factors have been found to play critical roles in regulating expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and these genes continue to serve as important tools in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of plant gene regulation. Findings A spontaneous mutation within the coding region of an Arabidopsis 35S::AtMYB90 transgene converted the activator of plant-wide anthocyanin production to a dominant-negative allele (PG-1) that inhibits normal pigment production within tobacco petals. Sequence analysis identified a single base change that created a premature nonsense codon, truncating the encoded myb protein. The resulting mutant protein lacks 78 amino acids from the wild type C-terminus and was confirmed as the source of the white-flower phenotype. A putative tobacco homolog of AtMYB90 (NtAN2) was isolated and found to be expressed in flower petals but not leaves of all tobacco plants tested. Using transgenic tobacco constitutively expressing the NtAN2 gene confirmed the NtAN2 protein as the likely target of PG-1-based inhibition of tobacco pigment production. Conclusions Messenger RNA and anthocyanin analysis of PG-1Sh transgenic lines (and PG-1Sh x purple 35S::NtAN2 seedlings) support a model in which the mutant myb transgene product acts as a competitive inhibitor of the native tobacco NtAN2 protein. This finding is important to researchers in the field of plant transcription factor analysis, representing a potential outcome for experiments analyzing in vivo protein function in test transgenic systems that over-express or mutate plant transcription factors. PMID:20360951

  17. Alternatives to antibiotics as growth promoters for use in swine production: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In the past two decades, an intensive amount of research has been focused on the development of alternatives to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. The most widely researched alternatives include probiotics, prebiotics, acidifiers, plant extracts and neutraceuticals such as copper and zinc. Since these additives have been more than adequately covered in previous reviews, the focus of this review will be on less traditional alternatives. The potential of antimicrobial peptides, clay minerals, egg yolk antibodies, essential oils, eucalyptus oil-medium chain fatty acids, rare earth elements and recombinant enzymes are discussed. Based on a thorough review of the literature, it is evident that a long and growing list of compounds exist which have been tested for their ability to replace antibiotics as feed additives in diets fed to swine. Unfortunately, the vast majority of these compounds produce inconsistent results and rarely equal antibiotics in their effectiveness. Therefore, it would appear that research is still needed in this area and that the perfect alternative to antibiotics does not yet exist. PMID:24034214

  18. Alternatives to antibiotics as growth promoters for use in swine production: a review.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Philip A

    2013-01-01

    In the past two decades, an intensive amount of research has been focused on the development of alternatives to antibiotics to maintain swine health and performance. The most widely researched alternatives include probiotics, prebiotics, acidifiers, plant extracts and neutraceuticals such as copper and zinc. Since these additives have been more than adequately covered in previous reviews, the focus of this review will be on less traditional alternatives. The potential of antimicrobial peptides, clay minerals, egg yolk antibodies, essential oils, eucalyptus oil-medium chain fatty acids, rare earth elements and recombinant enzymes are discussed. Based on a thorough review of the literature, it is evident that a long and growing list of compounds exist which have been tested for their ability to replace antibiotics as feed additives in diets fed to swine. Unfortunately, the vast majority of these compounds produce inconsistent results and rarely equal antibiotics in their effectiveness. Therefore, it would appear that research is still needed in this area and that the perfect alternative to antibiotics does not yet exist. PMID:24034214

  19. VanT, a Homologue of Vibrio harveyi LuxR, Regulates Serine, Metalloprotease, Pigment, and Biofilm Production in Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Croxatto, Antony; Chalker, Victoria J.; Lauritz, Johan; Jass, Jana; Hardman, Andrea; Williams, Paul; Cámara, Miguel; Milton, Debra L.

    2002-01-01

    Vibrio anguillarum possesses at least two N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) quorum-sensing circuits, one of which is related to the luxMN system of Vibrio harveyi. In this study, we have cloned an additional gene of this circuit, vanT, encoding a V. harveyi LuxR-like transcriptional regulator. A V. anguillarum ΔvanT null mutation resulted in a significant decrease in total protease activity due to loss of expression of the metalloprotease EmpA, but no changes in either AHL production or virulence. Additional genes positively regulated by VanT were identified from a plasmid-based gene library fused to a promoterless lacZ. Three lacZ fusions (serA::lacZ, hpdA-hgdA::lacZ, and sat-vps73::lacZ) were identified which exhibited decreased expression in the ΔvanT strain. SerA is similar to 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenases and catalyzes the first step in the serine-glycine biosynthesis pathway. HgdA has identity with homogentisate dioxygenases, and HpdA is homologous to 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenases (HPPDs) involved in pigment production. V. anguillarum strains require an active VanT to produce high levels of an l-tyrosine-induced brown color via HPPD, suggesting that VanT controls pigment production. Vps73 and Sat are related to Vibrio cholerae proteins encoded within a DNA locus required for biofilm formation. A V. anguillarum ΔvanT mutant and a mutant carrying a polar mutation in the sat-vps73 DNA locus were shown to produce defective biofilms. Hence, a new member of the V. harveyi LuxR transcriptional activator family has been characterized in V. anguillarum that positively regulates serine, metalloprotease, pigment, and biofilm production. PMID:11872713

  20. Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems: State of the science

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review article proposes a simple causal model depicting relationships involved in dissemination of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in agroecosystems and potential effects on human health, functioning of natural ecosystems, and agricultural productivity. Available evidence for each causal ...

  1. Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    Antibiotics are medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, they can save lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able to resist the effects of an antibiotic. Using antibiotics can lead to resistance. ...

  2. The sigma factor sigma s affects antibiotic production and biological control activity of Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5.

    PubMed

    Sarniguet, A; Kraus, J; Henkels, M D; Muehlchen, A M; Loper, J E

    1995-12-19

    Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5, a rhizosphere-inhabiting bacterium that suppresses several soilborne pathogens of plants, produces the antibiotics pyrrolnitrin, pyoluteorin, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol. A gene necessary for pyrrolnitrin production by Pf-5 was identified as rpoS, which encodes the stationary-phase sigma factor sigma s. Several pleiotropic effects of an rpoS mutation in Escherichia coli also were observed in an RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. These included sensitivities of stationary-phase cells to stresses imposed by hydrogen peroxide or high salt concentration. A plasmid containing the cloned wild-type rpoS gene restored pyrrolnitrin production and stress tolerance to the RpoS- mutant of Pf-5. The RpoS- mutant overproduced pyoluteorin and 2,4-diacetyl-phloroglucinol, two antibiotics that inhibit growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Pythium ultimum, and was superior to the wild type in suppression of seedling damping-off of cucumber caused by Pythium ultimum. When inoculated onto cucumber seed at high cell densities, the RpoS- mutant did not survive as well as the wild-type strain on surfaces of developing seedlings. Other stationary-phase-specific phenotypes of Pf-5, such as the production of cyanide and extracellular protease(s) were expressed by the RpoS- mutant, suggesting that sigma s is only one of the sigma factors required for the transcription of genes in stationary-phase cells of P. fluorescens. These results indicate that a sigma factor encoded by rpoS influences antibiotic production, biological control activity, and survival of P. fluorescens on plant surfaces. PMID:8618880

  3. Antibiotic Resistance and Biofilm Production in Staphylococcus epidermidis Strains, Isolated from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Contreras, Roberto; Morelos-Ramírez, Rubén; Galicia-Camacho, Ada Nelly; Meléndez-Herrada, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis strains isolated from nosocomial infections represent a serious problem worldwide. In various Mexican states several reports have shown isolates from hospitals with antibiotic resistance to methicillin. In Mexico City, there is scarce information on staphylococcal infections in hospitals. Here, our research findings are shown in a four-year period study (2006–2010) for Staphylococcus epidermidis strains. Susceptibility and/or resistance to antibiotics in SE strains were assessed by phenotypic and molecular methods as mecA gene by PCR, as well as the correlation with biofilm production for these isolates and the relationship to the infection site. Out of a total of 161 (66%) negative biofilm SE strains, just 103 (64%) SE strains were confirmed as MRSE by PCR to mecA gene. From 84 (34%) positive biofilm SE strains, 76 (91%) were confirmed as MRSE by PCR to mecA gene. Higher percentages of resistance to antibiotics and higher number of resistance markers were found in biofilm-forming clinical strains (9 to 14) than non-biofilm-forming SE strains (3 to 8). These research findings represent a guide to establish infection control programs for this hospital. PMID:23724338

  4. Antibiotic resistance and molecular analysis of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow's milk and dairy products in northeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silveira-Filho, Vladimir M; Luz, Isabelle S; Campos, Ana Paula F; Silva, Wellington M; Barros, Maria Paloma S; Medeiros, Elizabeth S; Freitas, Manuela F L; Mota, Rinaldo A; Sena, Maria J; Leal-Balbino, Tereza C

    2014-04-01

    This work aimed to assess the clonal distribution among 94 strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow's milk, raw cheese, and a milking machine in 12 dairy farms in northeast Brazil, by analyzing different typing methods and detecting resistance and toxigenic profiles. For the first time, isolates of this region were assessed simultaneously by the polymorphism of the 3'-end coa gene and 16S-23S rDNA, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, antibiotic resistance phenotyping, and toxigenic arsenal. Although pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns showed a wider variation (discriminatory index 0.83) than the PCR-based methods, the internal transcribed spacer-PCR proved to be a useful and inexpensive procedure for conducting epidemiological surveys of S. aureus on a regional scale. Each dairy farm had its own resistance profile, and in two herds, 63% of the strains were multiresistant, probably due to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in bovine mastitis treatment. No methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains were detected in this study; however, 93.6% of S. aureus strains harbored variable profiles of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes seg, seh, sei, and sej. Transcriptional analysis revealed that 53.3% of staphylococcal enterotoxin genes actually transcribed, pointing out the food poisoning risk of these dairy products to consumers in the region. Based on the detection of the most prevalent clones in a herd or region, appropriate antibiotic therapy and specific immunization can be used for the treatment and control of staphylococcal mastitis. PMID:24680069

  5. Population structure, egg production and gut content pigment of large grazing copepods during the spring phytoplankton bloom in the Oyashio region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Atsushi; Onishi, Yuka; Omata, Aya; Kawai, Momoka; Kaneda, Mariko; Ikeda, Tsutomu

    2010-09-01

    As a basis for analyzing development of six large grazing copepods ( Eucalanus bungii, Metridia pacifica, M. okhotensis, Neocalanus cristatus, N. flemingeri and N. plumchrus) in the Oyashio region, quasi-daily twin-NORPAC net (0.33 and 0.10 mm mesh) hauls were taken through the upper 150 m and 500 m at a station southwest of Hokkaido before (9-14 March) and after (6-30 April) the onset of the phytoplankton bloom in 2007. Based on additional fresh specimens collected from 0-150 m, egg production of E. bungii, M. pacifica and M. okhotensis, and gut pigments of late copepodid stages in each species were evaluated. Total zooplankton biomass was greater from 10 April onward by a factor of 2- to 8-fold the previous levels. This increase of the 0-150 m biomass was caused by development of Neocalanus spp. copepodids and upward migration of resting E. bungii. Egg production of E. bungii peaked on 18 April, while abundance of its nauplii and C1 peaked on 20 and 25 April, respectively. Sex ratio and C6-female gonad maturation index of E. bungii showed new recruitment to C6 during 20-30 April, likely derived from a population that over-wintered as C3 or C4. Egg production and hatchability of M. pacifica and M. okhotensis were highly variable and no temporal trend was detected. Comparison with field abundance data for Metridia spp. suggests that our estimates of egg production and hatchability are too low, despite care with experimental conditions. All the Neocalanus species utilize the bloom as energy for juvenile growth. Neocalanus cristatus developed from C2 through C4, and stage duration of C3 was estimated to be 24 days. Neocalanus flemingeri also developed from C1 through C3, and stage durations of C1 and C2 were estimated to be 7-9 days. Neocalanus plumchrus occurred in small numbers from mid-April onward. The stage duration estimates for Neocalanus spp. are similar to those reported from the high-nutrition southeastern Bering Sea shelf. Gut pigment variation clearly

  6. Pumilacidin, a complex of new antiviral antibiotics. Production, isolation, chemical properties, structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Naruse, N; Tenmyo, O; Kobaru, S; Kamei, H; Miyaki, T; Konishi, M; Oki, T

    1990-03-01

    New antibiotic pumilacidins A, B, C, D, E, F and G were isolated from the culture broth of a strain of Bacillus pumilus. They are cyclic acylheptapeptide composed of a beta-hydroxy fatty acid, two L-leucine, two D-leucine, L-glutamic acid, L-aspartic acid and L-isoleucine (or L-valine). Pumilacidin components were inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1 and H+, K(+)-ATPase and demonstrated antiulcer activity in rat. PMID:2157695

  7. Killing of Mycolic Acid-Containing Bacteria Aborted Induction of Antibiotic Production by Streptomyces in Combined-Culture.

    PubMed

    Asamizu, Shumpei; Ozaki, Taro; Teramoto, Kanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Onaka, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Co-culture of Streptomyces with mycolic acid-containing bacteria (MACB), which we termed "combined-culture," alters the secondary metabolism pattern in Streptomyces and has been a useful method for the discovery of bioactive natural products. In the course of our investigation to identify the inducing factor(s) of MACB, we previously observed that production of pigments in Streptomyces lividans was not induced by factors such as culture extracts or mycolic acids. Although dynamic changes occurred in culture conditions because of MACB, the activation of pigment production by S. lividans was observed in a limited area where both colonies were in direct contact. This suggested that direct attachment of cells is a requirement and that components on the MACB cell membrane may play an important role in the response by S. lividans. Here we examined whether this response was influenced by dead MACB that possess intact mycolic acids assembled on the outer cell membrane. Formaldehyde fixation and γ-irradiation were used to prepare dead cells that retain their shape and mycolic acids of three MACB species: Tsukamurella pulmonis, Rhodococcus erythropolis, and Rhodococcus opacus. Culturing tests verified that S. lividans does not respond to the intact dead cells of three MACB. Observation of combined-culture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that adhesion of live MACB to S. lividans mycelia were a significant interaction that resulted in formation of co-aggregation. In contrast, in the SEM analysis, dead cells were not observed to adhere. Therefore, direct attachment by live MACB cells is proposed as one of the possible factors that causes Streptomyces to alter its specialized metabolism in combined-culture. PMID:26544713

  8. Killing of Mycolic Acid-Containing Bacteria Aborted Induction of Antibiotic Production by Streptomyces in Combined-Culture

    PubMed Central

    Asamizu, Shumpei; Ozaki, Taro; Teramoto, Kanae; Satoh, Katsuya; Onaka, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Co-culture of Streptomyces with mycolic acid-containing bacteria (MACB), which we termed “combined-culture,” alters the secondary metabolism pattern in Streptomyces and has been a useful method for the discovery of bioactive natural products. In the course of our investigation to identify the inducing factor(s) of MACB, we previously observed that production of pigments in Streptomyces lividans was not induced by factors such as culture extracts or mycolic acids. Although dynamic changes occurred in culture conditions because of MACB, the activation of pigment production by S. lividans was observed in a limited area where both colonies were in direct contact. This suggested that direct attachment of cells is a requirement and that components on the MACB cell membrane may play an important role in the response by S. lividans. Here we examined whether this response was influenced by dead MACB that possess intact mycolic acids assembled on the outer cell membrane. Formaldehyde fixation and γ-irradiation were used to prepare dead cells that retain their shape and mycolic acids of three MACB species: Tsukamurella pulmonis, Rhodococcus erythropolis, and Rhodococcus opacus. Culturing tests verified that S. lividans does not respond to the intact dead cells of three MACB. Observation of combined-culture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated that adhesion of live MACB to S. lividans mycelia were a significant interaction that resulted in formation of co-aggregation. In contrast, in the SEM analysis, dead cells were not observed to adhere. Therefore, direct attachment by live MACB cells is proposed as one of the possible factors that causes Streptomyces to alter its specialized metabolism in combined-culture. PMID:26544713

  9. Muraymycin nucleoside-peptide antibiotics: uridine-derived natural products as lead structures for the development of novel antibacterial agents

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Marius; Niro, Giuliana; Leyerer, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Muraymycins are a promising class of antimicrobial natural products. These uridine-derived nucleoside-peptide antibiotics inhibit the bacterial membrane protein translocase I (MraY), a key enzyme in the intracellular part of peptidoglycan biosynthesis. This review describes the structures of naturally occurring muraymycins, their mode of action, synthetic access to muraymycins and their analogues, some structure–activity relationship (SAR) studies and first insights into muraymycin biosynthesis. It therefore provides an overview on the current state of research, as well as an outlook on possible future developments in this field. PMID:27340469

  10. Fractionation and analysis of veterinary antibiotics and their related degradation products in agricultural soils and drainage waters following swine manure amendment.

    PubMed

    Solliec, Morgan; Roy-Lachapelle, Audrey; Gasser, Marc-Olivier; Coté, Caroline; Généreux, Mylène; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2016-02-01

    The fate of antimicrobial active compound residues in the environment, and especially antibiotics used in swine husbandry are of particular interest for their potential toxicity and contribution to antibiotic resistance. The presence of relatively high concentrations of bioactive compounds has been reported in agricultural areas but few information is available on their degradation products. Veterinary antibiotics reach terrestrial environments through many routes, including application of swine manure to soils. The objectives of this project were first, to develop an analytical method able to quantify and identify veterinary antibiotics and their degradation products in manure, soil and water samples; and second, to study the distribution of these target compounds in soils and drainage waters. A brief evaluation of their potential toxicity in the environment was also made. In order to achieve these objectives, liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry was used for its ability to quantify contaminants with sensitivity and selectivity, and its capacity to identify degradation products. Samples of manure, soil and water came from a long-term experimental site where swine manure containing veterinary antibiotics has been applied for many years. In this study, tetracycline antibiotics were found at several hundred μg L(-1) in the swine manure slurry used for fertilization, several hundred of ng L(-1) in drainage waters and several ng g(-1) in soils, while degradation products were sometimes found at concentrations higher than the parent compounds. PMID:26605832

  11. Comparison of NF membrane fouling and cleaning by two pretreatment strategies for the advanced treatment of antibiotic production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianxing; Li, Kun; Yu, Dawei; Zhang, Junya; Wei, Yuansong; Chen, Meixue; Shan, Baoqing

    2016-01-01

    The nanofiltration (NF) membrane fouling characteristics and cleaning strategies were investigated and compared for treating membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent and MBR-granular activated carbon (GAC) effluent of an antibiotic production wastewater by DK membrane. Results showed that the fouling of treating MBR effluent was more severe than that of treating MBR-GAC effluent. After filtering for 216 h, the difference of membrane flux decline was obvious between MBR effluent and MBR-GAC effluent, with 14.9% and 10.3% flux decline, respectively. Further study showed that organic fouling is the main NF membrane fouling in the advanced treatment of antibiotic production wastewater for both of the two different effluents. Soluble microbial by-product like and tyrosine-like substances were the dominant components in the foulants, whereas humic-like substances existing in the effluents had little contribution to the NF membrane fouling. A satisfactory efficiency of NF chemical cleaning could be obtained using combination of acid (HCl, pH 2.0-2.5) and alkali (NaOH + 0.3 wt% NaDS, pH 10.0-10.5). The favorable cleaning strategy is acid-alkali for treating the MBR-GAC effluent, while it is alkali-acid for treating the MBR effluent. PMID:27148729

  12. Correlation of penicillinase production with phage type and susceptibility to antibiotics and heavy metals in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Rosdahl, V T; Rosendal, K

    1983-11-01

    One hundred and thirty-nine bacteraemia strains of Staphylococcus aureus, representing different combinations of phage type and susceptibility to antibiotics and to cadmium (Cd), arsenate (As) and mercury (Hg), were investigated for penicillinase production. The determination of enzyme activity in induced and uninduced conditions was performed by iodometric titration. The amount of penicillinase produced could be correlated with phage pattern. Epidemically occurring strains of the 94,96 and the 83A complexes produced the largest amount of penicillinase, whereas strains of the 52,52A,80,81 complex were weaker producers. Group-II and group-III strains produced the smallest amount. Susceptibility to antibiotics and to Cd, As and Hg could not be correlated with enzyme activity, but strains resistant to penicillin plus tetracyclines and strains resistant only to Cd did produce less enzyme than strains with other resistance patterns. The percentage mean values than strains with other resistance patterns. The percentage mean values of extracellularity of the enzyme was highest amongst strains of the 94,96 complex and of type 95. Four strains had constitutive production, one being macro-constitutive and three micro-constitutive. All four strains represented rare combinations of the above properties but were susceptible to fusidic acid. The importance of penicillinase production by epidemically occurring strains is discussed. PMID:6227749

  13. LC-MS-Based Metabolomics Study of Marine Bacterial Secondary Metabolite and Antibiotic Production in Salinispora arenicola

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Utpal; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Ng, Yi Kai; Shaw, Paul Nicholas; Fuerst, John A.; Hodson, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    An LC-MS-based metabolomics approach was used to characterise the variation in secondary metabolite production due to changes in the salt content of the growth media as well as across different growth periods (incubation times). We used metabolomics as a tool to investigate the production of rifamycins (antibiotics) and other secondary metabolites in the obligate marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola, isolated from Great Barrier Reef (GBR) sponges, at two defined salt concentrations and over three different incubation periods. The results indicated that a 14 day incubation period is optimal for the maximum production of rifamycin B, whereas rifamycin S and W achieve their maximum concentration at 29 days. A “chemical profile” link between the days of incubation and the salt concentration of the growth medium was shown to exist and reliably represents a critical point for selection of growth medium and harvest time. PMID:25574739

  14. Degradation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics and identification of metabolites/transformation products by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maia, Alexandra S; Ribeiro, Ana R; Amorim, Catarina L; Barreiro, Juliana C; Cass, Quezia B; Castro, Paula M L; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth

    2014-03-14

    Antibiotics are a therapeutic class widely found in environmental matrices and extensively studied due to its persistence and implications for multi-resistant bacteria development. This work presents an integrated approach of analytical multi-techniques on assessing biodegradation of fluorinated antibiotics at a laboratory-scale microcosmos to follow removal and formation of intermediate compounds. Degradation of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics, namely Ofloxacin (OFL), Norfloxacin (NOR), Ciprofloxacin (CPF) and Moxifloxacin (MOX), at 10 mg L(-1) using a mixed bacterial culture, was assessed for 60 days. The assays were followed by a developed and validated analytical method of LC with fluorescence detection (LC-FD) using a Luna Pentafluorophenyl (2) 3 μm column. The validated method demonstrated good selectivity, linearity (r(2)>0.999), intra-day and inter-day precisions (RSD<2.74%) and accuracy. The quantification limits were 5 μg L(-1) for OFL, NOR and CPF and 20 μg L(-1) for MOX. The optimized conditions allowed picturing metabolites/transformation products formation and accumulation during the process, stating an incomplete mineralization, also shown by fluoride release. OFL and MOX presented the highest (98.3%) and the lowest (80.5%) extent of degradation after 19 days of assay, respectively. A representative number of samples was selected and analyzed by LC-MS/MS with triple quadrupole and the molecular formulas were confirmed by a quadruple time of flight analyzer (QqTOF). Most of the intermediates were already described as biodegradation and/or photodegradation products in different conditions; however unknown metabolites were also identified. The microbial consortium, even when exposed to high levels of FQ, presented high percentages of degradation, never reported before for these compounds. PMID:24548434

  15. Effect of some commonly used pesticides on seed germination, biomass production and photosynthetic pigments in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Shakir, Shakirullah Khan; Kanwal, Memoona; Murad, Waheed; Zia ur Rehman; Shafiq ur Rehman; Daud, M K; Azizullah, Azizullah

    2016-03-01

    Pesticides are highly toxic substances. Their toxicity may not be absolutely specific to the target organisms but can adversely affect different processes in the non-target host plants. In the present study, the effect of over application of four commonly used pesticides (emamectin benzoate, alpha-cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and imidacloprid) was evaluated on the germination, seedling vigor and photosynthetic pigments in tomato. The obtained results revealed that seed germination was decreased by the pesticides and this effect was more prominent at early stages of exposure. All the tested pesticides reduced the growth of tomato when applied in higher concentration than the recommended dose, but at lower doses the pesticides had some stimulatory effects on growth as compared to the control. A similar effect of pesticides was observed on the photosynthetic pigments, i.e. a decrease in pigments concentrations was caused at higher doses but an increase was observed at lower doses of pesticides. The calculation of EC50 values for different parameters revealed the lowest EC50 values for emamectin (ranged as 51-181 mg/L) followed by alpha-cypermethrin (191.74-374.39), lambda-cyhalothrin (102.43-354.28) and imidacloprid (430.29-1979.66 mg/L). A comparison of the obtained EC50 values for different parameters of tomato with the recommended doses revealed that over application of these pesticides can be harmful to tomato crop. In a few cases these pesticides were found toxic even at the recommended doses. However, a field based study in this regard should be conducted to further verify these results. PMID:26603051

  16. Atpenins, new antifungal antibiotics produced by Penicillium sp. Production, isolation, physico-chemical and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Omura, S; Tomoda, H; Kimura, K; Zhen, D Z; Kumagai, H; Igarashi, K; Imamura, N; Takahashi, Y; Tanaka, Y; Iwai, Y

    1988-12-01

    Penicillium sp. FO-125, a soil isolate, was found to produce a new antifungal antibiotic complex named atpenin. Three components A4, A5 and B were isolated from the fermentation broth of the producing strain by solvent extraction, silica gel column chromatography and HPLC. The molecular formula of atpenins A4, A5 and B were determined to be C15H22NO5Cl, C15H21NO5Cl2 and C15H23NO5, respectively, on the basis of high resolution electron impact mass spectrometry and elemental analysis. They are active against filamentous fungi, especially, Trichophyton sp. PMID:3209470

  17. Impact of alg3 gene deletion on growth, development, pigment production, protein secretion, and functions of recombinant Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolases in Aspergillus niger

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Ziyu; Aryal, Uma K.; Shukla, Anil; Qian, Wei-Jun; Smith, Richard D.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Adney, William S.; Beckham, Gregg T.; Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.; Decker, Stephen R.; Ju, Xiaohui; Zhang, Xiao; Baker, Scott E.

    2013-12-01

    ALG3 is a Family 58 glycosyltransferase enzyme involved in early N-linked glycan synthesis. Here, we investigated the effect of the alg3 gene disruption on growth, development, metabolism, and protein secretion in Aspergillus niger. The alg3 gene deletion resulted in a significant reduction of growth on complete (CM) and potato dextrose agar (PDA) media and a substantial reduction of spore production on CM. It also delayed spore germination in the liquid cultures of both CM and PDA media, but led to a significant accumulation of red pigment on both CM and liquid modified minimal medium (MM) supplemented with yeast extract. The relative abundance of 55 proteins of the total 190 proteins identified in the secretome was significantly different as a result of alg3 gene deletion. Comparison of a Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase (Cel7A) heterologously expressed in A. niger parental and Δalg3 strains showed that the recombinant Cel7A expressed in the mutant background was smaller in size than that from the parental strains. This study suggests that ALG3 is critical for growth and development, pigment production, and protein secretion in A. niger. Functional analysis of recombinant Cel7A with aberrant glycosylation demonstrates the feasibility of this alternative approach to evaluate the role of N-linked glycosylation in glycoprotein secretion and function.

  18. Instrumental and clinical studies of the facial skin tone and pigmentation of Shanghaiese women. Changes induced by age and a cosmetic whitening product.

    PubMed

    Huixia, Q; Xiaohui, L; Chengda, Y; Yanlu, Z; Senee, J; Laurent, A; Bazin, R; Flament, F; Adam, A; Piot, B

    2012-02-01

    The pigmentation patterns of facial skin of 354 healthy Chinese women aged 18-80 years were investigated clinically and instrumentally. Chromasphere(®) was used to acquire pictures from the cheeks of subjects. Facial skin tone was described by L* parameter from the L,a,b system as well as Individual Typology Angle (ITA). Results show that skin tone becomes significantly darker along the life span. Both size of hyper-pigmented spots and their contrast with surrounding skin were found increased with age. As additional study, 40 women from these 354 subjects were asked to apply daily a whitening cosmetic product for a 2-month period. Such application led to a significantly lighter skin tone, although this study was not vehicle controlled and we cannot exclude that the increase in L* observed was in some part because of cumulative effects of previously used whitening products, there was an association with lighter skin tone as assessed through both instrumental measurements and self-perception by most subjects. PMID:21848763

  19. Regulation of Motility and Phenazine Pigment Production by FliA Is Cyclic-di-GMP Dependent in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yi-Ling; Shen, Lunda; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Bhuwan, Manish; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Chang, Hwan-You

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor FliA, also called sigma 28, is a major regulator of bacterial flagellar biosynthesis genes. Growing evidence suggest that in addition to motility, FliA is involved in controlling numerous bacterial behaviors, even though the underlying regulatory mechanism remains unclear. By using a transcriptional fusion to gfp that responds to cyclic (c)-di-GMP, this study revealed a higher c-di-GMP concentration in the fliA deletion mutant of Pseudomonas aeruginosa than in its wild-type strain PAO1. A comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and its fliA deletion mutant revealed an altered expression of several c-di-GMP-modulating enzyme-encoding genes in the fliA deletion mutant. Moreover, the downregulation of PA4367 (bifA), a Glu-Ala-Leu motif-containing phosphodiesterase, in the fliA deletion mutant was confirmed using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene assay. FliA also altered pyocyanin and pyorubin production by modulating the c-di-GMP concentration. Complementing the fliA mutant strain with bifA restored the motility defect and pigment overproduction of the fliA mutant. Our results indicate that in addition to regulating flagellar gene transcription, FliA can modulate the c-di-GMP concentration to regulate the swarming motility and phenazine pigment production in P. aeruginosa. PMID:27175902

  20. Regulation of the pigment optical density of an algal cell: filling the gap between photosynthetic productivity in the laboratory and in mass culture.

    PubMed

    Formighieri, Cinzia; Franck, Fabrice; Bassi, Roberto

    2012-11-30

    An increasing number of investors is looking at algae as a viable source of biofuels, beside cultivation for human/animal feeding or to extract high-value chemicals and pharmaceuticals. However, present biomass productivities are far below theoretical estimations implying that a large part of the available photosynthetically active radiation is not used in photosynthesis. Light utilisation inefficiency and rapid light attenuation within a mass culture due to high pigment optical density of wild type strains have been proposed as major limiting factors reducing solar-to-biomass conversion efficiency. Analysis of growth yields of mutants with reduced light-harvesting antennae and/or reduced overall pigment concentration per cell, generated by either mutagenesis or genetic engineering, could help understanding limiting factors for biomass accumulation in photobioreactor. Meanwhile, studies on photo-acclimation can provide additional information on the average status of algal cells in a photobioreactor to be used in modelling-based predictions. Identifying limiting factors in solar-to-biomass conversion efficiency is the first step for planning strategies of genetic improvement and domestication of algae to finally fill the gap between theoretical and industrial photosynthetic productivity. PMID:22426090

  1. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of AbsC, a novel regulator of antibiotic production in Streptomyces coelicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Kock, Holger; Mootien, Saraspadee; Davies, Sîan C.; Bibb, Mervyn J.; Lawson, David M.

    2007-03-01

    A novel regulator of antibiotic production in S. coelicolor, AbsC, has been crystallized in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. X-ray data to 2.25 Å resolution were collected on station PX 14.1 at Daresbury. Crystals of recombinant AbsC (subunit MW = 18 313 Da; 158 amino acids), a novel regulator of antibiotic production from Streptomyces coelicolor, were grown by vapour diffusion. The protein crystallizes in space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.53, b = 121.30, c = 143.75 Å. Native data to a resolution of 2.25 Å were recorded at station PX 14.1 (Daresbury) from a single crystal. Preliminary analysis of these data suggests that the asymmetric unit contains four copies of the AbsC monomer, giving an estimated solvent content of 47.0%. AbsC belongs to the MarR family of proteins that mediate ligand-responsive transcriptional control.

  2. The bldB Gene Encodes a Small Protein Required for Morphogenesis, Antibiotic Production, and Catabolite Control in Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Margaret K.; Green, Brian; Westpheling, Janet

    1998-01-01

    Mutants blocked at the earliest stage of morphological development in Streptomyces species are called bld mutants. These mutants are pleiotropically defective in the initiation of development, the ability to produce antibiotics, the ability to regulate carbon utilization, and the ability to send and/or respond to extracellular signals. Here we report the identification and partial characterization of a 99-amino-acid open reading frame (ORF99) that is capable of restoring morphogenesis, antibiotic production, and catabolite control to all of the bldB mutants. Of the existing bld mutants, bldB is of special interest because the phenotype of this mutant is the most pleiotropic. DNA sequence analysis of ORF99 from each of the existing bldB mutants identified base changes either within the coding region of the predicted protein or in the regulatory region of the gene. Primer extension analysis identified an apparent transcription start site. A promoter fusion to the xylE reporter gene showed that expression of bldB is apparently temporally regulated and that the bldB gene product is involved in the regulation of its own expression. PMID:9515926

  3. Antibiotic Agents

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Contact Us ABOUT THE ISSUE What is Antibiotic Resistance? General Background Science of Resistance Glossary References POLICY ... for Adaptation Genetics and Drug Resistance Reservoirs of Antibiotic Resistance Project (ROAR) INTERNATIONAL CHAPTERS APUA Chapter Network Africa ...

  4. Antibiotic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific to women Antibiotics can lead to vaginal yeast infections. This happens because antibiotics kill the normal bacteria in the vagina and this causes yeast to grow rapidly. Symptoms of a yeast infection ...

  5. Evaluation and validation of a multi-residue method based on biochip technology for the simultaneous screening of six families of antibiotics in muscle and aquaculture products.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Valérie; Hedou, Celine; Soumet, Christophe; Verdon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Evidence Investigator™ system (Randox, UK) is a biochip and semi-automated system. The microarray kit II (AM II) is capable of detecting several compounds belonging to different families of antibiotics: quinolones, ceftiofur, thiamphenicol, streptomycin, tylosin and tetracyclines. The performance of this innovative system was evaluated for the detection of antibiotic residues in new matrices, in muscle of different animal species and in aquaculture products. The method was validated according to the European Decision No. EC/2002/657 and the European guideline for the validation of screening methods, which represents a complete initial validation. The false-positive rate was equal to 0% in muscle and in aquaculture products. The detection capabilities CCβ for 12 validated antibiotics (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, ceftiofur, desfuroyl ceftiofur cysteine disulfide, thiamphenicol, florfenicol, tylosin, tilmicosin, streptomycin, dihydrostreptomycin, tetracycline, doxycycline) were all lower than the respective maximum residue limits (MRLs) in muscle from different animal origins (bovine, ovine, porcine, poultry). No cross-reactions were observed with other antibiotics, neither with the six detected families nor with other families of antibiotics. The AM II kit could be applied to aquaculture products but with higher detection capabilities from those in muscle. The detection capabilities CCβ in aquaculture products were respectively at 0.25, 0.10 and 0.5 of the respective MRL in aquaculture products for enrofloxacin, tylosin and oxytetracycline. The performance of the AM II kit has been compared with other screening methods and with the performance characteristics previously determined in honey. PMID:26612266

  6. Insights into solar TiO2-assisted photocatalytic oxidation of two antibiotics employed in aquatic animal production, oxolinic acid and oxytetracycline.

    PubMed

    Pereira, João H O S; Reis, Ana C; Queirós, Daniel; Nunes, Olga C; Borges, Maria T; Vilar, Vítor J P; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2013-10-01

    In this study, solar driven TiO2-assisted heterogeneous photocatalytic experiments in a pilot-plant with compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) were carried out to study the degradation of two authorized veterinary antibiotics with particular relevance in finfish aquaculture, oxolinic acid (OXA) and oxytetracycline (OTC), using pure solutions of individual or mixed antibiotics. Firstly, the influence of natural solar photolysis was assessed for each antibiotic. Secondly, photocatalytic degradation kinetic rate constants for individual and mixed antibiotics were compared, using a catalyst load of 0.5 g L(-1) and an initial pH around 7.5. Thirdly, for individually photocatalytic-treated OXA and OTC in the same conditions, the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli DSM 1103 was followed, and the mineralization extent was assessed by the residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC), low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions and inorganic ions concentration. Finally, the effect of inorganic ions, such as chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, phosphates, ammonium and bicarbonates, on the photocatalytic degradation of individual solutions of OXA and OTC was also evaluated and the formation of different reactive oxygen species were probed using selective scavengers. The removal profiles of each antibiotic, both as single component or in mixture were similar, being necessary 2.5 kJ L(-1) of solar UV energy to fully remove them, and 18 kJ(UV) L(-1) to achieve 73% and 81% mineralization, for OXA and OTC, respectively. The remaining organic carbon content was mainly due to low-molecular-weight carboxylate anions. After complete removal of the antibiotics, the remaining degradation by-products no longer showed antibacterial activity. Also, 10% and 55% of the nitrogen content of each antibiotic was converted to ammonium, while no conversion to nitrite or nitrate was detected. The presence of phosphates hindered considerably the removal of both antibiotics, whereas the presence of other inorganic

  7. Mitigation of carbon dioxide by oleaginous microalgae for lipids and pigments production: Effect of light illumination and carbon dioxide feeding strategies.

    PubMed

    Thawechai, Tipawan; Cheirsilp, Benjamas; Louhasakul, Yasmi; Boonsawang, Piyarat; Prasertsan, Poonsuk

    2016-11-01

    Oleaginous microalgae Nannochloropsis sp. was selected as potential strain for CO2 mitigation into lipids and pigments. The synergistic effects of light intensity and photoperiod were evaluated to provide the adequate light energy for this strain. The saturation light intensity was 60μmol·photon·m(-2)s(-1). With full illumination, the biomass obtained was 0.850±0.16g·L(-1) with a lipid content of 44.7±1.2%. The pigments content increased with increasing light energy supply. Three main operating factors including initial cell concentration, CO2 content and gas flow rate were optimized through Response Surface Methodology. The feedings with low CO2 content at high gas flow rate gave the maximum biomass but with low lipid content. After optimization, the biomass and lipid production were increased up to 1.30±0.103g·L(-1) and 0.515±0.010g·L(-1), respectively. The CO2 fixation rate was as high as 0.729±0.04g·L(-1)d(-1). The fatty acids of Nannochloropsis sp. lipids were mainly C16-C18 indicating its potential use as biodiesel feedstocks. PMID:27484670

  8. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals. PMID:24575079

  9. Antibiotic growth promoters enhance animal production by targeting intestinal bile salt hydrolase and its producers

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The growth-promoting effect of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) was correlated with the decreased activity of bile salt hydrolase (BSH), an intestinal bacteria-produced enzyme that exerts negative impact on host fat digestion and utilization. Consistent with this finding, independent chicken studies have demonstrated that AGP usage significantly reduced population of Lactobacillus species, the major BSH-producers in the intestine. Recent finding also demonstrated that some AGPs, such as tetracycline and roxarsone, display direct inhibitory effect on BSH activity. Therefore, BSH is a promising microbiome target for developing novel alternatives to AGPs. Specifically, dietary supplementation of BSH inhibitor may promote host lipid metabolism and energy harvest, consequently enhancing feed efficiency and body weight gain in food animals. PMID:24575079

  10. Production of destomycin-A antibiotic by Streptomyces sp. using rice straw as fermented substrate.

    PubMed

    Atta, H M; Abul-Hamd, A T; Radwan, H G

    2009-01-01

    Hundred and twenty microbial isolates could be isolated from different soil samples collected from different localities in Egypt. One of the actinomycete culture AZ-H-A5 from three cultures was found to produce a wide spectrum antimicrobial agent when cultivated on rice straw. The actinomycete AZ-H-A5 could be isolated from a soil sample collected from Helwan district, Egypt. The nucleotide sequence of the 16s RNA gene (1.5 Kb) of the most potent strain evidenced an 85% similarity with Streptomyces pseudovenezue, EU841712 and Streptomyces galilaeus. From the taxonomic features, the actinomycetes isolate AZ-H-A5 matches with Streptomyces rimosus in the morphological, physiological and biochemical characters. Thus, it was given the suggested name Streptomyces rimosus, AZ-H-A5. The parameters controlling the biosynthetic process of antimicrobial agent formation including: inoculum size, different pH values, different temperatures, different incubation period, and different carbon and nitrogen sources, potassium nitrate, K2HPO4, MgSO4.7H2O and KCl concentrations were fully investigates. The active metabolite was extracted using ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v) at pH 7.0. The separation of the active ingredient and its purification was performed using both thin layer chromatography (TLC) and column chromatography (CC) techniques. The physicochemical characteristics of the purified antibiotic viz. color, melting point, solubility, elemental analysis, spectroscopic characteristics and chemical reactions have been investigated. This analysis indicates a suggested empirical formula of C20H37N13O13. The minimum inhibition concentrations "MICs" of the purified antimicrobial agent were also determined. The purified antimicrobial agent was suggestive of being belonging to Destomycin-A antibiotic produced by Streptomyces rimosus, AZ-H-A5. PMID:20222575